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  1. Validity of the International Fitness Scale "IFIS" in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; García-Rubio, Javier; Gusi, Narcís; Olivares, Pedro R

    2017-09-01

    To validate the "International Fitness Scale" (IFIS) in older adults. Firstly, cognitive interviews were performed to ensure that the questionnaire was comprehensive for older Chilean adults. After that, a transversal study of 401 institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults from Maule region in Chile was conducted. A battery of validated fitness tests for this population was used in order to compare the responses obtained in the IFIS with the objectively measured fitness performance (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip, 30-s chair stand, timed up-and-go and 6-min walking). Indicated that IFIS presented a high compliance in the comprehension of the items which defined it, and it was able of categorizing older adults according to their measured physical fitness levels. The analysis of covariance ANCOVA adjusted by sex and age showed a concordance between IFIS and the score in physical fitness tests. Based on the results of this study, IFIS questionnaire is a good alternative to assess physical fitness in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Making the most of markets: The role of IFIs

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas H.; Lankes, Hans Peter

    1998-01-01

    Since the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund were launched at Bretton Woods more than 50 years ago, and the regional development banks in subsequent decades, the world economy has changed in important respects. In considering the role of international financial institutions (IFIs), two changes are of particular significance. First, 'globalisation' implies that foreign trade and private capital now play a far greater role in economic development than before. Partly as a result, wor...

  3. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Innate recognition is essential in the antiviral response against infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Chemokines are important for control of HSV via recruitment of natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. We previously found that early HSV-1......-mediated chemokine responses are not dependent on TLR2 and TLR9 in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of the recently identified innate IFN-inducible DNA receptor IFI16 during HSV-1 infection in human macrophages. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from buffy coats...

  4. Interferon gamma-inducible protein 16 (IFI16 and anti-IFI16 antibodies in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: findings in serum and minor salivary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alunno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The interferon (IFN signature, namely the overexpression of IFN-inducible genes is a crucial aspect in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The IFN-inducible IFI16 protein, normally expressed in cell nuclei, may be overexpressed, mislocalized in the cytoplasm and secreted in the extracellular milieu in several autoimmune disorders including pSS. This leads to tolerance breaking to this self-protein and development of anti-IFI16 antibodies. The aim of this study was to identify pathogenic and clinical significance of IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies in pSS. IFI16 and anti-IFI16 were assessed in the serum of 30 pSS patients and one-hundred healthy donors (HD by ELISA. IFI16 was also evaluated in 5 minor salivary glands (MSGs of pSS patients and 5 MSGs of non-pSS patients with sicca symptoms by immunohistochemistry. Normal MSGs do not constitutively express IFI16. Conversely, in pSS-MSGs a marked expression and cytoplasmic mislocalization of IFI16 by epithelial cells was observed with infiltrations in lymphocytes and peri/ intra-lesional endothelium. pSS patients display higher serum levels of both IFI16 and anti-IFI16 autoantibodies compared to HD. Our data suggest that IFI16 protein may be involved in the initiation and perpetuation of glandular inflammation occurring in pSS.

  5. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS): a practical approach to medical and surgical considerations in cataract extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storr-Paulsen, Allan; Nørregaard, Jens Christian; Børme, Kim Kamp

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS) during cataract surgery is characterized by iris fluttering, iris prolapse towards the incisions, and a progressive pupillary constriction leading to high rates of complications. The syndrome has been reported following the treatment of benign...

  6. Cutting Edge: Genetic Association between IFI16 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Resistance to Genital Herpes Correlates with IFI16 Expression Levels and HSV-2-Induced IFN-β Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kristina; Svensson, Alexandra; Hait, Alon S; Schlüter, Kerstin; Tunbäck, Petra; Nordström, Inger; Padyukov, Leonid; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke; Mogensen, Trine H; Paludan, Søren R

    2017-10-15

    IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) is an immunological DNA sensor proposed to act in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of IFN genes pathway. Because mice do not have a clear ortholog of IFI16, this system is not suitable for genetic studies of IFI16. In this study, we have compared the dependency on IFI16, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, and stimulator of IFN genes for type I IFN induction by a panel of pathogenic bacteria and DNA viruses. The IFN response induced by HSV-2 was particularly dependent on IFI16. In a cohort of patients with genital herpes and healthy controls, the minor G allele of the IFI16 single nucleotide polymorphism rs2276404 was associated with resistance to infection. Furthermore, the combination of this allele with the C allele of rs1417806 was significantly overrepresented in uninfected individuals. Cells from individuals with the protective GC haplotype expressed higher levels of IFI16 and induced more IFN-β upon HSV-2 infection. These data provide genetic evidence for a role for IFI16 in protection against genital herpes. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. IFI44L promoter methylation as a blood biomarker for systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Yin; Zhu, Bochen; Wan, Mengjie; Jiang, Tingting; Tan, Qiqun; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Juqing; Luo, Shuaihantian; Tan, Yixin; Wu, Haijing; Renauer, Paul; Gutiérrez, Maria del Mar Ayala; Palma, Maria Jesús Castillo; Castro, Rafaela Ortega; Fernández-Roldán, Concepción; Raya, Enrique; Faria, Raquel; Carvalho, Claudia; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Xiang, Zhongyuan; Chen, Jinwei; Li, Fen; Ling, Guanghui; Zhao, Hongjun; Liao, Xiangping; Lin, Youkun; Sawalha, Amr H; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a clinically heterogeneous disease with limited reliable diagnostic biomarkers. We investigated whether gene methylation could meet sensitivity and specificity criteria for a robust biomarker. Methods IFI44L promoter methylation was examined using DNA samples from a discovery set including 377 patients with SLE, 358 healthy controls (HCs) and 353 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two independent sets including 1144 patients with SLE, 1350 HCs, 429 patients with RA and 199 patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS) were used for validation. Results Significant hypomethylation of two CpG sites within IFI44L promoter, Site1 (Chr1: 79 085 222) and Site2 (Chr1: 79 085 250; cg06872964), was identified in patients with SLE compared with HCs, patients with RA and patients with pSS. In a comparison between patients with SLE and HCs included in the first validation cohort, Site1 methylation had a sensitivity of 93.6% and a specificity of 96.8% at a cut-off methylation level of 75.5% and Site2 methylation had a sensitivity of 94.1% and a specificity of 98.2% at a cut-off methylation level of 25.5%. The IFI44L promoter methylation marker was also validated in an European-derived cohort. In addition, the methylation levels of Site1 and Site2 within IFI44L promoter were significantly lower in patients with SLE with renal damage than those without renal damage. Patients with SLE showed significantly increased methylation levels of Site1 and Site2 during remission compared with active stage. Conclusions The methylation level of IFI44L promoter can distinguish patients with SLE from healthy persons and other autoimmune diseases, and is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic marker for SLE. PMID:26787370

  8. ENHANCING THE SHARIAH GOVERNANCE FRAMEWORK FOR MALAYSIAN IFIs THROUGH EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

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    Hafiza HARUN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Shariah Governance Framework (SGF in Malaysia has approached its fifth year of implementation by Malaysian Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs. In ensuring its continuous effectiveness as well as in enhancing the governance robustness, any existing gaps must be tackled and resolved proficiently. Among the gaps recorded in the previous literatures directed to various areas such as the commitment of Shariah Governance body or management team towards its governance, Shariah Committee (SC portfolio, competency, regulatory framework and so forth. This research paper explores the practical adoption which could be applied through theoretical analysis and viable recommendation for further enhancement of the SGF by all management teams in the IFIs. In complementing this study, a set of questionnaires is distributed to some selected group of staff in a Takaful Operator (TO in Malaysia to gauge their understanding of the subject matter.

  9. IFI16 and cGAS cooperate in the activation of STING during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almine, Jessica F; O'Hare, Craig A J; Dunphy, Gillian; Haga, Ismar R; Naik, Rangeetha J; Atrih, Abdelmadjid; Connolly, Dympna J; Taylor, Jordan; Kelsall, Ian R; Bowie, Andrew G; Beard, Philippa M; Unterholzner, Leonie

    2017-02-13

    Many human cells can sense the presence of exogenous DNA during infection though the cytosolic DNA receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Other putative DNA receptors have been described, but whether their functions are redundant, tissue-specific or integrated in the cGAS-cGAMP pathway is unclear. Here we show that interferon-γ inducible protein 16 (IFI16) cooperates with cGAS during DNA sensing in human keratinocytes, as both cGAS and IFI16 are required for the full activation of an innate immune response to exogenous DNA and DNA viruses. IFI16 is also required for the cGAMP-induced activation of STING, and interacts with STING to promote STING phosphorylation and translocation. We propose that the two DNA sensors IFI16 and cGAS cooperate to prevent the spurious activation of the type I interferon response.

  10. Invasive fungal infection (IFI) in two pediatric patients with acute leukemia. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwich, K.; Andrzejewska, M.; Wachowiak, J.; Mankowski, P.

    2009-01-01

    At present over 70% of children with malignancies can be successfully cured although this is achieved at the cost of increased incidence of major complications. Fungal infections account for some 10% of all infections and, in severely immunosuppressed patients, they are still the cause of a high mortality rate (50-95%). As a result the prevention and treatment of adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy is of the most importance and can be a factor determining the success of such treatment. This paper contains two case reports of adolescent female patients diagnosed with acute leukemia who developed invasive fungal infections (IFI) in the course of intensive chemotherapy. (authors)

  11. Shari’ah Auditing: A Review of Shari’ah Audit Practices in Islamic Financial Institution (IFIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid Azwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With its increasing number of Islamic Financial Institutions (IFIs in the country, Malaysia has emerged as a leading hub when benchmarked against the other Islamic countries of the world. Unlike its conventional counterpart, the Islamic financial system focuses on the achievement of societal justice as evaluated within its own framework and uses its own criteria in order to achieve the objective of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah. To help achieve this objective, the Islamic finance industry is in need of Shari’ah auditors who are not only knowledgeable and competent in ensuring that the IFIs operate in accordance with Shari’ah principles, but also adequate in supply, in order to cater for the increasing number of IFIs in the country. Therefore, a major aim of this study is to conduct a comprehensive review of the auditing process performed by Shari’ah auditors in determining the achievement of the Maqasid Ash-Shari’ah by the IFIs. Another aim of this study is to assess the existing Shari’ah auditing framework and standards practiced by IFIs in Malaysia. The results of this study could serve as a reference point for the regulatory and professional bodies in assessing the implementation of a comprehensive Shari’ah auditing framework.

  12. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses.

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    Mairaj Ahmed Ansari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16 involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1 episomal dsDNA genome recognition by IFI16 leads to IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome association, cytoplasmic translocation and IL-1β production. Independent of ASC, HSV-1 genome recognition results in IFI16 interaction with STING in the cytoplasm to induce interferon-β production. However, the mechanisms of IFI16-inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic redistribution and STING activation are not known. Our studies here demonstrate that recognition of herpesvirus genomes in the nucleus by IFI16 leads into its interaction with histone acetyltransferase p300 and IFI16 acetylation resulting in IFI16-ASC interaction, inflammasome assembly, increased interaction with Ran-GTPase, cytoplasmic redistribution, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β production, and interaction with STING which results in IRF-3 phosphorylation, nuclear pIRF-3 localization and interferon-β production. ASC and STING knockdowns did not affect IFI16 acetylation indicating that this modification is upstream of inflammasome-assembly and STING-activation. Vaccinia virus replicating in the cytoplasm did not induce nuclear IFI16 acetylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IFI16 physically associates with KSHV and HSV-1 genomes as revealed by proximity ligation microscopy and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies which is not hampered by the inhibition of acetylation, thus suggesting that acetylation of IFI16 is not required for its innate sensing of nuclear viral genomes. Collectively, these studies identify the

  13. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection

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    Benjamin A. Diner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS. Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses.

  14. Viral DNA Sensors IFI16 and Cyclic GMP-AMP Synthase Possess Distinct Functions in Regulating Viral Gene Expression, Immune Defenses, and Apoptotic Responses during Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Benjamin A; Lum, Krystal K; Toettcher, Jared E; Cristea, Ileana M

    2016-11-15

    The human interferon-inducible protein IFI16 is an important antiviral factor that binds nuclear viral DNA and promotes antiviral responses. Here, we define IFI16 dynamics in space and time and its distinct functions from the DNA sensor cyclic dinucleotide GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Live-cell imaging reveals a multiphasic IFI16 redistribution, first to viral entry sites at the nuclear periphery and then to nucleoplasmic puncta upon herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Optogenetics and live-cell microscopy establish the IFI16 pyrin domain as required for nuclear periphery localization and oligomerization. Furthermore, using proteomics, we define the signature protein interactions of the IFI16 pyrin and HIN200 domains and demonstrate the necessity of pyrin for IFI16 interactions with antiviral proteins PML and cGAS. We probe signaling pathways engaged by IFI16, cGAS, and PML using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-mediated knockouts in primary fibroblasts. While IFI16 induces cytokines, only cGAS activates STING/TBK-1/IRF3 and apoptotic responses upon HSV-1 and HCMV infections. cGAS-dependent apoptosis upon DNA stimulation requires both the enzymatic production of cyclic dinucleotides and STING. We show that IFI16, not cGAS or PML, represses HSV-1 gene expression, reducing virus titers. This indicates that regulation of viral gene expression may function as a greater barrier to viral replication than the induction of antiviral cytokines. Altogether, our findings establish coordinated and distinct antiviral functions for IFI16 and cGAS against herpesviruses. How mammalian cells detect and respond to DNA viruses that replicate in the nucleus is poorly understood. Here, we decipher the distinct functions of two viral DNA sensors, IFI16 and cGAS, during active immune signaling upon infection with two herpesviruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We show that IFI16

  15. IFIS Model-Plus: A Web-Based GUI for Visualization, Comparison and Evaluation of Distributed Flood Forecasts and Hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, W. F.; Della Libera Zanchetta, A.; Mantilla, R.; Demir, I.

    2017-12-01

    This work explores the use of hydroinformatics tools to provide an user friendly and accessible interface for executing and assessing the output of realtime flood forecasts using distributed hydrological models. The main result is the implementation of a web system that uses an Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS)-based environment for graphical displays of rainfall-runoff simulation results for both real-time and past storm events. It communicates with ASYNCH ODE solver to perform large-scale distributed hydrological modeling based on segmentation of the terrain into hillslope-link hydrologic units. The cyber-platform also allows hindcast of model performance by testing multiple model configurations and assumptions of vertical flows in the soils. The scope of the currently implemented system is the entire set of contributing watersheds for the territory of the state of Iowa. The interface provides resources for visualization of animated maps for different water-related modeled states of the environment, including flood-waves propagation with classification of flood magnitude, runoff generation, surface soil moisture and total water column in the soil. Additional tools for comparing different model configurations and performing model evaluation by comparing to observed variables at monitored sites are also available. The user friendly interface has been published to the web under the URL http://ifis.iowafloodcenter.org/ifis/sc/modelplus/.

  16. Interferon-inducible p200-family protein IFI16, an innate immune sensor for cytosolic and nuclear double-stranded DNA: regulation of subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Choubey, Divaker

    2012-01-01

    The interferon (IFN)-inducible p200-protein family includes structurally related murine (for example, p202a, p202b, p204, and Aim2) and human (for example, AIM2 and IFI16) proteins. All proteins in the family share a partially conserved repeat of 200-amino acid residues (also called HIN-200 domain) in the C-terminus. Additionally, most proteins (except the p202a and p202b proteins) also share a protein-protein interaction pyrin domain (PYD) in the N-terminus. The HIN-200 domain contains two consecutive oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide binding folds (OB-folds) to bind double stranded DNA (dsDNA). The PYD domain in proteins allows interactions with the family members and an adaptor protein ASC. Upon sensing cytosolic dsDNA, Aim2, p204, and AIM2 proteins recruit ASC protein to form an inflammasome, resulting in increased production of proinflammatory cytokines. However, IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA. Interestingly, the IFI16 protein contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Accordingly, the initial studies had indicated that the endogenous IFI16 protein is detected in the nucleus and within the nucleus in the nucleolus. However, several recent reports suggest that subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in nuclear versus cytoplasmic (or both) compartment depends on cell type. Given that the IFI16 protein can sense cytosolic as well as nuclear dsDNA and can initiate different innate immune responses (production of IFN-β versus proinflammatory cytokines), here we evaluate the experimental evidence for the regulation of subcellular localization of IFI16 protein in various cell types. We conclude that further studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the subcellular localization of IFI16 protein. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Interferon γ-inducible protein (IFI) 16 transcriptionally regulates type i interferons and other interferon-stimulated genes and controls the interferon response to both DNA and RNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mikayla R; Sharma, Shruti; Atianand, Maninjay; Jensen, Søren B; Carpenter, Susan; Knipe, David M; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A

    2014-08-22

    The interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has recently been linked to the detection of nuclear and cytosolic DNA during infection with herpes simplex virus-1 and HIV. IFI16 binds dsDNA via HIN200 domains and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) and related genes. To better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as cyclic dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to DNA ligands and viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB-regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β was unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in response to cyclic GMP-AMP, a second messenger produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in these cells, suggesting that transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is dependent on IFI16. These results indicate a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in antiviral immunity. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. The Association of IFI27 Expression and Fatigue Intensification during Localized Radiation Therapy: Implication of a Para-Inflammatory Bystander Response

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    Leorey N. Saligan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms behind fatigue intensification during cancer therapy remain elusive. The interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 (IFI27 was the most up-regulated gene based on our previous microarray data in fatigued men with non-metastatic prostate cancer receiving localized external beam radiation therapy (EBRT. The purpose of this study was to confirm the IFI27 up-regulation and determine its association with fatigue intensification during EBRT. Peripheral blood samples and fatigue scores were collected at three time points—prior to EBRT, at midpoint, and at completion of EBRT. Confirmatory quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA were utilized to verify the microarray results. Subjects were a total of 40 Caucasian men with prostate cancer; 20 scheduled for EBRT (65.6 ± 7.5 years old, and 20 on active surveillance as controls (62.8 ± 6.1 years old. Significant IFI27 expression overtime during EBRT was confirmed by qPCR (p < 0.5, which correlated with fatigue scores during EBRT (R = −0.90, p = 0.006. Alterations in mechanisms associated with immune response and mitochondrial function that explain the up-regulation of IFI27 may provide an understanding of the pathways related to the intensification of fatigue during localized radiation therapy.

  19. Construct validity and test–retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9–17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study

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    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a lack of instruments and studies written in Spanish evaluating physical fitness, impeding the determination of the current status of this important health indicator in the Latin population, especially in Colombia. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the validity of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS with a population-based sample of schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia and to examine the reliability of the IFIS with children and adolescents from Engativa, Colombia. Methods The sample comprised 1,873 Colombian youths (54.5% girls aged 9–17.9 years. We measured their adiposity markers (waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat and body mass index, blood pressure, lipids profile, fasting glucose, and physical fitness level (self-reported and measured. A validated cardiometabolic risk index score was also used. An age- and sex-matched subsample of 229 schoolchildren who were not originally included in the sample completed the IFIS twice for reliability purposes. Results Our data suggest that both measured and self-reported overall physical fitness levels were inversely associated with percentage of body fat indicators and the cardiometabolic risk index score. Overall, schoolchildren who self-reported “good” or “very good” fitness had better measured fitness levels than those who reported “very poor/poor” fitness (all p < 0.001. The test-retest reliability of the IFIS items was also good, with an average weighted kappa of 0.811. Discussion Our findings suggest that self-reported fitness, as assessed by the IFIS, is a valid, reliable, and health-related measure. Furthermore, it can be a good alternative for future use in large studies with Latin schoolchildren from Colombia.

  20. Validación del cuestionario International Fitness Scale (IFIS en sujetos colombianos de entre 18 y 30 años de edad

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    Mayra Nathalie Español Moya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El cuestionario de auto-reporte de la condición física. The International FItness Scale (IFIS version 5 items fue creado como parte del proyecto financiado por la union europea Study Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA. El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar en jovenes colombianos su estabilidad temporal, consistencia interna, el grado de acuerdo y su aplicabilidad . Métodos: Un total de 2.340 sujetos (1.376 mujeres y 964 varones entre 18 y 30 anos de edad completaron el cuestionario IFIS. El coeficiente de correlacion intraclase (CCI y el grado de acuerdo se calcularon para evaluar la estabilidad temporal con un periodo de 7 dias entre ambas administraciones. Como indicador de la consistencia interna de la escala se estimo el alpha cronbach y para medir el porcentaje de ocasiones en que las personas suministraron el mismo resultado se calculo el grado de acuerdo. Resultados: El cuestionario IFIS mostro a nivel global un alfa de cronbach de 0,80 y un rango del CCI entre 0,90-0,96. El porcentaje de acuerdo por todos los conceptos individuales vario de 77 a 86%. El tiempo medio (± DE para el diligenciamiento de cuestionario fue de 3 minutos y 47 segundos (± 2 minutos. Conclusiones: El cuestionario IFIS mostro alta consistencia interna y estabilidad temporal que avalan la utilizacion de este instrumento en jovenes colombianos. El IFIS esta disponible para evaluar su utilidad y aplicabilidad en América Latina.

  1. Death and Death Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Gonca Karakus; Zehra Ozturk; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Although death and life concepts seem so different from each other, some believe that death and life as a whole that death is accepted as the goal of life and death completes life. In different cultures, societies and disciplines, there have been very different definitions of death which changes according to personality, age, religion and cultural status of the individual. Attitudes towards death vary dramatically according to individuals. As for the death anxiety, it is a feeling which start...

  2. Construct validity and test-retest reliability of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) in Colombian children and adolescents aged 9-17.9 years: the FUPRECOL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cruz-Salazar, Sandra Milena; Martínez, Myriam; Cadore, Eduardo L; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Izquierdo, Mikel; Ortega, Francisco B; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of instruments and studies written in Spanish evaluating physical fitness, impeding the determination of the current status of this important health indicator in the Latin population, especially in Colombia. The aim of the study was two-fold: to examine the validity of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) with a population-based sample of schoolchildren from Bogota, Colombia and to examine the reliability of the IFIS with children and adolescents from Engativa, Colombia. The sample comprised 1,873 Colombian youths (54.5% girls) aged 9-17.9 years. We measured their adiposity markers (waist-to-height ratio, skinfold thickness, percentage of body fat and body mass index), blood pressure, lipids profile, fasting glucose, and physical fitness level (self-reported and measured). A validated cardiometabolic risk index score was also used. An age- and sex-matched subsample of 229 schoolchildren who were not originally included in the sample completed the IFIS twice for reliability purposes. Our data suggest that both measured and self-reported overall physical fitness levels were inversely associated with percentage of body fat indicators and the cardiometabolic risk index score. Overall, schoolchildren who self-reported "good" or "very good" fitness had better measured fitness levels than those who reported "very poor/poor" fitness (all p  studies with Latin schoolchildren from Colombia.

  3. Feasibility of Elective Nodal Irradiation (ENI) and Involved Field Irradiation (IFI) in Radiotherapy for the Elderly Patients (Aged ≥ 70 Years) with Esophageal Squamous Cell Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis from a Single Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Wang; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan; Shi, Fang; Han, Anqin; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective analysis to assess the feasibility of involved field irradiation (IFI) in elderly patients with esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). We performed a retrospective review of the records of elderly patients (≥ 70 years) with unresectable ESCC and no distant metastases who received treatment with radiotherapy between January 2009 and March 2013. According to the irradiation volume, patients were allocated into either the elective nodal irradiation (ENI) group or the IFI group. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and treatment-related toxicities were compared between the two groups. A total of 137 patients were enrolled. Fifty-four patients (39.4%) were allocated to the ENI group and 83 patients (60.6%) to the IFI group, the median doses in the two groups were 60 Gy and 59.4 Gy, respectively. For the entire group, the median survival time (MST) and PFS were 16 months and 12 months, respectively. The median PFS and 3-year PFS rate in the ENI group were 13 months and 20.6%, compared to 11 months and 21.0% in the IFI groups (p = 0.61). The MST and 3-year OS rate in the ENI and IFI groups were 17 months and 26.4% and 15.5 months and 21.7%, respectively (p = 0.25). The rate of grade ≥ 3 acute irradiation esophagitis in the ENI group was significantly higher than that in the IFI group (18.5% vs. 6.0%; p = 0.027). Other grade ≥ 3 treatment-related toxicities did not significantly differ between the two groups. IFI resulted in decreased irradiation toxicities without sacrificing OS in elderly patients with ESCC.

  4. Neonatal Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  5. Unification of roles of the World Trade Organization (WTO and International Financial Institutions (IFIs in Education: The maintenance of global neoliberal hegemony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Trisnawati Abbott

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Education is viewed as an instrument for development. Therein lies the importance of education for social change. It is education that makes people aware of the situation around them. Yet, in a different way, education is also an instrument to maintain hegemony. At the international level, the institutions of the World Trade Organization (WTO and the International Financial Institutions (IFIs, such as the World Bank (WB, and International Monetary Fund (IMF are crucial to the determination of the real meaning of education; whether or not education is an instrument for development for maintaining hegemony. The WTO system is arguably more than simply an international institution, but rather it is a center of hegemonic power. The emergence of neoliberalism has been accompanied by the coercion of hegemonic power that results in deleterious effects on human life. In the education sector, through the provision of the WTO General Agreement of Trade and Services (GATS, trade barriers in education are eliminated. Not only education is becoming globalized but also increasingly becoming a competitive commodity. Thus, the commodification of education means that education serves those who can afford to pay. The controversies surrounding the role of the WTO in the trade of education are significant to the debates about Neoliberal ideology and the problems of governance in the realm of globalization. These debates arise not only because of the actions of the WTO, which is deeply informed by Neoliberal ideology, but also because of the diverse beliefs about world economic governance. Not only the WTO, but also the roles of International Financial Institutions in global education revealed controversies. State intervention, for instance is minimized. Government spending in the education sector is reduced. Privatization and commercialization are encouraged. Social injustice seems to be the source of the presupposition of these controversies. This research

  6. Death Cafe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lizzy; Corr, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    This article explains the meaning of the phrase Death Cafe and describes what typically occurs at a Death Cafe gathering. The article traces the history of the Death Cafe movement, explores some reasons why people take part in a Death Cafe gathering, and gives examples of what individuals think they might derive from their participation. In addition, this article notes similarities between the Death Cafe movement and three other developments in the field of death, dying, and bereavement. Finally, this article identifies two provisional lessons that can be drawn from Death Cafe gatherings and the Death Cafe movement itself.

  7. Detección de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en Somoto, Nicaragua, mediante ELISA indirecto e IFI en muestras de sangre en papel de filtro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Xiomara

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estandarizó un inmunoensayo enzimático en fase sólida (ELISA para estudiar la presencia de anticuerpos contra Trypanosoma cruzi en personas asintomáticas que viven en un área endémica de enfermedad de Chagas en Nicaragua. El ensayo fue estandarizado para el análisis de muestras de sangre colectadas en papel de filtro como método simple de transporte de muestras de sangre. Se realizó un estudio previo en el que se estudiaron por ELISA 18 muestras de suero total y 18 eluidos de sangre de pacientes con enfermedad de Chagas crónica, 30 muestras de suero y 30 eluidos de sangre de personas sanas que se utilizaron como controles negativos y 14 muestras de suero y 14 eluidos de sangre de pacientes con leishmaniasis cutánea o visceral que se utilizaron para los estudios de reacciones cruzadas. Tanto con el suero total como con los eluidos de sangre, la prueba de ELISA proporcionó una sensibilidad de 100% y una especificidad de 90%; solo se observaron reacciones cruzadas con las muestras de pacientes con leishmaniasis visceral. El estudio poblacional incluyó a ocho comunidades rurales de Somoto, Nicaragua. Mediante un muestreo al azar se colectaron muestras de sangre en papel de filtro a 2 434 personas (1 335 del sexo masculino y 1 099 del sexo femenino de las comunidades de Aguas Calientes, La Manzana, Los Canales, Santa Rosa, Las Playas, El Brocal, Santa Isabel y Santa Teresa. Las muestras fueron estudiadas por ELISA e inmunofluorescencia indirecta (IFI encontrándose un total de 260 seropositivos por ELISA (10,7%, 207 de los cuales fueron también positivos por IFI (8,5%. La mayoría de los sueros seropositivos correspondieron a personas del sexo femenino con ambas técnicas, pero la diferencia entre hombres y mujeres no fue estadísticamente significativa. Los resultados obtenidos con ambas técnicas mostraron una excelente concordancia. Con respecto a la edad se observó una curva ascendente, con 5,4% de seropositivos por ELISA en

  8. Deliberating death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    Utilizing a particular case study of a woman attempting to come to terms with her death, this article explores the difficult metaphors of death present within the Christian tradition. Tracing a Christian understanding of death back to the work of Augustine, the case study is utilized to highlight the difficulties presented by past and present theology embracing ideas of punishment within death. Following the trajectory of the case study, alternative understandings of death present in recent Christian theology and within Native American spirituality are presented in an attempt to find room for a fuller meaning of death post-reconciliation, but premortem.

  9. LMKB/MARF1 localizes to mRNA processing bodies, interacts with Ge-1, and regulates IFI44L gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald B Bloch

    Full Text Available The mRNA processing body (P-body is a cellular structure that regulates the stability of cytoplasmic mRNA. MARF1 is a murine oocyte RNA-binding protein that is associated with maintenance of mRNA homeostasis and genomic stability. In this study, autoantibodies were used to identify Limkain B (LMKB, the human orthologue of MARF1, as a P-body component. Indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that Ge-1 (a central component of the mammalian core-decapping complex co-localized with LMKB in P-bodies. Two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays were used to demonstrate interaction between Ge-1 and LMKB. The C-terminal 120 amino acids of LMKB mediated interaction with Ge-1 and the N-terminal 1094 amino acids of Ge-1 were required for interaction with LMKB. LMKB is the first protein identified to date that interacts with this portion of Ge-1. LMKB was expressed in human B and T lymphocyte cell lines; depletion of LMKB increased expression of IFI44L, a gene that has been implicated in the cellular response to Type I interferons. The interaction between LMKB/MARF1, a protein that contains RNA-binding domains, and Ge-1, which interacts with core-decapping proteins, suggests that LMKB has a role in the regulation of mRNA stability. LMKB appears to have different functions in different cell types: maintenance of genomic stability in developing oocytes and possible dampening of the inflammatory response in B and T cells.

  10. Redefining Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The results of 20 years of research on brain death will be released to the public, the Chinese Ministry of Health reported in early April. A special ministry team has drafted the criteria for brain death in Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death in Adults (Revised Edition) and Technical Specifications for the Diagnosis

  11. Surviving death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    such phases. The aim of this paper is to explore how an organization’s identity is re-constructed after organizational death. Based on interviews with members of a bankrupted bank who narrate their bankruptcy experiences, the paper explores how legacy organizational identity is constructed after...... organizational death. The paper shows how members draw on their legacy organizational identity to justify their past interpretations and responses to the intensifying bankruptcy threats. Members refer to their firm belief in the bank’s solid and robust identity claim when they explain how they disregarded...

  12. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...

  13. "Spectacular Death"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Michael Hviid

    2016-01-01

    be labelled ‘spectacular death’ in which death, dying and mourning have increasingly become spectacles. Moreover, the author proposes that what is currently happening in contemporary Western society can be interpreted as an expression of a ‘partial re-reversal’ of ‘forbidden death’ to some...

  14. Births and deaths including fetal deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Access to a variety of United States birth and death files including fetal deaths: Birth Files, 1968-2009; 1995-2005; Fetal death file, 1982-2005; Mortality files,...

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of Persian Version of Death Depression Scale in Iranian Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sharif Nia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: The psychometric properties of a scale should be re-assessed routinely with different samples to ensure its generalizability. The present study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale (DDS in Iranian patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI.Methods: The face validity, content validity and construct validity (i.e. factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of the DDS were assessed using a sample of 407 AMI patients. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using the ratio chi-square by degrees of freedom (χ2/df, the Goodness-of-fit index (GFI, Comparative Fit Index (CFI, Incremental Fit Index (IFI, Normed Fit Index (NFI, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA. Convergent and discriminant validity were assessed using average variance extracted (AVE, maximum shared squared variance (MSV, and average shared square variance (ASV. Internal consistency, test–retest, and construct reliability (CR were used to assess reliability of the Persian Version of DDS.Results: Based on principle component analysis and consideration of conceptual meaning, a four-factor solution was selected, explaining 75.89% of the total variance. Goodness-of-fit indices (c2(98 = 583.646, p < .05, c2/df= 5.956, GFI = .856, CFI = .902, NFI = .885, IFI = .902, RMSEA (90% C.I. = .110 (.102 - .119 in the final DDS structure demonstrated the adequacy of the four-domain structure of the DDS. Convergent and discriminant validity was used to assess the construct validity of the DDS. The reliability was greater than .70.Conclusion: The DDS was found to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for death depression in Iranian patients with AMI.

  16. National Death Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Death Index (NDI) is a centralized database of death record information on file in state vital statistics offices. Working with these state offices, the...

  17. God's dominion over death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulling, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly overviews the criteria for and physiological process of death, contrasting physical death with biblical passages revealing how God interceded in this universal process when Jesus was on earth.

  18. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....

  19. Sudden death victims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceelen, Manon; van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Naujocks, Tatjana; Woonink, Frits; de Vries, Philip; van der Wal, Allard; Das, Kees

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to ascertain accordance between cause of death established by the forensic physician and autopsy results in young sudden death victims in the Netherlands. Sudden death victims aged 1-45 years examined by forensic physicians operating in the participating regions which also

  20. Death and Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Death and Grief KidsHealth / For Teens / Death and Grief What's in this article? What Is ... the reaction we have in response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, ...

  1. Eyelid closure at death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A D Macleod

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To observe the incidence of full or partial eyelid closure at death. Materials and Methods: The presence of ptosis was recorded in 100 consecutive hospice patient deaths. Results: Majority (63% of the patients died with their eyes fully closed, however, 37% had bilateral ptosis at death, with incomplete eye closure. In this study, central nervous system tumor involvement and/or acute hepatic encephalopathy appeared to be pre-mortem risk factors of bilateral ptosis at death. Conclusion: Organicity and not psychogenicity is, therefore, the likely etiology of failure of full eyelid closure at death.

  2. Existential Concerns About Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    psychology or Kübler-Ross’ theory about death stages. The complex concerns might be explained using Martin Heidegger’s phenomenological thinking. We aimed to illuminate dying patients´ existential concerns about the impending death through a descriptive analysis of semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer...... patients in Danish hospices. The main findings demonstrated how the patients faced the forthcoming death without being anxious of death but sorrowful about leaving life. Furthermore, patients expressed that they avoided thinking about death. However, some had reconstructed specific and positive ideas about...... afterlife and made accurate decisions for practical aspects of their death. The patients wished to focus on positive aspects in their daily life at hospice. It hereby seems important to have ongoing reflections and to include different theoretical perspectives when providing existential support to dying...

  3. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) Overview Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the unexplained death, usually during sleep, of a seemingly healthy baby ... year old. SIDS is sometimes known as crib death because the infants often die in their cribs. ...

  4. Programmed cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on the role programmed cell death plays in normal development and homeostasis of many organisms. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: invertebrate development; immunology/neurology; bcl-2 family; biochemistry; programmed cell death in viruses; oncogenesis; vertebrate development; and diseases.

  5. BRAIN DEATH DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Machado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  6. Sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Parakh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is one of the most common cause of mortality worldwide. Despite significant advances in the medical science, there is little improvement in the sudden cardiac death related mortality. Coronary artery disease is the most common etiology behind sudden cardiac death, in the above 40 years population. Even in the apparently healthy population, there is a small percentage of patients dying from sudden cardiac death. Given the large denominator, this small percentage contributes to the largest burden of sudden cardiac death. Identification of this at risk group among the apparently healthy individual is a great challenge for the medical fraternity. This article looks into the causes and methods of preventing SCD and at some of the Indian data. Details of Brugada syndrome, Long QT syndrome, Genetics of SCD are discussed. Recent guidelines on many of these causes are summarised.

  7. Death with dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care professionals cannot confer on patients either dignity or death with dignity. They can, however, attempt to ensure that the patient dies without indignity. Indignities are affronts to human dignity, and include such things as serious pain and the exclusion of patients from involvement in decisions about their lives and deaths. This fairly modest conception of death with dignity avoids the traps of being overly subjective or of viewing the sick and helpless as "undignified". PMID:12161582

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale-Revised in Iranian Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Nia, Hamid; Pahlevan Sharif, Saeed; Lehto, Rebecca H; Allen, Kelly A; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali

    2017-07-01

    Objective: Limited research has examined the psychometric properties of death depression scales in Persian populations with cardiac disease despite the need for valid assessment tools for evaluating depressive symptoms in patients with life-limiting chronic conditions. The present study aimed at evaluating the reliability and validity of the Persian Version of Death Depression Scale - Revised (DDS-R) in Iranian patients who had recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method: This psychometric study was conducted with a convenience sample of 407 patients with AMI diagnosis who completed the Persian version of the DDS-R. The face, content, and construct validity of the scale were ascertained. Internal consistency, test-retest, and construct reliability (CR) were used to assess reliability of the Persian Version of DDS-R. Results: Based on maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis and consideration of conceptual meaning, a 4-factor solution was identified, explaining 75.89% of the total variance. Goodness-of-fit indices (GFI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Normed Fit Index (NFI), Incremental Fit Index (IFI), and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) in the final DDS-R structure demonstrated the adequacy of the 4-domain structure. The internal consistency, construct reliability, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were greater than .70. Conclusion: The DDS-R was found to be a valid and reliable assessment tool for evaluating death depression symptoms in Iranian patients with AMI.

  9. Suicide on Death Row.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2016-11-01

    Despite the level of supervision of inmates on death row, their suicide rate is higher than both the male prison population in the United States and the population of males over the age of 14 in free society. This study presents suicide data for death row inmates from 1978 through 2010. For the years 1978 through 2010, suicide rates on death row were higher than that for the general population of males over the age of 15 and for state prisons for all but 2 years. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Hitler's Death Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  11. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality...

  12. Eighth Amendment & Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Joseph M.; Merrill, Denise W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a lesson on capital punishment for juveniles based on three hypothetical cases. The goal of the lesson is to have students understand the complexities of decisions regarding the death penalty for juveniles. (JDH)

  13. Sudden Cardiac Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to describe the use of pharmacotherapy in a nationwide cohort of young patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Background Several drugs have been associated with an increased risk of SCD and sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). It remains unclear how...... pharmacotherapy may contribute to the overall burden of SCD in the general population. Methods This was a nationwide study that included all deaths that occurred between 2000 and 2009 and between 2007 and 2009 in people age 1 to 35 years and 36 to 49 years, respectively. Two physicians identified all SCDs through...... review of death certificates. Autopsy reports were collected. Pharmacotherapy prescribed within 90 days before SCD was identified in the Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics. Results We identified 1,363 SCDs; median age was 38 years (interquartile range: 29 to 45 years), and 72% (n = 975) were men...

  14. Complications and Deaths - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - state data. This data set includes state-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and 30-day...

  15. Orchestrating an Exceptional Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    processes of facing brain death and deciding about organ donation. This study suggests that organ donation should be understood as a ‘strange figure’ challenging traditions and attitudes regarding the boundaries between life and death and the practices surrounding dead human bodies. Simultaneously, organ...... donation can be comforting and furthermore enable some families to make sense of a sudden tragic death. Throughout the thesis, the concept of ‘orchestration’ serves as the overall theoretical framework to understand how families, hospital staff and, on a larger scale, Danish society attempt to perform......, reinterpret and translate death and organ donation into something culturally acceptable and sense making. With chapters focusing analytically on the performance of trust, the transformative practices of hope, the aesthetization of ambiguous bodies, the sociality of exchangeable organs and the organ donation...

  16. Existential concerns about death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Lene

    2014-01-01

    Background Research suggests that addressing dying patients’ existential concerns can help improve their quality of life. Common existential conditions, such as a search for meaning and considerations about faith, are probably intensified in a palliative setting and existential concerns about death...... are likewise intensified when patients face their impending death. Knowledge of modern, secular existential concerns about death is under-researched, and therefore, it is difficult to develop and implement specifically targeted support to dying patients. Aim The aim of this paper is to present the results from...... a qualitative field study illuminating the variety of dying patients´ existential concerns about their impending death. Method Data was generated through ethnographic fieldwork comprising 17 semi-structured interviews with dying patients and 38 days of participant observation at three Danish hospices. Results...

  17. Life not death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milner, George R.; Boldsen, Jesper L.

    2017-01-01

    Analytically sophisticated paleoepidemiology is a relatively new development in the characterization of past life experiences. It is based on sound paleopathological observations, accurate age-at-death estimates, an explicit engagement with the nature of mortality samples, and analytical procedures...

  18. Complications and Deaths - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - provider data. This data set includes provider data for the hip/knee complication measure, CMS Patient Safety Indicators of serious...

  19. Complications and Deaths - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Complications and deaths - national data. This data set includes national-level data for the hip/knee complication measure, the CMS Patient Safety Indicators, and...

  20. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Infant Deaths

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Infant Deaths (from Linked Birth / Infant Death Records) online databases on CDC WONDER provide counts and rates for deaths of children under 1 year...

  1. [Deaths in hotels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risse, Manfred; Weilbächer, Nadine; Birngruber, Christoph; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-01-01

    There are no verified statistics about deaths occurring in hotels, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. A recent case induced us to conduct a systematic search for deaths in hotels in the autopsy reports of the Institute of Legal Medicine in Giessen for the period from 1968 to 2009. This search yielded 22 evaluable cases in which persons had been found dead or had died in hotels. Data evaluated in the study were sex and age of the deceased, reason for the stay in the hotel and cause of death. Among the deaths, 18 were males and 4 females and the average age was 41 and 40 years respectively. 6 of the male guests had died from a natural and 10 from a non-natural cause. In the remaining two cases, the cause of death could not be determined, but as there was no evidence that another party had been involved, the cases were not further investigated. Of the 4 female guests, 3 had died of a natural cause; in one case, the cause of death remained unclear even after morphological and toxicological investigations. Surprisingly, a third of the men were found to be temporarily living in hotels due to social circumstances. This was not true for any of the women. Our retrospective analysis is based on a comparatively small number of deaths in what were mostly hotels in small to medium-sized towns. Interestingly, the gender ratio of 18:4 for deceased men and women was significantly higher than the usual gender ratio of 2:1 found for forensic autopsies. To be able to draw further conclusions, a greater number of cases would have to be analysed, for example by recruiting additional case files from other institutes of legal medicine. This would also open up the option of investigating possible regional variations.

  2. Life and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W

    1983-03-01

    In contrast with the other lectures given in the course on humanics and bioethics at the UOEH, which address the questions of life and death from the standpoint of the physician or the philosopher, this lecture considers these issues as seen by the cancer patient who has had a close encounter with death. The attitudes of Americans concerning abortion, the use of life-support systems, "mercy killings", suicide and the use of cancer chemotherapy are discussed with particular emphasis on restraints imposed by the courts, the churches and the family systems. An attempt is made to contrast the American and Japanese attitudes on these questions but this is difficult because of different cultural and religious backgrounds. The author describes his own experiences as a cancer patient who has approached death very closely and the changes in his own attitude toward life which results from the encounter with death. He also talks about the joy of being alive and describes his own experience with receiving cancer chemotherapy, the resulting discomfort and inconveniences and his feelings about a "tolerable" existence. Finally, the author considers the question of the "quality of life" for the cancer patient who has a violent reaction to certain forms of chemotherapy. This is a dilemma for the patient and the doctor who must consider the choice between death and a miserable existence.

  3. Malnutrition related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparre-Sørensen, Maja; Kristensen, Gustav N

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown that malnutrition increases the risk of morbidity, mortality, the length of hospital stay, and costs in the elderly population. Approximately one third of all patients admitted to geriatric wards in Denmark are malnourished according to the Danish Geriatric database. The aim of this study is to describe and examine the sudden increase in deaths due to malnutrition in the elderly population in Denmark from 1999 and, similarly, the sudden decline in malnutrition related deaths in 2007. A descriptive epidemiologic study was performed. All Danes listed in the national death registry who died from malnutrition in the period from 1994 to 2012 are included. The number of deaths from malnutrition increased significantly during the period from 1999 to 2007, especially in the age group 70 years and over. Additionally, we document a surprising similarity between the development in excess mortality from malnutrition in the five Danish regions during the same period. During the period 1999-2007 malnutrition was the direct cause of 340 extra deaths, and probably ten times more registered under other diseases. This development in excess mortality runs parallel in all five Danish regions over time. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Concept of 'bad death'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following previous research on the linguistic concept of а 'bad death' which lexical expression is the word family of the verb ginuti, I focus my attention in this paper on the relationship between language conceptualization of а 'bad death' and the representation of а 'bad death' in traditional and contemporary culture. Diachronically based language corpus makes possible to trace the changes of referential frame and use of verb ginuti and its derivatives. In the traditional culture а 'bad death' is marked in action code by irregular way of burial and beliefs in demons stemming from the 'impure dead'. In the paper I explore the degree of synonymy of the symbols of all three codes: verbal code, action code and code of beliefs. In the contemporary culture the lack of individual control and choice is considered to be the key element of the concept of a 'bad death'. This change of conceptual content manifests itself in the use of its lexical expressions.

  5. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  6. [Reflections on prehospitalisation deaths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenschmitt, Delphine; Allonneau, Alexandre; Cesareo, Éric; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Lefort, Hugues

    2017-12-01

    In the past, death was a family and community affair, but today it is institutional and entrusted to healthcare personnel. Thanks to a questionnaire on their feelings about prehospitalisation deaths, the experience and training needs for healthcare personnel at a mobile emergency and intensive care service were analysed. The majority of these professionals had been confronted with difficulties when faced with prehospitalisation deaths. There is little understanding of religious rites, even though this is an important point in dealing with the situation. There is a strong desire for training. The pedagogical support offered in response to the needs expressed was recognised as being useful and should be more widespread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Amphetamine derivative related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora-Tamayo, C; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A

    1997-02-28

    Amphetamine its methylendioxy (methylendioxyamphetamine methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine) and methoxy derivatives (p-methoxyamphetamine and p-methoxymethylamphetamine) are widely abused in Spanish society. We present here the results of a systematic study of all cases of deaths brought to the attention of the Madrid department of the Instituto Nacional de Toxicologia from 1993 to 1995 in which some of these drugs have been found in the cadaveric blood. The cases were divided into three categories: amphetamine and derivatives, amphetamines and alcohol, amphetamines and other drugs. Data on age, sex, clinical symptoms, morphological findings, circumstances of death, when known, and concentration of amphetamine derivatives, alcohol and other drugs in blood are given for each group. The information provided here may prove to be useful for the forensic interpretation of deaths which are directly or indirectly related to abuse of amphetamine derivatives.

  8. Competing causes of death: a death certificate study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.; Lautenbach, H.; Oei, Y. B.; Bijlsma, F.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the widespread interest in competing causes of death, empirical information on interrelationships between causes of death is scarce. We have used death certificate information to estimate the prevalence of competing causes of death at the moment of dying from specific underlying

  9. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 99% of maternal deaths in the world each year occur in developing countries. New efforts have recently been undertaken to combat maternal mortality through research and action. The medical causes of such deaths are coming to be better understood, but the social mechanisms remain poorly grasped. Maternal mortality rates in developing countries are difficult to interpret because they tend to exclude all deaths not occurring in health care facilities. The countries of Europe and North America have an average maternal mortality rate of 30/100,000 live births, representing about 6000 deaths each year. The developing countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America have rates of 270-640/100,000, representing some 492,000 deaths annually. For a true comparison of the risks of maternal mortality in different countries, the risk itself and the average number of children per woman must both be considered. A Nigerian woman has 375 times greater risk of maternal death than a Swedish woman, but since she has about 4 times more children, her lifetime risk of maternal death is over 1500 times greater than that of the Swedish woman. The principal medical causes of maternal death are known: hemorrhages due to placenta previa or retroplacental hematoma, mechanical dystocias responsible for uterine rupture, toxemia with eclampsia, septicemia, and malaria. The exact weight of abortion in maternal mortality is not known but is probably large. The possible measures for improving such rates are of 3 types: control of fertility to avoid early, late, or closely spaced pregnancies; effective medical surveillance of the pregnancy to reduce the risk of malaria, toxemia, and hemorrhage, and delivery in an obstetrical facility, especially for high-risk pregnancies. Differential access to high quality health care explains much of the difference between mortality rates in urban and rural, wealthy and impoverished areas of the same country. The social determinants of high maternal mortality

  10. Death with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    Allmark, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a conception of death with dignity and to examine whether it is vulnerable to the sort of criticisms that have been made of other conceptions. In this conception "death" is taken to apply to the process of dying; "dignity" is taken to be something that attaches to people because of their personal qualities. In particular, someone lives with dignity if they live well (in accordance with reason, as Aristotle would see it). It follows that health care pr...

  11. Teaching about the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul; Eden, John Michael

    1998-01-01

    Examines the reasons for the death penalty, the reasons why the death penalty attracts so much attention, whether the death penalty is applied consistently, and the evidence that the application of the death penalty may be racially biased. Provides an accompanying article on "Teaching Ideas" by Ronald A. Banaszak. (CMK)

  12. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  13. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  14. Death Penalty in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Amie L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legal and moral issues, controversies, and unique trial procedures involved with the death penalty. Discusses the 1972 landmark Supreme Court decision that resulted in many states abolishing this punishment, only to reintroduce it later with different provisions. Reviews the controversial case of Sam Sheppard. (MJP)

  15. The Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Mark

    1990-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan on the Eighth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and the imposition of the death penalty. Focuses on the controversy concerning capital punishment and stimulates critical thinking in an analysis and discussion of eight hypothetical situations. Includes suggestions for readings, videotapes, and writing assignments. (NL)

  16. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...

  17. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Strulik, Holger

    the representative consumer is subject to physiological aging. In modeling aging we draw on recent research in the fields of biology and medicine. The speed of the aging process, and thus the time of death, are endogenously determined by optimal health investments. We calibrate the model to US data and proceed...

  18. Preventing the White Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...

  19. Disparities in death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molitoris, Joseph John

    2017-01-01

    and accidents, (5) perinatal causes, and (6) unspecified causes. RESULTS The results show that class differentials in nearly all causes of death converged during the demographic transition. The only exception to this was the airborne infectious disease category, for which the gap between white collar...

  20. The Death of Shankar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2013-01-01

    ) in Bhubaneswar, the capital city of Orissa. The chapter explores the heterogeneous and hierarchical composition of the basti and unfolds the case of the social exclusion and ultimate death of a patient with tuberculosis who belonged to the poorest section of the basti, called Pradhan sahi. The case of both...

  1. Death in Flames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Kveiborg, Jacob; Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents osteoarchaeological analyses of the human skeletal material from a burnt down house in Jutland, Denmark, dated to the first century bc. We describe how the osteological analyses of this complex site were approached and illustrate how we reconstructed the death of the human...

  2. Sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Lachica, E

    1992-01-01

    case was inconclusive. After studying the circumstances of death, the number of discrepancies were reduced to 20, so that concordance was reached in 86% of all the cases. The results show that the combination of different methods leads to a diagnosis of myocardial infarction in far more cases than...

  3. Bee deaths need analysing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alarm bells are ringing all over the world about the death of bee populations. Although it is not known exactly how severe the decline is, it is important to take the problem seriously. The signals are alarming and the bee is important, not just for natural ecosystems but also for the pollination of

  4. [Death of Napoleon Bonaparte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camici, M

    2003-06-01

    The causa mortis of Napoleon Bonaparte has been vexata quaestio for a long time. The author tries to outline a picture of Napoleon from a sanitary point of view. From the report of doctor Francesco Antonmarchi who performed the autopsy, the author tries to understans the cause of death: gastric perforation due to malignant ulcer and subsequent peritonitis with pulmonary tubercolosis.

  5. KAROSHI (WORK TO DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Toriqul Chaer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When the tide of unemployment hit the USA and Europe, in Japan the opposite phenomenon occurs. In 2002, in Japan deaths were recorded because of excessive works. In this country, the phenomenon of death because of excessive works is called Karoshi. Karoshi is common in Japan.  It becomes deadly syndrome as a consequence of long hours works. The debate about deaths from excessive work already sticking out in Japan since the 70s. The first official case of Karoshi was reported in 1969 when a 29-year-old male worker died because of stroke. It is estimated over ten thousand workers died each year due to death by brain and stroke caused by an overload work. Karoshi often happen to male workers dominantly. The main cause of karoshi is stress due to high pressure in the work environment, and work habits of exceeding a  standard of normal working time (8 hours. In addition, their extra time to work is imbalance with and the salary they earn. In its development, the phenomenon of karoshi contributes to the term salaryman and workaholic.

  6. METHAPHYSICS OF DEATH PENALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gromov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper studies the problem of death penalty justifiableness in terms of democratic society from the metaphysical viewpoint. Philosophical argumentation to justify death penalty is proposed as opposed to the common idea of inhuman and uncivilized nature of court practice of sentencing to death. The essence of the study is not to rehabilitate law-based murder but to explain dialectic relation of the degrees of moral responsibility of criminals and society nourishing evildoers. The author believes that refusal from death penalty under the pretence of rule of humanism is just a liberal façade, plausible excuse for defective moral state of the society which, rejecting its own guiltiness share as for current disregards of the law, does not grow but downgrades proper human dignity. Methodology. The author applies an approach of dialectic reflection being guided by the perception of unity, relativeness and complementarity of evil and good striving to determine efficient way of resolving their contradictions in the context of moral progress of the society. Originality. Proposing philosophic approach to a death penalty problem instead of legal one, the author is not going to discuss the role of horrification, control or cruelty of the measure of restraint; moreover, he does not consider the issue of its efficiency or inefficiency. The author also does not concern vexation of mind of a criminal sentenced to life imprisonment for “humanitarian” reasons. The purpose of the author is to demonstrate that aim of the punishment is to achieve justice which becomes spiritual challenge and moral recompense not only for the criminal but for the whole society. Conclusions. Crime is first of all a problem of a society; thus, criminal behaviour of certain individuals should only be considered through a prism of moral state of the whole community. Attitude to a death penalty is the problem of spirituality and its dramatic sophistication. The author

  7. Death from Nitrous Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckström, Björn; Johansson, Bengt; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. [Karoshi, death by overwork].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehata, Tetsunojo

    2005-07-01

    Karoshi (death by overwork) is one of social medical terms, which used by survivors of victims who attacked with cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. In Dec. 2000, Compensation Standard of cardiovascular diseases in Workers' Insurance was changed and admitted the relationship between chronic fatigue and cardiovascular attacks. As a result, compensation numbers of Karoshi attributed to three hundred and more from about 80 cases. The Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare thinks that most of Karoshi caused by long working hours continuing for several months, especially without payment, so that the Labour Standard Inspector Office requests to decrease overtime work more than 45 hours per month to firm administrators.

  9. AN AUDIT OF MATERNAL DEATHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gowda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A study of maternal death conducted to evaluate various factors responsible for maternal deaths. To identify complications in pregnancy, a childbirth which result in maternal death, and to identify opportunities for preventive intervention and understand the events leading to death; so that improving maternal health and reducing maternal mortality rate significantly. To analyze the causes and epidemiological amounts maternal mortality e.g. age parity, socioeconomic status and literacy. In order to reduce maternal mortality and to implement safe motherhood program and complications of pregnancy and to find out safe motherhood program. METHODS: The data collected was a retrograde by a proforma containing particulars of the diseased, detailed history and relatives were interviewed for additional information. The data collected was analysed. RESULTS: Maternal mortality rate in our own institution is 200/ 100,000 live births. Among 30 maternal deaths, 56% deaths (17 were among low socio - economic status, groups 60% deaths among unbooked 53.5% deaths more along illiterates evidenced by direct and indirect deaths about 25% of deaths were preventable. CONCLUSION: Maternal death is a great tragedy in the family life. It is crusade to know not just the medical cause of the death but the circumstances what makes these continued tragic death even more unacceptable is that deaths are largely preventable

  10. MRI of 'brain death'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, Shigeki; Itoh, Takahiko; Tuchida, Shohei; Kinugasa, Kazushi; Asari, Shoji; Nishimoto, Akira; Sanou, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was undertaken for two patients who suffered from severe cerebrovascular diseases and were clinically brain dead. The MRI system we used was Resona (Yokogawa Medical Systems, superconductive system 0.5 T) and the CT apparatus was Toshiba TCT-300. Initial CT and MRI were undertaken as soon as possible after admission, and repeated sequentially. After diagnosis of brain death, we performed angiography to determine cerebral circulatory arrest, and MRI obtained at the same time was compared with the angiogram and CT. Case 1 was a 77-year-old man who was admitted in an unconscious state. CT and MRI on the second day after hospitalization revealed cerebellar infarction. He was diagnosed as brain dead on day 4. Case 2 was a 35-year-old man. When he was transferred to our hospital, he was in cardiorespiratory arrested. Cardiac resuscitation was successful but no spontaneous respiration appeared. CT and MRI on admission revealed right intracerebral hemorrhage. Angiography revealed cessation of contrast medium in intracranial vessels in both of the patients. We found no 'flow signal void sign' in the bilateral internal carotid and basilar arteries on MRI images in both cases after brain death. MRI, showing us the anatomical changes of the brain, clearly revealed brain herniations, even though only nuclear findings of 'brain tamponade' were seen on CT. But in Case 1, we could not see the infarct lesions in the cerebellum on MR images obtained after brain death. This phenomenon was caused by the whole brain ischemia masking the initial ischemic lesions. We concluded that MRI was useful not only the anatomical display of lesions and brain herniation with high contrast resolution but for obtaining information on cerebral circulation of brain death. (author)

  11. [Sudden death from hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundo, A; Aragona, M; Gualniera, P; Aragona, F

    1995-12-01

    The sudden death by hypoglycemia is an aspect of the forensic pathology frequently neglected. Authors initially described the pathogenesis of different hypoglycemia forms, distinguishing the primary ones due to hyperinsulinism and the secondary ones due to functional insufficiency of other organs (hypophysis, thyroid, adrenal gland, liver); after that Authors described three cases of sudden death induced hypoglycemia by hyperinsulinism: two were unweaned with nesidioblastosis and one adolescent. In any form of hypoglycemia the central nervous system damage is present with evident neuronal degenerative-necrotic phenomena, widespread edema with microhemorrhage, swollen and dissociation of myelin sheath, glial cells hyperplasia. Death caused by primary hypoglycemia is histopathologically different from the secondary one because of the maintenance of hepatic glycogen content in the former, that increase in striated muscles, including the heart, in spite of the constant secretion of catecholamine from the adrenal medulla. Glycogen is depleted in secondary hypoglycemia. In the primary form, behind the adrenal medulla hyperfunction, the increased functional activity of the adrenal cortex is moderate, contrasting with the seriousness of the syndrome, due prevalently to inhibit the gluconeogenesis response conditioned by the persistence of stored glycogen in the liver, heart and striated muscles. The rare anoxic processes coming with resynthesis of hepatic glycogen have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. The primary hypoglycemic death, especially in unweaned, is frequently promoted by other processes inducing hypoxia (fetal asphyxia outcome, pneumonia, etc.) or worsening the hypoglycemia (hypothyroidism, etc.). The secondary hypoglycemias are characterized by the normality of exocrine pancreas and by organic alterations that cause glycogen depletion from the liver.

  12. Death and digital photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ennis, Helen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy.Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death.In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections.Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.

  13. Death and Digital Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Ennis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers new possibilities for photographing the dying and dead in Australia that have been enabled by digital technologies. It argues that vernacular digital photographs demonstrate unprecedented degrees of control and privacy and further that they are purposefully withheld from public view, thus raising issues about visibility and secrecy. Some historical context is provided. Post mortem photographs were not uncommon in the nineteenth century but were in the domain of professional studio photographers. Commissioning post mortem portraits was rare for most of the twentieth century, due to changing attitudes to death and the transformation of the photographic industry. Photographing the deceased re-emerged in the 1980s, notably in the area of neonatal death. In the last five years death-related vernacular photographs have begun to proliferate. Unlike analogue processes, digital photography bypasses the involvement of others in processing and printing private images. Distribution to intimates can be achieved instantaneously via the internet, reinforcing social and familial connections. Vernacular digital photographs of the deceased do not address historical tradition but share their domestic and intimate contexts. Nor do they belong to a unified group, yet they have a common vocabulary which emphasises specificity and detail.

  14. Fear of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penson, Richard T; Partridge, Rosamund A; Shah, Muhammad A; Giansiracusa, David; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J

    2005-02-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery, which provides hope to the patient and support to caregivers and encourages the healing process. The center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. For many, cancer is synonymous with death. Fearing death is a rational response. For too long, medicine has ignored this primeval fear. Increasingly, clinicians recognize and address end-of-life issues, facing patients' and our own emotional vulnerabilities in order to connect and explore problems and fears. Listening and learning from the patient guides us as we acknowledge much of the mystery that still surrounds the dying process. Rarely is there a simple or right answer. An empathetic response to suffering patients is the best support. Support is vital in fostering the adjustment of patients. A silent presence may prove more helpful than well-meant counsel for many patients. Through an examination of eight caregiver narratives of their patients' experiences, the role of the health care provider in the dying process, particularly in regard to challenging fear, is reviewed.

  15. A Death in the Family: Death as a Zen Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K.; Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on original research that explored family reaction to the death of an elderly husband and father. We interviewed 34 families (a family included a widow and two adult biological children) approximately 6 to 10 months after the death. In one-on-one interviews, we discussed family members' initial reaction to the death, how the…

  16. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.

  17. RIPPED TO DEATH

    OpenAIRE

    Weinlich, Ricardo; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    An old puzzle in the field of cell death was recently solved: the mysterious embryonic lethality of animals deficient either in caspase-8 or FADD, proteins involved in a pathway of apoptosis. This lethality is caused by a failure to develop the yolk sac vasculature rather than a lack of apoptosis. Remarkably, development is rescued by ablation of either of two Receptor Interacting Protein Kinases (RIPKs). Despite being well-known cell killers, caspase-8 and FADD act together to block RIPK-med...

  18. Hypokalemia and sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Keld

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately three million people suffer sudden cardiac death annually. These deaths often emerge from a complex interplay of substrates and triggers. Disturbed potassium homeostasis among heart cells is an example of such a trigger. Thus, hypokalemia and, also, more transient...... of fatal arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death a patient is, the more attention should be given to the potassium homeostasis....

  19. Brain Death in Islamic Jurisprudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nikzad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In today's world, Islamic jurisprudence encounters  new issues. One of the areas where jurisprudence gets involved is the issues concerned with brain death, whether brain death in jurisprudence and Islamic law is considered the end of life. In this study, brain death was discussed from the Shiite jurisprudence perspective and also the opinions of the specialists are taken into account. METHODS: This study is designed based on library collection and review of the literature in the field of brain death. Also, Quranic verses, hadiths and fatwas (religious opinions of the scholars are used. Some of the articles which were centered around Islamic jurisprudence, particularly Shiite jurisprudence that explain and deal with brain death were given special consideration. FINDINGS: Brain death from religious and jurisprudence perspective is considered the termination of life and removing the vital organs from the body is not viewed as committing manslaughter. A person with brain death is not a normally known injured man who is still alive. The brain death patinets have no life and getting rid of the body does not constitute a case of manslaughter. Amputation of the organs of brain death patients for donation and transplantation amounts to the amputation of a dead body. If the life of a Muslim is subject to transplant of organs from the body of a brain death patient, it will be permissible. CONCLUSION: In principle, if the life of a Muslim entails transplant of organs of brain death patients, it will be permissible 

  20. Optimal Aging and Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2010-01-01

    health investments. At the same time, physiological aspects of the aging process influence optimal savings and health investment. We calibrate the model for the average US male in 2000 and proceed to show that the calibrated model accounts well for the cross-country link between labor productivity......This study introduces physiological aging into a simple model of optimal intertemporal consumption. In this endeavor we draw on the natural science literature on aging. According to the purposed theory, the speed of the aging process and the time of death are endogenously determined by optimal...... and life expectancy in the same year ("the Preston curve"); cross-country income differences can explain differences in life expectancy at age 20 of up to a decade. Moreover, technological change in health care of about 1.1% per year can account for the observed shift in the Preston curve between 1980...

  1. Organ donations after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernarda Logar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.

  2. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  3. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2015 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2015," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Methods-Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2015. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. Results-In 2015, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2015 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without

  4. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  5. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  6. Parental divorce and parental death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcussen, Jette; Thuen, Frode; Poul, Bruun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify research on children and adolescents who experience double bereavement, i.e. the experience of loss through parental divorce followed by either parental death or critical illness with imminent death. This knowledge may identify evidence to underpin knowledge......; challenges in both custodial and non-custodial parental death; risk of mental health problems, and the need of support and interventions....

  7. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  8. Parthanatos, a messenger of death

    OpenAIRE

    David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s multiple roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include, but are not limited to DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its active role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 over activation underlies cell death in experimental models of stroke, diabet...

  9. Sudden death in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Domenico; Zorzi, Alessandro

    2017-06-15

    Competitive sports activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiovascular death (SCD) in adolescents and young adults with clinically silent cardiovascular disorders. While in middle-aged/senior athletes atherosclerotic coronary artery disease accounts for the vast majority of SCDs, in young athletes the spectrum of substrates is wider and includes inherited (cardiomyopathies) and congenital (anomalous origin of coronary arteries) structural heart diseases. Inherited ion channel diseases have been implicated in SCDs occurring with an apparently normal heart at autopsy. Screening including the ECG allows identification of athletes affected by heart muscle diseases at a pre-symptomatic stage and may lead to reduction of the risk of SCD during sports. The use of modern criteria for interpretation of the ECG in the athlete offers the potential to improve the screening accuracy by reducing the number of false positives. Screening with exercise testing middle aged/senior athletes engaged in leisure sports activity is likely to be effective in patients with significant coronary risk factors, while it is not useful in low-risk subgroups. The availability of automated external defibrillator on the athletic field provides a "back-up" preventive strategy for unpredictable arrhythmic cardiac arrest, mostly occurring in patients with coronary artery diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Causes of death in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Karen; Tovu, Viran; Langati, Jeffrey Tila; Buttsworth, Michael; Dingley, Lester; Calo, Andy; Harrison, Griffith; Rao, Chalapati; Lopez, Alan D; Taylor, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The population of the Pacific Melanesian country of Vanuatu was 234,000 at the 2009 census. Apart from subsistence activities, economic activity includes tourism and agriculture. Current completeness of vital registration is considered too low to be usable for national statistics; mortality and life expectancy (LE) are derived from indirect demographic estimates from censuses/surveys. Some cause of death (CoD) data are available to provide information on major causes of premature death. Deaths 2001-2007 were coded for cause (ICDv10) for ages 0-59 years from: hospital separations (HS) (n = 636), hospital medical certificates (MC) of death (n = 1,169), and monthly reports from community health facilities (CHF) (n = 1,212). Ill-defined causes were 3 % for hospital deaths and 20 % from CHF. Proportional mortality was calculated by cause (excluding ill-defined) and age group (0-4, 5-14 years), and also by sex for 15-59 years. From total deaths by broad age group and sex from 1999 and 2009 census analyses, community deaths were estimated by deduction of hospital deaths MC. National proportional mortality by cause was estimated by a weighted average of MC and CHF deaths. National estimates indicate main causes of deaths <5 years were: perinatal disorders (45 %) and malaria, diarrhea, and pneumonia (27 %). For 15-59 years, main causes of male deaths were: circulatory disease 27 %, neoplasms 13 %, injury 13 %, liver disease 10 %, infection 10 %, diabetes 7 %, and chronic respiratory disease 7 %; and for females: neoplasms 29 %, circulatory disease 15 %, diabetes 10 %, infection 9 %, and maternal deaths 8 %. Infection included tuberculosis, malaria, and viral hepatitis. Liver disease (including hepatitis and cancer) accounted for 18 % of deaths in adult males and 9 % in females. Non-communicable disease (NCD), including circulatory disease, diabetes, neoplasm, and chronic respiratory disease, accounted for 52 % of premature deaths in adult

  11. Staging Death, Translating Death, Rehearsing Death: A Photographer’s Apprenticeship in Dying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Fargione

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The preponderance of death imagery in the mass media and a recent interest of photography in the practice of death suggest the need to reevaluate our approach to death and dying, especially when violence is involved. This essay is a case study of History of Violence, Claudio Cravero's last photographic project. His collection of "portraits" reproduce apparent dead bodies, mostly attacked in their own domestic spheres, but neither the perpetrator of death (a mysterious murderer?, nor the weapon used (an omnipresent knife, should be considered as main focal points of the artist's inquiry. The undoubtful protagonist of these photographs, instead, is the light, that illuminates fear: not of death itself, rather of the obnoxious indifference to it, as the result of generalized death imagery saturation.     The staged apparent death displayed in Cravero's photographs serve both as a memento mori and as a strategy to come to terms with the idea of death. In short, it is an apprentship in dying through a domesticating translation practice. Eventually, Cravero's History of Violence offers a complex reflection on the interplay between each individual story and macrolevel social History, thus providing some hypotheses of where violence and death fit in that odd geometry of time and space that we call life.

  12. [Death is also life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliard, F

    1985-01-01

    A nurse at the Center for Voluntary Pregnancy Interruption and Contraception in Angers, which receives 30 abortion requests each week, describes psychological aspects of nursing care for abortion patients. Abortion patients statistically are most likely to be married women around 27 years old with husbands aged 31 on average and with 2 children. Abortions are done under local anesthesia, so that there is no hiatus between the time "before" and that "after" the procedure. Women speak about their moral and physical suffering; their choice is respected by the staff. Despite the regret or mild depression that may follow an abortion, most women experience the greatest difficulty before the procedure and feel primarily relieved afterwards. Nursing work with abortion patients consists in being open to them and accompanying them for a few hours. The patients' comfort and postabortion morbidity depend largely on the reception and understanding they are given by the staff. After the procedure, the topic of contraception is discussed with the patient. Abortion and contraception cannot be dissociated because fertility regulation involves greater well-being for all members of the family. The abortion center is a place of life in which women and couples take responsibility for their sexuality and begin again. It is important not to impose beliefs or feelings about sexuality on the patient. A training which encouraged reflection on the grand problems of life and death as well as understanding of emotions, sentiments, and reactions would be helpful in gaining self knowledge and in living through events such as abortion. A meeting with a psychiatrist every 3 weeks is arranged for all staff members who desire it in order to maintain their emotional balance and work out troubling situations encountered at work. The work at the abortion center is 1 of listening and gaining the patient's confidence in order to dedramatize the abortion and permit the woman and the couple to elect an

  13. Parents bereaved by infant death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Dorte M.; Elklit, Ask; Olff, Miranda

    2013-01-01

    stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and potential correlates in 634 mothers and fathers up to 18 years (M=3.4 years) after the death of their infant. Members of a private national support organization for parents bereaved by infant death were contacted and asked to participate in the study. Participants...

  14. Death Competence: An Ethical Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamino, Louis A.; Ritter, R. Hal, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors argued that death competence, defined as specialized skill in tolerating and managing clients' problems related to dying, death, and bereavement, is a necessary prerequisite for ethical practice in grief counseling. A selected review of the literature tracing the underpinnings of this concept reveals how a robust construct of death…

  15. Scintigraphic evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.; Bai, M. S.; Cho, K. K.; Kim, S. J.; Yoon, S. N.; Cho, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    A law recognizing brain death is a life saving legal measure in patients suffering from badly diseased organs such as kidney, liver, heart, and lung. Such law is being discussed for legalization at the Korean National Assembly. There are various criteria used for brain death in western world and brain scintiscan is one of them. However, the scintiscan is not considered in establishing brain death in the draft of the law. The purpose of this report is to spread this technique in nuclear medicine society as well as in other medical societies. We evaluated 7 patients with clinical suspicion of brain death by various causes. The patient's age ranged from 5 to 39 years. We used 5-20mCi 99m Tc-HMPAO (d.1-hexamethyl propylene amine oxime) or ECD (Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer), lipophilic agents that cross BBB (blood brain barrier). A dynamic study followed by static or SPECT (single photon emission tomography) was performed. Interpretive criteria used for brain death were 1) no intracranial circulation 2) no brain uptake. The second criteria is heavily used. Five of 7 patients were scintigraphically brain dead and the remaining 2 had some brain uptake excluding the diagnosis of scintigraphic brain death. In conclusion, cerebral perfusion study using a lipophilic brain tracer offers a noninvasive, rapid, easy, accurate and reliable mean in the diagnosis of brain death. We believe that this modality should be included in the criteria of brain death in the draft of the proposed Korean law

  16. Parthanatos, a messenger of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Karen Kate; Andrabi, Shaida Ahmad; Dawson, Ted Murray; Dawson, Valina Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1)'s multiple roles in the cell span from maintaining life to inducing death. The processes PARP-1 is involved in include, but are not limited to DNA repair, DNA transcription, mitosis, and cell death. Of PARP-1's different cellular functions, its active role in cell death is of particular interest to designing therapies for diseases. Genetic deletion of PARP-1 revealed that PARP-1 over activation underlies cell death in experimental models of stroke, diabetes, inflammation and neurodegeneration. Since interfering with PARP-1 mediated cell death will be clinically beneficial, great effort has been invested into designing PARP-1 inhibitors and understanding mechanisms downstream of PARP-1 over activation. PARP-1 overactivation may kill by depleting cellular energy through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) consumption, and by releasing the cell death effector apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Unexpectedly, recent evidence shows that poly-ADP ribose (PAR) polymer itself, and not the consumption of NAD+ is the source of cytotoxicity. Thus, PAR polymer acts as a cell death effector downstream of PARP-1-mediated cell death signaling. We coined the term parthanatos after Thanatos, the personification of death in Greek mythology, to refer to PAR-mediated cell death. In this review, we will summarize the proposed mechanisms by which PARP-1 overactivation kills. We will present evidence for parthanatos, and the questions raised by these recent findings. It is evident that further understanding of parthanatos opens up new avenues for therapy in ameliorating diseases related to PARP-1 over activation. PMID:19273119

  17. Death: clinical and forensic anthropological perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Etty Indriati, Etty Indriati

    2015-01-01

    All biological living beings inevitably die, and the ways to die vary although in essence death is a manifestation of the absence of Oxygen in the brain. After death, biological remains undertake proteolysis and decomposition. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical death, cerebral or medicolegal death, social death, phases of cerebral death, and biological process after death—which is important for forensic medicine and forensic anthropology. How long a person die, if the time elaps...

  18. Brain death and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.; Mushtaq, S.; Jamil, K.; Ahmed, S.

    2003-01-01

    Concerns about the erroneous diagnosis of death and premature burial have been expressed from times immemorial. Patients with brain stem death have absolutely no chance of recovery. Brain death is considered at par with death in most of the countries. General public in most parts of the world shows reluctance to accept this concept due to different social, cultural and religious backgrounds and state of literacy and awareness. The criteria for the diagnosis of brain death have been established which include certain pre-conditions, exclusions and tests of the brain stem function. These criteria are universally accepted. The criteria in children are somewhat different from the adults. The subject is intimately related with organ transplantation. If the patients is registered as organ donor or the family consents, organs can be harvested from brain dead patients for transplantation. Pakistan is amongst the few countries where no legislation exists to accept brain death as being at par with death of an individual, and to facilitate and regulate, cadaveric organ donation and transplantation. (author)

  19. Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Overdose Deaths Among Homeless Persons January 2013 Homelessness is a persistent problem—nearly 690,000 people ... will ultimately help address the tragic problem of homelessness too, as many homeless people cite drug or ...

  20. Radionuclide evaluation of brain death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pjura, G.A.; Kim, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    The criteria employed for clinical determination of death have evolved in response to advances in life support and other medical technology. The technical feasibility of organ transplantation has amplified the need for a definition of brain death that can be applied in the shortest possible time in the presence of artificial maintenance of vegetative functions, including circulation. Radionuclide cerebral angiography is one of a group of diagnostic procedures that can be employed to confirm the clinical diagnosis of brain death through demonstration of absence of cerebral blood flow. The focus of this work is to assess its use as a confirmatory test for determination of brain death in the context of currently available alternative technologies

  1. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.

  2. Antiepileptic drugs and intrauterine death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomson, Torbjörn; Battino, Dina; Bonizzoni, Erminio

    2015-01-01

    ) after prenatal AED exposure. Using EURAP data, we prospectively monitored pregnancies exposed to the 6 most common AED monotherapies and to polytherapy. Intrauterine death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth combined) was the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Of 7,055 pregnancies exposed to monotherapy...... with lamotrigine (n = 1,910), carbamazepine (n = 1,713), valproic acid (n = 1,171), levetiracetam (n = 324), oxcarbazepine (n = 262), or phenobarbital (n = 260), and to polytherapy (n = 1,415), 632 ended in intrauterine deaths (592 spontaneous abortions and 40 stillbirths). Rates of intrauterine death were similar...... that the risk was greater with polytherapy vs monotherapy (risk ratio [RR] 1.38; 95% CI 1.14-1.66), parental history of MCMs (RR 1.92; 1.20-3.07), maternal age (RR 1.06; 1.04-1.07), and number of previous intrauterine deaths (RR 1.09; 1.00-1.19). The risk was greater with early enrollment and decreased...

  3. Life, Death, and Second Chances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Life, Death, and Second Chances Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... that she was beginning to fear for her life. Was there any hope at all? Dr. Richard ...

  4. Death among children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001915.htm Death among children and adolescents To use the sharing features on this page, ... persons of trust is very important for preventing teen suicide. HOMICIDE Homicide is a complex issue that does ...

  5. Sudden cardiac death in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Camilo Pellegrino dos Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The most accepted definition of sudden cardiac death nowadays is an unexplained death occurred suddenly within one hour of symptom onset. If it was not witnessed, individuals need to had been observed for at least 24 hours before the event and should be discarded the possibility of non cardiac causes of sudden death, pulmonary embolism or extensive malignancy. The term athlete refers to individuals of any age who participate in collective or individual regular physical activity, as well as physical training program for regular competitions. The sudden death of a young athlete, whether amateur or professional, especially during competitions, is always dramatic, with strong negative social impact and in the media. The fact that sports are recommended as a formula for longevity and quality of life makes these events a cause for concern in sports and society in general.

  6. Fournier gangrene and unexpected death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, Danielle; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    Fournier gangrene represents a rare but progressive perineal infection that may result in rapid death. A 70-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse is reported who was found unexpectedly dead. He had last been contacted the night before his death. At autopsy, the most striking finding was deep necrotic ulceration of the scrotum with exposure of underlying deep muscles and testicles, with blood cultures positive for Escherichia coli. Death was, therefore, attributed to necrotic ulceration/gangrene of the perineum (Fournier gangrene) that was due to E. coli sepsis with underlying contributing factors of diabetes mellitus and alcoholism. In addition there was morbid obesity (body mass index 46.9), cirrhosis of the liver, and marked focal coronary artery atherosclerosis with significant cardiomegaly. Fournier gangrene may be an extremely aggressive condition that can result in rapid death, as was demonstrated by the rapid progression in the reported case. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. 38 CFR 3.211 - Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death. 3.211 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.211 Death. Death should be... community where death occurred. (2) A copy of a coroner's report of death or a verdict of a coroner's jury...

  8. Sudden death in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Garrido B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Beatriz Jáuregui-Garrido1, Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera2,31Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, 3Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, SpainAbstract: Eating disorders are usually associated with an increased risk of premature death with a wide range of rates and causes of mortality. “Sudden death” has been defined as the abrupt and unexpected occurrence of fatality for which no satisfactory explanation of the cause can be ascertained. In many cases of sudden death, autopsies do not clarify the main cause. Cardiovascular complications are usually involved in these deaths. The purpose of this review was to report an update of the existing literature data on the main findings with respect to sudden death in eating disorders by means of a search conducted in PubMed. The most relevant conclusion of this review seems to be that the main causes of sudden death in eating disorders are those related to cardiovascular complications. The predictive value of the increased QT interval dispersion as a marker of sudden acute ventricular arrhythmia and death has been demonstrated. Eating disorder patients with severe cardiovascular symptoms should be hospitalized. In general, with respect to sudden death in eating disorders, some findings (eg, long-term eating disorders, chronic hypokalemia, chronically low plasma albumin, and QT intervals >600 milliseconds must be taken into account, and it must be highlighted that during refeeding, the adverse effects of hypophosphatemia include cardiac failure. Monitoring vital signs and performing electrocardiograms and serial measurements of plasma potassium are relevant during the treatment of eating disorder patients.Keywords: sudden death, cardiovascular complications, refeeding syndrome, QT interval, hypokalemia

  9. Autoerotic death due to electrocution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Arkuszewski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autoerotic death is a very rare case in forensic medicine. It is usually caused by asphyxia, but other reasons are also possible. Herein we present a case of autoerotic death due to electrocution caused by a self-made electrical device. The device was constructed to increase sexual feelings through stimulation of the scrotal area.

  10. Faith healers, myths and deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasti, Harihar; Kanchan, Tanuj; Acharya, Jenash

    2015-09-01

    Science and myth have been closely linked and argued upon by philosophers, educationalists, scientists, enthusiasts and the general public. Faith healing, when added as an adjuvant or alternative aid to medical science, will not necessarily be confined to mere arguments and debates but may also give rise to series of complications, medical emergencies and even result in death. We present an unusual case where reliance on faith healing led to the death of a young man. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Death signals by environmental pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, H.F.

    2002-01-01

    Life and death are directly involved in the normal development of all multicellular organisms. Defects in the regulation of the mechanism of programmed cell death (apoptosis) contribute to many diseases as well as in the toxic effects of xenobiotics. Here it is described which elements of the apoptotic machinery are possible targets of hydrocarbons and metal compounds, prominent environmental pollutants. Moreover, it is shown that cytotoxic rather than cytostatic therapies might be most effective in treatment of cancer. (orig.)

  12. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by Age Group 2016 [ ...

  13. Death in life or life in death? Dementia's ontological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gaynor

    2018-01-01

    Is it possible to end one's life well with dementia? The perception of dementia as death brought into life flows from ideas about humanness embedded in medicine's Cartesian paradigm. Dementia as incurable brain disease exacerbates negativity. But the real impact of dementia is that it changes social relations: to live well with dementia requires a relational not Cartesian understanding of life. A relational ontology prioritizes social health: to live is to be held in connection. Negativity produces the disconnection that is death, with or without disease. When people with dementia are held in connection, they live a better life.

  14. Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Angel L. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Mena, Salvador [Green Molecular SL, Pol. Ind. La Coma-Parc Cientific, 46190 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Estrela, Jose M., E-mail: jose.m.estrela@uv.es [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Odontology, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibanez, 46010 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-03-11

    Glutathione (L-γ-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine; GSH) in cancer cells is particularly relevant in the regulation of carcinogenic mechanisms; sensitivity against cytotoxic drugs, ionizing radiations, and some cytokines; DNA synthesis; and cell proliferation and death. The intracellular thiol redox state (controlled by GSH) is one of the endogenous effectors involved in regulating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore complex and, in consequence, thiol oxidation can be a causal factor in the mitochondrion-based mechanism that leads to cell death. Nevertheless GSH depletion is a common feature not only of apoptosis but also of other types of cell death. Indeed rates of GSH synthesis and fluxes regulate its levels in cellular compartments, and potentially influence switches among different mechanisms of death. How changes in gene expression, post-translational modifications of proteins, and signaling cascades are implicated will be discussed. Furthermore, this review will finally analyze whether GSH depletion may facilitate cancer cell death under in vivo conditions, and how this can be applied to cancer therapy.

  15. Sudden unexpected death in infancy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Theilade, Juliane

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs among studies and non-autopsied cases are difficult to assess. Objectives. To investigate causes of sudden death in infancy in a nationwide setting. Validate the use...... of the ICD-10 code for SIDS (R95) in the Danish Cause of Death registry. Design. A retrospective analysis of all infant deaths (death certificates and autopsy reports were read. Results. We identified 192 SUDI cases (10% of total deaths, 0.42 per 1000 births......) with autopsy performed in 87% of cases. In total, 49% of autopsied SUDI cases were defined as SIDS (5% of all deaths, 0.22 per 1000 births); Cardiac cause of death was denoted in 24% of cases. The Danish Cause of Death Registry misclassified 30% of SIDS cases. Conclusions. A large proportion of infant deaths...

  16. Death from a driverless vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2018-03-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major cause of fatalities around the world, and a number of deaths are caused by moving traffic on public roads. Deaths from vehicles that are off the highway may be called non-traffic fatalities which can be due to a vehicle reversing, carbon monoxide poisoning, weather-induced over-heating inside the vehicle and electric windows. Children (and animals) are the usual victims. We report a case from India where a man was found lying dead by the roadside with a lorry nearby. The autopsy findings indicated that he had been run over, but as there was no history of a vehicular collision and with no eyewitnesses, the investigators were unsure of the probable sequence of events that led to his death. The autopsy findings, history, circumstantial evidence and chemical analysis enabled us to work out what had happened.

  17. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  18. Life Experience with Death: Relation to Death Attitudes and to the Use of Death-Related Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluck, Susan; Dirk, Judith; Mackay, Michael M.; Hux, Ashley

    2008-01-01

    The study examines the relation of death experience to death attitudes and to autobiographical memory use. Participants (N = 52) completed standard death attitude measures and wrote narratives about a death-related autobiographical memory and (for comparison) a memory of a low point. Self-ratings of the memory narratives were used to assess their…

  19. Was Sigmund Freud's death hastened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Alastair D Sandy

    2017-08-01

    The terminal illness of Sigmund Freud has been considered by many authors to be an example of physician-enacted euthanasia. A review and a reconsideration of the published literature by Freud's doctors and biographers cast doubt on this opinion. Over his last 48 h, Freud was administered substantial morphine doses to sedate and relieve his pain. However, from a pharmacological perspective, the timing of his death would not be consistent with that of a fatal dose of opioid. Freud died a natural death. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  20. Sudden unexpected death in infancy: place and time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, J F T; Thompson, A J; Ingram, P J

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many babies who die of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy (SUDI) in Northern Ireland are found dead in bed--i.e. co-sleeping--with an adult. In order to assess its frequency autopsy reports between April 1996 and August 2001 were reviewed and linked to temporal factors. The day and month of death, and the place where the baby was found were compared to a reference population of infant deaths between one week of age and the second birthday. Although the rate of SUDI was lower than the UK average, 43 cases of SUDI were identified, and two additional deaths with virtually identical autopsy findings that were attributed to asphyxia caused by suffocation due to overlaying. Thirty-two of the 45 (71%) were less than four months of age. In 30 of the 45 cases (67%) the history stated that the baby was bed sharing with others; 19 died sleeping in an adult bed, and 11 on a sofa or armchair. In 16 of the 30 (53%) there were at least two other people sharing the sleeping surface, and in one case, three. SUDI was twice as frequent at weekends (found dead Saturday-Monday mornings) compared to weekdays (psharing a place of sleep per se may not increase the risk of death, our findings may be linked to factors such as habitual smoking, consumption of alcohol or illicit drugs as reported in case-control studies. In advising parents on safer childcare practices, health professionals must be knowledgeable of current research and when, for example, giving advice on co-sleeping this needs to be person-specific cognisant of the risks within a household. New and better means of targeting such information needs to be researched if those with higher risk life-styles are to be positively influenced.

  1. Elements of healthy death: a thematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Mostafaei, Davood; Rahimi, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Death is a natural and frightening phenomenon, which is inevitable. Previous studies on death, which presented a negative and tedious image of this process, are now being revised and directed towards acceptable death and good death. One of the proposed terms about death and dying is "healthy death", which encourages dealing with death positively and leading a lively and happy life until the last moment. This study aimed to explain the views of Iranians about the elements of healthy death. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted for 12 months in two general hospitals in Tehran (capital of Iran), using the thematic analysis method. After conducting 23 in-depth interviews with 21 participants, transcription of content, and data immersion and analysis, themes, as the smallest meaningful units were extracted, encoded and classified. Results: One main category of healthy death with 10 subthemes, including dying at the right time, dying without hassle, dying without cost, dying without dependency and control, peaceful death, not having difficulty at dying, not dying alone and dying at home, inspired death, preplanned death, and presence of a clergyman or a priest, were extracted as the elements of healthy death from the perspective of the participants in this study. Conclusion: The study findings well explained the elements of healthy death. Paying attention to the conditions and factors causing healthy death by professionals and providing and facilitating quality services for patients in the end stage of life make it possible for patients to experience a healthy death.

  2. Brain Death,Concept and Criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The concept of brain death originated in France. In 1959, the French scholars P. Mollaret and M. Goulon proposed the concept of "coma de- passe" or "brain death" for the first time and reported 23 cases with such symptoms. The first guidelines (the Harvard criteria) for diagnosing brain death was established in 1968, defining brain death

  3. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  4. Death: ‘nothing’ gives insight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    According to a widely accepted belief, we cannot know our own death-death means 'nothing' to us. At first sight, the meaning of 'nothing' just implies the negation or absence of 'something'. Death then simply refers to the negation or absence of life. As a consequence, however, death has no meaning

  5. HSMR : Comparing Death Rates Across UK Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Teeuwen; Thuy Ngo; Frans Nauta

    2011-01-01

    The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These

  6. Ordinal Position and Death Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Daniel; Tobacyk, Jerome

    The relationship between birth order and how a person deals with death is investigated. Both theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that birth order influences how a person deals with life tasks. First-borns appear more achievement-oriented than their younger siblings, as exemplified by the fact that disproportionately greater numbers of…

  7. Death Penalty Issues Following Atkins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, James R.; Keyes, Denis W.

    2006-01-01

    In light of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2002 landmark decision in "Atkins v. Virginia," a diagnosis of mild mental retardation has taken on a life and death significance for people who are the most deeply involved in criminal justice. As such, each aspect of the mental retardation definition (American Association on Mental Retardation, 2002) is a…

  8. Actual innocence: is death different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James R

    2009-01-01

    Supreme Court jurisprudence relies heavily on the premise that "death is different" from other criminal sanctions, and that capital cases entail commensurately demanding standards of reliability. Although invoked most frequently with respect to sentencing, both precedent and logic suggest that heightened reliability applies as well to guilt determination in capital trials. Nevertheless, recurrent and highly visible wrongful convictions in capital cases have affected public opinion, contributed to a precipitous decline in new death sentences, and led to calls for reforms designed to guard against the risk of executing innocent persons. This article examines the implications of the "death is different" doctrine for the problem of wrongful convictions in both capital and non-capital cases. It argues that innovations designed to enhance reliability in the special context of death-penalty prosecutions are important in their own right, but relevant new safeguards also should extend to criminal cases generally, where innocent people are similarly at risk and wrongful convictions are far more prevalent. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Where Death and Glory Meet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Robert Gould Shaw was one of the most celebrated heroes of the American Civil War because of his position as Colonel of the North's first African-American regiment, his abolitionist family, his death on the parapets of Fort Wagner, and the monuments and poems praising his dedication to the equality...

  10. Anaphylactic deaths in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settipane, G A

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed seven documented deaths to peanuts and two near deaths. We excluded hearsay undocumented deaths to peanuts. Peanut allergy is one of the most common food allergies and probably the most common cause of death by food anaphylaxis in the United States. About one-third of peanut-sensitive patients have severe reactions to peanuts. Asthmatics with peanut sensitivity appear more likely to develop fatal reactions probably because of the exquisite sensitivity that asthamatics have to chemical mediators of anaphylaxis. Severe reactions occur within a few minutes of ingestion and these patients must carry preloaded epinephrine syringes, antihistamines, and medic-alert bracelets. Treatment should include repeated doses of epinephrine, antihistamines and corticosteroids as well as availability of oxygen, mechanical methods to open airways, vasopressors, and intravenous fluids. Hidden sources of peanuts such as chili, egg rolls, cookies, candy, and pastry should be recognized and identified. Scratch/prick test to peanuts are highly diagnostic. Peanut is one of the most sensitive food allergens known requiring only a few milligrams to cause a reaction. In some individuals, even contact of peanut with unbroken skin can cause an immediate local reaction. Unfortunately, peanut reaction is not outgrown and remains a life-long threat.

  11. Recovering missing mesothelioma deaths in death certificates using hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Vilma S; Algranti, Eduardo; Campos, Felipe; Cavalcante, Franciana; Salvi, Leonardo; Santos, Simone A; Inamine, Rosemeire N; Souza, William; Consonni, Dario

    2018-04-02

    In Brazil, underreporting of mesothelioma and cancer of the pleura (MCP) is suspected to be high. Records from death certificates (SIM) and hospital registers (SIH-SUS) can be combined to recover missing data but only anonymous databases are available. This study shows how common data can be used for linkage and as an assessment of accuracy. Mesothelioma (all sites, ICD-10 codes C45.0-C45.9) and cancer of the pleura (C38.4) were retrieved from both information systems and combined using a linkage algorithm. Accuracy was examined with non-anonymous databases, limited to the state of São Paulo. We found 775 cases in death certificates and 283 in hospital registers. The linkage matched 57 cases, all accurately paired. Three cases, 0.4% in SIM and 1.3% in SIH-SUS, could not be matched because of data inconsistencies. A computer linkage can recover MCP cases from hospital records not found in death certificates in Brazil. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Religiosity and the Construction of Death in Turkish Death Announcements, 1970-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Death and rituals performed after death reflect and reproduce social distinctions despite death's popular reputation as a great leveler. This study examines expressions of religiosity and constructions of death in Turkish death announcements, paying particular attention to gendered, ethnic, and temporal variations as well as markers of status and…

  13. Effectiveness of a Death-Education Program in Reducing Death Anxiety of Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Noreen; Lally, Terry

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of death education program in reducing death anxiety experienced by 22 junior and senior nursing students. Subjects were pre- and posttested with State Form of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and viewed film of death experience. Posttest analysis indicated that death education program was effective in decreasing death anxiety…

  14. [Death and the pop musician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leeuw, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Many people are inclined to believe that popular music artists are prone to die prematurely. Scientific research into this matter is scarce. There is only one epidemiological study on this subject, showing that mortality among pop stars during the first 25 years after they became famous is increased. This mortality is higher in Northern America than it is in Europe, but European pop stars die on average at an earlier age. A fairly common belief states that many pop stars die at the age of 27 years. This age has even been proclaimed as the most critical for modern musicians. However, data of several hundred deceased pop stars shows no evidence for increased mortality at the age of 27. Moreover, the data suggests that the age of death has increased over the past forty years. As far as the cause of death is concerned, overdose of drugs or alcohol rank highly next to cardiovascular disease and malignancy.

  15. Hepatitis E and Maternal Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-06

    Dr. Alain Labrique, assistant professor in the Department of International Health and Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School of Public Health, gives us his perspective on hepatitis E and maternal deaths.  Created: 11/6/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID); National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 11/7/2012.

  16. [Psychological stress and sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignalberi, Carlo; Ricci, Renato; Santini, Massimo

    2002-10-01

    Recent studies provide relevant evidence that psychological stress significantly influences the pathogenesis of sudden cardiac death. Psychological stress expresses a situation of imbalance, derived from a real or perceived disparity between environmental demands and the individual's ability to cope with these demands. A situation of psychological stress may include different components: personality factors and character traits, anxiety and depression, social isolation and acute or chronic adverse life events. In particular, it has been documented that a sudden extremely hard event, such as an earthquake or a war strike, can significantly increase the incidence of sudden death. Nevertheless, each one of these factors, if not present, can balance a partially unfavorable situation; this overview suggests a multifactorial situation where almost all elements are present and in which the relative influence of each one varies according to the individual examined. Sudden death occurs when a transient disruption (such as acute myocardial ischemia, platelet activation or neuroendocrine variations), occurring in a patient with a diseased myocardium (such as one with a post-necrotic scar or hypertrophy), triggers a malignant arrhythmia. Psychological stress acts at both levels: by means of a "chronic" action it contributes to create the myocardial background, while by means of an acute action it can create the transient trigger precipitating sudden death. In the chronic action two possible mechanisms can be detected: the first is a direct interaction, which contributes to cause a hypertension status or to exacerbate coronary atherosclerosis consequent to endothelial dysfunction; the second one acts through adverse health behaviors, such as a poor diet, alcohol consumption or smoking. In case of acute psychological stress, the mechanisms involved are mainly the ability to trigger myocardial ischemia, to promote arrhythmogenesis, to stimulate platelet function, and to increase

  17. Death and revival of chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszás, Bálint; Feudel, Ulrike; Tél, Tamás

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the death and revival of chaos under the impact of a monotonous time-dependent forcing that changes its strength with a non-negligible rate. Starting on a chaotic attractor it is found that the complexity of the dynamics remains very pronounced even when the driving amplitude has decayed to rather small values. When after the death of chaos the strength of the forcing is increased again with the same rate of change, chaos is found to revive but with a different history. This leads to the appearance of a hysteresis in the complexity of the dynamics. To characterize these dynamics, the concept of snapshot attractors is used, and the corresponding ensemble approach proves to be superior to a single trajectory description, that turns out to be nonrepresentative. The death (revival) of chaos is manifested in a drop (jump) of the standard deviation of one of the phase-space coordinates of the ensemble; the details of this chaos-nonchaos transition depend on the ratio of the characteristic times of the amplitude change and of the internal dynamics. It is demonstrated that chaos cannot die out as long as underlying transient chaos is present in the parameter space. As a condition for a "quasistatically slow" switch-off, we derive an inequality which cannot be fulfilled in practice over extended parameter ranges where transient chaos is present. These observations need to be taken into account when discussing the implications of "climate change scenarios" in any nonlinear dynamical system.

  18. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irayda Jakušovaitė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational–logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question “Does a brain death mean death of a human being?” two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  19. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  20. Death: the ultimate social construction of reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, Sarah

    Using Berger and Luckmann's thesis (1966) on the social construction of reality as rationale, this research analyzes the death drawings of 946 university students enrolled in a Death and Dying course between 1985 and 2004 to investigate the basic constructs elicited by the word "death": dying, moment of death, after death, after life, and bereavement. Consistent with earlier research, gender, race, religion, and religiosity proved to be significant factors. As expected, personal experience with grief was strongly correlated with drawings focused on bereavement. In contrast to earlier studies, fear of death was not significantly related to a particular construct. Implications for research, education, and counseling are discussed.

  1. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF NURSING STUDENTS DEATH CONCERN

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Aiko

    2000-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in order to examine characteristics of death concern of nursing, medical and general students and to campare death concern levels of nursing students across grade levels. There were 539 valid responses of the students

  3. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  4. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Campaigns Initiatives Stay Informed Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Quick ... a late stage with a poor outcome, often death. The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention published ...

  5. Circulatory Arrest, Brain Arrest and Death Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam David Shemie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances, particularly in the capacity to support, replace or transplant failing organs, continue to challenge and refine our understanding of human death. Given the ability to reanimate organs before and after death, both inside and outside of the body, through reinstitution of oxygenated circulation, concepts related to death of organs (e.g. cardiac death are no longer valid. This paper advances the rationale for a single conceptual determination of death related to permanent brain arrest, resulting from primary brain injury or secondary to circulatory arrest. The clinical characteristics of brain arrest are the permanent loss of capacity for consciousness and loss of all brainstem functions. In the setting of circulatory arrest, death occurs after the arrest of circulation to the brain rather than death of the heart. Correspondingly, any intervention that resumes oxygenated circulation to the brain after circulatory arrest would invalidate the determination of death.

  6. Allegheny County Median Age at Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The median age at death is calculated for each municipality in Allegheny County. Data is based on the decedent's residence at the time of death, not the location...

  7. Sudden unexpected death caused by stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågesen, Frederik Nybye; Risgaard, Bjarke; Zachariasardóttir, Sára

    2017-01-01

    Background Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in young individuals globally. Data on the burden of sudden death by stroke are sparse in the young. Aims The aim of this study was to report mortality rates, cause of death, stroke subtype, and symptoms in children and young adults who suffered....... There was a male predominance (56%) and the median age was 33 years. The incidence of sudden death by stroke in individuals aged 1-49 years was 0.19 deaths per 100,000 person-years. Stroke was hemorrhagic in 94% of cases, whereof subarachnoid hemorrhage was the cause of death in 63% of cases. Seventeen (33%) cases...... contacted the healthcare system because of neurological symptoms, whereof one was suspected of having a stroke (6%). Conclusions Sudden death by stroke in children and young adults occurs primarily due to hemorrhagic stroke. We report a high frequency of neurological symptoms prior to sudden death by stroke...

  8. National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) provides states and communities with a clearer understanding of violent deaths to guide local decisions about...

  9. Finitude and Death - certainties denied

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Villas Bôas Concone

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The themes of this issue of the Journal Kairós Gerontology seemed determined to submit the publication to opposing pressures: on one side there were the several articles and article propositions sent by many authors and distinct approaches, demanding more than ever the effort of our collaborators in the evaluation process; on the other side there were our own difficulties (technical and personnel to take forward and quickly the task and the inevitable delays. If the influx of articles clearly showed the interest and the opportunity of the journal’s proposal, the unwillingly delays seemed to confirm the denial/avoidance face of the themes of finitude and death. Indeed, it seemed to us necessary the election of these themes for reflection for obvious reasons, especially when involved in a Masters in Gerontology: the more avoided the more the reflection is needed; in case of working or having a relationship (professional or personal with many elderly, people close to death, or people facing definitive diagnosis, the avoidance perhaps brings more suffering than benefit to the parts involved. The old saying “In home of hanged don’t talk about ropes” might have its justification, but common sense and touch is needed; it is not a “folk remedy”. It always seemed to me (I do not place myself out of it that most humans think they are immortal or at least non-mortal (an indeterminate human deviation, to the extent that death and dying are pushed deep to the unconsciousness only surfacing back to consciousness in extreme situations. Death can be thought intellectually, turned into subject of literary, religious or philosophical speculation; it also can be turned into subject of anthropological, sociological or other types of investigation; it can be thought in numbers supporting epidemiological questions and population analysis; focused in cuts of gender, class, age, ethnicity; specified in causes and causes connected to each of the cuts above

  10. Death in the Modern Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pentaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Each culture recognizes and identifies death, dying and bereavement in unique ways. Commonly, a culture may be seen through the lens of death rituals; how those are shaped, interpreted and used by the society. This paper aims to look at the Modern Greek culture and depict its ‘visualization’ of death, as well as capture the rituals that mostly identify this specific culture. The Greek culture in overall is strongly influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church. Hence, the experiences of death, dyin...

  11. Nursing students' experience of patient's death

    OpenAIRE

    Rulíková, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Reflections on student nurse's experience with death of a patient during their studies were collected in form of questionnaires. Theory and practice were compared and research conducted into the needs of students, who experienced patient's death during their studies. Research concluded with recommendation for widening the nursing course programme and adding opportunities for students to share their feelings and experiences after their patients death. Key terms: death, dying patient, study, te...

  12. WHEN DEATH INTERCEPTS LIFE IN IMAGINATIVE WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    washington, gene

    2014-01-01

    The representation of death in imaginative writing is a "virtual" (as opposed to) an actual death. It always occurs in the context of a "virtual" (represented) life. In this text the author examines some of the ways death "intercepts" life in such writing. The subject is a vast, perhaps inexhaustible, one. The richest source, one the author dos not mine, is Shakespeare's interceptions of life by death.

  13. Cryoethics: seeking life after death

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be ‘frozen’ for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified.\\ud \\ud Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is ‘against nature’, and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the ‘freezee’ will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable e...

  14. [The death of Moctezuma II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, R; González, C

    1995-07-01

    Moctezuma was the Aztec emperor when Spaniards arrived in Mexico in 1519. After his entrance in Tenochtitlan, Cortés held the emperor hostage, forcing him to govern under conditions in his own palace. The psychic evolution experienced by Moctezuma until his death in 1520 is analyzed based on testimonial reports of Benal Diaz del Castillo and historian contributions. Although there is evidence that Moctezuma was stoned and wounded by an arrow, we propose the hypothesis that the emperor was affected by a Major Depression.

  15. Dealing with Human Death: The Floating Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Gary M.

    1991-01-01

    Explores approach to dealing with human death. Describes floating perspective, based on insights from Choron and Jaspers, as suggesting it is possible to deal with human death by refraining from taking ultimate position on the problem. Position encourages openness to death. Examines role of anxiety and describes possible meaningful outcomes of…

  16. Attitudes and Experiences of Death Workshop Attendees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler-Ross, Elisabeth; Worden, J. William

    1977-01-01

    Attendees at workshops and lectures were asked to complete a questionnaire which assessed the following: 1) First death experience, 2) Present conceptualization of death, 3) Anticipated reactions to a personal terminal illness, 4) Resources in managing one's own death, and 5) Difficulties experienced in working with dying persons. (Author)

  17. 22 CFR 192.51 - Death benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death benefit. 192.51 Section 192.51 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE HOSTAGE RELIEF VICTIMS OF TERRORISM COMPENSATION Compensation for Disability or Death § 192.51 Death benefit. (a) The Secretary of State or Agency Head may provide for payment...

  18. FastStats: Leading Causes of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Leading Causes of Death Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Number of deaths for leading causes of death Heart disease: 633,842 • Cancer: 595,930 • Chronic ...

  19. Model of transition between causes of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, P; Aubenque, M

    1975-06-01

    This paper describes an attempt to estimate the probabilities of transition between various major causes of death during the period 1954-1962. The regression coefficients have been estimated from French département death rates for ten main or typical causes of death, assessed by sex for the age group 45-64 years.

  20. Adolescents' Attitudes toward the Death Penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; Maggioncalda-Aretz, Maria; Stark, Scott Hunter

    1997-01-01

    Examines whether high school (n=142) and college students (n=112) favored the death penalty for certain criminal acts. Findings indicate that high school students rated more criminal acts as meriting the death penalty. Gender and personality were not found to be associated with attitudes toward the death penalty. (RJM)

  1. Death Education for the Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Jeanne Quint, Ed.

    The perspectives of a number of health professionals based on their experiences in providing death education courses are presented in essays. In "Interdisciplinary Death Education in a Nursing School" (Helen L. Swain and Kathleen V. Cowles), the development of an undergraduate elective course in death, dying, and bereavement at the…

  2. Malaria deaths in a rural hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An audit of all malaria deaths that occurred at Manguzi Hospital between 1 October 1998 to 30 September 1999 was performed. There were 41 deaths from malaria in this time period, which was many more than for the previous three years. The most common causes of death were cerebral malaria, pulmonary oedema, ...

  3. 20 CFR 638.513 - Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Death. 638.513 Section 638.513 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JOB CORPS PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.513 Death. In each case of student death, the...

  4. 5 CFR 1651.11 - Simultaneous death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simultaneous death. 1651.11 Section 1651.11 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.11 Simultaneous death. If a beneficiary dies at the same time as the participant, the beneficiary will be treated...

  5. Polycation-mediated integrated cell death processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Wu, Linping

    2014-01-01

    standard. PEIs are highly efficient transfectants, but depending on their architecture and size they induce cytotoxicity through different modes of cell death pathways. Here, we briefly review dynamic and integrated cell death processes and pathways, and discuss considerations in cell death assay design...

  6. 38 CFR 3.460 - Death pension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death pension. 3.460 Section 3.460 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Apportionments § 3.460 Death pension. Death pension...

  7. Cell Death in C. elegans Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jennifer Zuckerman; Shaham, Shai

    2015-01-01

    Cell death is a common and important feature of animal development, and cell death defects underlie many human disease states. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven fertile ground for uncovering molecular and cellular processes controlling programmed cell death. A core pathway consisting of the conserved proteins EGL-1/BH3-only, CED-9/BCL2, CED-4/APAF1, and CED-3/caspase promotes most cell death in the nematode, and a conserved set of proteins ensures the engulfment and degradation of dying cells. Multiple regulatory pathways control cell death onset in C. elegans, and many reveal similarities with tumor formation pathways in mammals, supporting the idea that cell death plays key roles in malignant progression. Nonetheless, a number of observations suggest that our understanding of developmental cell death in C. elegans is incomplete. The interaction between dying and engulfing cells seems to be more complex than originally appreciated, and it appears that key aspects of cell death initiation are not fully understood. It has also become apparent that the conserved apoptotic pathway is dispensable for the demise of the C. elegans linker cell, leading to the discovery of a previously unexplored gene program promoting cell death. Here, we review studies that formed the foundation of cell death research in C. elegans and describe new observations that expand, and in some cases remodel, this edifice. We raise the possibility that, in some cells, more than one death program may be needed to ensure cell death fidelity. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; Hoir, L' Monique; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Need, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of

  9. Birth-death processes and associated polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2003-01-01

    We consider birth-death processes on the nonnegative integers and the corresponding sequences of orthogonal polynomials called birth-death polynomials. The sequence of associated polynomials linked with a sequence of birth-death polynomials and its orthogonalizing measure can be used in the analysis

  10. Cryoethics: seeking life after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2009-11-01

    Cryonic suspension is a relatively new technology that offers those who can afford it the chance to be 'frozen' for future revival when they reach the ends of their lives. This paper will examine the ethical status of this technology and whether its use can be justified. Among the arguments against using this technology are: it is 'against nature', and would change the very concept of death; no friends or family of the 'freezee' will be left alive when he is revived; the considerable expense involved for the freezee and the future society that will revive him; the environmental cost of maintaining suspension; those who wish to use cryonics might not live life to the full because they would economize in order to afford suspension; and cryonics could lead to premature euthanasia in order to maximize chances of success. Furthermore, science might not advance enough to ever permit revival, and reanimation might not take place due to socio-political or catastrophic reasons. Arguments advanced by proponents of cryonics include: the potential benefit to society; the ability to cheat death for at least a few more years; the prospect of immortality if revival is successful; and all the associated benefits that delaying or avoiding dying would bring. It emerges that it might be imprudent not to use the technology, given the relatively minor expense involved and the potential payoff. An adapted and more persuasive version of Pascal's Wager is presented and offered as a conclusive argument in favour of utilizing cryonic suspension.

  11. Reporting Fatal Neglect in Child Death Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie

    2018-01-01

    Child death reviews are conducted with the aim of preventing child deaths however, definitions, inclusion criteria for the review of child deaths and reporting practices vary across Child Death Review Teams (CDRTs). This article aims to identify a common context and understanding of fatal neglect reporting by reviewing definitional issues of fatal neglect and comparing reporting practice across a number of CDRTs. Providing a consistent context for identifying and reporting neglect-related deaths may improve the understanding of the impact of fatal neglect and the risk factors associated with it and therefore, improve the potential of CDRT review to inform prevention programs, policies, and procedures.

  12. Causes of death among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaorsky, N G; Churilla, T M; Egleston, B L; Fisher, S G; Ridge, J A; Horwitz, E M; Meyer, J E

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to characterize the causes of death among cancer patients as a function of objectives: (i) calendar year, (ii) patient age, and (iii) time after diagnosis. US death certificate data in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Stat 8.2.1 were used to categorize cancer patient death as being due to index-cancer, nonindex-cancer, and noncancer cause from 1973 to 2012. In addition, data were characterized with standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), which provide the relative risk of death compared with all persons. The greatest relative decrease in index-cancer death (generally from > 60% to deaths were stable (typically >40%) among patients with cancers of the liver, pancreas, esophagus, and lung, and brain. Noncancer causes of death were highest in patients with cancers of the colorectum, bladder, kidney, endometrium, breast, prostate, testis; >40% of deaths from heart disease. The highest SMRs were from nonbacterial infections, particularly among 1,000 for lymphomas, P death from index- and nonindex-cancers varies widely among primary sites. Risk of noncancer deaths now surpasses that of cancer deaths, particularly for young patients in the year after diagnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Death with dignity from the Confucian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaming; Li, Jianhui

    2017-02-01

    Death with dignity is a significant issue in modern bioethics. In modern healthcare, the wide use of new technologies at the end of life has caused heated debate on how to protect human dignity. The key point of contention lies in the different understandings of human dignity and the dignity of death. Human dignity has never been a clear concept in Western ethical explorations, and the dignity of death has given rise to more confusions. Although there is no such term as "dignity" in Confucian ethics, there are discussions of a number of ideas related to human dignity and the dignity of death. Therefore, Confucian bioethics can offer a new perspective for understanding the theoretical difficulties associated with the dignity of death and new methods for solving them. In this article, we attempt to reconstruct Confucian views on human dignity and the dignity of death and, based on those views, to analyze the following issues: the relationship between the dignity of death and biological life, the relationship between the dignity of death and suffering, the relationship between the dignity of death and the autonomy of human beings, and the relationship between the dignity of death and social justice. This article will also compare the Confucian views on these issues with the views of Western philosophers. Confucian ethics can offer distinct answers to the above issues and help resolve some confusions concerning concepts and theories in Western research on the dignity of death.

  14. Methods for determining time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard

    2016-12-01

    Medicolegal death time estimation must estimate the time since death reliably. Reliability can only be provided empirically by statistical analysis of errors in field studies. Determining the time since death requires the calculation of measurable data along a time-dependent curve back to the starting point. Various methods are used to estimate the time since death. The current gold standard for death time estimation is a previously established nomogram method based on the two-exponential model of body cooling. Great experimental and practical achievements have been realized using this nomogram method. To reduce the margin of error of the nomogram method, a compound method was developed based on electrical and mechanical excitability of skeletal muscle, pharmacological excitability of the iris, rigor mortis, and postmortem lividity. Further increasing the accuracy of death time estimation involves the development of conditional probability distributions for death time estimation based on the compound method. Although many studies have evaluated chemical methods of death time estimation, such methods play a marginal role in daily forensic practice. However, increased precision of death time estimation has recently been achieved by considering various influencing factors (i.e., preexisting diseases, duration of terminal episode, and ambient temperature). Putrefactive changes may be used for death time estimation in water-immersed bodies. Furthermore, recently developed technologies, such as H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, can be used to quantitatively study decompositional changes. This review addresses the gold standard method of death time estimation in forensic practice and promising technological and scientific developments in the field.

  15. Insights on dying, dementia and death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandormael, Sofie; Meirschaert, Alexander; Steyaert, Jan; De Lepeleire, Jan

    2018-01-01

    For our master thesis in medicine, we aimed to determine how many deaths were caused by and with dementia in 2014 and we compared our results with figures from abroad. The mortality rates of 2014 in Flanders were used to determine the amount of deaths related to dementia. These figures are collected by Vlaams Agentschap Zorg & Gezondheid (VAZG) and coded per ICD-10 classification. Of all deaths in Flanders in 2014, 6.60% were caused by dementia and 4.29% were caused by another condition, while also suffering from dementia. Data from abroad are ambiguous. While working on our thesis about "death & dementia", we questioned the reliability of mortality statistics. Possible explanations could be; the complexity of completing death certificates correctly and the challenges involved in properly constructing a chain of causes of death. The accuracy of mortality data can be improved by training and redrafting death certificates.

  16. Religious characteristics and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Hayward, R David

    2008-04-01

    Using one mock trial scenario, this study investigated whether religious and demographic factors were related to death penalty attitudes and sentencing verdicts. Those who favored the death penalty differed from those who had doubts about the penalty in gender, affiliation, fundamentalism, evangelism, literal Biblical interpretism, beliefs about God's attitudes toward murders, and perceptions of how their religious groups felt about the death penalty. These relationships generally held after mock jurors were death qualified. Gender, fundamentalism, literal interpretism, beliefs about God's death penalty position, and perceptions of how one's religious group felt about the death penalty predicted death penalty sentencing verdicts. Future research could determine whether using peremptory challenges to exclude potential jurors based on religion can help lawyers choose a more favorable jury.

  17. The Danish registers of causes of death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, K; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1999-01-01

    In 1875 registration of causes of death in Denmark was established by the National Board of Health, and annual statistics of death have since been published. Until 1970 the national statistics were based upon punched cards with data collected from the death certificates. Since then the register has...... been fully computerized and includes individual based data of all deaths occurring among all residents in Denmark dying in Denmark. Furthermore, a microfilm of all death certificates from 1943 and onward is kept in the National Board of Health. The Danish Institute for Clinical Epidemiology (DICE) has...... established a computerized register of individual records of deaths in Denmark from 1943 and onwards. No other country covers computerized individual based data of death registration for such a long period, now 54 years. This paper describes the history of the registers, the data sources and access to data...

  18. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhail, Kausar; Akram, Saima

    2002-01-01

    To ascertain the effect of gender, age, and religiosity on death anxiety, 132 participants were interviewed using Templer Death Anxiety Scale and Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale (CLS). Women, older participants, and less religious participants were found to be more scared of their impending death. Gender effect was more pronounced, however, on the CLS. Women and less religious people reported to experience greater anxiety than their respective counterparts about different dimensions of death, for example, the shortness of life, total isolation of death, fear of not being, and disintegration of body after dying. The findings of the current work indicate that the general predictors of death anxiety, gender, age, and religiosity reported in Western, predominantly Christian samples also hold in an Eastern, Muslim sample.

  19. Classification of sudden and arrhythmic death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, C; Køber, L; Elming, H

    1997-01-01

    was nearly abolished by the implantable defibrillator, indicating that arrhythmic death by this classification is meaningful, at least in the population studied. For future investigations, a call is made for committees to present data in a way that allows the reader to examine the quality of the data used......Since all death is (eventually) sudden and associated with cardiac arrhythmias, the concept of sudden death is only meaningful if it is unexpected, while arrhythmic death is only meaningful if life could have continued had the arrhythmia been prevented or treated. Current classifications of death...... or autopsy) are available in only a few percent of cases. A main problem in using classifications is the lack of validation data. This situation has, with the MADIT trial, changed in the case of the Thaler and Hinkle classification of arrhythmic death. The MADIT trial demonstrated that arrhythmic death...

  20. Research Review: Death Online - Alive and Kicking!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the physical death, the related grief, and the ensuing memorials has become visible in the digital arena. As every other aspect of life is to be found online, so are death and the surrounding issues. The research into the area is not far behind, and using the approach of a timeline...... with different stakeholders, this research review offers a systematic way of keeping track. The rather simple timeline relates to the death of a person, there is before, just around, and after death, appropriately named in a dead language: Ante Mortem, Peri Mortem, and Post Mortem. This review deals exclusively...... with the digital context of the physical death of existing human beings, as opposed to, e.g., in-game death experience or memorials for fictional characters. These are no doubt interesting issues that deserve their own review, although we might need to put citation marks around "death"....

  1. Exploring children's understanding of death: through drawings and the Death Concept Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonoti, Fotini; Leondari, Angeliki; Mastora, Adelais

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether children's understanding of the concept of death varies as a function of death experience and age, 52 children aged 7, 9, and 11 years (26 had a personal death experience), drew a picture reflecting the meaning of the word death and completed the Death Concept Questionnaire for examination of Human and Animal Death. The results showed that the 2 methodological tools used offered complementary information and that children's understanding of death is related both to age and past experience. Children with death experience seem to have a more realistic understanding of death than their inexperienced age-mates. As regards to the effect of age, our findings support the assumption that the different components of death develop through different processes.

  2. Quality insights of university teachers on dying, death, and death education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Mui-Hing June

    One of the main responsibilities of teachers is to help individual students cope with life difficulties such as grief following a death. However, very little research explores teachers' views on death, dying, and how they handle grief and loss in schools. This study aims to explore university teachers' knowledge and attitudes on dying, death, and death education. Fifteen university teachers were recruited using a qualitative method. This study reveals that most teachers' views on death and related issues are largely affected by their death experiences, religious beliefs, professional background, and the mass media. Although they have a general negative response toward death and dying, some teachers begin to affirm their meanings of life and death. Most teachers agree that they do not feel adequate about managing and teaching on life and death issues, so they strongly support including death education in the formal programs in Hong Kong.

  3. Palliative Care and Death Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Inci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diminishing treatment alternatives, losing hope for a possible recovery, insufficient control of pain and inability to provide the necessary technical support lead palliative care to bring multiple problems with itself. Along with technical and professional challenges, palliative care can put a humanitarian strain on the nurse. Caring for a dying patient is a worrisome experience which causes spiritual pain. An increase in nurses’ death anxiety may cause unwillingness to be together with a dying patient. In terms of the end of life, it is expected that the nurse stands by patient’s family to help them in sustaining their psychosocial wellness. In order to meet this expectation, nurses should get a qualitative training for end of life care along with good interpersonal communication skills and coping strategies.

  4. Fashion and death: Trends Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Jakemiu Araújo Bortolon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion is composed of cycles subpostos trends that seek to eliminate the past for a new one, which makes it ephemeral and eternal at the same time. This study investigates how is the relationship between these cycles of trends over time, through a brief history of fashion, considering the theoretical rules of Simmel, Crane and Caldas. They will still be used concepts proposed by Agamben, such as: device, in order to classify the system of the fashion; contemporaneidade, to understand the action of that factor in relation to the time and profanation, to identify the capacity to maintain in the society. It is ended that the fashion, as well as the death, renews the society, it destroys and it creates the new, as a system naturalized artificially

  5. Psychiatry and the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Charles L

    2006-09-01

    Psychiatrists conducting forensic evaluations of defendants facing a potential death penalty must understand the legal and ethical parameters governing these assessments in addition to the important clinical issues. Important areas to review with each defendant include the role of the evaluator, the party requesting the evaluation, circumstances in which the evaluation is not confidential, the nature, scope, and purpose of the evaluation, and the parties to whom the results of the evaluation are to be forwarded. In those circumstances in which the defense attorney has not retained the psychiatrist, the defendant's attorney must be aware that an evaluation has been ordered by the court or requested by the prosecution. The psychiatrist also must be prepared for passionate challenges to their findings from the defense or prosecution and in some instances for vigorous attacks on their own personal ethics. To weather such storms, the mental health evaluator must base their opinion on objective evidence rather than letting any personal bias guide their assessment.

  6. Radioactivity. Death prinicple in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.; Russell, L.

    2006-01-01

    Walter Russell's knowledge of the two basic Principles of the material universe, concentration and radiation, strongly suggests that the radioactivity is the ''death principle'' of creation. In its natural environment, radioactive radiation is vital for the overall balance, however, when spread out across the entire world, it causes massive global warming and turns planet earth into a hot desert. Part I: What is Atomic Energy?; How Radioactivity Kills; The World Voice. Part II: The True Nature of This Mind and Motion Universe; Prelude - The Transformation of Man; We Define God; The True Nature of Electricity and Gravitation; Our Eternal Universe; The Oneness of Gravity and Magnetism; The Mind Nucleus of the Atom; The Material Nucleus of the Atom. Part III: The Bridge Between Man and God. (orig./GL)

  7. Modelling `Life' against `heat death'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2018-01-01

    This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ordinary differential equations coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of living systems. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings suggests that `Life' can slow down the `heat death' of the Universe and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.

  8. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigation of a wrongful death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F; Frankfort, E

    1996-01-01

    This reprint of a 1979 article tells the story of Rosie Jiminez, a 27-year-old Mexican-American woman who died in McAllen General Hospital in Texas on October 3, 1977, from the complications of an illegal abortion. Jiminez was the first reported victim of the Hyde Amendment which cut off federal Medicaid funding for abortion. She was a daughter of migrant workers, a single mother of a 5-year-old daughter, a welfare recipient, a part-time worker, and a university student 6 months from receiving a bachelor's degree in education. When she died, she had a $700 scholarship check in her pocket, but if she had used that money to pay for an abortion, her education would have been curtailed. Initial reports to the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the agency charged with monitoring the effects of the Hyde Amendment, indicated that Jiminez had obtained her abortion in Mexico to protect her privacy. Four months of independent investigation uncovered two women who had accompanied Jiminez to a lay midwife who performed the abortion in Texas. The local police did nothing with this information, and only arrested the midwife when abortion activists set up a trap in which she was recorded offering to perform an abortion for $125. The abortionist was sentenced to 3 days in jail and fined $100 but was not charged in Jiminez's death. The CDC included this information in a two-paragraph report but failed to take any other action to determine the scale of morbidity and mortality following the Hyde Amendment. The women of America must refuse to tolerate the death of a single woman because of a lack of funding for abortion.

  10. Current asthma deaths among adults in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsugio Nakazawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent asthma deaths were examined from yearly reports of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan and from reports published by the Japan Asthma Death Investigation Committee on 811 deaths over the period 1992–2000. The rate and number of recent asthma deaths in Japan have been decreasing rapidly. Most asthma deaths were of patients aged 70–90 years and there has been a marked trend for increased asthma deaths in the elderly. As for the circumstances surrounding the deaths, sudden death, unstable sudden aggravation and intermittent aggravation were mainly noted. Respiratory infections, fatigue and stress were the major courses of fatal attacks contributing to deaths due to asthma. Many of the patients who died from asthma had been diagnosed as having as moderate to severe asthma and many had non-atopic asthma. There are some reports that suggest that the recent decrease in asthma deaths in Japan is correlated with the use of inhaled cortico- steroids.

  11. Meaning and death-thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Maternal deaths in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangen, Siri; Bødker, Birgit; Ellingsen, Liv

    2017-01-01

    reporting from hospitals. Each case was then assessed to determine the cause of death, and level of care provided. Potential improvements to care were evaluated. RESULTS: We registered 168 maternal deaths, 90 direct and 78 indirect cases. The maternal mortality ratio was 7.2/100 000 live births ranging from......INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based...... on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013. National audit groups collected data by linkage of registers and direct...

  13. Circadian variation in unexpected postoperative death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Ramsing, T

    1992-01-01

    Unexpected deaths still occur following major surgical procedures. The cause is often unknown but may be cardiac or thromboembolic in nature. Postoperative ischaemia, infarction and sudden cardiac death may be triggered by episodic or constant arterial hypoxaemia, which increases during the night...... deaths occurred at night-time. These results suggest a need for further studies of sleep- and respiration-related effects on postoperative nocturnal cardiac function. The efficacy of monitoring during this apparent high-risk period should be evaluated....

  14. Occur of death in Edgar Moren's work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work author presented Edgar Moren's antrolology of death. This thinker understands and explains event of the universe, humans and the end of the life. Myth is one of the ways for human to become the master of the death, but science becomes new weapon in mans war against it. Morens worns us that death and life can not be separated, and every human desire for physical immortality is absolutely absurd.

  15. The Problematization of Death in Modern Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræby, Anders

    Over the past five decades, death has become a rapidly expanding object of interest and focus of study. It also seems as if death has been discovered or rediscovered as a phenomenon to be discussed and observed after having lain hidden in a veil of silence and secrecy. The question might now be r...... be raised of this repression of death truly is an established historical fact. The attempt of the presentation is to explore some of the most essential and given aspects of the current way of thinking about death and its status in modern western societies....

  16. [Methuosis: a novel type of cell death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbing; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Qin; Li, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Cell death is a major physiological or pathological phenomenon in life activities. The classic forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Recently, a novel type of cell death has been observed and termed as methuosis, in which excessive stimuli can induce cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of small bubbles that gradually merge into giant vacuoles, eventually leading to decreased cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane rupture and cell death. In this article, we describe the nomenclature, morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis, compare methuosis with autophagy, oncosis and paraptosis, and review the related researches.

  17. [Death education for medical personnel utilizing cinema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyun Chae

    2012-09-25

    Death and dying is an ultimate process that every human being must experience. However, in these days we do not like to think or discuss about death and dying. Actually, hatred and denial is the usual feeling when we encounter death and dying. Dying is more than a biological occurrence. It is a human, social, and spiritual event, but the spiritual dimension of patients is too often neglected. Whether death is viewed as a "wall" or as a "door" can have significantly important consequences for how we live our lives. Near death experience is one of the excellent evidences to prove that there should be spiritual component being separated from the human physical body when we experience death. People have called it soul, spirit, or nonlocal consciousness. Caregivers need to recognize and acknowledge the spiritual component of patient care. Learning about death and dying helps us encounter death in ways that are meaningful for our own lives. Among the several learning tools, utilizing cinema with its audio and visual components can be one of the most powerful learning tools in death education.

  18. International comparison of death place for suicide; a population-level eight country death certificate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, YongJoo; Houttekier, Dirk; MacLeod, Roderick; Wilson, Donna M; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Loucka, Martin; Aubry, Regis; Teno, Joan; Roh, Sungwon; Reinecke, Mark A; Deliens, Luc; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The places of death for people who died of suicide were compared across eight countries and socio-demographic factors associated with home suicide deaths identified. Death certificate data were analyzed; using multivariable binary logistic regression to determine associations. National suicide death rates ranged from 1.4 % (Mexico) to 6.4 % (South Korea). The proportion of suicide deaths occurring at home was high, ranging from 29.9 % (South Korea) to 65.8 % (Belgium). Being older, female, widowed/separated, highly educated and living in an urban area were risk factors for home suicide. Home suicide deaths need specific attention in prevention programs.

  19. Death Anxiety and Voluntary Passive Euthanasia: Influences of Proximity to Death and Experiences with Death in Important Other Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devins, Gerald M.

    1979-01-01

    Identified five sources of death anxiety. Significant relationships were observed between each source and experimental factors. The relationship between death anxiety and attitude toward voluntary passive euthanasia was explored, and a significant correlation was noted among elderly persons. Results were consistent with an idiographic orientation…

  20. 5 CFR 880.205 - Determinations of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determinations of death. 880.205 Section... Determinations of death. OPM does not make findings of presumed death. A claimant for CSRS, FERS, or FEGLI death... § 880.207 must submit a death certificate or other legal certification of death issued by an authorized...

  1. The role of forensic death investigators interacting with the survivors of death by homicide and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Robin; Stark, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    When sudden unexpected death occurs, an investigation ensues in an attempt to discover the cause and manner of death. Autopsies are performed when reasons for death are not obvious. They are used to provide information, confirm the cause of death, and/or reveal conditions not recognized before death (Hendricks, 2011). One important reason for performing an autopsy is to help families to understand what happened to their loved one so that they can begin the process of grieving. The way that the initial notification and investigation is handled can have a bearing on how a family's grief progresses. Forensic nurses are in a unique position to bring a holistic approach to death investigation with a focus of care that includes not only the decedent but the surviving loved ones as well (Koehler, 2008). Forensic nurse death investigators can assist families through initial stages of grief in the investigation of death.

  2. Sibling death and death fear in relation to depressive symptomatology in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65-97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a structural equation model. Death fear, sibling closeness, and proportion of dead siblings were directly related to depression, with path coefficients of .42, -.24, and .13, respectively. Proportion of dead siblings had indirect effects on depression, as did age and education. Depressive symptomatology in old age is influenced by death fear related to sibling death as well as by poor relationships with them; it must be understood within a situational context including death fear and sibling relationships.

  3. NCHS - Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas, United States, 2005-2015. Mortality data for U.S....

  4. On the α-classification of birth-death and quasi-birth-death processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2006-01-01

    In several recent papers criteria for the α-classification of birth-death and quasi-birth-death processes have been proposed. In this paper the relations between the various criteria are brought to light.

  5. Hunting: Death and the signs of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jens Sand

    2013-01-01

    In this essay I have reworked the question of death in hunting by defining it as an activity whose nature implies a relation of being by living the death of the animal. Once this relation is understood more fully, it becomes obvious that the animal is not an isolated totality of relations...

  6. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the dysplastic changes in musculo-valve structures of the heart, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death. The diagnostic criteria for sudden cardiac death, the events of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, prevention of life-threatening conditions in children are provided.

  7. Natural Death and the Noble Savage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The belief that dying and grieving are natural processes is widely held in modern bereavement care. Examines four assumption often made in this connection: (1) most primitive cultures deal with death in an accepting way; (2) this way is different than our own; (3) it is a good and noble way; and (4) traditional societies see death as natural. (JBJ)

  8. The death drive in tourism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive postulated by Freud and Lacan refers to a constant force at the junction between life and death, which is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Tourist experiences in conflict zones can be more

  9. Sudden Cardiac Death in Children. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Pshenichnaya

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the prevalence, terminology, classification of sudden cardiac death. A description of congenital structural heart diseases associated with a risk of sudden cardiac death is given. The issues of etiology and pathogenesis of life-threatening conditions are described in detail.

  10. Psychic trauma as cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terranova, C; Snenghi, R; Thiene, G; Ferrara, S D

    2011-01-01

    of study Psychic trauma is described as the action of 'an emotionally overwhelming factor' capable of causing neurovegetative alterations leading to transitory or persisting bodily changes. The medico-legal concept of psychic trauma and its definition as a cause in penal cases is debated. The authors present three cases of death after psychic trauma, and discuss the definition of cause within the penal ambit of identified 'emotionally overwhelming factors'. The methodological approach to ascertainment and criterion-based assessment in each case involved the following phases: (1) examination of circumstantial evidence, clinical records and documentation; (2) autopsy; (3) ascertainment of cause of death; and (4) ascertainment of psychic trauma, and its coexisting relationship with the cause of death. The results and assessment of each of the three cases are discussed from the viewpoint of the causal connotation of psychic trauma. In the cases presented, psychic trauma caused death, as deduced from assessment of the type of externally caused emotional insult, the subjects' personal characteristics and the circumstances of the event causing death. In cases of death due to psychic trauma, careful methodological ascertainment is essential, with the double aim of defining 'emotionally overwhelming factors' as a significant cause of death from the penal point of view, and of identifying the responsibility of third parties involved in the death event and associated dynamics of homicide.

  11. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Immunohistochemistry Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Büttner, Reinhard; Gosney, John R; Skov, Birgit Guldhammer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Three programmed death-1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors are currently approved for treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment with pembrolizumab in NSCLC requires PD-L1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing. Nivolumab and atezolizumab are approved without PD-L1...

  12. Analysis of birth-death fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of techniques for analysing the performance of a reservoir which receives and releases fluid at rates which are determined by the state of a background birth-death process. The reservoir is assumed to be infinitely large, but the state space of the modulating birth-death process

  13. The clinical diagnosis of brain death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: brain death, diagnostic criteria, heartbeat. Death has been analysed in a heterogeneous .... angiography studies have also been used in order to evaluate brain circulation. According to some authors, the elective ... reflex response of spinal origin provoked by a sudden flexion of the neck and characterised by a.

  14. Athletes at Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subasic, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High school athletes represent the largest group of individuals affected by sudden cardiac death, with an estimated incidence of once or twice per week. Structural cardiovascular abnormalities are the most frequent cause of sudden cardiac death. Athletes participating in basketball, football, track, soccer, baseball, and swimming were found to…

  15. 42 CFR 102.33 - Death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM... are described in § 102.82. As provided in § 102.84, the Secretary retains the right to recover death... secondary to disability benefits under the PSOB Program. Any death benefit paid under the standard...

  16. "Death with dignity" in the Japanese context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoda, Motomu

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, "death with dignity" is a widely known term that is distinguished from "euthanasia." It is generally defined as "the act of letting a terminally ill or a patient in a persistent vegetative state die by withdrawing life-sustaining treatment on request in the form of a living will." Most Japanese people consider death with dignity a desirable way of terminating one's life and it is therefore acceptable as a "natural death" or "humane death." Originally, death with dignity was regarded as a passive intervention, but since the 1990s, its connotations have changed in western countries; people claim that voluntary active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide should be legalized as death with dignity or the "right to die." In this paper, I examine the points and problems of this new type of death with dignity and propose an alternative version of death with dignity especially for the Japanese context, i.e. the end-of-life care process in support of terminal living with dignity.

  17. Cardiac channelopathies and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Grunnet, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is always a devastating and unexpected occurrence. SIDS is the leading cause of death in the first 6 months after birth in the industrialized world. Since the discovery in 1998 of long QT syndrome as an underlying substrate for SIDS, around 10-20% of SIDS cases...

  18. 7 CFR 707.3 - Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death. 707.3 Section 707.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGRICULTURAL... Death. (a) Where any person who is otherwise eligible to receive a payment dies before the payment is...

  19. Life and Death of a Neuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... order to clear debris. Hope Through Research Scientists hope that by understanding more about the life and death of neurons they can develop new ... NIH is appreciated. Patient & Caregiver Education ... Your Brain Preventing Stroke Understanding Sleep The Life and Death of a Neuron Genes At Work ...

  20. Maternal deaths in Denmark 2002-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Birgit; Hvidman, Lone; Weber, Tom

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a method for identification, classification and assessment of maternal deaths in Denmark and to identify substandard care. DESIGN: Register study and case audit based on data from the Registers of the Danish Medical Health Board, death certificates and hospital records. SET...

  1. The death of Cleopatra | Retief | Acta Theologica

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Death occurred very rapidly and the bodies showed no recognisable snake bite wounds. Fatal viper bites are characteristically associated with prominent, swollen and haemorrhagic wounds. Cobras may cause rapid death in spite of minor bite wounds, but in order to kill three adults, the snake would have to be large.

  2. Analysis of birth-death fluid queues

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of techniques for analysing the performance of a reservoir which receives and releases fluid at rates which are determined by the state of a background birth-death process. The reservoir is assumed to be infinitely large, but the state space of the modulating birth-death process may be finite or infinite.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and death from cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Holtermann, Andreas; Bay, Hans

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Poor cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with death from cancer. If follow-up time is short, this association may be confounded by subclinical disease already present at the time of CRF assessment. This study investigates the association between CRF and death from cancer...

  4. Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Galluzzi, L; Vitale, I; Aaronson, Sa; Abrams, Jm; Adam, D; Agostinis, P; Alnemri, Es; Altucci, L; Amelio, I; Andrews, Dw; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, M; Antonov, Av; Arama, E; Baehrecke, Eh; Barlev, Na

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. A...

  5. Sibling Death and Death Fear in Relation to Depressive Symptomatology in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cicirelli, Victor G

    2009-01-01

    Previously overlooked factors in elders' depressive symptomatology were examined, including death fear, sibling death, and sibling closeness. Participants were 150 elders (61 men, 89 women) aged 65--97 years with at least one sibling. Measures were proportion of deceased siblings, sibling closeness, the Death Fear Subscale of the Death Attitude Profile--Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies--Depression scale (20-item adult form). Age and education were exogenous variables in a s...

  6. Epilepsy and risk of death and sudden unexpected death in the young

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    Patients with epilepsy are at increased risk of premature death from all causes and likely also from sudden unexplained death (SUD). Many patients with epilepsy have significant comorbidity, and it is unclear how much of the increased risk can be explained by epilepsy itself. We aimed to chart...... the incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) and estimate the risk of death from all causes and SUD conferred by epilepsy independently....

  7. Religiousness, religious doubt, and death anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrie, James; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2014-01-01

    Terror Management Theory (TMT) (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) suggests that culturally-provided worldviews (e.g., religion) may protect individuals from experiencing death anxiety, and several studies have supported this position. However, if one's worldview can offer protection, doubts concerning one's worldview could undermine this protection. The current study investigated whether age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt were associated with death anxiety. Using data from 635 younger, middle-aged, and older adults, a structural equation model with age, gender, religiousness, and religious doubt predicting death anxiety was tested. The model had a good fit (chi2 (76) = 193.467, p religiousness was inversely associated with death anxiety, while religious doubt was positively associated with death anxiety.

  8. Prosperity as a cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, J

    1977-01-01

    The general death rate rises during business booms and falls during depressions. The causes of death involved in this variation range from infectious diseases through accidents to heart disease, cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver, and include the great majority of all causes of death. Less than 2 percent of the death rate-that for suicide and homicide-varies directly with unemployment. In the older historical data, deterioration of housing and rise of alcohol consumption on the boom may account for part of this variation. In twentieth-century cycles, the role of social stress is probably predominant. Overwork and fragmentation of community through migration are two important sources of stress which rise with the boom, and they are demonstrably related to the causes of death which show this variation.

  9. Death penalty for keratinocytes: apoptosis versus cornification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippens, S; Denecker, G; Ovaere, P; Vandenabeele, P; Declercq, W

    2005-11-01

    Homeostasis implies a balance between cell growth and cell death. This balance is essential for the development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Homeostasis is controlled by several mechanisms including apoptosis, a process by which cells condemned to death are completely eliminated. However, in some cases, total destruction and removal of dead cells is not desirable, as when they fulfil a specific function such as formation of the skin barrier provided by corneocytes, also known as terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In this case, programmed cell death results in accumulation of functional cell corpses. Previously, this process has been associated with apoptotic cell death. In this overview, we discuss differences and similarities in the molecular regulation of epidermal programmed cell death and apoptosis. We conclude that despite earlier confusion, apoptosis and cornification occur through distinct molecular pathways, and that possibly antiapoptotic mechanisms are implicated in the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes.

  10. Small molecule probes for cellular death machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Qian, Lihui; Yuan, Junying

    2017-08-01

    The past decade has witnessed a significant expansion of our understanding about the regulated cell death mechanisms beyond apoptosis. The application of chemical biological approaches had played a major role in driving these exciting discoveries. The discovery and use of small molecule probes in cell death research has not only revealed significant insights into the regulatory mechanism of cell death but also provided new drug targets and lead drug candidates for developing therapeutics of human diseases with huge unmet need. Here, we provide an overview of small molecule modulators for necroptosis and ferroptosis, two non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms, and discuss the molecular pathways and relevant pathophysiological mechanisms revealed by the judicial applications of such small molecule probes. We suggest that the development and applications of small molecule probes for non-apoptotic cell death mechanisms provide an outstanding example showcasing the power of chemical biology in exploring novel biological mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. External validation of prediction models for time to death in potential donors after circulatory death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsopoulos, A.M.M.; Böing-Messing, F.; Jansen, N.E.; Vos, P.; Abdo, W.F.

    2018-01-01

    Predicting time to death in controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD) donors following withdrawal of life‐sustaining treatment (WLST) is important but poses a major challenge. The aim of this study is to determine factors predicting time to circulatory death within 60 minutes after WSLT and

  12. Death Education and Attitudes of Counselors-in-Training toward Death: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; Doughty, Elizabeth A.; Wilde, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This study reviewed how attitudes of counselors-in-training toward death develop after completing a course on death education. Participants included 11 graduate counseling students enrolled in a 2-credit-hour course addressing death and dying, and grief and loss. Qualitative results from a content analysis of free-response narratives suggest the…

  13. Deconstructing Death – Changing Cultures of Death, Dying, Bereavement and Care in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    engagement with the phenomenon of death. Among the themes touched specifically upon in the book are: organ transplantation, death education, communication with the dead, changes in commemorative rituals, mourning practices on the internet, parental responses to children’s suicide, death control, practice...

  14. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands: a comparison with child death review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, S.; Petter, J.; L'Hoir, M.P.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Need, A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of

  15. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands : a comparison with child death review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Need, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Aim Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of

  16. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  17. Death certificates underestimate infections as proximal causes of death in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Govindan

    Full Text Available Death certificates are a primary data source for assessing the population burden of diseases; however, there are concerns regarding their accuracy. Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG coding of a terminal hospitalization may provide an alternative view. We analyzed the rate and patterns of disagreement between death certificate data and hospital claims for patients who died during an inpatient hospitalization.We studied respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (a nationally representative sample of older Americans who had an inpatient death documented in the linked Medicare claims from 1993-2007. Causes of death abstracted from death certificates were aggregated to the standard National Center for Health Statistics List of 50 Rankable Causes of Death. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS-DRGs were manually aggregated into a parallel classification. We then compared the two systems via 2×2, focusing on concordance. Our primary analysis was agreement between the two data sources, assessed with percentages and Cohen's kappa statistic.2074 inpatient deaths were included in our analysis. 36.6% of death certificate cause-of-death codes agreed with the reason for the terminal hospitalization in the Medicare claims at the broad category level; when re-classifying DRGs without clear alignment as agreements, the concordance only increased to 61%. Overall Kappa was 0.21, or "fair." Death certificates in this cohort redemonstrated the conventional top 3 causes of death as diseases of the heart, malignancy, and cerebrovascular disease. However, hospitalization claims data showed infections, diseases of the heart, and cerebrovascular disease as the most common diagnoses for the same terminal hospitalizations.There are significant differences between Medicare claims and death certificate data in assigning cause of death for inpatients. The importance of infections as proximal causes of death is underestimated by current death certificate

  18. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood.

  19. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX BACIGALUPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues

  20. Death and dignity through fresh eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew; Pilkington, Ruth; Patterson, Aileen; Hennessy, Martina

    2011-12-01

    Trinity College Dublin remains one of the Medical Schools that uses traditional dissection to teach anatomy, exposing students from the first week of entry to cadavers. This early exposure makes it imperative that issues surrounding death and donor remains are explored early on within the main structure of the curriculum. The School of Medicine began a programme of Medical Humanities student-selected modules (SSMs) in 2010, and the opportunity to offer a module on medical ethics regarding death and dignity was taken. A course was devised that touched only lightly on subjects such as palliative care and the concept of a good death. The course focused much more strongly on the reality of death as part of cultural and societal identity and placement. This was facilitated by field trips to settings where discussions regarding death, dying and dignity were commonplace and authentic experiences, rather than classroom discussions based on theoretical circumstances that may not yet have been experienced by the student. The module ran very well, with students feeling that they had had a chance to think critically about the role of death as an event with significance within society and culture, rather than purely in a medico-legal framework. Options to extend the module to the compulsory element of the course, to be built upon in later years looking at more technical aspects surrounding death, are being explored. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.

  1. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai [Department of Life Science, Division of Molecular and Life Science, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja Dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gyoo-Cheon, E-mail: ktk@postech.ac.kr [Department of Oral Anatomy and Cell Biology, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-810 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-12

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)

  2. Nonthermal-plasma-mediated animal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wanil; Woo, Kyung-Chul; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Kim, Gyoo-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    Animal cell death comprising necrosis and apoptosis occurred in a well-regulated manner upon specific stimuli. The physiological meanings and detailed molecular mechanisms of cell death have been continuously investigated over several decades. Necrotic cell death has typical morphological changes, such as cell swelling and cell lysis followed by DNA degradation, whereas apoptosis shows blebbing formation and regular DNA fragmentation. Cell death is usually adopted to terminate cancer cells in vivo. The current strategies against tumour are based on the induction of cell death by adopting various methods, including radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics. Among these, radiotherapy is the most frequently used treatment method, but it still has obvious limitations. Recent studies have suggested that the use of nonthermal air plasma can be a prominent method for inducing cancer cell death. Plasma-irradiated cells showed the loss of genomic integrity, mitochondrial dysfunction, plasma membrane damage, etc. Tumour elimination with plasma irradiation is an emerging concept in cancer therapy and can be accelerated by targeting certain tumour-specific proteins with gold nanoparticles. Here, some recent developments are described so that the mechanisms related to plasma-mediated cell death and its perspectives in cancer treatment can be understood. (topical review)

  3. Perioperative death: Its implications and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P Attri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Death to most people is a major life event. Nothing in this world prepares us to face and manage the perioperative death although the majority of anesthesiologists will be involved in an intraoperative death during the course of their careers. Whether death on the table was expected or occurred when least expected or may be even later, the anesthesiologist is most likely to be affected emotionally, physically in his personal life, and as well as will have an influence on his professional career. Anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians are likely to experience death on the operating table at some time in their careers. In case of perioperative death, meticulous record keeping including time of occurrence of event and methods and medications used during resuscitation, nature of the problem, and all sequence of events should be adopted to breaking bad news with relatives and blame game should be avoided. The anesthesiologist and the relatives of the patient should also be given emotional support to come out of this untoward event. In this article, we have highlighted the various factors and causes leading on to perioperative death and if in case such an event occurs, what are the protocols to be followed, including medicolegal aspects, giving emotional support to the concerned anesthesiologist, dealing with the relatives of the patient sympathetically, etc. We have also enumerated the various precautions to be taken to prevent perioperative mortality in this article.

  4. [Toxicomania: death beyond risk. Analysis of cause-of-death in drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmonod, R; Fryc, O

    1990-11-03

    Violent deaths are of considerable importance among young adults, since they account for half the deaths in this age group (average age 26.4 years). Suicide and accidents (both categories including drug overdoses) are the most frequent categories of deaths from non-natural causes, while in the USA deaths by homicide are also of considerable importance. Current repressive policies have not brought the problem of drug addiction under control. Each year deaths by overdose among drug abusers occur. Nevertheless, 40% of deaths among drug addicts are from other causes, principally accidents and suicides. In the near future, AIDS may well account for the majority of deaths among drug addicts, thus adding to the mortality from overdose, both accidental and suicidal. Has the time come to reconsider the problem of drug abuse and to find radical solutions which would previously have been unthinkable?

  5. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  6. Understanding Death in Children With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Elizabeth J; Camfield, Peter; Brooks, Linda; Buchhalter, Jeffrey; Camfield, Carol; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Wirrell, Elaine

    2017-05-01

    Death in children with epilepsy is profoundly disturbing, with lasting effects on the family, community, and health care providers. The overall risk of death for children with epilepsy is about ten times that of the general population. However, the risk of premature death for children without associated neurological comorbidities is similar to that of the general population, and most deaths are related to the cause of the epilepsy or associated neurological disability, not seizures. The most common cause of seizure-related death in children with epilepsy is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). SUDEP is relatively uncommon in childhood, but the risk increases if epilepsy persists into adulthood. Although the direct cause of SUDEP remains unknown, most often death follows a generalized convulsive seizure and the risk of SUDEP is strongly related to drug-resistant epilepsy and frequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The most effective SUDEP prevention strategy is to reduce the frequency of seizures, although a number of seizure detection devices are under development and in the future may prove to be useful for seizure detection for those at particularly high risk. There are distinct benefits for health care professionals to discuss mortality with the family soon after the diagnosis of epilepsy. An individual approach is appropriate. When a child with epilepsy dies, particularly if the death was unexpected, family grief may be profound. Physicians and other health care professionals have a critical role in supporting families that lose a child to epilepsy. This review will provide health care providers with information needed to discuss the risk of death in children with epilepsy and support families following a loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supravalvular aortic stenosis with sudden cardiac death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Vaideeswar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death (SCD most commonly results from previously undiagnosed congenital, acquired, or hereditary cardiac diseases. Congenital aortic valvular, subvalvular, and supravalvular disease with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction is an important preventable cause of sudden death. This report documents sudden death presumably due to acute myocardial ischemia in a young male with an undiagnosed supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS due to a rare association of isolation of coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Congenital supravalvular pulmonary stenosis and mitral valvular dysplasia were also present.

  8. Suicidal Deaths an a Water Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michniewicz Iwona

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Unexpected, abrupt death is always a great tragedy, both for a victim, as well as, for their family, friends, society or even country. However, death as a result of a suicide always seems to be unnecessary and difficult to accept by relatives. Every 40 seconds someone dies on the globe due to a kind of an auto-destruction act. Out of all suicides, the biggest group are adult men, frequently with mental disorders, who commit suicide by hanging themselves. The only suicide method where women are almost on the par with men is drowning (by many authors referred to as death by drowning.

  9. Lysosomal cell death at a glance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aits, Sonja; Jaattela, Marja

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes serve as the cellular recycling centre and are filled with numerous hydrolases that can degrade most cellular macromolecules. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the consequent leakage of the lysosomal content into the cytosol leads to so-called "lysosomal cell death". This form...... of cell death is mainly carried out by the lysosomal cathepsin proteases and can have necrotic, apoptotic or apoptosis-like features depending on the extent of the leakage and the cellular context. This article summarizes our current knowledge on lysosomal cell death with an emphasis on the upstream...... mechanisms that lead to lysosomal membrane permeabilization....

  10. Death representation of caregivers in hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruccioli, Jessica; Russo, Maria Maffia; Bruschi, Angela; Pedrabissi, Luigi; Sarti, Donatella; Monterubbianesi, Maria Cristina; Rossi, Sabina; Rocconi, Sabina; Raffaeli, William

    2012-11-01

    In this study, we investigated caregiver's death representation in hospice. The results presented here are a further analysis of the data collected in our previous study, concerning the evaluation of the caregiver in hospice. The data analysis of 24 caregivers of patients hospitalized in Rimini Hospice (Italy) underlined that caregivers avoiding death representation of the patient admitted to hospice had fewer protective factors (52.3%) and more risk factors (47.7%) than caregivers nonavoiding (66.5% and 33.5%, respectively). Caregivers avoiding death representation, moreover, experienced a greater distress (58%) than those nonavoiding (42%).

  11. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    , which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined....... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death...

  12. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDC WONDER Mortality - Underlying Cause of Death online database is a county-level national mortality and population database spanning the years since 1979. Data...

  13. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2009. Data are based on...

  14. NCHS Data on Drug-poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Explore opportunities to link electronic death records to electronic health records. Develop capacity to support monthly reporting of drug- ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  15. Maternal death and near miss measurement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABEOLUGBENGAS

    2008-05-26

    May 26, 2008 ... Maternal health services need to be accountable more than ever ... of maternal death and near miss audit, surveillance and review is ..... (d) A fundamental principle of these ..... quality assurance in obstetrics in Nigeria - a.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum involvement in yeast cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicanor Austriaco, O.

    2012-01-01

    Yeast cells undergo programed cell death (PCD) with characteristic markers associated with apoptosis in mammalian cells including chromatin breakage, nuclear fragmentation, reactive oxygen species generation, and metacaspase activation. Though significant research has focused on mitochondrial involvement in this phenomenon, more recent work with both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe has also implicated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in yeast PCD. This minireview provides an overview of ER stress-associated cell death (ER-SAD) in yeast. It begins with a description of ER structure and function in yeast before moving to a discussion of ER-SAD in both mammalian and yeast cells. Three examples of yeast cell death associated with the ER will be highlighted here including inositol starvation, lipid toxicity, and the inhibition of N-glycosylation. It closes by suggesting ways to further examine the involvement of the ER in yeast cell death.

  17. Neonatal death dwarfism - a new form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colavita, N.; Kozlowski, K.

    1984-09-01

    A new type of neonatal death dwarfism is reported. Although it resembles superficially the metatropic dysplasia group of diseases it has some distinctive radiographic features which help to delineate it as a separate entity.

  18. Neonatal death dwarfism - a new form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colavita, N.; Kozlowski, K.; Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, Rome

    1984-01-01

    A new type of neonatal death dwarfism is reported. Although it resembles superficially the metatropic dysplasia group of diseases it has some distinctive radiographic features which help to delineate it as a separate entity. (orig.)

  19. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.

  20. Veterans Health Administration Readmissions and Deaths Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of VHA hospitals with data on readmissions and deaths. These data show how often patients who are hospitalized for certain conditions experience serious...

  1. CDC WONDER: Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mortality - Multiple Cause of Death data on CDC WONDER are county-level national mortality and population data spanning the years 1999-2006. These data are...

  2. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases.

  3. Sudden unexpected death associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vibeke; Drostrup, Dorthe Høj; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2007-01-01

    A forensic autopsy study comprising 125 cases was carried out retrospectively in order to evaluate pathological changes in the thyroid gland in different groups of death. The five groups selected consecutively were: (i) opiate addicts who died from an overdose, (ii) alcoholics who died as a result...... of their alcohol abuse, (iii) cases of fatal poisoning other than opiate addicts, (iv) unknown cause of death and (v) controls without prior disease. Tissue samples from the thyroid gland were cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson. Histology examinations were subsequently performed blind...... infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma in five of the 124 cases, of which four belonged in the group of 'unknown cause of death'. This discovery leads to reflections regarding lymphocytic thyroiditis as a cause of death, either by itself or in combination with other disorders. Silent (painless) thyroiditis...

  4. Comet showers and Nemesis, the death star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed

  5. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  6. THE DEATH OF CLEOPATRA 1. INTRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a strikingly musical voice. According to .... Plutarch goes on to say that no snake was found in the room (although a suspicious ... notes that death by snakebite was a recognised (and humane) method of execution in ... MARASCO G. 1995.

  7. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2% within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%. There was a greater proportion (71.8% of causes of death related to Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident and Traumatic Brain Injury caused by motorcycle accident, showing statistically significant difference (p<0.05 regarding the gender, age and location. Conclusion: the Hemorrhagic Cerebral Vascular Accident was the most prevalent cause of notification of brain death and the Intensive Therapy Unit was the most notified venue.

  8. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  9. Students' Opinions on Autopsy and Death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from the case in real life, with fewer ... determination of the cause of death and ... of medical quality control, the autopsy ... monitoring of possible adverse effects. .... In relation to their professional future .... emotionally well-balanced individuals.

  10. Deaths from Adenovirus in the US Military

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Joel Gaydos, science advisor for the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, and Dr. Robert Potter, a research associate for the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, discuss deaths from adenovirus in the US military.

  11. 22 CFR 72.5 - Final report of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final report of death. 72.5 Section 72.5... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.5 Final report of death. (a) Preparation. Except in the case of the death of an active duty member of the United States Armed Forces, when...

  12. 22 CFR 72.4 - Notifications of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notifications of death. 72.4 Section 72.4... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.4 Notifications of death. The... legal representative (if any, and if different from the next of kin), of the death of a United States...

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  14. 22 CFR 72.6 - Report of presumptive death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Report of presumptive death. 72.6 Section 72.6... DEATHS AND ESTATES Reporting Deaths of United States Nationals § 72.6 Report of presumptive death. (a) Local finding. When there is a local finding of presumptive death by a competent local authority, a...

  15. Making death 'good': instructional tales for dying in newspaper accounts of Jade Goody's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Hannah; Raisborough, Jayne; Klein, Orly

    2013-03-01

    Facilitating a 'good' death is a central goal for hospices and palliative care organisations. The key features of such a death include an acceptance of death, an open awareness of and communication about death, the settling of practical and interpersonal business, the reduction of suffering and pain, and the enhancement of autonomy, choice and control. Yet deaths are inherently neither good nor bad; they require cultural labour to be 'made over' as good. Drawing on media accounts of the controversial death of UK reality television star Jade Goody, and building on existing analyses of her death, we examine how cultural discourses actively work to construct deaths as good or bad and to position the dying and those witnessing their death as morally accountable. By constructing Goody as bravely breaking social taboos by openly acknowledging death, by contextualising her dying as occurring at the end of a life well lived and by emphasising biographical continuity and agency, newspaper accounts serve to position themselves as educative rather than exploitative, and readers as information-seekers rather than ghoulishly voyeuristic. We argue that popular culture offers moral instruction in dying well which resonates with the messages from palliative care. © 2012 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2012 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Culture and Death: A multicultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pentaris, Panagiotis

    2011-01-01

    The factor of culture plays a critical role on how people perceive and deal with death, dying and bereavement. Each culture is unique and holds different and authentic beliefs and customs. This literature review will provide information from different cultural backgrounds among the population of Hawaìi regarding death, dying and bereavement (beliefs, customs, rituals, expectations, processes, etc.). The information aims to provide social workers and other helping professionals with appropriat...

  17. Radiation exposure and risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Syozo

    1979-01-01

    By using the risk factor given in ICRP publication 26 and an assumption of linear relationship between risk and dose, death rate and death number which correspond to radiation dose level and collective dose level of Japanese are estimated and they are compared with vital statistics of Japanese in 1975 to get out some ideas about radiation risk relative to the risks of everyday life. (author)

  18. Radiation, nitric oxide and cellular death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubner, D.; Perez, M.R. Del; Michelin, S.C.; Gisone, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms of radiation induced cellular death constitute an objective of research ever since the first biological effects of radiation were first observed. The explosion of information produced in the last 20 years calls for a careful analysis due to the apparent contradictory data related to the cellular system studied and the range of doses used. This review focuses on the role of the active oxygen species, in particular the nitric oxides, in its relevance as potential mediator of radiation induced cellular death

  19. Notification of brain death in the hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Soares de Jesus Souza; Gerlene Grudka Lira; Rachel Mola

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to identifying brain death in the hospital. Methods: it is a cross sectional and quantitative study which analyzed secondary data extracted from the notified brain death registers and from the medical records of the eligible patients. The data were processed and analyzed through descriptive statistics and comparisons. Results: of the 64 cases of notifications, the male gender predominated (67.2%) within the age range from 40 to 59 years (64.1%). There was a greater proportion (71.8...

  20. Cladoceran birth and death rates estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel, Wilfried; Taylor, B. E.; Kirsch-Prokosch, Susanne

    1987-01-01

    I. Birth and death rates of natural cladoceran populations cannot be measured directly. Estimates of these population parameters must be calculated using methods that make assumptions about the form of population growth. These methods generally assume that the population has a stable age distribution. 2. To assess the effect of variable age distributions, we tested six egg ratio methods for estimating birth and death rates with data from thirty-seven laboratory populations of Daphnia puli...

  1. [The issue of death drawn by children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touhami, Fatima; Rizzi, Alice Titia; Moro, Marie Rose

    2016-01-01

    Embracing death and finding the right words to represent it is a dangerous exercise when the death is traumatic and when it remains suspended on emotions and affects. The cross-cultural consultation enables the trauma to be developed and makes room for rituals and words. The children's drawings come to represent the traumatic transfer of the connections and fears, and the need to reconstruct a cultural cocoon. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. Sport and sudden death in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Makarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.

  3. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, W G; Beers, E P; Dangl, J L; Franklin-Tong, V E; Gallois, P; Hara-Nishimura, I; Jones, A M; Kawai-Yamada, M; Lam, E; Mundy, J; Mur, L A J; Petersen, M; Smertenko, A; Taliansky, M; Van Breusegem, F; Wolpert, T; Woltering, E; Zhivotovsky, B; Bozhkov, P V

    2011-08-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during tissue and organ formation and elimination, whereas necrosis is typically found under abiotic stress. Some examples of plant PCD cannot be ascribed to either major class and are therefore classified as separate modalities. These are PCD associated with the hypersensitive response to biotrophic pathogens, which can express features of both necrosis and vacuolar cell death, PCD in starchy cereal endosperm and during self-incompatibility. The present classification is not static, but will be subject to further revision, especially when specific biochemical pathways are better defined.

  4. Sudden cardiac death in children and adolescents (excluding Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death in the young is rare. About 25% of cases occur during sports. Most young people with sudden cardiac death (SCD have underlying heart disease, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and coronary artery anomalies being commonest in most series. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia and long QT syndrome are the most common primary arrhythmic causes of SCD. It is estimated that early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and widespread availability of automatic external defibrillators could prevent about a quarter of pediatric sudden deaths.

  5. Procedures in child deaths in The Netherlands: a comparison with child death review

    OpenAIRE

    Knoeff-Gijzen, Sandra; Petter, Jessica; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Need, Ariana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Child Death Review (CDR) is a method in which every child death is systematically and multidisciplinary examined to (1) improve death statistics, (2) identify factors that give direction for prevention, (3) translate the results into possible interventions, and (4) support families. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent procedures of organizations involved in the (health) care for children in The Netherlands cover these four objectives of CDR. Subject and methods: Organiz...

  6. Sudden Death in Young People--Heart Problems Often Blamed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death in young people: Heart problems often blamed Sudden death in young people is rare, but those at ... causes and treatments. By Mayo Clinic Staff Sudden death in people younger than 35, often due to ...

  7. Can deaths in police cells be prevented? Experience from Norway and death rates in other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasebø, Willy; Orskaug, Gunnar; Erikssen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    To describe the changes in death rates and causes of deaths in Norwegian police cells during the last 2 decades. To review reports on death rates in police cells that have been published in medical journals and elsewhere, and discuss the difficulties of comparing death rates between countries. Data on deaths in Norwegian police cells were collected retrospectively in 2002 and 2012 for two time periods: 1993-2001 (period 1) and 2003-2012 (period 2). Several databases were searched to find reports on deaths in police cells from as many countries as possible. The death rates in Norwegian police cells reduced significantly from 0.83 deaths per year per million inhabitants (DYM) in period 1 to 0.22 DYM in period 2 (p police cells reduced by about 75% over a period of approximately 10 years. This is probably mainly due to individuals with severe alcohol intoxication no longer being placed in police cells. However, there remain large methodology difficulties in comparing deaths rates between countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of death certificate and autopsy diagnoses - Hiroshima. [Cause of death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R S; Anderson, Jr, P S

    1960-09-14

    In this report evaluation of the death certificates has been on the basis of comparison with recorded autopsy diagnoses without review of the latter. An attempt has been made to evaluate limitations inherent in this method. The cases analyzed here represent the ABCC Hiroshima autopsy series from 1949 through 1959. Post mortem examinations on stillbirths and neonatal deaths that were collected during the years 1948 through 1953 were excluded from consideration because such cases are not pertinent to the general problems under study. With this limitation 1304 cases were available for matching. In 139 of these cases the death certificates were not available through the mechanisms of the overall study, so 1165 cases remained. Before comparisons are made the most important questions that must be answered about the materials and methods of the present investigation are: (1) is the autopsy-death certificate series a representative sample of all deaths in the population; (2) are the autopsy diagnoses correct; (3) are the death certificates properly understood and coded; and (4) are biologically meaningful groupings chosen for comparison between autopsy cause of death and death certificate cause of death. Because it is not possible to provide exact answers to all of these questions the doubt that they raise must be admitted but evaluated in the perspective of that part of the answer which is known.

  9. Digital Death in the Age of Narcissism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vrtačič

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Pathological narcissism represents the dominant form of subjectivity in post-industrial society and its consumerist ideals. The fear one feels in connection with one’s death, fear that is typical of pathological narcissism, frequently manifests itself as absolute denial of the idea of a mortal Self. According to Freud, primary narcissism prevents one from imagining or even thinking about one’s own death. In the realm of the Unconscious, death does not exist. Death is absent from cyberspace in much the same manner and in this sense, cyberspace has become a fitting metaphor for the Unconscious. It is pathological narcissism that makes cyberspace and all actions that take place within it possible, reasonable and justifiable. It is what transforms all our cyber-actions into more than merely a waste of time. Upon entering cyberspace the subjects are given the chance to leave their mortality, their corporeity behind and embark upon a journey that offers countless possibilities and realities. Yet they have thus also entered the realm of digital death. The anthropological supposition that culture is our “natural environment” can now, when cyberspace and digital technologies function as a “natural environment” for pathological narcissism, be reconsidered and reinterpreted.

  10. Death Penalty Disposition in China: What Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudu; Longmire, Dennis; Lu, Hong

    2018-01-01

    In theory, sentencing decisions should be driven by legal factors, not extra-legal factors. However, some empirical research on the death penalty in the United States shows significant relationships between offender and victim characteristics and death sentence decisions. Despite the fact that China frequently imposes death sentences, few studies have examined these sanctions to see if similar correlations occur in China's capital cases. Using data from published court cases in China involving three violent crimes-homicide, robbery, and intentional assault-this study examines the net impact of offender's gender, race, and victim-offender relationship on death sentence decisions in China. Our overall multiple regression results indicate that, after controlling for other legal and extra-legal variables, an offender's gender, race, and victim-offender relationship did not produce similar results in China when compared with those in the United States. In contrast, it is the legal factors that played the most significant role in influencing the death penalty decisions. The article concludes with explanations and speculations on the unique social, cultural, and legal conditions in China that may have contributed to these correlations.

  11. 75 deaths in asthmatics prescribed home nebulisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, M R; Rea, H H; Fenwick, J; Gillies, A J; Holst, P E; O'Donnell, T V; Rothwell, R P

    1987-02-21

    The circumstances surrounding the deaths of 75 asthmatic patients who had been prescribed a domiciliary nebuliser driven by an air compressor pump for administration of high dose beta sympathomimetic drugs were investigated as part of the New Zealand national asthma mortality study. Death was judged unavoidable in 19 patients who seemed to have precipitous attacks despite apparently good long term management. Delays in seeking medical help because of overreliance on beta agonist delivered by nebuliser were evident in 12 cases and possible in a further 11, but these represented only 8% of the 271 verified deaths from asthma in New Zealanders aged under 70 during the period. Evidence for direct toxicity of high dose beta agonist was not found. Nevertheless, the absence of serum potassium and theophylline concentrations and of electrocardiographic monitoring in the period immediately preceding death precluded firm conclusions whether arrhythmias might have occurred due to these factors rather than to hypoxia alone. In most patients prescribed domiciliary nebulisers death was associated with deficiencies in long term and short term care similar to those seen in patients without nebulisers. Discretion in prescribing home nebulisers, greater use of other appropriate drugs, including adequate corticosteroids, and careful supervision and instruction of patients taking beta agonist by nebuliser should help to reduce the mortality from asthma.

  12. Donations After Circulatory Death in Liver Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Emre A; Latchana, Nicholas; Beal, Eliza; Hayes, Don; Whitson, Bryan; Black, Sylvester M

    2016-10-01

    The supply of liver grafts for treatment of end-stage liver disease continues to fall short of ongoing demands. Currently, most liver transplants originate from donations after brain death. Enhanced utilization of the present resources is prudent to address the needs of the population. Donation after circulatory or cardiac death is a mechanism whereby the availability of organs can be expanded. Donations after circulatory death pose unique challenges given their exposure to warm ischemia. Technical principles of donations after circulatory death procurement and pertinent studies investigating patient outcomes, graft outcomes, and complications are highlighted in this review. We also review associated risk factors to suggest potential avenues to achieve improved outcomes and reduced complications. Future considerations and alternative techniques of organ preservation are discussed, which may suggest novel strategies to enhance preservation and donor expansion through the use of marginal donors. Ultimately, without effective measures to bolster organ supply, donations after circulatory death should remain a consideration; however, an understanding of inherent risks and limitations is necessary.

  13. Most drug overdose deaths from nonprescription opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC is reporting in Morbidity and Mortality Weekly that the number of people dying from an opioid overdose rose 15.5% from 2014 to 2015, but the increase had little to do with prescription painkillers such as oxycodone or hydrocodone (1. Roughly 52,000 people died from drug overdoses in 2015 and of those deaths 33,091 involved an opioid. The increases in “death rates were driven by synthetic opioids other than methadone (72.2%, most likely illicitly-manufactured fentanyl, and heroin (20.6%”. Deaths from methadone, which is usually prescribed by physicians, decreased 9.1%. The largest increase in deaths occurred in the South and Northeast with 3% and 24% increases in deaths from synthetic opioids from 2014 to 2015. In the Midwest and West, there were more modest 17% and 9% increases during the same period. States in the Southwest with “good” to “excellent” reporting included Colorado, Nevada, and New …

  14. Comparison of outcomes of kidney transplantation from donation after brain death, donation after circulatory death, and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guodong; Wang, Chang; Ko, Dicken Shiu-Chung; Qiu, Jiang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Han, Ming; Wang, Changxi; He, Xiaoshun; Chen, Lizhong

    2017-11-01

    There are three categories of deceased donors of kidney transplantation in China, donation after brain death (DBD), donation after circulatory death (DCD), and donation after brain death followed by circulatory death (DBCD) donors. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of kidney transplantation from these three categories of deceased donors. We retrospectively reviewed 469 recipients who received deceased kidney transplantation in our hospital from February 2007 to June 2015. The recipients were divided into three groups according to the source of their donor kidneys: DBD, DCD, or DBCD. The primary endpoints were delayed graft function (DGF), graft loss, and patient death. The warm ischemia time was much longer in DCD group compared to DBCD group (18.4 minutes vs 12.9 minutes, P < .001). DGF rate was higher in DCD group than in DBD and DBCD groups (22.5% vs 10.2% and 13.8%, respectively, P = .021). Urinary leakage was much higher in DCD group (P = .049). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 1-, 2-, and 3-year patient survivals were all comparable among the three groups. DBCD kidney transplantation has lower incidences of DGF and urinary leakage than DCD kidney transplant. However, the overall patient and graft survival were comparable among DBD, DCD, and DBCD kidney transplantation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Occupational lifting, fetal death and preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocevic, Emina; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the association between occupational lifting during pregnancy and risk of fetal death and preterm birth using a job exposure matrix (JEM). METHODS: For 68,086 occupationally active women in the Danish National Birth Cohort, interview information on occupational lifting...... the JEM. We used Cox regression models with gestational age as underlying time variable and adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: We observed 2,717 fetal deaths and 3,128 preterm births within the study cohort. No exposure-response relation was observed for fetal death, but for women with a prior fetal...... death, we found a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.87 (95% CI 1.37, 6.01) for stillbirth (fetal death ≥22 completed gestational weeks) among those who lifted >200 kg/day. For preterm birth, we found an exposure-response relation for primigravid women, reaching a HR of 1.43 (95% CI 1.13, 1.80) for total loads >200...

  16. Febrile seizures prior to sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stampe, Niels Kjær; Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Febrile seizure (FS) is a common disorder affecting 2-5% of children up to 5 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine whether FS in early childhood are over-represented in young adults dying from sudden cardiac death (SCD). Methods and results: We included all deaths (n = 4595...... with FS was sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (5/8; 62.5%). Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates a significantly two-fold increase in the frequency of FS prior to death in young SCD cases compared with the two control groups, suggesting that FS could potentially contribute in a risk......) nationwide and through review of all death certificates, we identified 245 SCD in Danes aged 1-30 years in 2000-09. Through the usage of nationwide registries, we identified all persons admitted with first FS among SCD cases (14/245; 5.7%) and in the corresponding living Danish population (71 027/2 369 785...

  17. Low-level radiation and cancer deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that although the proportion of cancer deaths among males is somewhat higher for Hanford employees with recorded occupational radiation exposure compared with males in the general population of the State of Washington, there is no indication that radiation is the cause of this difference. Statistics are given for mean doses received and for deaths from cancer and other causes for male employees. It is shown that for each year the mean dose level of those who died from cancer is not significantly different from the mean of those who died from other causes. The mean dose level for the majority of those who died in a specific year is lower than the mean for the survivors in the year of death, in the year preceding the year of death, or in the two years preceding the year of death. This is true whether the mean was for those dying from cancer or from other causes. These relationships are similar for female exposed employees and agree with other similar studies. The latest analysis on longevity of exposed male Hanford employees vs those nonexposed and the out-of-plant controls from date of hire to April 1974 are considered and show no firm indication of any lasting adverse health effects among employees attributable to occupational exposure to radiation within permissible limits. (U.K.)

  18. Factors affecting death at home in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, C; Tsuji, I; Li, J H; Hosokawa, T; Fukao, A; Hisamichi, S

    1996-10-01

    Despite the wish of the Japanese people to spend their final moments at home, the percentage of deaths at home among elderly is decreasing. Moreover, large variations in this rate were observed over the country. The present ecological study analyzed the relationship between the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over, and demographic, medical and socioeconomic characteristics. The data published in 1990 by the Japanese National Government were analyzed by correlation, principal-component, and multiple linear regression analyses. The results showed that the percentage of deaths at home for decedents aged 70 and over was positively associated with the number of persons per household, and the area of floor space per house. The divorce rate, the national tax per capita, and the mean length of hospitalization for stroke showed a negative association with the percentage of deaths at home. In the prefectures where the crude death rates of stroke and senility were high, elderly were more likely to die at home. These results suggested the importance of the number of family caregivers, and the housing conditions for terminal care at home. This research may lead to improve home medical assistance which is still underdeveloped in Japan.

  19. Climate change, weather and road deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Leon

    2018-06-01

    In 2015, a 7% increase in road deaths per population in the USA reversed the 35-year downward trend. Here I test the hypothesis that weather influenced the change in trend. I used linear regression to estimate the effect of temperature and precipitation on miles driven per capita in urbanizedurbanised areas of the USA during 2010. I matched date and county of death with temperature on that date and number of people exposed to that temperature to calculate the risk per persons exposed to specific temperatures. I employed logistic regression analysis of temperature, precipitation and other risk factors prevalent in 2014 to project expected deaths in 2015 among the 100 most populous counties in the USA. Comparison of actual and projected deaths provided an estimate of deaths expected without the temperature increase. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Uncovering the 2010 Haiti earthquake death toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, J. E.; Khazai, B.; Wenzel, F.

    2013-05-01

    Casualties are estimated for the 12 January 2010 earthquake in Haiti using various reports calibrated by observed building damage states from satellite imagery and reconnaissance reports on the ground. By investigating various damage reports, casualty estimates and burial figures, for a one year period from 12 January 2010 until 12 January 2011, there is also strong evidence that the official government figures of 316 000 total dead and missing, reported to have been caused by the earthquake, are significantly overestimated. The authors have examined damage and casualties report to arrive at their estimation that the median death toll is less than half of this value (±137 000). The authors show through a study of historical earthquake death tolls, that overestimates of earthquake death tolls occur in many cases, and is not unique to Haiti. As death toll is one of the key elements for determining the amount of aid and reconstruction funds that will be mobilized, scientific means to estimate death tolls should be applied. Studies of international aid in recent natural disasters reveal that large distributions of aid which do not match the respective needs may cause oversupply of help, aggravate corruption and social disruption rather than reduce them, and lead to distrust within the donor community.

  1. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Brannelly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection.

  2. A 'beautiful death': mortality, death, and holidays in a Mexican municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilches-Gutiérrez, José L; Arenas-Monreal, Luz; Paulo-Maya, Alfredo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Idrovo, Alvaro J

    2012-03-01

    Several studies have reported increased mortality during holidays. Using a cultural epidemiological, sequential mixed-methods approach, this study explored holiday-related trends using mortality data from Yautepec (Morelos, Mexico) collected between 1986 and 2008 (N=5027 deaths). This analysis found that mortality increased on Christmas Day and All Saints' Day. Mortality increased on Candlemas Day among women, and increased on New Year's Day among men. More deaths caused by cardiovascular disease among women and traumatic injuries among men occurred during holidays than in non-holiday periods. To ascertain the elements comprising the health/illness/death process in the context of a holiday in this municipality, we conducted semi-structured interviews in March and April 2009 with relatives of seven individuals who had died during holidays in the previous 4 years (N=11); data from these interviews were analyzed from a grounded theory perspective to ascertain common conceptual themes. The "beautiful death" emerged as the main concept in the interpretation of death; this concept was related to the expectation of a good death and the particularly special nature of death during a holiday because of the involvement of religious entities, such as God, the Virgin Mary, and/or a saint, at the moment of death. Quantitative and qualitative results provided information about the important effects of holidays, culture, and religious belief on mortality patterns within a Mexican context, and contributed to a better understanding of the relationships among mortality, the nature of death, and holidays. Our results suggest that, in the studied region, death can be interpreted as a "beautiful process". More research is needed to explore this process in other similar contexts and to address topics related to the care and attention given the dying person and the expectation of a good death. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Death and consciousness--an overview of the mental and cognitive experience of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnia, Sam

    2014-11-01

    Advances in resuscitation science have indicated that, contrary to perception, death by cardiorespiratory criteria can no longer be considered a specific moment but rather a potentially reversible process that occurs after any severe illness or accident causes the heart, lungs, and brain to stop functioning. The resultant loss of vital signs of life (and life processes) is used to declare a specific time of death by physicians globally. When medical attempts are made to reverse this process, it is commonly referred to as cardiac arrest; however, when these attempts do not succeed or when attempts are not made, it is called death by cardiorespiratory criteria. Thus, biologically speaking, cardiac arrest and death by cardiorespiratory criteria are synonymous. While resuscitation science has provided novel opportunities to reverse death by cardiorespiratory criteria and treat the potentially devastating consequences of the resultant postresuscitation syndrome, it has also inadvertently provided intriguing insights into the likely mental and cognitive experience of death. Recollections reported by millions of people in relation to death, so-called out-of-body experiences (OBEs) or near-death experiences (NDEs), are often-discussed phenomena that are frequently considered hallucinatory or illusory in nature; however, objective studies on these experiences are limited. To date, many consistent themes corresponding to the likely experience of death have emerged, and studies have indicated that the scientifically imprecise terms of NDE and OBE may not be sufficient to describe the actual experience of death. While much remains to be discovered, the recalled experience surrounding death merits a genuine scientific investigation without prejudice. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. A Response to the Legitimacy of Brain Death in Islam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rady, Mohamed Y; Verheijde, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Brain death is a novel construct of death for the procurement of transplantable organs. Many authoritative Islamic organizations and governments have endorsed brain death as true death for organ donation. Many commentators have reiterated the misconception that the Quranic text does not define death. We respond by clarifying: (1) the Quran does define death as biologic disintegration and clearly distinguishes it from the dying process, (2) brain death belongs scientifically within the spectrum of neurologic disorders of consciousness and should not be confused with death, and (3) religious and legal discord about brain death has grown in jurisdictions worldwide. We urge for public transparency and truthfulness about brain death and the accommodation and respect of religious objection to the determination of death by neurologic criteria.

  5. Cell death in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, J.S.; Thompson, L.S.; James, S.

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms often develop multicellular, three-dimensional structures known as microcolonies. Complex differentiation within biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs, leading to the creation of voids inside microcolonies and to the dispersal of cells from within these voids....... However, key developmental processes regulating these events are poorly understood. A normal component of multicellular development is cell death. Here we report that a repeatable pattern of cell death and lysis occurs in biofilms of P. aeruginosa during the normal course of development. Cell death...... occurred with temporal and spatial organization within biofilms, inside microcolonies, when the biofilms were allowed to develop in continuous-culture flow cells. A subpopulation of viable cells was always observed in these regions. During the onset of biofilm killing and during biofilm development...

  6. Causes of death in familial adenomatous polyposis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, T S; Juel, K; Bülow, S

    1999-01-01

    The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due to du...... to duodenal/periampullary cancer and desmoid tumours. The aim of this study was to examine the causes of death with special emphasis on duodenal/periampullary cancer.......The prognosis in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) has improved over the past decades owing to a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer, resulting from effective early screening. During the same period several polyposis registers have recorded an increasing number of deaths due...

  7. Cultural perspectives of death, grief, and bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Paul T; Vigil, Gloria J; Manno, Martin S; Henry, Gloria C; Wilks, Jonathan; Das Sarthak; Kellywood, Rosie; Foster, Wil

    2003-07-01

    The cultural makeup of the United States continues to change rapidly, and as minority groups continue to grow, these groups' beliefs and customs must be taken into account when examining death, grief, and bereavement. This article discusses the beliefs, customs, and rituals of Latino, African American, Navajo, Jewish, and Hindu groups to raise awareness of the differences health care professionals may encounter among their grieving clients. Discussion of this small sample of minority groups in the United States is not intended to cover all of the degrees of acculturation within each group. Cultural groups are not homogeneous, and individual variation must always be considered in situations of death, grief, and bereavement. However, because the customs, rituals, and beliefs of the groups to which they belong affect individuals' experiences of death, grief, and bereavement, health care professionals need to be open to learning about them to better understand and help.

  8. Death following intravascular administration of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehadi, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Adverse reactions to intravascularly administered contrast media preceding death and the autopsy findings in 44 patients are presented. There is a wide scatter of the age distribution of fatal reactions. The highest incidence is in the 50-70 year age group. Similar observations were obtained from the 405 deaths due to contrast media reported to the Food and Drug Administration of the United States. In the same age group the number of reactions is highest, likewise the autopsy findings. The predominant autopsy findings are pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage; arteriosclerosis, both general and coronary. In the younger age group the autopsy findings are limited mostly to the respiratory tract. Fatal reactions to contrast media occur often without warning and most deaths occur within 15 min to 6 hours. Reactions to contrast media occur without relation to sex or age. (orig.)

  9. The regulation of apoptotic cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarante-Mendes G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a fundamental biological phenomenon in which the death of a cell is genetically and biochemically regulated. Different molecules are involved in the regulation of the apoptotic process. Death receptors, coupled to distinct members of the caspases as well as other adapter molecules, are involved in the initiation of the stress signals (The Indictment. Members of the Bcl-2 family control at the mitochondrial level the decision between life and death (The Judgement. The effector caspases are responsible for all morphological and biochemical changes related to apoptosis including the "eat-me" signals perceived by phagocytes and neighboring cells (The Execution. Finally, apoptosis would have little biological significance without the recognition and removal of the dying cells (The Burial.

  10. [Transcending death:the search for eternity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, C

    1999-09-01

    In a society characterized by the denial of old age and death, people are not satisfied with the mere promise of a hypothetical immortal life in the future. They value beauty, youth and high performance and consider aging an anomaly or random misfortune that can be avoided. To this end, people focus on making their bodies immortal here and now, and on living as if they were never going to die. The race for power and personal empowerment, compulsive consumption, and escape into the virtual world all go on as though death does not exist. Although this approach to living can sometimes give people a feeling of omnipotence, even immortality, we still cannot escape our mortality. The two extremes of existence--birth and death--are seen as medical problems that science and technology can solve.

  11. Social inequality and death as illustrated in late-medieval death dances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractLate-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death

  12. Molecular mechanisms of cell death: recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Vitale, Ilio; Aaronson, Stuart A.; Abrams, John M.; Adam, Dieter; Agostinis, Patrizia; Alnemri, Emad S.; Altucci, Lucia; Amelio, Ivano; Andrews, David W.; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Antonov, Alexey V.; Arama, Eli; Baehrecke, Eric H.; Barlev, Nickolai A.; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Bernassola, Francesca; Bertrand, Mathieu J. M.; Bianchi, Katiuscia; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.; Blomgren, Klas; Borner, Christoph; Boya, Patricia; Brenner, Catherine; Campanella, Michelangelo; Candi, Eleonora; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Cecconi, Francesco; Chan, Francis K.-M.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Cheng, Emily H.; Chipuk, Jerry E.; Cidlowski, John A.; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M.; Conrad, Marcus; Cubillos-Ruiz, Juan R.; Czabotar, Peter E.; D'Angiolella, Vincenzo; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.; de Laurenzi, Vincenzo; de Maria, Ruggero; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Deshmukh, Mohanish; Di Daniele, Nicola; Di Virgilio, Francesco; Dixit, Vishva M.; Dixon, Scott J.; Duckett, Colin S.; Dynlacht, Brian D.; El-Deiry, Wafik S.; Elrod, John W.; Fimia, Gian Maria; Fulda, Simone; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Garg, Abhishek D.; Garrido, Carmen; Gavathiotis, Evripidis; Golstein, Pierre; Gottlieb, Eyal; Green, Douglas R.; Greene, Lloyd A.; Gronemeyer, Hinrich; Gross, Atan; Hajnoczky, Gyorgy; Hardwick, J. Marie; Harris, Isaac S.; Hengartner, Michael O.; Hetz, Claudio; Ichijo, Hidenori; Jäättelä, Marja; Joseph, Bertrand; Jost, Philipp J.; Juin, Philippe P.; Kaiser, William J.; Karin, Michael; Kaufmann, Thomas; Kepp, Oliver; Kimchi, Adi; Kitsis, Richard N.; Klionsky, Daniel J.; Knight, Richard A.; Kumar, Sharad; Lee, Sam W.; Lemasters, John J.; Levine, Beth; Linkermann, Andreas; Lipton, Stuart A.; Lockshin, Richard A.; López-Otín, Carlos; Lowe, Scott W.; Luedde, Tom; Lugli, Enrico; MacFarlane, Marion; Madeo, Frank; Malewicz, Michal; Malorni, Walter; Manic, Gwenola; Marine, Jean-Christophe; Martin, Seamus J.; Martinou, Jean-Claude; Medema, Jan Paul; Mehlen, Patrick; Meier, Pascal; Melino, Sonia; Miao, Edward A.; Molkentin, Jeffery D.; Moll, Ute M.; Muñoz-Pinedo, Cristina; Nagata, Shigekazu; Nuñez, Gabriel; Oberst, Andrew; Oren, Moshe; Overholtzer, Michael; Pagano, Michele; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pasparakis, Manolis; Penninger, Josef M.; Pereira, David M.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Peter, Marcus E.; Piacentini, Mauro; Pinton, Paolo; Prehn, Jochen H. M.; Puthalakath, Hamsa; Rabinovich, Gabriel A.; Rehm, Markus; Rizzuto, Rosario; Rodrigues, Cecilia M. P.; Rubinsztein, David C.; Rudel, Thomas; Ryan, Kevin M.; Sayan, Emre; Scorrano, Luca; Shao, Feng; Shi, Yufang; Silke, John; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Sistigu, Antonella; Stockwell, Brent R.; Strasser, Andreas; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Tait, Stephen W. G.; Tang, Daolin; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Thorburn, Andrew; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Turk, Boris; Vanden Berghe, Tom; Vandenabeele, Peter; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.; Villunger, Andreas; Virgin, Herbert W.; Vousden, Karen H.; Vucic, Domagoj; Wagner, Erwin F.; Walczak, Henning; Wallach, David; Wang, Ying; Wells, James A.; Wood, Will; Yuan, Junying; Zakeri, Zahra; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Zitvogel, Laurence; Melino, Gerry; Kroemer, Guido

    2018-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell

  13. Capturing deaths not informed to the Ministry of Health: proactive search of deaths in Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Lima, Raquel Barbosa de; Rabello, Dácio de Lyra; Escalante, Juan José Cortez

    2017-01-01

    The proactive search of deaths is a strategy for capturing events that were not informed to the Mortality Information System of Ministry of Health. Its importance to reduce underreporting of deaths and to evaluate the operation of the information system is widely known. To describe the methodology and main findings of the Proactive Search of Deaths, 2013, establishing the contribution of different information sources. The research was carried out in 79 Brazilian municipalities. We investigated several official and unofficial sources of information about deaths of municipality residents. Every information source investigated and all cases found in each source were typed in an on-line panel. The second stage of the research was the confirmation of cases to verify information of year and residence and to complete missing information. For all confirmed cases, we estimated the completeness of death registration and correction factors according to the adequacy level of mortality information. We found 2,265 deaths that were not informed to the Mortality Information System. From those, 49.3% were found in unofficial sources, cemeteries and funeral homes. In some rural municipalities, precarious burial conditions were found in cemeteries in the middle of the forest and no registration of the deceased. Correction factors were inversely associated to the adequacy level of mortality information. The findings confirm the association between level of information adequacy and completeness of death registration, and indicate that the application of the proactive search is an effective method to capture deaths not informed to the Ministry of Health.

  14. Lung cancer death rates fall, helping drive decrease in overall cancer death rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, covering the period 1975–2010, showed death rates for lung cancer, which accounts for more than one in four cancer deaths, dropping at a faster pace than in previous years.

  15. [Ill-defined causes of death and unattended deaths, Brazil, 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Augusto Hasiak

    2008-01-01

    We studied the distribution of deaths from ill-defined causes that occurred in Brazil during 2003, from which was identified the proportion of unattended deaths. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System, coordinated by the Ministry of Health. Causes of death included in "Chapter XVIII - Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not classified elsewhere" of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, tenth revision, were considered ill-defined, among which the category R98 identified "unattended deaths". In Brazil during 2003 the underlying causes of 13.3% of deaths were included in the Chapter of ill-defined causes, and the highest proportions of these deaths occurred in the Northeast and North Regions. Considering the total deaths from ill-defined causes, 53 % correspond to unattended deaths. This proportion increased to over 70% in the states of Maranhão, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Pernambuco, Bahia, Paraíba and Alagoas. Due to the decentralized structure of data collection in the country, we believe that the municipalities bear the major responsibility, followed by the states, for upgrading the quality of mortality statistics.

  16. Effects of intracellular iron overload on cell death and identification of potent cell death inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shenglin; Yu, Xiaonan; Ding, Haoxuan; Han, Jianan; Feng, Jie

    2018-06-11

    Iron overload causes many diseases, while the underlying etiologies of these diseases are unclear. Cell death processes including apoptosis, necroptosis, cyclophilin D-(CypD)-dependent necrosis and a recently described additional form of regulated cell death called ferroptosis, are dependent on iron or iron-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether the accumulation of intracellular iron itself induces ferroptosis or other forms of cell death is largely elusive. In present study, we study the role of intracellular iron overload itself-induced cell death mechanisms by using ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) and a membrane-permeable Ferric 8-hydroxyquinoline complex (Fe-8HQ) respectively. We show that FAC-induced intracellular iron overload causes ferroptosis. We also identify 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1) inhibitor GSK2334470 as a potent ferroptosis inhibitor. Whereas, Fe-8HQ-induced intracellular iron overload causes unregulated necrosis, but partially activates PARP-1 dependent parthanatos. Interestingly, we identify many phenolic compounds as potent inhibitors of Fe-8HQ-induced cell death. In conclusion, intracellular iron overload-induced cell death form might be dependent on the intracellular iron accumulation rate, newly identified cell death inhibitors in our study that target ferroptosis and unregulated oxidative cell death represent potential therapeutic strategies against iron overload related diseases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Outcome of pancreas transplantation from donation after circulatory death compared to donation after brain death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Ellen S.; Krikke, Christina; Hofker, Hendrik S.; Berger, Stefan P.; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Pol, Robert A.

    Introduction: To overcome the gap of organ shortage grafts from donation after circulatory death (DCD) can be used. This review evaluates the outcomes after DCD pancreas donation compared to donation after brain death (DBD). Materials and methods: A literature search was performed using Medline,

  18. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  19. Physical Death in the Digital Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotved, Stine

    2016-01-01

    the physical death of an individual), the digital possibilities in the different stages are presented. They range from the need for being prepared to the intricate questions of digital assets and inheritance, from the service of online undertakers to the shared memorials on social network sites. The truely......As the physical life is intrisically connected with online services and digital social networks, so is the physical death. This chapter describes the last journey, from the reluctant planning to the digital manifestations afterwards. Using a simple timelime (before, just around, and after...

  20. Exactly solvable birth and death processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Ryu

    2009-01-01

    Many examples of exactly solvable birth and death processes, a typical stationary Markov chain, are presented together with the explicit expressions of the transition probabilities. They are derived by similarity transforming exactly solvable 'matrix' quantum mechanics, which is recently proposed by Odake and the author [S. Odake and R. Sasaki, J. Math. Phys. 49, 053503 (2008)]. The (q-) Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a discrete variable and their dual polynomials play a central role. The most generic solvable birth/death rates are rational functions of q x (with x being the population) corresponding to the q-Racah polynomial.

  1. Cardiovascular death and manic-depressive psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weeke, A; Juel, K; Vaeth, M

    2013-01-01

    In order to study if tricyclic antidepressant drugs (TCA) in therapeutic doses increase the risk of death due to cardiovascular causes, the relative mortality from cardiovascular diseases was studied in two large groups of first hospitalized manic-depressive patients, one from the TCA era...... to the general population. Among 1133 such cases admitted between 1950 and 1956, the rate was 1.87. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that TCA contribute to the cardiovascular mortality in manic-depressives and even support suggestions that TCA treatment may lower the risk of death by cardiovascular...

  2. Intertwining of birth-and-death processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-14 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Intertwining of Markov processes * birth and death process * averaged Markov process * first passage time * coupling * eigenvalues Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/swart-intertwining of birth-and- death processes.pdf

  3. Assessment of age at death by microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Frohlich, Bruno; Thomsen, Jørgen L

    2006-01-01

    The microscopic method of age at death determination was introduced by Kerley in 1965 [E.R. Kerley, The microscopic determination of age in human bone, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol, 23 (1965) 149-163.]. However, even though the method has been revised several times, there remain some fundamental issues...... the regions of interest, as well as for dealing with border phenomena, and we only counted secondary osteons. Our results show a statistically significant increase in the median number of osteons per area unit with increasing age at death. However, this was after exclusion of one outlier. This result...

  4. Inducible cell death in plant immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofius, Daniel; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2006-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs during vegetative and reproductive plant growth, as typified by autumnal leaf senescence and the terminal differentiation of the endosperm of cereals which provide our major source of food. PCD also occurs in response to environmental stress and pathogen attack......, and these inducible PCD forms are intensively studied due their experimental tractability. In general, evidence exists for plant cell death pathways which have similarities to the apoptotic, autophagic and necrotic forms described in yeast and metazoans. Recent research aiming to understand these pathways...

  5. Life and death in Kardecist Spiritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses from an anthropological perspective how Brazilian Spiritism resignifies the current notions of life and death, comparing the notion of reincarnation with the Christian and Catholic notion of purgatory. The search for understanding of the processes of identity construction in this religious system leads to the examination of the notions of reincarnation, karma, evolution, mediumship and probation, which are central to Kardecian cosmology. With this active set of notions, Spiritism proposes a rich set of perspectives about the self, and simultaneously graduates and softens the otherness of death.

  6. Concept of death in young people with intellectual disability: a contribution to the pedagogy on death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo RODRÍGUEZ HERRERO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite being an essential human condition, death is an under-researched area in the effort to improve people with intellectual disabilities’ life quality. In this article we describe the concept of death among young people with intellectual disabilities. A mixed research methodology that includes quantitative and qualitative approaches was employed, including both a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Results indicate that participants have difficulty understanding of biological dimensions of death. Moreover, it has been found that participants present a wide range of opinions, attitudes and beliefs about death. Conclusions reflect on implications of these results for a possible pedagogy on death in young adults that would include accompaniment during bereavement.

  7. An examination of pregnancy- related deaths among adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maternal deaths (direct maternal causes of death) and pregnancy- related deaths (all deaths including ... The study was set in SA, where adolescent pregnancies are high and generally .... reported sexual behaviours of youth, it was found that termination .... engagement and education, especially among adolescents, could.

  8. Death and Dying as a Controversial Issue in Health Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Robert D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Various perspectives on the inclusion of death education in health education curricula are offered. Discussed are: (1) positive and negative attitudes toward death; (2) teacher competence, qualifications, and skills; (3) religious beliefs about death; (4) Kubler-Ross's Five Stages of Dying; and (5) political implications of teaching about death.…

  9. Thinking about death in the poetry of Fereidoun Moshiri | Bassak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... generous and paved the way for regret of bad people. Death is as Moshiri says death is a solution for leaving life problems behind and to reach to eternal relaxation. Not only he consider it disgusting but also he regards it calm. Keywords: Fereidoun Moshiri, poem divan, death ideology, phobia, world and after death life ...

  10. Defining death: organ transplants, tradition and technology in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, E A

    1988-01-01

    This article explores Japanese attitudes about brain death and organ transplantation. First, ancient burial customs and death-related rituals associated with Shinto and Buddhism are examined. Next, contemporary attitudes towards the dead are discussed in the context of current controversies surrounding brain death and organ transplantation. Finally, an attempt is made to link the traditional Japanese views of death with modern medical dilemmas.

  11. Volatile substance misuse deaths in Washington State, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiander, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Volatile substance misuse (VSM - also known as huffing or sniffing) causes some deaths, but because there are no specific cause-of-death codes for VSM, these deaths are rarely tabulated. Count and describe VSM deaths occurring in Washington State during 2003-2012. We used the textual cause-of-death information on death certificates to count VSM-associated deaths that occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. We extracted records that contained words suggesting either a method of inhalation or a substance commonly used for VSM, and reviewed those records to identify deaths on which the inhalation of a volatile substance was mentioned. We conducted a descriptive analysis of those deaths. Fifty-six deaths involving VSM occurred in Washington State during 2003-2012. VSM deaths occurred primarily among adults age 20 and over (91%), males (88%), and whites (93%). Twelve different chemicals were associated with deaths, but 1 of them, difluoroethane, was named on 30 death certificates (54%), and its involvement increased during the study period. Gas duster products were named as the source of difluoroethane for 12 deaths; no source was named for the other 18 difluoroethane deaths. Most VSM deaths occurred among white male adults, and gas duster products containing difluoroethane were the primary source of inhalants. Approaches to deter VSM, such as the addition of bitterants to gas dusters, should be explored.

  12. 38 CFR 3.312 - Cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cause of death. 3.312... Cause of death. (a) General. The death of a veteran will be considered as having been due to a service... contributory cause of death. The issue involved will be determined by exercise of sound judgment, without...

  13. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a certain...

  14. Separation from Loved Ones in the Fear of Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Debra M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals' death anxiety or fear of death has been extensively investigated, and there are numerous conceptualizations used in the literature, including a distinction between the dimensions of death and dying of self, and death and dying of others. This article addresses a gap in the literature and re-examines the relationship between these two…

  15. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person, we...

  16. 28 CFR 301.302 - Work-related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the deceased...

  17. What Is Happy Death? From the Perspective of Happiness Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2018-01-01

    This paper is to review what is happy death from the perspective of happiness education. To discuss this study logically, four research questions are addressed. First, what is the concept of human death? Second, what are life and death from the Eastern and the Western religious viewpoints? Third, what is happy death in terms of happiness…

  18. "Our Guinea Pig Is Dead!" Young Children Cope with Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Nita Davison

    1999-01-01

    Describes how children develop a concept of death, and presents suggestions for classroom experiences to help young children cope with death. Considers children's attendance at funerals and how to answer children's questions about death. Lists 14 children's books about death. (KB)

  19. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrigan, M.T., E-mail: martinarrigan@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Killeen, R.P. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Dodd, J.D. [Department of Radiology, St Vincent' s University Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Torreggiani, W.C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath Hospital incorporating the National Children' s Hospital, Dublin (Ireland)

    2011-03-15

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  20. anaesthetic registrars' experiences of perioperative death

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Death on the table: anaesthetic registrars' experiences of perioperative ... aDepartment of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa ... Results: Themes expressed by participants fell into three broad categories: ... number (up to 70%) of anaesthetists report experiencing adverse.

  1. Reducing deaths in single vehicle collisions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    A third of road deaths in the EU are caused by collisions that involve a single motorised vehicle where the driver, rider and/or passengers are killed but no other road users are involved. These single vehicle collisions (SVCs), and how to prevent them occurring, are the subject of this report.

  2. Drosophila Ninjurin A induces nonapoptotic cell death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Broderick

    Full Text Available Ninjurins are conserved transmembrane proteins that are upregulated across species in response to injury and stress. Their biological functions are not understood, in part because there have been few in vivo studies of their function. We analyzed the expression and function of one of three Drosophila Ninjurins, NijA. We found that NijA protein is redistributed to the cell surface in larval immune tissues after septic injury and is upregulated by the Toll pathway. We generated a null mutant of NijA, which displayed no detectable phenotype. In ectopic expression studies, NijA induced cell death, as evidenced by cell loss and acridine orange staining. These dying cells did not display hallmarks of apoptotic cells including TUNEL staining and inhibition by p35, indicating that NijA induced nonapoptotic cell death. In cell culture, NijA also induced cell death, which appeared to be cell autonomous. These in vivo studies identify a new role for the Ninjurin family in inducing nonapoptotic cell death.

  3. Death ends a life, not a relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In the final chapter, “Death Ends a Life, not a Relationship: objects as media on children’s graves”, Dorthe Refslund Christensen and Kjetil Sandvik investigate the relational affordances offered by objects as media in practices of death and commemoration on children’s graves. The authors argue t...... – mirrored in online memorial sites – that transform the dead child into a being with whom an altered relationship may be built, maintained and developed so that the bereaved can, eventually, integrate the dead into his or her ongoing life.......In the final chapter, “Death Ends a Life, not a Relationship: objects as media on children’s graves”, Dorthe Refslund Christensen and Kjetil Sandvik investigate the relational affordances offered by objects as media in practices of death and commemoration on children’s graves. The authors argue...... that when it comes to bereavement practices as they materialize on children’s graves, it is the accommodation and decoration of the grave itself that function as media with their variety of physical objects as ritual and relational tools for communication. The bereaved perform practices on children’s graves...

  4. Forensic investigation of medical treatment related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Joseph E; Ranson, David L; O'Brien, Adam; Charles, Amanda; Young, Carmel

    2009-04-01

    Patients suffer preventable harm from their medical treatment. The traditional approaches to investigating medical treatment related deaths are the 'hospital mortality audit' and legal or coroners investigation. The aim is to describe how the patient safety movement in the late 1990s is changing traditional approaches to the investigation. The prevention of medical treatment related death involves an investigation as one of five major stages. These are Stage I Preparedness; Stage II Recognition and reporting; Stage III Investigation and analysis; Stage IV Findings and recommendations; and Stage V Response. The influence of the patient safety approach is considered at each stage with a particular focus on Stage I. It is at this stage that the concepts of clinical governance, culture and systems of care have a major influence on the nature of an investigation. The genesis of the modern forensic investigation into medical treatment related deaths in Victoria, Australia is described. The formation of the Clinical Liaison Service incorporates concepts from the patient safety approach with clinical staff to transform the traditional Coroner's investigation. Benefits of a modern forensic investigation include improving appropriateness of cases proceeding to investigation and a focus on prevention. Achieving a reduction in medical treatment related death requires substantial shifts towards an approach consistent with the patient safety.

  5. Psychiatric reflections on the death penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Louis Jolyon

    1975-07-01

    Capital punishment is outdated, immoral, wasteful, cruel, brutalizing, unfair, irrevocable, useless, dangerous, and obstructive to justice. In addition, psychiatric observations reveal that it generates disease through the torture of death row; it perverts the identity of physicians from trials to prison wards to executions; and, paradoxically, it breeds more murder than it deters.

  6. Nanomaterials Toxicity and Cell Death Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela De Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the nanotechnology advancement has developed a plethora of novel and intriguing nanomaterial application in many sectors, including research and medicine. However, many risks have been highlighted in their use, particularly related to their unexpected toxicity in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This paper proposes an overview concerning the cell death modalities induced by the major nanomaterials.

  7. Death metaphors in Korean undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."

  8. Nursing care after death in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-06-30

    Essential facts According to the Registrar General Annual Report published in August 2016 there were 15,548 deaths in Northern Ireland in 2015, with almost two thirds being of people aged 75 or more. Almost half (48%) occurred in NHS hospitals, with a further 20% in other hospitals or nursing homes.

  9. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.; Franklin-Tong, V.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about the

  10. Near-death experiences : A theological interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goris, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Stories about near-death experiences (NDEs) draw much attention from the general public and are extensively discussed by medical doctors and neuroscientists. However, though eschatology belongs to their core business, only few theologians participate in the debate. This article proposes a

  11. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Arrigan, M T

    2012-02-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  12. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  13. Febrile convulsions and sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Basso, Olga; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and febrile convulsions are related aetiologically. We compared the risk of SIDS in 9877 siblings of children who had had febrile convulsions with that of 20.177 siblings of children who had never had febrile convulsions. We found...

  14. The birth and death of a universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, H.M. [Brown University, Department of Physics, Providence, RI (United States); Gabellini, Y. [Institut Non Lineaire de Nice, UMR 7335 CNRS, Valbonne (France)

    2016-12-15

    This letter is meant to be a brief survey of several recent publications providing a simple, sequential explanation of dark energy, inflation, and dark matter. These paragraphs lead to an intuitive and qualitative picture of the why and the how of the Big Bang, and thence to a possible understanding of the birth and death of a universe. (orig.)

  15. Imaging spectrum of sudden athlete cardiac death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrigan, M.T.; Killeen, R.P.; Dodd, J.D.; Torreggiani, W.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sudden athlete death (SAD) is a widely publicized and increasingly reported phenomenon. For many, the athlete population epitomize human physical endeavour and achievement and their unexpected death comes with a significant emotional impact on the public. Sudden deaths within this group are often without prior warning. Preceding symptoms of exertional syncope and chest pain do, however, occur and warrant investigation. Similarly, a positive family history of sudden death in a young person or a known family history of a condition associated with SAD necessitates further tests. Screening programmes aimed at detecting those at risk individuals also exist with the aim of reducing fatalities. In this paper we review the topic of SAD and discuss the epidemiology, aetiology, and clinical presentations. We then proceed to discuss each underlying cause, in turn discussing the pathophysiology of each condition. This is followed by a discussion of useful imaging methods with an emphasis on cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac computed tomography and how these address the various issues raised by the pathophysiology of each entity. We conclude by proposing imaging algorithms for the investigation of patients considered at risk for these conditions and discuss the various issues raised in screening.

  16. Life after Death. Sperm, Property, and Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Willum Adrian, Stine

    A tragic workplace accident led in 2010 to the death of Mark Edwards. Subsequently, his wife Joycelyn Edwards requested for the New South Wales Superior Court´s permission to extract sperm posthumous from her husband. She got the permission and one year later, the Court decided to grant her acces...

  17. Disability occurrence and proximity to death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, Bart; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to assess whether disability occurrence is related more strongly to proximity to death than to age. Method. Self reported disability and vital status were available from six annual waves and a subsequent 12-year mortality follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE longitudinal study.

  18. Physical manifestation of death in Macbeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Murders, wars, blood, severed heads, natural disasters, but also supernatural phenomena such as ghosts, witches, and prophecies dominate Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth. If we consider the abundance of images of darkness, fear, and nightmares too, it is difficult to resist the impression that the apocalyptic threat is over Scotland and implicitly over the whole world if it is ruled by a tyrant's hand. Death as a phenomenon is omnipresent in Macbeth: physically and metaphysically, realistically and symbolically, explicitly and implicitly. The author of this paper will focus more on those explicit and physical images of death than on metaphysical ones, in order to emphasize their importance in creating the atmosphere of destruction and hell in this tragedy. The paper will attempt to discover the purpose of these images in the tragic course of the action, since the mere accumulation of the terrible scenes of death is a characteristic dramatic convention for melodramas, which Macbeth certainly is not. On the contrary, the diverse macabre images of death in Macbeth are in the function of the tragic pathos and the characterization of the protagonists.

  19. Sudden Oak Death - Eastern (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke; Steve Oak; Bruce Moltzan

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, Phytophthora ramorum. On these hosts, the fungus causes a bleeding canker on...

  20. Deaths from homicides: a historical series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Flávia Azevedo de Mattos Moura; da Trindade, Ruth França Cizino; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2014-01-01

    to describe mortality from homicides in Itabuna, in the State of Bahia. study with hybrid, ecological and time-trend design. The mortality coefficients per 1,000 inhabitants, adjusted by the direct technique, proportional mortality by sex and age range, and Potential Years of Life Lost were all calculated. since 2005, the external causes have moved from third to second most-common cause of death, with homicides being responsible for the increase. In the 13 years analyzed, homicides have risen 203%, with 94% of these deaths occurring among the male population. Within this group, the growth occurred mainly in the age range from 15 to 29 years of age. It was ascertained that 83% of the deaths were caused by firearms; 57.2% occurred in public thoroughfares; and 98.4% in the urban zone. In 2012, the 173 homicides resulted in 7,837 potential years of life lost, with each death causing, on average, the loss of 45.3 years. mortality by homicide in a medium-sized city in Bahia reaches levels observed in the big cities of Brazil in the 1980s, evidencing that the phenomenon of criminality - formerly predominant only in the big urban centers - is advancing into the rural area of Brazil, causing changes in the map of violent homicide in Brazil.

  1. 5 CFR 1604.8 - Death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Death benefits. 1604.8 Section 1604.8... benefits. The account balance of a deceased service member will be paid as described at 5 CFR part 1651... benefit, a service member must file a valid beneficiary designation form. If the TSP maintains a service...

  2. Birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Zeifman, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that Karlin and McGregor's integral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process on a semi-infinite lattice with an absorbing bottom state remains valid if one allows the possibility of absorption into the bottom state from any

  3. Birth-death processes with killing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.; Zeifman, Alexander I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to point out that Karlin and McGregor's integral representation for the transition probabilities of a birth-death process on a semi-infinite lattice with an absorbing bottom state remains valid if one allows the possibility of absorption into the bottom state from any

  4. Spectral properties of birth-death polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2015-01-01

    We consider sequences of polynomials that are defined by a three-terms recurrence relation and orthogonal with respect to a positive measure on the nonnegative axis. By a famous result of Karlin and McGregor such sequences are instrumental in the analysis of birth-death processes. Inspired by

  5. Spectral properties of birth-death polynomials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    We consider sequences of polynomials that are defined by a three-terms recurrence relation and orthogonal with respect to a positive measure on the nonnegative axis. By a famous result of Karlin and McGregor such sequences are instrumental in the analysis of birth-death processes. Inspired by

  6. Deaths from Adenovirus in the US Military

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-26

    Dr. Joel Gaydos, science advisor for the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, and Dr. Robert Potter, a research associate for the Armed Forces Medical Examiner System, discuss deaths from adenovirus in the US military.  Created: 3/26/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/29/2012.

  7. Cardiovascular causes of maternal sudden death. Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome is leading cause in UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krexi, Dimitra; Sheppard, Mary N

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the causes of sudden cardiac death during pregnancy and in the postpartum period and patients' characteristics. There are few studies in the literature. Eighty cases of sudden unexpected death due to cardiac causes in relation to pregnancy and postpartum period in a database of 4678 patients were found and examined macroscopically and microscopically. The mean age was 30±7 years with a range from 16 to 43 years. About 30% were 35 years old or older; 50% of deaths occurred during pregnancy and 50% during the postpartum period. About 59.18% were obese or overweight where body mass index data were available. The leading causes of death were sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) (53.75%) and cardiomyopathies (13.80%). Other causes include dissection of aorta or its branches (8.75%), congenital heart disease (2.50%) and valvular disease (3.75%). This study highlights sudden cardiac death in pregnancy or in the postpartum period, which is mainly due to SADS with underlying channelopathies and cardiomyopathy. We wish to raise awareness of these frequently under-recognised entities in maternal deaths and the need of cardiological screening of the family as a result of the diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of maternal death autopsies from the nationwide registration system of maternal deaths in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Junichi; Wakasa, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Makoto; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Katsuragi, Shinji; Nakata, Masahiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Osato, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masamitsu; Sekizawa, Akihiko; Ishiwata, Isamu; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2018-02-01

    To clarify the necessity for and problems related to autopsy for determining the cause of maternal death in Japan. Women who died during pregnancy or within a year after delivery were analyzed by the Maternal Death Exploratory Committee between 2012 and 2015 in Japan. Maternal deaths were analyzed to verify the requirement of autopsy in cases in which autopsy was performed and the need for autopsy in cases in which it was not performed. Among the 49 cases performed autopsy, the final diagnosis was compatible with the clinical course in 24 cases, while the autopsy diagnosis was incompatible with the clinical course in 13 cases. In two cases, the final diagnosis was based on the clinical course, but an autopsy could exclude other possible causes. In three cases, no exact cause of maternal death was identified after autopsy. On the other hand, in cases without an autopsy, the final diagnosis was made using ante-mortem operating findings and surgical specimens in twenty-one cases. Though, thirty-one cases were estimated diagnosis based on post-mortem imaging or ante-mortem examinations, the exact original cause of death was not determined in 25 cases, and the cause of death could not be identified in eight cases without autopsy. Because in most cases the autopsy provides an exact cause of death, the necessity of autopsies should be more widely accepted in Japan.

  9. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the relative number of deaths in member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) from international terrorism and road crashes. Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994-2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality.

  10. Experiencing patient death in clinical practice: nurses' recollections of their earliest memorable patient death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Natalie Elizabeth; Kent, Bridie; Owens, R Glynn

    2015-03-01

    Death and dying are inevitable life encounters, but a nurse's first experience with patient death may pose considerable cognitive, emotional and clinical challenges. This paper reports the findings of the second phase of a study; the first has been reported elsewhere. This phase explored the earliest memorable patient death experiences of New Zealand registered nurses. A purposeful, self-selected sub-sample of a larger study of New Zealand registered nurses, took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was utilised to seek to understand participants' experiences. Thematic analysis was undertaken to identify emerging themes, with participants' own words used as theme headings, where their phrases provided succinct or powerful descriptors. A diverse participant group of twenty, currently practising, New Zealand registered nurses provided rich and detailed descriptions of their earliest memorable experience with patient death. Participants from a variety of training backgrounds described patient deaths, which occurred in a range of settings - some only a few months prior, others - more than thirty years ago. Seven emergent themes, and features of more positive, or negative experiences were identified: Event Significance; Emotional Challenges; Sharing the Experience; Learning; Feeling Unprepared, Responses to Death and Finding Benefits. For participants in this study, there was considerable evidence that their earliest memorable patient death was a significant event. Furthermore, although most participants' experiences were characterised by emphatic or poignant description, there was most often a balance of challenges and rewards. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P <.0001) of firearm-related deaths, whereas mental illness was of borderline significance (P = .05) only. The number of guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact cause and effect, however, the current study debunks the widely quoted hypothesis that guns make a nation safer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Benefits from reducing risk of death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupnick, A

    1994-07-01

    Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States.

  13. QALYs, euthanasia and the puzzle of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This paper considers the problems that arise when death, which is a philosophically difficult concept, is incorporated into healthcare metrics, such as the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). These problems relate closely to the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide because negative QALY scores can be taken to mean that patients would be 'better off dead'. There is confusion in the literature about the meaning of 0 QALY, which is supposed to act as an 'anchor' for the surveyed preferences on which QALYs are based. In the context of the debate over euthanasia, the QALY assumes an ability to make meaningful comparisons between life-states and death. Not only is this assumption questionable, but the ethical debate is much more broad than the question of whether death is preferable to a state of living. QALYs are derived from preferences about health states, so do not necessarily reflect preferences about events (eg, dying) or actions (eg, killing). This paper presents a new kind of problem for the QALY. As it stands, the QALY provides confused and unreliable information when it reports zero or negative values, and faces further problems when it appears to recommend death. This should preclude its use in the debate over euthanasia and assisted suicide. These problems only apply where the QALY involves or seems to involve a comparison between life-states and death, and are not relevant to the more general discussion of the use of QALYs as a tool for comparing the benefits derived from treatment options. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Impact of child death on paediatric trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Clare E; Wesley, Carla; Huckridge, Jaymie; Finn, Gabrielle M; Griksaitis, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of symptoms of acute stress reactions (ASR) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in paediatric trainees following their involvement in child death. A survey designed to identify trainees' previous experiences of child death combined with questions to identify features of PTSD. Quantitative interpretation was used alongside a χ 2 test. A p value of death of a child, although 190/284 (67%) had no training in child death. 118/248 (48%) of trainees were given a formal debrief session following their most recent experience. 203/251 (81%) of trainees reported one or more symptoms or behaviours that could contribute to a diagnosis of ASR/PTSD. 23/251 (9%) of trainees met the complete criteria for ASR and 13/251 (5%) for PTSD. Attending a formal debrief and reporting feelings of guilt were associated with an increase in diagnostic criteria for ASR/PTSD (p=0.036 and pdeath of a child. The feeling of guilt should be identified and acknowledged to allow prompt signposting to further support, including psychological assessment or intervention if required. Clear recommendations need to be made about the safety of debriefing sessions as, in keeping with existing evidence, our data suggest that debrief after the death of a child may be associated with the development of symptoms suggestive of ASR/PTSD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Benefits from reducing risk of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnick, A.

    1994-01-01

    Of the categories of benefits to individuals, reductions in the risk of premature mortality are of central. concern to the public and environmental policy makers. These benefits can include those from reductions in own- risk, for example, an individual's valuation of reducing his or her own mortality risks; reductions in risk to an individual's family, friends, or co-workers (i.e., of people known to the individual); and reductions in risks to unknown individuals. The last type would be an example of altruistic value. The overall goal is to measure the welfare change from a change in the current and/or future probability of dying. The willingness to pay (WTP) reflects the amount of income taken from a person that would leave him or her indifferent to a decrease in risk, whenever it occurs. When this value is divided by the risk change, the resulting value is called the 'value of a statistical life'. Another relevant measure appearing in the literature is the value of life-years saved. A final issue concerns the type of premature mortality risks one is valuing when environmental pollution is at issue. While most effort has gone into estimating the welfare effects of a change in current probability of death of healthy workers on the job, this is more relevant for characterizing the benefits of reducing accidental death risks than death from environmental causes. Exposure to pollutants raises risks of developing cancer, chronic heart, respiratory, and other diseases that raise mortality risks in the future. Such exposure also may raise current death risks for the very old and the sick. But, surely the pollution effect that is analogous to occupational health risks-pollution exposures high enough to raise current risks of death for the healthy, prime-age person-is insignificant in the United States

  16. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-11-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes. In the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project, prospective data on body mass index, blood pressure, glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides were collected from 285,040 men. Risks of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes were calculated by use of competing risk analysis for men with normal (bottom 84%) and high (top 16%) levels of each factor, and a composite score. During a mean follow-up period of 12 years, 5,893 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1,013 died of prostate cancer, and 26,328 died of other causes. After 1996, when prostate-specific antigen testing was introduced, men up to age 80 years with normal metabolic levels had 13% risk of prostate cancer, 2% risk of prostate cancer death, and 30% risk of death from other causes, whereas men with metabolic aberrations had corresponding risks of 11%, 2%, and 44%. In contrast to recent studies using conventional survival analysis, in a real-world scenario taking risk of competing events into account, men with metabolic aberrations had lower risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, similar risk of prostate cancer death, and substantially higher risk of death from other causes compared with men who had normal metabolic levels.

  17. Early death, late death and repair factor in three human tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courdi, A.; Gioanni, J.; Mari, D.; Chauvel, P.

    1997-01-01

    The in vivo colony method used to generate survival curves following exposure to ionizing irradiation allows to score large clones, representing surviving cells, and small colonies, representing late reproductive death. By subtraction, early-dying cells can be estimated. In the three human tumour cell lines examined, we have observed that early cell death is a major mode of action of irradiation. The contribution of early cell death to total mortality increases as the dose increases. Moreover, repair due to dose-splitting and delayed plating in densely-inhibited cells is not observed in early-dying cells. (authors)

  18. Pedagogy and the Art of Death: Reparative Readings of Death and Dying in Margaret Edson's Wit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Christine M

    2015-11-19

    Wit explores modes of reading representations of death and dying, both through the play's sustained engagement with Donne's Holy Sonnets and through Vivian's self-reflexive approach to her illness and death. I argue that the play dramatizes reparative readings, a term coined by Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick to describe an alternative to the paranoid reading practices that have come to dominate literary criticism. By analyzing the play's reparative readings of death and dying (as well as its representation of the shortcomings of paranoid readings), I show how Wit provides lessons about knowledge-making and reading practices in the field of health humanities.

  19. Using multiple cause-of-death data to investigate associations and causality between conditions listed on the death certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelings, Matthew D; Wise, Matthew; Sorvillo, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Death rarely results from only one cause, and it can be caused by a variety of factors. Multiple cause-of-death data files can list as many as 20 contributing causes of death in addition to the reported underlying cause of death. Analysis of multiple cause-of-death data can provide information on associations between causes of death, revealing common combinations of events or conditions which lead to death. Additionally, physicians report the causal train of events through which they believe that different conditions or events may have led to each other and ultimately caused death. In this paper, the authors discuss methods used in studying associations between reported causes of death and in investigating commonly reported causal pathways between events or conditions listed on the death certificate.

  20. INTRAUTERINE FETAL DEATH CASES AT TERTIARY CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Bishnoi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Intrauterine fetal death is a tragic event for the parents and a great cause of stress for the caregiver. It is an important indicator of maternal and perinatal health of a given population. This study was undertaken to study the maternal and fetal factors associated with intrauterine fetal death. Aim and Objective- This was an Analytical study aimed to evaluate and understand the prevalence, socio-epidemiological and etiological factors of IUFD methodology should not be mixed with aims and objectives MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was carried out at March 2017 to June 2017 (4 months study which was conducted at Dr. S. N. Medical College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. The details were entered in a preformed proforma. IUD is defined as fetal death beyond 20 weeks of gestation and/or birth weight >500g. The details of complaints at admission, obstetrics history, menstrual history, examination findings, per vaginal examination findings, mode and method of delivery and fetal outcomes and investigation reports were recorded. RESULTS A total of 227 intrauterine fetal deaths were reported amongst 6264 deliveries conducted during the study period. The incidence rate of intrauterine fetal death was 36/1000 live births. 192 (84.56% deliveries were unbooked and unsupervised and 133 (58.59% belonged to rural population and 126 (55.5% were preterm and 221 (97.55% were singleton pregnancy. Among the identifiable causes hypertensive disorders (24.22% and severe anemia (13.10% were most common followed by placental causes (9.97%. Congenital malformations were responsible for 12.39% and unidentifiable causes were 11.01%. Induction was done in 103 patients, 94 patients had spontaneous onset of labour and caesarean section was done in 30 patients. Incidence of intrauterine foetal demise gradually decreased as parity advanced. CONCLUSION Institutional deliveries should be promoted to prevent intrapartum fetal deaths. Decrease in the incidence of IUD would

  1. Surveillance for Violent Deaths - National Violent Death Reporting System, 17 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Bridget H; Fowler, Katherine A; Jack, Shane P D; Betz, Carter J; Blair, Janet M

    2016-08-19

    In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. 2013. NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e.g., child fatality review team data, supplemental homicide reports, hospital data, and crime laboratory data). This report includes data from 17 states that collected statewide data for 2013 (Alaska, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, North Carolina, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin). NVDRS collates documents for each death and links deaths that are related (e.g., multiple homicides, a homicide followed by a suicide, or multiple suicides) from a single incident. For 2013, a total of 18,765 fatal incidents involving 19,251 deaths were captured by NVDRS in the 17 states included in this report. The majority (66.2%) of deaths were suicides, followed by homicides (23.2%), deaths of undetermined intent (8.8%), deaths involving legal intervention (1.2%) (i.e., deaths caused by law enforcement and other persons with legal authority to use deadly force, excluding legal executions), and unintentional firearm deaths (Revision [ICD-10] and does not denote the lawfulness or legality of the circumstances surrounding a death caused by law enforcement.) Suicides occurred at higher rates among males, non-Hispanic whites, American Indian/Alaska Natives, persons aged 45-64 years, and males aged ≥75 years. Suicides were preceded primarily by a mental health, intimate partner, or physical

  2. Violent Deaths and Traumatic Bereavement: The Importance of Appropriate Death Notification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Leo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The communication of a death due to unexpected and traumatic causes is considered a very sensitive issue that can deeply affect both operators responsible for reporting the incident and the mourning process of family members, relatives, and other survivors. By focusing particularly on cases of traumatic death, this article tries to explain how inadequate communication of death may adversely affect the course of mourning. The article also illustrates the basic principles of correct notification of death. In this way, we hope to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on this topic and the promotion of new studies aimed at setting best practices for those professionally involved in the challenging task of communicating that a life has ended. This would be important in order to safeguard the emotional integrity of notifiers whilst effectively helping the survivors to cope with the early stages of their difficult mourning process.

  3. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac) - a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froen, J. Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W.; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C.; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J.; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C.; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C. S.; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose

  4. Causes of death and associated conditions (Codac): a utilitarian approach to the classification of perinatal deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøen, J Frederik; Pinar, Halit; Flenady, Vicki; Bahrin, Safiah; Charles, Adrian; Chauke, Lawrence; Day, Katie; Duke, Charles W; Facchinetti, Fabio; Fretts, Ruth C; Gardener, Glenn; Gilshenan, Kristen; Gordijn, Sanne J; Gordon, Adrienne; Guyon, Grace; Harrison, Catherine; Koshy, Rachel; Pattinson, Robert C; Petersson, Karin; Russell, Laurie; Saastad, Eli; Smith, Gordon C S; Torabi, Rozbeh

    2009-06-10

    A carefully classified dataset of perinatal mortality will retain the most significant information on the causes of death. Such information is needed for health care policy development, surveillance and international comparisons, clinical services and research. For comparability purposes, we propose a classification system that could serve all these needs, and be applicable in both developing and developed countries. It is developed to adhere to basic concepts of underlying cause in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), although gaps in ICD prevent classification of perinatal deaths solely on existing ICD codes.We tested the Causes of Death and Associated Conditions (Codac) classification for perinatal deaths in seven populations, including two developing country settings. We identified areas of potential improvements in the ability to retain existing information, ease of use and inter-rater agreement. After revisions to address these issues we propose Version II of Codac with detailed coding instructions.The ten main categories of Codac consist of three key contributors to global perinatal mortality (intrapartum events, infections and congenital anomalies), two crucial aspects of perinatal mortality (unknown causes of death and termination of pregnancy), a clear distinction of conditions relevant only to the neonatal period and the remaining conditions are arranged in the four anatomical compartments (fetal, cord, placental and maternal).For more detail there are 94 subcategories, further specified in 577 categories in the full version. Codac is designed to accommodate both the main cause of death as well as two associated conditions. We suggest reporting not only the main cause of death, but also the associated relevant conditions so that scenarios of combined conditions and events are captured.The appropriately applied Codac system promises to better manage information on causes of perinatal deaths, the conditions associated with them, and the most

  5. Brain death revisited: it is not 'complete death' according to Islamic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedir, Ahmet; Aksoy, Sahin

    2011-05-01

    Concepts, such as death, life and spirit cannot be known in their quintessential nature, but can be defined in accordance with their effects. In fact, those who think within the mode of pragmatism and Cartesian logic have ignored the metaphysical aspects of these terms. According to Islam, the entity that moves the body is named the soul. And the aliment of the soul is air. Cessation of breathing means leaving of the soul from the body. Those who agree on the diagnosis of brain death may not able to agree unanimously on the rules that lay down such diagnosis. That is to say, there are a heap of suspicions regarding the diagnosis of brain death, and these suspicions are on the increase. In fact, Islamic jurisprudence does not put provisions, decisions on suspicious grounds. By virtue of these facts, it can be asserted that brain death is not absolute death according to Islamic sources; for in the patients diagnosed with brain death the soul still has not abandoned the body. Therefore, these patients suffer in every operation performed on them.

  6. Death attitudes and emotional intelligence in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sabado, Joaquin; Gómez-Benito, Juana

    The aims of this study were to analyze the relationships between death attitudes and perceived emotional intelligence in a sample of nursing students, and to determine whether there are differences between different academic years with regard to both emotional intelligence and death attitudes. The participants were 243 nursing students. They all responded voluntarily and anonymously to a questionnaire that assessed the following constructs: fear of death, death anxiety, death depression, death obsession, and emotional intelligence (attention, clarity, and mood repair). Students' scores on fear of death of others subscale (p nursing degree program and increased significantly on emotional clarity (p death of others. The importance of including emotional skills training and death-education programs as part of professional nursing curricula are discussed.

  7. Avoidable deaths in Greenland 1968-1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    and several showed an increasing time trend. The regional patterns were particularly clear for infectious diseases and accidents, which showed low mortality rates in the capital and other towns and high mortality rates in settlements and in the remote East Greenland, while mortality rates from suicides...... and political will of the society. A list of avoidable deaths is proposed for Greenland which includes, inter alia, meningitis, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections, suicides, boat accidents and alcohol related diseases and accidents. All were considerably more common in Greenland than in Denmark...... and alcohol related diseases were high in the capital and East Greenland and low in West Greenlandic settlements. It is concluded that further studies on preventable diseases and causes of death, in particular certain infectious diseases, accidents and suicides, are needed....

  8. Death Rates in the Calorie Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Machay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Calorie model unifies the Classical demand and the supply in the food market. Hence, solves the major problem of Classical stationary state. It is, hence, formalization of the Classical theory of population. The model does not reflect the imperfections of reality mentioned by Malthus himself. It is the aim of this brief paper to relax some of the strong assumptions of the Calorie model to make it more realistic. As the results show the political economists were correct. The death resulting from malnutrition can occur way sooner than the stationary state itself. Moreover, progressive and retrograde movements can be easily described by the death rate derived in the paper. JEL Classification: J11, Q11, Q15, Q21, Y90.

  9. Portable Material Culture and Death Factory Auschwitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian T. Myers

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Like any other factory, the death factory of Auschwitz consumed primary materials and produced secondary products. Unique to Auschwitz, though, is that the primary material consumed was human life; not just the life of the breathing human body, but also the material possessions associated with that life. The detritus of this most efficient genocide – clothing, jewellery, food, corpses – was appropriated and put to new uses by the SS and the prisoners. Others have recognised the various postwar material cultural outcomes of the camp: the writing, the film, the theatre, the art, the tourism. This article, however, demonstrates that the material culture of Auschwitz is not a phenomenon exclusive to the postwar era. It focuses on the fact that inside the camp during the war, despite the landscape of death and deprivation, intimate interaction between humans and material culture continued.

  10. Induction of apoptotic cell death by putrescine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takao, Koichi; Rickhag, Karl Mattias; Hegardt, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    that overexpression of a metabolically stable ODC in CHO cells induced a massive cell death unless the cells were grown in the presence of the ODC inhibitor alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). Cells overexpressing wild-type (unstable) ODC, on the other hand, were not dependent on the presence of DFMO...... for their growth. The induction of cell death was correlated with a dramatic increase in cellular putrescine levels. Analysis using flow cytometry revealed perturbed cell cycle kinetics, with a large accumulation of cells with sub-G1 amounts of DNA, which is a typical sign of apoptosis. Another strong indication...... of apoptosis was the finding that one of the key enzymes in the apoptotic process, caspase-3, was induced when DFMO was omitted from the growth medium. Furthermore, inhibition of the caspase activity significantly reduced the recruitment of cells to the sub-G1 fraction. In conclusion, deregulation of polyamine...

  11. Ionizing radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumiel, I.

    1994-01-01

    Selected aspects of radiation-induced cell death, connected with signal transduction pathways are reviewed. Cell death is defined as insufficiency of the cellular signal transducing system to maintain the cell's physiological functions. The insufficiency may be due to impaired signal reception and/or transduction, lack or erroneous transcription activation, and eventual cellular ''misexpression'' of the signal. The molecular basis of this insufficiency would be damage to genomic (but also other cellular) structures and closing of specific signalling pathways or opening of others (like those leading to apoptosis). I describe experimental data that suggest an important role of RAS/NFI and p53/p105 Rb proteins in cell cycle control-coupled responses to DNA damage. (Author)

  12. Death rattle: prevalence, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildiers, Hans; Menten, Johan

    2002-04-01

    A retrospective analysis was performed to study the occurrence and treatment of death rattle (DR) in 107 consecutive dying patients on the palliative care unit of the University Hospital Leuven. The incidence of DR (23%) is lower than reported in literature, possibly due to low hydration. We found 2 types of rattle: "Real DR" responds generally very well to anticholinergic therapy, and is probably caused by non-expectorated secretions. "Pseudo DR" is poorly responsive to therapy and is probably caused by bronchial secretions due to pulmonary pathology, such as infection, tumor, fluid retention, or aspiration. Rattle disappeared in >90% for the patients with real DR. Real DR is a strong predictor for death, and 76% (19/25) died within 48h after onset. Administration of subcutaneous hyoscine hydrobromide, as a bolus or continuous infusion, is effective therapy for real DR and is comfortable for the patient and caregivers.

  13. Early maternal death due to acute encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Vidanapathirana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal death in an unmarried woman poses a medico-legal challenge. A 24-year-old unmarried schoolteacher, residing at a boarding place, had been admitted to hospital in a state of cardiac arrest. At the autopsy, mild to moderate congestion of subarachnoid vessels and oedema of the brain was noted. An un-interfered foetus of 15 weeks with an intact sac and placental tissues were seen. Genital tract injuries were not present. Histopathological examination showed diffuse perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells suggestive of viral encephalitis, considering the circumstances of death and the social stigma of pregnancy in this unmarried teacher, the possibility of attempted suicide by ingestion of a poison was considered. Abrus precatorius (olinda seeds commonly found in the area is known to produce acute encephalitis as well as haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and pulmonary congestion was also considered as a possible cause for this unusual presentation

  14. Death ends a life, not a relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In the final chapter, “Death Ends a Life, not a Relationship: objects as media on children’s graves”, Dorthe Refslund Christensen and Kjetil Sandvik investigate the relational affordances offered by objects as media in practices of death and commemoration on children’s graves. The authors argue...... that when it comes to bereavement practices as they materialize on children’s graves, it is the accommodation and decoration of the grave itself that function as media with their variety of physical objects as ritual and relational tools for communication. The bereaved perform practices on children’s graves...... – mirrored in online memorial sites – that transform the dead child into a being with whom an altered relationship may be built, maintained and developed so that the bereaved can, eventually, integrate the dead into his or her ongoing life....

  15. Reasons of reproductive death of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaturov, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    According to its functional-structural organization the cell is rather a difficult object. It contains many various components, which essentially differ from the another according to their significance for its normal functioning, as well as sizes and number. When analyzing damage different types in cell sensitive target, that is - DNA, the author concludes, that it is most probable, that chromosomal aberrations are, mainly the reasons of cell reproduction death, rather than DNA unrepaired breaks

  16. The Life and Death of Anaplasma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-30

    Dr. Setu Vora, medical director of critical care and physician director of performance improvement at Backus Hospital in Norwich, Connecticut, reads his poem The Life and Death of Anaplasma and discusses the poem’s origins.  Created: 3/30/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/2/2012.

  17. Postpartum deaths: piglet, placental, and umbilical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootwelt, V; Reksen, O; Farstad, W; Framstad, T

    2013-06-01

    The fetal growth of the piglet is highly dependent on its placenta, and the newborn piglet birth weight is highly associated with postpartum death. However, there is little information available in the literature on the assessment of the placenta in relation to postpartum death in piglets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, and piglet birth characteristics, such as blood parameters, vitality score, and birth weight on postpartum death. All live born piglets in litters from 26 Landrace-Yorkshire sows were monitored during farrowing and the status of each was recorded, including placental area and placental weight and blood variables obtained from the piglets and umbilical veins. Out of the 386 live-born piglets, 16.8% died before weaning at 5 wk. Among these, 78.5% died within the first 3 d of life. Mean blood concentration of lactate was increased in piglets that did not survive to weaning (P = 0.003). Concentrations of hemoglobin and hematocrit were decreased (P vitality score vs. piglets born with an intact umbilical cord (P = 0.021), and they had an increased probability of dying before weaning (P = 0.050). Mean birth weight, body mass index, placental area (P live litter size. Blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were decreased in piglets that died before weaning (P < 0.01), and blood concentration of albumin was positively associated with placental area (P < 0.001). We conclude that placental area and placental weight, status of the umbilical cord, birth weight, body mass index, blood concentrations of lactate, hemoglobin, and hematocrit recorded at birth, and blood concentrations of IgG and albumin recorded at d 1 were associated with postpartum death in this study. These results may indicate that there is an upper uterine limitation of litter size and that placental area and placental weight influence postpartum survival.

  18. [Rigor mortis -- a definite sign of death?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A R; Müller, M P; Frank, M D; Dressler, J

    2005-04-01

    In the past years an ongoing controversial debate exists in Germany, regarding quality of the coroner's inquest and declaration of death by physicians. We report the case of a 90-year old female, who was found after an unknown time following a suicide attempt with benzodiazepine. The examination of the patient showed livores (mortis?) on the left forearm and left lower leg. Moreover, rigor (mortis?) of the left arm was apparent which prevented arm flexion and extension. The hypothermic patient with insufficient respiration was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Chest compressions were not performed, because central pulses were (hardly) palpable and a sinus bradycardia 45/min (AV-block 2 degrees and sole premature ventricular complexes) was present. After placement of an intravenous line (17 G, external jugular vein) the hemodynamic situation was stabilized with intermittent boli of epinephrine and with sodium bicarbonate. With improved circulation livores and rigor disappeared. In the present case a minimal central circulation was noted, which could be stabilized, despite the presence of certain signs of death ( livores and rigor mortis). Considering the finding of an abrogated peripheral perfusion (livores), we postulate a centripetal collapse of glycogen and ATP supply in the patients left arm (rigor), which was restored after resuscitation and reperfusion. Thus, it appears that livores and rigor are not sensitive enough to exclude a vita minima, in particular in hypothermic patients with intoxications. Consequently a careful ABC-check should be performed even in the presence of apparently certain signs of death, to avoid underdiagnosing a vita minima. Additional ECG- monitoring is required to reduce the rate of false positive declarations of death. To what extent basic life support by paramedics should commence when rigor and livores are present until physician DNR order, deserves further discussion.

  19. UV-Induced Cell Death in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawkar, Ganesh M.; Maibam, Punyakishore; Park, Jung Hoon; Sahi, Vaidurya Pratap; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Chang Ho

    2013-01-01

    Plants are photosynthetic organisms that depend on sunlight for energy. Plants respond to light through different photoreceptors and show photomorphogenic development. Apart from Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), plants are exposed to UV light, which is comprised of UV-C (below 280 nm), UV-B (280–320 nm) and UV-A (320–390 nm). The atmospheric ozone layer protects UV-C radiation from reaching earth while the UVR8 protein acts as a receptor for UV-B radiation. Low levels of UV-B exposure initiate signaling through UVR8 and induce secondary metabolite genes involved in protection against UV while higher dosages are very detrimental to plants. It has also been reported that genes involved in MAPK cascade help the plant in providing tolerance against UV radiation. The important targets of UV radiation in plant cells are DNA, lipids and proteins and also vital processes such as photosynthesis. Recent studies showed that, in response to UV radiation, mitochondria and chloroplasts produce a reactive oxygen species (ROS). Arabidopsis metacaspase-8 (AtMC8) is induced in response to oxidative stress caused by ROS, which acts downstream of the radical induced cell death (AtRCD1) gene making plants vulnerable to cell death. The studies on salicylic and jasmonic acid signaling mutants revealed that SA and JA regulate the ROS level and antagonize ROS mediated cell death. Recently, molecular studies have revealed genes involved in response to UV exposure, with respect to programmed cell death (PCD). PMID:23344059

  20. Compensation for Combat Deaths: Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    through the courts for deaths resulting from other parties’ negligence or criminal behavior; a key difference between the tort system and many other...funding facilities that function outside of the tort system— for example, workers’ compensation programs for workplace fatalities and the Victims...receive $100,000 if the 10-percent risk of a loss of $100,000 actually came to pass. Tort law generally uses an ex post approach to compensation and

  1. Cerebral Paragonimiasis Presenting with Sudden Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Deirdre E; Cowell, Annie; Tuohy, Marion J; Procop, Gary W; Morhaime, Jacquelyn; Reed, Sharon L

    2016-12-07

    A 58-year-old Korean-born woman with a history of seizures and psychiatric issues was found dead at home. Autopsy was notable for large, calcified nodules that had nearly replaced her right temporal lobe. Histologic examination revealed the presence of Paragonimus eggs. This case demonstrates a rare manifestation of an aberrantly migrated lung fluke that resulted in epilepsy and sudden death years after the initial infection. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Otolaryngological aspects of sudden infant death syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marom, Tal; Cinamon, Udi; Castellanos, Paul F; Cohen, Marta C

    2012-03-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is characterized by the sudden death of an apparently otherwise healthy infant, typically during sleep, and with no obvious case after a thorough post-mortem and scene death examination. To address the problem from the otolaryngologist's perspective, describe relevant pathologies, discuss controversies and suggest preventive measures in high-risk populations. A MEDLINE search and hand search were conducted to identify reports published between 1969 and 2011 in the English language on the pathophysiology of SIDS related to the head and neck organs. Search terms included SIDS (MeSH term), SIDS and pathophysiology (text words), and SIDS and autopsy (text words). A growing number of reports suggested head and neck organs involvement in SIDS autopsies. Laryngeal, oropharyngeal, maxillofacial, otologic, cervical vascular abnormalities and infectious etiologies, were recognized and discussed. Otolaryngologists should be aware of relevant pathologies, as some are treatable, if identified early enough in infancy. A proactive risk-management approach is warranted in infants presenting with certain abnormalities reviewed here. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D and Death by Sunshine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S. Mason

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to sunlight is the major cause of skin cancer. Ultraviolet radiation (UV from the sun causes damage to DNA by direct absorption and can cause skin cell death. UV also causes production of reactive oxygen species that may interact with DNA to indirectly cause oxidative DNA damage. UV increases accumulation of p53 in skin cells, which upregulates repair genes but promotes death of irreparably damaged cells. A benefit of sunlight is vitamin D, which is formed following exposure of 7-dehydrocholesterol in skin cells to UV. The relatively inert vitamin D is metabolized to various biologically active compounds, including 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Therapeutic use of vitamin D compounds has proven beneficial in several cancer types, but more recently these compounds have been shown to prevent UV-induced cell death and DNA damage in human skin cells. Here, we discuss the effects of vitamin D compounds in skin cells that have been exposed to UV. Specifically, we examine the various signaling pathways involved in the vitamin D-induced protection of skin cells from UV.

  4. Brain death in neonates: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Mitsiakos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD is the permanent and complete loss of cerebral and brainstem function. It is relatively uncommon in newborns with its percentage among deaths being 1-6.3%. BD leads to debate for medical, ethical and philosophical issues. It is a challenging condition in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs since difficulties for BD diagnosis in neonates and ever more so in preterm neonates do arise. Revised guidelines for BD diagnosis definition include history with known etiology, clinical examination, apnea testing and neurological evaluation often assisted by ancillary tests. We present the case of a near term female baby that was born with brain death due to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. We conclude that BD in newborns is a challenge to NICUs and there is a need for establishing and implementing new guidelines and checklists on national basis. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  5. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  6. Is medically assisted death a special obligation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-López, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    Several distinct arguments conclude that terminally ill patients have a right to a medically assisted death; two are especially influential: the autonomy argument and the non-harm argument. Both have proven convincing to many, but not to those who view the duty not to kill as an (almost) absolute constraint. Some philosophers see the source of such a constraint in general (deontological) moral principles, other in the nature of the medical profession. My aim in this paper is not to add one further argument in favour of medically assisted death. Rather, I want to shed light on a kind of reason that, to my mind, has not been previously highlighted or defended, and that might shake the principled conviction that doctors are never allowed to actively assist their patients to die. Specifically, my purpose is to show that doctors (as members of the medical profession) have a special duty to provide medically assisted death to consenting terminally ill patients, because (and insofar as) they have been participants in the process leading to the situation in which a patient can reasonably ask to die. In some specific ways (to be explained), they are involved in the tragic fate of those patients and, therefore, are not morally allowed to straightforwardly refuse to assist them to die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Programmed cell death during quinoa perisperm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, María Paula; Maldonado, Sara

    2013-08-01

    At seed maturity, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) perisperm consists of uniform, non-living, thin-walled cells full of starch grains. The objective of the present study was to study quinoa perisperm development and describe the programme of cell death that affects the entire tissue. A number of parameters typically measured during programmed cell death (PCD), such as cellular morphological changes in nuclei and cytoplasm, endoreduplication, DNA fragmentation, and the participation of nucleases and caspase-like proteases in nucleus dismantling, were evaluated; morphological changes in cytoplasm included subcellular aspects related to starch accumulation. This study proved that, following fertilization, the perisperm of quinoa simultaneously accumulates storage reserves and degenerates, both processes mediated by a programme of developmentally controlled cell death. The novel findings regarding perisperm development provide a starting point for further research in the Amaranthaceae genera, such as comparing seeds with and without perisperm, and specifying phylogeny and evolution within this taxon. Wherever possible and appropriate, differences between quinoa perisperm and grass starchy endosperm--a morphologically and functionally similar, although genetically different tissue--were highlighted and discussed.

  8. TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Sheikh, M. Saeed

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter

  9. How Kidney Cell Death Induces Renal Necroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Kumar, Santhosh V; Lech, Maciej; Desai, Jyaysi; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    The nephrons of the kidney are independent functional units harboring cells of a low turnover during homeostasis. As such, physiological renal cell death is a rather rare event and dead cells are flushed away rapidly with the urinary flow. Renal cell necrosis occurs in acute kidney injuries such as thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing glomerulonephritis, or tubular necrosis. All of these are associated with intense intrarenal inflammation, which contributes to further renal cell loss, an autoamplifying process referred to as necroinflammation. But how does renal cell necrosis trigger inflammation? Here, we discuss the role of danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), mitochondrial (mito)-DAMPs, and alarmins, as well as their respective pattern recognition receptors. The capacity of DAMPs and alarmins to trigger cytokine and chemokine release initiates the recruitment of leukocytes into the kidney that further amplify necroinflammation. Infiltrating neutrophils often undergo neutrophil extracellular trap formation associated with neutrophil death or necroptosis, which implies a release of histones, which act not only as DAMPs but also elicit direct cytotoxic effects on renal cells, namely endothelial cells. Proinflammatory macrophages and eventually cytotoxic T cells further drive kidney cell death and inflammation. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of necroinflammation may help to identify the best therapeutic targets to limit nephron loss in kidney injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonets Ruth

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on

  11. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-07-17

    In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0-14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001-2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality from external causes in 0-14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is needed to enable establishing the intent of death.

  12. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väli, Marika; Lang, Katrin; Soonets, Ruth; Talumäe, Marika; Grjibovski, Andrej M

    2007-01-01

    Background In 2000, the overall rate of injury deaths in children aged 0–14 was 28.7 per 100000 in Estonia, which is more than 5 times higher than the corresponding rate in neighbouring Finland. This paper describes childhood injury mortality in Estonia by cause and age groups, and validates registration of these deaths in the Statistical Office of Estonia against the autopsy data. Methods The data on causes of all child deaths in Estonia in 2001–2005 were abstracted from the autopsy protocols at the Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Average annual mortality rates per 100,000 were calculated. Coverage (proportion of the reported injury deaths from the total number of injury deaths) and accuracy (proportion of correctly classified injury deaths) of the registration of causes of death in Statistical Office of Estonia were assessed by comparing the Statistical Office of Estonia data with the data from Estonian Bureau of Forensic Medicine. Results Average annual mortality from external causes in 0–14 years-old children in Estonia was 19.1 per 100,000. Asphyxia and transport accidents were the major killers followed by poisoning and suicides. Relative contribution of these causes varied greatly between age groups. Intent of death was unknown for more than 10% of injury deaths. Coverage and accuracy of registration of injury deaths by Statistical Office of Estonia were 91.5% and 95.3%, respectively. Conclusion Childhood mortality from injuries in Estonia is among the highest in the EU. The number of injury deaths in Statistical Office of Estonia is slightly underestimated mostly due to misclassification for deaths from diseases. Accuracy of the Statistical Office of Estonia data was high with some underestimation of intentional deaths. Moreover, high proportion of death with unknown intent suggests underestimation of intentional deaths. Reduction of injury deaths should be given a high priority in Estonia. More information on circumstances around death is

  13. Fear of Death in Gulliver’s Travels

    OpenAIRE

    Chunhong Yang

    2015-01-01

    Critics pay little attention to fear of death in Gulliver’s Travels. This paper aims to deal with the issue with Freud’s theory. According to Freud, fear of death results in death drive. In Gulliver’s Travels, the episodes of the Struldbruggs and the Houyhnhnms reveal fear of death. In the episode of Struldbruggs, fear of death is illustrated through fear of abandonment and fear of loss. Fear of abandonment and fear of loss cause the Struldbruggs to long for physical death to end emotional de...

  14. Death; A minor annoyance or an invitation to play?

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, D.

    2008-01-01

    Games involve a lot of death, it’s hard to play games without encountering death in some format. But what does death mean in the context of games? This paper seeks to explore death firstly as a concept internally in games and also use various phenomenological and existential approaches to death to understand the nature of play. Is leaving a game, voluntarily or forcefully, akin to death? Can we only play games authentically when there is the possibility of real ejection from the game?

  15. The anticipation of death by violence: a psychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J; Kyle, D; Katz, G

    1975-01-01

    College students (n = 172) completed Cattell's personality factor questionnaire, Rotter's locus of control scale, Speilberger's trait anxiety measure, and Sabatini and Kastenbaum's self-completed death certificate. Comparison of profiles for subjects anticipating sudden violent death (SVD, n = 59) with those anticipating natural death (ND, n = 113) disclosed that the SVD group was characteristically more anxious and socially isolated. A sex-by-type of death interaction occurred for locus of control, with SVD females being the most external, suggesting that this group was more likely to "give up" in response to stress. The data support Shneidman's concept of subintentioned death in disclosing that several personality factors may be associated with violent death.

  16. Sudden cardiac death in young athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östman-Smith I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ingegerd Östman-SmithDivision of Paediatric Cardiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, SwedenAbstract: Athletic activity is associated with an increased risk of sudden death for individuals with some congenital or acquired heart disorders. This review considers in particular the causes of death affecting athletes below 35 years of age. In this age group the largest proportion of deaths are caused by diseases with autosomal dominant inheritance such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, long QT-syndrome, and Marfan’s syndrome. A policy of early cascade-screening of all first-degree relatives of patients with these disorders will therefore detect a substantial number of individuals at risk. A strictly regulated system with preparticipation screening of all athletes following a protocol pioneered in Italy, including school-age children, can also detect cases caused by sporadic new mutations and has been shown to reduce excess mortality among athletes substantially. Recommendations for screening procedure are reviewed. It is concluded that ECG screening ought to be part of preparticipation screening, but using criteria that do not cause too many false positives among athletes. One such suggested protocol will show positive in approximately 5% of screened individuals, among whom many will be screened for these diseases. On this point further research is needed to define what kind of false-positive and false-negative rate these new criteria result in. A less formal system based on cascade-screening of relatives, education of coaches about suspicious symptoms, and preparticipation questionnaires used by athletic clubs, has been associated over time with a sizeable reduction in sudden cardiac deaths among Swedish athletes, and thus appears to be worth implementing even for junior athletes not recommended for formal preparticipation screening. It is strongly argued

  17. Causes of death in patients with chronic sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaowen; Carmona, Eva M; Yi, Eunhee S; Pellikka, Patricia A; Ryu, Jay

    2016-10-07

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system, granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology that is associated with a variable prognosis and sometimes results in death. There are conflicting reports regarding the causes of death in patients with sarcoidosis. Forty-four consecutive patients with sarcoidosis who underwent an autopsy (35 patients) or died at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 20-yr period, from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 2013 were analyzed. The median age at death was 63 years (range, 33-94 years) and there were 22 (50%) women. Sarcoidosis had not been clinically diagnosed in 16 (36%) patients before death. Fifteen deaths (34%) were related to sarcoidosis and included seven deaths (16%) from cardiac sarcoidosis and four deaths (9%) from progressive pulmonary sarcoidosis. Other sarcoidosis-related causes of death included advanced hepatic sarcoidosis (5%) and opportunistic infections (5%) related to immunosuppressive therapy for treating sarcoidosis. Among seven patients dying from cardiac sarcoidosis, three had been diagnosed with sarcoidosis during life and cardiac involvement was known in two of them. Six of seven deaths from cardiac sarcoidosis occurred in the autopsied cohort while all four deaths from pulmonary sarcoidosis occurred in those not autopsied. In the majority of patients dying with sarcoidosis the cause of death is unrelated to sarcoidosis. Cardiac involvement is the most common cause of sarcoidosis-related deaths in patients subjected to postmortem examination and was usually undiagnosed during life. The cause distribution of death in patients with sarcoidosis differed depending on whether autopsy was performed.

  18. A Death Awareness Workshop: Theory, Application, and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, W. Michael; Warren, William M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes an experimental death awareness workshop based on Kubler-Ross' theory. The effects of the workshop reveal cognitive and emotional changes indicating participants in the workshop to be moving towards an acceptance of death. (Author)

  19. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  20. Worst case bioethics: death, disaster, and public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Annas, George J

    2010-01-01

    ... intentionally left blank IntroductionIntroduction Scared to Death Death is almost everyone's personal worst case scenario. Society's worst case scenario, at least in America, is the disaster of la...

  1. Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grief at Work Working Through Grief About Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By ... fatal heart attacks occur in the workplace. Other deaths — from accidents, for example — can also happen during ...

  2. Immunization safety review: vaccinations and sudden unexpected death in infancy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Immunization Safety Review Committee; Stratton, Kathleen R

    2003-01-01

    ...), and neonatal death (infant death, whether sudden or not, during the first 4 weeks of life). Based on this review, the committee concluded that the evidence favors rejection of a causal relationship between some vaccines and SIDS...

  3. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  4. The Relationship Between Death and Religion in Cultural Scripts on Death and Dying Among the Sample of Tehran Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sare Mazinani Shariati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at understanding ordinary Tehran residents’ attitudes towards Death and Dying and recognizes the relationship between Death and Religion in their thoughts. Using Grounded Theory as method and semi structured interview as a technique, we reached to nine different Cultural scripts of death and dying among interviewees, including: fatalistic death, resurrection-oriented death, martyrdom-oriented death, mystical death, secular death, aesthetic/nihilistic death, agnostic death, and ambiguity-oriented death. Furthermore, we recognized religious and non-religious cultural scripts besides the rationalization and individualization of religion among them. According to our findings, there is no accordance between some interviewees’ thoughts and beliefs with their behavior and lifestyle so that one cannot guess people’s attitudes towards death and dying from their behavior or their appearance. In other words, we face no structural Homology between their ideas and their lifestyle. Moreover, most interviewees had mixed ideas and beliefs about death and dying, and it can indicate the social and cultural complexity of Tehran society.

  5. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J.; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J. Michael; Hill, R. Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2004-01-01

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we fo...

  6. Drug Poisoning Deaths according to Ethnicity in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Ray M.; Hedin, Riley J.; Fondario, Anna; Sloan, Arielle A.; Hanson, Carl L.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes drug-related deaths according to ethnicity in Utah during 2005–2010, based on data from the Utah Violent Death Reporting System (UTVDRS). Hispanics made up 12.1% (12.5% male and 11.7% female) of deaths. The most frequently identified drugs among decedents were opiates, then illicit drugs, benzodiazepines, over-the-counter medication, and antidepressants. Death rates for each drug were significantly greater in non-Hispanics than Hispanics. Most decedents used a combina...

  7. Bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagili Chandrasekhara Reddy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the frequency of bacterial flora of conjunctiva after death (cadaver eyes which will give information about the bacterial contamination of donor eyes, and the in-vitro sensitivity of isolated bacteria to the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmic practice.METHODS: Conjunctival swabs were taken from the cadavers (motor vehicle accident deaths and patients who died in the hospital, within 6h after death, and sent for culture and sensitivity test. Conjunctival swabs, taken from the healthy conjunctiva of patients admitted for cataract surgery, were sent for culture and sensitivity as controls (eyes in those of living status. The bacterial isolates were tested against the commonly used antibiotics (chloramphenicol, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin in ophthalmology practice.RESULTS: Bacteria were isolated in 41 out of 100 conjunctival swabs (41%, taken from 50 cadavers (study group. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common bacteria isolated (15%, followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa (5%. Gentamicin was effective against majority of the bacterial isolates (82%. Bacteria were isolated from 7 out of 100 conjunctival swabs taken as control group (eyes in living state. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most common organism (5% isolated in control group; the others were staphylococcus aureus (1% and beta hemolyticus streptococci (1%.CONCLUSION: Bacteria were isolated from 41% of the cadaver eyes. High percentage sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to gentamicin (82% supports the practice of thorough irrigation of the eyes with gentamicin solution before starting the procedure of enucleation followed by immersion of the enucleated eyeballs in gentamycin solution, to prevent the bacterial contamination.

  8. Aspiration Deaths Among Adults in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haşim Asil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive aspiration of food is rare, but most common in people under the influence of alcohol or a drug and comatose patients who have impaired functioning of the central nervous system. The finding of small amounts of food material in the airway at autopsy does not indicate the true vital aspiration because of agonal or even early post-mortem overspills. Occlusion of the small airways, mainly the membranous and respiratory bronchioles, partial or total filling of bronchiolar lumen and the alveolar spaces with food or gastric content were typical morphologic findings. In our 10 year retrospective study we presented the data of 21 male and 4 female cases with a final diagnosis of fatal aspiration in age from 23 to 78 years (45.43±14.61 from the records of Morgue Specialization Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine. 13 cases found death at the scene without an eyewitness. All deaths were accidental in manner except one homicide. Toxicological analysis revealed blood alcohol concentration levels between 161 and 339 mg/dL in 7 cases. Morphine metabolites, benzodiazepine and barbituric acid derivatives, toluene and acetone were detected in 5 subjects. Aspirated materials were food in 14 cases, chewing gum in 3 cases, gastric content in 7 cases and a fabric gag in one case. The history, other evidence of external vomit on the clothing or immediate surroundings and toxicological analysis are by no means as significant as autopsy findings especially in cases of aspiration. Key words : adult; aspiration; death; autopsy

  9. Embryo disposition and the new death scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison, David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the IVF clinic - a place designed principally for the production and implantation of embryos - scientists and IVF recipients are faced with decisions regarding the disposition of frozen embryos. At this time there are hundred of thousands of cryopreserved embryos awaiting such determinations. They may be thawed for transfer to the woman herself, they may be donated for research or for use by other infertile couples, they may remain in frozen storage, or they may variously be discarded by being allowed to 'succumb', or 'perish'. Where the choice is discard, some IVF clients have chosen to formalise the process through ceremony. A new language is emerging in response to the desires of the would-be-parents who might wish to characterise the discard experience as a ‘good death’. This article examines the procedure known as ‘compassionate transfer’ where the embryo to be discarded is placed in the woman’s vagina where it is clear that it will not develop further. An alternate method has the embryo transferred in the usual manner but without the benefit of fertility-enhancing hormones at a point in the cycle unreceptive to implantation. The embryo destined for disposal is thus removed from the realm of technological possibility and ‘returned’ to the female body for a homely death. While debates continue about whether or not embryos constitute life, new practices are developing in response to the emotional experience of embryo discard. We argue that compassionate transfer is a death scene taking shape. In this article, we take the measure of this new death scene’s fabrication, and consider the form, significance, and legal complexity of its ceremonies.

  10. Stellar Death in the Nearby Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holoien, Thomas Warren-Son

    The night sky is replete with transient and variable events that help shape our universe. The violent, explosive deaths of stars represent some of the most energetic of these events, as a single star is able to outshine billions during its final moments. Aside from imparting significant energy into their host environments, stellar deaths are also responsible for seeding heavy elements into the universe, regulating star formation in their host galaxies, and affecting the evolution of supermassive black holes at the centers of their host galaxies. The large amount of energy output during these events allows them to be seen from billions of lightyears away, making them useful observational probes of physical processes important to many fields of astronomy. In this dissertation I present a series of observational studies of two classes of transients associated with the deaths of stars in the nearby universe: tidal disruption events (TDEs) and supernovae (SNe). Discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), the objects I discuss were all bright and nearby, and were subject to extensive follow-up observational campaigns. In the first three studies, I present observational data and theoretical models of ASASSN-14ae, ASASSN-14li, and ASASSN-15oi, three TDEs discovered by ASAS-SN and three of the most well-studied TDEs ever discovered. Next I present the discovery of ASASSN-13co, an SN that does not conform to the traditional model of Type II SNe. Finally, I discuss the full sample of bright SNe discovered from 2014 May 1 through 2016 December 31, which is significantly less biased than previous nearby SN samples due to the ASAS-SN survey approach, and perform statistical analyses on this population that will be used for future studies of nearby SNe and their hosts.

  11. Epidemiology of violent deaths in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, A; Mercy, J A; Krug, E

    2001-06-01

    This study describes epidemiologic patterns of mortality due to suicide, homicide, and war for the world in order to serve as a benchmark against which to measure future progress and to raise awareness about violence as a global public health problem. The world and its eight major regions. Data were derived from The Global Burden of Disease series and the US National Center for Health Statistics to estimate crude rates, age adjusted rates, sex rate ratios, and the health burden for suicide, homicide, and war related deaths for the world and its eight major regions in 1990. In 1990, an estimated 1,851,000 people died from violence (35.3 per 100,000) in the world. There were an estimated 786,000 suicides. Overall suicide rates ranged from 3.4 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa to 30.4 per 100,000 in China. There were an estimated 563,000 homicides. Overall homicide rates ranged from 1.0 per 100,000 in established market economies to 44.8 per 100,000 in Sub-Saharan Africa with peaks among males aged 15-24 years old, and among females aged 0-4 years old. There were an estimated 502,000 war related deaths with peaks in rates for both sexes among people aged 0-4, 15-29, and 60-69 years old. The number of violence related deaths in the world is unacceptably high. Coordinated prevention and control efforts are urgently needed.

  12. Death, organ transplantation and medical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Schwartz, Michael A; Bailey, F Amos; Bos, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    A series of papers in Philosophy, Ethics and Humanities in Medicine (PEHM) have recently disputed whether non-heart beating organ donors are alive and whether non-heart beating organ donation (NHBD) contravenes the dead donor rule. Several authors who argue that NHBD involves harvesting organs from live patients appeal to "strong irreversibility" (death beyond the reach of resuscitative efforts to restore life) as a necessary criterion that patients must meet before physicians can declare them to be dead. Sam Shemie, who defends our current practice of NHBD, holds that in fact physicians consider patients to be dead or not according to physician intention to resuscitate or not. We suggest that criteria for a concept are not necessarily truth conditions for assertions involving the concept. Hence, non-heart beating donors may be declared dead without meeting the criterion of strong irreversibility even though strong irreversibility is implied by the concept of death. Our perception that a concept applies in a given case is determined not by the concept itself but by our necessary skill and judgment when using it. In the case of deciding that a patient is dead, such judgment is learned by physicians as they learn the practice of medicine and may vary according to circumstances. Current practice of NHBD can therefore be defended without abandoning death as an empirical concept, as Shemie appears to do. We conclude that the dead donor rule continues to be viable and ought to be retained so as to guarantee what the public most cares about as regards organ donation: that physicians can be trusted to make determinations of eligibility for organ donation in the interests of patients and not for other purposes such as increasing the availability of organs. PMID:18248665

  13. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman

    OpenAIRE

    Apolinário, Valdemar dos Passos

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Letras/Inglês e Literatura Correspondente Investiga como as questões político-sociais atingiram as personagens de Arthur Miller na peça Death of a Salesman, contribuindo para moldar suas personalidades e determinando o seu destino. Mostra que, para Arthur Miller, Benjamin Franklin foi a principal fonte de inspiração no seu retrato das preocupações políticas, da c...

  14. Symptoms Before Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glinge, Charlotte; Jabbari, Reza; Risgaard, Bjarke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: No studies in an unselected and nationwide setting have characterized the symptoms and medical history of patients with sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS). The aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptoms and medical history of patients before the presentation......%), palpitations (n = 2, 1%), presyncope/syncope (n = 23, 17%), and aborted SCD (n = 2, 1%). In addition, seizures (n = 25, 18%) were prevalent. In 61 (45%) SADS cases, no previous medical history were recorded. CONCLUSION: In this unselected, nationwide study of 136 young SADS patients, 35% had experienced...

  15. Science Fiction and Life after Death

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Stephen Louis

    2014-01-01

    Science fiction (SF) is, and has been since its inception as a self-conscious genre, centrally and persistently interested in presenting some version of or figure for an afterlife, some way to survive the death of the body, some place where our consciousness might live on after we die. We can find representations of an afterlife within every period of SF properly so-called, from late-nineteenth-century “scientific romance” to Campbellian magazine fiction, to the New Wave of the 1960s, to the ...

  16. Life and death of Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Maranhão Filho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Mikhailovich Bekhterev was a Russian innovative neuroscientist, extraordinary in the study, diagnosis, and research in the fields of neurology, psychology, morphology, physiology, and psychiatry. Considering the ample and multifaceted scientific feats, only some are touched in a very brief manner. However, it is necessary to highlight his contributions to neurology, with the description of structures, signs and syndromes, to physiology, including reflexology, which later underpinned behaviorism, to psychology, including objective psychology and suggestion. His accomplishments and legacy remained until the present days. Some comments about the scenery that involved his death are also presented.

  17. Forensic imaging for causal investigation of death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter; Sassenberg, Alina; Yen, Heidelberg

    2014-01-01

    A 63-year-old man was found in the street after overrun by a car. Postmortem CT revealed multiple bone fractures, but surprisingly all without any relevant hemorrhage which would have been expected under such circumstances. A round radiopaque formation was found in the duodenum, which was reminiscent of ingested tablets. The toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of zopiclone and alcohol. By combining radiologic and forensic results, zopiclone and alcohol intoxication were concluded as the cause of death, followed by a postmortem overrun accident.

  18. [Death with dignity - dignity life. A debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Morales, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Since 2010 in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia passed into law ″derechos y garantías de la dignidad de las personas en el proceso de muerte″. At national level, in Spain, it's disputed the need to legalize this delicate aspect therefore already been made some projects for legalization. This advised to review the pros and cons of some legislative implementation experiences and case mix in countries where it has already occurred. This paper undertakes the study of the implementation of the Death with Dignity Act in Oregon and highlight is what were the immediate consequences and risks that has produced a law of this nature.

  19. Forensic imaging for causal investigation of death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, David; Schlemmer, Heinz Peter [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Sassenberg, Alina; Yen, Heidelberg [Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    A 63-year-old man was found in the street after overrun by a car. Postmortem CT revealed multiple bone fractures, but surprisingly all without any relevant hemorrhage which would have been expected under such circumstances. A round radiopaque formation was found in the duodenum, which was reminiscent of ingested tablets. The toxicological analysis revealed high concentrations of zopiclone and alcohol. By combining radiologic and forensic results, zopiclone and alcohol intoxication were concluded as the cause of death, followed by a postmortem overrun accident.

  20. Hospice-assisted death? A study of Oregon hospices on death with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S; Cox, Jessica C

    2012-05-01

    Nearly 90% of terminally ill patients who have used Oregon's distinctive death with dignity law to receive a medication to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care programs. In 2009-2010, we conducted a study of the policies developed by Oregon hospices to address patient inquiries and requests for death with dignity. The study examined the stated hospice values and positions and identified the boundaries to participation drawn by the hospice programs to protect personal and programmatic integrity. The boundaries were drawn around 6 key caregiving considerations: (1) language regarding physician-assisted death (PAD); (2) informed decision making by patients; (3) collaboration with physicians; (4) provision of lethal medication; (5) assistance in the patient's act of taking the medication; and (6) staff presence at the time of medication ingestion.

  1. Evaluation of Life and Death Studies Course on Attitudes Toward Life and Death Among Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Lih Hwang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes toward life and death among nursing students after attending the life and death studies (LDS program. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. The pretest-posttest control group design randomly assigned students to an experimental (n = 47 or control group (n = 49. The 13-week course included lectures, video appraisal, games, simulations, films, books, assignments and group sharing. Statistical and content analysis were used to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. The findings showed a significant improvement in perception of the meaningfulness of life in four categories of improvement: expanded viewpoint, sadness about death, treating life sincerely, and instilling hope in life. The qualitative data indicated that a positive change in meaning of life was associated with interaction with others and self-reflection.

  2. Evaluation of life and death studies course on attitudes toward life and death among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Huei-Lih; Lin, Huey-Shyan; Chen, Wen-Tin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes toward life and death among nursing students after attending the life and death studies (LDS) program. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to collect data. The pretest-posttest control group design randomly assigned students to an experimental (n = 47) or control group (n = 49). The 13-week course included lectures, video appraisal, games, simulations, films, books, assignments and group sharing. Statistical and content analysis were used to analyze qualitative and quantitative data. The findings showed a significant improvement in perception of the meaningfulness of life in four categories of improvement: expanded viewpoint, sadness about death, treating life sincerely, and instilling hope in life. The qualitative data indicated that a positive change in meaning of life was associated with interaction with others and self-reflection.

  3. Causes of accidental childhood deaths in China in 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kit Yee; Yu, Xin-Wei; Lu, Jia-Peng

    2015-01-01

    -4 years in China, of which 31 633 (10.1%) were accidental. Accidental deaths contributed 7240 (4.0%) of all deaths in neonatal period, 8838 (10.5%) among all post-neonatal infant deaths, and 15 554 (31.7%) among children with 1-4 years of age. Among four tested models, the most predictive was used...

  4. Death and Violence in Some Victorian School Reading Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeorge, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Examines British and American 19th-century classroom readers and their treatment of death. Quantitatively analyzes several series, using a computer database for each volume. Finds that school readers reflected the Victorians' preoccupation with death and helped socialize children into the Victorian sense that death was ever at hand. (PA)

  5. Pediatric out-of-hospital deaths following hospital discharge: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Out-of-hospital death among children living in resource poor settings occurs frequently. Little is known about the location and circumstances of child death following a hospital discharge. Objectives: This study aimed to understand the context surrounding out-of-hospital deaths and the barriers to accessing ...

  6. 32 CFR 716.7 - Payment of the death gratuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certification and voucher for the death gratuity payment. The Comptroller General of the United States has... Certification and Voucher for Death Gratuity Payment, DD Form 397, in original and five copies, completing... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of the death gratuity. 716.7 Section 716...

  7. Anxiety and Death Anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M.; Tomas-Sabado, Joaquin

    2005-01-01

    Two samples of female nursing undergraduates from Egypt (n=132) and Spain (n=126) responded to the Arabic Scale of Death Anxiety, the Spanish Death Anxiety Inventory, the Templer's Death Anxiety Scale, the Kuwait University Anxiety Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Subscale. Each sample answered the scales in their native…

  8. Risk for Death among Children with Pneumonia, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihullah, Rahmani; Dhoubhadel, Bhim G; Rauf, Ferogh A; Shafiq, Sahab A; Suzuki, Motoi; Watanabe, Kiwao; Yoshida, Lay M; Yasunami, Michio; Zabihullah, Salihi; Parry, Christopher M; Mirwais, Rabi; Ariyoshi, Koya

    2017-08-01

    In Afghanistan, childhood deaths from pneumonia are high. Among 639 children at 1 hospital, the case-fatality rate was 12.1%, and 46.8% of pneumococcal serotypes detected were covered by the 13-valent vaccine. Most deaths occurred within 2 days of hospitalization; newborns and malnourished children were at risk. Vaccination could reduce pneumonia and deaths.

  9. 31 CFR 353.61 - Payment after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment after death. 353.61 Section 353.61 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... Payment after death. After the death of the ward, and at any time prior to the representative's discharge...

  10. 5 CFR 880.206 - Date of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of death. 880.206 Section 880.206...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Procedures § 880.206 Date of death... OPM, the date of death of a missing annuitant who has been determined to be dead by an authorized...

  11. 31 CFR 360.61 - Payment after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment after death. 360.61 Section 360.61 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL... after death. After the death of the ward, and at any time prior to the representative's discharge, the...

  12. 20 CFR 71.6 - Notice of injury or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of injury or death. 71.6 Section 71.6..., DISABILITY OR DEATH OF CIVILIAN AMERICAN CITIZENS INCURRED WHILE DETAINED BY OR IN HIDING FROM THE IMPERIAL JAPANESE GOVERNMENT GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.6 Notice of injury or death. Notwithstanding any of the...

  13. 20 CFR 211.13 - Payments made after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments made after death. 211.13 Section 211... CREDITABLE RAILROAD COMPENSATION § 211.13 Payments made after death. Payments made by an employer with respect to a deceased employee but paid after the calendar year of the employee's death to the employee's...

  14. 20 CFR 217.10 - Application filed after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application filed after death. 217.10 Section... APPLICATION FOR ANNUITY OR LUMP SUM Applications § 217.10 Application filed after death. (a) A survivor... expenses dies before applying for the lump-sum death payment under part 234 of this chapter. The...

  15. 31 CFR 315.61 - Payment after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment after death. 315.61 Section 315.61 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL..., Absentees, et al. § 315.61 Payment after death. After the death of the ward, and at any time prior to the...

  16. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  17. Where have all the gun deaths gone? | Matzopoulos | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The low number of firearm assaults and overall assault-related deaths in Statistics South Africa's death notification reports is incongruous with other recently released data, including police crime statistics. Methods. We conducted a review of all gunshot injuries recorded in death notifications from 1997 to 2013, ...

  18. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  19. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)--standardised investigations and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajanowski, Thomas; Vege, Ashild; Byard, Roger W

    2007-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) still accounts for considerable numbers of unexpected infant deaths in many countries. While numerous theories have been advanced to explain these events, it is increasingly clear that this group of infant deaths results from the complex interaction of a variet...

  20. 42 CFR 102.82 - Calculation of death benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of death benefits. 102.82 Section 102... COMPENSATION PROGRAM Calculation and Payment of Benefits § 102.82 Calculation of death benefits. (a... paragraph (d) of this section for the death benefit available to dependents. (2) Deceased person means an...

  1. Deathscapes: spaces for death, dying, mourning and remembrance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddrell, A.; Sidaway, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Death is at once a universal and everyday, but also an extraordinary experience in the lives of those affected. Death and bereavement are thereby intensified at (and frequently contained within) certain sites and regulated spaces, such as the hospital, the cemetery and the mortuary. However, death

  2. Contribution of indirect obstetric deaths to maternal mortality at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Maternal death is unacceptably high in this center like in most centers in the developing world. Objective: To determine the maternal mortality ratio and the contribution of the direct and indirect obstetric complications to maternal deaths. Method: A retrospective review of all maternal deaths at Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4341 - Death or insolvency of holder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death or insolvency of... Death or insolvency of holder. (a) Immediately upon the death of the holder and without the necessity of... applicable in the event of: (1) Insolvency of holder; (2) Initiation of any bankruptcy or reorganization, or...

  4. Reducing the Teen Death Rate. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Life continues to hold considerable risk for adolescents in the United States. In 2006, the teen death rate stood at 64 deaths per 100,000 teens (13,739 teens) (KIDS COUNT Data Center, 2009). Although it has declined by 4 percent since 2000, the rate of teen death in this country remains substantially higher than in many peer nations, based…

  5. Dignity, death, and dilemmas: a study of Washington hospices and physician-assisted death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Courtney S; Black, Margaret A

    2014-01-01

    The legalization of physician-assisted death in states such as Washington and Oregon has presented defining ethical issues for hospice programs because up to 90% of terminally ill patients who use the state-regulated procedure to end their lives are enrolled in hospice care. The authors recently partnered with the Washington State Hospice and Palliative Care Organization to examine the policies developed by individual hospice programs on program and staff participation in the Washington Death with Dignity Act. This article sets a national and local context for the discussion of hospice involvement in physician-assisted death, summarizes the content of hospice policies in Washington State, and presents an analysis of these findings. The study reveals meaningful differences among hospice programs about the integrity and identity of hospice and hospice care, leading to different policies, values, understandings of the medical procedure, and caregiving practices. In particular, the authors found differences 1) in the language used by hospices to refer to the Washington statute that reflect differences among national organizations, 2) the values that hospice programs draw on to support their policies, 3) dilemmas created by requests by patients for hospice staff to be present at a patient's death, and 4) five primary levels of noninvolvement and participation by hospice programs in requests from patients for physician-assisted death. This analysis concludes with a framework of questions for developing a comprehensive hospice policy on involvement in physician-assisted death and to assist national, state, local, and personal reflection. Copyright © 2014 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A population-based study of homicide deaths in Ontario, Canada using linked death records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaud, James; Donnelly, Peter D; Henry, David; Kornas, Kathy; Calzavara, Andrew; Bornbaum, Catherine; Rosella, Laura

    2017-07-24

    Homicide - a lethal expression of violence - has garnered little attention from public health researchers and health policy makers, despite the fact that homicides are a cause of preventable and premature death. Identifying populations at risk and the upstream determinants of homicide are important for addressing inequalities that hinder population health. This population-based study investigates the public health significance of homicides in Ontario, Canada, over the period of 1999-2012. We quantified the relative burden of homicides by comparing the socioeconomic gradient in homicides with the leading causes of death, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and neoplasm, and estimated the potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to homicide. We linked vital statistics from the Office of the Registrar General Deaths register (ORG-D) with Census and administrative data for all Ontario residents. We extracted all homicide, neoplasm, and cardiovascular deaths from 1999 to 2012, using International Classification of Diseases codes. For socioeconomic status (SES), we used two dimensions of the Ontario Marginalization Index (ON-Marg): material deprivation and residential instability. Trends were summarized across deprivation indices using age-specific rates, rate ratios, and PYLL. Young males, 15-29 years old, were the main victims of homicide with a rate of 3.85 [IC 95%: 3.56; 4.13] per 100,000 population and experienced an upward trend over the study period. The socioeconomic neighbourhood gradient was substantial and higher than the gradient for both cardiovascular and neoplasms. Finally, the PYLL due to homicide were 63,512 and 24,066 years for males and females, respectively. Homicides are an important cause of death among young males, and populations living in disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Our findings raise concerns about the burden of homicides in the Canadian population and the importance of addressing social determinants to address these premature deaths.

  7. VSED: Death With Dignity or Without?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Conceivably, in an ideal world, all patients with a life-limiting illness would receive optimal hospice and palliative care so that no one would ever wish to hasten their own death. The reality, however, is that despite provision of optimal hospice and palliative care, individuals with terminal illness experience suffering, loss of meaning, or deterioration in quality of life to the extent where they express the desire to expedite the dying process. While there has been extensive discussion surrounding physician-assisted death (PAD), there has been less attention paid to the practice of voluntary stopping eating and drinking (VSED) near the end of life. These twelve compelling narratives represent a dramatic groundswell of attention to the practice of VSED. Through my review of these narratives, numerous statements of significance emerged along with common ethical themes which bring to light matters that might otherwise remain idle. As such, integrity and autonomy become paramount while, unfortunately, logical fallacies like that of the slippery slope argument are asserted. Ultimately, the suffering that leads people to embrace VSED is compelling and must not be minimized. Therefore, this paper, while not comprehensive, is an attempt to dissect these major themes and offer recommendations for addressing concerns regarding end-of-life care that have surfaced during the VSED debate. It is through this endeavor that I will hopefully challenge prevailing assumptions and misconceptions that can only exist in an ideal world.

  8. Richard's back: death, scoliosis and myth making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mary Ann

    2015-12-01

    The body of a mediaeval monarch was always under scrutiny, and Richard III's was no exception. In death, however, his body became subject to new forms of examination and interpretation: stripped naked after the battle of Bosworth, his corpse was carried to Leicester and exhibited before being buried. In 2012, it was rediscovered. The revelation that Richard suffered from scoliosis prompts this article to re-evaluate the historical sources about Richard's physique and his posthumous reputation. This article argues that Richard's death and his myth as 'crookback' are inextricably linked and traces attitudes to spinal curvature in the early modern period. It also considers how Shakespeare represented Richard as deformed, and aspects of performance history which suggest physical vulnerability. It then considers Richard's scoliosis from the perspective of medical history, reviewing classical accounts of scoliosis and arguing that Richard was probably treated with a mixture of axial traction and pressure. It demonstrates from the evidence of Richard's medical household that he was well placed to receive hands-on therapies and considers in particular the role of his physician and surgeon, William Hobbes. Finally, it shows how the case of Richard III demonstrates the close relationship between politics and medicine in the period and the contorted process of historical myth making. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Initial conditions and entanglement sudden death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Eberly, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report results bearing on the behavior of non-local decoherence and its potential for being managed or even controlled. The decoherence process known as entanglement sudden death (ESD) can drive prepared entanglement to zero at the same time that local coherences and fidelity remain non-zero. For a generic ESD-susceptible Bell superposition state, we provide rules restricting the occurrence and timing of ESD, amounting to management tools over a continuous variation of initial conditions. These depend on only three parameters: initial purity, entanglement and excitation. Knowledge or control of initial phases is not needed. -- Highlights: ► We study the possibility of managing disentanglement through initial conditions. ► The initial parameters are the amount of entanglement, excitation, and purity. ► Entanglement sudden death (ESD) free and ESD susceptible phases are identified. ► ESD onset time is also presented in the ESD susceptible phase. ► Our results may guide experiments to prepare ESD free or delayed ESD states.

  10. Death During Simulation: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Benjamin J; DeMaria, Samuel; Katz, Daniel; Heller, Joshua A; Goldberg, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    One of the goals of simulation is to teach subjects critical skills and knowledge applicable to live encounters, without the risk of harming actual patients. Although simulation education has surged in medical training over the last two decades, several ethically challenging educational methods have arisen. Simulated death has arisen as one of these challenging issues and currently there is no consensus regarding how to best manage this controversial topic in the simulated environment. The goal of this review is to analyze how simulated mortality has been used and discover whether or not this tool is beneficial to learners. In May 2016, the authors performed a literature search on both Pubmed and the Cochrane database using multiple variations of keywords; they then searched bibliographies and related articles. There were 901 articles acquired in the initial search. The authors eliminated articles that were not relevant to the subject matter. After adding articles from bibliographies and related articles, the authors included the 43 articles cited in this article. As a result, the authors of this article believe that death, when used appropriately in simulation, can be an effective teaching tool and can be used in a responsible manner.

  11. Natural death and the work of perfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alexey

    1998-08-01

    The historic or traditional Christian view of pain (suffering) and death, especially as preserved by the Christians East (i.e., the Orthodox), is radically opposed to the modern secular obsession with avoidance of pain. Everything about this life has its goal or aim in a mystical reality, the Kingdom of Heaven, for which earthly life is a preparation. While neither illness nor health are seen as ends in themselves, both are viewed as proceeding from the will of God for our benefit and have no ultimate meaning or purpose outside of eternal life. Death may be a relief or an ending of suffering, but in itself it is not "good" but evil. Because they are the embodiment of lived theology, saints' lives can be a sure guide to understanding how to die as a traditional Christian. To illustrate this, I have chosen some examples from the lives of relatively recent saints. I myself am from the Russian Orthodox spiritual tradition, so all but one of my examples come from pre-Revolutionary Russia. The question is not so much whether or not a traditional Christian can countenance physician-assisted suicide, but rather, what is the meaning or purpose of pain and suffering in general. Is it part of the "work of perfection" required of those who wish to enter the Kingdom of Heaven and therefore not to be completely denied?

  12. Autophagic cell death: Loch Ness monster or endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Han-Ming; Codogno, Patrice

    2011-05-01

    The concept of autophagic cell death was first established based on observations of increased autophagic markers in dying cells. The major limitation of such a morphology-based definition of autophagic cell death is that it fails to establish the functional role of autophagy in the cell death process, and thus contributes to the confusion in the literature regarding the role of autophagy in cell death and cell survival. Here we propose to define autophagic cell death as a modality of non-apoptotic or necrotic programmed cell death in which autophagy serves as a cell death mechanism, upon meeting the following set of criteria: (i) cell death occurs without the involvement of apoptosis; (ii) there is an increase of autophagic flux, and not just an increase of the autophagic markers, in the dying cells; and (iii) suppression of autophagy via both pharmacological inhibitors and genetic approaches is able to rescue or prevent cell death. In light of this new definition, we will discuss some of the common problems and difficulties in the study of autophagic cell death and also revisit some well-reported cases of autophagic cell death, aiming to achieve a better understanding of whether autophagy is a real killer, an accomplice or just an innocent bystander in the course of cell death. At present, the physiological relevance of autophagic cell death is mainly observed in lower eukaryotes and invertebrates such as Dictyostelium discoideum and Drosophila melanogaster. We believe that such a clear definition of autophagic cell death will help us study and understand the physiological or pathological relevance of autophagic cell death in mammals.

  13. Drug-related celebrity deaths: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, Johannes M; Bleckwenn, Markus; Schnakenberg, Rieke; Skatulla, Philipp; Weckbecker, Klaus

    2016-12-09

    Celebrities are at risk for premature mortality as well as drug-related death. Despite being a vulnerable patient group, celebrities influence people's health behaviours through biological, psychological and social processes. Therefore, celebrity endorsement of the topic could be one way to challenge the current "opioid endemic". Our aim was to better understand the factors surrounding drug-related celebrity deaths by investigating the incidence as well as substances used between 1970 and 2015 using a cross-sectional study design. We searched public databases for drug-related celebrity deaths between 1970 and 2015. They were categorized for sex, profession, age at death, year of death and substances involved. The main outcome measures are descriptive values including number of drug deaths per year and substances involved. Secondary outcome measures are analytical questions to examine whether and which factors influence age at death and year of death (e.g. type of substance use disorder). We identified 220 celebrities who died a drug-related death with a clear indication of involved substances between 1970 and 2015. The average age at death was 38.6 years; 75% were male. Most celebrities died between the age of 25 and 40. The number of drug-related deaths increased in the 21st century, with a significant increase in the use of prescription opioids. Deaths involving prescription opioids and heroin were associated with a significantly lower mean age at death compared to deaths where these substances were not involved. Compared to the 20th century, the total number of celebrities who died from a drug-related death in the 21st century increased, possibly due to an increased involvement of prescription opioids. Negative effects on individual health decisions of celebrity's followers could be the result.

  14. The Moral Difference or Equivalence Between Continuous Sedation Until Death and Physician-Assisted Death: Word Games or War Games?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rys, S.; Deschepper, R.; Mortier, F.; Deliens, L.; Atkinson, D.; Bilsen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death

  15. Causes of death behind low life expectancy of Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The authors examined causes of death contributing to the relatively high mortality of Danish women born 1915-45, and evaluated the impact of smoking related causes of death. METHODS: Age-period-cohort analysis of mortality of Danish women aged 40-89 in 1960-98. Estimate of the negative...... curvature in parabola patterns for 50 causes of death. RESULTS: A total of 34 causes of death contributed to the relatively high mortality for women born 1915-45. The main contribution came from smoking-related causes of death. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a high smoking prevalence to be the main...

  16. Current state of the problem sudden infant death at home

    OpenAIRE

    Berlay Margarita Vasilievna; Kopylov Anatoliy Vasilievich; Karpov Sergey Mikhailovich

    2017-01-01

    The “Sudden Infant Death Syndrome” stands for unexpected nonviolent death of apparently healthy chest age child when there is no history or pathomorphological features which can be adequate explanations for death reasons. In Russian Federation, the death rate from this syndrome in the range of 0,06 to 2,8 per 1000 live births. In Stavropol region, average figures are equal to 0,36 per 1000 live births in the period of 2005–2014. Rates of incidence sudden infant death syndrome are similar to t...

  17. Mitochondrial fission proteins regulate programmed cell death in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannjiang, Yihru; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Lee, Sarah J; Qi, Bing; Pevsner, Jonathan; McCaffery, J Michael; Hill, R Blake; Basañez, Gorka; Hardwick, J Marie

    2004-11-15

    The possibility that single-cell organisms undergo programmed cell death has been questioned in part because they lack several key components of the mammalian cell death machinery. However, yeast encode a homolog of human Drp1, a mitochondrial fission protein that was shown previously to promote mammalian cell death and the excessive mitochondrial fragmentation characteristic of apoptotic mammalian cells. In support of a primordial origin of programmed cell death involving mitochondria, we found that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog of human Drp1, Dnm1, promotes mitochondrial fragmentation/degradation and cell death following treatment with several death stimuli. Two Dnm1-interacting factors also regulate yeast cell death. The WD40 repeat protein Mdv1/Net2 promotes cell death, consistent with its role in mitochondrial fission. In contrast to its fission function in healthy cells, Fis1 unexpectedly inhibits Dnm1-mediated mitochondrial fission and cysteine protease-dependent cell death in yeast. Furthermore, the ability of yeast Fis1 to inhibit mitochondrial fission and cell death can be functionally replaced by human Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Together, these findings indicate that yeast and mammalian cells have a conserved programmed death pathway regulated by a common molecular component, Drp1/Dnm1, that is inhibited by a Bcl-2-like function.

  18. Scale of Death Anxiety (SDA: Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study developed and validated a new measure to assess the death anxiety (i.e., Scale of Death Anxiety, SDA on an individual’s somatic, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions from a symptomatic perspective in Chinese youth samples. Following a systematic process, a four-factor structure of the SDA was identified through principle components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis that revealed four aspects of death anxiety: Dysphoria, Death Intrusion, Fear of Death, and Avoidance of Death. The results of this study indicate that the SDA has a clear factor structure and good psychometric properties. The SDA supports death anxiety as a multidimensional construct, and the foundational role of fear of death in the generation of death anxiety. This scale is valuable and beneficial to research on death anxiety. This study makes a significant contribution to the literature because the SDA is the first assessment of death anxiety to include the constructs of dysphoria and somatic symptoms. And the potential clinical practice of the SDA was discussed.

  19. The social construction of drug-related death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruts

    2000-12-01

    This article invites you to a social constructionist view on the issue of drug-related death. Social constructionism is often misunderstood for denying plain facts. It sure is a fact that there are deadly doses of legal and illegal substances. In this sense it is a truism that drugs kill people. Nonetheless, it is argued that reducing the causes of death to a certain drug as the essential underlying cause of death is a social construction. A case is discussed to demonstrate that a drug-related death can just as well be seen as a free-market death. Free markets kill people at least as much as drugs do. It is argued that drug-related death is a social construction, because attributing a death to a drug is based on unfalsifiable counterfactual thinking. Counterfactual thoughts about what the world would look like if there were no drugs, are seen as expressing one's view of life.

  20. A Sociocultural Approach to Children's Perceptions of Death and Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sungeun; Park, Soyeon

    2017-11-01

    By employing the phenomenographic approach, the present study explored children's cognitive understanding of and emotional responses to death and bereavement. Participants included 52 Korean, 16 Chinese, and 16 Chinese American children ages 5-6. Thematic analysis of children's drawings and open-ended interviews revealed that most children associated death with negative emotions such as fear, anxiety, and sadness. The majority of children used realistic expressions to narrate death. The core themes from their drawings included causes for death, attempts to stop the dying, and situations after death. This study contributes to the literature by targeting young children who have been relatively excluded in death studies and provides evidence in the usefulness of drawings as a developmentally appropriate data collection tool. The findings also enrich our knowledge about children's understanding of death and bereavement, rooted in the inductive analysis of empirical data with children from culturally diverse backgrounds.