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Sample records for ig variable region

  1. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions

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    David Gitirana da Rocha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017 [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR sequences are variable antibody (Ab sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  2. DNA methylation in Cosmc promoter region and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 associated with pediatric IgA nephropathy.

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    Qiang Sun

    Full Text Available IgA nephropathy (IgAN is one of the most common glomerular diseases leading to end-stage renal failure. Elevation of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 is a key feature of it. The expression of the specific molecular chaperone of core1ß1, 3galactosyl transferase (Cosmc is known to be reduced in IgAN. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation of CpG islands of Cosmc gene promoter region could act as a possible mechanism responsible for down-regulation of Cosmc and related higher secretion of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1in lymphocytes from children with IgA nephropathy. Three groups were included: IgAN children (n = 26, other renal diseases (n = 11 and healthy children (n = 13. B-lymphocytes were isolated and cultured, treated or not with IL-4 or 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA. The levels of DNA methylation of Cosmc promotor region were not significantly different between the lymphocytes of the three children populations (P = 0.113, but there were significant differences between IgAN lymphocytes and lymphocytes of the other two children populations after IL-4 (P<0.0001 or AZA (P<0.0001. Cosmc mRNA expression was low in IgAN lymphocytes compared to the other two groups (P<0.0001. The level of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 was markedly higher in IgAN group compared to the other groups (P<0.0001. After treatment with IL-4, the levels of Cosmc DNA methylation and aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 in IgAN lymphocytes were remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001 with more markedly decreased Cosmc mRNA content (P<0.0001. After treatment with AZA, the levels in IgAN lymphocytes were decreased, but was still remarkably higher than the other two groups (P<0.0001, while Cosmc mRNA content in IgAN lymphocytes were more markedly increased than the other two groups (P<0.0001. The alteration of DNA methylation by IL-4 or AZA specifically correlates in IgAN lymphocytes with alterations in Cosmc mRNA expression and with the level of aberrantly glycosylated

  3. Rapid isolation of IgNAR variable single-domain antibody fragments from a shark synthetic library.

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    Shao, Cui-Ying; Secombes, Chris J; Porter, Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin isotype IgNAR (Novel Antigen Receptor) was discovered in the serum of the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and wobbegong shark (Orectolobus maculates) as a homodimer of two protein chains, each composed of a single variable domain (V) domain and five constant domains. The IgNAR variable domain contains an intact antigen-binding site and functions as an independent domain able to react to antigen with both high specificity and affinity. Here we describe the successful construction of a synthetic phage-displayed library based upon a single anti-lysozyme clone HEL-5A7 scaffold, which was previously selected from an immune IgNAR variable domain library. The complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) loop of this clone was varied in both length and composition and the derived library was used to pan against two model proteins, lysozyme and leptin. A single anti-lysozyme clone (Ly-X20) and anti-leptin clone (Lep-12E1) were selected for further study. Both clones were shown to be functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, extremely thermostable and bind to corresponding antigens specifically. The results here demonstrate that a synthetic IgNAR variable domain library based on a single framework scaffold can be used as a route to generate antigen binders quickly, easily and without the need of immunization.

  4. The Fab Conformations in the Solution Structure of Human Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) Restrict Access to Its Fc Region

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    Rayner, Lucy E.; Hui, Gar Kay; Gor, Jayesh; Heenan, Richard K.; Dalby, Paul A.; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Human IgG4 antibody shows therapeutically useful properties compared with the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG3 subclasses. Thus IgG4 does not activate complement and shows conformational variability. These properties are attributable to its hinge region, which is the shortest of the four IgG subclasses. Using high throughput scattering methods, we studied the solution structure of wild-type IgG4(Ser222) and a hinge mutant IgG4(Pro222) in different buffers and temperatures where the proline substitution suppresses the formation of half-antibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation showed that both IgG4 forms were principally monomeric with sedimentation coefficients s20,w0 of 6.6–6.8 S. A monomer-dimer equilibrium was observed in heavy water buffer at low temperature. Scattering showed that the x-ray radius of gyration Rg was unchanged with concentration in 50–250 mm NaCl buffers, whereas the neutron Rg values showed a concentration-dependent increase as the temperature decreased in heavy water buffers. The distance distribution curves (P(r)) revealed two peaks, M1 and M2, that shifted below 2 mg/ml to indicate concentration-dependent IgG4 structures in addition to IgG4 dimer formation at high concentration in heavy water. Constrained x-ray and neutron scattering modeling revealed asymmetric solution structures for IgG4(Ser222) with extended hinge structures. The IgG4(Pro222) structure was similar. Both IgG4 structures showed that their Fab regions were positioned close enough to the Fc region to restrict C1q binding. Our new molecular models for IgG4 explain its inability to activate complement and clarify aspects of its stability and function for therapeutic applications. PMID:24876381

  5. Defect in IgV gene somatic hypermutation in common variable immuno-deficiency syndrome.

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    Levy, Y; Gupta, N; Le Deist, F; Garcia, C; Fischer, A; Weill, J C; Reynaud, C A

    1998-10-27

    Common Variable Immuno-Deficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary antibody-deficiency syndrome, but the basic immunologic defects underlying this syndrome are not well defined. We report here that among eight patients studied (six CVID and two hypogammaglobulinemic patients with recurrent infections), there is in two CVID patients a dramatic reduction in Ig V gene somatic hypermutation with 40-75% of IgG transcripts totally devoid of mutations in the circulating memory B cell compartment. Functional assays of the T cell compartment point to an intrinsic B cell defect in the process of antibody affinity maturation in these two cases.

  6. Shark IgW C region diversification through RNA processing and isotype switching.

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    Zhang, Cecilia; Du Pasquier, Louis; Hsu, Ellen

    2013-09-15

    Sharks and skates represent the earliest vertebrates with an adaptive immune system based on lymphocyte Ag receptors generated by V(D)J recombination. Shark B cells express two classical Igs, IgM and IgW, encoded by an early, alternative gene organization consisting of numerous autonomous miniloci, where the individual gene cluster carries a few rearranging gene segments and one C region, μ or ω. We have characterized eight distinct Ig miniloci encoding the nurse shark ω H chain. Each cluster consists of VH, D, and JH segments and six to eight C domain exons. Two interspersed secretory exons, in addition to the 3'-most C exon with tailpiece, provide the gene cluster with the ability to generate at least six secreted isoforms that differ as to polypeptide length and C domain combination. All clusters appear to be functional, as judged by the capability for rearrangement and absence of defects in the deduced amino acid sequence. We previously showed that IgW VDJ can perform isotype switching to μ C regions; in this study, we found that switching also occurs between ω clusters. Thus, C region diversification for any IgW VDJ can take place at the DNA level by switching to other ω or μ C regions, as well as by RNA processing to generate different C isoforms. The wide array of pathogens recognized by Abs requires different disposal pathways, and our findings demonstrate complex and unique pathways for C effector function diversity that evolved independently in cartilaginous fishes.

  7. Ig synthesis and class switching do not require the presence of the hs4 enhancer in the 3' IgH regulatory region.

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    Vincent-Fabert, Christelle; Truffinet, Véronique; Fiancette, Remi; Cogné, Nadine; Cogné, Michel; Denizot, Yves

    2009-06-01

    Several studies have reported that regulatory elements located 3' of the IgH locus (namely hs3a, hs1,2, hs3b, and hs4) might play a role during class switch recombination (CSR) and Ig synthesis. While individual deletion of hs3a or hs1,2 had no effect, pairwise deletion of hs3b (an inverted copy of hs3a) and hs4 markedly affected CSR and Ig expression. Among these two elements, hs4 was tentatively presented with the master role due to its unique status within the 3' regulatory region: distal position outside repeated regions, early activation in pre-B cells, strong activity throughout B cell ontogeny. To clarify its role, we generated mice with a clean deletion of the hs4 after replacement with a floxed neo(R) cassette. Surprisingly, and as for previous deletion of hs3a or hs1,2, deletion of hs4 did not affect either in vivo CSR or the secretion level of any Ig isotype. In vitro CSR and Ig secretion in response to LPS and cytokines was not affected either. The only noticeable effects of the hs4 deletion were a decrease in the number of B splenocytes and a decreased membrane IgM expression. In conclusion, while dispensable for CSR and Ig transcription in plasma cells, hs4 mostly appears to contribute to Ig transcription in resting B lymphocytes.

  8. Management of common variable immunodeficiency by subcutaneous IgG self-administration during pregnancy - a case report.

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    Marasco, Carolina; Venturelli, Alberta; Rao, Luigia; Vacca, Angelo; Carratù, Maria Rosaria

    2017-08-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency are prone to infections, and this poses a particular challenge during pregnancy, when the requirement for immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy is even more demanding so as to achieve an effective protection also of the fetus. This case report highlights the benefits observed with subcutaneous IgG self-administration in the management of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) during pregnancy, in terms of efficacy and safety.

  9. Variability of IgM response in hepatitis C virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Mimms, L. T.; Cuypers, H. T.; Reesink, H. W.; van der Poel, C. L.; Taskar, S.; Lelie, P. N.

    1993-01-01

    The IgM and IgG antibody response to various hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigens was studied in 8 patients who acquired posttransfusion HCV infection. IgM anti-HCV was detectable in only 4 of these patients, coincident with (1 patient) or later than (3 patients) the IgG anti-HCV response. Seven

  10. Determinants in the Ig Variable Domain of Human HAVCR1 (TIM-1) Are Required To Enhance Hepatitis C Virus Entry.

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    Kachko, Alla; Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Zubkova, Iryna; Jacques, Jerome; Takeda, Kazuyo; Wells, Frances; Kaplan, Gerardo; Major, Marian E

    2018-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis in humans. Several host molecules participate in HCV cell entry, but this process remains unclear. The complete unraveling of the HCV entry process is important to further understand viral pathogenesis and develop therapeutics. Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, functions as a phospholipid receptor involved in cell entry of several enveloped viruses. Here, we studied the role of HAVCR1 in HCV infection. HAVCR1 antibody inhibited entry in a dose-dependent manner. HAVCR1 soluble constructs neutralized HCV, which did not require the HAVCR1 mucinlike region and was abrogated by a mutation of N to A at position 94 (N94A) in the Ig variable (IgV) domain phospholipid-binding pocket, indicating a direct interaction of the HAVCR1 IgV domain with HCV virions. However, knockout of HAVCR1 in Huh7 cells reduced but did not prevent HCV growth. Interestingly, the mouse HAVCR1 ortholog, also a phospholipid receptor, did not enhance infection and a soluble form failed to neutralize HCV, although replacement of the mouse IgV domain with the human HAVCR1 IgV domain restored the enhancement of HCV infection. Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail revealed that direct HAVCR1 signaling is not required to enhance HCV infection. Our data show that the phospholipid-binding function and other determinant(s) in the IgV domain of human HAVCR1 enhance HCV infection. Although the exact mechanism is not known, it is possible that HAVCR1 facilitates entry by stabilizing or enhancing attachment, leading to direct interactions with specific receptors, such as CD81. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters cells through a multifaceted process. We identified the human hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, as a facilitator of HCV entry. Antibody blocking and silencing or knockout of HAVCR1 in hepatoma cells reduced HCV entry. Our findings that the

  11. HIGH-VELOCITY LINE FORMING REGIONS IN THE TYPE Ia SUPERNOVA 2009ig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, G. H.; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Vinko, Jozsef; Wheeler, J. Craig; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Brown, Peter J.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Garnavich, Peter; Landsman, Wayne B.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2013-01-01

    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (HVF) (>20,000 km s –1 ) and photospheric absorption features in a series of spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2009ig obtained between –14 days and +13 days with respect to the time of maximum B-band luminosity (B-max). We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II, and Fe II that produce both HVF and photospheric-velocity (PVF) absorption features. SN 2009ig is unusual for the large number of lines with detectable HVF in the spectra, but the light-curve parameters correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia (M B = –19.46 mag and Δm 15 (B) = 0.90 mag). Similarly, the Si II λ6355 velocity at the time of B-max is greater than 'normal' for an SN Ia, but it is not extreme (v Si = 13,400 km s –1 ). The –14 days and –13 days spectra clearly resolve HVF from Si II λ6355 as separate absorptions from a detached line forming region. At these very early phases, detached HVF are prevalent in all lines. From –12 days to –6 days, HVF and PVF are detected simultaneously, and the two line forming regions maintain a constant separation of about 8000 km s –1 . After –6 days all absorption features are PVF. The observations of SN 2009ig provide a complete picture of the transition from HVF to PVF. Most SNe Ia show evidence for HVF from multiple lines in spectra obtained before –10 days, and we compare the spectra of SN 2009ig to observations of other SNe. We show that each of the unusual line profiles for Si II λ6355 found in early-time spectra of SNe Ia correlate to a specific phase in a common development sequence from HVF to PVF

  12. New treatment for IgA nephropathy: enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region ameliorates proteinuria.

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    Smerud, Hilde Kloster; Bárány, Peter; Lindström, Karin; Fernström, Anders; Sandell, Anna; Påhlsson, Peter; Fellström, Bengt

    2011-10-01

    Systemic corticosteroid treatment has been shown to exert some protection against renal deterioration in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) but is not commonly recommended for long-term use due to the well-known systemic side effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and safety of a new enteric formulation of the locally acting glucocorticoid budesonide (Nefecon®), designed to release the active compound in the ileocecal region. The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of targeted release budesonide on albuminuria. Budesonide 8 mg/day was given to 16 patients with IgAN for 6 months, followed by a 3-month follow-up period. The efficacy was measured as change in 24-h urine albumin excretion, serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The median relative reduction in urinary albumin excretion was 23% during the treatment period (interquartile range: -0.36 to -0.04, P = 0.04) with pretreatment values ranging from 0.3 to 6 g/24 h (median: 1.5 g/24 h). The median reduction in urine albumin peaked at 40% (interquartile range: -0.58 to -0.15) 2 months after treatment discontinuation. Serum creatinine was reduced by 6% (interquartile range: -0.12 to -0.02; P = 0.003), and eGFR [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD)] increased ∼8% (interquartile range: 0.02-0.16, P = 0.003) during treatment. No major corticosteroid-related side effects were observed. In the present pilot study, enteric budesonide targeted to the ileocecal region had a significant effect on urine albumin excretion, accompanied by a minor reduction of serum creatinine and a modest increase of eGFR calculated by the MDRD equation, while eGFR calculated from Cockcroft-Gault equation and cystatin C was not changed. Enteric budesonide may represent a new treatment of IgAN warranting further investigation.

  13. Measure of uncertainty in regional grade variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutmez, B.; Kaymak, U.; Melin, P.; Castillo, O.; Gomez Ramirez, E.; Kacprzyk, J.; Pedrycz, W.

    2007-01-01

    Because the geological events are neither homogeneous nor isotropic, the geological investigations are characterized by particularly high uncertainties. This paper presents a hybrid methodology for measuring of uncertainty in regional grade variability. In order to evaluate the fuzziness in grade

  14. INDICAÇÕES GEOGRÁFICAS (IGS COMO FERRAMENTA PARA DESENVOLVIMENTO REGIONAL: UMA PROSPECÇÃO TECNOLÓGICA SOBRE IGS RELACIONADAS À FARINHA E MANDIOCA

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    Nina Paloma Neves Calmon de Siqueira Branco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As Indicações Geográficas são qualificações para produtos e serviços atribuídas por características genuínas que os vinculam à sua região produtora de origem. No mercado global, que intensificou as relações culturais, turísticas e econômicas entre os diversos continentes do mundo, as IG vêm emergindo como ferramenta de desenvolvimento em nível local, regional, nacional e internacional. No Nordeste brasileiro, a Rede dos Núcleos de Inovação Tecnológica (Rede NIT-NE, presentes  em instituições de pesquisa, desenvolveu atividades de disseminação de Propriedade Intelectual, dentre as quais as IG. Nesse cenário, foi estabelecido o Edital de Apoio à Caracterização de Indicações Geográficas na Bahia, pela Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia­ (FAPESB. Este artigo trata da prospecção tecnológica em IG para farinhas e mandioca, no mundo, e da implantação de um dos projetos aprovados nesse Edital: o potencial de IG para a farinha de mandioca de Copioba, do Recôncavo Baiano.

  15. Climatological variability in regional air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.; Trexler, E.C. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Although some air pollution modeling studies examine events that have already occurred (e.g., the Chernobyl plume) with relevant meteorological conditions largely known, most pollution modeling studies address expected or potential scenarios for the future. Future meteorological conditions, the major pollutant forcing function other than emissions, are inherently uncertain although much relevant information is contained in past observational data. For convenience in our discussions of regional pollutant variability unrelated to emission changes, we define meteorological variability as short-term (within-season) pollutant variability and climatological variability as year-to-year changes in seasonal averages and accumulations of pollutant variables. In observations and in some of our simulations the effects are confounded because for seasons of two different years both the mean and the within-season character of a pollutant variable may change. Effects of climatological and meteorological variability on means and distributions of air pollution parameters, particularly those related to regional visibility, are illustrated. Over periods of up to a decade climatological variability may mask or overstate improvements resulting from emission controls. The importance of including climatological uncertainties in assessing potential policies, particularly when based partly on calculated source-receptor relationships, is highlighted

  16. The repetitive portion of the Xenopus IgH Mu switch region mediates orientation-dependent class switch recombination.

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    Zhang, Zheng Z; Pannunzio, Nicholas R; Lu, Zhengfei; Hsu, Ellen; Yu, Kefei; Lieber, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Vertebrates developed immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) to express different IgH constant regions. Most double-strand breaks for Ig CSR occur within the repetitive portion of the switch regions located upstream of each set of constant domain exons for the Igγ, Igα or Igϵ heavy chain. Unlike mammalian switch regions, Xenopus switch regions do not have a high G-density on the non-template DNA strand. In previous studies, when Xenopus Sμ DNA was moved to the genome of mice, it is able to support substantial CSR when it is used to replace the murine Sγ1 region. Here, we tested both the 2kb repetitive portion and the 4.6 kb full-length portions of the Xenopus Sμ in both their natural (forward) orientation relative to the constant domain exons, as well as the opposite (reverse) orientation. Consistent with previous work, we find that the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ mediates similar levels of CSR in both the forward and reverse orientations. Whereas, the forward orientation of the 2kb portion can restore the majority of the CSR level of the 4.6 kb full-length Sμ, the reverse orientation poorly supports R-looping and no CSR. The forward orientation of the 2kb repetitive portion has more GG dinucleotides on the non-template strand than the reverse orientation. The correlation of R-loop formation with CSR efficiency, as demonstrated in the 2kb repetitive fragment of the Xenopus switch region, confirms a role played by R-looping in CSR that appears to be conserved through evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A CRPS-IgG-transfer-trauma model reproducing inflammatory and positive sensory signs associated with complex regional pain syndrome.

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    Tékus, Valéria; Hajna, Zsófia; Borbély, Éva; Markovics, Adrienn; Bagoly, Teréz; Szolcsányi, János; Thompson, Victoria; Kemény, Ágnes; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Goebel, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The aetiology of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), a highly painful, usually post-traumatic condition affecting the limbs, is unknown, but recent results have suggested an autoimmune contribution. To confirm a role for pathogenic autoantibodies, we established a passive-transfer trauma model. Prior to undergoing incision of hind limb plantar skin and muscle, mice were injected either with serum IgG obtained from chronic CRPS patients or matched healthy volunteers, or with saline. Unilateral hind limb plantar skin and muscle incision was performed to induce typical, mild tissue injury. Mechanical hyperalgesia, paw swelling, heat and cold sensitivity, weight-bearing ability, locomotor activity, motor coordination, paw temperature, and body weight were investigated for 8days. After sacrifice, proinflammatory sensory neuropeptides and cytokines were measured in paw tissues. CRPS patient IgG treatment significantly increased hind limb mechanical hyperalgesia and oedema in the incised paw compared with IgG from healthy subjects or saline. Plantar incision induced a remarkable elevation of substance P immunoreactivity on day 8, which was significantly increased by CRPS-IgG. In this IgG-transfer-trauma model for CRPS, serum IgG from chronic CRPS patients induced clinical and laboratory features resembling the human disease. These results support the hypothesis that autoantibodies may contribute to the pathophysiology of CRPS, and that autoantibody-removing therapies may be effective treatments for long-standing CRPS. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IG and TR single chain fragment variable (scFv) sequence analysis: a new advanced functionality of IMGT/V-QUEST and IMGT/HighV-QUEST.

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    Giudicelli, Véronique; Duroux, Patrice; Kossida, Sofia; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-26

    IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® ( http://www.imgt.org ), was created in 1989 in Montpellier, France (CNRS and Montpellier University) to manage the huge and complex diversity of the antigen receptors, and is at the origin of immunoinformatics, a science at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies and T cell receptors (TR) are managed and described in the IMGT® databases and tools at the level of receptor, chain and domain. The analysis of the IG and TR variable (V) domain rearranged nucleotide sequences is performed by IMGT/V-QUEST (online since 1997, 50 sequences per batch) and, for next generation sequencing (NGS), by IMGT/HighV-QUEST, the high throughput version of IMGT/V-QUEST (portal begun in 2010, 500,000 sequences per batch). In vitro combinatorial libraries of engineered antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) which mimic the in vivo natural diversity of the immune adaptive responses are extensively screened for the discovery of novel antigen binding specificities. However the analysis of NGS full length scFv (~850 bp) represents a challenge as they contain two V domains connected by a linker and there is no tool for the analysis of two V domains in a single chain. The functionality "Analyis of single chain Fragment variable (scFv)" has been implemented in IMGT/V-QUEST and, for NGS, in IMGT/HighV-QUEST for the analysis of the two V domains of IG and TR scFv. It proceeds in five steps: search for a first closest V-REGION, full characterization of the first V-(D)-J-REGION, then search for a second V-REGION and full characterization of the second V-(D)-J-REGION, and finally linker delimitation. For each sequence or NGS read, positions of the 5'V-DOMAIN, linker and 3'V-DOMAIN in the scFv are provided in the 'V-orientated' sense. Each V-DOMAIN is fully characterized (gene identification, sequence description, junction analysis, characterization of mutations and amino

  19. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  20. Igs expressed by chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells show limited binding-site structure variability.

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    Marcatili, Paolo; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Chailyan, Anna; Mazzarello, Andrea N; Yan, Xiao-Jie; Colombo, Monica; Albesiano, Emilia; Bagnara, Davide; Cutrona, Giovanna; Morabito, Fortunato; Bruno, Silvia; Ferrarini, Manlio; Chiorazzi, Nicholas; Tramontano, Anna; Fais, Franco

    2013-06-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated.

  1. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.

    2013-05-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Igs Expressed by Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells Show Limited Binding-Site Structure Variability

    KAUST Repository

    Marcatili, P.; Ghiotto, F.; Tenca, C.; Chailyan, A.; Mazzarello, A. N.; Yan, X.-J.; Colombo, M.; Albesiano, E.; Bagnara, D.; Cutrona, G.; Morabito, F.; Bruno, S.; Ferrarini, M.; Chiorazzi, N.; Tramontano, A.; Fais, F.

    2013-01-01

    Ag selection has been suggested to play a role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) pathogenesis, but no large-scale analysis has been performed so far on the structure of the Ag-binding sites (ABSs) of leukemic cell Igs. We sequenced both H and L chain V(D)J rearrangements from 366 CLL patients and modeled their three-dimensional structures. The resulting ABS structures were clustered into a small number of discrete sets, each containing ABSs with similar shapes and physicochemical properties. This structural classification correlates well with other known prognostic factors such as Ig mutation status and recurrent (stereotyped) receptors, but it shows a better prognostic value, at least in the case of one structural cluster for which clinical data were available. These findings suggest, for the first time, to our knowledge, on the basis of a structural analysis of the Ab-binding sites, that selection by a finite quota of antigenic structures operates on most CLL cases, whether mutated or unmutated. Copyright © 2013 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Relative stabilities of IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains: Influence of the light–heavy interchain disulfide bond architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heads, James T; Adams, Ralph; D'Hooghe, Lena E; Page, Matt J T; Humphreys, David P; Popplewell, Andrew G; Lawson, Alastair D; Henry, Alistair J

    2012-01-01

    The stability of therapeutic antibodies is a prime pharmaceutical concern. In this work we examined thermal stability differences between human IgG1 and IgG4 Fab domains containing the same variable regions using the thermofluor assay. It was found that the IgG1 Fab domain is up to 11°C more stable than the IgG4 Fab domain containing the same variable region. We investigated the cause of this difference with the aim of developing a molecule with the enhanced stability of the IgG1 Fab and the biological properties of an IgG4 Fc. We found that replacing the seven residues, which differ between IgG1 CH1 and IgG4 CH1 domains, while retaining the native IgG1 light-heavy interchain disulfide (L–H) bond, did not affect thermal stability. Introducing the IgG1 type L–H interchain disulfide bond (DSB) into the IgG4 Fab resulted in an increase in thermal stability to levels observed in the IgG1 Fab with the same variable region. Conversely, replacement of the IgG1 L–H interchain DSB with the IgG4 type L–H interchain DSB reduced the thermal stability. We utilized the increased stability of the IgG1 Fab and designed a hybrid antibody with an IgG1 CH1 linked to an IgG4 Fc via an IgG1 hinge. This construct has the expected biophysical properties of both the IgG4 Fc and IgG1 Fab domains and may therefore be a pharmaceutically relevant format. PMID:22761163

  4. Design of a Heterotetravalent Synthetic Allergen That Reflects Epitope Heterogeneity and IgE Antibody Variability to Study Mast Cell Degranulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handlogten, Michael W.; Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Bilgicer, Basar

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This study describes the design of a heterotetravalent allergen (HtTA) as a multi-component experimental system that enables an integrative approach to study mast cell degranulation. The HtTA design allows presentation of two distinct haptens, each with a valency of two, thereby better reflecting the complexity of natural allergens by displaying epitope heterogeneity and IgE antibody variability. Using the HtTA design, synthetic allergens HtTA-1 and HtTA-2 were synthesized to model a combination of epitope/IgE affinities. HtTA-1 presented DNP and dansyl haptens (Kd = 22 and 54 nM for IgEDNP and IgEdansyl respectively), and HtTA-2 presented dansyl and the weak affinity DNP-Pro haptens (Kd = 550 nM for IgEDNP). Both HtTAs effectively induced degranulation when mast cells were primed with both IgEDNP and IgEdansyl antibodies. Interestingly, tetravalent DNP-Pro or bivalent dansyl were insufficient in stimulating a degranulation response, illustrating the significance of valency, affinity, and synergy in allergen-IgE interactions. Importantly, maximum degranulation with both HtTA-1 and HtTA-2 was observed when only 50% of the mast cell-bound IgEs were hapten specific (25% IgEdansyl + 25% IgEDNP). Taken together, this study establishes the HtTA system as a physiologically relevant experimental model and demonstrates its utility in elucidating critical mechanisms of mast cell degranulation. PMID:23050868

  5. Extreme Variables in Star Forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    in two multi-epoch infrared surveys: the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS) and the Vista Variables in the Via Lactea (VVV). In order to further investigate the nature of the selected variable stars, we use photometric information arising from public surveys at near- to far-infrared wavelengths. In addition we have performed spectroscopic and photometric follow-up for a large subset of the samples arising from GPS and VVV. We analyse the widely separated two-epoch K-band photometry in the 5th, 7th and 8th data releases of the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey. We find 71 stars with ΔK > 1 mag, including 2 previously known OH/IR stars and a Nova. Even though the mid-plane is mostly excluded from the dataset, we find the majority (66%) of our sample to be within known star forming regions (SFRs), with two large concentrations in the Serpens OB2 association (11 stars) and the Cygnus-X complex (27 stars). The analysis of the multi-epoch K-band photometry of 2010-2012 data from VVV covering the Galactic disc at |b| explained as arising from shock-excited emission caused by molecular outflows. Whether these molecular outflows are related to outbursts events cannot be confirmed from our data. Adding the GPS and VVV spectroscopic results, we find that between 6 and 14 objects are new additions to the FUor class from their close resemblance to the near-infrared spectra of FUors, and at least 23 more objects are new additions to the eruptive variable class. For most of these we are unable to classify them into any of the original definitions for this variable class. In any case, we are adding up to 37 new stars to the eruptive variable class which would double the current number of known objects. We note that most objects are found to be deeply embedded optically invisible stars, thus increasing the number of objects belonging to this subclass by a much larger factor. In general, objects in our samples which are found to be likely eruptive variable stars show a mixture of

  6. Surface plasmon resonance analysis shows an IgG-isotype-specific defect in ABO blood group antibody formation in patients with common variable immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bernhard Fischer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID is the most common clinically severe primary immunodeficiency and comprises a heterogeneous group of patients with recurrent severe bacterial infections due to the failure to produce IgG antibodies after exposure to infectious agents and immunization. Diagnostic recommendations for antibody failure include assessment of isoagglutinins. We have readdressed this four decades old but still accepted recommendation with up to date methodology.Methods: Anti-A/B IgM- and IgG-antibodies were measured by Diamed-ID Micro Typing, surface plasmon resonance (SPR using the Biacore® device and flow cytometry.Results: When Diamed-ID Micro Typing was used, CVID patients (n=34 showed IgG- and IgM-isoagglutinins that were comparable to healthy volunteers (n=28, while all XLA patients (n=8 had none. Anti-A/B IgM-antibodies were present in more than 2/3 of the CVID patients and showed binding kinetics comparable to anti-A/B IgM-antibodies from healthy individuals. A correlation could be found in CVID patients between levels of anti-A/B IgM-antibodies and levels of serum IgM and PnP-IgM-antibodies. In contrast in CVID patients as a group ABO antibodies were significantly decreased when assessed by SPR, which correlated with levels of switched memory, non-switched memory and naïve B cells, but all CVID patients had low/undetectable anti-A/B IgG-antibodies.Conclusion: These results indicate that conventional isoagglutinin assessment and assessment of anti-A/B IgM antibodies are not suited for the diagnosis of impaired antibody production in CVID. Examination of anti-A/B IgG antibodies by SPR provides a useful method for the diagnosis of IgG antibody failure in all CVID patients studied, thus indicating an important additional rationale to start immunoglobulin replacement therapy early in these patients, before post-infectious sequelae develop.

  7. In situ analysis of the variable heavy chain gene of an IgM/IgG-expressing follicular lymphoma - Evidence for interfollicular trafficking of tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Wilhelmina M.; Bende, Richard J.; Vaandrager, Jan-Willem; Kluin, Philip M.; Langerak, Anton W.; Pals, Steven T.; van Noesel, Carel J. M.

    2002-01-01

    is generally assumed that follicular lymphomas (FL) not only morphologically resemble normal germinal centers but have retained some functional characteristics of their non-neoplastic counterparts as well. Recent IgV gene analyses on a panel of FLs however, strongly suggested that FLs do not retain

  8. The murine Cd48 gene: allelic polymorphism in the IgV-like region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J G; Freeman, G J; Reiser, H

    1998-12-01

    The murine CD48 molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which regulates the activation of T lymphocytes. prior cloning experiments using mRNA from two different mouse strains had yielded discrepant sequences within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48. To resolve this issue, we have directly sequenced genomic DNA of 10 laboratory strains and two inbred strains of wild origin. The results of our analysis reveal an allelic polymorphism within the IgV-like domain of murine CD48.

  9. Cloning of pCDNA3-IgG4 and pQE-2-IgG4 human hinge region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... diseases and in allergy-related immunoassays, thus, anti-hIgG4 antibody is of interest in the development of ... pQE-2-. IgG4 will be used for protein expression in M15 prokaryotic .... Solution conformation of wild-type and ...

  10. Eosinophils may play regionally disparate roles in influencing IgA(+) plasma cell numbers during large and small intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ruth; Bramhall, Michael; Logunova, Larisa; Svensson-Frej, Marcus; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Else, Kathryn J

    2016-05-31

    Eosinophils are innate immune cells present in the intestine during steady state conditions. An intestinal eosinophilia is a hallmark of many infections and an accumulation of eosinophils is also observed in the intestine during inflammatory disorders. Classically the function of eosinophils has been associated with tissue destruction, due to the release of cytotoxic granule contents. However, recent evidence has demonstrated that the eosinophil plays a more diverse role in the immune system than previously acknowledged, including shaping adaptive immune responses and providing plasma cell survival factors during the steady state. Importantly, it is known that there are regional differences in the underlying immunology of the small and large intestine, but whether there are differences in context of the intestinal eosinophil in the steady state or inflammation is not known. Our data demonstrates that there are fewer IgA(+) plasma cells in the small intestine of eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA-1 mice compared to eosinophil-sufficient wild-type mice, with the difference becoming significant post-infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Remarkably, and in complete contrast, the absence of eosinophils in the inflamed large intestine does not impact on IgA(+) cell numbers during steady state, and is associated with a significant increase in IgA(+) cells post-infection with Trichuris muris compared to wild-type mice. Thus, the intestinal eosinophil appears to be less important in sustaining the IgA(+) cell pool in the large intestine compared to the small intestine, and in fact, our data suggests eosinophils play an inhibitory role. The dichotomy in the influence of the eosinophil over small and large intestinal IgA(+) cells did not depend on differences in plasma cell growth factors, recruitment potential or proliferation within the different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). We demonstrate for the first time that there are regional differences in the requirement of

  11. Comparison of spontaneous brain activity revealed by regional homogeneity in AQP4-IgG neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis versus MOG-IgG optic neuritis patients: a resting-state functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Junqing Wang,1,* Yuan Tian,2,* Yi Shao,3,* Hui Feng,1 Limin Qin,1 Weiwei Xu,1 Hongjuan Liu,1 Quangang Xu,1 Shihui Wei,1 Lin Ma2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 3Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Patients and methods: A total of 32 NMO-ON and ON subjects (21 with AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON and 11 with MOG-IgG+ON and 34 healthy controls (HCs closely matched for age were recruited, and scans were performed for all subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the regions in which the ReHo was different across the three groups. NMO-ON and ON subjects were distinguished from HCs by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. The relationship between the mean ReHo in many brain regions and clinical features in NMO subjects was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis. Results: Compared with HCs, MOG-IgG+ON subjects had significantly decreased ReHo values in the posterior lobe of the left cerebellum and increased ReHo values in the left inferior frontal gyrus, right prefrontal gyrus, and left precentral/postcentral gyrus. AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON subjects showed higher ReHo values in the left inferior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal/occipital gyrus. Compared with MOG-IgG+ON subjects, AQP4-IgG+NMO-ON subjects had lower Re

  12. HLA-A and -B alleles and haplotypes in 240 index patients with common variable immunodeficiency and selective IgG subclass deficiency in central Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton James C

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We wanted to quantify HLA-A and -B phenotype and haplotype frequencies in Alabama index patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and selective IgG subclass deficiency (IgGSD, and in control subjects. Methods Phenotypes were detected using DNA-based typing (index cases and microlymphocytotoxicity typing (controls. Results A and B phenotypes were determined in 240 index cases (114 CVID, 126 IgGSD and 1,321 controls and haplotypes in 195 index cases and 751 controls. Phenotyping revealed that the "uncorrected" frequencies of A*24, B*14, B*15, B*35, B*40, B*49, and B*50 were significantly greater in index cases, and frequencies of B*35, B*58, B*62 were significantly lower in index cases. After Bonferroni corrections, the frequencies of phenotypes A*24, B*14, and B*40 were significantly greater in index cases, and the frequency of B*62 was significantly lower in index cases. The most common haplotypes in index cases were A*02-B*44 (frequency 0.1385, A*01-B*08 (frequency 0.1308, and A*03-B*07 (frequency 0.1000, and the frequency of each was significantly greater in index cases than in control subjects ("uncorrected" values of p p p = 0.0166. Most phenotype and haplotype frequencies in CVID and IgGSD were similar. 26.7% of index patients were HLA-haploidentical with one or more other index patients. We diagnosed CVID or IgGSD in first-degree or other relatives of 26 of 195 index patients for whom HLA-A and -B haplotypes had been ascertained; A*01-B*08, A*02-B*44, and A*29-B*44 were most frequently associated with CVID or IgGSD in these families. We conservatively estimated the combined population frequency of CVID and IgGSD to be 0.0092 in adults, based on the occurrence of CVID and IgGSD in spouses of the index cases. Conclusions CVID and IgGSD in adults are significantly associated with several HLA haplotypes, many of which are also common in the Alabama Caucasian population. Immunoglobulin phenotype variability

  13. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-01-01

     Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this stu...

  14. Cutting edge: double-stranded DNA breaks in the IgV region gene were detected at lower frequency in affinity-maturation impeded GANP-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatani, Yousuke; Igarashi, Hideya; Matsui, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Fujimura, Satoru; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Takagi, Katsumasa; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2005-11-01

    Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at the IgV region (IgV) genes might be involved in somatic hypermutation and affinity-maturation of the B cell receptor in response to T cell-dependent Ag. By ligation-mediated PCR, we studied IgV DSBs that occurred in mature germinal center B cells in response to nitrophenyl-chicken gamma-globulin in a RAG1-independent, Ag-dependent, and IgV-selective manner. We quantified their levels in GANP-deficient B cells that have impaired generation of high-affinity Ab. GANP-/- B cells showed a decreased level of DSBs with blunt ends than control B cells and, on the contrary, the ganp gene transgenic (GANPTg) B cells showed an increased level. These results suggested that the level of IgV DSBs in germinal center B cells is associated with GANP expression, which is presumably required for B cell receptor affinity maturation.

  15. Development of anti-bovine IgA single chain variable fragment and its application in diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridevi, N. V.; Shukra, A. M.; Neelakantam, B.; Anilkumar, J.; Madhanmohan, M.; Rajan, S.; Dev Chandran

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antibody fragments like single chain variable fragments (scFvs) represent an attractive yet powerful alternative to immunoglobulins and hold great potential in the development of clinical diagnostic/therapeutic reagents. Structurally, scFvs are the smallest antibody fragments capable of retaining the antigen-binding capacity of whole antibodies and are composed of an immunoglobulin (Ig) variable light (VL) and variable heavy (VH) chain joined by a flexible polypeptide linker. In the present study, we constructed a scFv against bovine IgA from a hybridoma cell line IL-A71 that secretes a monoclonal antibody against bovine IgA using recombinant DNA technology. The scFv was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The binding activity and specificity of the scFv was established by its non-reactivity toward other classes of immunoglobulins as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot analysis. Kinetic measurement of the scFv indicated that the recombinant antibody fragment had an affinity in picomolar range toward purified IgA. Furthermore, the scFv was used to develop a sensitive ELISA for the detection of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) carrier animals. PMID:24678404

  16. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  17. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  18. Variability of crossreactivity of IgE antibodies to group I and V allergens in eight grass pollen species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Driessen, M. N.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Crossreactivity to Dactylis glomerata, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, Anthoxanthum odoratum, Secale cereale, Zea mays, and Phragmites communis of IgE antibodies against Lol p I or Lol p V was investigated by means of RAST-inhibition. Within a group of sera the degree of crossreactivity was

  19. Coral bleaching pathways under the control of regional temperature variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlais, C. E.; Lenton, A.; Heron, S. F.; Evenhuis, C.; Sen Gupta, A.; Brown, J. N.; Kuchinke, M.

    2017-11-01

    Increasing sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are predicted to adversely impact coral populations worldwide through increasing thermal bleaching events. Future bleaching is unlikely to be spatially uniform. Therefore, understanding what determines regional differences will be critical for adaptation management. Here, using a cumulative heat stress metric, we show that characteristics of regional SST determine the future bleaching risk patterns. Incorporating observed information on SST variability, in assessing future bleaching risk, provides novel options for management strategies. As a consequence, the known biases in climate model variability and the uncertainties in regional warming rate across climate models are less detrimental than previously thought. We also show that the thresholds used to indicate reef viability can strongly influence a decision on what constitutes a potential refugia. Observing and understanding the drivers of regional variability, and the viability limits of coral reefs, is therefore critical for making meaningful projections of coral bleaching risk.

  20. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babrak, Lmar; McGarvey, Jeffery A; Stanker, Larry H; Hnasko, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibodies (rAb). This determination can be achieved by sequence analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) transcripts obtained from a monoclonal antibody (MAb) producing hybridoma and subsequent expression of a rAb. However the polyploidy nature of a hybridoma cell often results in the added expression of aberrant immunoglobulin-like transcripts or even production of anomalous antibodies which can confound production of rAb. An incorrect VR sequence will result in a non-functional rAb and de novo assembly of Ig primary structure without a sequence map is challenging. To address these problems, we have developed a methodology which combines: 1) selective PCR amplification of VR from both the heavy and light chain IgG from hybridoma, 2) molecular cloning and DNA sequence analysis and 3) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) on enzyme digests obtained from the purified IgG. Peptide analysis proceeds by evaluating coverage of the predicted primary protein sequence provided by the initial DNA maps for the VR. This methodology serves to both identify and verify the primary structure of the MAb VR for production as rAb. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Definition of IgG- and albumin-binding regions of streptococcal protein G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerström, B; Nielsen, E; Björck, L

    1987-10-05

    Protein G, the immunoglobin G-binding surface protein of group C and G streptococci, also binds serum albumin. The albumin-binding site on protein G is distinct from the immunoglobulin G-binding site. By mild acid hydrolysis of the papain-liberated protein G fragment (35 kDa), a 28-kDa fragment was produced which retained full immunoglobulin G-binding activity (determined by Scatchard plotting) but had lost all albumin-binding capacity. A protein G (65 kDa), isolated after cloning and expression of the protein G gene in Escherichia coli, had comparable affinity to immunoglobulin G (5-10 X 10(10)M-1), but much higher affinity to albumin than the 35- and 28-kDa protein G fragments (31, 2.6, and 0 X 10(9)M-1, respectively). The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the 65-, 35-, and 28-kDa fragments allowed us to exactly locate the three fragments in an overall sequence map of protein G, based on the partial gene sequences published by Guss et al. (Guss, B., Eliasson, M., Olsson, A., Uhlen, M., Frej, A.-K., Jörnvall, H., Flock, J.-I., and Lindberg, M. (1986) EMBO J. 5, 1567-1575) and Fahnestock et al. (Fahnestock, S. R., Alexander, P., Nagle, J., and Filpula, D. (1986) J. Bacteriol. 167, 870-880). In this map could then be deduced the location of three homologous albumin-binding regions and three homologous immunoglobulin G-binding regions.

  2. GANP regulates the choice of DNA repair pathway by DNA-PKcs interaction in AID-dependent IgV region diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohammed Mansour Abbas; Maeda, Kazuhiko; Almofty, Sarah Ameen; Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Shimoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2014-06-15

    RNA export factor germinal center-associated nuclear protein (GANP) interacts with activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and shepherds it from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and toward the IgV region loci in B cells. In this study, we demonstrate a role for GANP in the repair of AID-initiated DNA damage in chicken DT40 B cells to generate IgV region diversity by gene conversion and somatic hypermutation. GANP plays a positive role in IgV region diversification of DT40 B cells in a nonhomologous end joining-proficient state. DNA-PKcs physically interacts with GANP, and this interaction is dissociated by dsDNA breaks induced by a topoisomerase II inhibitor, etoposide, or AID overexpression. GANP affects the choice of DNA repair mechanism in B cells toward homologous recombination rather than nonhomologous end joining repair. Thus, GANP presumably plays a critical role in protection of the rearranged IgV loci by favoring homologous recombination of the DNA breaks under accelerated AID recruitment. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  3. Association between the MHC gene region and variation of serum IgE levels against specific mould allergens in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curik Ino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To investigate whether the equine major histocompatibility complex (MHC gene region influences the production of mould-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies (IgE, alleles of the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA-A locus and three microsatellite markers (UM-011, HTG-05 and HMS-42 located on the same chromosome as the equine MHC were determined in 448 Lipizzan horses. Statistical analyses based on composite models, showed significant associations of the ELA-A and UM-011 loci with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 7 antigen (rAsp f 7. UM-011 was also significantly associated with IgE titres against the recombinant Aspergillus fumigatus 8 antigen (rAsp f 8. In addition to the loci mentioned above, the MHC class II DQA and DRA loci were determined in 76 Lipizzans from one stud. For IgE levels against rAsp f 7, the composite model showed the strongest association for DQA (P rAsp f 8 specific IgE levels, similarly to the results found with all 448 horses, the strongest association was found with UM-011 (P = 0.01, which is closely linked with the MHC class II DRB locus. These results suggest that the equine MHC gene region and possibly MHC class II loci, influence the specific IgE response in the horse. However, although the strongest associations were found with DQA and UM-011, this study did not distinguish if the observed effects were due to the MHC itself or to other tightly linked genes.

  4. Effects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christian; Porada, Philipp; Ekici, Altug; Brakebusch, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Effects of the short-term temporal variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in northern high-latitude regions have been investigated. For this, a process-oriented land surface model has been driven using an artificially manipulated climate dataset. Short-term climate variability mainly impacts snow depth, and the thermal diffusivity of lichens and bryophytes. These impacts of climate variability on insulating surface layers together substantially alter the heat exchange between atmosphere and soil. As a result, soil temperature is 0.1 to 0.8 °C higher when climate variability is reduced. Earth system models project warming of the Arctic region but also increasing variability of meteorological variables and more often extreme meteorological events. Therefore, our results show that projected future increases in permafrost temperature and active-layer thickness in response to climate change will be lower (i) when taking into account future changes in short-term variability of meteorological variables and (ii) when representing dynamic snow and lichen and bryophyte functions in land surface models.

  5. Regional simulation of interannual variability over South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, V.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Kirtman, B. P.; Juang, H.-M. Henry; Kanamitsu, M.

    2002-08-01

    Three regional climate simulations covering the austral summer season during three contrasting phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation cycle were conducted with the Regional Spectral Model (RSM) developed at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The simulated interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon River Basin, the Intertropical Convergence Zone, the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean basins, and extratropical South America compare reasonably well with observations. The RSM optimally filters the peturbations about a time-varying base field, thereby enhancing the information content of the global NCEP reanalysis. The model is better than the reanalysis in reproducing the observed interannual variability of outgoing longwave radiation at both high frequencies (3-30 days) and intraseasonal (30-60 days) scales. The low-level jet shows a peak in its speed in 1998 and a minimum in the 1999 simulations. The lag correlation of the jet index with convection over various areas in continental South America indicates that the jet induces precipitation over the Pampas region downstream. A detailed moisture budget was conducted over various subregions. This budget reveals that moisture flux convergence determines most of the interannual variability of precipitation over the Amazon Basin, the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone, and the Nordeste region of Brazil. However, both surface evaporation and surface moisture flux convergence were found to be critical in determining the interannual variability of precipitation over the southern Pampas, Gran Chaco area, and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.

  6. Distribution of anti-HAV IgM positivity according to age and months of a year in Van region,Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Parlak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study we investigated the anti-HAVIgM positivity rates and their distribution according to ageand season of a year in Van region of Turkey.Materials and methods: During five-year period between2006-2010, the presence of anti-HAV IgM weredetermined in the serum samples sent to our laboratorythat have prediagnosis of hepatitis A by ELISA test, usingAxSYM (Abbott Diagnostics, Germany and i2000SR Architect(Abbott Diagnostics, Germany analyzers. For statisticalanalyze of Anti-HAV IgM positivity rates, patients’age and gender and time of year when specimen wasobtain were compared.Results: The presence of anti-HAV IgM was investigatedin a total of 8851 patients, including 5303 (60% childrenand 3548 (40% adults. Anti-HAV IgM in children and adultpatients were determined as 9.8% and 2.6%, respectively,and this difference was found statistically significant (p<0.01. Anti-HAV IgM positivity rate began to rise in August,reached the highest level in November-Decemberand decreased to the initial level in January. The highestfrequency detected during the November-December periodwas statistically significantly higher than rates foundduring other months.Conclusions: The prevalence of Hepatitis A was found tobe similar with previous studies performed in our country.The prevalence of disease was significantly increased especiallybetween November and December.Key words: Anti-HAV IgM, seasonal distribution, seroprevalence,age

  7. Internal variability in a regional climate model over West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanvyve, Emilie; Ypersele, Jean-Pascal van [Universite catholique de Louvain, Institut d' astronomie et de geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hall, Nicholas [Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiales/Centre National d' Etudes Spatiales, Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Messager, Christophe [University of Leeds, Institute for Atmospheric Science, Environment, School of Earth and Environment, Leeds (United Kingdom); Leroux, Stephanie [Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire d' etude des Transferts en Hydrologie et Environnement, BP53, Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2008-02-15

    Sensitivity studies with regional climate models are often performed on the basis of a few simulations for which the difference is analysed and the statistical significance is often taken for granted. In this study we present some simple measures of the confidence limits for these types of experiments by analysing the internal variability of a regional climate model run over West Africa. Two 1-year long simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, are compared. The difference between the two runs gives a measure of the internal variability of the model and an indication of which timescales are reliable for analysis. The results are analysed for a range of timescales and spatial scales, and quantitative measures of the confidence limits for regional model simulations are diagnosed for a selection of study areas for rainfall, low level temperature and wind. As the averaging period or spatial scale is increased, the signal due to internal variability gets smaller and confidence in the simulations increases. This occurs more rapidly for variations in precipitation, which appear essentially random, than for dynamical variables, which show some organisation on larger scales. (orig.)

  8. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, W.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Wittenberg, A.

    2009-08-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño) while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  9. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Anderson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly sensitive to the concentration and distribution of ocean chlorophyll. Setting the near-oligotrophic regions to contain optically pure water warms the mean state and suppresses variability in the western tropical Pacific. Doing the same above the shadow zones of the tropical Pacific also warms the mean state but enhances the variability. It is shown that increasing penetration can both deepen the pycnocline (which tends to damp El Niño while shifting the mean circulation so that the wind response to temperature changes is altered. Depending on what region is involved this change in the wind stress can either strengthen or weaken ENSO variability.

  10. Pomegranate Cultivars: Identification of the New IgE-Binding Protein Pommaclein and Analysis of Antioxidant Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppo, Lisa; Alessandri, Claudia; Pasquariello, Maria Silvia; Petriccione, Milena; Giangrieco, Ivana; Tamburrini, Maurizio; Mari, Adriano; Ciardiello, Maria Antonietta

    2017-04-05

    The consumption of pomegranate is increasing as it is considered a health-promoting food. Nevertheless, it can trigger allergic reactions, sometimes severe. The LTP Pun g 1 is the only pomegranate allergen so far reported. Based on preliminary clinical observations, the main aim of this study was the investigation of still unknown allergens contained in this fruit. Pommaclein, a homologue of peamaclein, the peach allergen Pru p 7, was isolated, identified by protein sequencing, and characterized as an IgE-binding protein by different test systems. RP-HPLC protein profiles revealed significant variations of LTP and pommaclein content in the red pulp of selected cultivars and accessions. Conversely, the mesocarp appeared free of proteins and much richer in antioxidants. In conclusion, a new allergen has been identified, and it could contribute to improving allergy diagnosis. The study highlights that pomegranate mesocarp could represent a rich and safe source of nutraceuticals also for allergic subjects.

  11. Effect of chronic training on heart rate variability, salivary IgA and salivary alpha-amylase in elite swimmers with a disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan Edmonds

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to a determine the heart rate variability (HRV and saliva markers of immunity (salivary immunoglobulin A; sIgA and stress (salivary alpha-amylase; sAA responses to chronic training in elite swimmers with a disability; and b identify the relationships between HRV, sIgA, sAA and training volume. Eight members of a high performance Paralympic swimming program were monitored for their weekly resting HRV, sIgA and sAA levels in the 14 weeks leading up to a major international competition. The 14 week training program included aerobic, anaerobic, power and speed, and taper training phases, while also incorporating two swimming step tests and two swimming competitions. Specific time (root mean square of the successive differences; RMSSD and frequency (high frequency normalized units [HFnu] domain measures, along with non-linear indices (standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability; SD1 and short term fractal scaling exponent; α1 of HRV were used for all analyses with effects examined using magnitude-based inferences. Relationships between HRV and saliva markers were identified by Spearman rank rho (ρ correlation coefficients. Compared with week 1, SD1 was very likely lower (96/4/0, ES = -2.21, while sAA was very likely elevated (100/0/0, ES = 2.32 at the beginning of week 7 for all athletes. The training program did not alter HRV or saliva whereas competition did. There were also no apparent differences observed for HRV, sIgA and sAA between each of the training phases during the 14 week swimming program. Correlations were observed between sAA and SD1 (ρ = -0.212, p<0.05, along with sAA and mean HR (ρ = 0.309, p<0.05. These results show that high level national competition influences depresses HRV (SD1 and increases saliva biomarkers of stress (sAA. It appears that a well-managed and periodised swimming program can maintain these indices within normal baseline levels. The study also highlighted the

  12. Characterizing CDOM Spectral Variability Across Diverse Regions and Spectral Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Brice K.; Mouw, Colleen B.; Ciochetto, Audrey B.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has focused on CDOM absorption (aCDOM) at a reference wavelength, as its magnitude provides insight into the underwater light field and large-scale biogeochemical processes. CDOM spectral slope, SCDOM, has been treated as a constant or semiconstant parameter in satellite retrievals of aCDOM despite significant regional and temporal variabilities. SCDOM and other optical metrics provide insights into CDOM composition, processing, food web dynamics, and carbon cycling. To date, much of this work relies on fluorescence techniques or aCDOM in spectral ranges unavailable to current and planned satellite sensors (e.g., global variability in SCDOM and fit deviations in the aCDOM spectra using the recently proposed Gaussian decomposition method. From this, we investigate if global variability in retrieved SCDOM and Gaussian components is significant and regionally distinct. We iteratively decreased the spectral range considered and analyzed the number, location, and magnitude of fitted Gaussian components to understand if a reduced spectral range impacts information obtained within a common spectral window. We compared the fitted slope from the Gaussian decomposition method to absorption-based indices that indicate CDOM composition to determine the ability of satellite-derived slope to inform the analysis and modeling of large-scale biogeochemical processes. Finally, we present implications of the observed variability for remote sensing of CDOM characteristics via SCDOM.

  13. Assessment of regional air pollution variability in Istanbul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Z.; Oztopal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Air pollution concentrations have temporal and spatial variations depending on the prevailing weather conditions, topographic features, city building heights and locations. When the measurements of air pollutants are available at set measurement sites, the regional variability degree of air pollutants is quantified using the point cumulative semi-variogram (PCSV). This technique provides a systematic method for calculating the changes in the concentrations of air pollutants with distance from a specific site. Regional variations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and total suspended particulate (TSP) matter concentrations in Istanbul city were evaluated using the PCSV concept. The data were available from 16 different air pollution measurement stations scattered all over the city for a period from 1988 to 1994. Monthly regional variation maps were drawn in and around the city at different radii of influence. These maps provide a reference for measuring future changes of air pollution in the city. (author)

  14. Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region and Major Histocompatibility Region Genes Are Linked to Induced Graves' Disease in Females From Two Very Large Families of Recombinant Inbred Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliesky, Holly; Banuelos, Bianca; Magana, Jessica; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Graves' hyperthyroidism is caused by antibodies to the TSH receptor (TSHR) that mimic thyroid stimulation by TSH. Stimulating TSHR antibodies and hyperthyroidism can be induced by immunizing mice with adenovirus expressing the human TSHR A-subunit. Prior analysis of induced Graves' disease in small families of recombinant inbred (RI) female mice demonstrated strong genetic control but did not resolve trait loci for TSHR antibodies or elevated serum T4. We investigated the genetic basis for induced Graves' disease in female mice of two large RI families and combined data with earlier findings to provide phenotypes for 178 genotypes. TSHR antibodies measured by inhibition of TSH binding to its receptor were highly significantly linked in the BXD set to the major histocompatibility region (chromosome 17), consistent with observations in 3 other RI families. In the LXS family, we detected linkage between T4 levels after TSHR-adenovirus immunization and the Ig heavy chain variable region (Igvh, chromosome 12). This observation is a key finding because components of the antigen binding region of Igs determine antibody specificity and have been previously linked to induced thyroid-stimulating antibodies. Data from the LXS family provide the first evidence in mice of a direct link between induced hyperthyroidism and Igvh genes. A role for major histocompatibility genes has now been established for genetic susceptibility to Graves' disease in both humans and mice. Future studies using arrays incorporating variation in the complex human Ig gene locus will be necessary to determine whether Igvh genes are also linked to Graves' disease in humans. PMID:25051451

  15. IgG4-Related Disease: A Multispecialty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Usêda Santana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is a recently recognized group of conditions, characterized by tumor-like swelling of involved organs, lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, variable degrees of fibrosis, and elevated serum IgG4 concentrations. Currently IgG4-RD is recognized as a systemic condition that can affect several organs and tissues. Herein we report the case of a 34-year-old male patient who was admitted to our hospital with diffuse abdominal pain, weight loss, and painful stiffness in his neck. He had a history of tumoral mass of the left maxillary region, right palpebral ptosis with protrusion of the eyeball, and chronic dry cough for about 6 years. Laboratory tests revealed polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum IgG4 levels. Immunohistochemical staining of the maxillary biopsy was compatible with IgG4-RD. He had an excellent response to corticosteroid therapy. This case highlights that IgG4-RD should be included in the differential diagnosis with multisystem diseases.

  16. Mesopause region temperature variability and its trend in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Mateus S.; Bageston, José V.; Caetano, Nattan R.; Peres, Lucas V.; Bencherif, Hassan; Schuch, Nelson J.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the study of the upper atmosphere is increasing, mostly because of the need to understand the patterns of Earth's atmosphere. Since studies on global warming have become very important for the development of new technologies, understanding all regions of the atmosphere becomes an unavoidable task. In this paper, we aim to analyze the temperature variability and its trend in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region during a period of 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). For this purpose, three different heights, i.e., 85, 90 and 95 km, were focused on in order to investigate the upper atmosphere, and a geographic region different to other studies was chosen, in the southern region of Brazil, centered in the city of Santa Maria, RS (29°41'02'' S; 53°48'25'' W). In order to reach the objectives of this work, temperature data from the SABER instrument (Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry), aboard NASA's Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, were used. Finally, two cases were studied related to distinct grids of latitude/longitude used to obtain the mean temperature profiles. The first case considered a grid of 20° × 20° lat/long, centered in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. In the second case, the region was reduced to a size of 15° × 15° in order to compare the results and discuss the two cases in terms of differences or similarities in temperature trends. Observations show that the size of the geographical area used for the average temperature profiles can influence the results of variability and trend of the temperature. In addition, reducing the time duration of analyses from 24 to 12 h a day also influences the trend significantly. For the smaller geographical region (15° × 15°) and the 12 h daily time window (09:00-21:00 UT) it was found that the main contributions for the temperature variability at the three heights were the annual and semi-annual cycles and the solar flux influence

  17. SRSF1-3 contributes to diversification of the immunoglobulin variable region gene by promoting accumulation of AID in the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yuka; Nariki, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Naoko; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mari; Magari, Masaki; Tokumitsu, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is essential for diversification of the Ig variable region (IgV). AID is excluded from the nucleus, where it normally functions. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating AID localization remain to be elucidated. The SR-protein splicing factor SRSF1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein, a splicing isoform of which called SRSF1-3, has previously been shown to contribute to IgV diversification in chicken DT40 cells. In this study, we examined whether SRSF1-3 functions in IgV diversification by promoting nuclear localization of AID. AID expressed alone was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. In contrast, co-expression of AID with SRSF1-3 led to the nuclear accumulation of both AID and SRSF1-3 and the formation of a protein complex that contained them both, although SRSF1-3 was dispensable for nuclear import of AID. Expression of either SRSF1-3 or a C-terminally-truncated AID mutant increased IgV diversification in DT40 cells. However, overexpression of exogenous SRSF1-3 was unable to further enhance IgV diversification in DT40 cells expressing the truncated AID mutant, although SRSF1-3 was able to form a protein complex with the AID mutant. These results suggest that SRSF1-3 promotes nuclear localization of AID probably by forming a nuclear protein complex, which might stabilize nuclear AID and induce IgV diversification in an AID C-terminus-dependent manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies Directed toward the Hepatitis C Virus Glycoprotein E2 Detect Antigenic Differences Modulated by the N-Terminal Hypervariable Region 1 (HVR1), HVR2, and Intergenotypic Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammad, Yousef; Gu, Jun; Boo, Irene; Harrison, David; McCaffrey, Kathleen; Vietheer, Patricia T; Edwards, Stirling; Quinn, Charles; Coulibaly, Fásseli; Poumbourios, Pantelis; Drummer, Heidi E

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 form a heterodimer and mediate receptor interactions and viral fusion. Both E1 and E2 are targets of the neutralizing antibody (NAb) response and are candidates for the production of vaccines that generate humoral immunity. Previous studies demonstrated that N-terminal hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) can modulate the neutralization potential of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but no information is available on the influence of HVR2 or the intergenotypic variable region (igVR) on antigenicity. In this study, we examined how the variable regions influence the antigenicity of the receptor binding domain of E2 spanning HCV polyprotein residues 384 to 661 (E2661) using a panel of MAbs raised against E2661 and E2661 lacking HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR (Δ123) and well-characterized MAbs isolated from infected humans. We show for a subset of both neutralizing and nonneutralizing MAbs that all three variable regions decrease the ability of MAbs to bind E2661 and reduce the ability of MAbs to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions. In addition, we describe a new MAb directed toward the region spanning residues 411 to 428 of E2 (MAb24) that demonstrates broad neutralization against all 7 genotypes of HCV. The ability of MAb24 to inhibit E2-CD81 interactions is strongly influenced by the three variable regions. Our data suggest that HVR1, HVR2, and the igVR modulate exposure of epitopes on the core domain of E2 and their ability to prevent E2-CD81 interactions. These studies suggest that the function of HVR2 and the igVR is to modulate antibody recognition of glycoprotein E2 and may contribute to immune evasion. This study reveals conformational and antigenic differences between the Δ123 and intact E2661 glycoproteins and provides new structural and functional data about the three variable regions and their role in occluding neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on the E2 core domain. The variable regions may therefore function to

  19. Impact of Variable-Resolution Meshes on Regional Climate Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, L. D.; Skamarock, W. C.; Bruyere, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Model for Prediction Across Scales (MPAS) is currently being used for seasonal-scale simulations on globally-uniform and regionally-refined meshes. Our ongoing research aims at analyzing simulations of tropical convective activity and tropical cyclone development during one hurricane season over the North Atlantic Ocean, contrasting statistics obtained with a variable-resolution mesh against those obtained with a quasi-uniform mesh. Analyses focus on the spatial distribution, frequency, and intensity of convective and grid-scale precipitations, and their relative contributions to the total precipitation as a function of the horizontal scale. Multi-month simulations initialized on May 1st 2005 using ERA-Interim re-analyses indicate that MPAS performs satisfactorily as a regional climate model for different combinations of horizontal resolutions and transitions between the coarse and refined meshes. Results highlight seamless transitions for convection, cloud microphysics, radiation, and land-surface processes between the quasi-uniform and locally- refined meshes, despite the fact that the physics parameterizations were not developed for variable resolution meshes. Our goal of analyzing the performance of MPAS is twofold. First, we want to establish that MPAS can be successfully used as a regional climate model, bypassing the need for nesting and nudging techniques at the edges of the computational domain as done in traditional regional climate modeling. Second, we want to assess the performance of our convective and cloud microphysics parameterizations as the horizontal resolution varies between the lower-resolution quasi-uniform and higher-resolution locally-refined areas of the global domain.

  20. Regional climate change: Precipitation variability in mountainous part of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Nina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of paper is to analyze temporal and spatial changes in monthly precipitation as well as extremely dry and wet months in mountainous part of Bulgaria. Study precipitation variability in mountainous part is very important because this part is the region where the rivers take its source from. Extreme values of monthly precipitation are important information for better understanding of the whole variability and trends in precipitation time series. The mean investigated period is 1951-2005 and the reference period is so called temporary climate - 1961- 1990. Extreme dry precipitation months are defined as a month whose monthly precipitation is lower than 10% of gamma distribution in the reference period 1961-1990. Extreme wet months are determined with respect to 90% percentiles of gamma distribution (monthly precipitation is higher than 90%. The result of the research show that in mountainous part of Bulgaria during 1950s and 1960s number of extremely wet months is higher than number of dry months. Decreasing of monthly precipitation is a feature for 1980s. This dry period continues till 2004. The years 2000 makes impression as driest year in high mountains with about 7 extremely dry months. The second dry year is 1993. The negative precipitation anomaly is most clearly determined during last decade at study area. The present research points out that fluctuation of precipitation in mountainous part of Bulgaria are coinciding with regional and global climate trends.

  1. Diffuse alopecia areata is associated with intense inflammatory infiltration and CD8+ T cells in hair loss regions and an increase in serum IgE level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanism leading to an abrupt hair loss in diffuse alopecia areata (AA remains unclear. Aims: To explore the characteristics of diffuse AA and possible factors involved in its pathogenesis. Methods: Clinical and laboratory data of 17 diffuse AA patients and 37 patchy AA patients were analyzed retrospectively. Serum IgE level was evaluated in all diffuse and patchy AA patients, as well as 27 healthy subjects without hair loss to serve as normal control. Univariate analysis was performed using Fisher′s exact test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Associations between inflammatory cell infiltration and laboratory values were analyzed using Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The mean age of patients with diffuse AA was 27 years with a mean disease duration of 1.77 months. All of them presented in spring or summer with an acute onset of diffuse hair loss preceded by higher incidence of scalp pruritus. Although no statistically significant difference on the incidence of atopic disease among three groups has been found, serum IgE level in diffuse AA was higher than that in healthy controls, but was comparable to that in patchy AA group. Histopathology of lesional scalp biopsies showed more intense infiltration comprising of mononuclear cells, eosinophils, CD3 + , and CD8 + T cells around hair bulbs in diffuse AA group than in patchy AA group. Moreover, IgE level in diffuse AA patients positively correlated with intensity of infiltration by mononuclear cells, eosinophils, and CD8 + T cells. Conclusions: Hypersensitivity may be involved in pathogenesis of diffuse AA. The acute onset of diffuse AA may be related to intense local inflammatory infiltration of hair loss region and an increase in serum IgE level.

  2. Functional, non-clonal IgMa-restricted B cell receptor interactions with the HIV-1 envelope gp41 membrane proximal external region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Verkoczy

    Full Text Available The membrane proximal external region (MPER of HIV-1 gp41 has several features that make it an attractive antibody-based vaccine target, but eliciting an effective gp41 MPER-specific protective antibody response remains elusive. One fundamental issue is whether the failure to make gp41 MPER-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies like 2F5 and 4E10 is due to structural constraints with the gp41 MPER, or alternatively, if gp41 MPER epitope-specific B cells are lost to immunological tolerance. An equally important question is how B cells interact with, and respond to, the gp41 MPER epitope, including whether they engage this epitope in a non-canonical manner i.e., by non-paratopic recognition via B cell receptors (BCR. To begin understanding how B cells engage the gp41 MPER, we characterized B cell-gp41 MPER interactions in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Surprisingly, we found that a significant (approximately 7% fraction of splenic B cells from BALB/c, but not C57BL/6 mice, bound the gp41 MPER via their BCRs. This strain-specific binding was concentrated in IgM(hi subsets, including marginal zone and peritoneal B1 B cells, and correlated with enriched fractions (approximately 15% of gp41 MPER-specific IgM secreted by in vitro-activated splenic B cells. Analysis of Igh(a (BALB/c and Igh(b (C57BL/6 congenic mice demonstrated that gp41 MPER binding was controlled by determinants of the Igh(a locus. Mapping of MPER gp41 interactions with IgM(a identified MPER residues distinct from those to which mAb 2F5 binds and demonstrated the requirement of Fc C(H regions. Importantly, gp41 MPER ligation produced detectable BCR-proximal signaling events, suggesting that interactions between gp41 MPER and IgM(a determinants may elicit partial B cell activation. These data suggest that low avidity, non-paratopic interactions between the gp41 MPER and membrane Ig on naïve B cells may interfere with or divert bnAb responses.

  3. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asito, Amolo S; Piriou, Erwan; Jura, Walter G Z O; Ouma, Collins; Odada, Peter S; Ogola, Sidney; Fiore, Nancy; Rochford, Rosemary

    2011-12-13

    Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24) and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21). There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440), 18(p = 0.0210) and 24 months (p = 0.0493). No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27-) or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+). However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34-) were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+) were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144), 18 (p = 0.0013) and 24 months (p = 0.0129). These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  4. Suppression of circulating IgD+CD27+ memory B cells in infants living in a malaria-endemic region of Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asito Amolo S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum infection leads to alterations in B cell subset distribution. During infancy, development of peripheral B cell subsets is also occurring. However, it is unknown if infants living a malaria endemic region have alterations in B cell subsets that is independent of an age effect. Methods To evaluate the impact of exposure to P. falciparum on B cell development in infants, flow cytometry was used to analyse the distribution and phenotypic characteristic of B cell subsets in infant cohorts prospectively followed at 12, 18 and 24 months from two geographically proximate regions in western Kenya with divergent malaria exposure i.e. Kisumu (malaria-endemic, n = 24 and Nandi (unstable malaria transmission, n = 21. Results There was significantly higher frequency and absolute cell numbers of CD19+ B cells in Kisumu relative to Nandi at 12(p = 0.0440, 18(p = 0.0210 and 24 months (p = 0.0493. No differences were observed between the infants from the two sites in frequencies of naïve B cells (IgD+CD27- or classical memory B cells (IgD-CD27+. However, immature transitional B cells (CD19+CD10+CD34- were higher in Kisumu relative to Nandi at all three ages. In contrast, the levels of non-class switched memory B cells (CD19+IgD+CD27+ were significantly lower overall in Kisumu relative to Nandi at significantly at 12 (p = 0.0144, 18 (p = 0.0013 and 24 months (p = 0.0129. Conclusions These data suggest that infants living in malaria endemic regions have altered B cell subset distribution. Further studies are needed to understand the functional significance of these changes and long-term impact on ability of these infants to develop antibody responses to P. falciparum and heterologous infections.

  5. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

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    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  6. Conversion of a Mouse Fab into a Whole Humanized IgG Antibody for Detecting Botulinum Toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palys, Thomas J; Schmid, Kara E; Scherer, John M; Schoepp, Randal J

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore we sought to convert a murine Fab into a whole humanized IgG. The variable regions from an anti-botulinum Fab were cloned into human IgG heavy and light chain vectors and produced in myeloma cells...

  7. Influence of Climate Variability on US Regional Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, R. D.; Karnauskas, K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have found consistent evidence of a relationship between temperature and criminal behavior. However, despite agreement in the overall relationship, little progress has been made in distinguishing between two proposed explanatory theories. The General Affective Aggression Model (GAAM) suggests that high temperatures create periods of higher heat stress that enhance individual aggressiveness, whereas the Routine Activities Theory (RAT) theorizes that individuals are more likely to be outdoors interacting with others during periods of pleasant weather with a resulting increase in both interpersonal interactions and victim availability. Further, few studies have considered this relationship within the context of climate change in a quantitative manner. In an effort to distinguish between the two theories, and to examine the statistical relationships on a broader spatial scale than previously, we combined data from the Supplementary Homicide Report (SHR—compiled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation) and the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR—compiled by the National Centers for Environmental Protection, a branch of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). US homicide data described by the SHR was compared with seven relevant observed climate variables (temperature, dew point, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation, accumulated snowfall, snow cover, and snow depth) provided by the NARR atmospheric reanalysis. Relationships between homicide rates and climate variables, as well as reveal regional spatial patterns will be presented and discussed, along with the implications due to future climate change. This research lays the groundwork for the refinement of estimates of an oft-overlooked climate change impact, which has previously been estimated to cause an additional 22,000 murders between 2010 and 2099, including providing important constraints for empirical models of future violent crime incidences in the face of global

  8. Climate variability and wine quality over Portuguese regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Gani, Érico A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.

    2015-04-01

    characterized in each region by high/low quality wines. Finally, we also investigated how climate variability is related to DOC wine quality for different regions using North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Results reveal a strong dependence of wine quality for all regions on maximum temperature and precipitation during spring and summer (the growing season) as expected. However the role of temperature on wine quality seems to be distinct among the diverse regions probably due to their different climate zoning. Moreover, it is shown that the differences associated with high/low quality wine are in agreement with different synoptic fields patterns. Our results suggest that this type of analysis may be used in developing a tool that may help anticipating a vintage/high quality year, based on already available seasonal climate outlooks. Santo F.E., de Lima M.I.P., Ramos A.M., Trigo R.M., Trends in seasonal surface air temperature in mainland Portugal, since 1941, International Journal Climatolology, 34: 1814-1837, doi: 10.1002/joc.3803 (2014) de Lima M.I.P., Santo F.E., Ramos A.M. , Trigo, R.M., Trends and correlations in annual extreme precipitation indices for mainland Portugal, 1941-2007, Theoretical and Applied Climatology, DOI:10.1007/s00704-013-1079-6 (2014) Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  9. Change in IgHV Mutational Status of CLL Suggests Origin From Multiple Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Afaf; Gocke, Christopher D; Gladstone, Douglas E

    2017-02-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy-chain variable-region (IgHV) mutational status are used to predict outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although DNA aberrations change over time, IgHV sequences and mutational status are considered stable. In a retrospective review, 409 CLL patients, between 2008 and 2015, had IgHV analysis: 56 patients had multiple analyses performed. Seven patients' IgHV results changed: 2 from unmutated to mutated and 5 from mutated to unmutated IgHV sequence. Three concurrently changed their variable heavy-chain sequence. Secondary to allelic exclusion, 2 of the new variable heavy chains produced were biologically nonplausible. The existence of these new nonplausible heavy-chain variable regions suggests either the CLL cancer stem-cell maintains the ability to rearrange a previously silenced IgH allele or more likely that the cancer stem-cell produced at least 2 subclones, suggesting that the CLL cancer stem cell exists before the process of allelic exclusion occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maturation of Shark Single-Domain (IgNAR) Antibodies: Evidence for Induced-Fit Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanfield, R.L.; Dooley, H.; Verdino, P.; Flajnik, M.F.; Wilson, I.A.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /Maryland U.

    2007-07-13

    Sharks express an unusual heavy-chain isotype called IgNAR, whose variable regions bind antigen as independent soluble domains. To further probe affinity maturation of the IgNAR response, we structurally characterized the germline and somatically matured versions of a type II variable (V) region, both in the presence and absence of its antigen, hen egg-white lysozyme. Despite a disulfide bond linking complementarity determining regions (CDRs) 1 and 3, both germline and somatically matured V regions displayed significant structural changes in these CDRs upon complex formation with antigen. Somatic mutations in the IgNAR V region serve to increase the number of contacts with antigen, as reflected by a tenfold increase in affinity, and one of these mutations appears to stabilize the CDR3 region. In addition, a residue in the HV4 loop plays an important role in antibody-antigen interaction, consistent with the high rate of somatic mutations in this non-CDR loop.

  11. Processing of complex N-glycans in IgG Fc-region is affected by core fucosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, Alexandra; Gruber, Clemens; Thader, Andreas; Oostenbrink, Chris; Pechlaner, Maria; Steinkellner, Herta; Altmann, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    We investigated N-glycan processing of immunoglobulin G1 using the monoclonal antibody cetuximab (CxMab), which has a glycosite in the Fab domain in addition to the conserved Fc glycosylation, as a reporter. Three GlcNAc (Gn) terminating bi-antennary glycoforms of CxMab differing in core fucosylation (α1,3- and α1,6-linkage) were generated in a plant-based expression platform. These GnGn, GnGnF3, and GnGnF6 CxMab variants were subjected in vivo to further processing toward sialylation and GlcNAc diversification (bisected and branching structures). Mass spectrometry-based glycan analyses revealed efficient processing of Fab glycans toward envisaged structures. By contrast, Fc glycan processing largely depend on the presence of core fucose. A particularly strong support of glycan processing in the presence of plant-specific core α1,3-fucose was observed. Consistently, molecular modeling suggests changes in the interactions of the Fc carbohydrate chain depending on the presence of core fucose, possibly changing the accessibility. Here, we provide data that reveal molecular mechanisms of glycan processing of IgG antibodies, which may have implications for the generation of glycan-engineered therapeutic antibodies with improved efficacies. PMID:26067753

  12. Regional softwood sawmill processing variables as influenced by productive capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. H. Steele; F. G. Wagner; K. E. Skog

    The relationship between annual softwood sawmill production and lumber processing variables was examined using data from Sawmill Improvement Program (SIP) studies of 650 softwood mills. The variables were lumber recovery factor (LRF); headrig and resaw kerf width; total sawing variation, rough green size, and oversizing-undersizing for 4/4 and 8/4 lumber; planer...

  13. Pre-existing IgG antibodies cross-reacting with the Fab region of infliximab predict efficacy and safety of infliximab therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenholdt, Casper; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    are common and may cross-react with the murine part of IFX. AIM: To investigate if Abs binding to IFX's Fab region (IFX-Fab) are present in IBD patients before exposure to IFX, and whether they predict efficacy and safety of IFX therapy. METHODS: Observational, retrospective cohort study of patients with CD...... (n = 29) and UC (n = 22). RESULTS: Pre-treatment levels of IFX-Fab reactive IgG Abs were significantly lower in CD patients in remission after 1 year of maintenance IFX (median 91 mU/L, n = 8) than in the rest of the patients (639 mU/L, n = 21; P ...

  14. Biased Iglambda expression in hypermutated IgD multiple myelomas does not result from receptor revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M.; Bende, R. J.; Aarts, W. M.; Langerak, A. W.; van Dongen, J. J. M.; van Noesel, C. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Normal IgM(-)IgD(+) CD38(+) B cells and IgM(-)IgD(+) multiple myelomas (MM) are characterized by Cmu deletion, biased Iglambda expression and hypermutated IgV regions. The predominant Iglambda usage has been proposed as resulting from secondary Ig gene rearrangements during extensive clonal

  15. Regional impacts of ocean color on tropical Pacific variability

    OpenAIRE

    W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

    2009-01-01

    The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation experiments show that the mean state and variability of the tropical Pacific is highly se...

  16. Climate Variability and Change in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Özsoy, Emin; Planton, Serge; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    This special issue collects new research results on the climate of the Mediterranean region. It covers traditional topics of the MedCLIVAR programme (www.medclivar.eu, Lionello et al. 2006, Lionello et al. 2012b) being devoted to papers addressing on-going and future climate changes in the Mediterranean region and their impacts on its environment.

  17. Regional variability among nonlinear chlorophyll-phosphorus relationships in lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and total phosphorus (TP) is a fundamental relationship in lakes that reflects multiple aspects of ecosystem function and is also used in the regulation and management of inland waters. The exact form of this relationship has substantial implications on its meaning and its use. We assembled a spatially extensive data set to examine whether nonlinear models are a better fit for Chl a—TP relationships than traditional log-linear models, whether there were regional differences in the form of the relationships, and, if so, which regional factors were related to these differences. We analyzed a data set from 2105 temperate lakes across 35 ecoregions by fitting and comparing two different nonlinear models and one log-linear model. The two nonlinear models fit the data better than the log-linear model. In addition, the parameters for the best-fitting model varied among regions: the maximum and lower Chl aasymptotes were positively and negatively related to percent regional pasture land use, respectively, and the rate at which chlorophyll increased with TP was negatively related to percent regional wetland cover. Lakes in regions with more pasture fields had higher maximum chlorophyll concentrations at high TP concentrations but lower minimum chlorophyll concentrations at low TP concentrations. Lakes in regions with less wetland cover showed a steeper Chl a—TP relationship than wetland-rich regions. Interpretation of Chl a—TP relationships depends on regional differences, and theory and management based on a monolithic relationship may be inaccurate.

  18. The spread amongst ENSEMBLES regional scenarios: regional climate models, driving general circulation models and interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deque, M.; Somot, S. [Meteo-France, Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, CNRS/GAME, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Sanchez-Gomez, E. [Cerfacs/CNRS, SUC URA1875, Toulouse Cedex 01 (France); Goodess, C.M. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, Norwich (United Kingdom); Jacob, D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany); Lenderink, G. [KNMI, Postbus 201, De Bilt (Netherlands); Christensen, O.B. [Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen Oe (Denmark)

    2012-03-15

    Various combinations of thirteen regional climate models (RCM) and six general circulation models (GCM) were used in FP6-ENSEMBLES. The response to the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas concentration scenario over Europe, calculated as the difference between the 2021-2050 and the 1961-1990 means can be viewed as an expected value about which various uncertainties exist. Uncertainties are measured here by variance explained for temperature and precipitation changes over eight European sub-areas. Three sources of uncertainty can be evaluated from the ENSEMBLES database. Sampling uncertainty is due to the fact that the model climate is estimated as an average over a finite number of years (30) despite a non-negligible interannual variability. Regional model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs use different techniques to discretize the equations and to represent sub-grid effects. Global model uncertainty is due to the fact that the RCMs have been driven by different GCMs. Two methods are presented to fill the many empty cells of the ENSEMBLES RCM x GCM matrix. The first one is based on the same approach as in FP5-PRUDENCE. The second one uses the concept of weather regimes to attempt to separate the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The variance of the climate response is analyzed with respect to the contribution of the GCM and the RCM. The two filling methods agree that the main contributor to the spread is the choice of the GCM, except for summer precipitation where the choice of the RCM dominates the uncertainty. Of course the implication of the GCM to the spread varies with the region, being maximum in the South-western part of Europe, whereas the continental parts are more sensitive to the choice of the RCM. The third cause of spread is systematically the interannual variability. The total uncertainty about temperature is not large enough to mask the 2021-2050 response which shows a similar pattern to the one obtained for 2071-2100 in PRUDENCE. The uncertainty

  19. N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S.; Derksen, Ninotska I. L.; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A.; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Ijspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E. M.; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S. Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-01-01

    N-glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we

  20. Synthetic study on cystinyl peptides using solution and solid phase metodology: human IgG1 hinge region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Gut, Vladimír; Ježek, Jan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Kašička, Václav; Wünsch, Erich; Hlaváček, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 3 (2010), s. 641-650 ISSN 0939-4451 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/1362; GA ČR GA203/07/1517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : hinge region * immunoglobulin * prion protein * solution synthesis * solid phase synthesis Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.106, year: 2010

  1. The Tokar Gap Jet: Regional Circulation, Diurnal Variability, and Moisture Transport Based on Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Shannon R.; Pratt, Lawrence J.; Jiang, Houshuo

    2015-01-01

    The structure, variability, and regional connectivity of the Tokar Gap jet (TGJ) are described using WRF Model analyses and supporting atmospheric datasets from the East African–Red Sea–Arabian Peninsula (EARSAP) region during summer 2008. Sources

  2. Maps of mesoscale wind variability over the North Sea region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Badger, Jake

    Mesoscale wind fluctuations affect the operation of wind farms, particularly as the number of geographically concentrated wind farms in the North Sea increases (Akhmatov et al. 2007). The frequency and intensity of wind fluctuations could be considered as a new siting criterion, together with exi...... for a 1 year period. The model was run with a horizontal grid spacing of 2 km. The variability maps are created by integrating the average 24 hour spectra at every grid point over different time-scales....

  3. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    in an agammaglobulinemic patient; Gastroenterology 10. 1072–1075. Lesniewsky R R, Boardway K M, Casey J M, Desai S M,. Devare S G and Leung T K 1993 Hypervariable region 5′- terminus of hepatitis C virus E2/NS1 encodes antigenically distinct variants; J. Med. Virol. 40 150–156. Li C, Candotti D and Allain J-P ...

  4. Variability or conservation of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of the E2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly heterogeneous in its primary sequence and is responsible for significant inter- and intra-individual variation of the infecting virus, which may represent an important pathogenetic mechanism leading to immune escape and persistent ...

  5. Regional frameworks applied to hydrology: can landscape-based frameworks capture the hydrologic variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. McManamay; D. Orth; C. Dolloff; E. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Regional frameworks have been used extensively in recent years to aid in broad-scale management. Widely used landscape-based regional frameworks, such as hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) and physiographic provinces, may provide predictive tools of hydrologic variability. However, hydrologic-based regional frameworks, created using only streamflow data, are also...

  6. Independent variable complexity for regional regression of the flow duration curve in ungauged basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Geoffrey; Skupin, André; Hope, Allen

    2016-04-01

    The flow duration curve (FDC) is one of the most widely used tools to quantify streamflow. Its percentile flows are often required for water resource applications, but these values must be predicted for ungauged basins with insufficient or no streamflow data. Regional regression is a commonly used approach for predicting percentile flows that involves identifying hydrologic regions and calibrating regression models to each region. The independent variables used to describe the physiographic and climatic setting of the basins are a critical component of regional regression, yet few studies have investigated their effect on resulting predictions. In this study, the complexity of the independent variables needed for regional regression is investigated. Different levels of variable complexity are applied for a regional regression consisting of 918 basins in the US. Both the hydrologic regions and regression models are determined according to the different sets of variables, and the accuracy of resulting predictions is assessed. The different sets of variables include (1) a simple set of three variables strongly tied to the FDC (mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index), (2) a traditional set of variables describing the average physiographic and climatic conditions of the basins, and (3) a more complex set of variables extending the traditional variables to include statistics describing the distribution of physiographic data and temporal components of climatic data. The latter set of variables is not typically used in regional regression, and is evaluated for its potential to predict percentile flows. The simplest set of only three variables performed similarly to the other more complex sets of variables. Traditional variables used to describe climate, topography, and soil offered little more to the predictions, and the experimental set of variables describing the distribution of basin data in more detail did not improve predictions

  7. Intraregional and inter-regional variability of herbicide sensitivity in common arable weed populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mol, Friederike; Gerowitt, Bärbel; Kaczmarek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The question on intraregional versus inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for weed populations is of major importance, both in extrapolation of model parameters and in herbicide zonal approval procedures. We hypothesised that inter-regional variability in herbicide sensitivity for ...

  8. Multiannual runoff variability in the upper Danube region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarova, P.

    2009-05-01

    The development of mankind has depended on availability of water resources. Already the first agricultural civilizations noticed the temporal variability of water resources and oscillation of the multi-annual dry and wet periods. The presented thesis summarizes results of more than fifteen years research activities of the author in the field of long-term runoff prediction. Statistical analysis of the runoff oscillations depends on availability of long time series of data. Systematic measurements of discharge in modern era started relatively late. The longest time series are available in Europe, but they do not exceed 200 years. Such long series are exceptional and in most parts of the world only much shorter series exist. Since studies dealing with the natural runoff oscillation and NAO phenomenon recently absent in Slovakia, there is the one aim of the thesis to fill in the gap in the long-term runoff fluctuation analysis and long-term discharge prediction methods development. The thesis focuses on the natural runoff cyclicity identification. In stochastic models, the climate changes scenarios caused by atmosphere warming are not involved however the runoff tele-connection around the Earth is studied. Scientific objectives of the thesis: 1. To reconstruct the Danube daily discharge series at Bratislava (1876-1890) based upon the Bratislava gauge daily water level observations; 2. to analyze variability and long term trends of the selected discharge Danube series characteristics for its Bratislava gauge; 3. to propose and develop the combined periodogram method for more exact spectral density identification in discharge time series; to analyze trends and periodicity in discharge long term series; to identify occurrence of the wet and dry periods over the world, to identify the influence of the NAO/AO/ENSO/QBO phenomena and the Sun activity on the runoff variability. 4. to present some long term stochastic prediction methods; to use two of them, the classical

  9. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  10. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  11. Climate Change and Climate Variability in the Latin American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrin, G. O.; Gay Garcia, C.; Cruz Choque, D.; Gimenez-Sal, J. C.; Moreno, A. R.; Nagy, G. J.; Nobre, C.; Villamizar, A.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past three decades LA was subjected to several climate-related impacts due to increased El Niño occurrences. Two extremely intense episodes of El Niño and other increased climate extremes happened during this period contributing greatly to augment the vulnerability of human systems to natural disasters. In addition to weather and climate, the main drivers of the increased vulnerability are demographic pressure, unregulated urban growth, poverty and rural migration, low investment in infrastructure and services, and problems in inter-sector coordination. As well, increases in temperature and increases/decreases in precipitation observed during the last part of 20th century have yet led to intensification of glaciers melting, increases in floods/droughts and forest fires frequency, increases in morbidity and mortality, increases in plant diseases incidence; lost of biodiversity, reduction in dairy cattle production, and problems with hydropower generation, highly affecting LA human system. For the end of the 21st century, the projected mean warming for LA ranges from 1 to 7.5ºC and the frequency of weather and climate extremes could increase. Additionally, deforestation is projected to continue leading to a reduction of 25 percent in Amazonia forest in 2020 and 40 percent in 2050. Soybeans planted area in South America could increase by 55 percent by 2020 enhancing aridity/desertification in many of the already water- stressed regions. By 2050 LA population is likely to be 50 percent larger than in 2000, and migration from the country sides to the cities will continue. In the near future, these predicted changes are very likely to severely affect a number of ecosystems and sectors distribution; b) Disappearing most tropical glaciers; c) Reducing water availability and hydropower generation; d) Increasing desertification and aridity; e) Severely affecting people, resources and economic activities in coastal areas; f) Increasing crop's pests and diseases

  12. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by?enhancing formation of AID?accessible single?stranded DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation?induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single?stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID. Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID t...

  13. Adaptive antibody diversification through N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Derksen, Ninotska I L; Ooijevaar-de Heer, Pleuni; van Schie, Karin A; Kruithof, Simone; Berkowska, Magdalena A; van der Schoot, C Ellen; IJspeert, Hanna; van der Burg, Mirjam; Gils, Ann; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Toes, René E M; Rombouts, Yoann; Plomp, Rosina; Wuhrer, Manfred; van Ham, S Marieke; Vidarsson, Gestur; Rispens, Theo

    2018-02-20

    A hallmark of B-cell immunity is the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies from a limited set of germline V(D)J genes. This repertoire is usually defined in terms of amino acid composition. However, variable domains may also acquire N -linked glycans, a process conditional on the introduction of consensus amino acid motifs ( N -glycosylation sites) during somatic hypermutation. High levels of variable domain glycans have been associated with autoantibodies in rheumatoid arthritis, as well as certain follicular lymphomas. However, the role of these glycans in the humoral immune response remains poorly understood. Interestingly, studies have reported both positive and negative effects on antibody affinity. Our aim was to elucidate the role of variable domain glycans during antigen-specific antibody responses. By analyzing B-cell repertoires by next-generation sequencing, we demonstrate that N -glycosylation sites are introduced at positions in which glycans can affect antigen binding as a result of a specific clustering of progenitor glycosylation sites in the germline sequences of variable domain genes. By analyzing multiple human monoclonal and polyclonal (auto)antibody responses, we subsequently show that this process is subject to selection during antigen-specific antibody responses, skewed toward IgG4, and positively contributes to antigen binding. Together, these results highlight a physiological role for variable domain glycosylation as an additional layer of antibody diversification that modulates antigen binding.

  14. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Lohr, Rebecca L; Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-05-06

    Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric) IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric) IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) with non-templated nucleotide (N-region) addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1) and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge) within a species. As in ratfish, sandbar and horn sharks, most nurse shark IgM VH

  15. Diversity and repertoire of IgW and IgM VH families in the newborn nurse shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dooley Helen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult cartilaginous fish express three immunoglobulin (Ig isotypes, IgM, IgNAR and IgW. Newborn nurse sharks, Ginglymostoma cirratum, produce 19S (multimeric IgM and monomeric/dimeric IgM1gj, a germline-joined, IgM-related VH, and very low amounts of 7S (monomeric IgM and IgNAR proteins. Newborn IgNAR VH mRNAs are diverse in the complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3 with non-templated nucleotide (N-region addition, which suggests that, unlike in many other vertebrates, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT expressed at birth is functional. IgW is present in the lungfish, a bony fish sharing a common ancestor with sharks 460 million years ago, implying that the IgW VH family is as old as the IgM VH family. This nurse shark study examined the IgM and IgW VH repertoire from birth through adult life, and analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of these gene families. Results IgM and IgW VH cDNA clones isolated from newborn nurse shark primary and secondary lymphoid tissues had highly diverse and unique CDR3 with N-region addition and VDJ gene rearrangement, implicating functional TdT and RAG gene activity. Despite the clear presence of N-region additions, newborn CDR3 were significantly shorter than those of adults. The IgM clones are all included in a conventional VH family that can be classified into five discrete groups, none of which is orthologous to IgM VH genes in other elasmobranchs. In addition, a novel divergent VH family was orthologous to a published monotypic VH horn shark family. IgW VH genes have diverged sufficiently to form three families. IgM and IgW VH serine codons using the potential somatic hypermutation hotspot sequence occur mainly in VH framework 1 (FR1 and CDR1. Phylogenetic analysis of cartilaginous fish and lungfish IgM and IgW demonstrated they form two major ancient gene groups; furthermore, these VH genes generally diversify (duplicate and diverge within a species. Conclusion As in ratfish

  16. Generation and characterization of ABT-981, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig(TM)) molecule that specifically and potently neutralizes both IL-1α and IL-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Susan E; Wu, Chengbin; Ambrosi, Dominic J; Hsieh, Chung-Ming; Bose, Sahana; Miller, Renee; Conlon, Donna M; Tarcsa, Edit; Chari, Ravi; Ghayur, Tariq; Kamath, Rajesh V

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, and IL-1Ra contribute to immune regulation and inflammatory processes by exerting a wide range of cellular responses, including expression of cytokines and chemokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and nitric oxide synthetase. IL-1α and IL-1β bind to IL-1R1 complexed to the IL-1 receptor accessory protein and induce similar physiological effects. Preclinical and clinical studies provide significant evidence for the role of IL-1 in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), including cartilage degradation, bone sclerosis, and synovial proliferation. Here, we describe the generation and characterization of ABT-981, a dual variable domain immunoglobulin (DVD-Ig) of the IgG1/k subtype that specifically and potently neutralizes IL-1α and IL-1β. In ABT-981, the IL-1β variable domain resides in the outer domain of the DVD-Ig, whereas the IL-1α variable domain is located in the inner position. ABT-981 specifically binds to IL-1α and IL-1β, and is physically capable of binding 2 human IL-1α and 2 human IL-1β molecules simultaneously. Single-dose intravenous and subcutaneous pharmacokinetics studies indicate that ABT-981 has a half-life of 8.0 to 10.4 d in cynomolgus monkey and 10.0 to 20.3 d in rodents. ABT-981 exhibits suitable drug-like-properties including affinity, potency, specificity, half-life, and stability for evaluation in human clinical trials. ABT-981 offers an exciting new approach for the treatment of OA, potentially addressing both disease modification and symptom relief as a disease-modifying OA drug.

  17. Histone H3.3 promotes IgV gene diversification by enhancing formation of AID-accessible single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Marina; Schiavone, Davide; Frey, Alexander; Sale, Julian E

    2016-07-01

    Immunoglobulin diversification is driven by activation-induced deaminase (AID), which converts cytidine to uracil within the Ig variable (IgV) regions. Central to the recruitment of AID to the IgV genes are factors that regulate the generation of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), the enzymatic substrate of AID Here, we report that chicken DT40 cells lacking variant histone H3.3 exhibit reduced IgV sequence diversification. We show that this results from impairment of the ability of AID to access the IgV genes due to reduced formation of ssDNA during IgV transcription. Loss of H3.3 also diminishes IgV R-loop formation. However, reducing IgV R-loops by RNase HI overexpression in wild-type cells does not affect IgV diversification, showing that these structures are not necessary intermediates for AID access. Importantly, the reduction in the formation of AID-accessible ssDNA in cells lacking H3.3 is independent of any effect on the level of transcription or the kinetics of RNAPII elongation, suggesting the presence of H3.3 in the nucleosomes of the IgV genes increases the chances of the IgV DNA becoming single-stranded, thereby creating an effective AID substrate. © 2016 MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  18. Orbit and clock determination of BDS regional navigation satellite system based on IGS M-GEX and WHU BETS tracking network

    Science.gov (United States)

    GENG, T.; Zhao, Q.; Shi, C.; Shum, C.; Guo, J.; Su, X.

    2013-12-01

    BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) began to provide the regional open service on December 27th 2012 and will provide the global open service by the end of 2020. Compared to GPS, the space segment of BDS Regional System consists of 5 Geostationary Earth Orbit satellites (GEO), 5 Inclined Geosynchronous Orbit satellites (IGSO) and 4 Medium Earth orbit (MEO) satellites. Since 2011, IGS Multiple-GNSS Experiment (M-GEX) focuses on tracking the newly available GNSS signals. This includes all signals from the modernized satellites of the GPS and GLONASS systems, as well as signals of the BDS, Galileo and QZSS systems. Up to now, BDS satellites are tracked by around 25 stations with a variety of different antennas and receivers from different GNSS manufacture communities in M-GEX network. Meanwhile, there are 17 stations with Unicore Communications Incorporation's GPS/BDS receivers in BeiDou Experimental Tracking Stations (BETS) network by Wuhan University. In addition, 5 BDS satellites have been tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS). BDS performance is expected to be further studied by the GNSS communities. Following an introduction of the BDS system and above different tracking network, this paper discusses the achieved BDS characterization and performance assessment. Firstly, the BDS signal and measurement quality are analyzed with different antennas and receivers in detail compared to GPS. This includes depth of coverage for satellite observation, carrier-to-noise-density ratios, code noise and multipath, carrier phase errors. Secondly, BDS Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is processed. Different arc lengths and sets of orbit parameters are tested using Position And Navigation Data Analysis software (PANDA) which is developed at the Wuhan University. GEO, IGSO and MEO satellites orbit quality will be assessed using overlap comparison, 2-day orbit fit and external validations with Satellite Laser Range (SLR). Then BDS satellites are equipped

  19. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulfation; and c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  20. Multiannual runoff variability in the upper Danube region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarova, P.

    2009-05-01

    The main results and new knowledge of the presented Thesis can be summarized as follows: - The daily mean discharge time series of the river Danube at Bratislava has been supplemented with data from years 1876-1890. So it has been extended into the full-uninterrupted daily data series for the length of 130 years. Such series of the daily mean discharges is suitable for statistical analyses of the hydrological characteristics changes, and also for identification of the multi-annual (up to 30- years) cycles. - Using the combined periodogram method and the series filtration, in the discharge time series, the variegation cycles of dry and wet time periods were searched. For such objective, the time series were used, of more than 100 rivers of the world. From the longer cycles in the series the approximately 28-30 and 20-22 yrs. cycles of the dry and wet periods occurrence were identified. However, the cycle lengths is not exactly 28 and 21 years, but in the long term average, they come close to these values. From the shorter cycles, those with 7.8-, 6.5-, 5.2-; 4.14-, 3.65, and 2.4- years were identified. - These periods were documented for the discharge series of the analyzed rivers in various physiographic latitudes of the world. It is then possible to consider this piece of knowledge as generally valid for the whole Earth. These periods are connected with the Solar activity and with the thermohaline circulation (ocean conveyor belt). Their parts are also the El Nino, AO, NAO, and QBO phenomena. - Through the cross-correlations (two variables), time shift of the dry and wet periods was identified depending upon the geographical longitude and latitude of the river basins location. From these results it follows, that the dry and wet periods do not occur at the same time on various locations. This time shift depends upon the basins location, and it follows upon the shift in the precipitations occurrence. - The trend analysis did not indicate any significant trends in

  1. Cleavage of a recombinant human immunoglobulin A2 (IgA2)-IgA1 hybrid antibody by certain bacterial IgA1 proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senior, B; Dunlop, JI; Batten, MR

    2000-01-01

    , Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. sanguis, Neisseria meningitidis types 1 and 2, N. gonorrhoeae types 1 and 2, and Haemophilus influenzae type 2. Thus, for these enzymes the recognition site for IgA1 cleavage is contained within half of the IgA1 hinge region; additional distal elements, if required, are provided...... by either an IgA1 or an IgA2 framework. In contrast, the IgA2/A1 hybrid appeared to be resistant to cleavage with S. oralis and some H. influenzae type 1 IgA1 proteases, suggesting these enzymes require additional determinants for efficient substrate recognition....

  2. Analysis of IgG4-positive clones in affected organs of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuchi, Yasushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Ito, Kiyoaki; Hara, Satoshi; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Kawano, Mitsuhiro

    2016-11-01

    We investigated class switch reaction (CSR) in affected organs and evaluated whether the same or genetically related clones exist in IgG4-RD. We studied three patients with IgG4-RD. Total cellular RNA was extracted from salivary glands and peripheral blood and lung tissue. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and immunoglobulin heavy chain third complementarity determining region (IgVH-CDR3) of IgM and IgG4 were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We analyzed the clonal relationship of infiltrating IgG4-positive cells, as compared with IgM. We determined the existence of common clones among organs and patients. AID was expressed in salivary glands of all patients and lung tissue in one. Closely related IgVH-CDR3 sequences in infiltrating IgG4-positive cells were detected in salivary glands and lung tissue. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequence between IgM and IgG4 in salivary glands was detected in one patient, indicating CSR in salivary glands. Identical IgVH-CDR3 sequences of IgG4-positive cells were detected between salivary glands and peripheral blood in two patients. Four identical sequences of IgVH-CDR3 existed between patients. Interestingly, one of the four sequences was detected in all patients. Our results demonstrate the existence of common antigen(s) shared by patients with IgG4-RD.

  3. Climate change/variability science and adaptive strategies for state and regional transportation decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to generate a baseline understanding of current policy responses to climate : change/variability at the state and regional transportation-planning and -decision levels. Specifically, : researchers were interested in th...

  4. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao; Wang, Huixia Judy; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-01-01

    of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC

  5. Strong influence of variable treatment on the performance of numerically defined ecological regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelder, Ton; Lehmann, Anthony; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John; Allenbach, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Numerical clustering has frequently been used to define hierarchically organized ecological regionalizations, but there has been little robust evaluation of their performance (i.e., the degree to which regions discriminate areas with similar ecological character). In this study we investigated the effect of the weighting and treatment of input variables on the performance of regionalizations defined by agglomerative clustering across a range of hierarchical levels. For this purpose, we developed three ecological regionalizations of Switzerland of increasing complexity using agglomerative clustering. Environmental data for our analysis were drawn from a 400 m grid and consisted of estimates of 11 environmental variables for each grid cell describing climate, topography and lithology. Regionalization 1 was defined from the environmental variables which were given equal weights. We used the same variables in Regionalization 2 but weighted and transformed them on the basis of a dissimilarity model that was fitted to land cover composition data derived for a random sample of cells from interpretation of aerial photographs. Regionalization 3 was a further two-stage development of Regionalization 2 where specific classifications, also weighted and transformed using dissimilarity models, were applied to 25 small scale "sub-domains" defined by Regionalization 2. Performance was assessed in terms of the discrimination of land cover composition for an independent set of sites using classification strength (CS), which measured the similarity of land cover composition within classes and the dissimilarity between classes. Regionalization 2 performed significantly better than Regionalization 1, but the largest gains in performance, compared to Regionalization 1, occurred at coarse hierarchical levels (i.e., CS did not increase significantly beyond the 25-region level). Regionalization 3 performed better than Regionalization 2 beyond the 25-region level and CS values continued to

  6. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some o...

  7. Interannual variability in the extent of wetland-stream connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Vanderhoof; Laurie Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The degree of hydrological connectivity between wetland systems and downstream receiving waters can be expected to influence the volume and variability of stream discharge. The Prairie Pothole Region contains a high density of depressional wetland features, a consequence of glacial retreat. Spatial variability in wetland density, drainage evolution, and precipitation...

  8. Development of a localized probabilistic sensitivity method to determine random variable regional importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millwater, Harry; Singh, Gulshan; Cortina, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    There are many methods to identify the important variable out of a set of random variables, i.e., “inter-variable” importance; however, to date there are no comparable methods to identify the “region” of importance within a random variable, i.e., “intra-variable” importance. Knowledge of the critical region of an input random variable (tail, near-tail, and central region) can provide valuable information towards characterizing, understanding, and improving a model through additional modeling or testing. As a result, an intra-variable probabilistic sensitivity method was developed and demonstrated for independent random variables that computes the partial derivative of a probabilistic response with respect to a localized perturbation in the CDF values of each random variable. These sensitivities are then normalized in absolute value with respect to the largest sensitivity within a distribution to indicate the region of importance. The methodology is implemented using the Score Function kernel-based method such that existing samples can be used to compute sensitivities for negligible cost. Numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy of the method through comparisons with finite difference and numerical integration quadrature estimates. - Highlights: ► Probabilistic sensitivity methodology. ► Determines the “region” of importance within random variables such as left tail, near tail, center, right tail, etc. ► Uses the Score Function approach to reuse the samples, hence, negligible cost. ► No restrictions on the random variable types or limit states.

  9. Elucidating heterogeneity of IgA1 hinge-region O-glycosylation by use of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry: role of cysteine alkylation during sample processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Vojtěch; Řehulka, Pavel; Raus, Martin; Stulík, Jiří; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B; Šebela, Marek

    2013-10-30

    Determining disease-associated changes in protein glycosylation provides a better understanding of pathogenesis. This work focuses on human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), where aberrant O-glycosylation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Normal IgA1 hinge region carries 3 to 6 O-glycans consisting of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and galactose (Gal); both sugars may be sialylated. In IgAN patients, some O-glycans on a fraction of IgA1 molecules are Gal-deficient. Here we describe a sample preparation protocol with optimized cysteine alkylation of a Gal-deficient polymeric IgA1 myeloma protein prior to in-gel digestion and analysis of the digest by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Following a novel strategy, IgA1 hinge-region O-glycopeptides were fractionated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using a microgradient device and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem MS (MS/MS). The acquired MS/MS spectra were interpreted manually and by means of our own software. This allowed assigning up to six O-glycosylation sites and demonstration, for the first time, of the distribution of isomeric O-glycoforms having the same molecular mass, but a different glycosylation pattern. The most abundant Gal-deficient O-glycoforms were GalNAc4Gal3 and GalNAc5Gal4 with one Gal-deficient site and GalNAc5Gal3 and GalNAc4Gal2 with two Gal-deficient sites. The most frequent Gal-deficient sites were at Ser230 and/or Thr236. In this work, we studied the O-glycosylation in the hinge region of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1). Aberrant glycosylation of the protein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy. Thus identification of the O-glycan composition of IgA1 is important for a deeper understanding of the disease mechanism, biomarker discovery and validation, and implementation and monitoring of disease-specific therapies. We developed a new procedure for elucidating the heterogeneity of IgA1 O-glycosylation. After running a polyacrylamide gel

  10. Capturing subregional variability in regional-scale climate change vulnerability assessments of natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; David L. Peterson; Kevin S. McKelvey; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2016-01-01

    Natural resource vulnerability to climate change can depend on the climatology and ecological conditions at a particular site. Here we present a conceptual framework for incorporating spatial variability in natural resource vulnerability to climate change in a regional-scale assessment. The framework was implemented in the first regional-scale vulnerability...

  11. Linking the uncertainty of low frequency variability in tropical forcing in regional climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Chris E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology; Barsugli, Joseph J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). CIRES; Li, Wei [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology

    2015-02-20

    The project utilizes multiple atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) to examine the regional climate sensitivity to tropical sea surface temperature forcing through a series of ensemble experiments. The overall goal for this work is to use the global teleconnection operator (GTO) as a metric to assess the impact of model structural differences on the uncertainties in regional climate variability.

  12. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  13. Rainfall variability, climate change and regionalization in the African monsoon region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, Bernard; Roucou, Pascal; Vigaud, Nicolas; Camara, Moctar; Konare, Abdourahamane; Sanda, Seidou Ibrah; Diedhiou, Arona; Janicot, Serge

    2012-01-01

    This summary recalls some results at the end of the AMMA international experiment (2003-2010) in terms of variability of the African monsoon at the intra-seasonal to multi-decadal scales and of climate prospective. The results confirmed the weight of surface temperatures and marine tele-connections for inter-annual and decadal fluctuations and stressed the importance of atmospheric variability. They also described the dominant modes of intra-seasonal variability as their interactions with the surface. Several hypotheses involving memory effects related to soil water and vegetation, particularly in boreal spring and autumn have also been made. Prospective analysis from model output suggests rainfall surplus around 2050 over the Eastern-central Sahel and relative deficit to the West. Phase 2 of AMMA (2010-2020) will focus more on aspects that have a high social impact in direct collaboration with meteorological services predictability, prediction scores, operational indicators, evaluation of the part of anthropogenic forcing in the current and future variations. (authors)

  14. Comparison of immune responses against foot-and-mouth disease virus induced by fusion proteins using the swine IgG heavy chain constant region or β-galactosidase as a carrier of immunogenic epitopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangjin; Chen Weizao; Yan Weiyao; Zhao Kai; Liu Mingqiu; Zhang Jun; Fei Liang; Xu Quanxing; Sheng Zutian; Lu Yonggan; Zheng Zhaoxin

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that a fusion protein (Gal-FMDV) consisting of β-galactosidase and an immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160), of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 protein induced protective immune responses in guinea pigs and swine. We now designed a new potential recombinant protein vaccine against FMDV in swine. The immunogenic peptide, amino acids (141-160)-(21-40)-(141-160) from the VP1 protein of serotype O FMDV, was fused to the carboxy terminus of a swine immunoglobulin G single heavy chain constant region and expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed fusion protein (IgG-FMDV) was purified and emulsified with oil adjuvant. Vaccination twice at an interval of 3 weeks with the emulsified IgG-FMDV fusion protein induced an FMDV-specific spleen proliferative T-cell response in guinea pigs and elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody in guinea pigs and swine. All of the immunized animals were efficiently protected against FMDV challenge. There was no significant difference between IgG-FMDV and Gal-FMDV in eliciting immunity after vaccination twice in swine. However, when evaluating the efficacy of a single inoculation of the fusion proteins, we found that IgG-FMDV could elicit a protective immune response in swine, while Gal-FMDV only elicited a weak neutralizing activity and could not protect the swine against FMDV challenge. Our results suggest that the IgG-FMDV fusion protein is a promising vaccine candidate for FMD in swine

  15. Immunoglobulin variable region sequences of two human monoclonal antibodies directed to an onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen, lactotetraosylceramide (LcOse4Cer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yago, K; Zenita, K; Ohwaki, I; Harada, R; Nozawa, S; Tsukazaki, K; Iwamori, M; Endo, N; Yasuda, N; Okuma, M

    1993-11-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, 11-50, was generated and was shown to recognize an onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen, LcOse4Cer. The isotype of this antibody was IgM, lambda, similar to the previously known human anti-LcOse4 antibodies, such as IgMWOO and HMST-1. We raised a murine anti-idiotypic antibody G3 (IgG1, kappa) against 11-50, and tested its reactivity towards the affinity purified human polyclonal anti-LcOse4 antibodies prepared from pooled human sera using a Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc beta-immobilized column. The results indicated that at least a part of the human polyclonal anti-LcOse4 antibodies shared the G3 idiotype with 11-50. We further analyzed the sequence of variable regions of the two anti-LcOse4 antibodies, 11-50 and HMST-1. Sequence analysis of the heavy chain variable regions indicated that the VH regions of these two antibodies were highly homologous to each other (93.5% at the nucleic acid level), and these antibodies utilized the germline genes VH1.9III and hv3005f3 as the VH segments, which are closely related germline genes of the VHIII family. It was noted that these germline VH genes are frequently utilized in fetal B cells. The JH region of both antibodies was encoded by the JH4 gene. For the light chain, the V lambda segments of the two antibodies were 96.3% homologous to each other at the nucleic acid level. The V lambda segments of both antibodies showed the highest homology to the rearranged V lambda gene called V lambda II.DS among reported V lambda genes, while the exact germline V lambda genes encoding the two antibodies were not yet registered in available sequence databanks. The amino acid sequences of the J lambda segments of both antibodies were identical. These results indicate that the two human antibodies recognizing the onco-developmental carbohydrate antigen Lc4 are encoded by the same or very homologous germline genes.

  16. Synthesis of protected peptides from the human IgG1 hinge region on PEG support using disulfide bond synthons and alkaline or enzymatic detachment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niederhafner, Petr; Šafařík, Martin; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Gut, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr; Hlaváček, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 6 (2006), s. 1023-1025 ISSN 0040-4039 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/03/1362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : peptide synthesis * IgG1 hinge peptide * PEG carrier Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.509, year: 2006

  17. IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura Nephritis: Aberrant Glycosylation of IgA1, Formation of IgA1-Containing Immune Complexes, and Activation of Mesangial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Renfrow, M.B.

    2007-01-01

    IgA1 in the circulation and glomerular deposits of patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is aberrantly glycosylated; the hinge-region O-linked glycans are galactose-deficient. The circulating IgA1 of patients with Henoch-Schoenlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) has a similar defect. This aberrancy...

  18. Improving preparedness of farmers to Climate Variability: A case study of Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, D.; Parthasarathy, D.; Dave, P.

    2016-12-01

    A key objective of the ongoing research is to understand the risk and vulnerability of agriculture and farming communities with respect to multiple climate change attributes, particularly monsoon variability and hydrology such as ground water availability. Climate Variability has always been a feature affecting Indian agriculture but the nature and characteristics of this variability is not well understood. Indian monsoon patterns are highly variable and most of the studies focus on larger domain such as Central India or Western coast (Ghosh et al., 2009) but district level analysis is missing i.e. the linkage between agriculture and climate variables at finer scale has not been investigated comprehensively. For example, Eastern Vidarbha region in Maharashtra is considered as one of the most agriculturally sensitive region in India, where every year a large number of farmers commit suicide. The main reasons for large number of suicides are climate related stressors such as droughts, hail storms, and monsoon variability aggravated with poor socio-economic conditions. Present study has tried to explore the areas in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra where famers and crop productivity, specifically cotton, sorghum, is highly vulnerable to monsoon variability, hydrological and socio-economic variables which are further modelled to determine the maximal contributing factor towards crops and farmers' vulnerability. After analysis using primary and secondary data, it will aid in decision making regarding field operations such as time of sowing, harvesting and irrigation requirements by optimizing the cropping pattern with climatic, hydrological and socio-economic variables. It also suggests the adaptation strategies to farmers regarding different types of cropping and water harvesting practices, optimized dates and timings for harvesting, sowing, water and nutrient requirements of particular crops according to the specific region. Primarily along with secondary analysis

  19. Moment-to-Moment BOLD Signal Variability Reflects Regional Changes in Neural Flexibility across the Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S; Bolt, Taylor S; Ezie, C E Chiemeka; Uddin, Lucina Q; Heller, Aaron S

    2017-05-31

    Variability of neuronal responses is thought to underlie flexible and optimal brain function. Because previous work investigating BOLD signal variability has been conducted within task-based fMRI contexts on adults and older individuals, very little is currently known regarding regional changes in spontaneous BOLD signal variability in the human brain across the lifespan. The current study used resting-state fMRI data from a large sample of male and female human participants covering a wide age range (6-85 years) across two different fMRI acquisition parameters (TR = 0.645 and 1.4 s). Variability in brain regions including a key node of the salience network (anterior insula) increased linearly across the lifespan across datasets. In contrast, variability in most other large-scale networks decreased linearly over the lifespan. These results demonstrate unique lifespan trajectories of BOLD variability related to specific regions of the brain and add to a growing literature demonstrating the importance of identifying normative trajectories of functional brain maturation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Although brain signal variability has traditionally been considered a source of unwanted noise, recent work demonstrates that variability in brain signals during task performance is related to brain maturation in old age as well as individual differences in behavioral performance. The current results demonstrate that intrinsic fluctuations in resting-state variability exhibit unique maturation trajectories in specific brain regions and systems, particularly those supporting salience detection. These results have implications for investigations of brain development and aging, as well as interpretations of brain function underlying behavioral changes across the lifespan. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375539-10$15.00/0.

  20. Different patterns of evolution in the centromeric and telomeric regions of group A and B haplotypes of the human killer cell Ig-like receptor locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Woo Pyo

    Full Text Available The fast evolving human KIR gene family encodes variable lymphocyte receptors specific for polymorphic HLA class I determinants. Nucleotide sequences for 24 representative human KIR haplotypes were determined. With three previously defined haplotypes, this gave a set of 12 group A and 15 group B haplotypes for assessment of KIR variation. The seven gene-content haplotypes are all combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. 2DL5, 2DS5 and 2DS3 can be present in centromeric and telomeric locations. With one exception, haplotypes having identical gene content differed in their combinations of KIR alleles. Sequence diversity varied between haplotype groups and between centromeric and telomeric halves of the KIR locus. The most variable A haplotype genes are in the telomeric half, whereas the most variable genes characterizing B haplotypes are in the centromeric half. Of the highly polymorphic genes, only the 3DL3 framework gene exhibits a similar diversity when carried by A and B haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates, point to the centromeric gene-content motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes having emerged ~6 million years ago, contemporaneously with the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In contrast, the telomeric motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes emerged more recently, ~1.7 million years ago, before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Thus the centromeric and telomeric motifs that typify A and B haplotypes have likely been present throughout human evolution. The results suggest the common ancestor of A and B haplotypes combined a B-like centromeric region with an A-like telomeric region.

  1. NEAR-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION CYGNUS OB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Rice, Thomas S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aspin, Colin [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We present an analysis of near-infrared time-series photometry in J, H, and K bands for about 100 epochs of a 1 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 1 Degree-Sign region of the Lynds 1003/1004 dark cloud in the Cygnus OB7 region. Augmented by data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, we identify 96 candidate disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. Of these, 30 are clearly Class I or earlier. Using the Wide-Field Imaging Camera on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, we were able to obtain photometry over three observing seasons, with photometric uncertainty better than 0.05 mag down to J Almost-Equal-To 17. We study detailed light curves and color trajectories of {approx}50 of the YSOs in the monitored field. We investigate the variability and periodicity of the YSOs and find the data are consistent with all YSOs being variable in these wavelengths on timescales of a few years. We divide the variability into four observational classes: (1) stars with periodic variability stable over long timescales, (2) variables which exhibit short-lived cyclic behavior, (3) long-duration variables, and (4) stochastic variables. Some YSO variability defies simple classification. We can explain much of the observed variability as being due to dynamic and rotational changes in the disk, including an asymmetric or changing blocking fraction, changes to the inner disk hole size, as well as changes to the accretion rate. Overall, we find that the Class I:Class II ratio of the cluster is consistent with an age of <1 Myr, with at least one individual, wildly varying source {approx}100, 000 yr old. We have also discovered a Class II eclipsing binary system with a period of 17.87 days.

  2. Integrated Variable Speed Limits Control and Ramp Metering for Bottleneck Regions on Freeway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-hui Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of the existing freeway system and therefore to mitigate traffic congestion and related problems on the freeway mainline lane-drop bottleneck region, the advanced strategy for bottleneck control is essential. This paper proposes a method that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering for freeway bottleneck region control to relieve the chaos in bottleneck region. To this end, based on the analyses of spatial-temporal patterns of traffic flow, a macroscopic traffic flow model is extended to describe the traffic flow operating characteristic by considering the impacts of variable speed limits in mainstream bottleneck region. In addition, to achieve the goal of balancing the priority of the vehicles on mainline and on-ramp, increasing capacity, and reducing travel delay on bottleneck region, an improved control model, as well as an advanced control strategy that integrates variable speed limits and ramp metering, is developed. The proposed method is tested in simulation for a real freeway infrastructure feed and calibrates real traffic variables. The results demonstrate that the proposed method can substantially improve the traffic flow efficiency of mainline and on-ramp and enhance the quality of traffic flow at the investigated freeway mainline bottleneck.

  3. Regionalizing Africa: Patterns of Precipitation Variability in Observations and Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, Hamada S.; Dezfuli, Amin K.; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have documented dramatic climatic and environmental changes that have affected Africa over different time scales. These studies often raise questions regarding the spatial extent and regional connectivity of changes inferred from observations and proxies and/or derived from climate models. Objective regionalization offers a tool for addressing these questions. To demonstrate this potential, applications of hierarchical climate regionalizations of Africa using observations and GCM historical simulations and future projections are presented. First, Africa is regionalized based on interannual precipitation variability using Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data for the period 19812014. A number of data processing techniques and clustering algorithms are tested to ensure a robust definition of climate regions. These regionalization results highlight the seasonal and even month-to-month specificity of regional climate associations across the continent, emphasizing the need to consider time of year as well as research question when defining a coherent region for climate analysis. CHIRPS regions are then compared to those of five GCMs for the historic period, with a focus on boreal summer. Results show that some GCMs capture the climatic coherence of the Sahel and associated teleconnections in a manner that is similar to observations, while other models break the Sahel into uncorrelated subregions or produce a Sahel-like region of variability that is spatially displaced from observations. Finally, shifts in climate regions under projected twenty-first-century climate change for different GCMs and emissions pathways are examined. A projected change is found in the coherence of the Sahel, in which the western and eastern Sahel become distinct regions with different teleconnections. This pattern is most pronounced in high-emissions scenarios.

  4. The discrete and localized nature of the variable emission from active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Martina Belz; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Karovska, Margarita

    1994-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Spectroheliometer on Skylab, we study the empirical characteristics of the variable emission in active regions. These simultaneous multi-wavelength observations clearly confirm that active regions consist of a complex of loops at different temperatures. The variable emission from this complex has very well-defined properties that can be quantitatively summarized as follows: (1) It is localized predominantly around the footpoints where it occurs at discrete locations. (2) The strongest variability does not necessarily coincide with the most intense emission. (3) The fraction of the area of the footpoints, (delta n)/N, that exhibits variable emission, varies by +/- 15% as a function of time, at any of the wavelengths measured. It also varies very little from footpoint to footpoint. (4) This fractional variation is temperature dependent with a maximum around 10(exp 5) K. (5) The ratio of the intensity of the variable to the average background emission, (delta I)/(bar-I), also changes with temperature. In addition, we find that these distinctive characteristics persist even when flares occur within the active region.

  5. Climate Drivers of Spatiotemporal Variability of Precipitation in the Source Region of Yangtze River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y.; Berndtsson, R.; An, D.; Yuan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Variability of precipitation regime has significant influence on the environment sustainability in the source region of Yangtze River, especially when the vegetation degradation and biodiversity reduction have already occurred. Understanding the linkage between variability of local precipitation and global teleconnection patterns is essential for water resources management. Based on physical reasoning, indices of the climate drivers can provide a practical way of predicting precipitation. Due to high seasonal variability of precipitation, climate drivers of the seasonal precipitation also varies. However, few reports have gone through the teleconnections between large scale patterns with seasonal precipitation in the source region of Yangtze River. The objectives of this study are therefore (1) assessment of temporal trend and spatial variability of precipitation in the source region of Yangtze River; (2) identification of climate indices with strong influence on seasonal precipitation anomalies; (3) prediction of seasonal precipitation based on revealed climate indices. Principal component analysis and Spearman rank correlation were used to detect significant relationships. A feed-forward artificial neural network(ANN) was developed to predict seasonal precipitation using significant correlated climate indices. Different influencing climate indices were revealed for precipitation in each season, with significant level and lag times. Significant influencing factors were selected to be the predictors for ANN model. With correlation coefficients between observed and simulated precipitation over 0.5, the results were eligible to predict the precipitation of spring, summer and winter using teleconnections, which can improve integrated water resources management in the source region of Yangtze River.

  6. Regions of variability for a class of analytic and locally univalent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    f ′′(0) whenever f varies over the class C(A,B). Keywords. Janowski class; univalent functions; variability regions. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 30C45. 1. Introduction and preliminary results. Let C be the complex plane. We use the following notations for open and closed discs with center c and radius r in the ...

  7. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...

  8. Representing major soil variability at regional scale by constrained Latin Hypercube Sampling of remote sensing data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, V.L.; Bruin, de S.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a sparse, remote sensing-based sampling approach making use of conditioned Latin Hypercube Sampling (cLHS) to assess variability in soil properties at regional scale. The method optimizes the sampling scheme for a defined spatial population based on selected covariates, which are

  9. Optical photometric variable stars towards the Galactic H II region NGC 2282

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Somnath; Mondal, Soumen; Joshi, Santosh; Jose, Jessy; Das, Ramkrishna; Ghosh, Supriyo

    2018-05-01

    We report here CCD I-band time series photometry of a young (2-5 Myr) cluster NGC 2282, in order to identify and understand the variability of pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars. The I-band photometry, down to ˜20.5 mag, enables us to probe the variability towards the lower mass end (˜0.1 M⊙) of PMS stars. From the light curves of 1627 stars, we identified 62 new photometric variable candidates. Their association with the region was established from H α emission and infrared (IR) excess. Among 62 variables, 30 young variables exhibit H α emission, near-IR (NIR)/mid-IR (MIR) excess or both and are candidate members of the cluster. Out of 62 variables, 41 are periodic variables, with a rotation rate ranging from 0.2-7 d. The period distribution exhibits a median period at ˜1 d, as in many young clusters (e.g. NGC 2264, ONC, etc.), but it follows a unimodal distribution, unlike others that have bimodality, with slow rotators peaking at ˜6-8 d. To investigate the rotation-disc and variability-disc connection, we derived the NIR excess from Δ(I - K) and the MIR excess from Spitzer [3.6]-[4.5] μm data. No conclusive evidence of slow rotation with the presence of discs around stars and fast rotation for discless stars is obtained from our periodic variables. A clear increasing trend of the variability amplitude with IR excess is found for all variables.

  10. Tannat grape composition responses to spatial variability of temperature in an Uruguay's coastal wine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourment, Mercedes; Ferrer, Milka; González-Neves, Gustavo; Barbeau, Gérard; Bonnardot, Valérie; Quénol, Hervé

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variability of temperature was studied in relation to the berry basic composition and secondary compounds of the Tannat cultivar at harvest from vineyards located in Canelones and Montevideo, the most important wine region of Uruguay. Monitoring of berries and recording of temperature were performed in 10 commercial vineyards of Tannat situated in the southern coastal wine region of the country for three vintages (2012, 2013, and 2014). Results from a multivariate correlation analysis between berry composition and temperature over the three vintages showed that (1) Tannat responses to spatial variability of temperature were different over the vintages, (2) correlations between secondary metabolites and temperature were higher than those between primary metabolites, and (3) correlation values between berry composition and climate variables increased when ripening occurred under dry conditions (below average rainfall). For a particular studied vintage (2013), temperatures explained 82.5% of the spatial variability of the berry composition. Daily thermal amplitude was found to be the most important spatial mode of variability with lower values recorded at plots nearest to the sea and more exposed to La Plata River. The highest levels in secondary compounds were found in berries issued from plots situated as far as 18.3 km from La Plata River. The increasing knowledge of temperature spatial variability and its impact on grape berry composition contributes to providing possible issues to adapt grapevine to climate change.

  11. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  12. YSOVAR: Mid-infrared variability in the star-forming region Lynds 1688

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günther, H. M.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Hora, J. L. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Allen, L. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Bayo, A. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Meng, H. Y. A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morales-Calderón, M. [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Parks, J. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place South, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: hguenther@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The emission from young stellar objects (YSOs) in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) is dominated by the inner rim of their circumstellar disks. We present IR data from the Young Stellar Object VARiability (YSOVAR) survey of ∼800 objects in the direction of the Lynds 1688 (L1688) star-forming region over four visibility windows spanning 1.6 yr using the Spitzer Space Telescope in its warm mission phase. Among all light curves, 57 sources are cluster members identified based on their spectral energy distribution and X-ray emission. Almost all cluster members show significant variability. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Ten out of 57 cluster members have periodic variations in the light curves with periods typically between three and seven days, but even for those sources, significant variability in addition to the periodic signal can be seen. No period is stable over 1.6 yr. Nonperiodic light curves often still show a preferred timescale of variability that is longer for more embedded sources. About half of all sources exhibit redder colors in a fainter state. This is compatible with time-variable absorption toward the YSO. The other half becomes bluer when fainter. These colors can only be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. No relation between mid-IR variability and stellar effective temperature or X-ray spectrum is found.

  13. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  14. Internal and external variability in regional simulations of the Iberian Peninsula climate over the last millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Gómez-Navarro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyse the role of internal variability in regional climate simulations through a comparison of two regional paleoclimate simulations for the last millennium. They share the same external forcings and model configuration, differing only in the initial condition used to run the driving global model simulation. A comparison of these simulations allows us to study the role of internal variability in climate models at regional scales, and how it affects the long-term evolution of climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. The results indicate that, although temperature is homogeneously sensitive to the effect of external forcings, the evolution of precipitation is more strongly governed by random unpredictable internal dynamics. There are, however, some areas where the role of internal variability is lower than expected, allowing precipitation to respond to the external forcings. In this respect, we explore the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for it. This study identifies areas, depending on the season, in which a direct comparison between model simulations of precipitation and climate reconstructions would be meaningful, but also other areas where good agreement between them should not be expected even if both are perfect.

  15. High-resolution regional climate model evaluation using variable-resolution CESM over California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X.; Rhoades, A.; Ullrich, P. A.; Zarzycki, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the effect of climate change at regional scales remains a topic of intensive research. Though computational constraints remain a problem, high horizontal resolution is needed to represent topographic forcing, which is a significant driver of local climate variability. Although regional climate models (RCMs) have traditionally been used at these scales, variable-resolution global climate models (VRGCMs) have recently arisen as an alternative for studying regional weather and climate allowing two-way interaction between these domains without the need for nudging. In this study, the recently developed variable-resolution option within the Community Earth System Model (CESM) is assessed for long-term regional climate modeling over California. Our variable-resolution simulations will focus on relatively high resolutions for climate assessment, namely 28km and 14km regional resolution, which are much more typical for dynamically downscaled studies. For comparison with the more widely used RCM method, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model will be used for simulations at 27km and 9km. All simulations use the AMIP (Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project) protocols. The time period is from 1979-01-01 to 2005-12-31 (UTC), and year 1979 was discarded as spin up time. The mean climatology across California's diverse climate zones, including temperature and precipitation, is analyzed and contrasted with the Weather Research and Forcasting (WRF) model (as a traditional RCM), regional reanalysis, gridded observational datasets and uniform high-resolution CESM at 0.25 degree with the finite volume (FV) dynamical core. The results show that variable-resolution CESM is competitive in representing regional climatology on both annual and seasonal time scales. This assessment adds value to the use of VRGCMs for projecting climate change over the coming century and improve our understanding of both past and future regional climate related to fine

  16. Effects of Recent Regional Soil Moisture Variability on Global Net Ecosystem CO2 Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L. A.; Madani, N.; Kimball, J. S.; Reichle, R. H.; Colliander, A.

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture exerts a major regional control on the inter-annual variability of the global land sink for atmospheric CO2. In semi-arid regions, annual biomass production is closely coupled to variability in soil moisture availability, while in cold-season-affected regions, summer drought offsets the effects of advancing spring phenology. Availability of satellite solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) observations and improvements in atmospheric inversions has led to unprecedented ability to monitor atmospheric sink strength. However, discrepancies still exist between such top-down estimates as atmospheric inversion and bottom-up process and satellite driven models, indicating that relative strength, mechanisms, and interaction of driving factors remain poorly understood. We use soil moisture fields informed by Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) observations to compare recent (2015-2017) and historic (2000-2014) variability in net ecosystem land-atmosphere CO2 exchange (NEE). The operational SMAP Level 4 Carbon (L4C) product relates ground-based flux tower measurements to other bottom-up and global top-down estimates to underlying soil moisture and other driving conditions using data-assimilation-based SMAP Level 4 Soil Moisture (L4SM). Droughts in coastal Brazil, South Africa, Eastern Africa, and an anomalous wet period in Eastern Australia were observed by L4C. A seasonal seesaw pattern of below-normal sink strength at high latitudes relative to slightly above-normal sink strength for mid-latitudes was also observed. Whereas SMAP-based soil moisture is relatively informative for short-term temporal variability, soil moisture biases that vary in space and with season constrain the ability of the L4C estimates to accurately resolve NEE. Such biases might be caused by irrigation and plant-accessible ground-water. Nevertheless, SMAP L4C daily NEE estimates connect top-down estimates to variability of effective driving factors for accurate estimates of regional

  17. Uncertainties in Future Regional Sea Level Trends: How to Deal with the Internal Climate Variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Hu, A.; Deser, C.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2017-12-01

    Today, the Climate models (CM) are the main tools for forecasting sea level rise (SLR) at global and regional scales. The CM forecasts are accompanied by inherent uncertainties. Understanding and reducing these uncertainties is becoming a matter of increasing urgency in order to provide robust estimates of SLR impact on coastal societies, which need sustainable choices of climate adaptation strategy. These CM uncertainties are linked to structural model formulation, initial conditions, emission scenario and internal variability. The internal variability is due to complex non-linear interactions within the Earth Climate System and can induce diverse quasi-periodic oscillatory modes and long-term persistences. To quantify the effects of internal variability, most studies used multi-model ensembles or sea level projections from a single model ran with perturbed initial conditions. However, large ensembles are not generally available, or too small, and computationally expensive. In this study, we use a power-law scaling of sea level fluctuations, as observed in many other geophysical signals and natural systems, which can be used to characterize the internal climate variability. From this specific statistical framework, we (1) use the pre-industrial control run of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate System Model (NCAR-CCSM) to test the robustness of the power-law scaling hypothesis; (2) employ the power-law statistics as a tool for assessing the spread of regional sea level projections due to the internal climate variability for the 21st century NCAR-CCSM; (3) compare the uncertainties in predicted sea level changes obtained from a NCAR-CCSM multi-member ensemble simulations with estimates derived for power-law processes, and (4) explore the sensitivity of spatial patterns of the internal variability and its effects on regional sea level projections.

  18. Impact of region contouring variability on image-based focal therapy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Eli; Donaldson, Ian A.; Shah, Taimur T.; Hu, Yipeng; Ahmed, Hashim U.; Barratt, Dean C.

    2016-03-01

    Motivation: Focal therapy is an emerging low-morbidity treatment option for low-intermediate risk prostate cancer; however, challenges remain in accurately delivering treatment to specified targets and determining treatment success. Registered multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MPMRI) acquired before and after treatment can support focal therapy evaluation and optimization; however, contouring variability, when defining the prostate, the clinical target volume (CTV) and the ablation region in images, reduces the precision of quantitative image-based focal therapy evaluation metrics. To inform the interpretation and clarify the limitations of such metrics, we investigated inter-observer contouring variability and its impact on four metrics. Methods: Pre-therapy and 2-week-post-therapy standard-of-care MPMRI were acquired from 5 focal cryotherapy patients. Two clinicians independently contoured, on each slice, the prostate (pre- and post-treatment) and the dominant index lesion CTV (pre-treatment) in the T2-weighted MRI, and the ablated region (post-treatment) in the dynamic-contrast- enhanced MRI. For each combination of clinician contours, post-treatment images were registered to pre-treatment images using a 3D biomechanical-model-based registration of prostate surfaces, and four metrics were computed: the proportion of the target tissue region that was ablated and the target:ablated region volume ratio for each of two targets (the CTV and an expanded planning target volume). Variance components analysis was used to measure the contribution of each type of contour to the variance in the therapy evaluation metrics. Conclusions: 14-23% of evaluation metric variance was attributable to contouring variability (including 6-12% from ablation region contouring); reducing this variability could improve the precision of focal therapy evaluation metrics.

  19. Comparing the potential for identification of lactobacillus spp. of 16s rDNA variable regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riano Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Vanegas Lopez, Maria Consuelo; Gonzalez Garcia, Laura Natalia

    2013-01-01

    16s rDNA is used for bacterial identification because its variation rate between species allows differentiation. The gene for this ribosomal subunit has 9 variable regions and some of them give more information than others. We were interested in evaluating the potential for species identification of each region and their combinations. We extracted the V1 to V8 regions of 16s rDNA from different strains and species of Lactobacillus and analyzed them using STAP (ss-RNA Taxonomy Assigning Pipeline) and RDP (Ribosomal Database Project) multiclassifier packages. Phylogenetic trees obtained by maximum likelihood analyses were compared. Classification results show that many regions give the correct genus classification using RDP and STAP; however they are not enough to classify up to the level of species. V5V6 region presents the highest quantity of informative fragments but also present the highest rate of false negatives. V1V3 region presents the highest rate of true positives (species) using STAP and the region V5V8 in RDP (genus).The phylogenetic result shows that the reference topology could be obtained using different combination of regions as V1V3 and V1V8.The experimental validation was done using commercial strains from a probiotic tampon. Sequencing analysis show that the V1V3 region gives the same information and result as the complete 16s rDNA; the three isolated strains correspond to the strains indicated in the product. We conclude that the V1V3 region is the minimum required region to classify Lactobacillus spp. in the correct way and this region is useful in metagenomics to analyze probiotics samples.

  20. Two centuries of observed atmospheric variability and change over the North Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendel, Martin; van den Besselaar, Else; Hannachi, Abdel; Kent, Elizabeth; Lefebvre, Christiana; Rosenhagen, Gudrun; Schenk, Frederik; van der Schrier, Gerard; Woollings, Tim

    2016-04-01

    In the upcoming North Sea Region Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA), we present a synthesis of current knowledge about past, present and possible future climate change in the North Sea region. A climate change assessment from published scientific work has been conducted as a kind of regional IPCC report, and a book has been produced that will be published by Springer in 2016. In the framework of the NOSCCA project, we examine past and present studies of variability and changes in atmospheric variables within the North Sea region over the instrumental period, roughly the past 200 years, based on observations and reanalyses. The variables addressed in this presentation are large-scale circulation, pressure and wind, surface air temperature, precipitation and radiative properties (clouds, solar radiation, and sunshine duration). While air temperature over land, not unexpectedly, has increased everywhere in the North Sea region, with strongest trends in spring and in the north of the region, a precipitation increase has been observed in the north and a decrease in the south of the region. This pattern goes along with a north-eastward shift of storm tracks and is in agreement with climate model projections under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. For other variables, it is not obvious which part of the observed changes may be due to anthropogenic activities and which is internally forced. It remains also unclear to what extent atmospheric circulation over the North Sea region is influenced by distant factors, in particular Arctic sea-ice decline in recent decades. There are indications of an increase in the number of deep cyclones (but not in the total number of cyclones), while storminess since the late 19th century shows no robust trends. The persistence of circulation types appears to have increased over the last century, and consequently, there is an indication for 'more extreme' extreme events. However, changes in extreme weather events are difficult to assess

  1. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  2. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. De Vita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation.

    In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy, coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO.

    The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period.

    Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis.

    The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index.

    Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of

  3. Some aspects of regional flow of variable-density groundwater in crystalline basement rock of Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, C.I.; Andersson, Johan

    1991-12-01

    The distribution of saltwaters in the Baltic shield in Sweden is consistent with ongoing but incomplete Holocene flushing and depends on the geometry and connectivity of conductive structures at both regional and local scales, and on the surface topography. Numerical simulation of regional variable-density fluid flow during Holocene land-rise and coastal regression shows that the existence of any old saltwater, whether derived from submarine recharge in regions below Sweden's highest post-glacial coastline or geochemical processes, is an indication either of slow fluid movements through the bedrock over long times, or of long travel distances through fracture systems before arriving at measurement points. During the land-rise period, regional flow is not affected by the variable density of fluids in the upper few kilometers of the shield and the topography of the water table is the only driving force. The spatial distribution of meteoric flushing water and pre-Holocene waters may be complex, with the possibility of relatively fresh water in fracture zones below salty units even at depths of a few kilometers. The domination of the topographic driving force implies that deep saltwater is not necessarily stagnant, and significant saltwater flows may be expected to occur in well-connected horizons even at depth. Local topography variation and fracture zone location combine to create a complex flow field in which local topographic driving forces extend to considerable depth in some areas, whereas regional topographic forces predominate in others. Thus, a pattern may be difficult to discern in measurements of the regional saltwater distribution, although it is clear that the coastal region is the major zone of discharge for deeper pre-Holocene fluids. During the land-rise period, regional flow equilibrates with changing climatic conditions and coastal positions, while the distribution of flushing water and older waters lags and will perpetually change between successive

  4. Climatological variability in modeling of long-term regional transport and deposition of air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In a growing number of emission policy analyses, regulatory proceedings, and cost/benefit assessments, numerical models of long-range transport and deposition of air pollutants have been exercised to estimate source-receptor (S-R) relationships--for the particular meteorological conditions input to the model. The representativeness of the meteorological conditions, or the variability of the model estimates with climatological input from different years or corresponding seasons from different years, is seldom evaluated. Here, two full years (1980 and 1981) of meteorological data, as well as data from January and July of 1978, are used in the Advanced Statistical Trajectory Regional Air Pollution (ASTRAP) model (Shannon, 1981), one of the eight Memorandum of Intent (MOI) models, to estimate deposition for the S-R matrix combination of eleven source regions and nine receptors used in the MOI reports. (S-R matrices of dimensions 40 by 9 were also examined in the MOI reports.) Improvements in the ASTRAP model and in the emission inventory since the earlier work require recalculation of the two-month 1978 simulation in order for the comparison to isolate the effect of meteorological variability. The source regions are listed, and the receptor regions are provide. For completeness, an additional source region, the western states and provinces, has been added, as well as a total for the 48 contiguous states and 10 provinces. 4 references, 9 tables

  5. An observational and modeling study of the regional impacts of climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Radley M.

    Climate variability has large impacts on humans and their agricultural systems. Farmers are at the center of this agricultural network, but it is often agricultural planners---regional planners, extension agents, commodity groups and cooperatives---that translate climate information for users. Global climate models (GCMs) are a leading tool for understanding and predicting climate and climate change. Armed with climate projections and forecasts, agricultural planners adapt their decision-making to optimize outcomes. This thesis explores what GCMs can, and cannot, tell us about climate variability and change at regional scales. The question is important, since high-quality regional climate projections could assist farmers and regional planners in key management decisions, contributing to better agricultural outcomes. To answer these questions, climate variability and its regional impacts are explored in observations and models for the current and future climate. The goals are to identify impacts of observed variability, assess model simulation of variability, and explore how climate variability and its impacts may change under enhanced greenhouse warming. Chapter One explores how well Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) atmospheric models, forced by historical sea surface temperatures (SST), simulate climatology and large-scale features during the exceptionally strong 1997--1999 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle. Reasonable performance in this 'proof of concept' test is considered a minimum requirement for further study of variability in models. All model versions produce appropriate local changes with ENSO, indicating that with correct ocean temperatures these versions are capable of simulating the large-scale effects of ENSO around the globe. A high vertical resolution model (VHR) provides the best simulation. Evidence is also presented that SST anomalies outside the tropical Pacific may play a key role in generating remote teleconnections even

  6. Radio-continuum jets around the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report new radio-continuum observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA of the region surrounding the peculiar galaxy pair ESO 295-IG022 at the centre of the poor cluster Abell S0102. We observed this cluster at wavelengths of λ=20/13 and 6/3 cm with the ATCA 6 km array. With these configurations, we achieved a resolution of ~2'' at 3 cm which is sufficient to resolve the jet-like structure of ~3' length detected at 20 cm. From our new high resolution images at 6 and 3 cm we confirm the presence of a double jet structure, most likely originating from the northern galaxy (ESO 295-IG022-N, bent and twisted towards the south. We found the spectral index of the jet to be very steep (α=-1.32. No point source was detected that could be associated with the core of ESO 295-IG022-N. On the other hand, ESO 295-IG022-S does not show any jet structure, but does show a point radio source. This source has variable flux and spectral index, and appears to be superposed on the line-of-sight of the jets (seen at 20-cm originating from the northern galaxy ESO 295-IG022-N. Finally, regions of very high and somewhat well ordered polarization were detected at the level of 70%.

  7. Life-history strategies associated with local population variability confer regional stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribil, Stanislav; Houlahan, Jeff E

    2003-07-07

    A widely held ecological tenet is that, at the local scale, populations of K-selected species (i.e. low fecundity, long lifespan and large body size) will be less variable than populations of r-selected species (i.e. high fecundity, short lifespan and small body size). We examined the relationship between long-term population trends and life-history attributes for 185 bird species in the Czech Republic and found that, at regional spatial scales and over moderate temporal scales (100-120 years), K-selected bird species were more likely to show both large increases and decreases in population size than r-selected species. We conclude that life-history attributes commonly associated with variable populations at the local scale, confer stability at the regional scale.

  8. Constancy despite variability: Local and regional macrofaunal diversity in intertidal seagrass beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Aurélien; Legendre, Pierre; Grall, Jacques; Gauthier, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    The importance of seagrass habitat for the diversity of benthic fauna has been extensively studied worldwide. Most of the information available is, however, about α diversity while little consideration has been given to β diversity. To fill the knowledge gaps regarding the variability of epifaunal and infaunal seagrass assemblages at large spatial and temporal scales, we scrutinized an extensive dataset covering five years of monitoring of eight intertidal Zostera marina meadows around Brittany (France). High species richness arose at the regional scale from the combination of high local diversity of the meadows and substantial among-meadows β diversity. Epifauna and infauna appeared as distinct self-communities as they displayed different spatial and temporal patterns and varied in their responses to local hydrological conditions. Infauna had higher total β diversity than epifauna due to a tighter link to the great variability of local environmental conditions in the region. Both exhibited substantial variations in species composition and community structure with variations of dominant species that were accompanied by extensive change in numerous rare species. The dominant epifaunal species were all grazers. Changes in species composition were induced mostly by species replacement and rarely by richness differences between meadows. Indeed, species richness remained within a narrow range for all seagrass beds, suggesting a potential carrying capacity for species richness of the meadows. Overall, all meadows contributed equally to the regional turnover of seagrass macrofauna, emphasizing high variability and complementarity among beds at the regional scale. The implications of this substantial within-seagrass variability for the functioning of benthic ecosystems at broad scale and for conservation purposes in habitat mosaics warrant further investigations but our results clearly advocate taking into account within-habitat variation when evaluating the diversity

  9. Continental and Marine Environmental changes in Europe induced by Global Climate variability and Regional Paleogeography Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu , Speranta - Maria

    2008-01-01

    version originale; My PhD and post-doctorate researches have focused on paleoclimatic, paleogeographical and paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Mediterranean Basin and its adjacent seas (i.e. the residual former Paratethys) since 11 Ma. During this time-interval the Mediterranean marine and continental environments were affected by significant paleogeographic changes, forced by global climate and sea-level variability, plate tectonics and regional uplift of Alps s.l. and Carpathians. Tw...

  10. Long-term Variability of H2CO Masers in Star-forming Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, N.; Araya, E. D.; Hoffman, I. M.; Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Linz, H.; Olmi, L.; Lorran-Costa, I.

    2017-10-01

    We present results of a multi-epoch monitoring program on variability of 6 cm formaldehyde (H2CO) masers in the massive star-forming region NGC 7538 IRS 1 from 2008 to 2015, conducted with the Green Bank Telescope, the Westerbork Radio Telescope , and the Very Large Array. We found that the similar variability behaviors of the two formaldehyde maser velocity components in NGC 7538 IRS 1 (which was pointed out by Araya and collaborators in 2007) have continued. The possibility that the variability is caused by changes in the maser amplification path in regions with similar morphology and kinematics is discussed. We also observed 12.2 GHz methanol and 22.2 GHz water masers toward NGC 7538 IRS 1. The brightest maser components of CH3OH and H2O species show a decrease in flux density as a function of time. The brightest H2CO maser component also shows a decrease in flux density and has a similar LSR velocity to the brightest H2O and 12.2 GHz CH3OH masers. The line parameters of radio recombination lines and the 20.17 and 20.97 GHz CH3OH transitions in NGC 7538 IRS 1 are also reported. In addition, we observed five other 6 cm formaldehyde maser regions. We found no evidence of significant variability of the 6 cm masers in these regions with respect to previous observations, the only possible exception being the maser in G29.96-0.02. All six sources were also observed in the {{{H}}}213{CO} isotopologue transition of the 6 cm H2CO line; {{{H}}}213{CO} absorption was detected in five of the sources. Estimated column density ratios [{{{H}}}212{CO}]/[{{{H}}}213{CO}] are reported.

  11. Near-surface wind variability over the broader Adriatic region: insights from an ensemble of regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belušić, Andreina; Prtenjak, Maja Telišman; Güttler, Ivan; Ban, Nikolina; Leutwyler, David; Schär, Christoph

    2018-06-01

    Over the past few decades the horizontal resolution of regional climate models (RCMs) has steadily increased, leading to a better representation of small-scale topographic features and more details in simulating dynamical aspects, especially in coastal regions and over complex terrain. Due to its complex terrain, the broader Adriatic region represents a major challenge to state-of-the-art RCMs in simulating local wind systems realistically. The objective of this study is to identify the added value in near-surface wind due to the refined grid spacing of RCMs. For this purpose, we use a multi-model ensemble composed of CORDEX regional climate simulations at 0.11° and 0.44° grid spacing, forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis, a COSMO convection-parameterizing simulation at 0.11° and a COSMO convection-resolving simulation at 0.02° grid spacing. Surface station observations from this region and satellite QuikSCAT data over the Adriatic Sea have been compared against daily output obtained from the available simulations. Both day-to-day wind and its frequency distribution are examined. The results indicate that the 0.44° RCMs rarely outperform ERA-Interim reanalysis, while the performance of the high-resolution simulations surpasses that of ERA-Interim. We also disclose that refining the grid spacing to a few km is needed to properly capture the small-scale wind systems. Finally, we show that the simulations frequently yield the accurate angle of local wind regimes, such as for the Bora flow, but overestimate the associated wind magnitude. Finally, spectral analysis shows good agreement between measurements and simulations, indicating the correct temporal variability of the wind speed.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from west Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đan Mihajla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wild boar (Sus scrofa is one of most abundant game species in hunting areas of Balkan region. The large fraction of pre-glacial genetic diversity in wild boar populations from the Balkans was addressed due to high proportion of unique mtDNA haplotypes found in Greece, indicating Balkan as main refugial area for wild boars. The aim of the present study is to characterize mitochondrial DNA control region variability in wild boars from different areas in the West Balkan region, in order to evaluate level of genetic variability, to detect unique haplotypes and to infer possible structuring. The total number of 163 individuals from different sampling localities were included in the study. A fragment of the mtDNA control region was amplified and sequenced by standard procedures. Population genetic analyses were performed using several computer packages: BioEdit, ARLEQUIN 3.5.1.2., Network 4.6.0.0 and MEGA5. Eleven different haplotypes were identified and haplotype diversity was 0.676, nucleotide diversity 0.0026, and the average number of nucleotide differences (k 1.169. The mismatch distribution and neutrality tests indicated the expansion of the all populations. It is shown that high level of genetic diversity is present in the wild boars from the West Balkan region and we have managed to detect regional unique haplotypes in high frequency. Genetic diversity differences have been found in regional wild boar groups, clustering them in two main clusters, but further speculations on the reasons for the observed clustering are prevented due to restricted informativness of the single locus marker. Obtained knowledge of genetic variation in the wild boar may be relevant for improving knowledge of the phylogeny and phylogeography of the wild boars, but as well as for hunting societies and responsible authorities for the effective control of wild boar populations.

  13. Recombinant human B7.2 IgV-like domain expressed in bacteria maintains its co-stimulatory activity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaocai; Ma, Jun; Zheng, Jin; Lai, Baochang; Geng, Yiping; Wang, Yili; Si, Lüsheng

    2002-07-01

    To investigate which of the two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domains, the immunoglobulin variable region homologous domain IgV (hB7.2 IgV) and the immunoglobulin constant region homologous domain IgC (hB7.2 IgC) on the human B7.2 molecule contains receptor binding sites, and to evaluate whether the B7.2 protein expressed in bacteria has biological activity in vitro. Three fragments of hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and the complete extracellular region of human B7.2 containing both the IgV and IgC domains,hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were amplified by PCR and subcloned into pGEM-Teasy. Three recombinants,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgV,pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 IgC and pGEX-4T-3-hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were generated by cloning the fragments into a prokaryote expression plasmid (pGEX-4T-3) and transformed into the host strain E. coli DH5alpha. The relevant target fusion proteins consisting of GST and hB7.2 IgV,hB7.2 IgC and hB7.2 Ig (V+C), were identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. With the presence of the first signal imitated by anti-CD3 antibody, T cell activation was observed by exposing purified T lymphocytes to each soluble form of the three bacterially-produced human B7.2 fusion proteins by [(3)H]-TdR incorporation. Three recombinant fusion proteins of human B7.2, GST-hB7.2 IgV, GST-hB7.2 IgC and GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) were produced and detected in inclusion body form from engineered bacteria. With the first signal present,T lymphocytes proliferated when co-stimulated by bacterially-produced either GST-hB7.2 Ig (V+C) or GST-hB7.2 IgV fusion proteins, but not by GST-hB7.2 IgC. Functional human B7.2 fusion protein can be produced in bacteria. The IgV-like domain of human B7.2 is sufficient for B7.2 to interact with its counter-receptors and co-stimulate T lymphocytes.

  14. The terroir of vineyards - climatic variability in an Austrian wine-growing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerersdorfer, T.

    2010-09-01

    The description of a terroir is a concept in viticulture that relates the sensory attributes of wine to the environmental conditions in which the grapes grow. Many factors are involved including climate, soil, cultivar, human practices and all these factors interact manifold. The study area of Carnuntum is a small wine-growing region in the eastern part of Austria. It is rich of Roman remains which play a major role in tourism and the marketing strategies of the wines as well. An interdisciplinary study on the environmental characteristics particularly with regard to growing conditions of grapes was started in this region. The study is concerned with the description of the physiogeographic properties of the region and with the investigation of the dominating viticultural functions. Grape-vines depend on climatic conditions to a high extent. Compared to other influencing factors like soil, climate plays a significant role. In the framework of this interdisciplinary project climatic variability within the Carnuntum wine-growing region is investigated. On the one hand microclimatic variations are influenced by soil type and by canopy management. On the other hand the variability is a result of the topoclimate (altitude, aspect and slope) and therefore relief is a major terroir factor. Results of microclimatic measurements and variations are presented with focus on the interpretation of the relationship between relief, structure of the vineyards and the climatic conditions within the course of a full year period.

  15. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  16. Multi-region and single-cell sequencing reveal variable genomic heterogeneity in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingshan; Liu, Yang; Di, Jiabo; Su, Zhe; Yang, Hong; Jiang, Beihai; Wang, Zaozao; Zhuang, Meng; Bai, Fan; Su, Xiangqian

    2017-11-23

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous group of malignancies with complex molecular subtypes. While colon cancer has been widely investigated, studies on rectal cancer are very limited. Here, we performed multi-region whole-exome sequencing and single-cell whole-genome sequencing to examine the genomic intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) of rectal tumors. We sequenced nine tumor regions and 88 single cells from two rectal cancer patients with tumors of the same molecular classification and characterized their mutation profiles and somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) at the multi-region and the single-cell levels. A variable extent of genomic heterogeneity was observed between the two patients, and the degree of ITH increased when analyzed on the single-cell level. We found that major SCNAs were early events in cancer development and inherited steadily. Single-cell sequencing revealed mutations and SCNAs which were hidden in bulk sequencing. In summary, we studied the ITH of rectal cancer at regional and single-cell resolution and demonstrated that variable heterogeneity existed in two patients. The mutational scenarios and SCNA profiles of two patients with treatment naïve from the same molecular subtype are quite different. Our results suggest each tumor possesses its own architecture, which may result in different diagnosis, prognosis, and drug responses. Remarkable ITH exists in the two patients we have studied, providing a preliminary impression of ITH in rectal cancer.

  17. Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, H.W. Jr.; Walter, M.A.; Hofker, M.H.; Ebens, A.; Van Dijk, K.W.; Liao, L.C.; Cox, D.W.; Milner, E.C.B.; Perlmutter, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Antibody genes are assembled from a series of germ-line gene segments that are juxtaposed during the maturation of B lymphocytes. Although diversification of the adult antibody repertoire results in large part from the combinatorial joining of these gene segments, a restricted set of antibody heavy chain variable (V H ), diversity (D H ), and joining (J H ) region gene segments appears preferentially in the human fetal repertoire. The authors report here that one of these early-expressed V H elements (termed V H 6) is the most 3' V H gene segment, positioned 77 kilobases on the 5' side of the J H locus and immediately adjacent to a set of previously described D H sequences. In addition to providing a physical map linking human V H , D H , and J H elements, these results support the view that the programmed development of the antibody V H repertoire is determined in part by the chromosomal position of these gene segments

  18. YSOVAR: MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY AMONG YSOs IN THE STAR FORMATION REGION GGD12-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolk, Scott J.; Günther, H. Moritz; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Forbrich, J. [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Cody, A. M. [NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 244-5 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Rebull, L. M.; Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Hillenbrand, L. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plavchan, P. [Department of Physics Astronomy and Materials Science, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897 (United States); Covey, K. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA 98225-9164 (United States); Song, Inseok, E-mail: swolk@cfa.harvard.edu [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    We present an IR-monitoring survey with the Spitzer Space Telescope of the star-forming region GGD 12-15. More than 1000 objects were monitored, including about 350 objects within the central 5′, which is found to be especially dense in cluster members. The monitoring took place over 38 days and is part of the Young Stellar Object VARiability project. The region was also the subject of a contemporaneous 67 ks Chandra observation. The field includes 119 previously identified pre-main sequence star candidates. X-rays are detected from 164 objects, 90 of which are identified with cluster members. Overall, we find that about half the objects in the central 5′ are young stellar objects (YSOs) based on a combination of their spectral energy distribution, IR variability, and X-ray emission. Most of the stars with IR excess relative to a photosphere show large amplitude (>0.1 mag) mid-infrared (mid-IR) variability. There are 39 periodic sources, and all but one is found to be a cluster member. Almost half of the periodic sources do not show IR excesses. Overall, more than 85% of the Class I, flat spectrum, and Class II sources are found to vary. The amplitude of the variability is larger in more embedded YSOs. Most of the Class I/II objects exhibit redder colors in a fainter state, which is compatible with time-variable extinction. A few become bluer when fainter, which can be explained with significant changes in the structure of the inner disk. A search for changes in the IR due to X-ray events is carried out, but the low number of flares prevented an analysis of the direct impact of X-ray flares on the IR light curves. However, we find that X-ray detected Class II sources have longer timescales for change in the MIR than a similar set of non-X-ray detected Class IIs.

  19. Regional and landscape-scale variability of Landsat-observed vegetation dynamics in northwest Siberian tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E; Walker, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Widespread increases in Arctic tundra productivity have been documented for decades using coarse-scale satellite observations, but finer-scale observations indicate that changes have been very uneven, with a high degree of landscape- and regional-scale heterogeneity. Here we analyze time-series of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) observed by Landsat (1984–2012), to assess landscape- and regional-scale variability of tundra vegetation dynamics in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic, a little-studied region with varied soils, landscape histories, and permafrost attributes. We also estimate spatio-temporal rates of land-cover change associated with expansion of tall alder (Alnus) shrublands, by integrating Landsat time-series with very-high-resolution imagery dating to the mid-1960s. We compiled Landsat time-series for eleven widely-distributed landscapes, and performed linear regression of NDVI values on a per-pixel basis. We found positive net NDVI trends (‘greening’) in nine of eleven landscapes. Net greening occurred in alder shrublands in all landscapes, and strong greening tended to correspond to shrublands that developed since the 1960s. Much of the spatial variability of greening within landscapes was linked to landscape physiography and permafrost attributes, while between-landscape variability largely corresponded to differences in surficial geology. We conclude that continued increases in tundra productivity in the region are likely in upland tundra landscapes with fine-textured, cryoturbated soils; these areas currently tend to support discontinuous vegetation cover, but are highly susceptible to rapid increases in vegetation cover, as well as land-cover changes associated with the development of tall shrublands. (paper)

  20. Common variable immunodeficiency in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaminio, M Julia B F; LaCombe, Veronique; Kohn, Catherine W; Antczak, Douglas F

    2002-11-01

    A 12-year-old Quarter Horse mare that was nonresponsive to medical treatment was evaluated for chronic respiratory disease and hepatobiliary disease. Serum immunoglobulin concentrations were measured by use of radial immunodiffusion that revealed trace to nondetectable concentrations of IgG, IgG(T), IgM, and IgA. Use of serum protein electrophoresis confirmed agammaglobulinemia by the absence of the expected peak in the gamma region. In addition, vaccination with tetanus toxoid did not result in specific immunoglobulin production. Flow cytometric analysis of blood lymphocyte subpopulations revealed the absence of B cells in blood. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections revealed the absence of B lymphocytes in bone marrow and spleen, with occasional B cells in the peripheral lymph nodes. Blood lymphocyte proliferation assays revealed weak responses to pokeweed mitogen and no response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Considering the age and sex of the horse, results of the immunologic tests suggested a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency.

  1. Immunoglobulin diversification in B cell malignancies: internal splicing of heavy chain variable region as a by-product of somatic hypermutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bende, R. J.; Aarts, W. M.; Pals, S. T.; van Noesel, C. J. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study we describe alternative splicing of somatically mutated immunoglobulin (Ig) variable heavy chain (V-H) genes in three distinct primary B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHL). In two V4-34 expressing lymphomas, ie a post-germinal center type B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL)

  2. Intraseasonal variability of organized convective systems in the Central Andes: Relationship to Regional Dynamical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, K. I.; Slayback, D. A.; Nicholls, S.; Yager, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes extend from the west coast of Colombia (10N) to the southern tip of Chile (53S). In southern Peru and Bolivia, the Central Andes is split into separate eastern and western cordilleras, with a high plateau (≥ 3000 m), the Altiplano, between them. Because 90% of the Earth's tropical mountain glaciers are located in the Central Andes, our study focuses on this region, defining its zonal extent as 7S-21S and the meridional extent as the terrain 1000 m and greater. Although intense convection occurs during the wet season in the Altiplano, it is not included in the lists of regions with frequent or the most intense convection. The scarcity of in-situ observations with sufficient density and temporal resolution to resolve individual storms or even mesoscale-organized cloud systems and documented biases in microwave-based rainfall products in poorly gauged mountainous regions have impeded the development of an extensive literature on convection and convective systems in this region. With the tropical glaciers receding at unprecedented rates, leaving seasonal precipitation as an increasingly important input to the water balance in alpine valley ecosystems and streams, understanding the nature and characteristics of the seasonal precipitation becomes increasingly important for the rural economies in this region. Previous work in analyzing precipitation in the Central Andes has emphasized interannual variability with respect to ENSO, this is the first study to focus on shorter scale variability with respect to organized convection. The present study took advantage of the University of Utah's Precipitation Features database compiled from 14 years of TRMM observations (1998-2012), supplemented by field observations of rainfall and streamflow, historical gauge data, and long-term WRF-simulations, to analyze the intraseasonal variability of precipitating systems and their relationship regional dynamical features such as the Bolivian High. Through time series and

  3. Generation and characterization of antibodies against Asian elephant (Elephas maximus IgG, IgM, and IgA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F Humphreys

    Full Text Available Asian elephant (Elephas maximus immunity is poorly characterized and understood. This gap in knowledge is particularly concerning as Asian elephants are an endangered species threatened by a newly discovered herpesvirus known as elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV, which is the leading cause of death for captive Asian elephants born after 1980 in North America. While reliable diagnostic assays have been developed to detect EEHV DNA, serological assays to evaluate elephant anti-EEHV antibody responses are lacking and will be needed for surveillance and epidemiological studies and also for evaluating potential treatments or vaccines against lethal EEHV infection. Previous studies have shown that Asian elephants produce IgG in serum, but they failed to detect IgM and IgA, further hampering development of informative serological assays for this species. To begin to address this issue, we determined the constant region genomic sequence of Asian elephant IgM and obtained some limited protein sequence information for putative serum IgA. The information was used to generate or identify specific commercial antisera reactive against IgM and IgA isotypes. In addition, we generated a monoclonal antibody against Asian elephant IgG. These three reagents were used to demonstrate that all three immunoglobulin isotypes are found in Asian elephant serum and milk and to detect antibody responses following tetanus toxoid booster vaccination or antibodies against a putative EEHV structural protein. The results indicate that these new reagents will be useful for developing sensitive and specific assays to detect and characterize elephant antibody responses for any pathogen or vaccine, including EEHV.

  4. A shark antibody heavy chain encoded by a nonsomatically rearranged VDJ is preferentially expressed in early development and is convergent with mammalian IgG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, L L; Avila, D; Diaz, M; Bartl, S; McKinney, E C; Flajnik, M F

    2001-02-13

    In most vertebrate embryos and neonates studied to date unique antigen receptors (antibodies and T cell receptors) are expressed that possess a limited immune repertoire. We have isolated a subclass of IgM, IgM(1gj), from the nurse shark Ginglymostoma cirratum that is preferentially expressed in neonates. The variable (V) region gene encoding the heavy (H) chain underwent V-D-J rearrangement in germ cells ("germline-joined"). Such H chain V genes were discovered over 10 years ago in sharks but until now were not shown to be expressed at appreciable levels; we find expression of H(1gj) in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues early in life, but in adults only in primary lymphoid tissue, which is identified in this work as the epigonal organ. H(1gj) chain associates covalently with light (L) chains and is most similar in sequence to IgM H chains, but like mammalian IgG has three rather than the four IgM constant domains; deletion of the ancestral IgM C2 domain thus defines both IgG and IgM(1gj). Because sharks are the members of the oldest vertebrate class known to possess antibodies, unique or specialized antibodies expressed early in ontogeny in sharks and other vertebrates were likely present at the inception of the adaptive immune system.

  5. Changes of extreme precipitation and nonlinear influence of climate variables over monsoon region in China

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Tao

    2017-07-19

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) are well understood to be major drivers for the variability of precipitation extremes over monsoon regions in China (MRC). However, research on monsoon extremes in China and their associations with climate variables is limited. In this study, we examine the space-time variations of extreme precipitation across the MRC, and assess the time-varying influences of the climate drivers using Bayesian dynamic linear regression and their combined nonlinear effects through fitting generalized additive models. Results suggest that the central-east and south China is dominated by less frequent but more intense precipitation. Extreme rainfalls show significant positive trends, coupled with a significant decline of dry spells, indicating an increasing chance of occurrence of flood-induced disasters in the MRC during 1960–2014. Majority of the regional indices display some abrupt shifts during the 1990s. The influences of climate variables on monsoon extremes exhibit distinct interannual or interdecadal variations. IOD, ENSO and AMO have strong impacts on monsoon and extreme precipitation, especially during the 1990s, which is generally consistent with the abrupt shifts in precipitation regimes around this period. Moreover, ENSO mainly affects moderate rainfalls and dry spells, while IOD has a more significant impact on precipitation extremes. These findings could be helpful for improving the forecasting of monsoon extremes in China and the evaluations of climate models.

  6. Functional Versatility of AGY Serine Codons in Immunoglobulin Variable Region Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Detanico

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In systemic autoimmunity, autoantibodies directed against nuclear antigens (Ag often arise by somatic hypermutation (SHM that converts AGT and AGC (AGY Ser codons into Arg codons. This can occur by three different single-base changes. Curiously, AGY Ser codons are far more abundant in complementarity-determining regions (CDRs of IgV-region genes than expected for random codon use or from species-specific codon frequency data. CDR AGY codons are also more abundant than TCN Ser codons. We show that these trends hold even in cartilaginous fishes. Because AGC is a preferred target for SHM by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, we asked whether the AGY abundance was solely due to a selection pressure to conserve high mutability in CDRs regardless of codon context but found that this was not the case. Instead, AGY triplets were selectively enriched in the Ser codon reading frame. Motivated by reports implicating a functional role for poly/autoreactive specificities in anti-viral antibodies, we also analyzed mutations at AGY in antibodies directed against a number of different viruses, and found that mutations producing Arg codons in anti-viral antibodies were indeed frequent. Unexpectedly, however, we also found that AGY codons mutated often to encode nearly all of the amino acids that are reported to provide the most frequent contacts with antigen (Ag. In many cases, mutations producing codons for these alternative amino acids in anti-viral antibodies were more frequent than those producing Arg codons. Mutations producing each of these key amino acids required only single-base changes in AGY. AGY is the only codon group in which 2/3rds of random mutations generate codons for these key residues. Finally, by directly analyzing x-ray structures of immune complexes from the RCSB protein database, we found that Ag-contact residues generated via somatic hypermutation occurred more often at AGY than at any other codon group. Thus, preservation of

  7. Use of variability modes to evaluate AR4 climate models over the Euro-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casado, M.J.; Pastor, M.A. [Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-01-15

    This paper analyzes the ability of the multi-model simulations from the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to simulate the main leading modes of variability over the Euro-Atlantic region in winter: the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian mode (SCAND), the East/Atlantic Oscillation (EA) and the East Atlantic/Western Russia mode (EA/WR). These modes of variability have been evaluated both spatially, by analyzing the intensity and location of their anomaly centres, as well as temporally, by focusing on the probability density functions and e-folding time scales. The choice of variability modes as a tool for climate model assessment can be justified by the fact that modes of variability determine local climatic conditions and their likely change may have important implications for future climate changes. It is found that all the models considered are able to simulate reasonably well these four variability modes, the SCAND being the mode which is best spatially simulated. From a temporal point of view the NAO and SCAND modes are the best simulated. UKMO-HadGEM1 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the models best at reproducing spatial characteristics, whereas CCSM3 and CGCM3.1(T63) are the best ones with regard to the temporal features. GISS-AOM is the model showing the worst performance, in terms of both spatial and temporal features. These results may bring new insight into the selection and use of specific models to simulate Euro-Atlantic climate, with some models being clearly more successful in simulating patterns of temporal and spatial variability than others. (orig.)

  8. Variability of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the southern hemisphere: a regional perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H.; Hendon, H. H.; Lim, E.-P.; Boschat, G.; Maloney, E.; Timbal, B.

    2018-01-01

    In order to understand the regional impacts of variations in the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere, regional Hadley circulations are defined in three sectors centered on the main tropical heat sources over Africa, Asia-Pacific (Maritime Continent) and the Americas. These regional circulations are defined by computing a streamfunction from the divergent component of the meridional wind. A major finding from this study is that year-to-year variability in the extent of the hemispheric Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere is primarily governed by variations of the extent of the Hadley circulation in the Asia-Pacific sector, especially during austral spring and summer when there is little co-variability with the African sector, and the American sector exhibits an out of phase behavior. An expanded Hadley circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (both hemispherically and in the Asia-Pacific sector) is associated with La Niña conditions and a poleward expansion of the tropical wet zone in the Asia-Pacific sector. While La Niña also promotes expansion in the American and African sectors during austral winter, these tropical conditions tend to promote contraction in the two sectors during austral summer as a result of compensating convergence over the Americas and Africa sectors: a process driven by variations in the Walker circulation and Rossby wave trains emanating from the tropical Indian Ocean.

  9. Determination of Antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma gondii in Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pedram

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was determination of antibodies (IgG, IgM against Toxoplasma in malignant patients in order to refer the patients on time to the physician for treatment.Methods: This study was carried out on 252 malignant patients and 252 healthy normal subjects (as control obtained from Shafa Hospital and Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (Iran-Zamin, in Ahwaz city. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. Serum samples of patients were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies by ELISA technique using Trinity kits. Results: The results of this study revealed the presence of Toxoplasma antibodies in 114 (45.2% cases of patients who were positive for Toxoplasma IgG antibodies, and 26 (10.3% cases were confirmed to be positive for Toxoplasma IgM antibodies and also 17 (6.7% of cases had both IgG and IgM antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. In control group 92 (36.5% cases and 15 (6% cases revealed seropositive for IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. There were no significant differences between sex, close contact with cat, living region, chemotherapy, and seropositivity rate of toxoplasmosis in patients. Comparing the age groups, the highest seropositive rate showed in the age of 51 years or higher, and their rates had tendency to increase with age in both groups. No seropositivity significant relationship was found between patients and control group.Conclusion: According to the prevalence of positive cases in these patients, it is necessary to examine the patients for toxoplasmosis before, during and after chemotherapy.

  10. Role of climate variability in the heatstroke death rates of Kanto region in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akihiko, Takaya; Morioka, Yushi; Behera, Swadhin K.

    2014-07-01

    The death toll by heatstroke in Japan, especially in Kanto region, has sharply increased since 1994 together with large interannual variability. The surface air temperature and humidity observed during boreal summers of 1980-2010 were examined to understand the role of climate in the death toll. The extremely hot days, when the daily maximum temperature exceeds 35°C, are more strongly associated with the death toll than the conventional Wet Bulb Globe Temperature index. The extremely hot days tend to be associated with El Niño/Southern Oscillation or the Indian Ocean Dipole, suggesting a potential link with tropical climate variability to the heatstroke related deaths. Also, the influence of these climate modes on the death toll has strengthened since 1994 probably related to global warming. It is possible to develop early warning systems based on seasonal climate predictions since recent climate models show excellent predictability skills for those climate modes.

  11. Climate related diseases. Current regional variability and projections to the year 2100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażejczyk Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The health of individuals and societies depends on different factors including atmospheric conditions which influence humans in direct and indirect ways. The paper presents regional variability of some climate related diseases (CRD in Poland: salmonellosis intoxications, Lyme boreliosis, skin cancers (morbidity and mortality, influenza, overcooling deaths, as well as respiratory and circulatory mortality. The research consisted of two stages: 1 statistical modelling basing on past data and 2 projections of CRD for three SRES scenarios of climate change (A1B, A2, B1 to the year 2100. Several simple and multiply regression models were found for the relationships between climate variables and CRD. The models were applied to project future levels of CRD. At the end of 21st century we must expect increase in: circulatory mortality, Lyme boreliosis infections and skin cancer morbidity and mortality. There is also projected decrease in: respiratory mortality, overcooling deaths and influenza infections.

  12. Using a predictive model to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in streamflow permanence across the Pacific Northwest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, K. L.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed the PRObability Of Streamflow PERmanence (PROSPER) model, a GIS-based empirical model that provides predictions of the annual probability of a stream channel having year-round flow (Streamflow permanence probability; SPP) for any unregulated and minimally-impaired stream channel in the Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho, western Montana). The model provides annual predictions for 2004-2016 at a 30-m spatial resolution based on monthly or annually updated values of climatic conditions, and static physiographic variables associated with the upstream basin. Prediction locations correspond to the channel network consistent with the National Hydrography Dataset stream grid and are publicly available through the USGS StreamStats platform (https://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/). In snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative predictor variable was mean upstream snow water equivalent on May 1, which highlights the influence of late spring snow cover for supporting streamflow in mountain river networks. In non-snowmelt-driven systems, the most informative variable was mean annual precipitation. Streamflow permanence probabilities varied across the study area by geography and from year-to-year. Notably lower SPP corresponded to the climatically drier subregions of the study area. Higher SPP were concentrated in coastal and higher elevation mountain regions. In addition, SPP appeared to trend with average hydroclimatic conditions, which were also geographically coherent. The year-to-year variability lends support for the growing recognition of the spatiotemporal dynamism of streamflow permanence. An analysis of three focus basins located in contrasting geographical and hydroclimatic settings demonstrates differences in the sensitivity of streamflow permanence to antecedent climate conditions as a function of geography. Consequently, results suggest that PROSPER model can be a useful tool to evaluate regions of the

  13. Regional Community Climate Simulations with variable resolution meshes in the Community Earth System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, C. M.; Gettelman, A.; Callaghan, P.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately predicting weather extremes such as precipitation (floods and droughts) and temperature (heat waves) requires high resolution to resolve mesoscale dynamics and topography at horizontal scales of 10-30km. Simulating such resolutions globally for climate scales (years to decades) remains computationally impractical. Simulating only a small region of the planet is more tractable at these scales for climate applications. This work describes global simulations using variable-resolution static meshes with multiple dynamical cores that target the continental United States using developmental versions of the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2). CESM2 is tested in idealized, aquaplanet and full physics configurations to evaluate variable mesh simulations against uniform high and uniform low resolution simulations at resolutions down to 15km. Different physical parameterization suites are also evaluated to gauge their sensitivity to resolution. Idealized variable-resolution mesh cases compare well to high resolution tests. More recent versions of the atmospheric physics, including cloud schemes for CESM2, are more stable with respect to changes in horizontal resolution. Most of the sensitivity is due to sensitivity to timestep and interactions between deep convection and large scale condensation, expected from the closure methods. The resulting full physics model produces a comparable climate to the global low resolution mesh and similar high frequency statistics in the high resolution region. Some biases are reduced (orographic precipitation in the western United States), but biases do not necessarily go away at high resolution (e.g. summertime JJA surface Temp). The simulations are able to reproduce uniform high resolution results, making them an effective tool for regional climate studies and are available in CESM2.

  14. Observations of regional and local variability in the optical properties of maritime clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, A.B. [Univ. of Colorado at Boulder/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States); Fairall, C.W. [Environmental Technology Lab., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    White and Fairall (1995) calculated the optical properties of the marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) and compared their results with the results obtained by Fairall et al. for the MBL clouds observed during the First International Satellite Climatology Program (ISSCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE). They found a factor of two difference in the optical depth versus liquid water relationship that applies to the clouds observed in each case. In the present study, we present evidence to support this difference. We also investigate the local variability exhibited in the ASTEX optical properties using measurements of the boundary layer aerosol concentration.

  15. Collaborative Research: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutowski, William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2017-12-28

    This project developed and applied a regional Arctic System model for enhanced decadal predictions. It built on successful research by four of the current PIs with support from the DOE Climate Change Prediction Program, which has resulted in the development of a fully coupled Regional Arctic Climate Model (RACM) consisting of atmosphere, land-hydrology, ocean and sea ice components. An expanded RACM, a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM), has been set up to include ice sheets, ice caps, mountain glaciers, and dynamic vegetation to allow investigation of coupled physical processes responsible for decadal-scale climate change and variability in the Arctic. RASM can have high spatial resolution (~4-20 times higher than currently practical in global models) to advance modeling of critical processes and determine the need for their explicit representation in Global Earth System Models (GESMs). The pan-Arctic region is a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification. However, a system-level understanding of critical arctic processes and feedbacks needs further development. Rapid climate change has occurred in a number of Arctic System components during the past few decades, including retreat of the perennial sea ice cover, increased surface melting of the Greenland ice sheet, acceleration and thinning of outlet glaciers, reduced snow cover, thawing permafrost, and shifts in vegetation. Such changes could have significant ramifications for global sea level, the ocean thermohaline circulation and heat budget, ecosystems, native communities, natural resource exploration, and commercial transportation. The overarching goal of the RASM project has been to advance understanding of past and present states of arctic climate and to improve seasonal to decadal predictions. To do this the project has focused on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The three foci of this research are: - Changes

  16. Stabilization and augmentation of circulating AIM in mice by synthesized IgM-Fc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Kai

    Full Text Available Owing to rapid and drastic changes in lifestyle and eating habits in modern society, obesity and obesity-associated diseases are among the most important public health problems. Hence, the development of therapeutic approaches to regulate obesity is strongly desired. In view of previous work showing that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM blocks lipid storage in adipocytes, thereby preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, we here explored a strategy to augment circulating AIM levels. We synthesized the Fc portion of the soluble human immunoglobulin (IgM heavy chain and found that it formed a pentamer containing IgJ as natural IgM does, and effectively associated with AIM in vitro. When we injected the synthesized Fc intravenously into mice lacking circulating IgM, it associated with endogenous mouse AIM, protecting AIM from renal excretion and preserving the circulating AIM levels. As the synthesized Fc lacked the antigen-recognizing variable region, it provoked no undesired immune response. In addition, a challenge with the Fc-human AIM complex in wild-type mice, which exhibited normal levels of circulating IgM and AIM, successfully maintained the levels of the human AIM in mouse blood. We also observed that the human AIM was effectively incorporated into adipocytes in visceral fat tissue, suggesting its functionality against obesity. Thus, our findings reveal potent strategies to safely increase AIM levels, which could form the basis for developing novel therapies for obesity.

  17. Variability in the Water Footprint of Arable Crop Production across European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gobin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop growth and yield are affected by water use during the season: the green water footprint (WF accounts for rain water, the blue WF for irrigation and the grey WF for diluting agri-chemicals. We calibrated crop yield for FAO’s water balance model “Aquacrop” at field level. We collected weather, soil and crop inputs for 45 locations for the period 1992–2012. Calibrated model runs were conducted for wheat, barley, grain maize, oilseed rape, potato and sugar beet. The WF of cereals could be up to 20 times larger than the WF of tuber and root crops; the largest share was attributed to the green WF. The green and blue WF compared favourably with global benchmark values (R2 = 0.64–0.80; d = 0.91–0.95. The variability in the WF of arable crops across different regions in Europe is mainly due to variability in crop yield ( c v ¯ = 45% and to a lesser extent to variability in crop water use ( c v ¯ = 21%. The WF variability between countries ( c v ¯ = 14% is lower than the variability between seasons ( c v ¯ = 22% and between crops ( c v ¯ = 46%. Though modelled yields increased up to 50% under sprinkler irrigation, the water footprint still increased between 1% and 25%. Confronted with drainage and runoff, the grey WF tended to overestimate the contribution of nitrogen to the surface and groundwater. The results showed that the water footprint provides a measurable indicator that may support European water governance.

  18. Detection of IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes reactive against potato apyrase in schistosomiasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Faria-Pinto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we showed for the first time that the conserved domains within Schistosoma mansoni ATP diphosphohydrolase isoforms, shared with potato apyrase, possess epitopes for the IgG1 and IgG4 subtypes, as 24 (80% of the 30 schistosomiasis patients were seropositive for this vegetable protein. The analyses for each patient cured (n = 14 after treatment (AT with praziquantel revealed variable IgG1 and IgG4 reactivity against potato apyrase. Different antigenic epitopes shared between the vegetable and parasite proteins could be involved in susceptibility or resistance to S. mansoni AT with praziquantel and these possibilities should be explored.

  19. Analysis of the relation between socioeconomic variables and truck trips in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Lagnier Gil Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the relation between socioeconomic variables and freight trip generation, regarding the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, through the use of linear regression models. A systematic literature review is conducted in order to identify which independent variables could be used in the models. The variables found are mostly related to the establishment, such as number of employees, floor area, number of stores among others; and socioeconomic variables, such as population, households and jobs in the region. The relation between the latter and number of truck trips is verified with linear regression models, and the results show that the models are valid and the variables are able to explain the freight flow in the region studied, contributing to  the region’s transport planning and  to the strategic planning  of companies that operate in the region.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty due to internal variability using high-resolution regional climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Ikeda, K.; Deser, C.; Rasmussen, R.; Clark, M. P.; Arnold, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainty in future climate predictions is as large or larger than the mean climate change signal. As such, any predictions of future climate need to incorporate and quantify the sources of this uncertainty. One of the largest sources comes from the internal, chaotic, variability within the climate system itself. This variability has been approximated using the 30 ensemble members of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) large ensemble. Here we examine the wet and dry end members of this ensemble for cool-season precipitation in the Colorado Rocky Mountains with a set of high-resolution regional climate model simulations. We have used the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) to simulate the periods 1990-2000, 2025-2035, and 2070-2080 on a 4km grid. These simulations show that the broad patterns of change depicted in CESM are inherited by the high-resolution simulations; however, the differences in the height and location of the mountains in the WRF simulation, relative to the CESM simulation, means that the location and magnitude of the precipitation changes are very different. We further show that high-resolution simulations with the Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) predict a similar spatial pattern in the change signal as WRF for these ensemble members. We then use ICAR to examine the rest of the CESM Large Ensemble as well as the uncertainty in the regional climate model due to the choice of physics parameterizations.

  1. Late Holocene climate variability in the southwestern Mediterranean region: an integrated marine and terrestrial geochemical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Martín-Puertas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A combination of marine (Alboran Sea cores, ODP 976 and TTR 300 G and terrestrial (Zoñar Lake, Andalucia, Spain geochemical proxies provides a high-resolution reconstruction of climate variability and human influence in the southwestern Mediterranean region for the last 4000 years at inter-centennial resolution. Proxies respond to changes in precipitation rather than temperature alone. Our combined terrestrial and marine archive documents a succession of dry and wet periods coherent with the North Atlantic climate signal. A dry period occurred prior to 2.7 cal ka BP – synchronously to the global aridity crisis of the third-millennium BC – and during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (1.4–0.7 cal ka BP. Wetter conditions prevailed from 2.7 to 1.4 cal ka BP. Hydrological signatures during the Little Ice Age are highly variable but consistent with more humidity than the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, Pb anomalies in sediments at the end of the Bronze Age suggest anthropogenic pollution earlier than the Roman Empire development in the Iberian Peninsula. The Late Holocene climate evolution of the in the study area confirms the see-saw pattern between the eastern and western Mediterranean regions and the higher influence of the North Atlantic dynamics in the western Mediterranean.

  2. Contributions of internal climate variability to mitigation of projected future regional sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, A.; Bates, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that the global mean surface temperature is rising, so does the global mean sea level. Sea level rise (SLR) can impose significant impacts on island and coastal communities, especially when SLR is compounded with storm surges. Here, via analyzing results from two sets of ensemble simulations from the Community Earth System Model version 1, we investigate how the potential SLR benefits through mitigating the future emission scenarios from business as usual to a mild-mitigation over the 21st Century would be affected by internal climate variability. Results show that there is almost no SLR benefit in the near term due to the large SLR variability due to the internal ocean dynamics. However, toward the end of the 21st century, the SLR benefit can be as much as a 26±1% reduction of the global mean SLR due to seawater thermal expansion. Regionally, the benefits from this mitigation for both near and long terms are heterogeneous. They vary from just a 11±5% SLR reduction in Melbourne, Australia to a 35±6% reduction in London. The processes contributing to these regional differences are the coupling of the wind-driven ocean circulation with the decadal scale sea surface temperature mode in the Pacific and Southern Oceans, and the changes of the thermohaline circulation and the mid-latitude air-sea coupling in the Atlantic.

  3. Impacts of Present and Future Climate Variability on Agriculture and Forestry in the Temperate Regions. Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maracchi, G.; Sirotenko, O.; Bindi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry will be particularly sensitive to changes in mean climate and climate variability in the northern and southern regions of Europe. Agriculture may be positively affected by climate change in the northern areas through the introduction of new crop species and varieties, higher crop production and expansion of suitable areas for crop cultivation. The disadvantages may be determined by an increase in need for plant protection, risk of nutrient leaching and accelerated breakdown of soil organic matter. In the southern areas the benefits of the projected climate change will be limited, while the disadvantages will be predominant. The increased water use efficiency caused by increasing CO2 will compensate for some of the negative effects of increasing water limitation and extreme weather events, but lower harvestable yields, higher yield variability and reduction in suitable areas of traditional crops are expected for these areas. Forestry in the Mediterranean region may be mainly affected by increases in drought and forest fires. In northern Europe, the increased precipitation is expected to be large enough to compensate for the increased evapotranspiration. On the other hand, however, increased precipitation, cloudiness and rain days and the reduced duration of snow cover and soil frost may negatively affect forest work and timber logging determining lower profitability of forest production and a decrease in recreational possibilities. Adaptation management strategies should be introduced, as effective tools, to reduce the negative impacts of climate change on agricultural and forestry sectors

  4. Climate variability and land cover change over the North American monsoon region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Scheftic, W. D.; Broxton, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The North American Monsoon System over Mexico and southwestern United States represents a weather/climate and ecosystem coupled "macrosystem". The weather and climate affect the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem, while the ecosystem change affects surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes that, in turn, affect weather and climate. Furthermore, long-term weather/climate data have a much coarser horizontal resolution than the satellite land cover data. Here the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data at 32 km grid spacing will be combined with various satellite remote sensing products at 1 km and/or 8 km resolution from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT for the period of 1982 to present. Our analysis includes: a) precipitation, wind, and precipitable water data from NARR to characterize the North American monsoon; b) land cover type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation fraction, and leaf-area index (LAI) data to characterize the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem; c) assessing the consistency of various satellite products; and d) testing the coherence in the weather/climate and ecosystem variability.

  5. Regional regression models of percentile flows for the contiguous United States: Expert versus data-driven independent variable selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fouad

    2018-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: A set of three variables selected based on an expert assessment of factors that influence percentile flows performed similarly to larger sets of variables selected using a data-driven method. Expert assessment variables included mean annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and baseflow index. Larger sets of up to 37 variables contributed little, if any, additional predictive information. Variables used to describe the distribution of basin data (e.g. standard deviation were not useful, and average values were sufficient to characterize physical and climatic basin conditions. Effectiveness of the expert assessment variables may be due to the high degree of multicollinearity (i.e. cross-correlation among additional variables. A tool is provided in the Supplementary material to predict percentile flows based on the three expert assessment variables. Future work should develop new variables with a strong understanding of the processes related to percentile flows.

  6. Interannual variability of mass transport in the Canary region from LADCP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Rodríguez, Isis; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2010-05-01

    The variability of the Canary Current is a widely studied topic regarding its role as eastern boundary of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre. The Canary region provides indeed an interesting study area in terms of estimating variability scales of the Subtropical Gyre as well as the water masses dynamics. RAPROCAN (RAdial PROfunda de CANarias - Canary deep hydrographic section) is a project based on the reaching of these goals through the obtaining of hydrographic measures during cruises taking place approximately along 29°N, to the North of the Canary Archipelago, twice a year since 2006. The full depth sampling carried out allows the study of temperature and salinity distribution and the calculation of mass transports across the section. The transport estimates are compared to those obtained from previous measurements and estimates in the region. Therefore, transports and their variability through the last decade are quantified. The most significant advance made to previous works is the use of LADCP (Lowered Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) data informing the initial geostrophic calculations. Thus, corrections are applied to each geostrophic profile considering the reference velocity obtained from LADCP data. ADCP-referenced transport estimates are obtained, providing a successful comparison between the velocity fields obtained from the hydrographic measures. While this work shows the interannual variability observed in winter since 1997, preliminary results confirm previous hypotheses about the magnitude of the Canary Current. Those results including LADCP data also provide new aspects in the circulation distribution across the Canary Archipelago. Also moored current meter data were taken into account in the up close study of the Current through the Lanzarote Passage. Interesting conclusions were drawn that certify the usefulness of LADCP data in referencing geostrophic calculations, while corroborating the results obtained through this methodology. Hence

  7. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  8. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  9. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  10. The Tokar Gap Jet: Regional Circulation, Diurnal Variability, and Moisture Transport Based on Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Shannon R.

    2015-05-14

    The structure, variability, and regional connectivity of the Tokar Gap jet (TGJ) are described using WRF Model analyses and supporting atmospheric datasets from the East African–Red Sea–Arabian Peninsula (EARSAP) region during summer 2008. Sources of the TGJ’s unique quasi-diurnal nature and association with atypically high atmospheric moisture transport are traced back to larger-scale atmospheric dynamics influencing its forcing. These include seasonal shifts in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), variability of the monsoon and North African wind regimes, and ties to other orographic flow patterns. Strong modulation of the TGJ by regional processes such as the desert heating cycle, wind convergence at the ITCZ surface front, and the local land–sea breeze cycle are described. Two case studies present the interplay of these influences in detail. The first of these was an “extreme” gap wind event on 12 July, in which horizontal velocities in the Tokar Gap exceeded 26 m s−1 and the flow from the jet extended the full width of the Red Sea basin. This event coincided with development of a large mesoscale convective complex (MCC) and precipitation at the entrance of the Tokar Gap as well as smaller gaps downstream along the Arabian Peninsula. More typical behavior of the TGJ during the 2008 summer is discussed using a second case study on 19 July. Downwind impact of the TGJ is evaluated using Lagrangian model trajectories and analysis of the lateral moisture fluxes (LMFs) during jet events. These results suggest means by which TGJ contributes to large LMFs and has potential bearing upon Sahelian rainfall and MCC development.

  11. Sensitivity of Sahelian Precipitation to Desert Dust under ENSO variability: a regional modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust is estimated to comprise over half the total global aerosol burden, with a majority coming from the Sahara and Sahel region. Bounded by the Sahara Desert to the north and the Sahelian Savannah to the south, the Sahel experiences high interannual rainfall variability and a short rainy season during the boreal summer months. Observation-based data for the past three decades indicates a reduced dust emission trend, together with an increase in greening and surface roughness within the Sahel. Climate models used to study regional precipitation changes due to Saharan dust yield varied results, both in sign convention and magnitude. Inconsistency of model estimates drives future climate projections for the region that are highly varied and uncertain. We use the NASA-Unified Weather Research and Forecasting (NU-WRF) model to quantify the interaction and feedback between desert dust aerosol and Sahelian precipitation. Using nested domains at fine spatial resolution we resolve changes to mesoscale atmospheric circulation patterns due to dust, for representative phases of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The NU-WRF regional earth system model offers both advanced land surface data and resolvable detail of the mechanisms of the impact of Saharan dust. Results are compared to our previous work assessed over the Western Sahel using the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) CM2Mc global climate model, and to other previous regional climate model studies. This prompts further research to help explain the dust-precipitation relationship and recent North African dust emission trends. This presentation will offer a quantitative analysis of differences in radiation budget, energy and moisture fluxes, and atmospheric dynamics due to desert dust aerosol over the Sahel.

  12. Aerosol and rainfall variability over the Indian monsoon region: distributions, trends and coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gautam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol solar absorption over the Indian monsoon region has a potential role of modulating the monsoon circulation and rainfall distribution as suggested by recent studies based on model simulations. Prior to the onset of the monsoon, northern India is influenced by significant dust transport that constitutes the bulk of the regional aerosol loading over the Gangetic-Himalayan region. In this paper, a multi-sensor characterization of the increasing pre-monsoon aerosol loading over northern India, in terms of their spatial, temporal and vertical distribution is presented. Aerosol transport from the northwestern arid regions into the Indo-Gangetic Plains and over the foothills of the Himalayas is found to be vertically extended to elevated altitudes (up to 5 km as observed from the space-borne lidar measurements (CALIPSO. In relation with the enhanced pre-monsoon aerosol loading and the associated solar absorption effects on tropospheric temperature anomalies, this paper investigates the monsoon rainfall variability over India in recent past decades from an observational viewpoint. It is found that the early summer monsoon rainfall over India is on the rise since 1950s, as indicated by historical rainfall data, with over 20% increase for the period 1950–2004. This large sustained increase in the early summer rainfall is led by the observed strengthening of the pre-monsoon tropospheric land-sea thermal gradient over the Indian monsoon region as indicated by microwave satellite measurements (MSU of tropospheric temperatures from 1979–2007. Combined analysis of changes in tropospheric temperatures and summer monsoon rainfall in the past three decades, suggest a future possibility of an emerging rainfall pattern of a wetter monsoon over South Asia in early summer followed by a drier period.

  13. A Study of Precipitation Climatology and Its Variability over Europe Using an Advanced Regional Model (WRF)

    KAUST Repository

    Dasari, Hari Prasad

    2015-03-06

    In recent years long-term precipitation trends on a regional scale have been given emphasis due to the impacts of global warming on regional hydrology. In this study, regional precipitation trends are simulated over the Europe continent for a 60-year period in 1950-2010 using an advanced regional model, WRF, to study extreme precipitation events over Europe. The model runs continuously for each year during the period at a horizontal resolution of 25 km with initial/ boundary conditions derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 2.5 degree reanalysis data sets. The E-OBS 0.25 degree rainfall observation analysis is used for model validation. Results indicate that the model could reproduce the spatial annual rainfall pattern over Europe with low amounts (250 - 750 mm) in Iberian Peninsula, moderate to large amounts (750 - 1500 mm) in central, eastern and northeastern parts of Europe and extremely heavy falls (1500 - 2000 mm) in hilly areas of Alps with a slight overestimation in Alps and underestimation in other parts of Europe. The regional model integrations showed increasing errors (mean absolute errors) and decreasing correlations with increasing time scale (daily to seasonal). Rainfall is simulated relatively better in Iberian Peninsula, northwest and central parts of Europe. A large spatial variability with the highest number of wet days over eastern, central Europe and Alps (~200 days/year) and less number of wet days over Iberian Peninsula (≤150 days/year) is also found in agreement with observations. The model could simulate the spatial rainfall climate variability reasonably well with low rainfall days (1 - 10 mm/days) in almost all zones, heavy rainfall events in western, northern, southeastern hilly and coastal zones and extremely heavy rainfall events in northern coastal zones. An increasing trend of heavy rainfall in central, southern and southeastern parts, a decreasing trend in Iberian Peninsula and a steady trend in other

  14. Flexibility and conformational change of IgG molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, Y.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-12-01

    The dynamic behaviour of pig anti-Dnp-immunoglobulin (IgG) investigated by the neutron spin echo technique gave evidence of internal motion of a biological macromolecule. It is suggested that this motion belongs to the wobbling of the Fab parts of the investigated IgG molecule around its so called hinge region. (author)

  15. Spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the Tocantins-Araguaia hydrographic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Epifanio Loureiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current paper examines the space-time dynamics of yearly rainfall of the Tocantins-Araguaia Hydrographic Region (TAHR, foregrounded on rainfall volume from isohyet maps and interpolated by Kriging geo-statistical method.  Rainfall space dynamics was undertaken by the analysis of descriptive statistics, Index of Meteorological Irregularity (IMI and Variation Coefficient. Temporal dynamics was analyzed through the distribution of total annual volume precipitation for each TAHR sub-basin by the Standardized Anomaly Index, trend and magnitude test provided by Mann-Kendall and Sen Tests. Results correlated with meteorological anomalies of the Atlantic (Dipole and Pacific (ENOS Oceans show a highly heterogeneous rainfall behavior with temporal variability. Or rather, a decrease of rainfall extensiveness during years of intense meteorological anomaly with a rainfall increase south of the High Tocantins and Araguaia sub-basins and a decrease of rainfall in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin, with El Niño features. Although the Mann-Kendall test does not show statistically a significant trend for rainfall in the TAHR region, Sen’s estimator reveals a decrease in rainfall in the High Tocantins (-1.24 km³ year-1 and Araguaia (-1.13 km³ year-1 sub-basins and a rainfall increase in the Lower Tocantins sub-basin (0.53 km³ year-1 and in the TAHR region (-1.5 km³ year-1.

  16. Antarctic climate variability on regional and continental scales over the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stenni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate trends in the Antarctic region remain poorly characterized, owing to the brevity and scarcity of direct climate observations and the large magnitude of interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. Here, within the framework of the PAGES Antarctica2k working group, we build an enlarged database of ice core water stable isotope records from Antarctica, consisting of 112 records. We produce both unweighted and weighted isotopic (δ18O composites and temperature reconstructions since 0 CE, binned at 5- and 10-year resolution, for seven climatically distinct regions covering the Antarctic continent. Following earlier work of the Antarctica2k working group, we also produce composites and reconstructions for the broader regions of East Antarctica, West Antarctica and the whole continent. We use three methods for our temperature reconstructions: (i a temperature scaling based on the δ18O–temperature relationship output from an ECHAM5-wiso model simulation nudged to ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalyses from 1979 to 2013, and adjusted for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet region to borehole temperature data, (ii a temperature scaling of the isotopic normalized anomalies to the variance of the regional reanalysis temperature and (iii a composite-plus-scaling approach used in a previous continent-scale reconstruction of Antarctic temperature since 1 CE but applied to the new Antarctic ice core database. Our new reconstructions confirm a significant cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE across all Antarctic regions where records extend back into the 1st millennium, with the exception of the Wilkes Land coast and Weddell Sea coast regions. Within this long-term cooling trend from 0 to 1900 CE, we find that the warmest period occurs between 300 and 1000 CE, and the coldest interval occurs from 1200 to 1900 CE. Since 1900 CE, significant warming trends are identified for the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, the Dronning Maud Land coast and the

  17. IgM and IgD B cell receptors differentially respond to endogenous antigens and control B cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noviski, Mark; Mueller, James L; Satterthwaite, Anne; Garrett-Sinha, Lee Ann; Brombacher, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Naive B cells co-express two BCR isotypes, IgM and IgD, with identical antigen-binding domains but distinct constant regions. IgM but not IgD is downregulated on autoreactive B cells. Because these isotypes are presumed to be redundant, it is unknown how this could impose tolerance. We introduced the Nur77-eGFP reporter of BCR signaling into mice that express each BCR isotype alone. Despite signaling strongly in vitro, IgD is less sensitive than IgM to endogenous antigen in vivo and developmental fate decisions are skewed accordingly. IgD-only Lyn−/− B cells cannot generate autoantibodies and short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) in vivo, a fate thought to be driven by intense BCR signaling induced by endogenous antigens. Similarly, IgD-only B cells generate normal germinal center, but impaired IgG1+ SLPC responses to T-dependent immunization. We propose a role for IgD in maintaining the quiescence of autoreactive B cells and restricting their differentiation into autoantibody secreting cells. PMID:29521626

  18. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  19. Circulating IgA immune complexes in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.P.; Peck, G.L.; Lawley, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    The sera of 21 patients with psoriasis were examined for the presence of IgA-containing circulating immune complexes (CIC) using the Raji IgA radioimmunoassay. In addition, the Raji IgG radioimmunoassay and 125I-Clq binding assay were used to detect IgG- and IgM-containing CIC. Twenty-five patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders were studied as controls. Patients were studied before institution of systemic therapy with etretinate (20 patients) or 13-cis-retinoic acid (1 patient). In addition, sera of 15 of the patients treated with etretinate were studied before, during, and after therapy. The extent of pretreatment disease involvement as well as response to therapy were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Fourteen of 21 (67%) patients with psoriasis had evidence of IgA-containing CIC at some time during the course of their disease, as compared to only 1 of 25 patients with other hyperkeratotic skin disorders. In contrast, only 2 of 19 (11%) had evidence of IgG-containing CIC using the Raji IgG assay, and only 1 of 19 (5%) had evidence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC using the 125I-Clq binding assay. A positive correlation was found between the extent of pretreatment disease involvement and the level of IgA-containing CIC by linear regression analysis (p . 0.01). There was, however, no correlation between clinical improvement and the presence or level of IgA-containing CIC in 15 patients followed during therapy. Sucrose density gradient analysis of the IgA-containing CIC found in 2 of these patients demonstrated IgA-containing CIC in the 9S to 13S region. The finding of IgA-containing CIC in a significant number of patients with psoriasis and the relative absence of IgG- or IgM-containing CIC suggest that IgA-containing CIC may play a role in psoriasis

  20. The Emerging Importance of IgG Fab Glycosylation in Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S.; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Rispens, Theo; Rombouts, Yoann

    2016-01-01

    Human IgG is the most abundant glycoprotein in serum and is crucial for protective immunity. In addition to conserved IgG Fc glycans, ∼15-25% of serum IgG contains glycans within the variable domains. These so-called "Fab glycans" are primarily highly processed complex-type biantennary N-glycans

  1. Magnetic Field Diagnostics and Spatio-Temporal Variability of the Solar Transition Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, H.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic field diagnostics of the transition region from the chromosphere to the corona faces us with the problem that one has to apply extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectro-polarimetry. While for the coronal diagnostics techniques already exist in the form of infrared coronagraphy above the limb and radio observations on the disk, one has to investigate EUV observations for the transition region. However, so far the success of such observations has been limited, but various current projects aim to obtain spectro-polarimetric data in the extreme UV in the near future. Therefore it is timely to study the polarimetric signals we can expect from these observations through realistic forward modeling. We employ a 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) forward model of the solar corona and synthesize the Stokes I and Stokes V profiles of C iv (1548 Å). A signal well above 0.001 in Stokes V can be expected even if one integrates for several minutes to reach the required signal-to-noise ratio, and despite the rapidly changing intensity in the model (just as in observations). This variability of the intensity is often used as an argument against transition region magnetic diagnostics, which requires exposure times of minutes. However, the magnetic field is evolving much slower than the intensity, and therefore the degree of (circular) polarization remains rather constant when one integrates in time. Our study shows that it is possible to measure the transition region magnetic field if a polarimetric accuracy on the order of 0.001 can be reached, which we can expect from planned instrumentation.

  2. In-depth analysis of subclass-specific conformational preferences of IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinsheng Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG subclass-specific differences in biological function and in vitro stability are often referred to variations in the conformational flexibility, while this flexibility has rarely been characterized. Here, small-angle X-ray scattering data from IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 antibodies, which were designed with identical variable regions, were thoroughly analysed by the ensemble optimization method. The extended analysis of the optimized ensembles through shape clustering reveals distinct subclass-specific conformational preferences, which provide new insights for understanding the variations in physical/chemical stability and biological function of therapeutic antibodies. Importantly, the way that specific differences in the linker region correlate with the solution structure of intact antibodies is revealed, thereby visualizing future potential for the rational design of antibodies with designated physicochemical properties and tailored effector functions. In addition, this advanced computational approach is applicable to other flexible multi-domain systems and extends the potential for investigating flexibility in solutions of macromolecules by small-angle X-ray scattering.

  3. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  4. Intrathoracic Manifestations of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Yik Lim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intrathoracic involvement with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD is frequently overlooked in IgG4-related disease patients. In this article we review the intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD which are variable and protean. IgG4-related disease has been reported to affect the lung parenchyma, pleura, mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes, vasculature, and pericardium within the thorax. Mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy is the most common intrathoracic manifestation of IgG4-RD. Four main patterns of pulmonary disease have been described, including the solid nodular type, the bronchovascular type, the alveolar interstitial type, and the round shaped ground glass type. When feasible, a biopsy should be obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Most lesions show characteristic pathologic findings of IgG4-RD: dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. While this helps establish the diagnosis, the interpretation of pathology findings in the clinical context is key in making an accurate diagnosis. Mimickers of IgG4-RD should be ruled out, before making a diagnosis. The intrathoracic findings of IgG4-RD can be treated effectively with prednisone, but may require additional immunosuppressive therapies, including rituximab.

  5. Change features and regional distribution of temperature trend and variability joint mode in mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Feng, Jieling; Wang, Ye

    2018-05-01

    Adaption for temperature should be suitable to local conditions for regional differences in temperature change features. This paper proposed to utilize nine temperature modes that joint the trend (increasing/decreasing/unchanged) with variability (intensifying/weakening/unchanged) to investigate features of temperature change in mainland China. Monthly temperature data over the period 1960-2013 were obtained from 522 national basic and reference meteorological stations. Here, temperature trend (TT) was reflected by the trend of mean annual temperature (MAT) and the uptrend (downtrend) of inter-monthly sliding standard deviation (SSD) series with a sliding length of 29 years (348 months) was used for representing the intensification (weakening) of temperature variability (TV). The Mann-Kendall method and the least squares method were applied to assess the significance and quantify the magnitude of trend in MAT and SSD time series, respectively. The results show that there is a consistent warming trend throughout the country except for only three stations in which a cooling trend is identified. Moreover, the overall increasing rate in the north of 35° N is the highest, over 0.4 °C/decade for most stations. TV is weakened for almost 98% of the stations, indicating the low instability of temperature at a national scale. Finally, temperature mode (TM), for more than 90% of the stations, is the combination of an increasing TT with a weakened TV (mode 8). So, it is more important for people to adapt to the increasing temperature in these regions. Compared to using annual temperature data to calculate SSD, monthly data can accurately reflect the inter-monthly change of temperature and reserve more initial characteristics of temperature.

  6. Peucedanum ostruthium (L. Koch: Morphological and phytochemical variability of twelve accessions from the Swiss alpine region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCardell, Jessica Heather

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ostruthin, a natural bioactive compound mainly occurring in the roots of Peucedanum ostruthium, is the focus of this study. P. ostruthium was collected from twelve locations in the Swiss alpine region and reared in an experimental field, subdivided into twelve lots over two years. In the spring and fall, a portion of each of the twelve accessions was harvested and separated into above and below ground plant parts. The dried plants were then extracted with 60 % ethanol using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and analyzed using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC.The above and below ground plant parts were then analyzed concerning their dry matter yield (DMY, their ostruthin concentration and their ostruthin yield. Focusing on ostruthin, it was found that the below ground plant parts harvested in the fall rendered the highest ostruthin yield. Furthermore, a variability concerning ostruthin among the twelve accessions was found. This variability among the accessions is of interest with regards to a breeding program used to develop a cultivar with a high ostruthin yield.

  7. Understanding resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability in the Southern Afar Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Mekuyie

    Full Text Available Change in climate and climate extremes are acknowledged as a vital challenge to pastoral production systems. Alternative systems that are accessible to a household in order to make a living could determine the household’s resilience at a given point in time. This study was conducted in the Southern Afar region in Ethiopia to understand the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. A household questionnaire survey and focus group discussions were employed to collect primary data at household level. A total of 250 pastoral households were sampled using stratified random sampling. The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics and principal component analysis. The resilience of households to climate shocks and stresses was determined using a two-step modelling approach by clustering households into livelihood groups, gender and districts. The results indicated that agro-pastoral households were more resilient than pastoralists to climate-induced shock. Furthermore, households in the Gewane district were more resilient than those in the Amibara district. Female-headed households were less resilient than male-headed households. Enhancing livestock assets and productivity, social safety nets, access to market, credit, extension services and education, improving irrigation crop farming, and providing farm inputs significantly enhanced the resilience of pastoralists to climate change and variability. Keywords: Asset, Livelihood, Climate shock, Pastoralist, Resilience

  8. Providing a non-deterministic representation of spatial variability of precipitation in the Everest region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Eeckman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new representation of the effect of altitude on precipitation that represents spatial and temporal variability in precipitation in the Everest region. Exclusive observation data are used to infer a piecewise linear function for the relation between altitude and precipitation and significant seasonal variations are highlighted. An original ensemble approach is applied to provide non-deterministic water budgets for middle and high-mountain catchments. Physical processes at the soil–atmosphere interface are represented through the Interactions Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere (ISBA surface scheme. Uncertainties associated with the model parametrization are limited by the integration of in situ measurements of soils and vegetation properties. Uncertainties associated with the representation of the orographic effect are shown to account for up to 16 % of annual total precipitation. Annual evapotranspiration is shown to represent 26 % ± 1 % of annual total precipitation for the mid-altitude catchment and 34% ± 3 % for the high-altitude catchment. Snowfall contribution is shown to be neglectable for the mid-altitude catchment, and it represents up to 44 % ± 8 % of total precipitation for the high-altitude catchment. These simulations on the local scale enhance current knowledge of the spatial variability in hydroclimatic processes in high- and mid-altitude mountain environments.

  9. Unprecedented multiplicity of Ig transmembrane and secretory mRNA forms in the cartilaginous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumfelt, Lynn L; Diaz, Marilyn; Lohr, Rebecca L; Mochon, Evonne; Flajnik, Martin F

    2004-07-15

    In most jawed vertebrates including cartilaginous fish, membrane-bound IgM is expressed as a five Ig superfamily (Igsf)-domain H chain attached to a transmembrane (Tm) region. Heretofore, bony fish IgM was the one exception with IgM mRNA spliced to produce a four-domain Tm H chain. We now demonstrate that the Tm and secretory (Sec) mRNAs of the novel cartilaginous fish Ig isotypes, IgW and IgNAR, are present in multiple forms, most likely generated by alternative splicing. In the nurse shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum, and horn shark, Heterodontus francisci, alternative splicing of Tm exons to the second or the fourth constant (C(H)) exons produces two distinct IgW Tm cDNAs. Although the seven-domain IgW Sec cDNA form contains a canonical secretory tail shared with IgM, IgNAR, and IgA, we report a three-domain cDNA form of shark IgW (IgW(short)) having an unusual Sec tail, which is orthologous to skate IgX(short) cDNA. The IgW and IgW(short) Sec transcripts are restricted in their tissue distribution and expression levels vary among individual sharks, with all forms expressed early in ontogeny. IgNAR mRNA is alternatively spliced to produce a truncated four-domain Tm cDNA and a second Tm cDNA is expressed identical in Igsf domains as the Sec form. PBL is enriched in the Tm cDNA of these Igs. These molecular data suggest that cartilaginous fish have augmented their humoral immune repertoire by diversifying the sizes of their Ig isotypes. Furthermore, these Tm cDNAs are prototypical and the truncated variants may translate as more stable protein at the cell surface.

  10. ANALYSIS AND PLANNING OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT - CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES TO DEVELOP A MODEL FOR MONITORING FINANCIAL INDICATORS AT REGIONAL LEVEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRIS TINA GRADEA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of quantitative techniques in regional analysis can provide an understanding of both the change in time of regional economic performance and the interdependencies between economic sectors, including the use of projections to test the potential future development of the region. Qualitative techniques allow also the explanation of the reason for regional development patterns occurring in a region and the improvement of analysts' ability to reflect on the results and economic opportunities for a future based on collective experience, wisdom and judgment of the actors in region economies.

  11. Changes of regional climate variability in central Europe during the past 250 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, R.

    2012-05-01

    The paper uses the data potential of very long and homogenized instrumental climate time series in the south central Europe for analyzing one feature which is very dominant in the climate change debate --whether anthropogenic climate warming causes or goes along with an increase of climate extremes. The monthly resolved data of the HISTALP data collection provide 58 single series for the three climate elements, air pressure, air temperature and precipitation, that start earlier than 1831 and extend back to 1760 in some cases. Trends and long-term low frequent climate evolution is only shortly touched in the paper. The main goal is the analysis of trends or changes of high frequent interannual and interseasonal variability. In other words, it is features like extremely hot summers, very cold winters, excessively dry or wet seasons which the study aims at. The methods used are based on detrended highpass series whose variance is analyzed in discrete 30-year windows moving over the entire instrumental period. The analysis of discrete subintervals relies on the unique number of 8 (for precipitation 7) such "normal periods". The second approach is based on the same subintervals though not in fixed but moving windows over the entire instrumental period. The first result of the study is the clear evidence that there has been no increase of variability during the past 250 years in the region. The second finding is similar but concentrates on the recent three decades which are of particular interest because they are the first 30 years with dominating anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. We can show that also this recent anthropogenic normal period shows no widening of the PDF (probability density function) compared to the preceding ones. The third finding is based on the moving window technique. It shows that interannual variability changes show a clear centennial oscillating structure for all three climate elements in the region. For the time being we have no explanation

  12. Regional precipitation variability in East Asia related to climate and environmental factors during 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yinyin; Gao, Tao; Gao, Huiwang; Yao, Xiaohong; Xie, Lian

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the inter-annual precipitation variations in different regions of East Asia from oceans to interior areas in China during 1979 – 2012. The results computed by Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) demonstrate that the annual precipitation changes are mainly related to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, East Asian summer monsoon and aerosols. We also found that the increased Sea surface temperature (SST) could explain the precipitation changes over the Northwest Pacific in the dry season (Oct. – May) and the East China Sea and the South China Sea in the rainy season (Jun. – Sep.). The precipitation changes over the ocean unexplained by SST were likely due to the water vapor transport dominated by dynamic factors. With the increased SST, the moisture transported from oceans to interior land was likely redistributed and caused the complicated regional variability of precipitation. Moreover, the impacts of aerosols on cloud and precipitation varied with different pollution levels and different seasons. PMID:25033387

  13. Determination of allergen specificity by heavy chains in grass pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Flicker, Sabine; Lupinek, Christian; Steinberger, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Affinity and clonality of allergen-specific IgE antibodies are important determinants for the magnitude of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation. We sought to analyze the contribution of heavy and light chains of human allergen-specific IgE antibodies for allergen specificity and to test whether promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains with different allergen specificity allows binding and might affect affinity. Ten IgE Fabs specific for 3 non-cross-reactive major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) obtained by means of combinatorial cloning from patients with grass pollen allergy were used to construct stable recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFvs) representing the original Fabs and shuffled ScFvs in which heavy chains were recombined with light chains from IgE Fabs with specificity for other allergens by using the pCANTAB 5 E expression system. Possible ancestor genes for the heavy chain and light chain variable region-encoding genes were determined by using sequence comparison with the ImMunoGeneTics database, and their chromosomal locations were determined. Recombinant ScFvs were tested for allergen specificity and epitope recognition by means of direct and sandwich ELISA, and affinity by using surface plasmon resonance experiments. The shuffling experiments demonstrate that promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains is possible and maintains allergen specificity, which is mainly determined by the heavy chains. ScFvs consisting of different heavy and light chains exhibited different affinities and even epitope specificity for the corresponding allergen. Our results indicate that allergen specificity of allergen-specific IgE is mainly determined by the heavy chains. Different heavy and light chain pairings in allergen-specific IgE antibodies affect affinity and epitope specificity and thus might influence clinical reactivity to allergens. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  14. Assessing Regional Scale Variability in Extreme Value Statistics Under Altered Climate Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsell, Nathaniel [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Mechem, David [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Ma, Chunsheng [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States)

    2015-02-20

    Recent studies have suggested that low-frequency modes of climate variability can significantly influence regional climate. The climatology associated with extreme events has been shown to be particularly sensitive. This has profound implications for droughts, heat waves, and food production. We propose to examine regional climate simulations conducted over the continental United States by applying a recently developed technique which combines wavelet multi–resolution analysis with information theory metrics. This research is motivated by two fundamental questions concerning the spatial and temporal structure of extreme events. These questions are 1) what temporal scales of the extreme value distributions are most sensitive to alteration by low-frequency climate forcings and 2) what is the nature of the spatial structure of variation in these timescales? The primary objective is to assess to what extent information theory metrics can be useful in characterizing the nature of extreme weather phenomena. Specifically, we hypothesize that (1) changes in the nature of extreme events will impact the temporal probability density functions and that information theory metrics will be sensitive these changes and (2) via a wavelet multi–resolution analysis, we will be able to characterize the relative contribution of different timescales on the stochastic nature of extreme events. In order to address these hypotheses, we propose a unique combination of an established regional climate modeling approach and advanced statistical techniques to assess the effects of low-frequency modes on climate extremes over North America. The behavior of climate extremes in RCM simulations for the 20th century will be compared with statistics calculated from the United States Historical Climatology Network (USHCN) and simulations from the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). This effort will serve to establish the baseline behavior of climate extremes, the

  15. Immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA and IgM) and acute phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that USS or pregnancy changes different aspects of humoral immunity, thus the co-existence of pregnancy and S. haematobium infection may ... Résultats et conclusions: IgG, IgA et IgM étaient remarquablement élevés chez les femmes enceintes atteintes de la schistose urinaire par rapport aux femmes ...

  16. Regional variability of nitrate fluxes in the unsaturated zone and groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3− fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3− reactive transport processes make implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3− in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3−, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3−, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3− front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g. limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  17. Regional Variability of Nitrate Fluxes in the Unsaturated Zone and Groundwater, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher T.; Liao, Lixia; Nolan, Bernard T.; Juckem, Paul F.; Shope, Christopher L.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Jurgens, Bryant C.

    2018-01-01

    Process-based modeling of regional NO3- fluxes to groundwater is critical for understanding and managing water quality, but the complexity of NO3- reactive transport processes makes implementation a challenge. This study introduces a regional vertical flux method (VFM) for efficient estimation of reactive transport of NO3- in the vadose zone and groundwater. The regional VFM was applied to 443 well samples in central-eastern Wisconsin. Chemical measurements included O2, NO3-, N2 from denitrification, and atmospheric tracers of groundwater age including carbon-14, chlorofluorocarbons, tritium, and tritiogenic helium. VFM results were consistent with observed chemistry, and calibrated parameters were in-line with estimates from previous studies. Results indicated that (1) unsaturated zone travel times were a substantial portion of the transit time to wells and streams, (2) since 1945 fractions of applied N leached to groundwater have increased for manure-N, possibly due to increased injection of liquid manure, and decreased for fertilizer-N, and (3) under current practices and conditions, approximately 60% of the shallow aquifer will eventually be affected by downward migration of NO3-, with denitrification protecting the remaining 40%. Recharge variability strongly affected the unsaturated zone lag times and the eventual depth of the NO3- front. Principal components regression demonstrated that VFM parameters and predictions were significantly correlated with hydrogeochemical landscape features. The diverse and sometimes conflicting aspects of N management (e.g., limiting N volatilization versus limiting N losses to groundwater) warrant continued development of large-scale holistic strategies to manage water quality and quantity.

  18. Diagnosis of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Naitoh, Itaru; Hayashi, Kazuki; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; Simizu, Shuya; Joh, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC) is often associated with autoimmune pancreatitis. However, the diffuse cholangiographic abnormalities observed in IgG4-SC may resemble those observed in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and the presence of segmental stenosis suggests cholangiocarcinoma (CC). IgG4-SC responds well to steroid therapy, whereas PSC is only effectively treated with liver transplantation and CC requires surgical intervention. Since IgG4-SC was first described, it has become a third distinct clinical entity of sclerosing cholangitis. The aim of this review was to introduce the diagnostic methods for IgG4-SC. IgG4-SC should be carefully diagnosed based on a combination of characteristic clinical, serological, morphological, and histopathological features after cholangiographic classification and targeting of a disease for differential diagnosis. When intrapancreatic stenosis is detected, pancreatic cancer or CC should be ruled out. If multiple intrahepatic stenoses are evident, PSC should be distinguished on the basis of cholangiographic findings and liver biopsy with IgG4 immunostaining. Associated inflammatory bowel disease is suggestive of PSC. If stenosis is demonstrated in the hepatic hilar region, CC should be discriminated by ultrasonography, intraductal ultrasonography, bile duct biopsy, and a higher cutoff serum IgG4 level of 182 mg/dL. PMID:24282356

  19. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  20. Self-organizing map network-based precipitation regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau and regional precipitation variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nini; Yin, Jianchuan

    2017-12-01

    A precipitation-based regionalization for the Tibetan Plateau (TP) was investigated for regional precipitation trend analysis and frequency analysis using data from 1113 grid points covering the period 1900-2014. The results utilizing self-organizing map (SOM) network suggest that four clusters of precipitation coherent zones can be identified, including the southwestern edge, the southern edge, the southeastern region, and the north central region. Regionalization results of the SOM network satisfactorily represent the influences of the atmospheric circulation systems such as the East Asian summer monsoon, the south Asian summer monsoon, and the mid-latitude westerlies. Regionalization results also well display the direct impacts of physical geographical features of the TP such as orography, topography, and land-sea distribution. Regional-scale annual precipitation trend as well as regional differences of annual and seasonal total precipitation were investigated by precipitation index such as precipitation concentration index (PCI) and Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI). Results demonstrate significant negative long-term linear trends in southeastern TP and the north central part of the TP, indicating arid and semi-arid regions in the TP are getting drier. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method shows an evolution of the main cycle with 4 and 12 months for all the representative grids of four sub-regions. The cross-wavelet analysis suggests that predominant and effective period of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on monthly precipitation is around ˜12 months, except for the representative grid of the northwestern region.

  1. Coupled ocean-atmosphere surface variability and its climate impacts in the tropical Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, B.; Janicot, Serge; Roucou, P.

    This study examines time evolution and statistical relationships involving the two leading ocean-atmosphere coupled modes of variability in the tropical Atlantic and some climate anomalies over the tropical 120°W-60°W region using selected historical files (75-y near global SSTs and precipitation over land), more recent observed data (30-y SST and pseudo wind stress in the tropical Atlantic) and reanalyses from the US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis System on the period 1968-1997: surface air temperature, sea level pressure, moist static energy content at 850 hPa, precipitable water and precipitation. The first coupled mode detected through singular value decomposition of the SST and pseudo wind-stress data over the tropical Atlantic (30°N-20°S) expresses a modulation in the thermal transequatorial gradient of SST anomalies conducted by one month leading wind-stress anomalies mainly in the tropical north Atlantic during northern winter and fall. It features a slight dipole structure in the meridional plane. Its time variability is dominated by a quasi-decadal signal well observed in the last 20-30 ys and, when projected over longer-term SST data, in the 1920s and 1930s but with shorter periods. The second coupled mode is more confined to the south-equatorial tropical Atlantic in the northern summer and explains considerably less wind-stress/SST cross-covariance. Its time series features an interannual variability dominated by shorter frequencies with increased variance in the 1960s and 1970s before 1977. Correlations between these modes and the ENSO-like Nino3 index lead to decreasing amplitude of thermal anomalies in the tropical Atlantic during warm episodes in the Pacific. This could explain the nonstationarity of meridional anomaly gradients on seasonal and interannual time scales. Overall the relationships between the oceanic component of the coupled modes and the climate anomaly patterns denote thermodynamical

  2. Interannual variability in the atmospheric CO2 rectification over a boreal forest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baozhang; Chen, Jing M.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.

    2005-08-01

    Ecosystem CO2 exchange with the atmosphere and the planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamics are correlated diurnally and seasonally. The strength of this kind of covariation is quantified as the rectifier effect, and it affects the vertical gradient of CO2 and thus the global CO2 distribution pattern. An 11-year (1990-1996, 1999-2002), continuous CO2 record from Fraserdale, Ontario (49°52'29.9″N, 81°34'12.3″W), along with a coupled vertical diffusion scheme (VDS) and ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS), are used to investigate the interannual variability of the rectifier effect over a boreal forest region. The coupled model performed well (r2 = 0.70 and 0.87, at 40 m at hourly and daily time steps, respectively) in simulating CO2 vertical diffusion processes. The simulated annual atmospheric rectifier effect varies from 3.99 to 5.52 ppm, while the diurnal rectifying effect accounted for about a quarter of the annual total (22.8˜28.9%).The atmospheric rectification of CO2 is not simply influenced by terrestrial source and sink strengths, but by seasonal and diurnal variations in the land CO2 flux and their interaction with PBL dynamics. Air temperature and moisture are found to be the dominant climatic factors controlling the rectifier effect. The annual rectifier effect is highly correlated with annual mean temperature (r2 = 0.84), while annual mean air relative humidity can explain 51% of the interannual variation in rectification. Seasonal rectifier effect is also found to be more sensitive to climate variability than diurnal rectifier effect.

  3. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  4. Seasonal and Intraseasonal Variability of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the South Asian Monsoon Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virts, Katrina S.; Houze, Robert A.

    2016-12-01

    Seasonal and intraseasonal differences in mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over South Asia are examined using A-Train satellites, a ground-based lightning network, and reanalysis fields. Pre-monsoon (April-May) MCSs occur primarily over Bangladesh and the eastern Bay of Bengal. During the monsoon (June-September), small MCSs occur over the Meghalaya Plateau and northeast Himalayan notch, while large and connected MCSs are most widespread over the Bay of Bengal. Monsoon MCSs produce less lightning and exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil reflectivity structures in CloudSat observations than do pre-monsoon MCSs. During the monsoon season, Bay of Bengal and Meghalaya Plateau MCSs vary with the 30-60 day northward-propagating intraseasonal oscillation, while northeast Himalayan notch MCSs are associated with weak large-scale anomalies but locally enhanced CAPE. During intraseasonal active periods, a zone of enhanced large and connected MCSs, precipitation, and lightning extends from the northeastern Arabian Sea southeast over India and the Bay of Bengal, flanked by suppressed anomalies. Spatial variability is observed within this enhancement zone: lightning is most enhanced where MCSs are less enhanced, and vice versa. Reanalysis composites indicate that Bay of Bengal MCSs are associated with monsoon depressions, which are frequent during active monsoon periods, while Meghalaya Plateau MCSs are most frequent at the end of break periods, as anomalous southwesterly winds strengthen moist advection toward the terrain. Over both regions, MCSs exhibit more extensive stratiform and anvil regions and less lightning when the large-scale environment is moister, and vice versa.

  5. Singular vector decomposition of the internal variability of the Canadian Regional Climate Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Laprise, Rene [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada); Zadra, Ayrton [University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Canadian Network for Regional Climate Modelling and Diagnostics, P.O. Box 8888, Montreal, QC (Canada); Environment Canada, Meteorological Research Division, Montreal, QC (Canada); Centre ESCER (Etude et Simulation du Climat a l' Echelle Regionale), Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Previous studies have shown that Regional Climate Models (RCM) internal variability (IV) fluctuates in time depending on synoptic events. This study focuses on the physical understanding of episodes with rapid growth of IV. An ensemble of 21 simulations, differing only in their initial conditions, was run over North America using version 5 of the Canadian RCM (CRCM). The IV is quantified in terms of energy of CRCM perturbations with respect to a reference simulation. The working hypothesis is that IV is arising through rapidly growing perturbations developed in dynamically unstable regions. If indeed IV is triggered by the growth of unstable perturbations, a large proportion of the CRCM perturbations must project onto the most unstable singular vectors (SVs). A set of ten SVs was computed to identify the orthogonal set of perturbations that provide the maximum growth with respect to the dry total-energy norm during the course of the CRCM ensemble of simulations. CRCM perturbations were then projected onto the subspace of SVs. The analysis of one episode of rapid growth of IV is presented in detail. It is shown that a large part of the IV growth is explained by initially small-amplitude unstable perturbations represented by the ten leading SVs, the SV subspace accounting for over 70% of the CRCM IV growth in 36 h. The projection on the leading SV at final time is greater than the projection on the remaining SVs and there is a high similarity between the CRCM perturbations and the leading SV after 24-36 h tangent-linear model integration. The vertical structure of perturbations revealed that the baroclinic conversion is the dominant process in IV growth for this particular episode. (orig.)

  6. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric pressure and near-surface temperature differences between the Azores High and the Icelandic Low for the period of 1900-2012 within the spatial-temporal average-out (20º latitude, 20º longitude and 12 years) were considered. The secular term of phase states of the system under consideration was found to divide into three non-intersecting subsets. Each of that was put in consequence with one of three climatic scenarios related to the periods of 1905-1935 (relatively warm phase), 1940-1970 (colder phase) and 1980-2000 (warmer phase). A life time of such a scenario lasted about 20-35 years, and the transition from one scenario to another covered 4-6 years, i.e. it run comparatively quickly. The revealed non-overlapping sub-aggregates of the thermodynamic indices related to each particular climate scenario gave an idea to follow the circulation peculiarities and the interrelated temperature differences within the limits of the Northern Atlantic ocean-atmosphere regional system. The results of this analysis bear evidence that the most probable intermittent strengthening and weakening of Hadley and Ferrell circulations occurred there in coincided phase. The analogous character of the climate system behavior was also detected in some other regional atmospheric activity centers that can be considered as a witness on the global nature of the detected phase type of modern climate inter-decadal variability. Hence, we have the grounds to suppose that mentioned above the short-period inter-decadal excitations of the modern climate have a global nature and appears everywhere. Finally, the attention was paid to the fact that at the early XXI century the thermodynamic state of the Northern Atlantic regional climate system has shown a tendency to face towards the situation, similar to the cooler scenario of the 1940-1970. We used the heat content of upper 700m Atlantic Ocean layer data from NODC to calculate its anomalies for the periods of 1955-1970, 1980-2000 and

  7. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoro Claudio

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Results Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT®, the ImMunoGeneTics information system®. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. Conclusion This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  8. Primer sets for cloning the human repertoire of T cell Receptor Variable regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, Ilenia; Cotella, Diego; Dianzani, Irma; Santoro, Claudio; Sblattero, Daniele

    2008-08-29

    Amplification and cloning of naïve T cell Receptor (TR) repertoires or antigen-specific TR is crucial to shape immune response and to develop immuno-based therapies. TR variable (V) regions are encoded by several genes that recombine during T cell development. The cloning of expressed genes as large diverse libraries from natural sources relies upon the availability of primers able to amplify as many V genes as possible. Here, we present a list of primers computationally designed on all functional TR V and J genes listed in the IMGT, the ImMunoGeneTics information system. The list consists of unambiguous or degenerate primers suitable to theoretically amplify and clone the entire TR repertoire. We show that it is possible to selectively amplify and clone expressed TR V genes in one single RT-PCR step and from as little as 1000 cells. This new primer set will facilitate the creation of more diverse TR libraries than has been possible using currently available primer sets.

  9. Regional Variability of Cd, Hg, Pb and C Concentrations in Different Horizons of Swedish Forest Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alriksson, A.

    2001-01-01

    Contents of cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb) and carbon(C) in the O, B and C horizons of podzolized forest soils in Sweden were surveyed. Concentrations and storage of Cd, Hg and Pb in the O and B horizons were high in southern Sweden and gradually decreased towards the north, though with considerable local variability. This pattern reflects the influence of anthropogenic emissions of these metals, as well as the effects of soil-forming processes. Parent till material, as represented by the C horizon concentration of the respective metal, accounted for little of the variation in metal concentration in the O horizon. For Cd and Pb, the correlations were not significant or slightly negative (R 2 = 0.12 and 0.09 respectively) depending on region, while for Hg the correlation was not significant or slightly positive (R 2 = 0.03 and 0.08). Furthermore, parent till material accounted for more of the variation in metal concentrations in the B horizons in the northern part of Sweden than in the middle and southernmost parts, where the concentration of total carbon had more influence. The correlation between the metal concentrations in the B and C horizon was strongest for Pb (R 2 = 0.63 and 0.36 in the two northernmost regions), lower for Cd (R 2 = 0.19 and 0.16) and not significant for Hg. For all soil horizons, total C concentration accounted for much of the variation in Hg concentration in particular (O-horizon R 2 = 0.15-0.69, B horizon R 2 = 0.36-0.50, C horizon R 2 = 0.23-0.50 and ns in one region). Ratios of metal concentrations between the B and C horizons were highest for Hg(maximum value of 30), indicating a relatively larger addition or retention of Hg compared to Cd and Pb (maximum value of 10)in the B horizon. This study indicate that factors other than parent material account for the large scale variation in O horizon concentrations of metals but patterns correspond well with those of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and acidifying substances

  10. Recombinant human immunoglobulin (Ig)A1 and IgA2 anti-D used for detection of IgA deficiency and anti-IgA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Leif K; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2008-01-01

    To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA.......To avoid anaphylactic reactions, immunoglobulin (Ig)A-deficient patients with anti-IgA should be transfused with IgA-deficient blood components. There is a need for fast and robust assays for demonstration of IgA deficiency and for detection of anti-IgA....

  11. Modulation of extremes in the Atlantic region by modes of climate variability/change: A mechanistic coupled regional model study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, Ramalingam [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2015-01-09

    During the course of this project, we have accomplished the following: 1) Explored the parameter space of component models to minimize regional model bias 2) Assessed the impact of air-sea interaction on hurricanes, focusing in particular on the role of the oceanic barrier layer 3) Contributed to the activities of the U.S. CLIVAR Hurricane Working Group 4) Assessed the impact of lateral and lower boundary conditions on extreme flooding events in the U.S. Midwest in regional model simulations 5) Analyzed the concurrent impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Meridional Mode on Atlantic Hurricane activity using observations and regional model simulations

  12. Phylogenetic relationships in Taxodiaceae and Cupressaceae sensu stricto based on matK gene, chlL gene, trnL-trnF IGS region, and trnL intron sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, J; Tsumura, Y; Yoshimaru, H; Tachida, H

    2000-10-01

    Nucleotide sequences from four chloroplast genes, the matK, chlL, intergenic spacer (IGS) region between trnL and trnF, and an intron of trnL, were determined from all species of Taxodiaceae and five species of Cupressaceae sensu stricto (s.s.). Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony and the neighbor-joining methods with Cunninghamia as an outgroup. These analyses provided greater resolution of relationships among genera and higher bootstrap supports for clades compared to previous analyses. Results indicate that Taiwania diverged first, and then Athrotaxis diverged from the remaining genera. Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron form a clade. Taxodium and Glyptostrobus form a clade, which is the sister to Cryptomeria. Cupressaceae s.s. are derived from within Taxodiaceae, being the most closely related to the Cryptomeria/Taxodium/Glyptostrobus clade. These relationships are consistent with previous morphological groupings and the analyses of molecular data. In addition, we found acceleration of evolutionary rates in Cupressaceae s.s. Possible causes for the acceleration are discussed.

  13. The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) binds independently to both sites of the IgG homodimer with identical affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiche, Yasmina Noubia; Yeung, Yik Andy; Chaparro-Riggers, Javier; Barman, Ishita; Strop, Pavel; Chin, Sherman Michael; Pham, Amber; Bolton, Gary; McDonough, Dan; Lindquist, Kevin; Pons, Jaume; Rajpal, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) is expressed by cells of epithelial, endothelial and myeloid lineages and performs multiple roles in adaptive immunity. Characterizing the FcRn/IgG interaction is fundamental to designing therapeutic antibodies because IgGs with moderately increased binding affinities for FcRn exhibit superior serum half-lives and efficacy. It has been hypothesized that 2 FcRn molecules bind an IgG homodimer with disparate affinities, yet their affinity constants are inconsistent across the literature. Using surface plasmon resonance biosensor assays that eliminated confounding experimental artifacts, we present data supporting an alternate hypothesis: 2 FcRn molecules saturate an IgG homodimer with identical affinities at independent sites, consistent with the symmetrical arrangement of the FcRn/Fc complex observed in the crystal structure published by Burmeister et al. in 1994. We find that human FcRn binds human IgG1 with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 760 ± 60 nM (N = 14) at 25°C and pH 5.8, and shows less than 25% variation across the other human subtypes. Human IgG1 binds cynomolgus monkey FcRn with a 2-fold higher affinity than human FcRn, and binds both mouse and rat FcRn with a 10-fold higher affinity than human FcRn. FcRn/IgG interactions from multiple species show less than a 2-fold weaker affinity at 37°C than at 25°C and appear independent of an IgG's variable region. Our in vivo data in mouse and rat models demonstrate that both affinity and avidity influence an IgG's serum half-life, which should be considered when choosing animals, especially transgenic systems, as surrogates.

  14. TriFabs—Trivalent IgG-Shaped Bispecific Antibody Derivatives: Design, Generation, Characterization and Application for Targeted Payload Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Mayer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TriFabs are IgG-shaped bispecific antibodies (bsAbs composed of two regular Fab arms fused via flexible linker peptides to one asymmetric third Fab-sized binding module. This third module replaces the IgG Fc region and is composed of the variable region of the heavy chain (VH fused to CH3 with “knob”-mutations, and the variable region of the light chain (VL fused to CH3 with matching “holes”. The hinge region does not contain disulfides to facilitate antigen access to the third binding site. To compensate for the loss of hinge-disulfides between heavy chains, CH3 knob-hole heterodimers are linked by S354C-Y349C disulphides, and VH and VL of the stem region may be linked via VH44C-VL100C disulphides. TriFabs which bind one antigen bivalent in the same manner as IgGs and the second antigen monovalent “in between” these Fabs can be applied to simultaneously engage two antigens, or for targeted delivery of small and large (fluorescent or cytotoxic payloads.

  15. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  16. Variability and change of sea level and its components in the Indo-Pacific region during the altimetry era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Quran; Zhang, Xuebin; Church, John A.; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that regional sea level exhibits interannual and decadal variations associated with the modes of climate variability. A better understanding of those low-frequency sea level variations benefits the detection and attribution of climate change signals. Nonetheless, the contributions of thermosteric, halosteric, and mass sea level components to sea level variability and trend patterns remain unclear. By focusing on signals associated with dominant climate modes in the Indo-Pacific region, we estimate the interannual and decadal fingerprints and trend of each sea level component utilizing a multivariate linear regression of two adjoint-based ocean reanalyses. Sea level interannual, decadal, and trend patterns primarily come from thermosteric sea level (TSSL). Halosteric sea level (HSSL) is of regional importance in the Pacific Ocean on decadal time scale and dominates sea level trends in the northeast subtropical Pacific. The compensation between TSSL and HSSL is identified in their decadal variability and trends. The interannual and decadal variability of temperature generally peak at subsurface around 100 m but that of salinity tend to be surface-intensified. Decadal temperature and salinity signals extend deeper into the ocean in some regions than their interannual equivalents. Mass sea level (MassSL) is critical for the interannual and decadal variability of sea level over shelf seas. Inconsistencies exist in MassSL trend patterns among various estimates. This study highlights regions where multiple processes work together to control sea level variability and change. Further work is required to better understand the interaction of different processes in those regions.

  17. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  18. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  19. Decadal Trends and Variability of Tropospheric Ozone over Oil and Gas Regions over 2005 - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Sive, B. C.

    2017-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3), which is produced largely by photochemical oxidation of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, is a serious and ubiquitous air pollutant with strong negative health effects. Recent technological innovations such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have accelerated oil and natural gas production in the U.S. since 2005. The additional input of O3 precursors from expanding natural gas production might prolong the effort to comply the current O3 standard (70 ppbv). The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of oil and gas extractions on variability and long term trends of O3 in the intermountain west under varying meteorological conditions. We investigated long-term O3 trends at 13 rural sites, which were within 100 km of the shale play in the U.S. intermountain west. Significant decreasing trends (-0.35 - -3.38 ppbv yr-1) were found in seasonal O3 design values at six sites in spring, summer, or fall, while no trends were found in wintertime O3 at any sites. Wintertime O3 at each site showed strong and consistent interannual variation over 2006 - 2015, and was negatively correlated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) Index. The negative correlation was a result of multiple factors, such as in situ O3 photochemical production, stratospheric intrusion, and transport from the Arctic and California. In summer, wildfire emissions were the dominate driver to the interannual variations of high percentiles O3 at each site, while meteorological conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity) determined the interannual variations of low percentiles O3. Box model simulations indicated that O3 production rates were 31.51 ppbv h-1 over winters of 2012 - 2014 and 32.12 ppbv h-1 in summer 2014 around shale gas extraction regions.

  20. Human heavy-chain variable region gene family nonrandomly rearranged in familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, A.; Humphries, C.; Tucker, P.; Blattner, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have identified a family of human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (V/sub H/) genes, one member of which is rearranged in two affected members of a family in which the father and four of five siblings developed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cloning and sequencing of the rearranged V/sub H/ genes from leukemic lymphocytes of three affected siblings showed that two siblings had rearranged V/sub H/ genes (V/sub H/TS1 and V/sub H/WS1) that were 90% homologous. The corresponding germ-line gene, V/sub H/251, was found to part of a small (four gene) V/sub H/ gene family, which they term V/sub H/V. The DNA sequence homology to V/sub H/WS1 (95%) and V/sub H/TS1 (88%) and identical restriction sites on the 5' side of V/sub H/ confirm that rearrangement of V/sub H/251 followed by somatic mutation produced the identical V/sub H/ gene rearrangements in the two siblings. V/sub H/TS1 is not a functional V/sub H/ gene; a functional V/sub H/ rearrangement was found on the other chromosome of this patient. The other two siblings had different V/sub H/ gene rearrangements. All used different diversity genes. Mechanisms proposed for nonrandom selection of a single V/sub H/ gene include developmental regulation of this V/sub H/ gene rearrangement or selection of a subpopulation of B cells in which this V/sub H/ has been rearranged

  1. Transforming p21 ras protein: flexibility in the major variable region linking the catalytic and membrane-anchoring domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, B M; Papageorge, A G; Hubbert, N

    1985-01-01

    or increasing it to 50 amino acids has relatively little effect on the capacity of the gene to induce morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Assays of GTP binding, GTPase and autophosphorylating activities of such mutant v-rasH-encoded proteins synthesized in bacteria indicated that the sequences...... that is required for post-translational processing, membrane localization and transforming activity of the proteins. We have now used the viral oncogene (v-rasH) of Harvey sarcoma virus to study the major variable region by deleting or duplicating parts of the gene. Reducing this region to five amino acids...... that encode these biochemical activities are located upstream from the major variable region. In the context of transformation, we propose that the region of sequence heterogeneity serves principally to connect the N-terminal catalytic domain with amino acids at the C terminus that are required to anchor...

  2. Searching for I-band variability in stars in the M/L spectral transition region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Gavin; Hakala, Pasi; Doyle, J. Gerry

    2015-10-01

    We report on I-band photometric observations of 21 stars with spectral types between M8 and L4 made using the Isaac Newton Telescope. The total amount of time for observations which had a cadence of test for photometric variability using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test and find that four sources (2MASS J10224821+5825453, 2MASS J07464256+2000321, 2MASS J16262034+3925190 and 2MASS J12464678+4027150) were found to be significantly variable at least on one epoch. Three of these sources are reported as photometrically variable for the first time. If we include sources which were deemed marginally variable, the number of variable sources is 6 (29 per cent). No flares were detected from any source. The percentage of sources which we found were variable is similar to previous studies. We summarize the mechanisms which have been put forward to explain the light curves of brown dwarfs.

  3. Hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region and its relationships with large-scale climate anomaly patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbu, Norel; Ionita, Monica; Swierczynski, Tina; Brauer, Achim; Kämpf, Lucas; Czymzik, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Flood triggered detrital layers in varved sediments of Lake Mondsee, located at the northern fringe of the European Alps (47°48'N,13°23'E), provide an important archive of regional hydroclimatic variability during the mid- to late Holocene. To improve the interpretation of the flood layer record in terms of large-scale climate variability, we investigate the relationships between observational hydrological records from the region, like the Mondsee lake level, the runoff of the lake's main inflow Griesler Ache, with observed precipitation and global climate patterns. The lake level shows a strong positive linear trend during the observational period in all seasons. Additionally, lake level presents important interannual to multidecadal variations. These variations are associated with distinct seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns. A pronounced anomalous anticyclonic center over the Iberian Peninsula is associated with high lake levels values during winter. This center moves southwestward during spring, summer and autumn. In the same time, a cyclonic anomaly center is recorded over central and western Europe. This anomalous circulation extends southwestward from winter to autumn. Similar atmospheric circulation patterns are associated with river runoff and precipitation variability from the region. High lake levels are associated with positive local precipitation anomalies in all seasons as well as with negative local temperature anomalies during spring, summer and autumn. A correlation analysis reveals that lake level, runoff and precipitation variability is related to large-scale sea surface temperature anomaly patterns in all seasons suggesting a possible impact of large-scale climatic modes, like the North Atlantic Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on hydroclimatic variability in the Lake Mondsee region. The results presented in this study can be used for a more robust interpretation of the long flood layer record from Lake Mondsee sediments

  4. Continental and Marine Environmental changes in Europe induced by Global Climate variability and Regional Palaeography Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    dinoflagellate cyst records from DSDP Site 380 (7 - 4 Ma) were completed from 4 Ma to Present in order to evidence the impact of glacial-interglacial cycles over the regional vegetation and to reconstruct the climate variability for the last 7 Ma; d. I was the first to demonstrate the solar cycles forcing (Hale and Gleissberg cycles) on the regional vegetation (through the 'Thermophilus trees / Artemisia' ratio) since the Last Glacial Maximum were evidenced in cored sediments from the Black and Marmara seas (unpublished data), that is a unique outcome. Using the bio-metric approach on the dinoflagellate cysts in association with statistical analyses, I demonstrated that fluctuations in salinity are partially responsible for modifying size, shape and ornamentation of the cysts, providing the first reliable paleo-ecological and paleo-bio-geographic reconstructions of the brackish Paratethyan basins (Popescu et al., palynology, in press). Simultaneously, I performed experimental cultures on a living-dinoflagellate species (Scrippsiella trifida): suggested relationships between cyst morphological variations and stress under controlled salinity are confirmed by the preliminary results, while reproduction rate seems also modified (unpublished data). Hence, my palynological and biological expertise offers an exclusive tool for establishing a continuous high resolution chronology, paleo-climatic, paleo-bio-geographic and paleo-environmental reconstructions. This is particularly important for the basins impacted by important environmental changes, such as the Mediterranean and Black seas, the sediments of the latter being precisely dated for the first time by this approach. (author)

  5. The generation and selection of single-domain, v region libraries from nurse sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flajnik, Martin F; Dooley, Helen

    2009-01-01

    The cartilaginous fish (sharks, skates, and rays) are the oldest phylogenetic group in which a human-type adaptive immune system and immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. In addition to their conventional (heavy-light chain heterodimeric) isotypes, IgM and IgW, sharks produce the novel isotype, IgNAR, a heavy chain homodimer that does not associate with light chains. Instead, its variable (V) regions act as independent, soluble units in order to bind antigen. In this chapter, we detail our immunization protocol in order to raise a humoral IgNAR response in the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) and the subsequent cloning of the single-domain V regions from this isotype in order to select antigen-specific binders by phage display.

  6. IgG4 Cholangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoh Zen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4 cholangiopathy can involve any level of the biliary tree which exhibits sclerosing cholangitis or pseudotumorous hilar lesions. Most cases are associated with autoimmune pancreatitis, an important diagnostic clue. Without autoimmune pancreatitis, however, the diagnosis of IgG4-cholangiopathy is challenging. Indeed such cases have been treated surgically. IgG4-cholangiopathy should be diagnosed based on serological examinations including serum IgG4 concentrations, radiological features, and histological evidence of IgG4+ plasma cell infiltration. Steroid therapy is very effective even at disease relapse. A Th2-dominant immune response or the activation of regulatory T cells seems to be involved in the underlying immune reaction. It is still unknown why IgG4 levels are specifically elevated in patients with this disease. IgG4 might be secondarily overexpressed by Th2 or regulatory cytokines given the lack of evidence that IgG4 is an autoantibody.

  7. IgA nephropathy enigma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Městecký, Jiří; Novák, J.; Moldoveanu, Z.; Raška, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 172, NOV 2016 SI (2016), s. 72-77 ISSN 1521-6616 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-33686A Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IgA nephropathy * IgA subclasses * Autoimmunity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.990, year: 2016

  8. Identification and verification of hybridoma-derived monoclonal antibody variable region sequences using recombinant DNA technology and mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibody engineering requires the identification of antigen binding domains or variable regions (VR) unique to each antibody. It is the VR that define the unique antigen binding properties and proper sequence identification is essential for functional evaluation and performance of recombinant antibo...

  9. Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni applying flaA short variable region sequencing, multilocus sequencing and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Bonnichsen, Lise; Larsson, Jonas

    flaA short variable region sequencing and phenetic Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was applied on a collection of 102 Campylobacter jejuni isolated from continuous sampling of organic, free range geese and chickens. FTIR has been shown to serve as a valuable tool in typing...

  10. Relationship between Eurasian large-scale patterns and regional climate variability over the Black and Baltic Seas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankunavicius, G.; Pupienis, D. [Vilnius Univ. (Lithuania). Dept. of Hydrology and Climatology; Basharin, D. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Sevastopol (Ukraine). Sevastopol Marine Hydrophysical Inst.

    2012-11-01

    Using a NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis dataset and the empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis approach we studied interannual to decadal variabilities of the sea-level air pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT) fields over Eurasia during the 2nd part of the 20th century. Our results agree with those of the previous studies, which conclude that Eurasian trends are the result of storm-path changes driven by the interdecadal behaviour of the NAO-like meridional dipole pattern in the Atlantic. On interannual and decadal time scales, significant synchronous correlations between correspondent modes of SAT and SLP EOF patterns were found. This fact suggests that there is a strong and stable Eurasian interrelationship between SAT and SLP large-scale fields which affects the local climate of two sub-regions: the Black and Baltic Seas. The climate variability in these sub-regions was studied in terms of Eurasian large-scale surface-temperature and air-pressure patterns responses. We concluded that the sub-regional climate variability substantially differs over the Black and Baltic Seas, and depends on different Eurasian large-scale patterns. We showed that the Baltic Sea region is influenced by the patterns arising primary from NAO-like meridional dipole, as well as Scandinavian patterns, while the Black Sea's SAT/SLP variability is influenced mainly by the second mode EOF (eastern Atlantic) and large scale tropospheric wave structures. (orig.)

  11. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Cassano, John J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gutowski, Jr., William J. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Lipscomb, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nijssen, Bart [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Roberts, Andrew [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States). Dept. of Oceanography; Robertson, William [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States); Tulaczyk, Slawek [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Zeng, Xubin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-05-15

    The primary outcome of the project was the development of the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) and evaluation of its individual model components, coupling among them and fully coupled model results. Overall, we have demonstrated that RASM produces realistic mean and seasonal surface climate as well as its interannual and decadal variability and trends.

  12. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological Niche Models (ENMs are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models. Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles. Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural

  13. Local-scale models reveal ecological niche variability in amphibian and reptile communities from two contrasting biogeographic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Xavier; Felicísimo, Ángel M.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) are widely used to describe how environmental factors influence species distribution. Modelling at a local scale, compared to a large scale within a high environmental gradient, can improve our understanding of ecological species niches. The main goal of this study is to assess and compare the contribution of environmental variables to amphibian and reptile ENMs in two Spanish national parks located in contrasting biogeographic regions, i.e., the Mediterranean and the Atlantic area. The ENMs were built with maximum entropy modelling using 11 environmental variables in each territory. The contributions of these variables to the models were analysed and classified using various statistical procedures (Mann–Whitney U tests, Principal Components Analysis and General Linear Models). Distance to the hydrological network was consistently the most relevant variable for both parks and taxonomic classes. Topographic variables (i.e., slope and altitude) were the second most predictive variables, followed by climatic variables. Differences in variable contribution were observed between parks and taxonomic classes. Variables related to water availability had the larger contribution to the models in the Mediterranean park, while topography variables were decisive in the Atlantic park. Specific response curves to environmental variables were in accordance with the biogeographic affinity of species (Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean species) and taxonomy (amphibians and reptiles). Interestingly, these results were observed for species located in both parks, particularly those situated at their range limits. Our findings show that ecological niche models built at local scale reveal differences in habitat preferences within a wide environmental gradient. Therefore, modelling at local scales rather than assuming large-scale models could be preferable for the establishment of conservation strategies for herptile species in natural parks. PMID

  14. Office-Based Point of Care Testing (IgA/IgG-Deamidated Gliadin Peptide) for Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michelle S; Mooney, Peter D; White, William L; Rees, Michael A; Wong, Simon H; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Green, Peter H R; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Sanders, David S

    2018-06-19

    Celiac disease (CD) is common yet under-detected. A point of care test (POCT) may improve CD detection. We aimed to assess the diagnostic performance of an IgA/IgG-deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP)-based POCT for CD detection, patient acceptability, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results. From 2013-2017, we prospectively recruited patients referred to secondary care with gastrointestinal symptoms, anemia and/or weight loss (group 1); and patients with self-reported gluten sensitivity with unknown CD status (group 2). All patients had concurrent POCT, IgA-tissue transglutaminase (IgA-TTG), IgA-endomysial antibodies (IgA-EMA), total IgA levels, and duodenal biopsies. Five hundred patients completed acceptability questionnaires, and inter-observer variability of the POCT results was compared among five clinical staff for 400 cases. Group 1: 1000 patients, 58.5% female, age 16-91, median age 57. Forty-one patients (4.1%) were diagnosed with CD. The sensitivities of the POCT, IgA-TTG, and IgA-EMA were 82.9, 78.1, and 70.7%; the specificities were 85.4, 96.3, and 99.8%. Group 2: 61 patients, 83% female; age 17-73, median age 35. The POCT had 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value in detecting CD in group 2. Most patients preferred the POCT to venepuncture (90.4% vs. 2.8%). There was good inter-observer agreement on the POCT results with a Fleiss Kappa coefficient of 0.895. The POCT had comparable sensitivities to serology, and correctly identified all CD cases in a gluten sensitive cohort. However, its low specificity may increase unnecessary investigations. Despite its advantage of convenience and rapid results, it may not add significant value to case finding in an office-based setting.

  15. Understanding Short-Term Nonmigrating Tidal Variability in the Ionospheric Dynamo Region from SABER Using Information Theory and Bayesian Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, K.; Oberheide, J.

    2017-12-01

    Nonmigrating tidal diagnostics of SABER temperature observations in the ionospheric dynamo region reveal a large amount of variability on time-scales of a few days to weeks. In this paper, we discuss the physical reasons for the observed short-term tidal variability using a novel approach based on Information theory and Bayesian statistics. We diagnose short-term tidal variability as a function of season, QBO, ENSO, and solar cycle and other drivers using time dependent probability density functions, Shannon entropy and Kullback-Leibler divergence. The statistical significance of the approach and its predictive capability is exemplified using SABER tidal diagnostics with emphasis on the responses to the QBO and solar cycle. Implications for F-region plasma density will be discussed.

  16. IgV peptide mapping of native Ro60 autoantibody proteomes in primary Sjögren's syndrome reveals molecular markers of Ro/La diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing J; Al Kindi, Mahmood A; Colella, Alex D; Dykes, Lukah; Jackson, Michael W; Chataway, Tim K; Reed, Joanne H; Gordon, Tom P

    2016-12-01

    We have used high-resolution mass spectrometry to sequence precipitating anti-Ro60 proteomes from sera of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome and compare immunoglobulin variable-region (IgV) peptide signatures in Ro/La autoantibody subsets. Anti-Ro60 were purified by elution from native Ro60-coated ELISA plates and subjected to combined de novo amino acid sequencing and database matching. Monospecific anti-Ro60 Igs comprised dominant public and minor private sets of IgG1 kappa and lambda restricted heavy and light chains. Specific IgV amino acid substitutions stratified anti-Ro60 from anti-Ro60/La responses, providing a molecular fingerprint of Ro60/La determinant spreading and suggesting that different forms of Ro60 antigen drive these responses. Sequencing of linked anti-Ro52 proteomes from individual patients and comparison with their anti-Ro60 partners revealed sharing of a dominant IGHV3-23/IGKV3-20 paired clonotype but with divergent IgV mutational signatures. In summary, anti-Ro60 IgV peptide mapping provides insights into Ro/La autoantibody diversification and reveals serum-based molecular markers of humoral Ro60 autoimmunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification and validation of biomarkers of IgV(H) mutation status in chronic lymphocytic leukemia using microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruzzo, Lynne V; Barron, Lynn L; Anderson, Keith; Newman, Rachel J; Wierda, William G; O'brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Luthra, Madan; Talwalkar, Sameer; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Jones, Dan; Keating, Michael J; Coombes, Kevin R

    2007-09-01

    To develop a model incorporating relevant prognostic biomarkers for untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients, we re-analyzed the raw data from four published gene expression profiling studies. We selected 88 candidate biomarkers linked to immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IgV(H)) mutation status and produced a reliable and reproducible microfluidics quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction array. We applied this array to a training set of 29 purified samples from previously untreated patients. In an unsupervised analysis, the samples clustered into two groups. Using a cutoff point of 2% homology to the germline IgV(H) sequence, one group contained all 14 IgV(H)-unmutated samples; the other contained all 15 mutated samples. We confirmed the differential expression of 37 of the candidate biomarkers using two-sample t-tests. Next, we constructed 16 different models to predict IgV(H) mutation status and evaluated their performance on an independent test set of 20 new samples. Nine models correctly classified 11 of 11 IgV(H)-mutated cases and eight of nine IgV(H)-unmutated cases, with some models using three to seven genes. Thus, we can classify cases with 95% accuracy based on the expression of as few as three genes.

  18. Spatiotemporal Variability of Humidity Across the Contiguous United States and Southern Canada Using Regional Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Ruben John

    The objective of this dissertation was to show that there is now enough observed humidity data available so that estimates of humidity, along with their necessary assumptions, can be replaced by measured humidity data. The range of applications that depend on humidity data is huge, ranging from water use efficiency of plants and plant stress to human health and agricultural practices. Biases due to the use of estimated humidity can be expected to have short and long impacts, decreasing the accuracy and precision of these, and many other, applications. Data from local, regional, and national observation networks was gathered, and custom quality control routines were written to remove bad data points from over 45000 stations, leaving 12533 usable stations. While still not at the same number of observations as temperature or precipitation, this number is nearly ten times as high as two decades ago. The work I performed consists of three major components, corresponding to the three main chapters of this dissertation. In chapter one, I describe data sources and quality control methods, along with some basic statistics of humidity, describing which geographic variables often used to predict temperature and precipitation can be used to do the same for humidity. Chapter two defines specific diurnal patterns (or "types") of dew point across the United States, including their attributes, causes, and potential influences. Chapter three analyzes biases in evapotranspiration, heat indices, and relative humidity levels that are a direct result of using estimated humidity data. Chapter four discusses contributions this work makes to the scientific community, and potential further research to build on what is presented here. While it may seem that the science of humidity should be well beyond data gathering and bias analysis, the fact remains that humidity is still very commonly estimated through the use of minimum temperature, and diurnal changes in dew point are often ignored

  19. Relación entre geohelmintiasis intestinales y variables químicas, hematológicas e IgE, en una comunidad yukpa del estado Zulia, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Churio, Osmaly; Bracho Mora, Angela; Calchi La Corte, Marinella; Acurero, Ellen; Villalobos, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Para relacionar helmintiasis intestinales y parámetros hematológicos, bioquímicos y serológicos, se estudiaron 37 individuos yukpas del municipio Perijá, estado Zulia, durante el año 2009. Las muestras de heces se evaluaron mediante el concentrado con formol-éter, Kato-Katz y cultivo de Harada-Mori. Los parámetros hematológicos, las proteínas totales, albúminas, globulinas y relación A/G, fueron determinados por autoanalizadores hematológicos y bioquímicos. La IgE fue determinada por ELISA. 7...

  20. Development of β-lactoglobulin-specific chimeric human IgEκ monoclonal antibodies for in vitro safety assessment of whey hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipping, Karen; Simons, Peter J; Buelens-Sleumer, Laura S; Cox, Linda; den Hartog, Marcel; de Jong, Niels; Teshima, Reiko; Garssen, Johan; Boon, Louis; Knippels, Léon M J

    2014-01-01

    Cow's milk-derived whey hydrolysates are nutritional substitutes for allergic infants. Safety or residual allergenicity assessment of these whey hydrolysates is crucial. Currently, rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells expressing the human IgE receptor α-chain (huFcεRIα-RBL-2H3), sensitized with serum IgE from cow's milk allergic children, are being employed to assess in vitro residual allergenicity of these whey hydrolysates. However, limited availability and inter-lot variation of these allergic sera impede standardization of whey hydrolysate safety testing in degranulation assays. An oligoclonal pool of chimeric human (chu)IgE antibodies against bovine β-lactoglobulin (a major allergen in whey) was generated to increase sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility of existing degranulation assays. Mice were immunized with bovine β-lactoglobulin, and subsequently the variable domains of dissimilar anti-β-lactoglobulin mouse IgG antibodies were cloned and sequenced. Six chimeric antibodies were generated comprising mouse variable domains and human constant IgE/κ domains. After sensitization with this pool of anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs, huFcεRIα-expressing RBL-2H3 cells demonstrated degranulation upon cross-linking with whey, native 18 kDa β-lactoglobulin, and 5-10 kDa whey hydrolysates, whereas a 3 kDa whey hydrolysate and cow's milk powder (mainly casein) showed no degranulation. In parallel, allergic serum IgEs were less sensitive. In addition, our pool anti-β-lactoglobulin chuIgEs recognized multiple allergenic immunodominant regions on β-lactoglobulin, which were also recognized by serum IgEs from cow's milk allergic children. Usage of our 'unlimited' source and well-defined pool of β-lactoglobulin-specific recombinant chuIgEs to sensitize huFcεRIα on RBL-2H3 cells showed to be a relevant and sensitive alternative for serum IgEs from cow's milk allergic patients to assess safety of whey-based non-allergic hydrolyzed formula.

  1. Are revised models better models? A skill score assessment of regional interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Kenneth R.; Participating AMIP Modelling Groups

    1999-05-01

    Various skill scores are used to assess the performance of revised models relative to their original configurations. The interannual variability of all-India, Sahel and Nordeste rainfall and summer monsoon windshear is examined in integrations performed under the experimental design of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. For the indices considered, the revised models exhibit greater fidelity at simulating the observed interannual variability. Interannual variability of all-India rainfall is better simulated by models that have a more realistic rainfall climatology in the vicinity of India, indicating the beneficial effect of reducing systematic model error.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Localized GCM Grid Refinement on Regional Tropical Cyclone Climatology and Synoptic Variability using Variable-Resolution CAM-SE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycki, C.; Jablonowski, C.

    2013-12-01

    Using General Circulation Models (GCMs) to resolve sub-synoptic features in climate simulations has traditionally been difficult due to a multitude of atmospheric processes operating at subgrid scales requiring significant parameterization. For example, at traditional GCM horizontal grid resolutions of 50-300 km, tropical cyclones are generally under-resolved. This paper explores a novel variable-resolution global modeling approach that allows for high spatial resolutions in areas of interest, such as low-latitude ocean basins where tropical cyclogenesis occurs. Such multi-resolution GCM designs allow for targeted use of computing resources at the regional level while maintaining a globally-continuous model domain and may serve to bridge the gap between GCMs with uniform grids and boundary-forced limited area models. A statically-nested, variable-resolution option has recently been introduced into the Community Atmosphere Model's (CAM) Spectral Element (SE) dynamical core. A 110 km CAM-SE grid with a 28 km nest over the Atlantic Ocean has been coupled to land, ocean, and ice components within the Community Earth System Model (CESM). We present the results of a multi-decadal climate simulation using Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols, which force the model with historical sea surface temperatures and airborne chemical species. To investigate whether refinement improves the representation of tropical cyclones, we compare Atlantic storm statistics to observations with specific focus paid to intensity profiles and track densities. The resolution dependance of both cyclone structure and objective detection between refined and unrefined basins is explored. In addition, we discuss the potential impact of using variable-resolution grids on the large-scale synoptic interannual variability by comparing refined grid simulations to reanalysis data as well as an unrefined, globally-uniform CAM-SE simulation with identical forcing. We also evaluate the

  3. Radioimmunoassay of IgM, IgG, and IgA brucella antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrett, D.; Nielson, K.H.; White, R.G.; Payne, D.J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (R.I.A.) has been devised to measure the serum antibody against Brucella abortus in each of the immunoglobulin classes IgM, IgG, and IgA. This test was applied to 46 sera from individuals with various clinical types of brucellosis, and the results were compared with the results of conventional direct and indirect agglutination and complement-fixation tests. The R.I.A. provided a highly sensitive primary-type assay which avoided the difficulties with blocking or non-agglutinating antibody, and thus has many advantages in the diagnosis of acute and chronic stages of brucella infection in man. The R.I.A. was successful in detection of antibody in many instances in which conventional serological tests were negative, and such antibody could (if IgM) be associated with acute or (if IgG or IgA) with chronic cases of brucellosis. One case in which B.abortus was isolated by blood culture but which failed to yield antibody by conventional tests, nevertheless showed substantial levels of IgM and IgG antibody by R.I.A. In other cases the R.I.A. test helped to eliminate the diagnosis of brucellosis by revealing absent or low antibody levels. (author)

  4. Enhancement of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by endowing IgG with FcαRI (CD89) binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, M Jack; Luheshi, Nadia M; Beyaz, Nurten; Davies, Gareth C; Legg, James W; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Tsui, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Fc effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) are crucial to the efficacy of many antibody therapeutics. In addition to IgG, antibodies of the IgA isotype can also promote cell killing through engagement of myeloid lineage cells via interactions between the IgA-Fc and FcαRI (CD89). Herein, we describe a unique, tandem IgG1/IgA2 antibody format in the context of a trastuzumab variable domain that exhibits enhanced ADCC and ADCP capabilities. The IgG1/IgA2 tandem Fc format retains IgG1 FcγR binding as well as FcRn-mediated serum persistence, yet is augmented with myeloid cell-mediated effector functions via FcαRI/IgA Fc interactions. In this work, we demonstrate anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 antibodies with the unique tandem IgG1/IgA2 Fc can better recruit and engage cytotoxic polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells than either the parental IgG1 or IgA2. Pharmacokinetics of IgG1/IgA2 in BALB/c mice are similar to the parental IgG, and far surpass the poor serum persistence of IgA2. The IgG1/IgA2 format is expressed at similar levels and with similar thermal stability to IgG1, and can be purified via standard protein A chromatography. The tandem IgG1/IgA2 format could potentially augment IgG-based immunotherapeutics with enhanced PMN-mediated cytotoxicity while avoiding many of the problems associated with developing IgAs.

  5. Santa Ana Winds of Southern California: Their Climatology and Variability Spanning 6.5 Decades from Regional Dynamical Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Morales, J.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    Santa Ana Winds (SAWs) are an integral feature of the regional climate of Southern California/Northern Baja California region. In spite of their tremendous episodic impacts on the health, economy and mood of the region, climate-scale behavior of SAW is poorly understood. In the present work, we identify SAWs in mesoscale dynamical downscaling of a global reanalysis product and construct an hourly SAW catalogue spanning 65 years. We describe the long-term SAW climatology at relevant time-space resolutions, i.e, we developed local and regional SAW indices and analyse their variability on hourly, daily, annual, and multi-decadal timescales. Local and regional SAW indices are validated with available anemometer observations. Characteristic behaviors are revealed, e.g. the SAW intensity-duration relationship. At interdecadal time scales, we find that seasonal SAW activity is sensitive to prominent large-scale low-frequency modes of climate variability rooted in the tropical and north Pacific ocean-atmosphere system that are also known to affect the hydroclimate of this region. Lastly, we do not find any long-term trend in SAW frequency and intensity as previously reported. Instead, we identify a significant long-term trend in SAW behavior whereby contribution of extreme SAW events to total seasonal SAW activity has been increasing at the expense of moderate events. These findings motivate further investigation on SAW evolution in future climate and its impact on wildfires.

  6. Orbital Pseudotumor: Uncommon Initial Presentation of IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Carbone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD encompasses a group of fibroinflammatory conditions recognized in recent times. The main clinical features include variable degrees of tissue fibrosis, tumorlike expansions, perivascular lymphocytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, and elevated serum IgG4. A case has been reported of an elderly patient with an unexplained unilateral exophthalmia; biopsy was performed and revealed lymphocytic infiltration, suggesting IgG4-RD. High serum levels of IgG4, in association with a good response to steroid therapy and to the exclusion of other diagnoses, confirmed the hypothesis of orbital pseudotumor by IgG4-RD.

  7. Increased topographical variability of task-related activation in perceptive and motor associative regions in adult autistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Poulin-Lord

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Different and possibly unique strategies are used by each autistic individual. That enhanced variability in localization of activations in the autistic group is found in regions typically more variable in non-autistics raises the possibility that autism involves an enhancement and/or an alteration of typical plasticity mechanisms. The current study also highlights the necessity to verify, in fMRI studies involving autistic people, that hypoactivation at the group level does not result from each individual successfully completing a task using a unique brain allocation, even by comparison to his own group.

  8. IgG4 autoantibodies are inhibitory in the autoimmune disease bullous pemphigoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yagang; Evangelista, Flor; Culton, Donna; Guilabert, Antonio; Lin, Lin; Li, Ning; Diaz, Luis; Liu, Zhi

    2016-09-01

    The IgG4 subclass of antibodies exhibits unique characteristics that suggest it may function in an immunoregulatory capacity. The inhibitory function of IgG4 has been well documented in allergic disease by the demonstration of IgG4 blocking antibodies, but similar functions have not been explored in autoimmune disease. Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal autoimmune blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies directed against BP180 and an inflammatory infiltrate including eosinophils and neutrophils. Animal models have revealed that the NC16A region within BP180 harbors the critical epitopes necessary for autoantibody mediated disease induction. BP180 NC16A-specific IgG belong to the IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4 subclasses. The purpose of this study was to determine effector functions of different IgG subclasses of NC16A-specific autoantibodies in BP. We find that IgG4 anti-NC16A autoantibodies inhibit the binding of IgG1 and IgG3 autoantibodies to the NC16A region. Moreover, IgG4 anti-NC16A blocks IgG1 and IgG3 induced complement fixation, neutrophil infiltration, and blister formation clinically and histologically in a dose-dependent manner following passive transfer to humanized BP180-NC16A mice. These findings highlight the inhibitory role of IgG4 in autoimmune disease and have important implications for the treatment of BP as well as other antibody mediated inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pollen-based reconstruction of Holocene climate variability in the Eifel region evaluated with stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Norbert; Moschen, Robert; Wagner, Stefanie

    2010-05-01

    Pollen as well as stable isotopes have great potential as climate proxy data. While variability in these proxy data is frequently assumed to reflect climate variability, other factors than climate, including human impact and statistical noise, can often not be excluded as primary cause for the observed variability. Multiproxy studies offer the opportunity to test different drivers by providing different lines of evidence for environmental change such as climate variability and human impact. In this multiproxy study we use pollen and peat humification to evaluate to which extent stable oxygen and carbon isotope series from the peat bog "Dürres Maar" reflect human impact rather than climate variability. For times before strong anthropogenic vegetation change, isotope series from Dürres Maar were used to validate quantitative reconstructions based on pollen. Our study site is the kettle hole peat bog "Dürres Maar" in the Eifel low mountain range, Germany (450m asl), which grew 12m during the last 10,000 years. Pollen was analysed with a sum of at least 1000 terrestrial pollen grains throughout the profile to minimize statistical effects on the reconstructions. A recently developed probabilistic indicator taxa method ("pdf-method") was used for the quantitative climate estimates (January and July temperature) based on pollen. For isotope analysis, attention was given to use monospecific Sphagnum leaves whenever possible, reducing the potential of a species effect and any potential artefact that can originate from selective degradation of different morphological parts of Sphagnum plants (Moschen et al., 2009). Pollen at "Dürres Maar" reflect the variable and partly strong human impact on vegetation during the last 4000 years. Stable isotope time series were apparently not influenced by human impact at this site. This highlights the potential of stable isotope investigations from peat for climatic interpretation, because stable isotope series from lacustrine

  10. Accounting for CO2 variability over East Asia with a regional joint inversion system and its preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xingxia; Tian, Xiangjun; Zhang, Meigen; Peng, Zhen; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2017-10-01

    A regional surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux inversion system, the Tan-Tracker-Region, was developed by incorporating an assimilation scheme into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional chemical transport model to resolve fine-scale CO2 variability over East Asia. The proper orthogonal decomposition-based ensemble four-dimensional variational data assimilation approach (POD-4DVar) is the core algorithm for the joint assimilation framework, and simultaneous assimilations of CO2 concentrations and surface CO2 fluxes are applied to help reduce the uncertainty in initial CO2 concentrations. A persistence dynamical model was developed to describe the evolution of the surface CO2 fluxes and help avoid the "signal-to-noise" problem; thus, CO2 fluxes could be estimated as a whole at the model grid scale, with better use of observation information. The performance of the regional inversion system was evaluated through a group of single-observation-based observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). The results of the experiments suggest that a reliable performance of Tan-Tracker-Region is dependent on certain assimilation parameter choices, for example, an optimized window length of approximately 3 h, an ensemble size of approximately 100, and a covariance localization radius of approximately 320 km. This is probably due to the strong diurnal variation and spatial heterogeneity in the fine-scale CMAQ simulation, which could affect the performance of the regional inversion system. In addition, because all observations can be artificially obtained in OSSEs, the performance of Tan-Tracker-Region was further evaluated through different densities of the artificial observation network in different CO2 flux situations. The results indicate that more observation sites would be useful to systematically improve the estimation of CO2 concentration and flux in large areas over the model domain. The work presented here forms a foundation for future research in which a

  11. Assessment of soil variability of South moravian region based on the satellite imagery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, J.; Lukas, V.; Rodriguez Moreno, Fernando; Křen, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 1 (2018), s. 119-129 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Coefficient of variation * lpis * ndvi * pca * RapidEye * Remote sensing * sentinel 2 * Soil variability Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science

  12. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions.

  13. Analysis of source regions and meteorological factors for the variability of spring PM10 concentrations in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jangho; Kim, Kwang-Yul

    2018-02-01

    CSEOF analysis is applied for the springtime (March, April, May) daily PM10 concentrations measured at 23 Ministry of Environment stations in Seoul, Korea for the period of 2003-2012. Six meteorological variables at 12 pressure levels are also acquired from the ERA Interim reanalysis datasets. CSEOF analysis is conducted for each meteorological variable over East Asia. Regression analysis is conducted in CSEOF space between the PM10 concentrations and individual meteorological variables to identify associated atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode. By adding the regressed loading vectors with the mean meteorological fields, the daily atmospheric conditions are obtained for the first five CSEOF modes. Then, HYSPLIT model is run with the atmospheric conditions for each CSEOF mode in order to back trace the air parcels and dust reaching Seoul. The K-means clustering algorithm is applied to identify major source regions for each CSEOF mode of the PM10 concentrations in Seoul. Three main source regions identified based on the mean fields are: (1) northern Taklamakan Desert (NTD), (2) Gobi Desert and (GD), and (3) East China industrial area (ECI). The main source regions for the mean meteorological fields are consistent with those of previous study; 41% of the source locations are located in GD followed by ECI (37%) and NTD (21%). Back trajectory calculations based on CSEOF analysis of meteorological variables identify distinct source characteristics associated with each CSEOF mode and greatly facilitate the interpretation of the PM10 variability in Seoul in terms of transportation route and meteorological conditions including the source area.

  14. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  15. Protection against Syphilis Correlates with Specificity of Antibodies to the Variable Regions of Treponema pallidum Repeat Protein K

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Cecilia A.; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2003-01-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V ...

  16. Validation of EURO-CORDEX regional climate models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Busuioc, Aristita

    2016-04-01

    EURO-CORDEX is the European branch of the international CORDEX initiative that aims to provide improved regional climate change projections for Europe. The main objective of this paper is to document the performance of the individual models in reproducing the variability of precipitation extremes in Romania. Here three EURO-CORDEX regional climate models (RCMs) ensemble (scenario RCP4.5) are analysed and inter-compared: DMI-HIRHAM5, KNMI-RACMO2.2 and MPI-REMO. Compared to previous studies, when the RCM validation regarding the Romanian climate has mainly been made on mean state and at station scale, a more quantitative approach of precipitation extremes is proposed. In this respect, to have a more reliable comparison with observation, a high resolution daily precipitation gridded data set was used as observational reference (CLIMHYDEX project). The comparison between the RCM outputs and observed grid point values has been made by calculating three extremes precipitation indices, recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection Indices (ETCCDI), for the 1976-2005 period: R10MM, annual count of days when precipitation ≥10mm; RX5DAY, annual maximum 5-day precipitation and R95P%, precipitation fraction of annual total precipitation due to daily precipitation > 95th percentile. The RCMs capability to reproduce the mean state for these variables, as well as the main modes of their spatial variability (given by the first three EOF patterns), are analysed. The investigation confirms the ability of RCMs to simulate the main features of the precipitation extreme variability over Romania, but some deficiencies in reproducing of their regional characteristics were found (for example, overestimation of the mea state, especially over the extra Carpathian regions). This work has been realised within the research project "Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in hydrological events in Romania" (CLIMHYDEX), code PN II-ID-2011-2-0073, financed by the Romanian

  17. Prevalence and variability of use of home mechanical ventilators, positive airway pressure and oxygen devices in the Lombardy region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitacca, Michele; Barbano, Luca; Colombo, Daniele; Leoni, Olivia; Guffanti, Enrico

    2018-01-29

    Few studies have analyzed the prevalence and accessibility of home mechanical ventilation (HMV) in Italy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and prescription variability of HMV as well as of long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), in the Lombardy Region. Prescribing rates of HMV (both noninvasive and tracheostomies), CPAP (auto-CPAP, CPAP/other sleep machines) and LTOT (liquid-O2, O2-gas, concentrators) in the 15 Local Healthcare districts of Lombardy were gathered from billing data for 2012 and compared. Crude rates (per 100,000 population) and rates for the different healthcare districts were calculated. In 2012, 6325 patients were on HMV (crude prescription rate: 63/100,000) with a high variation across districts (8/100,000 in Milano 1 vs 150/100,000 in Pavia). There were 14,237 patients on CPAP (crude prescription rate: 142/100,000; CPAP/other sleep machines 95.3% vs auto-CPAP 4.7%) with also high intra-regional variation (56/100,000 in Mantova vs. 260/100,000 in Pavia). There were 21,826 patients on LTOT (prescription rate: 217/100,000 rate; liquid-O2 94%, O2-gas 2.08%, O2-concentrators 3.8%), with again high intra-regional variation (100/100,000 in Bergamo vs 410/100,000 in Valle Camonica). The crude rate of HMV prescriptions in Lombardy is very high, with a high intra-regional variability in prescribing HMV, LTOT and CPAP which is partly explainable by the accessibility to specialist centers with HMV/sleep-study facilities. Analysis of administrative data and variability mapping can help identify areas of reduced access for an improved standardization of services. An audit among Health Payer and prescribers to interpret the described huge variability could be welcomed.

  18. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidarsson, Gestur; Overbeeke, Natasja; Stemerding, Annette M.; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie; van Ulsen, Peter; van der Ley, Peter; Kilian, Mogens; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still

  19. Working mechanism of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) protease: cleavage of IgA1 antibody to Neisseria meningitidis PorA requires de novo synthesis of IgA1 Protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidarsson, G; Overbeeke, N; Stemerding, AM

    2005-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis secretes a protease that specifically cleaves the hinge region of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), releasing the effector (Fc) domain of IgA1 from the antigen binding (Fab) determinants. Theoretically, the remaining Fab fragments can block pathogen receptors or toxins and still...

  20. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  1. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI. We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic may also affect on land degradation.

  2. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio

    2015-04-14

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  3. Drought Variability and Land Degradation in Semiarid Regions: Assessment Using Remote Sensing Data and Drought Indices (1982–2011)

    KAUST Repository

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio; Cabello, Daniel; Tomá s-Burguera, Miquel; Martí n-Herná ndez, Natalia; Beguerí a, Santiago; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Kenawy, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed potential land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide using long time series of remote sensing images and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 1981 to 2011. The objectives of the study were to identify semiarid regions showing a marked decrease in potential vegetation activity, indicative of the occurrence of land degradation processes, and to assess the possible influence of the observed drought trends quantified using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). We found that the NDVI values recorded during the period of maximum vegetation activity (NDVImax) predominantly showed a positive evolution in the majority of the semiarid regions assessed, but NDVImax was highly correlated with drought variability, and the trends of drought events influenced trends in NDVImax at the global scale. The semiarid regions that showed most increase in NDVImax (the Sahel, northern Australia, South Africa) were characterized by a clear positive trend in the SPEI values, indicative of conditions of greater humidity and lesser drought conditions. While changes in drought severity may be an important driver of NDVI trends and land degradation processes in semiarid regions worldwide, drought did not apparently explain some of the observed changes in NDVImax. This reflects the complexity of vegetation activity processes in the world’s semiarid regions, and the difficulty of defining a universal response to drought in these regions, where a number of factors (natural and anthropogenic) may also affect on land degradation.

  4. Sensitivity of extreme precipitation to temperature: the variability of scaling factors from a regional to local perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeer, K.; Kirchengast, G.

    2018-06-01

    Potential increases in extreme rainfall induced hazards in a warming climate have motivated studies to link precipitation intensities to temperature. Increases exceeding the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) rate of 6-7%/°C-1 are seen in short-duration, convective, high-percentile rainfall at mid latitudes, but the rates of change cease or revert at regionally variable threshold temperatures due to moisture limitations. It is unclear, however, what these findings mean in term of the actual risk of extreme precipitation on a regional to local scale. When conditioning precipitation intensities on local temperatures, key influences on the scaling relationship such as from the annual cycle and regional weather patterns need better understanding. Here we analyze these influences, using sub-hourly to daily precipitation data from a dense network of 189 stations in south-eastern Austria. We find that the temperature sensitivities in the mountainous western region are lower than in the eastern lowlands. This is due to the different weather patterns that cause extreme precipitation in these regions. Sub-hourly and hourly intensities intensify at super-CC and CC-rates, respectively, up to temperatures of about 17 °C. However, we also find that, because of the regional and seasonal variability of the precipitation intensities, a smaller scaling factor can imply a larger absolute change in intensity. Our insights underline that temperature precipitation scaling requires careful interpretation of the intent and setting of the study. When this is considered, conditional scaling factors can help to better understand which influences control the intensification of rainfall with temperature on a regional scale.

  5. Kinetics of hemolytic plaque formation. IV. IgM plaque inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLisi, C

    1975-01-01

    An analysis of the inhibition of hemolytic plaques formed against IgM antibodies is presented. The starting point is the equations of DeLisi and Bell (1974) which describe the kinetics of plaque growth, and DeLisi and Goldstein (1975) which describe inhibition of IgG plaques. However, the physical chemical models which were used previously to describe IgG inhibition data are shown to be inadequate for describing the characteristics of IgM inhibition curves. Moreover, it is shown that the experimental results place severe restrictions on the possible choices of physical chemical models for IgM upon which to base the calculations. It is argued that in order to account even qualitatively for all the data, one must assume (1) a very restricted motion of IgMs about the Fab hinge region and (2) a very narrow secretion rate distribution of IgM by antibody secreting cells. (auth)

  6. Intraspecific Variability of Rotylenchulus reniformis from Cotton-growing Regions in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Paula; Robbins, Robert T.; Stewart, James McD.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2005-01-01

    Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a major pest of cotton in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of reniform nematode populations from cotton-growing locations in the United States where it is prevalent. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis were used to determine the variability of morphology in males and immature females. Reproduction indices of populations were measured on selected soybean and cotton ge...

  7. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  8. Intra-individual variability of ITS regions in entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae: Nematoda): implications for their taxonomy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půža, Vladimír; Chundelová, Daniela; Nermuť, Jiří; Žurovcová, Martina; Mráček, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 4 (2015), s. 547-554 ISSN 1386-6141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/2352 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 052/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Steinernema * genetic diversity * intra-individual variability Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.767, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10526-015-9664-5

  9. Making the best of climatic variability: options for upgrading rainfed farming in water scarce regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockström, J

    2004-01-01

    Coping with climatic variability for livelihood security is part of everyday life for rural communities in semi-arid and dry sub-humid savannas. Water scarcity caused by rainfall fluctuations is common, causing meteorological droughts and dry spells. However, this paper indicates, based on experiences in sub-Saharan Africa and India, that the social impact on rural societies of climatically induced droughts is exaggerated. Instead, water scarcity causing food deficits is more often caused by management induced droughts and dry spells. A conceptual framework to distinguish between manageable and unmanageable droughts is presented. It is suggested that climatic droughts require focus on social resilience building instead of land and water resource management. Focus is then set on the manageable part of climatic variability, namely the almost annual occurrence of dry spells, short 2-4 week periods of no rainfall, affecting farmer yields. On-farm experiences in savannas of sub-Saharan Africa of water harvesting systems for dry spell mitigation are presented. It is shown that bridging dry spells combined with soil fertility management can double and even triple on-farm yield levels. Combined with innovative systems to ensure maximum plant water availability and water uptake capacity, through adoption of soil fertility improvement and conservation tillage systems, there is a clear opportunity to upgrade rainfed farming systems in vulnerable savanna environments, through appropriate local management of climatic variability.

  10. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  11. ENSO variability reflected in precipitation oxygen isotopes across the Asian Summer Monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhongyin; Tian, Lide; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2017-10-01

    Oxygen isotope signals (δ18O) from paleo-archives are important proxies for past Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) climate reconstruction. However, causes of interannual variation in the δ18O values of modern precipitation across the ASM region remain in argument. We report interannual δ18O variation in southern Tibetan Plateau precipitation based on long-term observations at Lhasa. These data, together with precipitation δ18O records from five Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) stations and two ice core δ18O records, were used to define a regional metric of ASM precipitation δ18O (ASMOI). Back-trajectory analyses for rainy season precipitation events indicate that moisture sources vary little between years with relatively high and low δ18O values, a result that is consistent for the south (Lhasa), southeast (Bangkok), and east ASM regions (Hong Kong). In contrast, δ18O values at these three locations are significantly correlated with convection in the estimated source regions and along transport paths. These results suggest that upstream convection, rather than moisture source change, causes interannual variation in ASM precipitation δ18O values. Contrasting values of the ASMOI in El Niño and La Niña years reveal a positive isotope-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response (e.g., high values corresponding to warm phases), which we interpret as a response to changes in regional convection. We show that the isotope-ENSO response is amplified at high elevation sites and during La Niña years. These findings should improve interpretations of paleo-δ18O data as a proxy for past ASM variation and provide new opportunities to use data from this region to study paleo-ENSO activity.

  12. Precipitation and ice core isotopes from the Asian Summer Monsoon region reflect coherent ENSO variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Z.; Tian, L.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Oxygen isotope signals (δ18O) from paleo-archives are important proxies for past Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) climate reconstruction. However, causes of interannual variation in the δ18O values of modern precipitation across the ASM region remain in argument. We report interannual δ18O variation in southern Tibetan Plateau precipitation based on long-term observations at Lhasa. These data, together with precipitation δ18O records from five Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) stations and two ice core δ18O records, were used to define a regional metric of ASM precipitation δ18O (ASMOI). Back-trajectory analyses for rainy season precipitation events indicate that moisture sources vary little between years with relatively high and low δ18O values, a result that is consistent for the south (Lhasa), southeast (Bangkok), and east ASM regions (Hong Kong). In contrast, δ18O values at these three locations are significantly correlated with convection in the estimated source regions and along transport paths. These results suggest that upstream convection, rather than moisture source change, causes interannual variation in ASM precipitation δ18O values. Contrasting values of the ASMOI in El Niño and La Niña years reveal a positive isotope-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) response (e.g., high values corresponding to warm phases), which we interpret as a response to changes in regional convection. We show that the isotope-ENSO response is amplified at high elevation sites and during La Niña years. These findings should improve interpretations of paleo-δ18O data as a proxy for past ASM variation and provide new opportunities to use data from this region to study paleo-ENSO activity.

  13. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability of effects of spatial climate data aggregation on regional yield simulation by crop models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, H.; Zhao, G.; Bussel, van L.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Field-scale crop models are often applied at spatial resolutions coarser than that of the arable field. However, little is known about the response of the models to spatially aggregated climate input data and why these responses can differ across models. Depending on the model, regional yield

  15. Quantitative remote sensing for monitoring forest canopy structural variables in the Three Gorges region of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Bridging various scales ranging from local to regional and global, remote sensing has facilitated extraordinary advances in modeling and mapping ecosystems and their functioning. Since forests are one of the most important natural resources on the terrestrial Earth surface, accurate and up-to-date

  16. Human Cell Line-Derived Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Hart

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IgA antibodies have great potential to improve the functional diversity of current IgG antibody-based cancer immunotherapy options. However, IgA production and purification is not well established, which can at least in part be attributed to the more complex glycosylation as compared to IgG antibodies. IgA antibodies possess up to five N-glycosylation sites within their constant region of the heavy chain as compared to one site for IgG antibodies. The human GlycoExpress expression system was developed to produce biotherapeutics with optimized glycosylation and used here to generate a panel of IgA isotype antibodies directed against targets for solid (TA-mucin 1, Her2, EGFR, Thomsen–Friedenreich and hematological (CD20 cancer indications. The feasibility of good manufacturing practice was shown by the production of 11 g IgA within 35 days in a one liter perfusion bioreactor, and IgA antibodies in high purity were obtained after purification. The monoclonal IgA antibodies possessed a high sialylation degree, and no non-human glycan structures were detected. Kinetic analysis revealed increased avidity antigen binding for IgA dimers as compared to monomeric antibodies. The IgA antibodies exhibited potent Fab- and Fc-mediated functionalities against cancer cell lines, whereby especially granulocytes are recruited. Therefore, for patients who do not sufficiently benefit from therapeutic IgG antibodies, IgA antibodies may complement current regiment options and represent a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. In conclusion, a panel of novel biofunctional IgA antibodies with human glycosylation was successfully generated.

  17. Histopathologie der IgG4-RD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, S; Klöppel, G

    2016-01-01

    infiltrate, 2) storiform fibrosis and 3) obliterative phlebitis. The diagnosis is further supported by immunohistochemical demonstration of an increased infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and an elevated IgG4/IgG ratio. The morphological criteria of IgG4-RD are in most cases detectable in biopsies...

  18. Finding stability regions for preserving efficiency classification of variable returns to scale technology in data envelopment analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, P.; Borzouei, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper addresses issue of sensitivity of efficiency classification of variable returns to scale (VRS) technology for enhancing the credibility of data envelopment analysis (DEA) results in practical applications when an additional decision making unit (DMU) needs to be added to the set being considered. It also develops a structured approach to assisting practitioners in making an appropriate selection of variation range for inputs and outputs of additional DMU so that this DMU be efficient and the efficiency classification of VRS technology remains unchanged. This stability region is simply specified by the concept of defining hyperplanes of production possibility set of VRS technology and the corresponding halfspaces. Furthermore, this study determines a stability region for the additional DMU within which, in addition to efficiency classification, the efficiency score of a specific inefficient DMU is preserved and also using a simulation method, a region in which some specific efficient DMUs become inefficient is provided.

  19. Cross-Regional Assessment Of Coupling And Variability In Precipitation-Runoff Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, S. K.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Buttle, J. M.; Laudon, H.; McDonnell, J. J.; McGuire, K. J.; Seibert, J.; Shanley, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    The higher mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere are particularly sensitive to change due to the important role the zero-degree isotherm plays in the phase of precipitation and intermediate storage as snow. An international inter-catchment comparison program North-Watch seeks to improve our understanding of the sensitivity of northern catchments to change by examining their hydrological and biogeochemical variability and response. The catchments are located in Sweden (Krycklan), Scotland (Mharcaidh, Girnock and Strontian), the United States (Sleepers River, Hubbard Brook and HJ Andrews) and Canada (Catamaran, Dorset and Wolf Creek). For this study, 8 catchments with 10 continuous years of daily precipitation and runoff data were selected to assess the seasonal coupling of rainfall and runoff and the memory effect of runoff events on the hydrograph at different time scales. To assess the coupling and synchroneity of precipitation, continuous wavelet transforms and wavelet coherence were used. Wavelet spectra identified the relative importance of both annual versus seasonal flows while wavelet coherence was applied to identify over different time scales along the 10-year window how well precipitation and runoff were coupled. For example, while on a given day, precipitation may be closely coupled to runoff, a wet year may not necessarily be a high runoff year in catchments with large storage. Assessing different averaging periods in the variation of daily flows highlights the importance of seasonality in runoff response and the relative influence of rain versus snowmelt on flow magnitude and variability. Wet catchments with limited seasonal precipitation variability (Strontian, Girnock) have precipitation signals more closely coupled with runoff, whereas dryer catchments dominated by snow (Wolf Creek, Krycklan) have strongly coupling only during freshet. Most catchments with highly seasonal precipitation show strong intermittent coupling during their wet season. At

  20. On the cause of variability of the cosmic ray spectrum in the knee region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loznikov, V. M.; Erokhin, N. S.; Zol'nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2017-09-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) energy spectra for H, He, Si, and Fe nuclei with energy-to-charge number ratios ℰ/ Z in the range from 10 to 5 × 107 GeV are studied using observational data obtained at different times in different energy ranges: AMS-02, CREAM, Tibet ASγ, Tibet (hybrid), GRAPES-3, KASCADE, and KASCADE-Grande. Comparison of the H and He CR fluxes according to the KASCADE and KASCADE-Grande data (for different models of deconvolving CR spectra) with the Tibet ASγ and Tibet (hybrid) data obtained at another time in the range of ℰ/ Z ˜ 3 × 106 GeV demonstrates space weather-caused variability of the CR flux. This feature of CR energy spectra in the Tibet ASγ data is most clearly observed in the spectra of heavier nuclei (Si and Fe) according to the KASCADE-Grande and GRAPES-3 data. The variability in the energy spectra of all CRs in the vicinity of the "knee" is shown in the data of Yakutsk EAS, CASA-BLANCA, and Tibet-III experiments. The variability of the CR flux on a time scale on the order of several years exists only if the source corresponding to the peak in the energy spectrum is situated at a distance of no more than 1 pc from the Sun. Rapid surfatron acceleration of CRs may result from colliding interstellar clouds nearest to the Sun (LIC and G). This acceleration mechanism allows one to explain the variability of the CR spectrum in the range 103 GeV < ℰ/ Z < 108 GeV. Conditions for the trapping of strongly relativistic Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle velocity and momentum, and the dependence of the particle acceleration rate on the initial parameters of the problem are analyzed using numerical calculations. The structure of the phase plane of the accelerated Fe nuclei is examined. Optimal conditions for the implementation of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration of Fe nuclei by an electromagnetic wave are formulated.

  1. Volumetric analysis of regional variability in the cerebellum of children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vindia G; Stuebing, Karla; Juranek, Jenifer; Fletcher, Jack M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebellar deficits and subsequent impairment in procedural learning may contribute to both motor difficulties and reading impairment in dyslexia. We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the role of regional variation in cerebellar anatomy in children with single-word decoding impairments (N = 23), children with impairment in fluency alone (N = 8), and typically developing children (N = 16). Children with decoding impairments (dyslexia) demonstrated no statistically significant differences in overall grey and white matter volumes or cerebellar asymmetry; however, reduced volume in the anterior lobe of the cerebellum relative to typically developing children was observed. These results implicate cerebellar involvement in dyslexia and establish an important foundation for future research on the connectivity of the cerebellum and cortical regions typically associated with reading impairment.

  2. Variable trajectory model for regional assessments of air pollution from sulfur compounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, D.C.; McNaughton, D.J.; Wendell, L.L.; Drake, R.L.

    1979-02-01

    This report describes a sulfur oxides atmospheric pollution model that calculates trajectories using single-layer historical wind data as well as chemical transformation and deposition following discrete contaminant air masses. Vertical diffusion under constraints is calculated, but all horizontal dispersion is a funcion of trajectory variation. The ground-level air concentrations and deposition are calculated in a rectangular area comprising the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Calculations for a 29-day assessment period in April 1974 are presented along with a limited verification. Results for the studies were calculated using a source inventory comprising 61% of the anthropogenic SO/sub 2/ emissions. Using current model parameterization levels, predicted concentration values are most sensitive to variations in dry deposition of SO/sub 2/, wet deposition of sulfate, and transformation of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate. Replacing the variable mixed-layer depth and variable stability features of the model with constant definitions of each results in increased ground-level concentration predicions for SO/sub 2/ and particularly for sulfate.

  3. Explaining regional variation in home care use by demand and supply variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Olivier; Schotanus, Fredo; van de Klundert, Joris; Telgen, Jan

    2018-02-01

    In the Netherlands, home care services like district nursing and personal assistance are provided by private service provider organizations and covered by private health insurance companies which bear legal responsibility for purchasing these services. To improve value for money, their procurement increasingly replaces fee-for-service payments with population based budgets. Setting appropriate population budgets requires adaptation to the legitimate needs of the population, whereas historical costs are likely to be influenced by supply factors as well, not all of which are necessarily legitimate. Our purpose is to explain home care costs in terms of demand and supply factors. This allows for adjusting historical cost patterns when setting population based budgets. Using expenses claims of 60 Dutch municipalities, we analyze eight demand variables and five supply variables with a multiple regression model to explain variance in the number of clients per inhabitant, costs per client and costs per inhabitant. Our models explain 69% of variation in the number of clients per inhabitant, 28% of costs per client and 56% of costs per inhabitant using demand factors. Moreover, we find that supply factors explain an additional 17-23% of variation. Predictors of higher utilization are home care organizations that are integrated with intramural nursing homes, higher competition levels among home care organizations and the availability of complementary services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Inference of haplotypic phase and missing genotypes in polyploid organisms and variable copy number genomic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balding David J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The power of haplotype-based methods for association studies, identification of regions under selection, and ancestral inference, is well-established for diploid organisms. For polyploids, however, the difficulty of determining phase has limited such approaches. Polyploidy is common in plants and is also observed in animals. Partial polyploidy is sometimes observed in humans (e.g. trisomy 21; Down's syndrome, and it arises more frequently in some human tissues. Local changes in ploidy, known as copy number variations (CNV, arise throughout the genome. Here we present a method, implemented in the software polyHap, for the inference of haplotype phase and missing observations from polyploid genotypes. PolyHap allows each individual to have a different ploidy, but ploidy cannot vary over the genomic region analysed. It employs a hidden Markov model (HMM and a sampling algorithm to infer haplotypes jointly in multiple individuals and to obtain a measure of uncertainty in its inferences. Results In the simulation study, we combine real haplotype data to create artificial diploid, triploid, and tetraploid genotypes, and use these to demonstrate that polyHap performs well, in terms of both switch error rate in recovering phase and imputation error rate for missing genotypes. To our knowledge, there is no comparable software for phasing a large, densely genotyped region of chromosome from triploids and tetraploids, while for diploids we found polyHap to be more accurate than fastPhase. We also compare the results of polyHap to SATlotyper on an experimentally haplotyped tetraploid dataset of 12 SNPs, and show that polyHap is more accurate. Conclusion With the availability of large SNP data in polyploids and CNV regions, we believe that polyHap, our proposed method for inferring haplotypic phase from genotype data, will be useful in enabling researchers analysing such data to exploit the power of haplotype-based analyses.

  5. A novel IgA-like immunoglobulin in the reptile Eublepharis macularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza, Francisco Gambón; Espinel, Christian Sánchez; Beneitez, Julio Valdueza

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of antibody genes over evolution coincided with the origin of the vertebrates. Reptiles are of great interest in evolution since they are the link between the amphibians, birds, and mammals. This work describes the presence of a gene in the reptile leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) where phylogenetic studies suggest that it is the gene orthologue of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin X (IgX) in Xenopus. Messenger RNA samples taken from different tissues showed expression of this antibody in intestinal tissue. Data on the structure deduced from the sequence of nucleotides showed an antibody with four domains in the constant region. There is a sequence of 20 amino acids in the C terminus similar to the secretory tail of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgA. A detailed analysis of the sequence of amino acids displayed a paradox, i.e., domains CH1 and CH2 showed a clear homology with domains CH1 and CH2 of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) while domains CH3 and CH4 were homologous with domains CH3 and CH4 of IgM. This homology pattern is also seen in Xenopus IgX and bird IgA. The most logical explanation for this phenomenon is that a recombination between the IgM and IgY gave rise to the IgA.

  6. Morphological variability and distribution of the exotic Asian Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: in the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Suárez-Morales

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From a series of biological samples collected from different freshwater environments in Costa Rica, Central America, the exotic Asian cyclopoid Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides Harada, 1931 was identified. We analyzed the morphology and appendage ornamentation of different Neotropical populations of this species, including specimens from Honduras, southeastern Mexico, and Costa Rica. We also examined Asian specimens from Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand, and performed a comparison of the Neotropical and Asian populations including a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The Neotropical and Asian specimens show subtle morphological variations in the antennules, antennae, mandibles, swimming legs 1-4, and fifth legs. Some characters in the Neotropical group appear to diverge from the Asian pattern and the PCA indicated that intercontinental populations of M. thermocyclopoides are far from being homogeneous. These intra-specific differences are described to expand the known morphological range of this species and to provide the first comparative analysis of an exotic copepod in the Americas. Our analysis suggests that the geographic isolation of the American populations and the subtle morphological divergences with respect to the Asian patterns could be related to speciation processes in the Neotropical region, but also intra-Asian differences are reported. In the Neotropical region this species appears to be restricted to southeastern Mexico, Central America, and one Caribbean island; its potential as biological control of mosquito might enhance its spread in the region.

  7. Selection and characterization of naturally occurring single-domain (IgNAR) antibody fragments from immunized sharks by phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Helen; Flajnik, Martin F; Porter, Andrew J

    2003-09-01

    The novel immunoglobulin isotype novel antigen receptor (IgNAR) is found in cartilaginous fish and is composed of a heavy-chain homodimer that does not associate with light chains. The variable regions of IgNAR function as independent domains similar to those found in the heavy-chain immunoglobulins of Camelids. Here, we describe the successful cloning and generation of a phage-displayed, single-domain library based upon the variable domain of IgNAR. Selection of such a library generated from nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum) immunized with the model antigen hen egg-white lysozyme (HEL) enabled the successful isolation of intact antigen-specific binders matured in vivo. The selected variable domains were shown to be functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, extremely stable, and bind to antigen specifically with an affinity in the nanomolar range. This approach can therefore be considered as an alternative route for the isolation of minimal antigen-binding fragments with favorable characteristics.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability and Covariability of Temperature, Precipitation, Soil Moisture, and Vegetation in North America for Regional Climate Model Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, C. L.; Beltran-Przekurat, A. B.; Pielke, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    Previous work has established that the dominant modes of Pacific SSTs influence the summer climate of North America through large-scale forcing, and this effect is most pronounced during the early part of the season. It is hypothesized, then, that land surface influences become more dominant in the latter part of the season as remote teleconnection influences diminish. As a first step toward investigation of this hypothesis in a regional climate model (RCM) framework, the statistically signficant spatiotemporal patterns of variability and covariability in North American precipitation (specified by the standardized precipitation index, or SPI), soil moisture, and vegetation are determined for timescales from a month to six months. To specify these respective data we use: CPC gauge- derived precipitation (1950-2000), Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) Model and NOAH Model NLDAS soil moisture and temperature, and the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GIMMS-NDVI). The principal statistical tool used is multiple taper frequency singular value decomposition (MTM-SVD), and this is supplemented by wavelet analysis for specific areas of interest. The significant interannual variability in all of these data occur at a timescale of about 7 to 9 years and appears to be the integrated effect of remote SST forcing from the Pacific. Considering the entire year, the spatial pattern for precipitation resembles the typical ENSO winter signature. If the summer season is considered seperately, the out of phase relationship between precipitation anomalies in the central U.S. and core monsoon region is apparent. The largest soil moisture anomalies occur in the central U.S., since precipitation in this region has a consistent relationship to Pacific SSTs for the entire year. This helps to explain the approximately 20 year periodicity in drought conditions there. Unlike soil moisture, the largest anomalies in vegetation occur in the

  9. Variable-density ground-water flow and paleohydrology in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) region, southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.B.

    1989-01-01

    Variable-density groundwater flow was studied near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in southeastern New Mexico. An analysis of the relative magnitude of pressure-related and density-related flow-driving forces indicates that density-related gravity effects are not significant at the plant and to the west but are significant in areas to the north, northeast, and south. A regional-scale model of variable-density groundwater flow in the Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation indicates that the flow velocities are relatively rapid west of the site and extremely slow east and northeast of the site. In the transition zone between those two extremes, which includes the plant, velocities are highly variable. Sensitivity simulations indicates that the central and western parts of the region, including the plant, are fairly well isolated from the eastern and northeastern boundaries. Vertical-flux simulations indicate that as much as 25% of total inflow to the Culebra could be entering as vertical flow, with most of this flow occurring west of the plant. A simple cross-sectional model was developed to examine the flow system as it drains through time following recharge during a past glacial pluvial. This model indicates that the system as a whole drains very slowly and that it apparently could have sustained flow from purely transient drainage following recharge of the system during the Pleistocene

  10. Tidal and sub-tidal sea level variability at the northern shelf of the Brazilian Northeast Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frota, Felipe F; Truccolo, Eliane C; Schettini, Carlos A F

    2016-09-01

    A characterization of the sea level variability at tidal and sub-tidal frequencies at the northern shore of the Brazilian Northeast shelf for the period 2009-2011 is presented. The sea level data used was obtained from the Permanent Geodetic Tide Network from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the Fortaleza gauge station. Local wind data was also used to assess its effects on the low-frequency sea level variability. The variability of the sea level was investigated by classical harmonic analysis and by morphology assessment over the tidal signal. The low frequencies were obtained by low-pass filtering. The tidal range oscillated with the highest value of 3.3 m during the equinox and the lowest value of 0.7 m during the solstice. Differences between the spring and neap tides were as high as 1 m. A total of 59 tidal constituents were obtained from harmonic analysis, and the regional tide was classified as semi-diurnal pure with a form number of 0.11. An assessment of the monthly variability of the main tidal constituents (M2, S2, N2, O1, and K1) indicated that the main semi-diurnal solar S2 presented the highest variability, ranging from 0.21 to 0.41 m; it was the main element altering the form number through the years. The low frequency sea-level variability is negligible, although there is a persistent signal with an energy peak in the 10-15 day period, and it cannot be explained by the effects of local winds.

  11. Changes in intracranial morphology, regional cerebral water content and vital physiological variables during epidural bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, J.C.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Thuomas, K.AA.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Vlajkovic, S.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Nilsson, P.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Bergstroem, K.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Ponten, U.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo; Zwetnow, N.N.; Inst. of Surgical Research, National Hospital, Oslo

    1993-01-01

    Epidural bleeding was produced in 8 anaesthetised and heparinised dogs by an artificial system. Changes in vital physiological variables were related to intracranial shifts and tissue water content assessed with MR imaging. Six animals survived while 2 succumbed. In the surviving animals intracranial shifts and compressions remained unchanged from an early stage. The cerebral perfusion pressure was reduced from between 80 and 110 mm Hg to between 40 and 60 mm Hg. Some increase in supratentorial white matter tissue water was observed. In the lethal experiments cerebral perfusion pressure fell to less than 40 mm Hg. Moreover, secondary delayed anatomical changes were seen including hydrocephalus. Increase in cerebral tissue water was more intense and widespread than in the survivors. These findings indicate that the outcome of epidural bleeding is related to cerebral perfusion pressure with secondary deterioration resulting from additional volume loading from increased tissue water and hydrocephalus. (orig.)

  12. Multi-Site and Multi-Variables Statistical Downscaling Technique in the Monsoon Dominated Region of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Firdos; Pilz, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    South Asia is under the severe impacts of changing climate and global warming. The last two decades showed that climate change or global warming is happening and the first decade of 21st century is considered as the warmest decade over Pakistan ever in history where temperature reached 53 0C in 2010. Consequently, the spatio-temporal distribution and intensity of precipitation is badly effected and causes floods, cyclones and hurricanes in the region which further have impacts on agriculture, water, health etc. To cope with the situation, it is important to conduct impact assessment studies and take adaptation and mitigation remedies. For impact assessment studies, we need climate variables at higher resolution. Downscaling techniques are used to produce climate variables at higher resolution; these techniques are broadly divided into two types, statistical downscaling and dynamical downscaling. The target location of this study is the monsoon dominated region of Pakistan. One reason for choosing this area is because the contribution of monsoon rains in this area is more than 80 % of the total rainfall. This study evaluates a statistical downscaling technique which can be then used for downscaling climatic variables. Two statistical techniques i.e. quantile regression and copula modeling are combined in order to produce realistic results for climate variables in the area under-study. To reduce the dimension of input data and deal with multicollinearity problems, empirical orthogonal functions will be used. Advantages of this new method are: (1) it is more robust to outliers as compared to ordinary least squares estimates and other estimation methods based on central tendency and dispersion measures; (2) it preserves the dependence among variables and among sites and (3) it can be used to combine different types of distributions. This is important in our case because we are dealing with climatic variables having different distributions over different meteorological

  13. Hot regions of labile and stable soil organic carbon in Germany - Spatial variability and driving factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Jaconi, Angélica; Jacobs, Anna; Don, Axel

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels can be mitigated by sequestering carbon in the soil. Sequestration can be facilitated by agricultural management, but its influence is not the same on all soil carbon pools, as labile pools with a high turnover may be accumulated much faster but are also more vulnerable to losses. The aims of this study were to (1) assess how soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed among SOC fractions on a national scale in Germany, (2) identify factors influencing this distribution and (3) identify regions with high vulnerability to SOC losses. The SOC content and proportion of two different SOC fractions were estimated for more than 2500 mineral topsoils (soil texture, bulk soil C / N ratio, total SOC content and pH. For some regions, the drivers were linked to the land-use history of the sites. Arable topsoils in central and southern Germany were found to contain the highest proportions and contents of stable SOC fractions, and therefore have the lowest vulnerability to SOC losses. North-western Germany contains an area of sandy soils with unusually high SOC contents and high proportions of light SOC fractions, which are commonly regarded as representing a labile carbon pool. This is true for the former peat soils in this area, which have already lost and are at high risk of losing high proportions of their SOC stocks. Those black sands can, however, also contain high amounts of stable SOC due to former heathland vegetation and need to be treated and discussed separately from non-black sand agricultural soils. Overall, it was estimated that, in large areas all over Germany, over 30 % of SOC is stored in easily mineralisable forms. Thus, SOC-conserving management of arable soils in these regions is of great importance.

  14. IgG4-Related Tubulointerstitial Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingchuan; Cornell, Lynn D

    2017-03-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a fibroinflammatory disorder that can involve nearly any organ. The disorder has increasingly become known as a distinct clinical entity during the last decade. IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (IgG4-TIN) is the most common manifestation of IgG4-RD in the kidney. Many patients with IgG4-TIN are diagnosed after IgG4-RD has been recognized in other organ systems, but the kidney may also be the first or only site involved. The presenting clinical features of IgG4-TIN are most commonly kidney insufficiency, kidney mass lesion(s), or both. On biopsy, IgG4-TIN shows a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, increased IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and often tubular basement membrane immune complex deposits. Elevation of serum IgG4 often accompanies IgG4-RD; however, it is not specific in reaching the diagnosis. Like IgG4-RD in other organs, IgG4-TIN characteristically responds promptly to steroids, although there is a high relapse rate on discontinuation of immunosuppression. The pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is not understood. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Examining regional variability in work ethic within Mexico: Individual difference or shared value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Luis M; Woehr, David J; Del Rincón, Germán A

    2018-02-19

    Despite the acceptance of work ethic as an important individual difference, little research has examined the extent to which work ethic may reflect shared environmental or socio-economic factors. This research addresses this concern by examining the influence of geographic proximity on the work ethic experienced by 254 employees from Mexico, working in 11 different cities in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of the country. Using a sequence of complementary analyses to assess the main source of variance on seven dimensions of work ethic, our results indicate that work ethic is most appropriately considered at the individual level. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Observed Regional Climate Variability during the Last 50 Years in Reindeer Herding Cooperatives of Finnish Fell Lapland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Finnish Lapland, reindeer herders’ activity is strongly dependent on the surrounding natural environment, which is directly exposed to environmental changes and climatic variations. By assessing whether there is any evidence of change in climate in Fell Lapland over the last 50 years, this paper attempts to link global climatic trends with local conditions and respond to the need of information at the local level. It aims at assessing the changes in temperature, precipitation and snow cover at a regional and local scale, as well as determining the climatic trends for the period 1960–2011. Statistical methods were used to conduct analyses of the regional homogeneity, the annual and seasonal variability, and the cold intensity. The results show that the regional climate is not homogeneous and differences exist between locations. Nevertheless, it can be concluded that, in general, a warming trend is discernible for the period 1960–2011, frost and thaw cycles slightly increase, and variations in mean temperatures are more important in the winter. Precipitation is more variable according to the site but, in general, precipitation is increasing with time, especially in the winter, and the snow cover does not seem to contain any discernible trend.

  17. Multiresponse semiparametric regression for modelling the effect of regional socio-economic variables on the use of information technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Wahyu; Wene, Chatrien; Budiantara, I. Nyoman; Permatasari, Erma Oktania

    2017-03-01

    Multiresponse semiparametric regression is simultaneous equation regression model and fusion of parametric and nonparametric model. The regression model comprise several models and each model has two components, parametric and nonparametric. The used model has linear function as parametric and polynomial truncated spline as nonparametric component. The model can handle both linearity and nonlinearity relationship between response and the sets of predictor variables. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of the regression model for modeling of effect of regional socio-economic on use of information technology. More specific, the response variables are percentage of households has access to internet and percentage of households has personal computer. Then, predictor variables are percentage of literacy people, percentage of electrification and percentage of economic growth. Based on identification of the relationship between response and predictor variable, economic growth is treated as nonparametric predictor and the others are parametric predictors. The result shows that the multiresponse semiparametric regression can be applied well as indicate by the high coefficient determination, 90 percent.

  18. Obesity and Overweight Among Brazilian Early Adolescents: Variability Across Region, Socioeconomic Status, and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Fradkin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAs with most emerging nations, Brazil lacks up-to-date data on the prevalence of obesity and overweight among its children. Of particular concern is the lack of data on children in early adolescence, considered by many to be the crucial stage for weight-related healthcare.ObjectiveTo assess regional, socioeconomic, and gender differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Brazilian early adolescents.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted on a racially diverse sample of students aged 10–13 years, from schools in three geographic regions (north, northeast, south (N = 1,738. Data on gender, age, race, socioeconomic status (SES, weight, and height were obtained. Weight class was calculated from age- and gender-adjusted body mass index, based on children’s weight and height. Bivariate and multivariable analyses, with post hoc tests, were conducted to estimate differences between groups and were corrected for multiple comparisons. Procedures were approved by institutional review boards at study sites.ResultsAnalyses revealed a higher prevalence of obesity and/or overweight among: (1 children of higher SES; (2 children in southern Brazil; (3 males; and (4 Black females.ConclusionThe most salient predictor of weight risk among Brazilian early adolescents is higher SES. This finding is consistent with previous findings of an inverse social gradient, in weight risk, among emerging-nation population groups.

  19. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  20. ESA STSE Project “Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend – Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    of the vertical extend of diurnal signals. Drifting buoys provide measurements close to the surface but are not always available. Moored buoys are generally not able to resolve the daily SST signal, which strongly weakens with depth within the upper water column. For such reasons, the General Ocean Turbulence......, atmospheric and oceanic modelling, bio-chemical processes and oceanic CO2 studies. The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, is currently not properly understood. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are currently not adequately resolving...... the daily SST variability, resulting in biases of the total heat budget estimates and therefore, demised model accuracies. The ESA STSE funded project SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M. aimed at characterising the regional extend of diurnal SST signals and their impact in atmospheric modelling. This study will briefly...

  1. Pathogenicity of IgG in patients with IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Masahiro; Kodama, Yuzo; Kuriyama, Katsutoshi; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Tomono, Teruko; Morita, Toshihiro; Kakiuchi, Nobuyuki; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Mima, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Tatsuki; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Yamauchi, Yuki; Minami, Ryuki; Sakuma, Yojiro; Ota, Yuji; Maruno, Takahisa; Kurita, Akira; Sawai, Yugo; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Uza, Norimitsu; Matsumura, Kazuyoshi; Watanabe, Tomohiro; Notohara, Kenji; Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Seno, Hiroshi; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic disease characterised by elevated serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in the affected tissues. The pathogenic role of IgGs, including IgG4, in patients with IgG4-RD, however, is unknown. We examined the pathogenic activity of circulating IgGs in patients with IgG4-RD by injecting their IgGs into neonatal male Balb/c mice. Binding of patient IgGs to pancreatic tissue was also analysed in an ex vivo mouse organ culture model and in tissue samples from patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Subcutaneous injection of patient IgG, but not control IgG, resulted in pancreatic and salivary gland injuries. Pancreatic injury was also induced by injecting patient IgG1 or IgG4, with more destructive changes induced by IgG1 than by IgG4. The potent pathogenic activity of patient IgG1 was significantly inhibited by simultaneous injection of patient IgG4. Binding of patient IgG, especially IgG1 and IgG4, to pancreatic tissue was confirmed in both the mouse model and AIP tissue samples. IgG1 and IgG4 from patients with IgG4-RD have pathogenic activities through binding affected tissues in neonatal mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Regional potential radiological consequences and their variability of failtRe events in a reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretzke, H.G.; Friedland, W.; Geiss, H.; Muller, H.; Prohl, G.

    1984-01-01

    A computer program system has been developed for best estimate assessments of radiological consequences of accidental atmospheric releases of radionuclides. Computerized data bases as realistic as possible have been established and used describing weather sequences, land topography and usage, human population density, yield of agricultural products, etc. Input from the complex atmospheric transport program MUSEMEI and from the food chain program ECOSYS is combined with the main program BAMBUS to calculate site specific probability distributions for individual and regional collective exposures as functions of the time of year of the release, spatial location, exposure pathway, etc. In this paper, the principles of the program system are described and examples are given for its application to a selected hypothetical failure event in a reprocessing plant

  3. The variability and forcing of currents within a frontal region off the northeast coast of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrowicz, E. M.; Brown, J.

    1993-08-01

    During the summer of 1988 a collaborative experiment between the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) and University College North Wales (UCNW) was undertaken to study the dynamics of a near-shore frontal region off the northeast coast of England. The experiment is one of the most intensive studies of the current structure of a shelf sea front undertaken. Currents were measured using an ocean surface current RADAR (OSCR), ship-borne ADCP, Lagrangian drifters and moored current meters. The current meter moorings held conventional meters at mid-depth and near the bed and S4 electromagnetic current meters near the surface. The mean, low frequency (Continental Shelf Research, 1, 191-207) with some deviations due to nearshore effects.

  4. Variability of atmospheric aerosols at urban, regional and continental backgrounds in the western mediterranean basin

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Lozano, Noemí

    2010-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: el 14 de febrer de 2011 El estudio de los niveles y composición del material particulado atmosférico (PM) medido simultáneamente en diferentes ambientes a escala regional se llevó a cabo en la cuenca del Mediterráneo Occidental con el fin de entender las fuentes y patrones de transformación y transporte de aerosoles en esta zona. Para esto, la medida de niveles y caracterización química de PM10, PM2.5 y PM1 se llevó a cabo en tres estaciones de monitoreo: Montsec (MS...

  5. Regional differences in low birth weight in Spain: biological, demographic and socioeconomic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Vicente; Zuluaga, Pilar; Colantonio, S E; Román-Busto, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic and demographic dimensions of Spain, in terms of surface and number of inhabitants, and its heterogeneous socioeconomic development offer an adequate opportunity to study the provincial differences in birth weight from 1996 to 2010, focusing on possible factors determining the relative frequency of low birth weight. The study analysed geographic differences with regard to biological, demographic and socioeconomic factors that interfere with the female reproductive pattern. The variables considered here were: birth order, proportion of premature deliveries, mother's age, multiparity, mother's country of origin and professional qualifications. Two periods (1996-2000 and 2006-2010) were compared by means of principal components analysis. An increase in the relative frequency of deliveries weighing less than 2500 g occurred in most of the 52 geographic units studied, differences being significant in 42. Only in five cases was there a non-significant reduction in the proportion of low weight births. The first component after principal component analysis indicated that low birth weight was positively related to maternal age and to multiple deliveries, and negatively to the mother's low professional qualification. The second component related positively to the incidence of premature deliveries and to non-Spanish status and negatively in the case of primiparous mothers. The progressive increase in low birth weight incidence observed in Spain from 1996 onwards has occurred with considerable variation in each province. In part, this diversity can be attributed to the unequal reproductive patterns of immigrant mothers.

  6. 1990-2016 surface solar radiation variability and trend over the Piedmont region (northwest Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Veronica; Bassi, Manuela; Brunetti, Michele; Cagnazzi, Barbara; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2018-05-01

    A new surface solar radiation database of 74 daily series is set up for the Piedmont region (northwest Italy) for the 1990-2016 period. All the series are subjected to a detailed quality control, homogenization and gap-filling procedure and are transformed into relative annual/seasonal anomaly series. Finally, a gridded version (0.5°×0.5°) of the database is generated. The resulting series show an increasing tendency of about + 2.5% per decade at annual scale, with strongest trend in autumn (+ 4% per decade). The only exception is winter, showing a negative but not significant trend. Considering the plain and mountain mean series, the trends are more intense for low than for high elevations with a negative vertical gradient of about - 0.03% per decade per 100 m at annual scale and values up to - 0.07% per decade per 100 m in spring. Focusing on clear days only (selected by CM SAF ClOud fractional cover dataset from METeosat first and second generation—Edition 1 satellite data over the 1991-2015 period), trend significance strongly increases and both low and high elevation records exhibit a positive trend in all seasons. However, the trends result slightly lower than for all-sky days (with the only exception of winter). The differences observed under clear-sky conditions between low and high elevations are more pronounced in winter, where the trend shows a negative vertical gradient of about - 0.1% per decade every 100 m. Overall, this paper shows how a high station density allows performing a more detailed quality control thanks to the higher performances in detecting the inhomogeneities with higher data availability and capturing regional peculiarities otherwise impossible to observe.

  7. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Jesbin, G.

    –885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34/871/2016/ doi:10.5194/angeo-34-871-2016 © Author(s) 2016. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Influence of Indian summer monsoon variability on the surface waves in the coastal regions of eastern Arabian Sea V. Sanil Kumar and Jesbin... of the period. The annual average value is ∼ 1.5 m (Anoop et al., 2015). During the non-monsoon period, the land and sea breeze has a signif- icant influence on the wave climate of eastern AS (Glejin Ann. Geophys., 34, 871–885, 2016 www.ann-geophys.net/34...

  8. Characteristic time series and operation region of the system of two tank reactors (CSTR) with variable division of recirculation stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merta, Henryk

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with a system of a cascade of two tank reactors, being characterized by the variable stream of recirculating fluid at each stage. The assumed mathematical model enables one to determine the system's dynamics for the case when there is no time delay and for the opposite case. The time series of the conversion degree and of the dimensionless fluid temperature, characteristic for the system considered as well as the operation regions-the latter-basing on Feingenbaum diagrams with respect to the division ratio of the recirculating stream are presented

  9. Genetic variability and health of Norway spruce stands in the Regional Directorate of the State Forests in Krosno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutkowska Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2015 in six spruce stands situated in different forest districts administratively belonging to the Regional Directorate of State Forests in Krosno. Each spruce population was represented by 30 trees and assessed in terms of their current health status. Genetic analyses were performed on shoot samples from each tree using nine nuclear DNA markers and one mitochondrial DNA marker (nad1. The health status of the trees was described according to the classification developed by Szczepkowski and Tarasiuk (2005 and the correlation between health classes and the level of genetic variability was computed with STATISTICA (α = 0.05.

  10. Extracapillary proliferation in IgA nephropathy; recent findings and new ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Hamid; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is an autoimmune disorder and is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis (GN) worldwide. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science have been searched. It is a slowly progressing disorder that leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in up to 50% of the patients within 25 years of the onset of the disease. IgAN is defined by predominant IgA deposition in the mesangial area on immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Its histology varies from mild focal segmental proliferation of mesangial cells to severe diffuse global proliferation with extracapillary proliferation (crescent formation). The Oxford classification, designed in 2009, is a new classification for the evaluation of morphologic lesions of IgAN. This classification, containing four pathology variables, was found to have prognostic implications. The variables included are mesangial hypercellularity (M), endocapillary proliferation (E), segmental glomerulosclerosis (S) and the proportion of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (T). However, crescents were not included in the Oxford classification. In this mini-review, we describe the recent publications about the significance of extracapillary proliferation in IgAN and we conclude that, there is much controversy about the role of extracapillary proliferation as a significant prognostic factor in IgAN. Hence, it is important to re-consider crescents in IgAN patients. Therefore, we suggest further investigations on this aspect of IgAN disease.

  11. Meteo-marine parameters for highly variable environment in coastal regions from satellite radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleskachevsky, A. L.; Rosenthal, W.; Lehner, S.

    2016-09-01

    The German Bight of the North Sea is the area with highly variable sea state conditions, intensive ship traffic and with a high density of offshore installations, e.g. wind farms in use and under construction. Ship navigation and the docking on offshore constructions is impeded by significant wave heights HS > 1.3 m. For these reasons, improvements are required in recognition and forecasting of sea state HS in the range 0-3 m. Thus, this necessitates the development of new methods to determine the distribution of meteo-marine parameters from remote sensing data with an accuracy of decimetres for HS. The operationalization of these methods then allows the robust automatic processing in near real time (NRT) to support forecast agencies by providing validations for model results. A new empirical algorithm XWAVE_C (C = coastal) for estimation of significant wave height from X-band satellite-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been developed, adopted for coastal applications using TerraSAR-X (TS-X) and Tandem-X (TD-X) satellites in the German Bight and implemented into the Sea Sate Processor (SSP) for fully automatic processing for NRT services. The algorithm is based on the spectral analysis of subscenes and the model function uses integrated image spectra parameters as well as local wind information from the analyzed subscene. The algorithm is able to recognize and remove the influence of non-sea state produced signals in the Wadden Sea areas such as dry sandbars as well as nonlinear SAR image distortions produced by e.g. short wind waves and breaking waves. Also parameters of very short waves, which are not visible in SAR images and produce only unsystematic clutter, can be accurately estimated. The SSP includes XWAVE_C, a pre-filtering procedure for removing artefacts such as ships, seamarks, buoys, offshore constructions and slicks, and an additional procedure performing a check of results based on the statistics of the whole scene. The SSP allows an

  12. ROTATIONAL VARIABILITY OF EARTH'S POLAR REGIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DETECTING SNOWBALL PLANETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Robinson, Tyler; Agol, Eric; Meadows, Victoria S.; Shields, Aomawa L.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Charbonneau, David; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained the first time-resolved, disk-integrated observations of Earth's poles with the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI mission of opportunity. These data mimic what we will see when we point next-generation space telescopes at nearby exoplanets. We use principal component analysis (PCA) and rotational light curve inversion to characterize color inhomogeneities and map their spatial distribution from these unusual vantage points, as a complement to the equatorial views presented by Cowan et al. in 2009. We also perform the same PCA on a suite of simulated rotational multi-band light curves from NASA's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. This numerical experiment allows us to understand what sorts of surface features PCA can robustly identify. We find that the EPOXI polar observations have similar broadband colors as the equatorial Earth, but with 20%-30% greater apparent albedo. This is because the polar observations are most sensitive to mid-latitudes, which tend to be more cloudy than the equatorial latitudes emphasized by the original EPOXI Earth observations. The cloudiness of the mid-latitudes also manifests itself in the form of increased variability at short wavelengths in the polar observations and as a dominant gray eigencolor in the south polar observation. We construct a simple reflectance model for a snowball Earth. By construction, our model has a higher Bond albedo than the modern Earth; its surface albedo is so high that Rayleigh scattering does not noticeably affect its spectrum. The rotational color variations occur at short wavelengths due to the large contrast between glacier ice and bare land in those wavebands. Thus, we find that both the broadband colors and diurnal color variations of such a planet would be easily distinguishable from the modern-day Earth, regardless of viewing angle.

  13. Next-Generation Satellite Precipitation Products for Understanding Global and Regional Water Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge in understanding the space-time variability of continental water fluxes is the lack of accurate precipitation estimates over complex terrains. While satellite precipitation observations can be used to complement ground-based data to obtain improved estimates, space-based and ground-based estimates come with their own sets of uncertainties, which must be understood and characterized. Quantitative estimation of uncertainties in these products also provides a necessary foundation for merging satellite and ground-based precipitation measurements within a rigorous statistical framework. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission that will provide next-generation global precipitation data products for research and applications. It consists of a constellation of microwave sensors provided by NASA, JAXA, CNES, ISRO, EUMETSAT, DOD, NOAA, NPP, and JPSS. At the heart of the mission is the GPM Core Observatory provided by NASA and JAXA to be launched in 2013. The GPM Core, which will carry the first space-borne dual-frequency radar and a state-of-the-art multi-frequency radiometer, is designed to set new reference standards for precipitation measurements from space, which can then be used to unify and refine precipitation retrievals from all constellation sensors. The next-generation constellation-based satellite precipitation estimates will be characterized by intercalibrated radiometric measurements and physical-based retrievals using a common observation-derived hydrometeor database. For pre-launch algorithm development and post-launch product evaluation, NASA supports an extensive ground validation (GV) program in cooperation with domestic and international partners to improve (1) physics of remote-sensing algorithms through a series of focused field campaigns, (2) characterization of uncertainties in satellite and ground-based precipitation products over selected GV testbeds, and (3) modeling of atmospheric processes and

  14. A ˜50 ka record of monsoonal variability in the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Sarkar, Anindya; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2015-04-01

    Pollen, phytoliths and δ 13C signatures of soil organic matter from two fluvial sedimentary sequences of the Darjeeling foothill region, eastern Himalayas are used to portray palaeoclimatic oscillations and their impact on regional plant communities over the last ˜50 ka. Quantitative palaeoclimate estimation using coexistence approach on pollen data and other proxies indicate significant oscillations in precipitation during the late part of MIS 3 (46.4-25.9 ka), early and middle part of MIS 2 (25.9-15.6 ka), and 5.4 to 3.5 ka. Middle to late MIS 3 (ca 46.4-31 ka.) was characterized by a comparatively low monsoonal activity and slightly higher temperature than that during ca 31 ka onwards. Simultaneous expansion of deciduous trees and chloridoid grasses also imply a drier and warmer phase. Between 31 and 22.3 ka (late MIS 3 to mid-MIS 2), higher precipitation and a slightly cooler temperature led to an increase in evergreen elements over deciduous taxa and wet-loving panicoid grasses over dry-loving chloridoid grasses than earlier. After ca 22.3 ka, shrinking of forest cover, expansion of C4 chloridoid grasses, Asteraceae and Cheno-ams in the vegetation with lowering of temperature and precipitation characterized the onset of the LGM which continued till 18.3 ka. End of the LGM is manifested by a restoration in the forest cover and in the temperature and precipitation regime. Later, during 5.4 to 4.3 ka, a strong monsoonal activity supported a dense moist evergreen forest cover that subsequently declined during 4.3 to 3.5 ka. A further increase in deciduous elements and non-arboreals might be a consequence of reduced precipitation and higher temperature during this phase. A comparison between monsoonal rainfall, MAT and palaeoatmospheric CO2 with floral dynamics since last ˜50 ka indicates that these fluctuations in plant succession were mainly driven by monsoonal variations.

  15. ASSESSING GLOBAL CLIMATE VARIABILITY UNDER COLDEST AND WARMEST PERIODS AT DIFFERENT LATITUDINAL REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Runtunuwu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Effect of climate change on water balance will play a key role in the biosphere system. To study the global climate change impact on water balance during 95-year period (1901-1995, long-term grid climatic data including global mean monthly temperature and precipitation at 0.5 x 0.5 degree resolution were analysed. The trend and variation of climate change, the time series of monthly air temperature and precipitation data were aggregated into annual arithmetic means for two extreme periods (1901-1920 and 1990-1995. The potential evapotranspiration (Eo was calculated using Thornthwaite method.The changes in mean annual value were obtained by subtracting the maximum period data from 1990 to 1995 (Max with the minimum period data from 1901 to 1920 (Min. The results revealed that over 95-year period, mean global air temperature increased by 0.57oC. The temperature increase varied greatly in Asia, with more than 3.0oC, especially at 45-70oN, as well over the northern part of America (60-65oN and Europe (55- 75oN. In low latitude across Asia, Africa, and South America, the variation was less than 1.5oC. In 80-85ºN region, the variation was relatively small and at higher latitudes it increasedsignificantly. Precipitation varied temporally and spatially. In the 40-45ºN and 40-45ºS regions, increasing precipitation of more than 100 mm occurred during the June-August andSeptember-November, especially in the northern hemisphere. The Eo increase of 2000 mm during 95 years occurred in the tropical northern America, middle Africa, and South-East Asia. A grid in Central Java of Indonesia showed that the Eo increase of 2500 mm during 95 years resulted in the decrease of growing period by 100 days. In coping with climate change, adjustment of cropping calendar is imperative.

  16. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2017-05-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  17. Biological and Molecular Variability of Alfalfa mosaic virus Affecting Alfalfa Crop in Riyadh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. AL-Saleh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2011–2012, sixty nine samples were collected from alfalfa plants showing viral infection symptoms in Riyadh region. Mechanical inoculation with sap prepared from two collected samples out of twenty five possitive for Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV by ELISA were produced systemic mosaic on Vigna unguiculata and Nicotiana tabacum, local lesion on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa. Vicia faba indicator plants that induce mosaic and mottle with AMV-Sagir isolate and no infection with AMV-Wadi aldawasser isolate. Approximately 700-bp was formed by RT-PCR using AMV coat protein specific primer. Samples from infected alfalfa gave positive results, while healthy plant gave negative result using dot blot hybridization assay. The nucleotide sequences of the Saudi isolates were compared with corresponding viral nucleotide sequences reported in GenBank. The obtained results showed that the AMV from Australia, Brazil, Puglia and China had the highest similarity with AMV-Sajer isolate. While, the AMV from Spain and New Zealaland had the lowest similarity with AMV-Sajer and Wadi aldawasser isolates. The data obtained in this study has been deposited in the GenBank under the accession numbers KC434083 and KC434084 for AMV-Sajer and AMV- Wadialdawasser respectively. This is the first report regarding the gnetic make up of AMV in Saudi Arabia.

  18. Genetic variability and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations from different malaria ecological regions of Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingasia, Luicer A; Cheruiyot, Jelagat; Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Andagalu, Ben; Kamau, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    Transmission intensity, movement of human and vector hosts, biogeographical features, and malaria control measures are some of the important factors that determine Plasmodium falciparum parasite genetic variability and population structure. Kenya has different malaria ecologies which might require different disease intervention methods. Refined parasite population genetic studies are critical for informing malaria control and elimination strategies. This study describes the genetic diversity and population structure of P. falciparum parasites from the different malaria ecological zones in Kenya. Twelve multi-locus microsatellite (MS) loci previously described were genotyped in 225 P. falciparum isolates collected between 2012 and 2013 from five sites; three in lowland endemic regions (Kisumu, Kombewa, and Malindi) and two in highland, epidemic regions (Kisii and Kericho). Parasites from the lowland endemic and highland epidemic regions of western Kenya had high genetic diversity compared to coastal lowland endemic region of Kenya [Malindi]. The Kenyan parasites had a mean genetic differentiation index (FST) of 0.072 (p=0.011). The multi-locus genetic analysis of the 12 MS revealed all the parasites had unique haplotypes. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in all the five parasite populations. Kisumu had the most significant index of association values (0.16; pKenya after introduction of the artemether-lumefantrine is important in refining the spread of drug resistant strains and malaria transmission for more effective control and eventual elimination of malaria in Kenya. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Protection against syphilis correlates with specificity of antibodies to the variable regions of Treponema pallidum repeat protein K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Cecilia A; Lukehart, Sheila A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2003-10-01

    Syphilis has been recognized as a disease since the late 1400s, yet there is no practical vaccine available. One impediment to the development of a vaccine is the lack of understanding of multiple reinfections in humans despite the development of robust immune responses during the first episode. It has been shown that the Treponema pallidum repeat protein K (TprK) differs in seven discrete variable (V) regions in isolates and that the antibody response during infection is directed to these V regions. Immunization with TprK confers significant protection against infection with the homologous strain. We hypothesize that the antigenic diversity of TprK is involved in immune evasion, which contributes to the lack of heterologous protection. Here, using the rabbit model, we show a correlation between limited heterologous protection and tprK diversity in the challenge inoculum. We demonstrate that antibody responses to the V regions of one TprK molecule show limited cross-reactivity with heterologous TprK V regions.

  20. Oxidation Behavior of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 Graphites in Air Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jin Ki; Chi, Se Hwan

    2006-01-01

    In high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), graphite is used as a moderator and a reflector as well as a major structural component. During operation or in the event of an accident, subsequent graphite oxidation due to the graphite out-gassing or heat exchanger tube leakage results in changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the components. For this reason, a lot of studies on oxidation have long been performed to understand the high temperature oxidation behavior and to find a proper countermeasure over the expected operating range. In this study, the oxidation rates of IG-11, IG-110 and IG-430 nuclear graphites were determined at high temperature and evaluated in view of the grades and the oxidation mechanisms at different temperature range

  1. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  2. Interaction between the tidal and seasonal variability of the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katavouta, Anna; Thompson, Keith; Lu, Youyu; Loder, John

    2017-04-01

    In the Gulf of Maine and Scotian Shelf (off the northeastern coast of North America) tides are large and can alter the local hydrographic properties, circulation, and sea surface height through processes such as tidal rectification, mixing, and horizontal advection. Furthermore, the stratification of the water column can influence tidal elevation and currents over the shelves (e.g., baroclinic tides). To investigate this interaction, a newly developed high resolution (1/36 degree) regional circulation model is used (GoMSS model). First, numerical experiments with and without density stratification are used to demonstrate the influence of stratification on the tides. GoMSS model is then used to interpret the physical mechanisms responsible for the largest seasonal variations in the M2 surface current which occur over, and to the north of, Georges Bank. An alternating pattern of highs and lows in the summer maximum M2 surface speed in the Gulf of Maine is identified, for the first time, in both the model output and observations by a high frequency coastal radar system. This pattern consists of extended striations in tidal speed aligned with the northern flank of Georges Bank that separates the Gulf of Maine from the North Atlantic. The striations are explained in terms of a linear superposition of the barotropic tide flowing across the northern flank of Georges Bank and the reflected, phase-locked baroclinic tide. The striations have amplitudes of about 0.1 m/s and longitudinal length scales of order 100 km, and are thus of practical significance.

  3. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heber Silva-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL - Peru. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out in 70 fecal samples between March and May 2015. These samples were studied by coproculture and immunochromatography for the detection of enteropathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, while enteroparasites were sought by direct microscopic examination, Kinyoun staining method and ELISA for the detection of coproantigens (Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. Leukocyte count and chemical tests (Benedict, Thevenon and Sudan III were also performed for the functional study of the diarrheal disease. Results: In 48.6% of the samples, the infectious etiology of diarrhea was detected, prevailing the parasitic cause (25.8%, followed by the bacterial (17.1% and viral (5.8% ones. The most common enteropathogens were G. lamblia (18.6% and Salmonella enteritidis (10.0%. An association between greater than 100 fecal leukocytes per field and the bacterial etiology (p=0.027 was observed, while less than 10 fecal leukocytes per field (p=0.002 and a positive Sudam III test (p=0.003 were associated with the parasitic etiology. Conclusions: In more than half of the samples (51.4% the infectious etiology of diarrhea could not be proven, whereas Giardia lamblia was the most frequent cause of diarrhea in the studied population. However, it is necessary to implement more sensitive and specific techniques for the detection of a greater range of enteropathogens with which to improve the diagnosis and treatment of the disease

  4. Cerebral perfusion computerized tomography: influence of reference vessels, regions of interest and interobserver variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soustiel, Jean F.; Mor, Nadav; Zaaroor, Menashe; Goldsher, Dorith

    2006-01-01

    There are still no standardized guidelines for perfusion computerized tomography (PCT) analysis. A total of 61 PCT studies were analyzed using either the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) or the middle cerebral artery (MCA) as the arterial reference, and the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) or the vein of Galen (VG) as the venous reference. The sizes of regions of interest (ROI) were investigated comparing PCT results obtained using a hemispheric ROI combined with vascular pixel elimination with those obtained using five smaller ROIs located over the cortex and basal ganglia. In addition, interobserver variations were explored using a standardized protocol. MCA-based measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume (CBV) were in accordance with those obtained with the ACA except in 16 patients with ischemic stroke, in whom CBF was overestimated by the ipsilateral MCA. Venous maximal intensity was significantly lower with the VG when compared with the SSS, resulting in overestimation of CBF and CBV. However, in 13.3% of patients the VG ROI yielded higher maximal intensities than the SSS ROI. There was no difference in PCT results between hemispheric ROI and averaged separate ROI when vascular pixel elimination was used. Finally, interobserver variations were as high as 11% for CBF and 12% for CBV. The present results suggest that pathological rather than anatomical considerations should dictate the choice of the arterial ROI. For venous ROI, although SSS seems to be adequate in most instances, deep cerebral veins may occasionally generate higher maximal intensities and should therefore be selected. Importantly, significant user-dependency should be taken into account. (orig.)

  5. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Some of Heavy Metals in Aerosols of Lenjanat Region, Esfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Namazi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals released from stationaryand mobile origins can be transported in water, air and soil and can be even absorbed by plants, animals and human bodies. Trace elements are currently of great environmental concern. Nowadays, one of the most important environmental problems is pollution of agricultural soils occurs by heavy metals due to human activities. Atmospheric subsidence is one of the main sources of these elements which can result from industrial activities, fertilizers, sewage sludge, compost and pesticides. Heavy metals mapping of the atmosphere dusts indicates the status of pollution and its intensity in industrial regions. This information can also be used as a guideline for better management and pollution control. This study was performed to investigate the spatial and temporal availability of heavy metals in atmospheric dusts of Lenjanat region, Isfahan where agricultural land is extensively surrounded by industrial activities like steel making factory (Esfahan, cement making factory (Sepahan and Esfahan and Bamalead mine. Materials and Methods: Sampling was done from 60 points with the same altitude(three to six meters from the groundand their location was recorded by GPS. Glass traps (1×1 m2 covered by plastic mesh (2 × 2 cmvents were used to trap the dusts for four seasons of the year. Collected dust samples were passed through a 200 mm mesh screen size and the total weight of the dusts and the heavy metals content of Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pbwere determined(with HNO3 60%. Data analysis was performed using Statistical 6.0 software. Analysis of spatial data via variogram was calculated and performed using Variowin, 2.2 software packages. After determination of the best fitting model, kriged maps of the total concentration of heavy metals were prepared by Surfer 8 software. Results and Discussion: The average concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in dust in most parts of the study area were much higher than the soil

  6. Variability of hepatitis C virus hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) during the early phase of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo Cortés, K; Laskus, T; Bukowska-Ośko, I; Pawełczyk, A; Berak, H; Horban, A; Fic, M; Radkowski, M

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered to be an important factor defining viral pathogenesis, persistence and resistance to treatment. The aim of the present study was to characterize HCV genetic heterogeneity within a hypervariable region 1 (HVR-1) before and during the early period of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin treatment in correlation with treatment outcome. The study involved 24 patients treated with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin whose sera were collected before (baseline) and at 7, 14, 21 28 and 56 day of treatment. HCV HVR-1 region was amplified by nested RT- PCR and subjected to SSCP (single strand conformational polymorphism) analysis. SSCP changes of HCV HVR-1 over time in each patient were compared to treatment outcome results. In 2/11 (18%) SVR+ and 8/13 (62%) SVR- treated patients, HVR-1 genetic changes manifested by new SSCP bands (new genetic variants) and were significantly more frequent in nonresponders (P HVR-1 variability during the early phase of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin therapy may be predictive of treatment outcome.

  7. Suppression of Aggrus/podoplanin-induced platelet aggregation and pulmonary metastasis by a single-chain antibody variable region fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Kenichi; Takagi, Satoshi; Sato, Shigeo; Morioka, Hiroshi; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Minamisawa, Tamiko; Takami, Miho; Fujita, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Almost all highly metastatic tumor cells possess high platelet aggregating abilities, thereby form large tumor cell-platelet aggregates in the microvasculature. Embolization of tumor cells in the microvasculature is considered to be the first step in metastasis to distant organs. We previously identified the platelet aggregation-inducing factor expressed on the surfaces of highly metastatic tumor cells and named as Aggrus. Aggrus was observed to be identical to the marker protein podoplanin (alternative names, T1α, OTS-8, and others). Aggrus is frequently overexpressed in several types of tumors and enhances platelet aggregation by interacting with the platelet receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). Here, we generated a novel single-chain antibody variable region fragment (scFv) by linking the variable regions of heavy and light chains of the neutralizing anti-human Aggrus monoclonal antibody MS-1 with a flexible peptide linker. Unfortunately, the generated KM10 scFv failed to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Therefore, we performed phage display screening and finally obtained a high-affinity scFv, K-11. K-11 scFv was able to suppress Aggrus-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Moreover, K-11 scFv prevented the formation of pulmonary metastasis in vivo. These results suggest that K-11 scFv may be useful as metastasis inhibitory scFv and is expected to aid in the development of preclinical and clinical examinations of Aggrus-targeted cancer therapies

  8. Collaborative Proposal: Improving Decadal Prediction of Arctic Climate Variability and Change Using a Regional Arctic System Model (RASM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslowski, Wieslaw [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States)

    2016-10-17

    This project aims to develop, apply and evaluate a regional Arctic System model (RASM) for enhanced decadal predictions. Its overarching goal is to advance understanding of the past and present states of arctic climate and to facilitate improvements in seasonal to decadal predictions. In particular, it will focus on variability and long-term change of energy and freshwater flows through the arctic climate system. The project will also address modes of natural climate variability as well as extreme and rapid climate change in a region of the Earth that is: (i) a key indicator of the state of global climate through polar amplification and (ii) which is undergoing environmental transitions not seen in instrumental records. RASM will readily allow the addition of other earth system components, such as ecosystem or biochemistry models, thus allowing it to facilitate studies of climate impacts (e.g., droughts and fires) and of ecosystem adaptations to these impacts. As such, RASM is expected to become a foundation for more complete Arctic System models and part of a model hierarchy important for improving climate modeling and predictions.

  9. High-resolution spatial databases of monthly climate variables (1961-2010) over a complex terrain region in southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, An-Ding; Liu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Climate data in gridded format are critical for understanding climate change and its impact on eco-environment. The aim of the current study is to develop spatial databases for three climate variables (maximum, minimum temperatures, and relative humidity) over a large region with complex topography in southwestern China. Five widely used approaches including inverse distance weighting, ordinary kriging, universal kriging, co-kriging, and thin-plate smoothing spline were tested. Root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) showed that thin-plate smoothing spline with latitude, longitude, and elevation outperformed other models. Average RMSE, MAE, and MAPE of the best models were 1.16 °C, 0.74 °C, and 7.38 % for maximum temperature; 0.826 °C, 0.58 °C, and 6.41 % for minimum temperature; and 3.44, 2.28, and 3.21 % for relative humidity, respectively. Spatial datasets of annual and monthly climate variables with 1-km resolution covering the period 1961-2010 were then obtained using the best performance methods. Comparative study showed that the current outcomes were in well agreement with public datasets. Based on the gridded datasets, changes in temperature variables were investigated across the study area. Future study might be needed to capture the uncertainty induced by environmental conditions through remote sensing and knowledge-based methods.

  10. Regional variability of grassland CO2 fluxes in Tyrol/Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irschick, Christoph; Hammerle, Albin; Haslwanter, Alois; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2010-05-01

    ecosystem respiration (RECO), (ii) GPP depended mainly on the amount of incident photosynthetically active radiation and the amount of green plant matter, the scale of influence of these two factors varying fourfold between the sites, and not so much on the available water, (iii) RECO was mainly affected by the soil temperature, but some evidence for priming effects was also found, (iv) the NEE was mainly influenced by GPP and to a lower extent by RECO. Taken together our results indicate that even within the same ecosystem type exposed to similar climate and land use, site selection may strongly affect the resulting NEE estimates. References: [1] D.D. Baldocchi, "Breathing of the terrestrial biosphere: lessons learned from a global network of carbon dioxide flux measurement systems", Australian Journal of Botany vol.56 (2008) pp. 1-26. [2] A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, G. Wohlfahrt, "Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland", Biogeosciences vol.5 (2008) pp. 421 431. [3] G. Wohlfahrt, A. Hammerle, A. Haslwanter, M. Bahn, U. Tappeiner, A. Cernusca, "Seasonal and inter-annual variability of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of a temperate mountain grassland: effects of weather and management", Journal of Geophysical Research 113 (2008) D08110, doi:10.1029/2007JD009286.

  11. Radioimmunoassay of IgG and IgM rheumatoid factors reacting with human IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, D.A.; Lawrance, S.; Catalano, M.A.; Vaughan, J.H.; Abraham, G.

    1977-01-01

    Although IgG rheumatoid factor may play a central role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis, previously there have been no precise methods for its specific measurement in serum and synovial fluid. This paper describes a solid phase radioimmunoassay for the independent quantification of IgM and IgG rheumatoid factor reacting with the Fc fragment of human IgG. As measured by this assay, serum IgG rheumatoid factor levels differed significantly between patients with seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and normal control subjects. In addition, several sera and joint fluids from patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, even without vasculitis, were shown by gel chromatography to have acid-dissociable complexes of IgG rheumatoid factor suggestive of IgG-IgG dimer or trimer formation

  12. Interannual Variability of Regional Hadley Circulation Intensity Over Western Pacific During Boreal Winter and Its Climatic Impact Over Asia-Australia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruping; Chen, Shangfeng; Chen, Wen; Hu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates interannual variability of boreal winter regional Hadley circulation over western Pacific (WPHC) and its climatic impacts. A WPHC intensity index (WPHCI) is defined as the vertical shear of the divergent meridional winds. It shows that WPHCI correlates well with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To investigate roles of the ENSO-unrelated part of WPHCI (WPHCIres), variables that are linearly related to the Niño-3 index have been removed. It reveals that meridional sea surface temperature gradient over the western Pacific plays an essential role in modulating the WPHCIres. The climatic impacts of WPHCIres are further investigated. Below-normal (above-normal) precipitation appears over south China (North Australia) when WPHCIres is stronger. This is due to the marked convergence (divergence) anomalies at the upper troposphere, divergence (convergence) at the lower troposphere, and the accompanied downward (upward) motion over south China (North Australia), which suppresses (enhances) precipitation there. In addition, a pronounced increase in surface air temperature (SAT) appears over south and central China when WPHCIres is stronger. A temperature diagnostic analysis suggests that the increase in SAT tendency over central China is primarily due to the warm zonal temperature advection and subsidence-induced adiabatic heating. In addition, the increase in SAT tendency over south China is primarily contributed by the warm meridional temperature advection. Further analysis shows that the correlation of WPHCIres with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is weak. Thus, this study may provide additional sources besides EAWM and ENSO to improve understanding of the Asia-Australia climate variability.

  13. Anti-PGL1 salivary IgA/IgM, serum IgG/IgM, and nasal Mycobacterium leprae DNA in individuals with household contact with leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito e Cabral, Paula; Júnior, José Evandro Cunha; de Macedo, Alexandre Casimiro; Alves, Alexandre Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Thially Braga; Brito e Cabral, Tereza Cristina; Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Pinto, Maria Isabel Moraes; Oseki, Karen Tubono; Camara, Lilia Maria Carneiro; Rabenhorst, Silvia Helena Barem; Nagao-Dias, Aparecida Tiemi

    2013-11-01

    Leprosy household contacts represent a group at high risk of developing the disease. The aim of this study was to detect Mycobacterium leprae subclinical infection in this group through serological and molecular parameters. Serum anti-PGL1 IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM was investigated using an ELISA, and nasal carriage of M. leprae DNA was detected by PCR, in leprosy household contacts of paucibacillary (PB) and multibacillary (MB) household leprosy patients (n=135), their index cases (n=30), and in persons living in a low endemic city (n=17). Salivary anti-PGL1 IgA and IgM and serum anti-PGL1 IgG showed good correlation comparing contacts and index cases (p0.05). A high frequency of anti-PGL1 IgM positivity was found in IgG-negative samples (pleprae DNA was found in the nasal swabs of nine out of the 85 MB household leprosy contacts (10.6%) and in three out of the 50 PB household leprosy contacts (6.0%). We strongly suggest that serum IgG/IgM and salivary anti-PGL1 IgA/IgM measurements are used to follow leprosy household contacts. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. OptMAVEn--a new framework for the de novo design of antibody variable region models targeting specific antigen epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Li

    Full Text Available Antibody-based therapeutics provides novel and efficacious treatments for a number of diseases. Traditional experimental approaches for designing therapeutic antibodies rely on raising antibodies against a target antigen in an immunized animal or directed evolution of antibodies with low affinity for the desired antigen. However, these methods remain time consuming, cannot target a specific epitope and do not lead to broad design principles informing other studies. Computational design methods can overcome some of these limitations by using biophysics models to rationally select antibody parts that maximize affinity for a target antigen epitope. This has been addressed to some extend by OptCDR for the design of complementary determining regions. Here, we extend this earlier contribution by addressing the de novo design of a model of the entire antibody variable region against a given antigen epitope while safeguarding for immunogenicity (Optimal Method for Antibody Variable region Engineering, OptMAVEn. OptMAVEn simulates in silico the in vivo steps of antibody generation and evolution, and is capable of capturing the critical structural features responsible for affinity maturation of antibodies. In addition, a humanization procedure was developed and incorporated into OptMAVEn to minimize the potential immunogenicity of the designed antibody models. As case studies, OptMAVEn was applied to design models of neutralizing antibodies targeting influenza hemagglutinin and HIV gp120. For both HA and gp120, novel computational antibody models with numerous interactions with their target epitopes were generated. The observed rates of mutations and types of amino acid changes during in silico affinity maturation are consistent with what has been observed during in vivo affinity maturation. The results demonstrate that OptMAVEn can efficiently generate diverse computational antibody models with both optimized binding affinity to antigens and reduced

  15. Characteristics of aggregation of daily rainfall in a middle-latitudes region during a climate variability in annual rainfall amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Omar A.; Rozas, Daniel

    Climate variability in annual rainfall occurs because the aggregation of daily rainfall changes. A topic open to debate is whether that change takes place because rainfall becomes more intense, or because it rains more often, or a combination of both. The answer to this question is of interest for water resources planning, hydrometeorological design, and agricultural management. Change in the number of rainy days can cause major disruptions in hydrological and ecological systems, with important economic and social effects. Furthermore, the characteristics of daily rainfall aggregation in ongoing climate variability provide a reference to evaluate the capability of GCM to simulate changes in the hydrologic cycle. In this research, we analyze changes in the aggregation of daily rainfall producing a climate positive trend in annual rainfall in central Argentina, in the southern middle-latitudes. This state-of-the-art agricultural region has a semiarid climate with dry and wet seasons. Weather effects in the region influence world-market prices of several crops. Results indicate that the strong positive trend in seasonal and annual rainfall amount is produced by an increase in number of rainy days. This increase takes place in the 3-month periods January-March (summer) and April-June (autumn). These are also the 3-month periods showing a positive trend in the mean of annual rainfall. The mean of the distribution of annual number of rainy day (ANRD) increased in 50% in a 36-year span (starting at 44 days/year). No statistically significant indications on time changes in the probability distribution of daily rainfall amount were found. Non-periodic fluctuations in the time series of annual rainfall were analyzed using an integral wavelet transform. Fluctuations with a time scale of about 10 and 20 years construct the trend in annual rainfall amount. These types of non-periodic fluctuations have been observed in other regions of the world. This suggests that results of

  16. Monovalent IgG4 molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ian C.; Fowler, Susan B.; Machiesky, LeeAnn; Miller, Kenneth; Hayes, David B.; Adib, Morshed; Her, Cheng; Borrok, M. Jack; Tsui, Ping; Burrell, Matthew; Corkill, Dominic J.; Witt, Susanne; Lowe, David C.; Webster, Carl I.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies have become the fastest growing class of biological therapeutics, in part due to their exquisite specificity and ability to modulate protein-protein interactions with a high biological potency. The relatively large size and bivalency of antibodies, however, limits their use as therapeutics in certain circumstances. Antibody fragments, such as single-chain variable fragments and antigen binding-fragments, have emerged as viable alternatives, but without further modifications these monovalent formats have reduced terminal serum half-lives because of their small size and lack of an Fc domain, which is required for FcRn-mediated recycling. Using rational engineering of the IgG4 Fc domain to disrupt key interactions at the CH3-CH3 interface, we identified a number of point mutations that abolish Fc dimerization and created half-antibodies, a novel monovalent antibody format that retains a monomeric Fc domain. Introduction of these mutations into an IgG1 framework also led to the creation of half-antibodies. These half-antibodies were shown to be soluble, thermodynamically stable and monomeric, characteristics that are favorable for use as therapeutic proteins. Despite significantly reduced FcRn binding in vitro, which suggests that avidity gains in a dimeric Fc are critical to optimal FcRn binding, this format demonstrated an increased terminal serum half-life compared with that expected for most alternative antibody fragments. PMID:23567207

  17. Variability in the sensitivity among model simulations of permafrost and carbon dynamics in the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, A. David; Koven, Charles; Lawrence, David M.; Clein, Joy S.; Xia, Jiangyang; Beer, Christian; Burke, Eleanor J.; Chen, Guangsheng; Chen, Xiaodong; Delire, Christine; Jafarov, Elchin; MacDougall, Andrew H.; Marchenko, Sergey S.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Peng, Shushi; Rinke, Annette; Saito, Kazuyuki; Zhang, Wenxin; Alkama, Ramdane; Bohn, Theodore J.; Ciais, Philippe; Decharme, Bertrand; Ekici, Altug; Gouttevin, Isabelle; Hajima, Tomohiro; Hayes, Daniel J.; Ji, Duoying; Krinner, Gerhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Luo, Yiqi; Miller, Paul A.; Moore, John C.; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Schädel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Smith, Benjamin; Sueyoshi, Tetsuo; Zhuang, Qianlai

    2016-01-01

    A significant portion of the large amount of carbon (C) currently stored in soils of the permafrost region in the Northern Hemisphere has the potential to be emitted as the greenhouse gases CO2and CH4 under a warmer climate. In this study we evaluated the variability in the sensitivity of permafrost and C in recent decades among land surface model simulations over the permafrost region between 1960 and 2009. The 15 model simulations all predict a loss of near-surface permafrost (within 3 m) area over the region, but there are large differences in the magnitude of the simulated rates of loss among the models (0.2 to 58.8 × 103 km2 yr−1). Sensitivity simulations indicated that changes in air temperature largely explained changes in permafrost area, although interactions among changes in other environmental variables also played a role. All of the models indicate that both vegetation and soil C storage together have increased by 156 to 954 Tg C yr−1between 1960 and 2009 over the permafrost region even though model analyses indicate that warming alone would decrease soil C storage. Increases in gross primary production (GPP) largely explain the simulated increases in vegetation and soil C. The sensitivity of GPP to increases in atmospheric CO2 was the dominant cause of increases in GPP across the models, but comparison of simulated GPP trends across the 1982–2009 period with that of a global GPP data set indicates that all of the models overestimate the trend in GPP. Disturbance also appears to be an important factor affecting C storage, as models that consider disturbance had lower increases in C storage than models that did not consider disturbance. To improve the modeling of C in the permafrost region, there is the need for the modeling community to standardize structural representation of permafrost and carbon dynamics among models that are used to evaluate the permafrost C feedback and for the modeling and observational communities to

  18. A plasma cell differentiation quality control ablates B cell clones with biallelic Ig rearrangements and truncated Ig production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srour, Nivine; Chemin, Guillaume; Tinguely, Aurélien; Ashi, Mohamad Omar; Oruc, Zéliha; Péron, Sophie; Sirac, Christophe; Cogné, Michel; Delpy, Laurent

    2016-01-11

    Aberrantly rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) alleles are frequent. They are usually considered sterile and innocuous as a result of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. However, alternative splicing can yield internally deleted proteins from such nonproductively V(D)J-rearranged loci. We show that nonsense codons from variable (V) Igκ exons promote exon-skipping and synthesis of V domain-less κ light chains (ΔV-κLCs). Unexpectedly, such ΔV-κLCs inhibit plasma cell (PC) differentiation. Accordingly, in wild-type mice, rearrangements encoding ΔV-κLCs are rare in PCs, but frequent in B cells. Likewise, enforcing expression of ΔV-κLCs impaired PC differentiation and antibody responses without disturbing germinal center reactions. In addition, PCs expressing ΔV-κLCs synthesize low levels of Ig and are mostly found among short-lived plasmablasts. ΔV-κLCs have intrinsic toxic effects in PCs unrelated to Ig assembly, but mediated by ER stress-associated apoptosis, making PCs producing ΔV-κLCs highly sensitive to proteasome inhibitors. Altogether, these findings demonstrate a quality control checkpoint blunting terminal PC differentiation by eliminating those cells expressing nonfunctionally rearranged Igκ alleles. This truncated Ig exclusion (TIE) checkpoint ablates PC clones with ΔV-κLCs production and exacerbated ER stress response. The TIE checkpoint thus mediates selection of long-lived PCs with limited ER stress supporting high Ig secretion, but with a cost in terms of antigen-independent narrowing of the repertoire. © 2016 Srour et al.

  19. IgG4-related disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detlefsen, Sönke; Klöppel, Günter

    2018-01-01

    disease (IgG4-RD). The histologic key findings are lymphoplasmacytic infiltration rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells combined with storiform fibrosis and obliterative phlebitis. Among the organs mainly affected by IgG4-RD are the pancreas and the extrahepatic bile ducts. The pancreatic and biliary...... alterations have been described under the terms autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) and sclerosing cholangitis, respectively. These diseases are currently more precisely called IgG4-related pancreatitis (or type 1 AIP to distinguish it from type 2 AIP that is unrelated to IgG4-RD) and IgG4-related sclerosing...... cholangitis (IgG4-related SC). Clinically and grossly, both diseases commonly imitate pancreatic and biliary adenocarcinoma, tumors that are well known for their dismal prognosis. As IgG4-RD responds to steroid treatment, making a resection of a suspected tumor unnecessary, a biopsy is often required...

  20. Role of Natural IgM Autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) and IgM Anti-Leukocyte Antibodies (IgM-ALA) in Regulating Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Peter I

    2017-01-01

    Natural IgM autoantibodies (IgM-NAA) are rapidly produced to inhibit pathogens and abrogate inflammation mediated by invading microorganisms and host neoantigens. IgM-NAA achieve this difficult task by being polyreactive with low binding affinity but with high avidity, characteristics that allow these antibodies to bind antigenic determinants shared by pathogens and neoantigens. Hence the same clones of natural IgM can bind and mask host neoantigens as well as inhibit microorganisms. In addition, IgM-NAA regulate the inflammatory response via mechanisms involving binding of IgM to apoptotic cells to enhance their removal and binding of IgM to live leukocytes to regulate their function. Secondly, we review how natural IgM prevents autoimmune disorders arising from pathogenic IgG autoantibodies as well as by autoreactive B and T cells that have escaped tolerance mechanisms. Thirdly, using IgM knockout mice, we show that regulatory B and T cells require IgM to effectively regulate inflammation mediated by innate, adaptive and autoimmune mechanisms. It is therefore not surprising why the host positively selects such autoreactive B1 cells that generate protective IgM-NAA, which are also evolutionarily conserved. Fourthly, we show that IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALA) levels and their repertoire can vary in normal humans and disease states and this variation may partly explain the observed differences in the inflammatory response after infection, ischemic injury or after a transplant. Finally we also show how protective IgM-NAA can be rendered pathogenic under non-physiological conditions. IgM-NAA have therapeutic potential. Polyclonal IgM infusions can be used to abrogate ongoing inflammation. Additionally, inflammation arising after ischemic kidney injury, e.g., during high-risk elective cardiac surgery or after allograft transplantation, can be prevented by pre-emptively infusing polyclonal IgM, or DC pretreated ex vivo with IgM, or by increasing in vivo Ig

  1. The transfer of seasonal isotopic variability between precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Baker, Andy; Tan, Ming

    2016-06-01

    This study presents new stable isotope data for precipitation (δ18Op) and drip water (δ18Od) from eight cave sites in the monsoon regions of China (MRC), with monthly to bi-monthly sampling intervals from May-2011 to April-2014, to investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on δ18Op and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites. The monthly δ18Op values show negative correlation with surface air temperature at all the cave sites except Shihua Cave, which is opposite to that expected from the temperature effect. In addition, although the monthly δ18Op values are negatively correlated with precipitation at all the cave sites, only three sites are significant at the 95% level. These indicate that, due to the various vapor sources, a large portion of variability in δ18Op in the MRC cannot be explained simply by either temperature or precipitation alone. All the thirty-four drip sites are classified into three types based on the δ18Od variability. About 82% of them are static drips with little discernable variation in δ18Od through the whole study period, but the drip rates of these drips are not necessary constant. Their discharge modes are site-specific and the oxygen isotopic composition of the stalagmites growing from them may record the average of multi-year climatic signals, which are modulated by the seasonality of recharge and potential effects of evaporation, and in some cases infiltration from large rainfall events. About 12% of the thirty-four drip sites are seasonal drips, although the amplitude of δ18Od is narrower than that of δ18Op, the monthly response of δ18Od to coeval precipitation is not completely damped, and some of them follow the seasonal trend of δ18Op very well. These drips may be mainly recharged by present-day precipitation, mixing with some stored water. Thus, the stalagmites growing under them may record portions of the seasonal climatic signals embedded in δ18Op. About 6% of the thirty-four drip sites

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF THOSE VARIABLES THAT HAVE A SIGNIFICANT INFLUENCE ON THE EXPECTED NUMBER OF DAYS OF STAYING IN THE CENTRE DEVELOPMENT REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika KULCSÁR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available I started from the assumption that there are more variables that have a significant influence on the expected number of days of staying in the Centre Development Region. To identify those variables this paper includes the analysis of variance with two variables that are not interacting, in this case the dependent variable is the question "How many days did you plan to stay in Centre Development Region?" and the independent variables are: "What is the purpose of your stay?" "What is the highest level of education?". Given that there are cases when interactions occur between variables, I also analyzed the interaction effects between the two independent variables. The paper also includes an ANOVA analysis with three variables between which interactions relationships occur. After identifying the dependency relations between the variables I found that the inclusion of the third variable, namely the "Marital status" of respondents, adds value to the model. Following the results obtained by ANOVA analysis, I identified those socio-demographic characteristics that, in my opinion, companies that operate on tourist market in the Center Development Region should consider when fundamenting marketing strategies in tourism.

  3. Mouse Chromosome 4 Is Associated with the Baseline and Allergic IgE Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Kanagaratham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of IgE concentration in the blood is a complex trait, with high concentrations associated with parasitic infections as well as allergic diseases. A/J strain mice have significantly higher plasma concentrations of IgE, both at baseline and after ovalbumin antigen exposure, when compared to C57BL/6J strain mice. Our objective was to determine the genomic regions associated with this difference in phenotype. To achieve this, we used a panel of recombinant congenic strains (RCS derived from A/J and C57BL/6J strains. We measured IgE in the RCS panel at baseline and following allergen exposure. Using marker by marker analysis of the RCS genotype and phenotype data, we identified multiple regions associated with the IgE phenotype. A single region was identified to be associated with baseline IgE level, while multiple regions wereassociated with the phenotype after allergen exposure. The most significant region was found on Chromosome 4, from 81.46 to 86.17 Mbp. Chromosome 4 substitution strain mice had significantly higher concentration of IgE than their background parental strain mice, C57BL/6J. Our data presents multiple candidate regions associated with plasma IgE concentration at baseline and following allergen exposure, with the most significant one located on Chromosome 4.

  4. Isotopic source signatures: Impact of regional variability on the δ13CH4 trend and spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Aryeh I.; Coulon, Ancelin; Stenke, Andrea; Schwietzke, Stefan; Peter, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate has fluctuated over the past three decades, signifying variations in methane sources and sinks. Methane isotopic ratios (δ13CH4) differ between emission categories, and can therefore be used to distinguish which methane sources have changed. However, isotopic modelling studies have mainly focused on uncertainties in methane emissions rather than uncertainties in isotopic source signatures. We simulated atmospheric δ13CH4 for the period 1990-2010 using the global chemistry-climate model SOCOL. Empirically-derived regional variability in the isotopic signatures was introduced in a suite of sensitivity simulations. These simulations were compared to a baseline simulation with commonly used global mean isotopic signatures. We investigated coal, natural gas/oil, wetland, livestock, and biomass burning source signatures to determine whether regional variations impact the observed isotopic trend and spatial distribution. Based on recently published source signature datasets, our calculated global mean isotopic signatures are in general lighter than the commonly used values. Trends in several isotopic signatures were also apparent during the period 1990-2010. Tropical livestock emissions grew during the 2000s, introducing isotopically heavier livestock emissions since tropical livestock consume more C4 vegetation than midlatitude livestock. Chinese coal emissions, which are isotopically heavy compared to other coals, increase during the 2000s leading to higher global values of δ13CH4 for coal emissions. EDGAR v4.2 emissions disagree with the observed atmospheric isotopic trend for almost all simulations, confirming past doubts about this emissions inventory. The agreement between the modelled and observed δ13CH4 interhemispheric differences improves when regional source signatures are used. Even though the simulated results are highly dependent on the choice of methane emission inventories, they emphasize that the commonly used

  5. IgG4 breaking the rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalberse, Rob C.; Schuurman, Janine

    2002-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies have been known for some time to be functionally monovalent. Recently, the structural basis for this monovalency has been elucidated: the in vivo exchange of IgG half-molecules (one H-plus one L-chain) among IgG4. This process results in bispecific antibodies that

  6. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana; Jain, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (I 0 ) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in A ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin Eγ/ 2 I (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum (I) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands. (author)

  7. Seasonal Variability in Regional Ice Flow Due to Meltwater Injection Into the Shear Margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, J. P.; Lampkin, D. J.; Moon, T.

    2017-12-01

    The impact of meltwater injection into the shear margins of Jakobshavn Isbræ via drainage from water-filled crevasses on ice flow is examined. We use Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager panchromatic, high-resolution imagery to monitor the spatiotemporal variability of seven water-filled crevasse ponds during the summers of 2013 to 2015. The timing of drainage from water-filled crevasses coincides with an increase of 2 to 20% in measured ice velocity beyond Jakobshavn Isbræ shear margins, which we define as extramarginal ice velocity. Some water-filled crevasse groups demonstrate multiple drainage events within a single melt season. Numerical simulations show that hydrologic shear weakening due to water-filled crevasse drainage can accelerate extramarginal flow by as much as 35% within 10 km of the margins and enhance mass flux through the shear margins by 12%. This work demonstrates a novel mechanism through which surface melt can influence regional ice flow.

  8. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  9. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Requena, Alejandro [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Immunobiology Division, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Bioengineering Research Institute, Biotech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela, E-mail: cescogaspere@gmail.com [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-11-09

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  10. THE EVOLUTION OF ANNUAL MEAN TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION QUANTITY VARIABILITY BASED ON ESTIMATED CHANGES BY THE REGIONAL CLIMATIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Furtună

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climatic changes are representing one of the major challenges of our century, these being forcasted according to climate scenarios and models, which represent plausible and concrete images of future climatic conditions. The results of climate models comparison regarding future water resources and temperature regime trend can become a useful instrument for decision makers in choosing the most effective decisions regarding economic, social and ecologic levels. The aim of this article is the analysis of temperature and pluviometric variability at the closest grid point to Cluj-Napoca, based on data provided by six different regional climate models (RCMs. Analysed on 30 year periods (2001-2030,2031-2060 and 2061-2090, the mean temperature has an ascending general trend, with great varability between periods. The precipitation expressed trough percentage deviation shows a descending general trend, which is more emphazied during 2031-2060 and 2061-2090.

  11. A quantitative magnetic resonance histology atlas of postnatal rat brain development with regional estimates of growth and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Evan; Badea, Alexandra; Watson, Charles; Johnson, G Allan

    2013-05-01

    There has been growing interest in the role of postnatal brain development in the etiology of several neurologic diseases. The rat has long been recognized as a powerful model system for studying neuropathology and the safety of pharmacologic treatments. However, the complex spatiotemporal changes that occur during rat neurodevelopment remain to be elucidated. This work establishes the first magnetic resonance histology (MRH) atlas of the developing rat brain, with an emphasis on quantitation. The atlas comprises five specimens at each of nine time points, imaged with eight distinct MR contrasts and segmented into 26 developmentally defined brain regions. The atlas was used to establish a timeline of morphometric changes and variability throughout neurodevelopment and represents a quantitative database of rat neurodevelopment for characterizing rat models of human neurologic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric f/sub 2/ layer at the pakistan atmospheric region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilani, A.A.; Afridi, F.A.K.; Mian, K.; Zai, M.A.K.Y.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal variability in virtual height of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer for Pakistan's atmospheric region (PAR). In this communication virtual height variations have been analyzed by the descriptive statistical techniques. These methodologies comprise an autoregressive strategy, linear regression and polynomial regression. The relevance of these models has been illuminated using predicted values of different parameters under the seasonal variation of ionospheric F/sub 2/ layer in virtual height that affect the radio wave propagation through the ionosphere. These techniques are implemented to theorize the physical process of varying the virtual heights that leads this study towards formulating the variations due to interaction of radio wave propagation with this ionospheric layer. (author)

  13. Description, evaluation and clinical decision making according to various fetal heart rate patterns. Inter-observer and regional variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, O; Bøttcher, L M; Weber, Tom

    1992-01-01

    departments, especially between departments far apart. It is concluded that we still need a scientific clarification of which specific heart rate changes are the best predictors of fetal stress. Artificial intelligence programs for interpreting fetal cardiotocograms and ECG signals constitute one promising......At 10 Danish obstetrical departments, 116 residents (42 senior and 74 junior) participated in a study to assess inter-observer and regional variability in the description and evaluation of and clinical decision regarding 11 fetal heart rate patterns. The 11 traces included normal as well...... as pathological patterns, and normal as well as clinically asphyxiated babies. Five antepartum and six intrapartum patterns were included. A total of 1,276 descriptions and evaluations were obtained. The degree of agreement in description of fetal heart rate changes was high regarding the baseline...

  14. The pyloric caeca area is a major site for IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cell recruitment in response to oral vaccination in rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Ballesteros

    Full Text Available Although previous studies have characterized some aspects of the immune response of the teleost gut in response to diverse pathogens or stimuli, most studies have focused on the posterior segments exclusively. However, there are still many details of how teleost intestinal immunity is regulated that remain unsolved, including the location of IgM(+ and IgT(+ B cells along the digestive tract and their role during the course of a local stimulus. Thus, in the current work, we have studied the B cell response in five different segments of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss digestive tract in both naïve fish and fish orally vaccinated with an alginate-encapsulated DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV. IgM(+ and IgT(+ cells were identified all along the tract with the exception of the stomach in naïve fish. While IgM(+ cells were mostly located in the lamina propria (LP, IgT(+ cells were primarily localized as intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs. Scattered IgM(+ IELs were only detected in the pyloric caeca. In response to oral vaccination, the pyloric caeca region was the area of the digestive tract in which a major recruitment of B cells was demonstrated through both real time PCR and immunohistochemistry, observing a significant increase in the number of both IgM(+ and IgT(+ IELs. Our findings demonstrate that both IgM(+ and IgT(+ respond to oral stimulation and challenge the paradigm that teleost IELs are exclusively T cells. Unexpectedly, we have also detected B cells in the fat tissue associated to the digestive tract that respond to vaccination, suggesting that these cells surrounded by adipocytes also play a role in mucosal defense.

  15. JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Lulu; Bi, Jiacheng; Yan, Dehong; Ye, Xiufeng; Zheng, Mingxing; Yu, Guang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-01-01

    IgE is a key effector molecule in atopic diseases; however, the regulation mechanisms of IgE production in IgE B cells remain poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that JSI-124 (cucurbitacin I), a selective STAT3 inhibitor, selectively inhibits production of IgE by a human IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells, while does not affect the IgG production by IgG B cell lines. In the aspect of molecular mechanism, we found that Igλ, but not Ighe, gene expression was suppressed by JSI-124. The above effects of JSI-124 were not mediated by affecting cellular proliferation or apoptosis. Furthermore, multiple B cell differentiation-related genes expression was not significantly affected by JSI-124. Taken together, we demonstrate a potential strategy of therapeutically suppressing IgE production without affecting IgG production in atopic patients. - Highlights: • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production in an IgE B cell line, CRL-8033 cells. • JSI-124 does not affect IgG production by IgG B cell lines. • JSI-124 inhibits IgE production mainly by suppressing transcription of Igλ.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid anti-Epstein-Barr virus specific oligoclonal IgM and IgG bands in patients with clinically isolated and Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Diana; Galli, Veronica; Simone, Anna Maria; Bedin, Roberta; Vitetta, Francesca; Merelli, Elisa; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio; Sola, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the frequency of EBV-specific IgG and IgM oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 50 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and in 27 controls with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Furthermore, we assessed correlations between the presence of OCB and CIS patients' CSF, MRI, and clinical variables. There was no difference in the proportion of CIS and GB patients with positivity for anti-EBV-specific IgG/IgM OCB. There were no correlations between OCB and analyzed variables, nor were they predictive of a higher disability at 3 years.

  17. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  18. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  19. Impact of catchment geophysical characteristics and climate on the regional variability of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Geneviève; Lebel, Alexandre; Sadiq, Rehan; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-08-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a recognized indicator of natural organic matter (NOM) in surface waters. The aim of this paper is twofold: to evaluate the impact of geophysical characteristics, climate and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters and, to develop a statistical model to estimate the regional variability of these concentrations. In this study, multilevel statistical analysis was used to achieve three specific objectives: (1) evaluate the influence of climate and geophysical characteristics on DOC concentrations in surface waters; (2) compare the influence of geophysical characteristics and ecological zones on DOC concentrations in surface waters; and (3) develop a model to estimate the most accurate DOC concentrations in surface waters. The case study involved 115 catchments from surface waters in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that mean temperatures recorded 60 days prior to sampling, total precipitation 10 days prior to sampling and percentages of wetlands, coniferous forests and mixed forests have a significant positive influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. The catchment mean slope had a significant negative influence on DOC concentrations in surface waters. Water type (lake or river) and deciduous forest variables were not significant. The ecological zones had a significant influence on DOC concentrations. However, geophysical characteristics (wetlands, forests and slope) estimated DOC concentrations more accurately. A model describing the variability of DOC concentrations was developed and can be used, in future research, for estimating DBPs in drinking water as well evaluating the impact of climate change on the quality of surface waters and drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the association with socioeconomic variables in adolescents from low-income region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento-Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius; De Moraes, Augusto Cesar F; Carvalho, Heraclito B; Moreno, Luis A; Gomes Carneiro, André Luiz; dos Reis, Victor Manuel M; Torres-Leal, Francisco Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of obesity, overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure in a sample of adolescents from a low-income city in Brazil and to estimate the relationship with the socioeconomic status of the family, the education level of the family provider and the type of school. This cross-sectional study randomly sampled 1,014 adolescents (54.8% girls), between 14-19 years of age, attending high school from Imperatriz (MA). The outcomes of this study were: obesity and overweight, abdominal obesity and high blood pressure (systolic and/ or diastolic). The independent variables were: socioeconomic status (SES) of the family, education level of the family provider (ELFP) and type of school. The confounding variables were: gender, age and physical activity level. Prevalence was estimated, and the association between the endpoints and the independent variables was analyzed using a prevalence ratio (PR), with a 95% confidence interval, estimated by Poisson regression. The overall prevalence of obesity was 3.8%, overweight, 13.1%, abdominal obesity, 22.7% and high blood pressure, 21.3%. The adjusted analysis indicated that girls with high SES showed an increased likelihood to be overweight (PR=1.71 [95% IC: 1.13-2.87]), while private school boys had an increased likelihood of obesity (PR=1.79 [95% CI: 1.04-3.08]) and abdominal obesity (PR =1.64 [95% CI: 1.06-2.54]). The prevalence of CVDR is high in adolescents from this low-income region. Boys from private schools are more likely to have obesity and abdominal obesity, and girls with high SES are more likely to be overweight. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. DNA double-strand break response factors influence end-joining features of IgH class switch and general translocation junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchakshari, Rohit A; Zhang, Xuefei; Kumar, Vipul; Du, Zhou; Wei, Pei-Chi; Kao, Jennifer; Dong, Junchao; Alt, Frederick W

    2018-01-23

    Ig heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in B lymphocytes switches IgH constant regions to change antibody functions. CSR is initiated by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) within a donor IgH switch (S) region and a downstream acceptor S region. CSR is completed by fusing donor and acceptor S region DSB ends by classical nonhomologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) and, in its absence, by alternative end-joining that is more biased to use longer junctional microhomologies (MHs). Deficiency for DSB response (DSBR) factors, including ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and 53BP1, variably impair CSR end-joining, with 53BP1 deficiency having the greatest impact. However, studies of potential impact of DSBR factor deficiencies on MH-mediated CSR end-joining have been technically limited. We now use a robust DSB joining assay to elucidate impacts of deficiencies for DSBR factors on CSR and chromosomal translocation junctions in primary mouse B cells and CH12F3 B-lymphoma cells. Compared with wild-type, CSR and c-myc to S region translocation junctions in the absence of 53BP1, and, to a lesser extent, other DSBR factors, have increased MH utilization; indeed, 53BP1-deficient MH profiles resemble those associated with C-NHEJ deficiency. However, translocation junctions between c-myc DSB and general DSBs genome-wide are not MH-biased in ATM-deficient versus wild-type CH12F3 cells and are less biased in 53BP1- and C-NHEJ-deficient cells than CSR junctions or c-myc to S region translocation junctions. We discuss potential roles of DSBR factors in suppressing increased MH-mediated DSB end-joining and features of S regions that may render their DSBs prone to MH-biased end-joining in the absence of DSBR factors.

  2. Enterovirus IgM detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisk, G.; Nilsson, E.; Diderholm, H.

    1989-01-01

    A predominantly type-specific L-capture radio-immunoassay (RIA) of IgM antibodies to Coxsackie B1-B5 (CB1-CB5) viruses was previously described. The present study is concerned with the specificity of this assay, using as antigen different strains of one serotype (CB5) and procapsids of two serotypes (CB3 and CB5). Eight strains of CB5 virions were tested against acute and/or convalescent sera from 10 patients from whom CB5 had been isolated. It is concluded that the choice of strain is important if a high frequency of homotypic titres with no or only a few heterotypic reactions is to be obtained. When procapsids were used as antigen, both homotypic and heterotypic titres were seen to a large extent. All patients with homotypic IgM against CB3 or CB5 virions showed IgM against the CB3 or the CB5 procapsids, respectively. It is concluded that the use of two or more procapsids in combination is of value for the diagnosis of a recent or current enterovirus infection (author). 18 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Spatial variability of the response to climate change in regional groundwater systems -- examples from simulations in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, Michael S.; Gannett, Marshall W.; Chang, Heejun; Hulbe, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the spatial variability of the response of aquifer systems to climate change in and adjacent to the Cascade Range volcanic arc in the Deschutes Basin, Oregon using downscaled global climate model projections to drive surface hydrologic process and groundwater flow models. Projected warming over the 21st century is anticipated to shift the phase of precipitation toward more rain and less snow in mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in smaller winter snowpack and in a shift in the timing of runoff to earlier in the year. This will be accompanied by spatially variable changes in the timing of groundwater recharge. Analysis of historic climate and hydrologic data and modeling studies show that groundwater plays a key role in determining the response of stream systems to climate change. The spatial variability in the response of groundwater systems to climate change, particularly with regard to flow-system scale, however, has generally not been addressed in the literature. Here we simulate the hydrologic response to projected future climate to show that the response of groundwater systems can vary depending on the location and spatial scale of the flow systems and their aquifer characteristics. Mean annual recharge averaged over the basin does not change significantly between the 1980s and 2080s climate periods given the ensemble of global climate models and emission scenarios evaluated. There are, however, changes in the seasonality of groundwater recharge within the basin. Simulation results show that short-flow-path groundwater systems, such as those providing baseflow to many headwater streams, will likely have substantial changes in the timing of discharge in response changes in seasonality of recharge. Regional-scale aquifer systems with flow paths on the order of many tens of kilometers, in contrast, are much less affected by changes in seasonality of recharge. Flow systems at all spatial scales, however, are likely to reflect

  4. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  5. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time-variable rainfall thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2015-04-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b) and makes use of LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult, and it provides different outputs. When switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a basic data view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the variability of the geomorphological and meteorological settings encountered in Tuscany, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of more than 300 rain gauges, it allows for the monitoring of each alert zone separately so that warnings can be issued independently. An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the WebGIS interface may vary in time depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set. The starting time of the rainfall event is considered as a variable by the early warning system: whenever new rainfall data are available, a recursive algorithm identifies the starting time for which the rainfall path is closest to or overcomes the threshold. This is considered the most hazardous condition, and it is displayed by the WebGIS interface. The early warning system is used to forecast and monitor the landslide hazard in the whole region

  6. Modeling actual evapotranspiration with routine meteorological variables in the data-scarce region of the Tibetan Plateau: Comparisons and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Yinsheng; Xu, Chong-Yu; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) by in situ measurements and mathematical modeling is a fundamental task for physical understanding of ETa as well as the feedback mechanisms between land and the ambient atmosphere. However, the ETa information in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been greatly impeded by the extremely sparse ground observation network in the region. Approaches for estimating ETa solely from routine meteorological variables are therefore important for investigating spatiotemporal variations of ETa in the data-scarce region of the TP. Motivated by this need, the complementary relationship (CR) and Penman-Monteith approaches were evaluated against in situ measurements of ETa on a daily basis in an alpine steppe region of the TP. The former includes the Nonlinear Complementary Relationship (Nonlinear-CR) as well as the Complementary Relationship Areal Evapotranspiration (CRAE) models, while the latter involves the Katerji-Perrier and the Todorovic models. Results indicate that the Nonlinear-CR, CRAE, and Katerji-Perrier models are all capable of efficiently simulating daily ETa, provided their parameter values were appropriately calibrated. The Katerji-Perrier model performed best since its site-specific parameters take the soil water status into account. The Nonlinear-CR model also performed well with the advantage of not requiring the user to choose between a symmetric and asymmetric CR. The CRAE model, even with a relatively low Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) value, is also an acceptable approach in this data-scarce region as it does not need information of wind speed and ground surface conditions. In contrast, application of the Todorovic model was found to be inappropriate in the dry regions of the TP due to its significant overestimation of ETa as it neglects the effect of water stress on the bulk surface resistance. Sensitivity analysis of the parameter values demonstrated the relative importance of each parameter in the

  7. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulahi Alfonso-Morales

    Full Text Available Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV; it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV strains.Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2 gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST, Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium in 1987, Africa (Egypt around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba by 1995 and South America (Brazil around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection.To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  8. Spatiotemporal Phylogenetic Analysis and Molecular Characterisation of Infectious Bursal Disease Viruses Based on the VP2 Hyper-Variable Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Morales, Abdulahi; Martínez-Pérez, Orlando; Dolz, Roser; Valle, Rosa; Perera, Carmen L; Bertran, Kateri; Frías, Maria T; Majó, Natàlia; Ganges, Llilianne; Pérez, Lester J

    2013-01-01

    Infectious bursal disease is a highly contagious and acute viral disease caused by the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV); it affects all major poultry producing areas of the world. The current study was designed to rigorously measure the global phylogeographic dynamics of IBDV strains to gain insight into viral population expansion as well as the emergence, spread and pattern of the geographical structure of very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) strains. Sequences of the hyper-variable region of the VP2 (HVR-VP2) gene from IBDV strains isolated from diverse geographic locations were obtained from the GenBank database; Cuban sequences were obtained in the current work. All sequences were analysed by Bayesian phylogeographic analysis, implemented in the Bayesian Evolutionary Analysis Sampling Trees (BEAST), Bayesian Tip-association Significance testing (BaTS) and Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics (SPREAD) software packages. Selection pressure on the HVR-VP2 was also assessed. The phylogeographic association-trait analysis showed that viruses sampled from individual countries tend to cluster together, suggesting a geographic pattern for IBDV strains. Spatial analysis from this study revealed that strains carrying sequences that were linked to increased virulence of IBDV appeared in Iran in 1981 and spread to Western Europe (Belgium) in 1987, Africa (Egypt) around 1990, East Asia (China and Japan) in 1993, the Caribbean Region (Cuba) by 1995 and South America (Brazil) around 2000. Selection pressure analysis showed that several codons in the HVR-VP2 region were under purifying selection. To our knowledge, this work is the first study applying the Bayesian phylogeographic reconstruction approach to analyse the emergence and spread of vvIBDV strains worldwide.

  9. Accounting for inter-annual and seasonal variability in regionalization of hydrologic response in the Great Lakes basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kult, J. M.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Methods for predicting streamflow in areas with limited or nonexistent measures of hydrologic response typically invoke the concept of regionalization, whereby knowledge pertaining to gauged catchments is transferred to ungauged catchments. In this study, we identify watershed physical characteristics acting as primary drivers of hydrologic response throughout the US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Relationships between watershed physical characteristics and hydrologic response are generated from 166 catchments spanning a variety of climate, soil, land cover, and land form regimes through regression tree analysis, leading to a grouping of watersheds exhibiting similar hydrologic response characteristics. These groupings are then used to predict response in ungauged watersheds in an uncertainty framework. Results from this method are assessed alongside one historical regionalization approach which, while simple, has served as a cornerstone of Great Lakes regional hydrologic research for several decades. Our approach expands upon previous research by considering multiple temporal characterizations of hydrologic response. Due to the substantial inter-annual and seasonal variability in hydrologic response observed over the Great Lakes basin, results from the regression tree analysis differ considerably depending on the level of temporal aggregation used to define the response. Specifically, higher levels of temporal aggregation for the response metric (for example, indices derived from long-term means of climate and streamflow observations) lead to improved watershed groupings with lower within-group variance. However, this perceived improvement in model skill occurs at the cost of understated uncertainty when applying the regression to time series simulations or as a basis for model calibration. In such cases, our results indicate that predictions based on long-term characterizations of hydrologic response can produce misleading conclusions when applied at shorter

  10. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  11. Spatiotemporal variability and meteorological control of particulate matter pollution in a large open-pit coal mining region in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rincon, L. A.; Jimenez-Pizarro, R.; Porras-Diaz, H.

    2012-12-01

    Luis Morales-Rincon (1), Hernan Porras-Diaz (1), Rodrigo Jiménez (2,*) (1) Geomatic Research Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander 680002, Colombia; (2) Air Quality Research Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, DC 111321, Colombia *Corresponding author: phone +57-1-316-5000 ext. 14099, fax +57-1-316-5334, e-mail rjimenezp@unal.edu.co The semi-desertic area of Central Cesar, Colombia, produced approximately 44 million tons of coal in 2011. This mining activity has been intensively developed since 2005. There are currently 7 large-scale mining projects in that area. The coal industry has strongly impacted not only the ecosystems, but also the neighboring communities around the coal mines. The main goal of the research work was to characterize spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (total suspended particulates - TSP - and particulate matter below 10 μm - PM10) as measured at various air quality monitoring stations in Cesar's coal industry region as well as to study the relationship between these variability and meteorological factors. The analysis of the meteorological time series of revealed a complex atmospheric circulation in the region. No clear repetitive diurnal circulation patterns were observed, i.e. statistical mean patterns do not physically represent the actual atmospheric circulation. We attribute this complexity to the interdependence between local and synoptic phenomena over a low altitude, relatively flat area. On the other hand, a comparison of air quality in the mining area with a perimeter station indicates that coal industry in central Cesar has a mayor effect on the levels of particulate matter in the region. Particulate matter concentration is highly variable throughout the year. The strong correlation between TSP and PM10 indicates that secondary aerosols are of minor importance. Furthermore, particle

  12. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Su, Ying-Juan; Wang, Ting

    2011-04-13

    The rpoB-psbZ (BZ) region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes) has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i) a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii) the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS) of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii) the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv) ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  13. Evolution of the rpoB-psbZ region in fern plastid genomes: notable structural rearrangements and highly variable intergenic spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ying-Juan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rpoB-psbZ (BZ region of some fern plastid genomes (plastomes has been noted to go through considerable genomic changes. Unraveling its evolutionary dynamics across all fern lineages will lead to clarify the fundamental process shaping fern plastome structure and organization. Results A total of 24 fern BZ sequences were investigated with taxon sampling covering all the extant fern orders. We found that: (i a tree fern Plagiogyria japonica contained a novel gene order that can be generated from either the ancestral Angiopteris type or the derived Adiantum type via a single inversion; (ii the trnY-trnE intergenic spacer (IGS of the filmy fern Vandenboschia radicans was expanded 3-fold due to the tandem 27-bp repeats which showed strong sequence similarity with the anticodon domain of trnY; (iii the trnY-trnE IGSs of two horsetail ferns Equisetum ramosissimum and E. arvense underwent an unprecedented 5-kb long expansion, more than a quarter of which was consisted of a single type of direct repeats also relevant to the trnY anticodon domain; and (iv ycf66 has independently lost at least four times in ferns. Conclusions Our results provided fresh insights into the evolutionary process of fern BZ regions. The intermediate BZ gene order was not detected, supporting that the Adiantum type was generated by two inversions occurring in pairs. The occurrence of Vandenboschia 27-bp repeats represents the first evidence of partial tRNA gene duplication in fern plastomes. Repeats potentially forming a stem-loop structure play major roles in the expansion of the trnY-trnE IGS.

  14. Control of IgE and IgGl antibody production in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Macedo, M.S.; Braga, F.; Mota, I.

    1976-01-01

    The production of IgE and IgCl was studied in untreated, thymectomized, splenectomized, anti-thymocyte serum-treated, or sublethally X-irradiated mice. Dinitrophenyl, Ascaris, and ovalbumin were used as antigens, and aluminum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. A suppression of IgE production was observed in adult thymectomized mice, although the kinetic pattern of the antibody response was the same as in control animals. IgGl antibody production was not affected by thymectomy. Splenectomy did not change either IgE or IgGl production. A single dose of rabbit antithymocyte serum (ATS) given 8 days after immunization inhibited IgE antibody production. The effect of ATS was dose dependent and also varied with the amount of antigen used, the immune response to high doses being more susceptible to the effect of ATS. No alteration in IgGl production was caused by ATS even when IgE antibody formation was completely inhibited. When preceding immunization, sublethal irradiation enhanced IgE antibody formation and partially suppressed IgGl production; applied after immunization, irradiation caused an enhancement of IgE production which was inversely proportional to the interval elapsed between the two procedures. On the other hand, the IgGl antibody production was fairly resistant to the same treatment. The results suggest a clearcut separation between the mechanisms regulating IgE and IgGl production in mice

  15. Low numbers of repeat units in variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) regions of white spot syndrome virus are correlated with disease outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Thi Tuyet, H.; Zwart, M.P.; Phuong, N.T.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important pathogen in shrimp farming systems worldwide including the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The genome of WSSV is characterized by the presence of two major 'indel regions' found at ORF14/15 and ORF23/24 (WSSV-Thailand) and three regions with variable

  16. [Effects of land use and environmental factors on the variability of soil quality indicators in hilly Loess Plateau region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Xiang; Liu, Guo-Bin; Zhao, Yun-Ge

    2011-02-01

    Classical statistics methods were adopted to analyze the soil quality variability, its affecting factors, and affecting degree at a regional scale (700 km2) in the central part of hilly Loess Plateau region of China. There existed great differences in the variability of test soil quality indicators. Soil pH, structural coefficient, silt content, specific gravity, bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, and catalase activity were the indicators with weak variability; soil nutrients (N, P, and K) contents, CaCO3 content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, micro-aggregate mean mass diameter, aggregate mean mass diameter, water-stable aggregates, respiration rate, microbial quotient, invertase and phosphatase activities, respiratory quotient, and microbial carbon and nitrogen showed medium variation; while soil labile organic carbon and phosphorus contents, erosion-resistance, permeability coefficient, and urease activity were the indicators with strong variability. The variability of soil CaCO3, total P and K, CEC, texture, and specific gravity, etc. was correlated with topography and other environmental factors, while the variability of dynamic soil quality indicators, including soil organic matter content, nitrogen content, water-stable aggregates, permeability, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, enzyme activities, and respiration rate, was mainly correlated with land use type. Overall, land use pattern explained 97% of the variability of soil quality indicators in the region. It was suggested that in the evaluation of soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau region, land use type and environmental factors should be fully considered.

  17. Variabilidade local e regional da evapotranspiração estimada pelo algoritmo SEBAL Local and regional variability of evapotranspiration estimated by SEBAL algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. J. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    balance. The hourly evapotranspiration values obtained were greater than 0.60 mm h-1 in irrigated or dense native vegetation areas, from 0.35 to 0.60 mm h-1 in sparse vegetation areas and almost null in degradated areas. The analysis of hourly evapotranspiration means by Tukey test at 5% probability level showed not only a significant variability locally but also at a regional scale in the state of Ceará.

  18. Identification of three subgroups of B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia based upon mutations of BCL-6 and IgV genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, D; Fais, F; Vivenza, D; Migliaretti, G; Chiorazzi, N; Gaidano, G; Ferrarini, M

    2000-05-01

    Although B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) has been traditionally viewed as a tumor of virgin B cells, this notion has been recently questioned by data suggesting that a fraction of B-CLL derives from antigen experienced B cells. In order to further clarify the histogenetic derivation of this lymphoproliferation, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the 5' non-coding region of BCL-6 proto-oncogene in 28 cases of B-CLL. Mutations of BCL-6 proto-oncogene, a zinc finger transcription factor implicated in lymphoma development, represent a histogenetic marker of B cell transit through the germinal center (GC) and occur frequently in B cell malignancies derived from GC or post-GC B cells. For comparison, the same tumor panel was analyzed for somatic mutations of the rearranged immunoglobulin variable (IgV) genes, which are known to be acquired at the time of B cell transit through the GC. Sequence analyses of BCL-6 and IgV genes allowed the definition of three groups of B-CLL. Group I B-CLL displayed mutations of both BCL-6 and IgV genes (10/28; 36%). Group II B-CLL displayed mutated IgV genes, but a germline BCL-6 gene (5/28; 18%). Finally, group III B-CLL included the remaining cases (13/28; 46%) that were characterized by the absence of somatic mutations of both BCL-6 and IgV genes. Overall, the distribution of BCL-6 and IgV mutations in B-CLL reinforce the notion that this leukemia is histogenetically heterogeneous and that a substantial subgroup of these lymphoproliferations derives from post-germinal center B cells.

  19. Astrocytic autoantibody of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-IgG) binds to aquaporin-4 extracellular loops, monomers, tetramers and high order arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorio, Raffaele; Fryer, James P.; Hinson, Shannon R.; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Wolburg, Hartwig; Pittock, Sean J.; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2012-01-01

    The principal central nervous system (CNS) water channel, aquaporin-4 (AQP4), is confined to astrocytic and ependymal membranes and is the target of a pathogenic autoantibody, neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-IgG. This disease-specific autoantibody unifies a spectrum of relapsing CNS autoimmune inflammatory disorders of which NMO exemplifies the classic phenotype. Multiple sclerosis and other immune-mediated demyelinating disorders of the CNS lack a distinctive biomarker. Two AQP4 isoforms, M1 and M23, exist as homotetrameric and heterotetrameric intramembranous particles (IMPs). Orthogonal arrays of predominantly M23 particles (OAPs) are an ultrastructural characteristic of astrocytic membranes. We used high-titered serum from 32 AQP4-IgG-seropositive patients and 85 controls to investigate the nature and molecular location of AQP4 epitopes that bind NMO-IgG, and the influence of supramolecular structure. NMO-IgG bound to denatured AQP4 monomers (68% of cases), to native tetramers and high order arrays (90% of cases), and to AQP4 in live cell membranes (100% of cases). Disease-specific epitopes reside in extracellular loop C more than in loops A or E. IgG binding to intracellular epitopes lacks disease specificity. These observations predict greater disease specificity and sensitivity for tissue-based and cell-based serological assays employing “native” AQP4 than assays employing denatured AQP4 and fragments. NMO-IgG binds most avidly to plasma membrane surface AQP4 epitopes formed by loop interactions within tetramers and by intermolecular interactions within high order structures. The relative abundance and localization of AQP4 high order arrays in distinct CNS regions may explain the variability in clinical phenotype of NMO spectrum disorders. PMID:22906356

  20. Spatial variability of initial 230Th/ 232Th in modern Porites from the inshore region of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Done, Terry J.; Jupiter, Stacy; Lough, Janice; Pandolfi, John M.

    2012-02-01

    The main limiting factor in obtaining precise and accurate uranium-series (U-series) ages of corals that lived during the last few hundred years is the ability to constrain and correct for initial thorium-230 ( 230Th 0), which is proportionally much higher in younger samples. This is becoming particularly important in palaeoecological research where accurate chronologies, based on the 230Th chronometer, are required to pinpoint changes in coral community structure and the timing of mortality events in recent time (e.g. since European settlement of northern Australia in the 1850s). In this study, thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) U-series dating of 43 samples of known ages collected from living Porites spp. from the far northern, central and southern inshore regions of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) was performed to spatially constrain initial 230Th/ 232Th ( 230Th/ 232Th 0) variability. In these living Porites corals, the majority of 230Th/ 232Th 0 values fell within error of the conservative bulk Earth 230Th/ 232Th atomic value of 4.3 ± 4.3 × 10 -6 (2 σ) generally assumed for 230Th 0 corrections where the primary source is terrestrially derived. However, the results of this study demonstrate that the accuracy of 230Th ages can be further improved by using locally determined 230Th/ 232Th 0 values for correction, supporting the conclusion made by Shen et al. (2008) for the Western Pacific. Despite samples being taken from regions adjacent to contrasting levels of land modification, no significant differences were found in 230Th/ 232Th 0 between regions exposed to varying levels of sediment during river runoff events. Overall, 39 of the total 43 230Th/ 232Th 0 atomic values measured in samples from inshore reefs across the entire region show a normal distribution ranging from 3.5 ± 1.1 to 8.1 ± 1.1 × 10 -6, with a weighted mean of 5.76 ± 0.34 × 10 -6 (2 σ, MSWD = 8.1). Considering the scatter of the data, the weighted mean value with a more

  1. IgG4 antibodies in Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iskander, R.; Das, P. K.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins were determined in 40 Egyptian patients with schistosomiasis. In addition to the well-established elevation in total IgE, a striking imbalance in the IgG subclass levels was found: IgG3 and IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, whereas IgG2 levels were normal. The IgG4 level did

  2. Grasping the nettle: A bacterial invasin that targets immunoglobulin variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul

    2018-06-01

    In a new paper, the protein InvD from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis , a zoonotic pathogen, is shown to assist late-stage invasion of intestinal epithelia. Remarkably, InvD acts by binding the Fab region of IgG or IgA. It straddles adjacent light-chain and heavy-chain variable domains, but its binding is different from that of antigens in that complementarity-determining regions do not participate. Structure determination revealed that its Fab-interacting domain adopts an immunoglobulin-like fold, fused to the preceding immunoglobulin-like domain and carried on a long stalk anchored to the bacterial outer membrane. Possible roles of this unusual host-pathogen interaction include avoidance of clearance from the intestine by secretory IgA. © 2018 Barlow.

  3. Predictive value of IgE/IgG4 antibody ratio in children with egg allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto Shindou

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the role of specific IgG4 antibodies to hen’s egg white and determine their utility as a marker for the outcome of oral challenge test in children sensitized to hen’s egg Methods The hen’s egg oral food challenge test was performed in 105 sensitized children without atopic dermatitis, and the titers of egg white-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 and immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies were measured. To set the cut-off values of IgG4, IgE, and the IgE/IgG4 ratio for predicting positive results in oral challenges, receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted and the area under the curves (AUC were calculated. Results Sixty-four of 105 oral challenges with whole eggs were assessed as positive. The AUC for IgE, IgG4, and IgE/IgG4 for the prediction of positive results were 0.609, 0.724, and 0.847, respectively. Thus, the IgE/IgG4 ratio generated significantly higher specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (%, and negative predictive value (% than the individual IgE and IgG4. The negative predictive value of the IgE/IgG4 ratio was 90% at a value of 1. Conclusions We have demonstrated that the egg white-specific serum IgE/IgG4 ratio is important for predicting reactivity to egg during food challenges.

  4. Serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cell elevation in orbital IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD): Potential use in IgG4-RD assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Anita S Y; Mudhar, Hardeep; Shen, Sunny Yu; Lang, Stephanie S; Fernando, Malee; Hilmy, Maryam Hazly; Guppy, Naomi Jayne; Rennie, Ian; Dunkley, Lisa; Al Jajeh, Issam

    2017-11-01

    To determine the role of serum and tissue IgG2 in orbital biopsies with the histological features of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in comparison with non-IgG4-related orbital inflammatory disorders (OID), including autoimmune disorders. This is an international (Sheffield, UK, and Singapore) collaborative, retrospective case review of 69 patients (38 from Singapore National Eye Centre and 31 from Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) with orbital inflammatory biopsies between 2002 and 2016. Clinical information and histology were reviewed and cases were classified into three groups: Group 1: IgG4-RD orbital inflammation (n=43); Group 2: idiopathic OID (n=12) and Group 3: autoimmune OID (n=14). Serum IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 levels were collated where available and immunohistochemistry (IHC) for tissue IgG2 plasma cells was performed. Dual IHC showed IgG2 plasma cells as a distinct population from IgG4 plasma cells. Significant (twofold) serum IgG2 elevation was noted among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic (group 2) and autoimmune OID (group 3). Similarly, significant elevation of tissue IgG2 plasma cells was also seen among IgG4-RD (group 1), idiopathic and autoimmune OID (groups 2 and 3). Significant elevations of serum IgG2 and tissue IgG2 plasma cells are present in orbital IgG4-RD in comparison with non-IgG4 orbital inflammation (idiopathic and autoimmune OID), suggesting that IgG2 may play a role in IgG4-RD. A serum IgG2 cut-off >5.3 g/L was found to be 80% sensitive and 91.7% specific for orbital IgG4-RD, with an accuracy of 0.90. Tissue IgG2 and IgG4 subclass reporting may provide additional insight regarding the 'IgG4-RD' pathogenesis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Paleolimnological reconstruction of environmental variability during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene in the south-east Baltic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublitskiy, Iurii; Subetto, Dmitriy; Druzhinina, Olga; Kulkova, Marianna; Arslanov, Khikmatula

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of our research is the high-resolution reconstruction of environmental and climatic changes in SE Baltic region since the Last Glacial Maximum by palaeolimnological data. The 6 objects - lakes and peat-bogs, were studied since 2009 in the Kaliningrad region, Russian Federation. According to palaeolimnological studies of bottom sediments of the Kamyshovoe Lake (N 54°22,6`; E22°42,8`, 189 m a.s.l.), located in the Vishtynets Highland, the south-east part of Kaliningrad district, the environmental and climatic changes after the late glacial have been reconstructed. At that moment the radiocarbon and loss-on-ignition (LOI) data, geochemistry and diatom analysis for the whole sediment core, and pollen analyze for the bottom part of the core have been completed. According to the pollen data the Alleröd interstadial starts at 13 200 cal. yrs BP and is marked by the rising of birch and pine pollen. The transition to the Younger Dryas around 12 700 cal. yrs BP corresponds with the development of patches of shrublands in which light-demanding species, such as juniper, flourished and communities of steppe herbs. The late Preboreal is marked by the appearance of Populus and an increase of the role of grasses in the vegetation cover 11 300-11 100 cal. yrs BP (Druzinina et al., 2015). The Holocene climatic zones have been identified by LOI and geochemistry analyses. The Boreal period started about 10 200 cal. yrs BP, Atlantic around 9100 cal. yrs BP, Subboreal 5800 cal. yrs BP, and Subatlantic 3200 cal. yrs BP (Kublitskiy et al., 2015). During the conference the new palaeolimnological data of environmental variability during the late Pleistocene and Holocene in SE Baltic region will be presented. Acknowledgements The investigations have been granted by the Russian Fund for Basic Research (12-05-33013, 13-05-41457, 15-35-50721). References Druzhinina, O., Subetto, D., Stančikaitė, M., Vaikutienė, G., Kublitsky, J., Arslanov, Kh., 2015. Sediment record from the

  6. Overview of surface ozone variability in East Asia-North Pacific region during IGAC/APARE (1994--1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K S; Wang, T J; Wang, T; Tang, J; Kajii, Y; Liu, C M; Shim, S G

    2004-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at Oki Island (Japan), Cheju Island (South Korea), Lanyu Island (Taiwan Province, China), Cape D'Aguilar (Hong Kong SAR) and Lin'an, Longfenshan, Waliguan (China mainland) during January 1994--December 1996 as a component of IGAC/APARE (International Global Atmospheric Chemistry/East Asia-North Pacific Regional Experiment). This paper gave a joint discussion on the observational results at these stations over the study region. Investigations showed that the average of surface O3 mixing ratios at the seven sites are 47.9+/-15.8, 48.1+/-17.9, 30.2+/-16.4, 31.6+/-17.5, 36.3+/-17.5, 34.8+/-11.5 and 48.2+/-9.5 ppbv, respectively. Significant diurnal variations of surface O3 have been observed at Oki, Cheju, D'Aguilar, Lin'an and Longfenshan. Their annual averaged diurnal differences range from 8 to 23 ppbv and differ in each season. Surface O3 at Lanyu and Waliguan do not show strong diurnal variability. Seasonal cycles of surface O3 showed difference at the temperate and the subtropical remote sites. Oki has a summer minimum-spring maximum, while Lanyu has a summer minimum-autumn maximum. The suburban sites at D'Aguilar and Lin'an report high-level O3 in autumn and low level O3 in summer. Surface O3 remains-high in autumn and low in winter at the rural site Longfenshan. For the global background station Waliguan, surface O3 exhibits a broad spring-summer maximum and autumn-winter minimum. The backward air trajectories to these sites have shown different pathways of long-range transport of air pollution from East Asia Continent to North Pacific Ocean. Surface O3 was found to be strongly and positively correlated with CO at Oki and Lanyu, especially in spring and autumn, reflecting the substantial photochemical buildup of O3 on a regional scale. It is believed that the regional sources of pollution in East Asia have enhanced the average surface O3 concentrations in the background atmosphere of North Pacific.

  7. Native IgG2a(b) is barely antigenic to major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted T cells owing to inefficient internalization by professional antigen-presenting cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnes, K; Hannestad, K

    2000-04-01

    Peptide epitopes derived from immunoglobulin variable regions represent tumour-specific antigens on B-cell neoplasms and can be recognized by syngeneic, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted T cells. Immunoglobulin peptide/MHC class II complexes may also be involved in autoimmunity and CD4+ T-cell-mediated B-cell regulation. Thus, the IgG2a(b) H-chain allopeptide gamma2a(b) 435-451 presented on I-Ad mimics the epitope implicated in herpes simplex virus-induced autoimmune stromal keratitis and is the target of T helper 1 (Th1) clones that suppress IgG2a(b) production in vivo. We here report that spleen and thymus cells constitutively present the autologous gamma2a(b) epitope to a gamma2a(b) 435-451/I-A(d) reactive T-cell hybridoma as a function of the animal housing conditions (specific pathogen-free or not) and the serum levels of IgG2a(b). Constitutive presentation in the spleen was predominantly performed by dendritic cells. Whereas spleen cells poorly presented native IgG2a(b) to a gamma2a(b) 435-451/I-A(d) reactive T-cell hybridoma, IgG2a(b) in the form of immune complexes were presented > 200-fold more efficiently owing to internalization via low-affinity FcgammaR on macrophages. The antigenicity could also be improved by homotypic aggregation and by targeting IgG2a(b) to complement receptors on the A20 B-cell lymphoma. Mice without detectable IgG2a(b)-containing immune complexes typically exhibited minimal constitutive presentation. Nevertheless, native IgG2a(b) can sensitize antigen-presenting cells in vivo, as mice that were devoid of immune complexes and carried an IgG2a(b)-producing tumour did present constitutively, even at physiological IgG2a(b) serum levels. Whereas the amounts of IgG released from most B-cell lymphomas may be too low to allow spontaneous priming of tumour-specific MHC class II-restricted T cells, administration of tumour immunoglobulin in aggregated form might improve the efficacy of idiotype vaccination.

  8. Evidence of IgY subclass diversification in snakes: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Yi; Shao, Wenwei; Cheng, Gang; Li, Lingxiao; Cao, Zubing; Yang, Zhi; Zou, Huiying; Zhang, Wei; Han, Binyue; Hu, Yang; Ren, Liming; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Guo, Ying; Fei, Jing; Hammarström, Lennart; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-10-01

    Mammalian IgG and IgE are thought to have evolved from IgY of nonmammalian tetrapods; however, no diversification of IgY subclasses has been reported in reptiles or birds, which are phylogenetically close to mammals. To our knowledge, we report the first evidence of the presence of multiple IgY-encoding (υ) genes in snakes. Two υ genes were identified in the snake Elaphe taeniura, and three υ genes were identified in the Burmese python (Python molurus bivittatus). Although four of the υ genes displayed a conventional four-H chain C region exon structure, one of the υ genes in the Burmese python lacked the H chain C region 2 exon, thus exhibiting a structure similar to that of the mammalian γ genes. We developed mouse mAbs specific for the IgY1 and IgY2 of E. taeniura and showed that both were expressed in serum; each had two isoforms: one full-length and one truncated at the C terminus. The truncation was not caused by alternative splicing or transcriptional termination. We also identified the μ and δ genes, but no α gene, in both snakes. This study provides valuable clues for our understanding of Ig gene evolution in tetrapods.

  9. Regional Variability of Agriculturally-Derived Nitrate-Nitrogen in Shallow Groundwater in China, 2004–2014

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    Jing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing diffuse nitrate loading of groundwater has long been a major environmental and health concern in China, but little is known about the spatial and temporal variability of nitrate concentrations in groundwater at regional scales. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial distribution and variation of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater. We used groundwater quality monitoring data and soil physical characteristics from 21 agro-ecosystems in China for years 2004 to 2014. The results indicated that NO3−-N concentrations were highly variable in shallow groundwater across the landscape. Over the study period, most of the NO3−-N concentrations were below the World Health Organization permissible limit for drinking water (<10 mg N·L. NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater neither significantly increased nor decreased in most agro-ecosystems, but fluctuated with seasons. In addition, groundwater NO3−-N under purple soil (6.81 mg·L−1 and Aeolian sandy soil (6.02 mg·L−1 were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that under other soil types, and it was medium-high (4.49 mg·L−1 under aquic cinnamon soil. Elevated nitrate concentrations occurred mainly in oasis agricultural areas of northwestern China, where farmlands with coarse-textured soils use flood irrigation. Therefore, arid and semi-arid areas are expected to sustain high NO3−-N concentrations in groundwater. Mitigation strategies can prevent this problem, and include control of N fertilizer input, balanced fertilization, proper rotation system, adoption of improved irrigation methods, and establishment of environmental policies.

  10. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

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    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  11. Variability in methane emissions from West Siberia's shallow boreal lakes on a regional scale and its environmental controls

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    A. F. Sabrekov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Small lakes represent an important source of atmospheric CH4 from northern wetlands. However, spatiotemporal variations in flux magnitudes and the lack of knowledge about their main environmental controls contribute large uncertainty into the global CH4 budget. In this study, we measured methane fluxes from small lakes using chambers and bubble traps. Field investigations were carried out in July–August 2014 within the West Siberian middle and southern taiga zones. The average and median of measured methane chamber fluxes were 0.32 and 0.30 mgCH4 m−2 h−1 for middle taiga lakes and 8.6 and 4.1 mgCH4 m−2 h−1 for southern taiga lakes, respectively. Pronounced flux variability was found during measurements on individual lakes, between individual lakes and between zones. To analyze these differences and the influences of environmental controls, we developed a new dynamic process-based model. It shows good performance with emission rates from the southern taiga lakes and poor performance for individual lakes in the middle taiga region. The model shows that, in addition to well-known controls such as temperature, pH and lake depth, there are significant variations in the maximal methane production potential between these climatic zones. In addition, the model shows that variations in gas-filled pore space in lake sediments are capable of controlling the total methane emissions from individual lakes. The CH4 emissions exhibited distinct zonal differences not only in absolute values but also in their probability density functions: the middle taiga lake fluxes were best described by a lognormal distribution while the southern taiga lakes followed a power-law distribution. The latter suggests applicability of self-organized criticality theory for methane emissions from the southern taiga zone, which could help to explain the strong variability within individual lakes.

  12. The Variable Regions of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Genomes Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Metabolic and Host-Adaptation Repertoires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceapa, Corina; Davids, Mark; Ritari, Jarmo; Lambert, Jolanda; Wels, Michiel; Douillard, François P; Smokvina, Tamara; de Vos, Willem M; Knol, Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-07-02

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a diverse Gram-positive species with strains isolated from different ecological niches. Here, we report the genome sequence analysis of 40 diverse strains of L. rhamnosus and their genomic comparison, with a focus on the variable genome. Genomic comparison of 40 L. rhamnosus strains discriminated the conserved genes (core genome) and regions of plasticity involving frequent rearrangements and horizontal transfer (variome). The L. rhamnosus core genome encompasses 2,164 genes, out of 4,711 genes in total (the pan-genome). The accessory genome is dominated by genes encoding carbohydrate transport and metabolism, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) biosynthesis, bacteriocin production, pili production, the cas system, and the associated clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) loci, and more than 100 transporter functions and mobile genetic elements like phages, plasmid genes, and transposons. A clade distribution based on amino acid differences between core (shared) proteins matched with the clade distribution obtained from the presence-absence of variable genes. The phylogenetic and variome tree overlap indicated that frequent events of gene acquisition and loss dominated the evolutionary segregation of the strains within this species, which is paralleled by evolutionary diversification of core gene functions. The CRISPR-Cas system could have contributed to this evolutionary segregation. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains contain the genetic and metabolic machinery with strain-specific gene functions required to adapt to a large range of environments. A remarkable congruency of the evolutionary relatedness of the strains' core and variome functions, possibly favoring interspecies genetic exchanges, underlines the importance of gene-acquisition and loss within the L. rhamnosus strain diversification. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. Toxicological Effects of Nickel Chloride on IgA+ B Cells and sIgA, IgA, IgG, IgM in the Intestinal Mucosal Immunity in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyuan Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicological effects of dietary NiCl2 on IgA+ B cells and the immunoglobulins including sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM in the small intestine and cecal tonsil of broilers by the methods of immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Two hundred and forty one-day-old avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg NiCl2 for 42 days. Compared with the control group, the IgA+ B cell number and the sIgA, IgA, IgG, and IgM contents in the NiCl2-treated groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01. It was concluded that dietary NiCl2 in the excess of 300 mg/kg had negative effects on the IgA+ B cell number and the abovementioned immunoglobulin contents in the small intestine and the cecal tonsil. NiCl2-reduced sIgA, IgA, IgG and IgM contents is due to decrease in the population and/or the activation of B cell. The results suggest that NiCl2 at high levels has intestinal mucosal humoral immunotoxicity in animals.

  14. Amylolytic activity of IgM and IgG antibodies from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveliev, Andrew N; Ivanen, Dina R; Kulminskaya, Anna A; Ershova, Nadezhda A; Kanyshkova, Tat'yana G; Buneva, Valentina N; Mogelnitskii, Alexander S; Doronin, Boris M; Favorova, Olga O; Nevinsky, Georgy A; Neustroev, Kirill N

    2003-05-01

    IgG and IgM antibodies from the sera of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) were found to possess amylolytic activity hydrolyzing alpha-(1-->4)-glucosyl linkages of maltooligosaccharides, glycogen, and several artificial substrates. Individual IgM fractions isolated from 54 analyzed patients with the clinically definite diagnoses of MS had approximately three orders of magnitude higher specific amylolytic activity than that for healthy donors, whereas IgG from only a few patients had high amylolytic activity. Strict criteria were used to prove that the amylolytic activity of IgMs and IgGs is their intrinsic property and is not due to any enzyme contamination. Fab fragments produced from IgM and IgG fractions of the MS patients displayed the same amylolytic activity. IgMs from various patients demonstrated different modes of action in hydrolyzing maltooligosaccharides.

  15. Serum total IgG and IgG4 levels in thyroid eye disease

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    Sy A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aileen Sy, Rona Z Silkiss Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USA Purpose: To investigate the relationship between immunoglobulin G (IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD and thyroid eye disease (TED with respect to IgG levels. Patients and methods: A retrospective review of total IgG, IgG subclass, and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin (TSI levels in 24 patients with TED. Results: Five patients (20.8% demonstrated serum IgG4 levels consistent with IgG4-RD without any additional systemic disease. Total IgG and IgG subclass levels were found to be an inadequate proxy for TSI elevation. Conclusion: There may be a subtype of TED patients with elevated IgG4 in the absence of IgG4-RD systemic findings. Keywords: thyroid eye disease, IgG subclass, IgG4, Graves’ disease, Graves’ ophthalmopathy, IgG4-RD

  16. Pathological manifestations in lymphatic filariasis correlate with lack of inhibitory properties of IgG4 antibodies on IgE-activated granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodjinotho, Ulrich F; von Horn, Charlotte; Debrah, Alex Y; Batsa Debrah, Linda; Albers, Anna; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim; Adjobimey, Tomabu

    2017-07-01

    granulocytes. Our findings suggest that quantitative and qualitative alterations in IgG4 molecules are associated with the different clinical phenotypes in LF endemic regions.

  17. Expression of human FcgammaRIIIa as a GPI-linked molecule on CHO cells to enable measurement of human IgG binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kathryn L; Smith, Cheryl S; Clark, Michael R

    2010-03-31

    The efficacy of a therapeutic IgG molecule may be as dependent on the optimisation of the constant region to suit its intended indication as on the selection of its variable regions. A crucial effector function to be maximised or minimised is antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by natural killer cells. Traditional assays of ADCC activity suffer from considerable inter-donor and intra-donor variability, which makes the measurement of antibody binding to human FcgammaRIIIa, the key receptor for ADCC, an attractive alternative method of assessment. Here, we describe the development of cell lines and assays for this purpose. The transmembrane receptor, FcgammaRIIIa, requires co-expression with signal transducing subunits to prevent its degradation, unlike the homologous receptor FcgammaRIIIb that is expressed as a GPI-anchored molecule. Therefore, to simplify the production of cell lines as reliable assay components, we expressed FcgammaRIIIa as a GPI-anchored molecule. Separate, stable CHO cell lines that express either the 158F or the higher-affinity 158V allotype of FcgammaRIIIa were isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The identities of the expressed receptors were confirmed using a panel of monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between subclasses and allotypes of FcgammaRIII and the cell lines were shown to have slightly higher levels of receptor than FcgammaRIII-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Because the affinity of FcgammaRIIIa for IgG is intermediate amongst the receptors that bind IgG, we were able to use these cell lines to develop flow cytometric assays to measure the binding of both complexed and monomeric immunoglobulin. Thus, by choosing the appropriate method, weakly- or strongly-binding IgG can be efficiently compared. We have quantified the difference in the binding of wildtype IgG1 and IgG3 molecules to the two functional allotypes of the receptor and report that the FcgammaRIIIa-158V-antibody interaction is 3

  18. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

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    Binyue Han

    Full Text Available Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  19. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods. PMID:28403146

  20. Three IgH isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY are expressed in Gentoo penguin and zebra finch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Binyue; Li, Yan; Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Pan, Qingjie; Ren, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on a limited number of birds suggested that the IgD-encoding gene was absent in birds. However, one of our recent studies showed that the gene was definitely expressed in the ostrich and emu. Interestingly, we also identified subclass diversification of IgM and IgY in these two birds. To better understand immunoglobulin genes in birds, in this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) and Gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), belonging respectively to the order Passeriformes, the most successful bird order in terms of species diversity and numbers, and Sphenisciformes, a relatively primitive avian order. Similar to the results obtained in chickens and ducks, only three genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes, IgM, IgA and IgY, were identified in both species. Besides, we detected a transcript encoding a short membrane-bound IgA lacking the last two CH exons in the Gentoo penguin. We did not find any evidence supporting the presence of IgD gene or subclass diversification of IgM/IgY in penguin or zebra finch. The obtained data in our study provide more insights into the immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in birds and may help to better understand the evolution of immunoglobulin genes in tetrapods.

  1. Determination of IgE rheumatoid factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.; Schlenvoigt, G.; Jaeger, L.

    1987-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been developed for the identification of IgE rheumatoid factor (IgE RF). For both, human IgG was used as antigen. Bound IgE RF was detected by means of commercially available rabbit anti-human IgE antiserum and 125 I-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG as well as monoclonal anti-human-ε-chain antibody and horse-radish peroxidase-labelled sheep anti-mouse IgG. The presence of IgM RF did not cause false positive results. Correlation in the results of both assays were significant, the reproducibility was very good. In 50.6% of 79 sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis IgE RF has been detected with both or one of the methods. Only in 1 out of 12 seronegative rheumatoid arthritis sera IgE RF was identified. (author)

  2. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  3. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  4. Temporal Variability of Total Ozone in the Asian Region Inferred from Ground-Based and Satellite Measurement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visheratin, K. N.; Nerushev, A. F.; Orozaliev, M. D.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Sun, Shumen; Liu, Li

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports investigation data on the temporal variability of total ozone content (TOC) in the Central Asian and Tibet Plateau mountain regions obtained by conventional methods, as well as by spectral, cross-wavelet, and composite analyses. The data of ground-based observation stations located at Huang He, Kunming, and Lake Issyk-Kul, along with the satellite data obtained at SBUV/SBUV2 (SBUV merged total and profile ozone data, Version 8.6) for 1980-2013 and OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and TOU (Total Ozone Unit) for 2009-2013 have been used. The average relative deviation from the SBUV/SBUV2 data is less than 1% in Kunming and Issyk-Kul for the period of 1980-2013, while the Huang He Station is characterized by an excess of the satellite data over the ground-based information at an average deviation of 2%. According to the Fourier analysis results, the distribution of amplitudes and the periods of TOC oscillations within a range of over 14 months is similar for all series analyzed. Meanwhile, according to the cross-wavelet and composite analyses results, the phase relationships between the series may considerably differ, especially in the periods of 5-7 years. The phase of quasi-decennial oscillations in the Kunming Station is close to the 11-year oscillations of the solar cycle, while in the Huang He and Issyk-Kul stations the TOC variations go ahead of the solar cycle.

  5. GIS-modelling of the spatial variability of flash flood hazard in Abu Dabbab catchment, Red Sea Region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Abou El-Magd

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the mountainous area of the Red Sea region in southeastern Egypt, the development of new mining activities or/and domestic infrastructures require reliable and accurate information about natural hazards particularly flash flood. This paper presents the assessment of flash flood hazards in the Abu Dabbab drainage basin. Remotely sensed data were used to delineate the alluvial active channels, which were integrated with morphometric parameters extracted from digital elevation models (DEM into geographical information systems (GIS to construct a hydrological model that provides estimates about the amount of surface runoff as well as the magnitude of flash floods. The peak discharge is randomly varied at different cross-sections along the main channel. Under consistent 10 mm rainfall event, the selected cross-section in middle of the main channel is prone to maximum water depth at 80 cm, which decreases to nearly 30 cm at the outlet due to transmission loss. The estimation of spatial variability of flow parameters within the catchment at different confluences of the constituting sub-catchments can be considered and used in planning for engineering foundations and linear infrastructures with the least flash flood hazard. Such information would, indeed, help decision makers and planning to minimize such hazards.

  6. Landscape and Residential Variables Associated with Plague-Endemic Villages in the West Nile Region of Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E.; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N.; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A.; Mead, Paul S.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area. PMID:21363983

  7. Registration in the Danish Regional Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database: completeness of registration and accuracy of key variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Lamberg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Lamberg1, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton2, Anne B Olesen11Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, C, DenmarkObjective: To validate a clinical database for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC with the aim of monitoring and predicting the prognosis of NMSC treated by dermatologists in clinics in the central and north Denmark regions.Methods: We assessed the completeness of registration of patients and follow-up visits, and positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, sensitivity, and specificity of registrations in the database. We used the Danish Pathology Registry (DPR (n = 288 and a review of randomly selected medical records (n = 67 from two clinics as gold standards.Results: The completeness of registration of patients was 62% and 76% with DPR and medical record review as gold standards, respectively. The completeness of registration of 1st and 2nd follow up visits was 85% and 69%, respectively. The PPV and NPV ranged from 85% to 99%, and the sensitivity and specificity from 67% to 100%.Conclusion: Overall, the accuracy of variables registered in the NMSC database was satisfactory but completeness of patient registration and follow-up visits were modest. The NMSC database is a potentially valuable tool for monitoring and facilitating improvement of NMSC treatment in dermatology clinics. However, there is still room for improvement of registration of both patients and their follow-up visits.Keywords: nonmelanoma skin cancer, validation, database, positive predictive value, completeness

  8. Long-Term Variability of UV Irradiance in the Moscow Region according to Measurement and Modeling Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubarova, N. E.; Pastukhova, A. S.; Galin, V. Ya.; Smyshlyaev, S. P.

    2018-03-01

    We have found distinct long-period changes in erythemal UV radiation ( Q er) characterized by a pronounced decrease at the end of the 1970s and a statistically significant positive trend of more than 5%/10 years since 1979 over the territory of the Moscow region according to the measurements and reconstruction model. The positive Q er trend is shown to be associated mainly with a decrease in the effective cloud amount and total ozone content (TOC). Due to these variations, UV resources have significantly changed in spring for the population with the most vulnerable skin type I, which means a transition from the UV optimum to UV moderate excess conditions. The simulation experiments using the INM-RSHU chemistry climate model (CCM) for several scenarios with and without anthropogenic factors have revealed that the variations in the anthropogenic emissions of halogens have the most significant impact on the variability of TOC and Q er. Among natural factors, noticeable effects are observed due to volcanic aerosol. The calculations of the cloud transmittance of Q er are generally consistent with the measurements; however, they do not reproduce the observed value of the positive trend.

  9. Technical Note: An operational landslide early warning system at regional scale based on space-time variable rainfall thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segoni, S.; Battistini, A.; Rossi, G.; Rosi, A.; Lagomarsino, D.; Catani, F.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2014-10-01

    We set up an early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides in Tuscany (23 000 km2). The system is based on a set of state-of-the-art intensity-duration rainfall thresholds (Segoni et al., 2014b), makes use of LAMI rainfall forecasts and real-time rainfall data provided by an automated network of more than 300 rain-gauges. The system was implemented in a WebGIS to ease the operational use in civil protection procedures: it is simple and intuitive to consult and it provides different outputs. Switching among different views, the system is able to focus both on monitoring of real time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h. Moreover, the system can switch between a very straightforward view where a synoptic scenario of the hazard can be shown all over the region and a more in-depth view were the rainfall path of rain-gauges can be displayed and constantly compared with rainfall thresholds. To better account for the high spatial variability of the physical features, which affects the relationship between rainfall and landslides, the region is subdivided into 25 alert zones, each provided with a specific threshold. The warning system reflects this subdivision: using a network of 332 rain gauges, it allows monitoring each alert zone separately and warnings can be issued independently from an alert zone to another. An important feature of the warning system is the use of thresholds that may vary in time adapting at the conditions of the rainfall path recorded by the rain-gauges. Depending on when the starting time of the rainfall event is set, the comparison with the threshold may produce different outcomes. Therefore, a recursive algorithm was developed to check and compare with the thresholds all possible starting times, highlighting the worst scenario and showing in the WebGIS interface at what time and how much the rainfall path has exceeded or will exceed the most critical threshold. Besides forecasting and monitoring the hazard scenario

  10. Recent advances in knowledge regarding the head and neck manifestations of IgG4-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2017-02-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder, characterized by elevated serum IgG4 levels as well as abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes and fibrosis in various organs, including the head and neck region. In particular, the salivary glands, orbit, and thyroid are common sites of disease involvement. IgG4-RD is diagnosed based on various clinical, serological, and histopathological findings, none of which are pathognomonic. Hence, various differential diagnoses, which exhibit elevated serum IgG4 levels and infiltration of IgG4-postive cells into tissues, need to be excluded, especially malignant diseases and mimicking disorders. Systemic corticosteroids are generally effective in inducing IgG4-RD remission; however, recurrent or refractory cases are common. In addition, although the pathogenic mechanisms of IgG4-RD remain unclear, an antigen-driven inflammatory condition is believed to be involved. Recent studies have indicated the important pathogenic role of B cell/T cell collaboration and innate immunity in this disease. Nevertheless, additional research and discussions are needed to resolve many remaining questions. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent insights on the history, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of IgG4-RD in the head and neck region. Furthermore, we have also addressed the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In situ study of the impact of inter- and intra-reader variability on region of interest (ROI) analysis in preclinical molecular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Frezghi; Budhiraja, Shradha; Keren, Shay; Doyle, Timothy C; Levin, Craig S; Paik, David S

    2013-01-01

    We estimated reader-dependent variability of region of interest (ROI) analysis and evaluated its impact on preclinical quantitative molecular imaging. To estimate reader variability, we used five independent image datasets acquired each using microPET and multispectral fluorescence imaging (MSFI). We also selected ten experienced researchers who utilize molecular imaging in the same environment that they typically perform their own studies. Nine investigators blinded to the data type completed the ROI analysis by drawing ROIs manually that delineate the tumor regions to the best of their knowledge and repeated the measurements three times, non-consecutively. Extracted mean intensities of voxels within each ROI are used to compute the coefficient of variation (CV) and characterize the inter- and intra-reader variability. The impact of variability was assessed through random samples iterated from normal distributions for control and experimental groups on hypothesis testing and computing statistical power by varying subject size, measured difference between groups and CV. The results indicate that inter-reader variability was 22.5% for microPET and 72.2% for MSFI. Additionally, mean intra-reader variability was 10.1% for microPET and 26.4% for MSFI. Repeated statistical testing showed that a total variability of CV variability has been observed mainly due to differences in the ROI placement and geometry drawn between readers, which may adversely affect statistical power and erroneously lead to negative study outcomes.

  12. IGS polar motion measurement accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ray

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We elaborate an error budget for the long-term accuracy of IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service polar motion estimates, concluding that it is probably about 25–30 μas (1-sigma overall, although it is not possible to quantify possible contributions (mainly annual that might transfer directly from aliases of subdaily rotational tide errors. The leading sources are biases arising from the need to align daily, observed terrestrial frames, within which the pole coordinates are expressed and which are continuously deforming, to the secular, linear international reference frame. Such biases are largest over spans longer than about a year. Thanks to the very large number of IGS tracking stations, the formal covariance errors are much smaller, around 5 to 10 μas. Large networks also permit the systematic frame-related errors to be more effectively minimized but not eliminated. A number of periodic errors probably also influence polar motion results, mainly at annual, GPS (Global Positioning System draconitic, and fortnightly periods, but their impact on the overall error budget is unlikely to be significant except possibly for annual tidal aliases. Nevertheless, caution should be exercised in interpreting geophysical excitations near any of the suspect periods.

  13. Serum levels of IgG and IgG4 in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Sachiko-Tsukamoto; Tagami, Tetsuya; Nakao, Kanako; Nanba, Kazutaka; Tamanaha, Tamiko; Usui, Takeshi; Naruse, Mitsuhide; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mori, Yusuke; Tsuji, Jun; Tanaka, Issei; Shimatsu, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Although IgG4-related disease is characterized by extensive infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and lymphocytes of various organs, the details of this systemic disease are still unclear. We screened serum total IgG levels in the patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) to illustrate the prevalence of IgG4-related thyroiditis in HT. Twenty-four of 94 patients with HT (25.5%) had elevated serum IgG levels and their serum IgG4 was measured. Five of the 24 cases had more than 135 mg/dL of IgG4, which is the serum criterion of IgG4-related disease. One was a female patient who was initially treated as Graves' disease and rapidly developed a firm goiter and hypothyroidism. The biopsy of her thyroid gland revealed that follicular cells were atrophic with squamous metaplasia, replaced with fibrosis, which was compatible with the fibrous variant of HT. Immunohistochemical examination revealed diffuse infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, and the serum IgG4 level was 179 mg/dL. The levels of IgG and IgG4 were positively correlated with the titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibody or anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody. In conclusion, at least a small portion of patients with HT with high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies may overlap the IgG4-related thyroiditis.

  14. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Y Y Wai

    Full Text Available Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1 has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49 and epitope deletion (MED171. Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  15. CD80 and CD86 IgC domains are important for quaternary structure, receptor binding and co-signaling function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Tanya; Gaucher, Denis; El-Far, Mohamed; Breton, Gaëlle; Sékaly, Rafick-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    CD86 and CD80, the ligands for the co-stimulatory molecules CD28 and CTLA-4, are members of the Ig superfamily. Their structure includes Ig variable-like (IgV) domains, Ig constant-like (IgC) domains and intracellular domains. Although crystallographic studies have clearly identified the IgV domain to be responsible for receptor interactions, earlier studies suggested that both Ig domains are required for full co-signaling function. Herein, we have used deletion and chimeric human CD80 and CD86 molecules in co-stimulation assays to study the impact of the multimeric state of IgV and IgC domains on receptor binding properties and on co-stimulatory function in a peptide-specific T cell activation model. We report for the first time the presence of CD80 dimers and CD86 monomers in living cells. Moreover, we show that the IgC domain of both molecules inhibits multimer formation and greatly affects binding to the co-receptors CD28 and CTLA-4. Finally, both IgC and intracellular domains are required for full co-signaling function. These findings reveal the distinct but complementary roles of CD80 and CD86 IgV and IgC domains in T cell activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differences in serum IgA responses to HIV-1 gp41 in elite controllers compared to viral suppressors on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiq Nabi

    Full Text Available Mechanisms responsible for natural control of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV replication in elite controllers (EC remain incompletely defined. To determine if EC generate high quality HIV-specific IgA responses, we used Western blotting to compare the specificities and frequencies of IgA to HIV antigens in serum of gender-, age- and race-matched EC and aviremic controllers (HC and viremic noncontrollers (HN on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Concentrations and avidity of IgA to HIV antigens were measured using ELISA or multiplex assays. Measurements for IgG were performed in parallel. EC were found to have stronger p24- and V1V2-specific IgG responses than HN, but there were no IgG differences for EC and HC. In contrast, IgA in EC serum bound more frequently to gp160 and gag proteins than IgA in HC or HN. The avidity of anti-gp41 IgA was also greater in EC, and these subjects had stronger IgA responses to the gp41 heptad repeat region 1 (HR1, a reported target of anti-bacterial RNA polymerase antibodies that cross react with gp41. However, EC did not demonstrate greater IgA responses to E. coli RNA polymerase or to peptides containing the shared LRAI sequence, suggesting that most of their HR1-specific IgA antibodies were not induced by intestinal microbiota. In both EC and HAART recipients, the concentrations of HIV-specific IgG were greater than HIV-specific IgA, but their avidities were comparable, implying that they could compete for antigen. Exceptions were C1 peptides and V1V2 loops. IgG and IgA responses to these antigens were discordant, with IgG reacting to V1V2, and IgA reacting to C1, especially in EC. Interestingly, EC with IgG hypergammaglobulinemia had greater HIV-specific IgA and IgG responses than EC with normal total IgG levels. Heterogeneity in EC antibody responses may therefore be due to a more focused HIV-specific B cell response in some of these individuals. Overall, these data suggest that development of

  17. IgG4-related nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchio, Giacomo; Roccatello, Dario

    2016-08-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a recently recognized disorder, often with multiple organ involvement, characterized by dense tissue infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, obliterative phlebitis and frequently elevated serum IgG4 concentration. The kidney can be involved either directly or indirectly. The most frequent direct renal manifestations of IgG4-RD are IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and membranous glomerulonephropathy. Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is another condition that is frequently IgG4-related and that can indirectly affect the kidney causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis. Contrast-enhanced computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography show different imaging findings and are useful tools for monitoring therapeutic response. Steroid treatment is the first line of therapy, but relapsing or refractory forms of the disease are frequently observed and require more aggressive therapeutic approaches. At our centre, we treated three cases of aggressive IgG4-related TIN and two cases of IgG4-related RPF with an intensified, immune suppressive protocol, obtaining good results without severe adverse effects.

  18. IgG4-Related Sclerosing Cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Shimizu, Shuya; Naitoh, Itaru

    2016-08-01

    More men than women develop immunoglobulin G4-related sclerosing cholangitis (IgG4-SC). Age at clinical onset is significantly older in patients with IgG4-SC. Patients with IgG4-SC appear similar to those with cholangiocarcinoma and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). The association between IgG4-SC and autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is useful for the diagnosis of IgG4-SC. However, some IgG4-SC cases are isolated from AIP and are difficult to diagnose. The authors focus on three distinct features of IgG4-SC. First, diffuse inflammation induces a longer stenosis on cholangiography in contrast to the short stenosis of patients with PSC. Second, fibroinflammatory involvement is observed mainly in the stroma of the bile duct wall, whereas the bile duct epithelium is intact. Third, steroid therapy results in remarkable improvement. Although the prognosis of patients with IgG4-SC is good, some cases have developed portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis during their clinical course. Further study is needed to elucidate the long-term outcomes and mechanism of IgG4-SC. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. Features of ozone intraannual variability in polar regions based on ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Sitnov, S.A. (AN SSSR, Institut Fiziki Atmosfery, Moscow (USSR))

    1991-04-01

    Ozone sounding data obtained at the Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations are used to analyze ozone intraannual variability in Southern and Northern polar regions. For the Arctic, in particular, features associated with winter stratospheric warmings, stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, and the isolated evolution of surface ozone are noted. Correlative connections between ozone and temperature making it possible to concretize ozone variability mechanisms are analyzed. 31 refs.

  20. Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative immunochemistry using IgG and IgY against plant hormones. ... both of animal origin, using chemical couplings to their respective functional groups. ... enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ELISA) to detect and quantify these ...

  1. Development of a scoring system for differentiating IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis from primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Lee, Jong Kyun; Baek, Seunghee; Woo, Young Sik; Cho, Dong Hui; Oh, Dongwook; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo

    2017-04-01

    Recent research has shown that a substantial number of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) can also have elevated serum/tissue IgG4. The aim of our study was to develop a simple scoring system for the discrimination of IgG4-related sclerosing cholangits (IgG4-SC) from PSC. Patients with IgG4-SC (n = 39) and PSC (n = 76) who had intrahepatic/hilar strictures were included. Candidate-differentiating variables included patient age, other organ involvement (OOI), inflammatory bowel disease, serum IgG4, and cholangiographic features. A scoring system was developed on the basis of these variables, and its performance was internally validated using a bootstrapping-based method. The scoring system in the final model included age (IgG4-SC. The discrimination between IgG4-SC and PSC using the scoring system was excellent (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.986). A reliable differentiation of IgG4-SC from PSC can be made using the scoring system presented here. We suggest the diagnosis of IgG4-SC at a cutoff of 7 points or higher and the indication of diagnostic steroid trial at 5 or 6 points. External validation of our scoring system is warranted.

  2. Drought mitigation in perennial crops by fertilization and adjustments of regional yield models for future climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Blanc-Betes, E.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Masters, M. D.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    Increased variability and intensity of precipitation in the Midwest agricultural belt due to climate change is a major concern. The success of perennial bioenergy crops in replacing maize for bioethanol production is dependent on sustained yields that exceed maize, and the marketing of perennial crops often emphasizes the resilience of perennial agriculture to climate stressors. Land conversion from maize for bioethanol to Miscanthus x giganteus (miscanthus) increases yields and annual evapotranspiration rates (ET). However, establishment of miscanthus also increases biome water use efficiency (the ratio between net ecosystem productivity after harvest and ET), due to greater belowground biomass in miscanthus than in maize or soybean. In 2012, a widespread drought reduced the yield of 5-year-old miscanthus plots in central Illinois by 36% compared to the previous two years. Eddy covariance data indicated continued soil water deficit during the hydrologically-normal growing season in 2013 and miscanthus yield failed to rebound as expected, lagging behind pre-drought yields by an average of 53% over the next three years. In early 2014, nitrogen fertilizer was applied to half of mature (7-year-old) miscanthus plots in an effort to improve yields. In plots with annual post-emergence application of 60 kg ha-1 of urea, peak biomass was 29% greater than unfertilized miscanthus in 2014, and 113% greater in 2015, achieving statistically similar yields to the pre-drought average. Regional-scale models of perennial crop productivity use 30-year climate averages that are inadequate for predicting long-term effects of short-term extremes on perennial crops. Modeled predictions of perennial crop productivity incorporating repeated extreme weather events, observed crop response, and the use of management practices to mitigate water deficit demonstrate divergent effects on predicted yields.

  3. Control region variability of haplogroup C1d and the tempo of the peopling of the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Figueiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Among the founding mitochondrial haplogroups involved in the peopling of the Americas, haplogroup C1d has been viewed as problematic because of its phylogeny and because of the estimates of its antiquity, apparently being much younger than other founding haplogroups. Several recent analyses, based on data from the entire mitochondrial genome, have contributed to an advance in the resolution of these problems. The aim of our analysis is to compare the conclusions drawn from the available HVR-I and HVR-II data for haplogroup C1d with the ones based on whole mitochondrial genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HVR-I and HVR-II sequences defined as belonging to haplogroup C1d by standard criteria were gathered from the literature as well as from population studies carried out in Uruguay. Sequence phylogeny was reconstructed using median-joining networks, geographic distribution of lineages was analyzed and the age of the most recent common ancestor estimated using the ρ-statistic and two different mutation rates. The putative ancestral forms of the haplogroup were found to be more widespread than the derived lineages, and the lineages defined by np 194 were found to be widely distributed and of equivalent age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis of control region sequences is found to still harbor great potential in tracing microevolutionary phenomena, especially those found to have occurred in more recent times. Based on the geographic distributions of the alleles of np 7697 and np 194, both discussed as possible basal mutations of the C1d phylogeny, we suggest that both alleles were part of the variability of the haplogroup at the time of its entrance. Moreover, based on the mutation rates of the different sites stated to be diagnostic, it is possible that the anomalies found when analyzing the haplogroup are due to paraphyly.

  4. Cord blood IgE. I. IgE screening in 2814 newborn children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Høst, A; Halken, S

    1992-01-01

    Screening of total IgE in 2814 cord blood samples was analysed by Phadebas IgE PRIST in 2 1-year birth cohorts (1983-1984 and 1985-1986) in Denmark (n = 1189 + 1625). 48.6% of the sera contained less IgE than the detection limit 0.1 kU/l. Cord blood IgE values greater than or equal to 0.5 kU/l we...

  5. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma is associated with somatically hypermutated immunoglobulin variable genes and frequent use of VH1-69 and VH4-59 segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Pacchiarotti, A; Frontani, M; Pescarmona, E; Caprini, E; Lombardo, G A; Russo, G; Faraggiana, T

    2010-03-01

    Accurate assessment of the somatic mutational status of clonal immunoglobulin variable region (IgV) genes is relevant in elucidating tumour cell origin in B-cell lymphoma; virgin B cells bear unmutated IgV genes, while germinal centre and postfollicular B cells carry mutated IgV genes. Furthermore, biases in the IgV repertoire and distribution pattern of somatic mutations indicate a possible antigen role in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies. This work investigates the cellular origin and antigenic selection in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma (PCBCL). We analysed the nucleotide sequence of clonal IgV heavy-chain gene (IgVH) rearrangements in 51 cases of PCBCL (25 follicle centre, 19 marginal zone and seven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type) and compared IgVH sequences with their closest germline segment in the GenBank database. Molecular data were then correlated with histopathological features. We showed that all but one of the 51 IgVH sequences analysed exhibited extensive soma