WorldWideScience

Sample records for ifel region modifications

  1. Electron beam optics for the FEL experiment and IFEL experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Steenbergen, A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron beam transport system parameters for the FEL experiment and for the FEL experiment are given. The perturbation of the ''interaction region'' optics due to wiggler focussing is taken into account and a range of solutions are provided for relevant Twiss parameters in the FEL or IFEL region. Modifications of the transport optics in specific sections of the overall beam transport lines, for reasons of enhanced diagnostic capability or enhanced beam momentum analysis resolution, is also presented

  2. Micro-bunching diagnostics for the IFEL by coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cline, D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Here, we propose an effective method for detecting micro-bunching effects (10 fs bunch length) produced by the IFEL interaction, by measuring the CTR spectrum. The pre-bunching of an initially energy- modulated c- beam passing through a wiggler (IFEL interaction) is studied. Simulation shows that more than 40% of electrons are pre- bunched in the micro-bunches. The longitudinal distribution of an optically pre-bunched beam is Fourier analyzed to find the dominant harmonics contributing to the CTR. The CTR spectrum is calculated analytically for the IFEL situation. A detection system has been built to demonstrate this technique

  3. Acceleration of Electrons in a Diffraction Dominated IFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Musumeci, Pietro; Pellegrini, Claudio; Ralph, J; Rosenzweig, J B; Sung, C; Tochitsky, Sergei Ya; Travish, Gil

    2004-01-01

    We report on the observation of energy gain in excess of 20 MeV at the Inverse Free Electron Laser Accelerator experiment at the Neptune Laboratory at UCLA. A 14.5 MeV electron beam is injected ina 50 cm long undulator strongly tapered both in period and field amplitude. A CO2 10 μ m laser with power >300 GW is used as the IFEL driver. The Rayleigh range of the laser (1.8cm) is shorter than the undulator length so that the interaction is diffraction dominated. Few per cent of the injected particles are trapped in stable accelerating buckets and electrons with energies up to 35 MeV are detected on the magnetic spectrometers. Experimental results on the scaling of the accelerator characteristics versus input parameters like injection energy, laser focus position and laser power are discussed. Three dimensional simulations are in good agreement with the electron energy spectrums observed in the experiment and indicate that substantial energy exchange between laser and electron beam only occurs in the firs...

  4. An undulator with non-adiabatic tapering for the IFEL project

    CERN Document Server

    Varfolomeev, A A; Yarovoi, T V; Musumeci, P; Pellegrini, C; Rosenzweig, J

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design of a planar undulator with unusually strong tapering, for the inverse FEL experiment to be carried out in Neptune Lab. (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 410 (1998) 437) at UCLA. A powerful TW CO sub 2 laser will be used to accelerate electrons up to 50-60 MeV in 50 cm long undulator. A strong undulator tapering is needed because of the short Rayleigh length of the laser beam. Both the magnetic field and the undulator period are tapered to provide synchronicity of the laser beam interaction with a captured electron bunch along the whole undulator length. The most critical part of the undulator is the region near the laser focus. The main characteristics of the IFEL, such as the percentage of trapped electrons, energy of accelerated electrons and sensitivity to the laser focus transverse position, are given. The general principles of the design of this undulator construction can also be useful for high efficiency FEL amplifiers of intense laser modes.

  5. Physics study of the application of an IFEL [Induction Free-Electron Laser] to CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B.

    1990-01-01

    The ECH system requirements on CIT might be met by microwaves generated by an induction free-electron laser (IFEL). Design studies have assumed that the system is windowless, thus eliminating one of the most highly stressed components of the ECH system. The trade-off for this advantage is that the IFEL is exposed to tritium diffusing from CIT. As reported in the attached appendix, we have investigated the use of cryopumping to control the tritium diffusion to the IFEL. With one to three pumping stations (depending on size) we can reduce the level of tritium in the IFEL to a level that may not pose a breathing hazard after one year of operation. In addition, adding pumping may allow hands-on maintenance after one year. Preliminary indications are that likely accident scenarios will occur slowly enough to permit valves to be closed before the IFEL is significantly contaminated

  6. Experimental observation of IFEL micro-bunching using coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Cline, D.B.; Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam bunching in the optical wavelength was observed experimentally for the first time at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) using the Inverse Free Electron (IFEL) accelerator. The micro-bunched electron beam has been studied by measuring the coherent transition radiation (CTR). The authors have experimentally observed a quadratic dependency of the CTR signal with the charge of the electron beam and the observation distance

  7. Longitudinal phase space manipulation of an ultrashort electron beam via THz IFEL interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. T.; Li, R. K.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles California, 90095 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    A scheme where a laser locked THz source is used to manipulate the longitudinal phase space of an ultrashort electron beam using an IFEL interaction is investigated. The efficiency of THz source based on the pulse front tilt optical rectification scheme is increased by cryogenic cooling to achieve sufficient THz power for compression and synchronization. Start-to-end simulations describing the evolution of the beam from the cathode to the compression point after the undulator are presented.

  8. Longitudinal phase space manipulation of an ultrashort electron beam via THz IFEL interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J. T.; Li, R. K.; Musumeci, P.; Scoby, C. M.; To, H.

    2012-01-01

    A scheme where a laser locked THz source is used to manipulate the longitudinal phase space of an ultrashort electron beam using an IFEL interaction is investigated. The efficiency of THz source based on the pulse front tilt optical rectification scheme is increased by cryogenic cooling to achieve sufficient THz power for compression and synchronization. Start-to-end simulations describing the evolution of the beam from the cathode to the compression point after the undulator are presented.

  9. Context and Cardiovascular Risk Modification in Two Regions of Ontario, Canada: A Photo Elicitation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Chevrier-Lamoureux

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases, which include coronary heart diseases (CHD, remain the leading cause of death in Canada and other industrialized countries. This qualitative study used photo-elicitation, focus groups and in-depth interviews to understand health behaviour change from the perspectives of 38 people who were aware of their high risk for CHD and had received information about cardiovascular risk modification while participating in a larger intervention study. Participants were drawn from two selected regions: Sudbury and District (northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area (southern Ontario. Analysis drew on concepts of place and space to capture the complex interplay between geographic location, sociodemographic position, and people‟s efforts to understand and modify their risk for CHD. Three major sites of difference and ambiguity emerged: 1 place and access to health resources; 2 time and food culture; and 3 itineraries or travels through multiple locations. All participants reported difficulties in learning and adhering to new lifestyle patterns, but access to supportive health resources was different in the two regions. Even within regions, subgroups experienced different patterns of constraint and advantage. In each region, “fast” food and traditional foods were entrenched within different temporal and social meanings. Finally, different and shifting strategies for risk modification were required at various points during daily and seasonal travels through neighbourhoods, to workplaces, or on vacation. Thus health education for CHD risk modification should be place-specific and tailored to the needs and resources of specific communities.

  10. Modification and implementation of NCCN guidelines on lymphomas in the Middle East and North Africa region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarbachi, Ali; Azim, Hamdy A; Alizadeh, Hussain; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Barista, Ibrahim; Chaudhri, Naeem A; Fahed, Zahira; Fahmy, Omar A; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Khalaf, Mohamed H; Khatib, Sami; Kutoubi, Aghiad; Paydas, Semra; Elayoubi, Hanadi Rafii; Zaatari, Ghazi; Zawam, Hamdy M; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2010-07-01

    In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, cancer has many epidemiologic and clinical features that are different from those in the rest of the world. Additionally, the region has a relatively young population and large disparities in the availability of resources at diagnostic and treatment levels. A critical need exists for regional guidelines on cancer care, including those for lymphoid malignancies. A panel of lymphoma experts from MENA reviewed the 2009 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Hodgkin Lymphoma and suggested modifications for the region that were discussed with the United States NCCN Lymphoma Panels. This article presents the consensus recommendations.

  11. Scarless and sequential gene modification in Pseudomonas using PCR product flanked by short homology regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Rubing

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lambda Red recombination system has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in various bacteria and fungi. The procedure consists of electroporating a polymerase chain reaction (PCR fragment containing antibiotic cassette flanked by homology regions to the target locus into a strain that can express the lambda Red proteins (Gam, Bet, Exo. Results Here a scarless gene modification strategy based on the Red recombination system has been developed to modify Pseudomonas genome DNA via sequential deletion of multiple targets. This process was mediated by plasmid pRKaraRed encoding the Red proteins regulated by PBAD promoter, which was functional in P. aeruginosa as well as in other bacteria. First the target gene was substituted for the sacB-bla cassette flanked by short homology regions (50 bp, and then this marker gene cassette could be replaced by the PCR fragment flanking itself, generating target-deleted genome without any remnants and no change happened to the surrounding region. Twenty genes involved in the synthesis and regulation pathways of the phenazine derivate, pyocyanin, were modified, including one single-point mutation and deletion of two large operons. The recombination efficiencies ranged from 88% to 98%. Multiple-gene modification was also achieved, generating a triple-gene deletion strain PCA (PAO1, ΔphzHΔphzMΔphzS, which could produce another phenazine derivate, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA, efficiently and exclusively. Conclusions This lambda Red-based technique can be used to generate scarless and sequential gene modification mutants of P. aeruginosa efficiently, using one-step PCR product flanked by short homology regions. Single-point mutation, scarless deletion of genes can be achieved easily in less than three days. This method may give a new way to construct genetically modified P. aeruginosa strains more efficiently and advance the regulatory network study of this organism.

  12. Covalent protein modification with ISG15 via a conserved cysteine in the hinge region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika N Bade

    Full Text Available The ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (interferon-stimulated gene of 15 kDa is strongly induced by type I interferons and displays antiviral activity. As other ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls, ISG15 is post-translationally conjugated to substrate proteins by an isopeptide bond between the C-terminal glycine of ISG15 and the side chains of lysine residues in the substrates (ISGylation. ISG15 consists of two ubiquitin-like domains that are separated by a hinge region. In many orthologs, this region contains a single highly reactive cysteine residue. Several hundred potential substrates for ISGylation have been identified but only a few of them have been rigorously verified. In order to investigate the modification of several ISG15 substrates, we have purified ISG15 conjugates from cell extracts by metal-chelate affinity purification and immunoprecipitations. We found that the levels of proteins modified by human ISG15 can be decreased by the addition of reducing agents. With the help of thiol blocking reagents, a mutational analysis and miRNA mediated knock-down of ISG15 expression, we revealed that this modification occurs in living cells via a disulphide bridge between the substrates and Cys78 in the hinge region of ISG15. While the ISG15 activating enzyme UBE1L is conjugated by ISG15 in the classical way, we show that the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 can either be classically conjugated by ISG15 or can form a disulphide bridge with ISG15 at the active site cysteine 87. The latter modification would interfere with its function as ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. However, we found no evidence for an ISG15 modification of the dynamin-like GTPases MxA and hGBP1. These findings indicate that the analysis of potential substrates for ISG15 conjugation must be performed with great care to distinguish between the two types of modification since many assays such as immunoprecipitation or metal-chelate affinity purification are performed with little or no

  13. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jungwoo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jennifer H., E-mail: j_shin@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Doyoung, E-mail: dybyun@skku.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  14. RF plasma based selective modification of hydrophilic regions on super hydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyun; Hwang, Sangyeon; Cho, Dae-Hyun; Hong, Jungwoo; Shin, Jennifer H.; Byun, Doyoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and amenable reforming method for a substrate with disparate patterns of hydrophilic dots on super-hydrophobic surfaces is proposed. • Wettability characteristics and modification mechanism for the surfaces are conducted and revealed through SEM, AFM, WSI, and SIMS. • Several representative materials for various applications are successfully deposited. - Abstract: Selective modification and regional alterations of the surface property have gained a great deal of attention to many engineers. In this paper, we present a simple, a cost-effective, and amendable reforming method for disparate patterns of hydrophilic regions on super-hydrophobic surfaces. Uniform super-hydrophobic layer (Contact angle; CA > 150°, root mean square (RMS) roughness ∼0.28 nm) can be formed using the atmospheric radio frequency (RF) plasma on top of the selective hydrophilic (CA ∼ 70°, RMS roughness ∼0.34 nm) patterns imprinted by electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technology with polar alcohols (butyl carbitol or ethanol). The wettability of the modified surface was investigated qualitatively utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and wavelength scanning interferometer (WSI). Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis showed that the alcohol addiction reaction changed the types of radicals on the super-hydrophobic surface. The wettability was found to depend sensitively on chemical radicals on the surface, not on surface morphology (particle size and surface roughness). Furthermore, three different kinds of representative hydrophilic samples (polystyrene nano-particle aqueous solution, Salmonella bacteria medium, and poly(3,4-ethylenediocythiophene) ink) were tested for uniform deposition onto the desired hydrophilic regions. This simple strategy would have broad applications in various research fields that require selective deposition of target materials.

  15. Modification of the Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Shimazu, Y.; Narabayashi, T.; Tsuji, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear Ship Mutsu was developed as the first experimental nuclear ship of Japan. It has several advantages as a prototype for regional energy supply system. Considering the attractive advantages of the Mutsu reactor, we investigated the feasibility of development of a small regional energy system by adopting the Mutsu reactor as a starting model. The system could supply with not only electricity but also heat. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on, especially for those in northern part of Japan. The system should satisfy the requirements for GEN IV systems and the current regulations. From this point of view, the modification of the reactor was initiated by taking into improvements and technology of the state of arts to fulfill the requirements such as (1) Longer core life without refueling, (2) Reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) Simpler operations for load changes and (4) Ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. Currently it is assumed to use basic standard 17x17 fuel assembly design for WH type PWRs. Nuclear design calculations are carried out by 'SRAC 2002 ', which has been developed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Several problems have not been solved yet, but we confirmed the proposed core has about 10 years life time. So the proposed core has a possibility to be used for a small regional energy system. (authors)

  16. ChIPnorm: a statistical method for normalizing and identifying differential regions in histone modification ChIP-seq libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nishanth Ulhas; Sahu, Avinash Das; Bucher, Philipp; Moret, Bernard M E

    2012-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput technologies such as ChIP-seq has made possible the study of histone modifications. A problem of particular interest is the identification of regions of the genome where different cell types from the same organism exhibit different patterns of histone enrichment. This problem turns out to be surprisingly difficult, even in simple pairwise comparisons, because of the significant level of noise in ChIP-seq data. In this paper we propose a two-stage statistical method, called ChIPnorm, to normalize ChIP-seq data, and to find differential regions in the genome, given two libraries of histone modifications of different cell types. We show that the ChIPnorm method removes most of the noise and bias in the data and outperforms other normalization methods. We correlate the histone marks with gene expression data and confirm that histone modifications H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 act as respectively a repressor and an activator of genes. Compared to what was previously reported in the literature, we find that a substantially higher fraction of bivalent marks in ES cells for H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 move into a K27-only state. We find that most of the promoter regions in protein-coding genes have differential histone-modification sites. The software for this work can be downloaded from http://lcbb.epfl.ch/software.html.

  17. Surface modification of PTFE sheet by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Kanda, K.; Haruyama, Y.; Matsui, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The surface properties of poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) are changed by the exposure to synchrotron radiation (SR). We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the PTFE surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by varying the substrate temperature during the SR irradiation and found that the wettability was ascribable to microstructure and chemical composition of surface.In these previous works, oxygen atoms were found to inhabit on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE. In this study, we investigated the surface modification of PTFE from the SR exposure experiment under the O 2 gas atmosphere. The SR exposure to the PTFE sheet was carried out at beamline 6 (BL6) of the New- SUBARU. The PTFE sheet was irradiated to the white beam, ranging 50-1000 eV at BL6 at room temperature. The gas cell was mounted at the irradiation chamber. The O 2 gas pressure in the gas cell can be maintained at about 0.20 Pa during the SR exposure using 5mm φ hole window. The wettability of PTFE surface was evaluated by the contact angle of a small water drop. Contact angle was measured with the water drop of 1 μl using the contact angle meter. Fig.1 shows the SR dose dependence of contact angle of PTFE surface under the O 2 gas atmosphere and under the vacuum. Contact angle decreased monotonically with SR dose. The decrease rate of contact angle of the PTFE surface irradiated under the O 2 gas atmosphere was larger than that of the PTFE surface irradiated without O 2 gas. Therefore, the combination of O atom to the PTFE surface was enhanced by the O 2 gas in the reaction region. These results suggested that the bonding of O atom on the hydrophobic PTFE surface is dominantly produced in the sample chamber during SR irradiation, but not in the air atmosphere after the SR irradiation

  18. The influence of airflow inlet region modifications on the local efficiency of natural draft cooling tower operation

    OpenAIRE

    Hočevar, Marko; Širok, Brane; Dvoršek, Matjaž; Holeček, Nikola; Donevski, Božin

    2015-01-01

    We present the influence of the cooling tower airflow inlet region modifications at the Šoštanj 4 thermal power plant on cooling tower local efficiency. Local efficiency change was estimated based on temperature fields of drift eliminators before and after the reconstruction of the cooling tower. Temperature fields were measured with thermal vision method. The local reduction of cooling tower efficiency was analyzed based on phenomenological relations of heat transfer obtained from the select...

  19. Sustainable land cover and terrain modification to enhance convection and precipitation in the arid region of the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V.; Branch, O.; Adebabseh, A.; Temimi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Irrigated plantations and modified terrain can provide a sustainable means of enhancing convective rainfall in arid regions like the United Arab Emirates, or UAE, and can be used to aid ongoing cloud seeding operations through the geographic-localization of seedable cloud formation. The first method, the planting of vast irrigated plantations of hardy desert shrubs, can lead to wind convergence and vertical mixing through increased roughness and modified radiative balances. When upper-air atmospheric instability is present, these phenomena can initiate convection. The second method, increasing the elevation of moderate-sized mountains, is based on the correlation between elevation and the number of summertime convection initiation events observed in the mountains of the UAE and Oman. This augmentation of existing orographic features should therefore increase the likelihood and geographic range of convection initiation events. High-resolution simulations provide a powerful means of assessing the likely impacts of land surface modifications. Previous convection-permitting simulations have yielded some evidential support for these hypotheses, but higher resolutions down to 1 km provide more detail regarding convective processes and land surface representation. Using seasonal simulations with the WRF-NOAHMP land-atmosphere model at a 2.5 km resolution, we identify frequent zones of convergence and atmospheric instability in the UAE and select interesting cases. Using these results, as well as an agricultural feasibility study, we identify optimal plantation positions within the UAE. We then run realistic plantation scenarios for single case studies at 1 km resolution. Using the same cases, we simulate the impact of augmenting mountain elevations on convective processes, with the augmentation being achieved through GIS-based modification of the terrain data. For both methods, we assess the impacts quantitatively and qualitatively, and assess key processes and

  20. Simulation of D and E region high-power microwave heating with HF ionospheric modification experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltz, G.; Rush, C.M.; Violette, E.J.

    1981-01-01

    The microwave power beam from a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) is sufficiently intense to cause large changes in the properties of the lower ionosphere by ohmic heating of the plasma. Power is absorbed from the beam at a rate that is proportional to the ratio of the flux s and the square of an effective frequency f/sub e/. Throughout most of the lower ionosphere f/sub e/ = f -+ f/sub L/, where f is the wave frequency and f/sub L is a reduced electron gyrofrequency. It follows that SPS equivalent heating can be simulated at much lower power fluxes with HF radio waves. A detailed examination of the frequency scaling, based on fluid and kinetic theory estimates of the change in electron temperature and density, shows that the high-power HF facility at Platteville, CO, can simulate or exceed the ohmic effects of the SPS beam up to 90 km. This paper describes the results of a series of 5.2 and 9.9 MHz underdense heating experiments undertaken to study the effect of high-power microwaves on the lower ionosphere. A pulsed ionosonde probe, located nearly below the most intense portion of the high-power beam, was used to observe the changes in the D and lower E region. Both phase and amplitude measurements were recorded during CW and intermittent heating

  1. Rates and factors associated with major modifications to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy: results from the Asia-Pacific region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wright

    Full Text Available In the Asia-Pacific region many countries have adopted the WHO's public health approach to HIV care and treatment. We performed exploratory analyses of the factors associated with first major modification to first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (ART in resource-rich and resource-limited countries in the region.We selected treatment naive HIV-positive adults from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD. We dichotomised each country's per capita income into high/upper-middle (T-H and lower-middle/low (T-L. Survival methods stratified by income were used to explore time to first major modification of first-line ART and associated factors. We defined a treatment modification as either initiation of a new class of antiretroviral (ARV or a substitution of two or more ARV agents from within the same ARV class.A total of 4250 patients had 961 major modifications to first-line ART in the first five years of therapy. The cumulative incidence (95% CI of treatment modification was 0.48 (0.44-0.52, 0.33 (0.30-0.36 and 0.21 (0.18-0.23 for AHOD, T-H and T-L respectively. We found no strong associations between typical patient characteristic factors and rates of treatment modification. In AHOD, relative to sites that monitor twice-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, quarterly monitoring corresponded with a doubling of the rate of treatment modifications. In T-H, relative to sites that monitor once-yearly (both CD4 and HIV RNA-VL, monitoring twice-yearly corresponded to a 1.8 factor increase in treatment modifications. In T-L, no sites on average monitored both CD4 & HIV RNA-VL concurrently once-yearly. We found no differences in rates of modifications for once- or twice-yearly CD4 count monitoring.Low-income countries tended to have lower rates of major modifications made to first-line ART compared to higher-income countries. In higher-income countries, an increased rate of RNA-VL monitoring was

  2. Modification of Japanese first nuclear ship reactor for a regional energy supply system using gadolinia as a burnable poison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kotaro; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Tsuji, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    In our laboratory, a small regional energy supply system which uses a small nuclear reactor has been studied for a long time. This system could supply not only heat but also electricity. Heat could be used for hot-water supply, a heating system of a house, melting snow and so on. In this point, this system seems to be useful for the places like northern part of Japan where it snows in winter. This reactor is based on Nuclear Ship Mutsu which was developed as the first nuclear ship of Japan about 40 years ago. It has several advantages for a small reactor. For example, its moderator temperature coefficient is always to be deeply negative because boric acid solution is not used in moderator and coolant. This can lead to a self-controlled operation without control rod maneuvering for load change. But some modifications have been performed in order to satisfy requirements such as (1) longer core life without refueling and reshuffling, (2) reactivity adjustment for load change without control rods or soluble boron, (3) simpler operations for load changes and (4) ultimate safety with sufficient passive capability. In our previous study, we confirmed the core based on Mutsu core had longer core life (about 10 years) using high uranium enrichment fuel (more than 5wt%) and current 17x17 fuel assemblies. We also confirmed excess reactivity during the cycle could be suppressed using combination of erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) and gadolinium oxide (Gd 2 O 3 ) as burnable poisons. Er 2 O 3 has advantages such that criticality safety can be kept even if uranium enrichment is more than 5wt% and burnup characteristics of the core can be gradual. But at this time there are 2 problems to apply for the core using Er 2 O 3 in Japan. First problem is that more than 5wt% enrichment fuel is not yet accepted in Japan. Second problem is that there are no experiences of using Er 2 O 3 in commercial reactors in Japan. Considering these problems, we have to modify the design of the core, using

  3. Relative impacts of worldwide tropospheric ozone changes and regional emission modifications on European surface-ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-scale models were applied to assess the surface ozone changes in 2030. Several emission scenarios are considered, ranging from (a) a pessimistic anthropogenic emission increase to (b) an optimistic decrease of emissions, and including (c) a realistic scenario that assumes the implementation of control legislations [CLE]. The two extreme scenarios lead respectively to homogeneous global increase and decrease of surface ozone, whereas low and inhomogeneous changes associated with a slight global increase of ozone are found for the CLE scenario. Over western Europe, for the CLE scenario, the benefit of European emission reduction is significantly counterbalanced by increasing global ozone levels. Considering warmer conditions over Europe and future emission modifications, the human health exposure to surface ozone is found to be significantly worsened. (authors)

  4. Modifications in climate suitability for wine production of Romanian wine regions as a result of climate change

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    Irimia Liviu Mihai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to reveal the shifts in climate suitability for wine production affecting Romanian wine growing regions. For this, we analyzed the spatial distribution over Romanian territory of the oenoclimate aptitude index (IAOe for the 1961 to 1990 and 1991 to 2013 time periods. The IAOe has been calculated based on gridded data at 10 × 10 km resolution of average daily temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration between 1961–2013, originating from about 150 weather stations across Romanian territory and recorded in the ROCADA database. The study reveals: northward shifts and to higher altitudes of suitability for wine production; the appearance of new areas suitable for wine production; the expansion or the shrinkage of the current areas suitable for wine production; shifts in classes of suitability for wine production in the current wine regions and appearance of premises of replacing their specific varieties and traditional wine type production; the tendency to level climate suitability at regional scale by diminishing suitability for white wines and replacing it with climate suitability for red wines. The study provides a solid support for developing strategies to adapt Romanian viticulture to climate change.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene modification in transgenic animals: functional consequences of selected exon and regulatory region deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Shelley; Zhang, Limin; Marquez, Michael; de la Torre, Brian; Long, Jeffery M; Bucht, Goran; Taylor, Palmer

    2005-12-15

    AChE is an alternatively spliced gene. Exons 2, 3 and 4 are invariantly spliced, and this sequence is responsible for catalytic function. The 3' alternatively spliced exons, 5 and 6, are responsible for AChE disposition in tissue [J. Massoulie, The origin of the molecular diversity and functional anchoring of cholinesterases. Neurosignals 11 (3) (2002) 130-143; Y. Li, S. Camp, P. Taylor, Tissue-specific expression and alternative mRNA processing of the mammalian acetylcholinesterase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (8) (1993) 5790-5797]. The splice to exon 5 produces the GPI anchored form of AChE found in the hematopoietic system, whereas the splice to exon 6 produces a sequence that binds to the structural subunits PRiMA and ColQ, producing AChE expression in brain and muscle. A third alternative RNA species is present that is not spliced at the 3' end; the intron 3' of exon 4 is used as coding sequence and produces the read-through, unanchored form of AChE. In order to further understand the role of alternative splicing in the expression of the AChE gene, we have used homologous recombination in stem cells to produce gene specific deletions in mice. Alternatively and together exon 5 and exon 6 were deleted. A cassette containing the neomycin gene flanked by loxP sites was used to replace the exon(s) of interest. Tissue analysis of mice with exon 5 deleted and the neomycin cassette retained showed very low levels of AChE expression, far less than would have been anticipated. Only the read-through species of the enzyme was produced; clearly the inclusion of the selection cassette disrupted splicing of exon 4 to exon 6. The selection cassette was then deleted in exon 5, exon 6 and exons 5 + 6 deleted mice by breeding to Ella-cre transgenic mice. AChE expression in serum, brain and muscle has been analyzed. Another AChE gene targeted mouse strain involving a region in the first intron, found to be critical for AChE expression in muscle cells [S. Camp, L. Zhang, M. Marquez, B

  6. Modification of conventional X-ray diffractometer for the measurement of phase distribution in a narrow region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yang-Soon; Han, Sun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Goo; Jee, Kwang-Yong; Kim, Won-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    An X-ray diffractometer for spatially resolved X-ray diffraction measurements was developed to identify phase in the narrow (micron-scaled) region of high burn-up fuels and some nuclear materials. The micro-SRD was composed of an X-ray microbeam alignment system and a sample micro translation system instead of a normal slit and a fixed sample stage in a commercial XRD. The X-ray microbeam alignment system was fabricated with a microbeam concentrator having two Ni deposited mirrors, a vertical positioner, and a tilt table for the generation of a concentrated microbeam. The sample micro translation system was made with a sample holder and a horizontal translator, allowing movement of a specimen at 5 {mu}m steps. The angular intensity profile of the microbeam generated through a concentrator was symmetric and not distorted. The size of the microbeam was 4,000 x 20{mu}m and the spatial resolution of the beam was 47 {mu}m at the sample position. When the diffraction peaks were measured for a UO{sub 2} pellet specimen by this system, the reproducibility (2{theta} = {+-}0.01 .deg.) of the peaks was as good as a conventional X-ray diffractometer. For the cross section of oxidized titanium metal, not only TiO{sub 2} in an outer layer but also TiO near an oxide-metal interface was observed.

  7. Modification of growth medium of mixed-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern java coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudibyo Hanifrahmawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there is growing interest in microalgae as production organisms. Microalgae contain lipids (oil, proteins and carbohydrates (sugars, and, especially marine algae have been used as food and feed for centuries. Recently, production cost reduction related to the supply of growth nutrients is necessary to make it profitable. Therefore, utilization of molasses, a byproduct of sugar production, as the natural carbon, macronutrients, and micronutrients sources can be helpful. The analysis showed that the content of sucrose, glucose, fructose, potassium, zinc, and magnesium was 68.4% w/w, 18.5% w/w, and 13.1% w/w, 5.5% w/w, 3.91 ppm, and 1,370 ppm respectively. This work aimed to determine the effect of molasses addition to the physio-chemical properties of multi-culture species of microalgae isolated from southern Java coastal region in Indonesia grown under mixotrophic culture. The cultivation in this work used medium which was self-formulated by the authors consisting of NaNO3 (5 mL/L, H3BO3 (1 mL/L, EDTA (1 mL/L, N2H2PO4 (5 mL/L, FeSO4 (1 mL/L, MgSO4 (1 mL/L, NaCl (1 mL/L, micronutrients (1 mL/L, vitamin B1 (1 mL/L, and vitamin B12 (1 mL/L in 500 mL of water. The medium will be treated to have molasses concentration of 0.05% v/v, 0.15% v/v, 0.25% v/v, 0.35% v/v, and 0.45% v/v.

  8. Genetic modification of Lactobacillus plantarum by heterologous gene integration in a not functional region of the chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Franca; Capodaglio, Alessandro; Dellaglio, Franco

    2008-08-01

    This report describes the vector-free engineering of Lactobacillus plantarum by chromosomal integration of an exogenous gene without inactivation of physiological traits. The integrative plasmid vector pP7B6 was derived from pGIP73 by replacing the cbh site, encoding the L. plantarum conjugated bile salt hydrolase, with the prophage fragment P7B6, from L. plantarum Lp80 (DSM 4229). Plasmid pP7B6NI was obtained by inserting the nisin immunity gene nisI of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DSM 20729, preceded by the constitutive promoter P32 from the same strain, in a unique XbaI site of fragment P7B6 and was used to electrotransform L. plantarum Lp80. A food grade recombinant L. plantarum Lp80NI, with 480-fold higher immunity to nisin than the wild type, was derived by integration of pP7B6NI followed by the excision of pP7B6. Polymerase chain reaction tests demonstrated that the integration of nisI in the prophage region had occurred and that the erythromycin resistance marker from pP7B6 was lost. Fifteen among 31 L. plantarum strains tested hybridized with P7B6, indicating that the integration of pP7B6-derived vectors might occur in some other L. plantarum strains. This was experimentally confirmed by constructing the recombinant strain L. plantarum LZNI from the dairy isolate L. plantarum LZ (LMG 24600).

  9. A modification to the SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region method provides phylogenetic insights within Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae Una modificación al método SCAR (Sequence Characterized Amplified Region aporta entendimiento filogenético en Ceratozamia (Zamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores González

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic relationships among closely related plant species are still problematic. DNA intergenic regions often are insufficiently variable to provide desired resolution or support. In this study, a modification to the Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR method was used to find polymorphic loci for phylogenetic analyses within Ceratozamia. RAPD markers were first used to detect variation in 5 species. Then, equal length fragments found in 2 or more species were excised from the gel, purified and digested with frequent cutter restriction enzymes for isolating both ends, which have the same primer site. Digested fragments were sequenced with the RAPD primer. Variable sequences were used to design specific primers for amplifying and sequencing in all species for phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirmed the previously known high genome sequence resemblance within this genus that contrasts with its high morphological variation. Only 7 parsimony informative characters were found with this approach. Nonetheless, the Digested-SCAR (D-SCAR method provided some phylogenetic insights. Four main clades consistent with distribution ranges of the species were detected. The approach presented here was effective to solve some relationships within the genus and can potentially be implemented in other organisms to find polymorphic loci for phylogenetic studies at any taxonomic level.Las relaciones filogenéticas entre especies de plantas cercanamente relacionadas es aún problemático. Las regiones intergénicas del ADN son a menudo insuficientemente variables para proveer los niveles de resolución y soporte deseados. En este estudio, se usó una modificación al método Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR para encontrar loci polimórficos para análisis filogenéticos en Ceratozamia. Primero se usaron marcadores RAPD para detectar variación en 5 especies; luego, se cortaron del gel los fragmentos de la misma longitud en 2 o m

  10. Exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine affects histone and RNA polymerase II modifications, but not DNA methylation status, in the regulatory region of the Xenopus laevis thyroid hormone receptor βΑ gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kentaro; Nishiyama, Norihito; Izumi, Yushi; Otsuka, Shunsuke; Ishihara, Akinori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi

    2015-11-06

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in amphibian metamorphosis, during which the TH receptor (TR) gene, thrb, is upregulated in a tissue-specific manner. The Xenopus laevis thrb gene has 3 TH response elements (TREs) in the 5' flanking regulatory region and 1 TRE in the exon b region, around which CpG sites are highly distributed. To clarify whether exposure to 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) affects histone and RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) modifications and the level of DNA methylation in the 5' regulatory region, we conducted reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, bisulfite sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay using X. laevis cultured cells and premetamorphic tadpoles treated with or without 2 nM T3. Exposure to T3 increased the amount of the thrb transcript, in parallel with enhanced histone H4 acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, and probably phosphorylation of RNAPII at serine 5, in the 5' regulatory and exon b regions. However, the 5' regulatory region remained hypermethylated even with exposure to T3, and there was no significant difference in the methylation status between DNAs from T3-untreated and -treated cultured cells or tadpole tissues. Our results demonstrate that exposure to T3 induced euchromatin-associated epigenetic marks by enhancing histone acetylation and RNAPII recruitment, but not by decreasing the level of DNA methylation, in the 5' regulatory region of the X. laevis thrb gene. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Difference in chemical reactions in bulk plasma and sheath regions during surface modification of graphene oxide film using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung-Youp; Kim, Chan; Kim, Hong Tak, E-mail: zam89blue@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-14

    Reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films were obtained from capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma treatment of spin-coated graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature. Variations were evaluated according to the two plasma treatment regions: the bulk plasma region (R{sub bulk}) and the sheath region (R{sub sheath}). Reduction and nitridation of the GO films began as soon as the NH{sub 3} plasma was exposed to both regions. However, with the increase in treatment time, the reduction and nitridation reactions differed in each region. In the R{sub bulk}, NH{sub 3} plasma ions reacted chemically with oxygen functional groups on the GO films, which was highly effective for reduction and nitridation. While in the R{sub sheath}, physical reactions by ion bombardment were dominant because plasma ions were accelerated by the strong electrical field. The accelerated plasma ions reacted not only with the oxygen functional groups but also with the broken carbon chains, which caused the removal of the GO films by the formation of hydrocarbon gas species. These results showed that reduction and nitridation in the R{sub bulk} using capacitively coupled NH{sub 3} plasma were very effective for modifying the properties of r-GO films for application as transparent conductive films.

  12. The impact of land-cover modification on the June meteorology of China since 1700, simulated using a regional climate model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Pitman, A.J.; Zhao, M.; Leemans, R.

    2003-01-01

    A series of simulations was conducted using a regional climate model with a domain covering mainland China. Simulations were conducted for a single June using estimated land cover for 1700, 1750, 1800, 1850, 1900, 1950, 1970 and 1990. The conversion of land cover between these periods was extensive

  13. The effect of ploidy on the modification of the shoulder region of hypoxic cell-survival curves by the biradical, Ro.03-6061

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, B.C.; Millar, J.L.

    1977-01-01

    The biradical nitroxyl, Ro.03-6061, sensitized two lines of mouse L cell to ionizing radiation when the cells were rendered hypoxic. Although the biradical reduced the D 0 value of the hypoxic cell-survival curve in each instance, it had no significant effect on the shoulder region. A hybrid line produced from these two strains was more radioresistant than either parent. In this instance, the biradical suppressed the shoulder region of the hypoxic cell-survival curve, but had no effect on the D 0 value. In a second system, the biradical selectivity sensitized hypoxic cells of a diploid and a tetraploid clone of Syrian hamster cells (BHK21/C15). The survival-curve characteristics of both clones were similar. The biradical reduced the D 0 value but did not significantly change the shoulder region of the hypoxic cell-survival curve. An aneuploid line sub-cultured from the tetraploid clone was much more resistant to radiation. In this instance, there was a decrease in the D 0 value of hypoxic cells in the presence of the biradical, but the extrapolation number was increased to a value similar to that for cells irradiated in air. (author)

  14. Regional planning and plan approval procedures for development and modification of HV grids; Raumordnungs- und Planfeststellungsverfahren fuer den Aus- und Umbau der Hochspannungsnetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennig, Jan; Luehmann, Tobias [Sozietaet Gleiss Lutz, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    If renewable energy sources are to be integrated, HV grids in Germany must be expanded and upgraded massively. Plans for new ultrahigh voltage lines find a legal basis in the grid expansion acceleration act (NABEG) of 2011 while most of the plans for 110 kV HV lines are still based on the conventional regional planning procedures with public participation followed by a plan approval procedure. With the decentralisation of power supply, these distribution grids are rapidly developing into power collecting grids, which makes high demands in terms of adaptation and upgrading. The contribution presents the legal boundary conditions and practical challenges accompanying the planning of HV lines outside the scope of the NABEG. It outlines the limited options for priorisation of test points in the regional planning and subsequent plan approval procedures and shows how friction between these may be reduced. Buried cables as an alternative to overhead cables are given particular attention as these have come into focus with the energy turnaround legislation of 2011.

  15. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Hafez, Alexander K.; Solomon, Elizabeth R.; Allan, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity has a profound effect on the epigenetic landscape, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50 ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3 K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region-specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3 K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development leads to long-lasting changes in histone methylation and acetylation in the adult

  16. Developmental exposure to 50 parts-per-billion arsenic influences histone modifications and associated epigenetic machinery in a region- and sex-specific manner in the adult mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Christina R.; Hafez, Alexander K.; Solomon, Elizabeth R.; Allan, Andrea M., E-mail: aallan@salud.unm.edu

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies report that arsenic exposure via drinking water adversely impacts cognitive development in children and, in adults, can lead to greater psychiatric disease susceptibility, among other conditions. While it is known that arsenic toxicity has a profound effect on the epigenetic landscape, very few studies have investigated its effects on chromatin architecture in the brain. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to a low level of arsenic (50 ppb) during all three trimesters of fetal/neonatal development induces deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), depressive-like symptoms, and alterations in gene expression in the adult mouse brain. As epigenetic processes control these outcomes, here we assess the impact of our developmental arsenic exposure (DAE) paradigm on global histone posttranslational modifications and associated chromatin-modifying proteins in the dentate gyrus and frontal cortex (FC) of adult male and female mice. DAE influenced histone 3 K4 trimethylation with increased levels in the male DG and FC and decreased levels in the female DG (no change in female FC). The histone methyltransferase MLL exhibited a similar sex- and region-specific expression profile as H3K4me3 levels, while histone demethylase KDM5B expression trended in the opposite direction. DAE increased histone 3 K9 acetylation levels in the male DG along with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression of GCN5 and decreased H3K9ac levels in the male FC along with decreased HAT expression of GCN5 and PCAF. DAE decreased expression of histone deacetylase enzymes HDAC1 and HDAC2, which were concurrent with increased H3K9ac levels but only in the female DG. Levels of H3 and H3K9me3 were not influenced by DAE in either brain region of either sex. These findings suggest that exposure to a low, environmentally relevant level of arsenic during development leads to long-lasting changes in histone methylation and acetylation in the adult

  17. A modification of the Regional Nutrient Management model (ReNuMa) to identify long-term changes in riverine nitrogen sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minpeng; Liu, Yanmei; Wang, Jiahui; Dahlgren, Randy A.; Chen, Dingjiang

    2018-06-01

    Source apportionment is critical for guiding development of efficient watershed nitrogen (N) pollution control measures. The ReNuMa (Regional Nutrient Management) model, a semi-empirical, semi-process-oriented model with modest data requirements, has been widely used for riverine N source apportionment. However, the ReNuMa model contains limitations for addressing long-term N dynamics by ignoring temporal changes in atmospheric N deposition rates and N-leaching lag effects. This work modified the ReNuMa model by revising the source code to allow yearly changes in atmospheric N deposition and incorporation of N-leaching lag effects into N transport processes. The appropriate N-leaching lag time was determined from cross-correlation analysis between annual watershed individual N source inputs and riverine N export. Accuracy of the modified ReNuMa model was demonstrated through analysis of a 31-year water quality record (1980-2010) from the Yongan watershed in eastern China. The revisions considerably improved the accuracy (Nash-Sutcliff coefficient increased by ∼0.2) of the modified ReNuMa model for predicting riverine N loads. The modified model explicitly identified annual and seasonal changes in contributions of various N sources (i.e., point vs. nonpoint source, surface runoff vs. groundwater) to riverine N loads as well as the fate of watershed anthropogenic N inputs. Model results were consistent with previously modeled or observed lag time length as well as changes in riverine chloride and nitrate concentrations during the low-flow regime and available N levels in agricultural soils of this watershed. The modified ReNuMa model is applicable for addressing long-term changes in riverine N sources, providing decision-makers with critical information for guiding watershed N pollution control strategies.

  18. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  19. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  20. The management of modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the management methods of modifications at EDF. To maintain safety standards of the nuclear power station the 'Direction de l'Equipment' and the 'Direction du Parc en Exploitation' have jointly fixed the modalities of management for all modifications and recorded them in a 'Practical Guide'

  1. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  2. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  3. Nurse health and lifestyle modification versus standard care in 40 to 70 year old regional adults: study protocol of the Management to Optimise Diabetes and mEtabolic syndrome Risk reduction via Nurse-led intervention (MODERN) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Melinda J; Zimmet, Paul

    2017-12-06

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), the clustering of multiple leading risk factors, predisposes individuals to increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardio-metabolic disease risk increases with greater remoteness where specialist services are scarce. Nurse-led interventions are effective for the management of chronic disease. The aim of this clinical trial is to determine whether a nurse-implemented health and lifestyle modification program is more beneficial than standard care to reduce cardio-metabolic abnormalities and future risk of CVD and diabetes in individuals with MetS. MODERN is a multi-centre, open, parallel group randomized controlled trial in regional Victoria, Australia. Participants were self-selected and individuals aged 40 to 70 years with MetS who had no evidence of CVD or other chronic disease were recruited. Those attending a screening visit with any 3 or more risk factors of central obesity, dyslipidemia (high triglycerides or low high density lipoprotein cholesterol) elevated blood pressure and dysglycemia were randomized to either nurse-led health and lifestyle modification (intervention) or standard care (control). The intervention included risk factor management, health education, care planning and scheduled follow-up commensurate with level of risk. The primary cardio-metabolic end-point was achievement of risk factor thresholds to eliminate MetS or minimal clinically meaningful changes for at least 3 risk factors that characterise MetS over 2 year follow-up. Pre-specified secondary endpoints to evaluate between group variations in cardio-metabolic risk, general health and lifestyle behaviours and new onset CVD and type 2 diabetes will be evaluated. Key outcomes will be measured at baseline, 12 and 24 months via questionnaires, physical examinations, pathology and other diagnostic tests. Health economic analyses will be undertaken to establish the cost-effectiveness of the intervention. The MODERN

  4. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  5. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and stiffness matrices) andaor modal parameters, in order to acquire some ... For the above reasons, another modification approach is presented here ... The data necessary to solve the direct problem are dynamic behaviour of the original.

  6. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  7. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  8. Opioid gene expression changes and post-translational histone modifications at promoter regions in the rat nucleus accumbens after acute and repeated 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Francesca Felicia; Palmisano, Martina; Carboni, Lucia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2016-12-01

    The recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has been shown to produce neurotoxic damage and long-lasting changes in several brain areas. In addition to the involvement of serotoninergic and dopaminergic systems, little information exists about the contribution of nociceptin/orphaninFQ (N/OFQ)-NOP and dynorphin (DYN)-KOP systems in neuronal adaptations evoked by MDMA. Here we investigated the behavioral and molecular effects induced by acute (8mg/kg) or repeated (8mg/kg twice daily for seven days) MDMA exposure. MDMA exposure affected body weight gain and induced hyperlocomotion; this latter effect progressively decreased after repeated administration. Gene expression analysis indicated a down-regulation of the N/OFQ system and an up-regulation of the DYN system in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), highlighting an opposite systems regulation in response to MDMA exposure. Since histone modifications have been strongly associated to the addiction-related maladaptive changes, we examined two permissive (acH3K9 and me3H3K4) and two repressive transcription marks (me3H3K27 and me2H3K9) at the pertinent opioid gene promoter regions. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that acute MDMA increased me3H3K4 at the pN/OFQ, pDYN and NOP promoters. Following acute and repeated treatment a significant decrease of acH3K9 at the pN/OFQ promoter was observed, which correlated with gene expression results. Acute treatment caused an acH3K9 increase and a me2H3K9 decrease at the pDYN promoter which matched its mRNA up-regulation. Our data indicate that the activation of the DYNergic stress system together with the inactivation of the N/OFQergic anti-stress system contribute to the neuroadaptive actions of MDMA and offer novel epigenetic information associated with MDMA abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  10. 14 CFR 151.99 - Modifications of programming standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifications of programming standards. 151... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Project Programming Standards § 151.99 Modifications of programming standards. The Director, Airports, Service, or the Regional Director concerned may, on individual...

  11. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  12. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  14. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  15. Biomaterials modification by ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tonghe; Yi Zhongzhen; Zhang Xu; Wu Yuguang

    2001-01-01

    Ion beam technology is one of best ways for the modification of biomaterials. The results of ion beam modification of biomaterials are given. The method and results of improved biocompatibility are indicated by ion beam technology. The future development of ion beam modification of biomaterials is discussed

  16. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  17. Screening vector field modifications of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán Jiménez, Jose; Delvas Fróes, André Luís; Mota, David F.

    2013-01-01

    A screening mechanism for conformal vector–tensor modifications of general relativity is proposed. The conformal factor depends on the norm of the vector field and makes the field to vanish in high dense regions, whereas drives it to a non-null value in low density environments. Such process occurs due to a spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism and gives rise to both the screening of fifth forces as well as Lorentz violations. The cosmology and local constraints are also computed

  18. Repair-modification of radiodamaged genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, P.; Institute of Experimental Medicine, Rome; Eremenko, T.

    1995-01-01

    It is proposed that through repair-modification, the modified base 5mC may have facilitated the divergent evolution of coding (hypomethylated exon) and uncoding (hypermethylated promoter and intron) sequences in eukaryotic genes. The radioinduced repair patches appearing in regions lacking 5mC are fully reconstructed by excision-repair, whereas those appearing in regions containing 5mC are incompletely reconstructed by this conventional mechanism. Such a second class of repair patches may, however, become fully reconstructed, in the S phase, by repair-modification. In fact, while DNA polymerase β - which is a key enzyme of excision-repair - is active through the whole interphase. DNA methylase - which is responsible for post-synthetic DNA modification - is essentially active in S. Uncoupling of these two enzyme systems, outside S, might explain why in unsynchronised cells repair patches of non-replicating strands are hypomethylated when compared with specific methylation of replicating strands. In other words, excision-repair would always be able to re-establish the primary ATGC language of both damaged unmethylated and methylated regions, while repair-modification would be able to re-establish the modified ATGC(5mC) language of the damaged methylated regions, only in S, but not in G 1 or G 2 . In these two phases, when DNA methylation is inversely correlated with pre-mRNA transcription (as in the case of many tissue-specific genes), such demethylation might induce a silent transcriptional unit to become active. (Author)

  19. Enzymatic Modification of Sphingomyelin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due to its major role in maintaining the water-retaining properties of the epidermis, ceramide is of great commercial potential in cosmetic and pharmaceuticals such as hair and skin care products. Currently, chemical synthesis of ceramide is a costly process, and developments of alternative cost......-efficient, high yield production methods are of great interest. In the present study, the potential of producing ceramide through the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingomyelin have been studied. sphingomyelin is a ubiquitous membrane-lipid and rich in dairy products or by-products. It has been verified...... that sphingomyelin modification gives a feasible approach to the potential production of ceramide. The reaction system has been improved through system evaluation and the optimization of several important factors, and phospholipase C from Clostridium perfringens shows higher activity towards the hydrolysis reaction...

  20. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  1. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  2. Structural dynamic modifications via models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study shows that as many as half of the matrix ... the dynamicist's analytical modelling skill which would appear both in the numerator as. Figure 2. ..... Brandon J A 1990 Strategies for structural dynamic modification (New York: John Wiley).

  3. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  4. Long-term exposure to PM2.5 lowers influenza virus resistance via down-regulating pulmonary macrophage Kdm6a and mediates histones modification in IL-6 and IFN-β promoter regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing-Hui; Song, Shao-Hua; Guo, Meng; Zhou, Ji; Liu, Fang; Peng, Li; Fu, Zhi-Ren

    2017-11-18

    Atmospheric particulates, especially PM2.5, not only damage the respiratory system, but also play important roles in pulmonary immunity. China is influenced by atmospheric diffusion conditions, industrial manufacturers, and heating and discharging. PM2.5 levels in the air rise substantially in the winter, which is also a period of flu high-incidence. Although an epidemiological link exists between PM2.5 and flu, we do not understand how long-term PM2.5 inhalation affects pulmonary immunity and the influenza virus response. Our study has prepared an in vivo PM2.5 mouse pharyngeal wall drop-in model and has found that PM2.5 exposure leads to mouse inflammatory injuries and furthers influenza A infection. Our results suggest that short-term exposure to PM2.5 significantly enhances the survival rate of influenza A-contaminated mice, while long-term PM2.5 inhalation lowers the capacity of pulmonary macrophages to secrete IL-6 and IFN-β. A disorder in the pulmonary innate defense system results in increased death rates following influenza infection. On a macromolecular level, this mechamism involves Kdm6a down-regulation after long-term exposure to PM 2.5 and a resultant increase in H3K4 and H3K9 methylation in IL-6 and IFN-β promoter regions. In summary, PM2.5 causes injuries of lung tissue cells and downregulates immune defense mechanisms in the lung. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Standard approach to plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecredy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Organizational and management approaches to the design, installation, and turnover of nuclear plant modifications have changed dramatically in the last 10 to 15 yr. In response to these changes, organizational and individual responsibilities have been defined and management systems have been established at Rochester Gas and Electric (RG and E) Corporation to ensure that high-quality plant modifications are installed in a timely manner that satisfies user needs at minimal cost

  6. Modification of dendritic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; del Angel, Alma Rosa; Gonzalez-Burgos, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    Since 1890 Ramón y Cajal strongly defended the theory that dendrites and their processes and spines had a function of not just nutrient transport to the cell body, but they had an important conductive role in neural impulse transmission. He extensively discussed and supported this theory in the Volume 1 of his extraordinary book Textura del Sistema Nervioso del Hombre y de los Vertebrados. Also, Don Santiago significantly contributed to a detailed description of the various neural components of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex during development. Extensive investigation has been done in the last Century related to the functional role of these complex brain regions, and their association with learning, memory and some limbic functions. Likewise, the organization and expression of neuropsychological qualities such as memory, exploratory behavior and spatial orientation, among others, depend on the integrity and adequate functional activity of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. It is known that brain serotonin synthesis and release depend directly and proportionally on the availability of its precursor, tryptophan (TRY). By using a chronic TRY restriction model in rats, we studied their place learning ability in correlation with the dendritic spine density of pyramidal neurons in field CA1 of the hippocampus during postnatal development. We have also reported alterations in the maturation pattern of the ability for spontaneous alternation and task performance evaluating short-term memory, as well as adverse effects on the density of dendritic spines of hippocampal CA1 field pyramidal neurons and on the dendritic arborization and the number of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons from the third layer of the prefrontal cortex using the same model of TRY restriction. The findings obtained in these studies employing a modified Golgi method, can be interpreted as a trans-synaptic plastic response due to understimulation of serotoninergic receptors located in the

  7. Epigenetic Modifications and Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu A. Kowluru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy remains one of the most debilitating chronic complications, but despite extensive research in the field, the exact mechanism(s responsible for how retina is damaged in diabetes remains ambiguous. Many metabolic pathways have been implicated in its development, and genes associated with these pathways are altered. Diabetic environment also facilitates epigenetics modifications, which can alter the gene expression without permanent changes in DNA sequence. The role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy is now an emerging area, and recent work has shown that genes encoding mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (Sod2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are epigenetically modified, activates of epigenetic modification enzymes, histone lysine demethylase 1 (LSD1, and DNA methyltransferase are increased, and the micro RNAs responsible for regulating nuclear transcriptional factor and VEGF are upregulated. With the growing evidence of epigenetic modifications in diabetic retinopathy, better understanding of these modifications has potential to identify novel targets to inhibit this devastating disease. Fortunately, the inhibitors and mimics targeted towards histone modification, DNA methylation, and miRNAs are now being tried for cancer and other chronic diseases, and better understanding of the role of epigenetics in diabetic retinopathy will open the door for their possible use in combating this blinding disease.

  8. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  9. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  10. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  11. Theoretical analysis of epigenetic cell memory by nucleosome modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Ian B; Micheelsen, Mille A; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    to involve positive feedback where modified nucleosomes recruit enzymes that similarly modify nearby nucleosomes. We developed a simplified stochastic model for dynamic nucleosome modification based on the silent mating-type region of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that the mechanism can give...

  12. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  13. Corrosion principles and surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter examines the important strategies provided by the newer ideas of corrosion science and engineering that surface modification techniques must utilize to help prevent corrosion, especially the most damaging kind of aqueous corrosion, localized corrosion. Provides a brief introduction to the principles underlying the phenomenon of corrosion in order to use them to discuss surface modification strategies to combat corrosion. Discusses the electrochemistry of corrosion; the thermodynamics of corrosion; the kinetics of corrosion; thermodynamic strategies; and kinetic strategies (formation of more protective passive films; resistance to breakdown; ductility; repassivation)

  14. Superhydrophobic cotton by fluorosilane modification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available the treatment with fluorinated or silicon compounds)1-4 and by enhancing the surface roughness with a fractal structure5-8. Cotton, a cellulose-based material, that is greatly hydrophilic, is more benefited when made hydrophobic. Modification of cotton...

  15. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  16. Epigenetic modifications in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngollo, Marjolaine; Dagdemir, Aslihan; Karsli-Ceppioglu, Seher; Judes, Gaelle; Pajon, Amaury; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Boiteux, Jean-Paul; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Guy, Laurent; Bernard-Gallon, Dominique J

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in men in France. Apart from the genetic alterations in prostate cancer, epigenetics modifications are involved in the development and progression of this disease. Epigenetic events are the main cause in gene regulation and the three most epigenetic mechanisms studied include DNA methylation, histone modifications and microRNA expression. In this review, we summarized epigenetic mechanisms in prostate cancer. Epigenetic drugs that inhibit DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation might be able to reactivate silenced gene expression in prostate cancer. However, further understanding of interactions of these enzymes and their effects on transcription regulation in prostate cancer is needed and has become a priority in biomedical research. In this study, we summed up epigenetic changes with emphasis on pharmacologic epigenetic target agents.

  17. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... residues modified and the nature of the modification. These approaches have helped understanding of the consequences of tyrosine oxidation in biological systems, especially its effects on cell signalling and cell dysfunction, linking to roles in disease. There is mounting evidence that tyrosine oxidation...

  18. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  19. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    Ion bombardment-induced modification of surfaces may be considered one of the significant scientific and technological developments of the last two decades. The understanding acquired concerning the underlying mechanisms of several phenomena occurring during ion-surface interactions has led to applications within different modern technologies. These include microelectronics, surface acoustical and optical technologies, solar energy conversion, thin film technology, ion implantation metallurgy, nuclear track technology, thermonuclear fusion, vacuum technology, cold welding technology, biomedicine (implantology). It has become clear that information on many relevant advances, regarding ion bombardment modification of surfaces is dispersed among journals involving fields sometimes not clearly related. This may result, in some cases, in a loss of the type of interdisciplinary exchange of ideas, which has proved to be so fruitful for the advancement of science and technology. This book has been planned in an attempt to collect at least some of today's relevant information about the experimental and theoretical knowledge related to surface modification and its application to technology. (Auth.)

  20. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  1. Effect of tooth profile modification on wear in internal gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunalioglu, M. S.; Tuc, B.

    2018-05-01

    Internal gears are often used in the automotive industry when two gears are required to rotate in the same direction. Tooth shapes, slippage speeds at the beginning and end of meshing are different according to the external gears. Manufacturing of internal gears is more difficult than external gears. Thus, it is necessary to determine the working conditions and wear behavior of internal gears carefully. The profile modification method in terms of strength and surface tension of the gear mechanism are performed in order to increase the load-carrying capability. In this study, profile modification method was performed in the internal gears to reduce the wear on the teeth. For this purpose, the wear of the internal gears was theoretically investigated by adapting the Archard wear equation to the internal gears. Closed circuit power circulation system was designed and manufactured to experimentally investigate the wear in internal gears. With this system, wear tests of gears made of St 50 material without profile modification and different profile modifications were made and the results were compared. Experimental study was performed in the same loading and cycle time conditions to validate the theoretical results and it was seen that the results are compatible. According to the experimental results, it is seen that in the internal gears, when profile modification done the wear is decreased in the teeth tip region.

  2. Histone modifications: Cycling with chromosomal replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thon, Genevieve

    2008-01-01

    Histone modifications tend to be lost during chromosome duplication. Several recent studies suggest that the RNA interference pathway becomes active during the weakened transcriptional repression occurring at centromeres in S phase, resulting in the re-establishment of histone modifications...

  3. BIOCHAR MODIFICATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND TOXICITY OF PRODUCTS MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana FRIEDRICHOVÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar is a product obtained from processing of waste biomass. The main application of biochar is in soil and environment remediation. Some new applications of this carbonaceous material take advantage of its adsorption capacity use it as a heterogeneous catalyst for energy storage and conversion etc. This contribution describes thermal stability of the original biochar. It discusses biochar modified by chemical and physical methods including a new compound of biochar-graphene oxide. The purpose of the modifications is to increase its active surface to introduce active functional groups into the carbon structure of biochar in relation to fire safety and toxicity of those products.

  4. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  5. Epigenetic modifications and diabetic nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marpadga A. Reddy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major complication associated with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Conventional therapeutic strategies are not fully efficacious in the treatment of DN, suggesting an incomplete understanding of the gene regulation mechanisms involved in its pathogenesis. Furthermore, evidence from clinical trials has demonstrated a “metabolic memory” of prior exposure to hyperglycemia that continues to persist despite subsequent glycemic control. This remains a major challenge in the treatment of DN and other vascular complications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, nucleosomal histone modifications, and noncoding RNAs control gene expression through regulation of chromatin structure and function and post-transcriptional mechanisms without altering the underlying DNA sequence. Emerging evidence indicates that multiple factors involved in the etiology of diabetes can alter epigenetic mechanisms and regulate the susceptibility to diabetes complications. Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of histone lysine methylation in the regulation of key fibrotic and inflammatory genes related to diabetes complications including DN. Interestingly, histone lysine methylation persisted in vascular cells even after withdrawal from the diabetic milieu, demonstrating a potential role of epigenetic modifications in metabolic memory. Rapid advances in high-throughput technologies in the fields of genomics and epigenomics can lead to the identification of genome-wide alterations in key epigenetic modifications in vascular and renal cells in diabetes. Altogether, these findings can lead to the identification of potential predictive biomarkers and development of novel epigenetic therapies for diabetes and its associated complications.

  6. Modification Propagation in Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouronte, Mary Luz; Vargas, María Luisa; Moyano, Luis Gregorio; Algarra, Francisco Javier García; Del Pozo, Luis Salvador

    To keep up with rapidly changing conditions, business systems and their associated networks are growing increasingly intricate as never before. By doing this, network management and operation costs not only rise, but are difficult even to measure. This fact must be regarded as a major constraint to system optimization initiatives, as well as a setback to derived economic benefits. In this work we introduce a simple model in order to estimate the relative cost associated to modification propagation in complex architectures. Our model can be used to anticipate costs caused by network evolution, as well as for planning and evaluating future architecture development while providing benefit optimization.

  7. Laser surface modification of PEEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveiro, A., E-mail: ariveiro@uvigo.es [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, Escuela Naval Militar, Plaza de Espana 2, 36920 Marin (Spain); Soto, R.; Comesana, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Val, J. del; Quintero, F.; Lusquinos, F.; Pou, J. [Applied Physics Department, University of Vigo ETSII, Lagoas-Marcosende, 9, Vigo 36310 (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adequate processing conditions to improve wettability, roughness, and cell adhesion characteristics are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A design of experiments (DOE) methodology was performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV (355 nm) radiation is the most promising laser radiation for improving the adhesive surface properties of PEEK. - Abstract: Polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer with excellent mechanical and chemical properties, which make it attractive for the field of reconstructive surgery. Nevertheless, this material has a poor interfacial biocompatibility due to its large chemical stability which induces poor adhesive bonding properties. The possibilities of enhancing the PEEK adhesive properties by laser treatments have been explored in the past. This paper presents a systematic approach to discern the role of laser irradiation wavelength on the surface modification of PEEK under three laser wavelengths ({lambda} = 1064, 532, and 355 nm) with the aim to determine the most adequate processing conditions to increase the roughness and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants. Overall results show that the ultraviolet ({lambda} = 355 nm) laser radiation is the most suitable one to enhance surface wettability of PEEK.

  8. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R.; Yassine, Hussein N.; Tsaprailis, George; Stump, Craig S.; Monks, Terrence J.; Lau, Serrine S.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  9. Site specific modification of the human plasma proteome by methylglyoxal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimzey, Michael J.; Kinsky, Owen R. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Yassine, Hussein N. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Tsaprailis, George [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stump, Craig S. [Department of Medicine, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Tucson, AZ 85723 (United States); Monks, Terrence J. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lau, Serrine S., E-mail: lau@pharmacy.arizona.edu [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing evidence identifies dicarbonyl stress from reactive glucose metabolites, such as methylglyoxal (MG), as a major pathogenic link between hyperglycemia and complications of diabetes. MG covalently modifies arginine residues, yet the site specificity of this modification has not been thoroughly investigated. Sites of MG adduction in the plasma proteome were identified using LC–MS/MS analysis in vitro following incubation of plasma proteins with MG. Treatment of plasma proteins with MG yielded 14 putative MG hotspots from five plasma proteins (albumin [nine hotspots], serotransferrin, haptoglobin [2 hotspots], hemopexin, and Ig lambda-2 chain C regions). The search results revealed two versions of MG-arginine modification, dihydroxyimidazolidine (R + 72) and hydroimidazolone (R + 54) adducts. One of the sites identified was R257 in human serum albumin, which is a critical residue located in drug binding site I. This site was validated as a target for MG modification by a fluorescent probe displacement assay, which revealed significant drug dissociation at 300 μM MG from a prodan–HSA complex (75 μM). Moreover, twelve human plasma samples (six male, six female, with two type 2 diabetic subjects from both genders) were analyzed using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) tandem mass spectrometry and revealed the presence of the MG-modified albumin R257 peptide. These data provide insights into the nature of the site-specificity of MG modification of arginine, which may be useful for therapeutic treatments that aim to prevent MG-mediated adverse responses in patients. - Highlights: • Methylglyoxal (MG) selectively modifies arginine sites in human plasma proteome. • Dihydroxyimidazolidine and hydroimidazolone adducts on serum albumin identified • MG modification on albumin R257 associated with loss of drug site I binding capacity • MRM-tandem mass spectrometry enables sensitive detection of albumin MG-R257. • Site-specific MG modification may

  10. Surface Modification for Microreactor Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Torbicz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, methods of surface modification of different supports, i.e. glass andpolymeric beads for enzyme immobilisation are described. The developed method ofenzyme immobilisation is based on Schiff’s base formation between the amino groups onthe enzyme surface and the aldehyde groups on the chemically modified surface of thesupports. The surface of silicon modified by APTS and GOPS with immobilised enzymewas characterised by atomic force microscopy (AFM, time-of-flight secondary ion massspectroscopy (ToF-SIMS and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The supports withimmobilised enzyme (urease were also tested in combination with microreactors fabricatedin silicon and Perspex, operating in a flow-through system. For microreactors filled withurease immobilised on glass beads (Sigma and on polymeric beads (PAN, a very high andstable signal (pH change was obtained. The developed method of urease immobilisationcan be stated to be very effective.

  11. Ion beam modification of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofield, C.J.; Sugden, S.; Ing, J.; Bridwell, L.B.; Wang, Y.Q.

    1993-01-01

    The implantation of polymers has received considerable attention in recent years, primarily to examine doping of conducting polymers and to increase the surface conductivity (by many orders of magnitude) of highly insulating polymers. The interest in these studies was partly motivated by possible applications to microelectronic device fabrication. More recently it has been observed that ion implantation can under some conditions lead to the formation of a hard (e.g. as hard as steel, ca. 3 MPa) and conducting surface layer. This paper will review the ion beam modification of polymers resulting from ion implantation with reference to fundamental ion-solid interactions. This leads us to examine whether or not implantation of polymers is a contradiction in terms. (Author)

  12. Soy protein modification: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barać Miroljub B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Soy protein products such as flour, concentrates and isolates are used in food formulation because of their functionality, nutritional value and low cost. To obtain their optimal nutritive and functional properties as well as desirable flavor different treatments are used. Soybean proteins can be modified by physical, chemical and enzymatic treatments. Different thermal treatments are most commonly used, while the most appropriate way of modifying soy proteins from the standpoint of safety is their limited proteolysis. These treatments cause physical and chemical changes that affect their functional properties. This review discusses three principal methods used for modification of soy protein products, their effects on dominant soy protein properties and some biologically active compounds.

  13. GENETIC CONTROL OF RESTRICTION AND MODIFICATION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Herbert

    1964-01-01

    Boyer, Herbert (Yale University, New Haven, Conn.). Genetic control of restriction and modification in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 88:1652–1660. 1964.—Bacterial crosses with K-12 strains of Escherichia coli as Hfr donors (Hfr Hayes, Hfr Cavalli, and Hfr P4X-6) and B/r strains of E. coli as F− recipients were found to differ from crosses between K-12 Hfr donors and K-12 F− recipients in two ways: (i) recombinants (leu, pro, lac, and gal) did not appear at discrete time intervals but did appear simultaneously 30 min after matings were initiated, and (ii) the linkage of unselected markers to selected markers was reduced. Integration of a genetic region linked to the threonine locus of K-12 into the B/r genome resulted in a hybrid which no longer gave anomalous results in conjugation experiments. A similar region of the B strain was introduced into the K-12 strain, which then behaved as a typical B F− recipient. These observations are interpreted as the manifestation of host-controlled modification and restriction on the E. coli chromosome. This was verified by experiments on the restriction and modification of the bacteriophage lambda, F-lac, F-gal, and sex-factor, F1. It was found that the genetic region that controlled the mating responses of the K-12 and B/r strains also controlled the modification and restriction properties of these two strains. The genes responsible for the restricting and modifying properties of the K-12 and B strains of E. coli were found to be allelic, linked to each other, and linked to the threonine locus. PMID:14240953

  14. TWO MODIFICATIONS OF SCALERS FOR RATE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, T. S.; Gordon, B. E.

    1964-04-15

    Two simple modifications to nuclear scalers have been developed. The first involves an automatic stepping switch which permits a single scaler to be actuated by up to four Geiger counters in sequence and to record the time to reach a preset count for each. The second modification is designed to pick a pulse off a conventional scaler when a preset count has been reached and to use the pulse to actuate a recorder. Both modifications considerably extend the utility of conventional scalers.

  15. Modification of metallic corrosion by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    This review will consider some of the properties of surface alloys, formed by ion implantation, which are effective in modifying corrosion behaviour. Examples will be given of the modification of the corrosion behaviour of pure metals, steels and other engineering alloys, resulting from implantation with metals and metalloids. Emphasis will be given to the modification of anodic processes produced by ion implantation since a review will be given elsewhere in the proceedings concerning the modification of cathodic processes. (orig.)

  16. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is proving particularly successful. To map modification sites in molecular detail, novel...

  17. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Kamila; Siemion, Przemysław; Kurcok, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation ...

  18. Chemical Modifications of Starch: Microwave Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Lewicka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic methods of starch chemical modification, the effect of microwave radiation on the modification process, and the physicochemical properties of starch. It has been shown that the modifications contribute to improvement of the material performance and likewise to significant improvement of its mechanical properties. As a result, more and more extensive use of starch is possible in various industries. In addition, methods of oxidized starch and starch esters preparation are discussed. Properties of microwave radiation and its impact on starch (with particular regard to modifications described in literature are characterized.

  19. Restriction-modification systems in Mycoplasma spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Brocchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction and Modification (R-M systems are present in all Mycoplasma species sequenced so far. The presence of these genes poses barriers to gene transfer and could protect the cell against phage infections. The number and types of R-M genes between different Mycoplasma species are variable, which is characteristic of a polymorphism. The majority of the CDSs code for Type III R-M systems and particularly for methyltransferase enzymes, which suggests that functions other than the protection against the invasion of heterologous DNA may exist. A possible function of these enzymes could be the protection against the invasion of other but similar R-M systems. In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain J, three of the putative methyltransferase genes were clustered in a region forming a genomic island. Many R-M CDSs were mapped in the vicinity of transposable elements suggesting an association between these genes and reinforcing the idea of R-M systems as mobile selfish DNA. Also, many R-M genes present repeats within their coding sequences, indicating that their expression is under the control of phase variation mechanisms. Altogether, these data suggest that R-M systems are a remarkable characteristic of Mycoplasma species and are probably involved in the adaptation of these bacteria to different environmental conditions.

  20. Infections associated with body modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Sai-Yin Wong

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus, and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures.

  1. Genetic Control of the Secondary Modification of Deoxyribonucleic Acid in Escherichia coli1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamelak, Linda; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1970-01-01

    The wild-type restriction and modification alleles of Escherichia coli K-12 and B were found to have no measurable effect on the patterns of methylated bases in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of these strains. The genetic region controlling the methylation of cytosine in E. coli K-12 was mapped close to his, and the presence or absence of this gene in E. coli B or E. coli K had no effect on the restriction and modification properties of these strains. Thus, only a few of the methylated bases in the DNA of these strains are involved in host modification, and the biological role of the remainder remains obscure. PMID:4919756

  2. Biochemical systems approaches for the analysis of histone modification readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 78 FR 72080 - Draft NPDES General Permit Modification for Discharges From the Oil and Gas Extraction Point...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...). ACTION: Notice; Proposal of NPDES general permit modification. SUMMARY: EPA Region 6 today proposes... determine whether your facility, company, business, organization, etc. is regulated by this action, you..., Paperwork Reduction Act, and Regulatory Flexibility Act. The scope of Today's permit modification action...

  4. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulee, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations

  5. Modification of the perturbative QCD towards confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1981-01-01

    Modification of the low momentum behaviour of the perturbative SU(2) gauge theory is proposed. The modification is closely related (although not equivalent) to a nonstandard choice of boundary condition for the Euclidean 2-point gluonic Green function. In the resulting theory already single graphs lead to the confining potential between heavy, static quarks, V(r) = ar 2 for r → infinity. (author)

  6. 75 FR 41529 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  7. 75 FR 29784 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  8. 75 FR 34486 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... application of existing mandatory safety standards published in Title 30 of the Code of Federal Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration Petitions for Modification AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), Labor. ACTION: Notice of petitions for modification of existing...

  9. Modification Semantics in Now-Relative Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Snodgrass, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    Most real-world databases record time-varying information. In such databases, the notion of ??the current time,?? or NOW, occurs naturally and prominently. For example, when capturing the past states of a relation using begin and end time columns, tuples that are part of the current state have some...... past time as their begin time and NOW as their end time. While the semantics of such variable databases has been described in detail and is well understood, the modification of variable databases remains unexplored. This paper defines the semantics of modifications involving the variable NOW. More...... specifically,  the problems with modifications in the presence of NOW are explored, illustrating that the main problems are with modifications of tuples that reach into the future. The paper defines the semantics of modifications?including insertions, deletions, and updates?of databases without NOW, with NOW...

  10. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  11. Application of radiation technology in starch modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huiyuan; Peng Zhigang; Ding Zhongmin; Lu Jiajiu

    2007-01-01

    In order to commercialize the radiation modification of starch, corn starch was irradiated with different dose of 60 Co gamma radiations. Some basic physical and chemical properties of the resulted modified starch paste were measured with emphasis on the viscosity stability and tensile strength. The results indicate that irradiation of corn starch with a dose of 4-10 kGy can decrease its viscosity to 5-14 mPa·s, and the tensile strength can meet the standard set up for textile paste. In comparison with chemical modification for starch, radiation modification is simpler in technology, more convenient in operation, more stable in modification quality, and easier to control. The mechanism of radiation modification of starch was also discussed. (authors)

  12. Modifications to the INSPECT model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, S [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom); Sims, H E [AEA Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The prediction of iodine behaviour in the containment of a PWR following a loss of coolant accident requires a reliable model of the chemistry of iodine in aqueous solution. The INSPECT model, which was developed several years ago, contains a large number of the relevant chemical reactions of iodine and water radiation chemistry. Since the reactions set was first assembled, however, new data on rate constants and mechanisms have become available. In addition, the application of the model to various small-scale experiments has revealed problems in the modelling of some reactions, leading to an under-prediction of the iodine volatility at high pH, although the experiments have demonstrated that the high pH volatility remains satisfactory low. This paper describes the modifications which have been made to the INSPECT model to take account of new data and to improve the modelling where appropriate. The main changes which have been made to the reaction set are as follows: - The rate constants and activation energies for the reactions describing the radiolysis of water have been updated in with recent assessments, and the temperature dependence of the G value for the primary species have been accordance taken into account, - The mechanism and rates of I{sub 2} hydrolysis have been modified in accordance with the latest assessments of this reaction, - The mechanism for the reaction of I{sub 2} with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been changed to a form which produces a more realistic pH dependence under neutral and alkaline conditions, - An addition mechanism for the disproportionation of the O{sub 2} ion has been included, reflecting experimental observations that this reaction has a significant first-order component under all but the purest conditions, - Atomic I is treated as a volatile species, with a partition coefficient of 1.9 at 298 K. (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Surface modifications of dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, C M

    2008-06-01

    Dental implant surface technologies have been evolving rapidly to enhance a more rapid bone formation on their surface and hold a potential to increase the predictability of expedited implant therapy. While implant outcomes have become highly predictable, there are sites and conditions that result in elevated implant loss. This paper reviews the impact of macro-retentive features which includes approaches to surface oxide modification, thread design, press-fit and sintered-bead technologies to increase predictability of outcomes. Implant designs that lead to controlled lateral compression of the bone can improve primary stability as long as the stress does not exceed the localized yield strength of the cortical bone. Some implant designs have reduced crestal bone loss by use of multiple cutting threads that are closely spaced, smoothed on the tip but designed to create a hoop-stress stability of the implant as it is completely seated in the osteotomy. Following the placement of the implant, there is a predictable sequence of bone turnover and replacement at the interface that allows the newly formed bone to adapt to microscopic roughness on the implant surface, and on some surfaces, a nanotopography (<10(-9) m scale) that has been shown to preferably influence the formation of bone. Newly emerging studies show that bone cells are exquisitely sensitive to these topographical features and will upregulate the expression of bone related genes for new bone formation when grown on these surfaces. We live in an exciting time of rapid changes in the modalities we can offer patients for tooth replacement therapy. Given this, it is our responsibility to be critical when claims are made, incorporate into our practice what is proven and worthwhile, and to continue to support and provide the best patient care possible.

  14. Modifications in the UNIMUG computer code (Addendum to technical note EAV/NT--003/80)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, H.G. de; Rosa, M.A.P.

    1983-01-01

    The modifications done in the UNIMUG computer code are described. The UNIMUG-VERSION 3 has options for condensating macroscopic cross sections in regions and microscopic cross sections of isotopes contained in each region. The code also calculates: spectral index, ratio between two specificated reactions of chosen isotopes in indicated groups and regions, average buckling by region/group, by region, reactor buckling and average flux of reactor. The code has no restrictions for number of regions, number of groups, number of intervals, and table size of macroscopic and microscopic cross sections. (M.C.K.) [pt

  15. Modification of Sr on 4004 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erjun; Cao, Guojian; Feng, Yicheng; Wang, Liping; Wang, Guojun; Lv, Xinyu

    2013-05-01

    As a brazing foil, 4004 Al alloy has good welding performance. However, the high Si content decreases the plasticity of the alloy. To improve the plasticity of 4004 Al alloy and subsequently improve the productivity of 4004 Al foil or 434 composite foil, 4004 Al alloy was modified by Al-10%Sr master alloy. Modification effects of an additional amount of Sr, modification temperature, and holding time on 4004 aluminum alloy were studied by orthogonal design. The results showed that the greatest impact parameter of 4004 aluminum alloy modification was the additional amount of Sr, followed by holding time and modification temperature. The optimum modification parameters obtained by orthogonal design were as follows: Sr addition of 0.04%, holding time of 60 min, and modification temperature of 760°C. The effect of Sr addition on modification was analyzed in detail based on orthogonal results. With increasing of Sr addition, elongation of 4004 alloy increased at first, and decreased after reaching the maximum value.

  16. Epigenetic Modifications: Therapeutic Potential in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sachan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications and alterations in chromatin structure and function contribute to the cumulative changes observed as normal cells undergo malignant transformation. These modifications and enzymes (DNA methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and demethylases related to them have been deeply studied to develop new drugs, epigenome-targeted therapies and new diagnostic tools. Epigenetic modifiers aim to restore normal epigenetic modification patterns through the inhibition of epigenetic modifier enzymes. Four of them (azacitidine, decitabine, vorinostat and romidepsin are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This article provides an overview about the known functional roles of epigenetic enzymes in cancer development.

  17. Bentonite chemical modification for use in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laranjeira, E.; Pinto, M.R.O.; Rodrigues, D.P.; Costa, B.P.; Guimaraes, P.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims at synthesizing organoclays using a layered silicate of regional importance, bentonite clay, for the treatment of industrial effluents. The choice of clay to be organophilized was based on cation exchange capacity (CEC). Bentonite with higher CTC was called AN 35 (92 meq/100 g), and therefore was the one that suffered the chemical modification with salt cetyl trimethyl ammonium Cetremide, provided by Vetec.The unmodified and modified clays were characterized by FTIR and XDR. The data obtained through the characterizations confirmed the acquisition of bentonite organoclay thus suggesting its subsequent application in the treatment of industrial effluents. (author)

  18. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Voolstra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  19. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  20. Modifications of the Weibull distribution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almalki, Saad J.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the Weibull distribution is the most popular and the most widely used distribution in reliability and in analysis of lifetime data. Unfortunately, its hazard function cannot exhibit non-monotonic shapes like the bathtub shape or the unimodal shape. Since 1958, the Weibull distribution has been modified by many researchers to allow for non-monotonic hazard functions. This paper gives an extensive review of some discrete and continuous versions of the modifications of the Weibull distribution. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of known discrete modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • A comprehensive review of known continuous modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • Over 110 references on modifications/generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • More than 55% of the cited references appeared in the last 5 years

  1. ENDF/B-5 modifications 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1986-05-01

    This document summarizes the modifications made to the ENDF/B-5 evaluated neutron data files in 1986. The new versions of the files are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request, costfree, on magnetic tape. (author)

  2. The computational nature of memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-03-15

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature.

  3. Chemical modification and characterization of quaternized polysulfones.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nonjola, P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) using polysulfones is described. The modification process of polysulfones involves two steps: Firstly, by introducing chloromethyl groups followed by quaternization reaction...

  4. Formal Design Review Foot Clamp Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OTEN, T.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Design Review performed for the foot clamp modification. The report documents the acceptability of the design, identifies the documents that were reviewed, the scope of the review and the members of the review team

  5. The computational nature of memory modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J; Monfils, Marie-H; Norman, Kenneth A; Niv, Yael

    2017-01-01

    Retrieving a memory can modify its influence on subsequent behavior. We develop a computational theory of memory modification, according to which modification of a memory trace occurs through classical associative learning, but which memory trace is eligible for modification depends on a structure learning mechanism that discovers the units of association by segmenting the stream of experience into statistically distinct clusters (latent causes). New memories are formed when the structure learning mechanism infers that a new latent cause underlies current sensory observations. By the same token, old memories are modified when old and new sensory observations are inferred to have been generated by the same latent cause. We derive this framework from probabilistic principles, and present a computational implementation. Simulations demonstrate that our model can reproduce the major experimental findings from studies of memory modification in the Pavlovian conditioning literature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23763.001 PMID:28294944

  6. 75 FR 3253 - Petitions for Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... face equipment; maintenance) and 30 CFR 18.35 (Portable trailing cables and cords). Modification...) Limit the speed of the machine to 10 miles per hour (MPH) by permanently blocking out any gear that...

  7. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines,

  8. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  9. Perioperative modifications of respiratory function.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, Michelle

    2012-01-31

    Postoperative pulmonary complications contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality, especially after major thoracic or abdominal surgery. Clinically relevant pulmonary complications include the exacerbation of underlying chronic lung disease, bronchospasm, atelectasis, pneumonia and respiratory failure with prolonged mechanical ventilation. Risk factors for postoperative pulmonary complications include patient-related risk factors (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tobacco smoking and increasing age) as well as procedure-related risk factors (e.g., site of surgery, duration of surgery and general vs. regional anaesthesia). Careful history taking and a thorough physical examination may be the most sensitive ways to identify at-risk patients. Pulmonary function tests are not suitable as a general screen to assess risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. Strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications include smoking cessation, inspiratory muscle training, optimising nutritional status and intra-operative strategies. Postoperative care should include lung expansion manoeuvres and adequate pain control.

  10. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  11. Modifications to nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared under the IAEA's programme for safety standards for nuclear power plants. It supplements Section 7 of the Safety Requirements publication on Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, which establishes the safety requirements for the modification of nuclear power plants. Reasons for carrying out modifications to nuclear power plants may include: (1) maintaining or strengthening existing safety provisions and thus maintaining consistency with or improving on the current design. (2) recovering from plant faults. (3) improving the thermal performance or increasing the power rating of the plant. (4) increasing the maintainability of the plant, reducing the radiation exposure of personnel or reducing the costs of plant maintenance. And (5) extending the design life of the plant. Most modifications, made on the basis of operating experience, are intended to improve on the design or to improve operational performance and flexibility. Some are rendered necessary by new regulatory requirements, ageing of the plant or obsolescence of equipment. However, the benefits of regularly updating the plant design can be jeopardized if modifications are not kept under rigorous control throughout the lifetime of the plant. The need to reduce costs and improve efficiency, in combination with changes to the structure of the electricity generation sector of the economy in many countries, has led many companies to make changes in the structure of the operating organization for nuclear power plants. Whatever the reason for such organizational changes, consideration should be given to the effects of those changes with the aim of ensuring that they would have no impacts that would compromise the safety of the plant. The objective of this Safety Guide is to provide guidance and recommendations on controlling activities relating to modifications at nuclear power plants in order to reduce risk and to ensure that the configuration of the plant is at all times under

  12. Regions Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Prencipe, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    capital at the regional level, with a large-scale data set of the innovative activities of a representative sample of 2,413 Italian manufacturing firms from 21 regions, and controlling for a large set of firm and regional characteristics, we find that being located in a region characterized by a high...

  13. Quadratic genetic modifications: a streamlined route to cosmological simulations with controlled merger history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Martin P.; Pontzen, Andrew

    2018-02-01

    Recent work has studied the interplay between a galaxy's history and its observable properties using `genetically modified' cosmological zoom simulations. The approach systematically generates alternative histories for a halo, while keeping its cosmological environment fixed. Applications to date altered linear properties of the initial conditions, such as the mean overdensity of specified regions; we extend the formulation to include quadratic features, such as local variance, that determines the overall importance of smooth accretion relative to mergers in a galaxy's history. We introduce an efficient algorithm for this new class of modification and demonstrate its ability to control the variance of a region in a one-dimensional toy model. Outcomes of this work are twofold: (i) a clarification of the formulation of genetic modifications and (ii) a proof of concept for quadratic modifications leading the way to a forthcoming implementation in cosmological simulations.

  14. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  15. Modifications at operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications at operating nuclear power plants offer the structural engineer many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear power plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of some areas in operating nuclear power plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outrage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement problems that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear power plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common ''fire drills,'' but controlled enough to ensure technically correct designs and to minimize the expenditure of man-hours and the resulting engineering cost

  16. Characterization and modification of selected bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Liqing

    positively correlated to DCP levels. For case (ii), cellulose (another abundant renewable material) was grafted onto PHB backbone induced by DCP (2 to 5 wt%). The chemical structures of grafted copolymer and grafting mechanism were studied by ESR, NMR, XRD and FTIR. Results suggested both amorphous and crystalline regions of cellulose were involved in the reaction. The characterization and modification approaches discussed in this dissertation would provide technical guidance to either researches or industrial processing of these bioplastics.

  17. Proposed Modification of the Progressive Retirement Programme

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    After discussion at TREF on 29 October 2003, the Management proposes in this document a modification affecting one of the general principles of the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), decided by the Council in December 1996 and introduced in April 1997. This modification would authorise the Director-General, in exceptional cases, as indicated in section 3 below, and, with the staff member's consent, to cancel his or her participation in the PRP and to reinstate the staff member in his or her original contractual situation. No modifications to the Staff Rules and Regulations are required. The proposal set out in section 3 of the present document is submitted by the Management, after consultation of the Governing Board of the Pension Fund, for recommendation by the Finance Committee to the Council and for approval by the Council, to enter into force as of 1 January 2004.

  18. Identification and Interrogation of Combinatorial Histone Modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly R Karch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Histone proteins are dynamically modified to mediate a variety of cellular processes including gene transcription, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis. Regulation of these processes occurs through the recruitment of non-histone proteins to chromatin by specific combinations of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs. Mass spectrometry has emerged as an essential tool to discover and quantify histone PTMs both within and between samples in an unbiased manner. Developments in mass spectrometry that allow for characterization of large histone peptides or intact protein has made it possible to determine which modifications occur simultaneously on a single histone polypeptide. A variety of techniques from biochemistry, biophysics, and chemical biology have been employed to determine the biological relevance of discovered combinatorial codes. This review first describes advancements in the field of mass spectrometry that have facilitated histone PTM analysis and then covers notable approaches to probe the biological relevance of these modifications in their nucleosomal context.

  19. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  20. Nanofibrillated Cellulose Surface Modification: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Bras

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interest in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has increased notably over recent decades. This bio-based nanomaterial has been used essentially in bionanocomposites or in paper thanks to its high mechanical reinforcement ability or barrier property respectively. Its nano-scale dimensions and its capacity to form a strong entangled nanoporous network have encouraged the emergence of new high-value applications. It is worth noting that chemical surface modification of this material can be a key factor to achieve a better compatibility with matrices. In order to increase the compatibility in different matrices or to add new functions, surface chemical modification of NFC appears to be the prior choice to conserve its intrinsic nanofibre properties. In this review, the authors have proposed for the first time an overview of all chemical grafting strategies used to date on nanofibrillated cellulose with focus on surface modification such as physical adsorption, molecular grafting or polymer grafting.

  1. Characteristic measurements of JRR-2 after modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Modification was on a standing seal to stop heavy water leakage at the support ring, replacement of the reactor top shield, replacement of the control-rod mechanism, improvement of the helium system, improvement of the irradiated air system to reduce radioactive argon gas release from the stack. Works were completed in September 1975. Functional tests and characteristic measurements then followed, to show good results of the modification. Described are; modification, critical experiments, calibration of the control rods, reactor thermal power, measurements of the neutron flux distribution, core heavy water flow distribution, heavy water decomposition rate, helium leak rate and tritium concentration in the thermal shielding light water, radioactive argon gas release from the stack, and effect of the reactor top shield. (auth.)

  2. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  3. Disassembling and modification of RA-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarizzo, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the partial disassembling and modification of RA-3, called the Modernization Project. It comprises all the technical and administrative steps directly related with this task. The improvement of RA-3 is a result of the lack of 90% enriched uranium obliging a change over to 20% enriched uranium. This brought about design modifications both in fuel elements and the reactor. The presentation of documents for the licensing authority as well as are detailed separately. The modernization project was divided in 25 tasks: 1) changing fuel element support table, 2) changing heat exchanger, 3) repairing of cooling towers, 4) repairing of primary circuit valves, 5) repairing of irradiation channels, 6) construction of a new sampler, 7) changing tangential channel, 8) cleaning and disassembling of reactor (inside), 9) changing continuous demineralizer (ion exchange column), 10) detection of failure in fuel elements, 11) modification of nuclear instrumentation, 12) modification of conventional instrumentation, 13) modification of electrical system, 14) changing telemanipulators, 15) construction of mechanism bridge, 16) changing a primary circuit valve when the heat exchanger is changed too, 17) painting ground floor, hall floor, and pump room floor with epoxy resin levelling, 18) installation of fire alarm system, 19) radioactive liquid discharge, 20) modification of secondary circuit (This task involves: a) installation of a third secondary pump, b) extension of this piping, c) installation of two 12 inch valves to the present cooling towers pools independent, d) installation of filtering system), 21) optimization hot water bed, 22) changing detector support table, 23) removal, decontamination and reinstallation of shielding, 25) changing pneumatic system

  4. 76 FR 52888 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; American Samoa Longline Gear Modifications To Reduce Turtle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Modifications To Reduce Turtle Interactions AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP), including an environmental assessment, that presents background information on this rule. The Pelagics FEP and Amendment 5 are available from the Council, 1164 Bishop St., Suite...

  5. High-energy inverse free-electron laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Pellegrini, C.; Zakowicz, W.

    1985-01-01

    We study the inverse free electron laser (IFEL) accelerator and show that it can accelerate electrons to the few hundred GeV region with average acceleration rates of the order of 200 meV/m. Several possible accelerating structures are analyzed, and the effect of synchrotron radiation losses is studied. The longitudinal phase stability of accelerated particles is also analyzed. A Hamiltonian description, which takes into account the dissipative features of the IFEL accelerator, is introduced to study perturbations from the resonant acceleration. Adiabatic invariants are obtained and used to estimate the change of the electron phase space density during the acceleration process

  6. X-ray studies on piroxicam modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, G.; Bannier, G.; Hoehne, E.

    1988-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam, 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-car-boxamide-1,1-dioxide, crystallizes in three different forms, two anhydrates and one monohydrate. Crystal structure analyses of the monohydrate and one of the anhydrate were carried out by Bordner et al. and Kojic-Prodic et al., respectively. The results of the analysis of the third piroxicam modification and of an independently performed structure determination of the monohydrate are reported. Molecular structures and hydrogen bonding of all modifications are discussed. (author)

  7. Histone modifications in response to DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Mohammed; Saksouk, Nehme; Cote, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The packaging of the eukaryotic genome into highly condensed chromatin makes it inaccessible to the factors required for gene transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. Eukaryotes have developed intricate mechanisms to overcome this repressive barrier imposed by chromatin. Histone modifying enzymes and ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play key roles here as they regulate many nuclear processes by altering the chromatin structure. Significantly, these activities are integral to the process of DNA repair where histone modifications act as signals and landing platforms for various repair proteins. This review summarizes the recent developments in our understanding of histone modifications and their role in the maintenance of genome integrity

  8. Chromatin proteins and modifications as drug targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, Kristian; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of groundbreaking studies have demonstrated the importance of chromatin-associated proteins and post-translational modifications of histones, proteins and DNA (so-called epigenetic modifications) for transcriptional control and normal development. Disruption of epigenetic control...... is a frequent event in disease, and the first epigenetic-based therapies for cancer treatment have been approved. A generation of new classes of potent and specific inhibitors for several chromatin-associated proteins have shown promise in preclinical trials. Although the biology of epigenetic regulation...

  9. Modification to the lower hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1989-01-01

    The main modifications which have to be done to the Lower Hybrid system are related in the change of the plasma shape in front of the grill mouth. In effect, the theoretical coupling efficiency of the LHCD grill depends only upon the density at the grill mouth and upon the launched wave index. In order to minimize the number of modifications to the launcher it is proposed to modify the length of the vacuum waveguides connecting the multijunctions to the vacuum windows. To obtain the new poloidal contour, it is proposed to recover the L1 multijunctions and to remachine their mouth. (U.K.)

  10. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The electron linear accelerator at EG and G/EM, Santa Barbara Operations, installed in 1963, has been subsequently modified to produce short, intense beam pulses used in the test, calibration and development of many types of fast radiation detectors and systems. The first practical use of the single RF pulse operation, now used in many accelerators, was demonstrated on this accelerator in the late 60s. A major three-year modification, to replace obsolete equipment and bring all the subsystems up to the current state of the art, has increased the beam intensity, stability and reliability. These modifications are discussed

  11. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  12. Microscale surface modifications for heat transfer enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostanci, Huseyin; Singh, Virendra; Kizito, John P; Rini, Daniel P; Seal, Sudipta; Chow, Louis C

    2013-10-09

    In this experimental study, two surface modification techniques were investigated for their effect on heat transfer enhancement. One of the methods employed the particle (grit) blasting to create microscale indentations, while the other used plasma spray coating to create microscale protrusions on Al 6061 (aluminum alloy 6061) samples. The test surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy. Because of the surface modifications, the actual surface area was increased up to 2.8× compared to the projected base area, and the arithmetic mean roughness value (Ra) was determined to vary from 0.3 μm for the reference smooth surface to 19.5 μm for the modified surfaces. Selected samples with modified surfaces along with the reference smooth surface were then evaluated for their heat transfer performance in spray cooling tests. The cooling system had vapor-atomizing nozzles and used anhydrous ammonia as the coolant in order to achieve heat fluxes up to 500 W/cm(2) representing a thermal management setting for high power systems. Experimental results showed that the microscale surface modifications enhanced heat transfer coefficients up to 76% at 500 W/cm(2) compared to the smooth surface and demonstrated the benefits of these practical surface modification techniques to enhance two-phase heat transfer process.

  13. Similarity Arguments in the Genetic Modification Debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In the ethical debate on genetic modification (GM), it is common to encounter the claim that some anti-GM argument would also apply an established, ethically accepted technology, and that the anti-GM argument is therefore unsuccessful. The paper discusses whether this argumentative strategy, the ...

  14. A Logic of Modification and Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, MCL (modification and creation logic) is presented, a variant of quantified dynamic logic (QDL) with enhanced expressivity. In MCL, functions and predicates can be modified by actions f := λx.t and p := λx.φ, respectively, and new objects can be created by the action Create. This

  15. Surface Modification Of Implants For Bone Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the methods of surface modification methods for AISAI 316 L steel and Ti6Al4V ELI titanium alloy, dedicated to complex design implants used in bone surgery. Results of structural tests have been presented along with those evaluating the physicochemical properties of the formed surface layers. Clinical feasibility of the surface layers has also been evaluated.

  16. [Advances in microbial genome reduction and modification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Microbial genome reduction and modification are important strategies for constructing cellular chassis used for synthetic biology. This article summarized the essential genes and the methods to identify them in microorganisms, compared various strategies for microbial genome reduction, and analyzed the characteristics of some microorganisms with the minimized genome. This review shows the important role of genome reduction in constructing cellular chassis.

  17. 7 CFR 1467.13 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ecological and economic values to the United States. ... the program so long as the modification will not adversely affect the wetland functions and values for... of other lands that provide greater wetland functions and values at no additional cost to the...

  18. Oxidative Modification of Tryptophan-Containing Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jonas; Christensen, Pia Katrine; Nielsen, Mathias T

    2018-01-01

    We herein present a broadly useful method for the chemoselective modification of a wide range of tryptophan-containing peptides. Exposing a tryptophan-containing peptide to 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) resulted in a selective cyclodehydration between the peptide backbone...

  19. Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.

    1979-01-01

    The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments

  20. Cooling tower modification for intermittent operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midkiff, W.S.

    1975-03-01

    One of the cooling towers at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is being operated intermittently. The cooling tower has been modified to restrict air flow and to keep the tower from drying out. The modifications are relatively inexpensive, simple to operate, and have proved effective. (U.S.)

  1. The Pomeranchuk theorem and its modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.; Saly, R.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the various modifications and improvements of the Pomeranchuk theorem and also of related statements is given. The present status of the Pomeranchuk relation based on dispersion relation is discussed. Numerous problems related to the Pomeranchuk theorem and some answers to these problems are collected in a clear table

  2. Alignment modification for pencil eye shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.; Pla, M.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate alignment of pencil beam eye shields to protect the lens of the eye may be made easier by means of a simple modification of existing apparatus. This involves drilling a small hole through the center of the shield to isolate the rayline directed to the lens and fabricating a suitable plug for this hole

  3. Protein covalent modification by biologically active quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIROSLAV J. GASIC

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple shows considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modification of b-lactoglobulin by avarone and its derivatives as well as by the synthetic steroidal quinone 2,5(10-estradiene-1,4,17-trione and its derivatives were studied. The techniques for studying chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones were: UV/Vis spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. SDS PAGE results suggest that polymerization of the protein occurs. It could be seen that the protein of 18 kD gives the bands of 20 kD, 36 kD, 40 kD, 45 kD, 64 kD and 128 kD depending on modification agent. The shift of the pI of the protein (5.4 upon modification toward lower values (from pI 5.0 to 5.3 indicated that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  4. Proposal for a modification of SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobeldijk, C.; Goedbloed, J.P.; Griffioen, A.C.; D'Ippolito, D.A.

    1978-10-01

    Results and conclusions of recent experimental and theoretical screw-pinch research at Jutphaas are summarized. Based on these conclusions a modification of the toroidal vacuum chamber and the conducting shell of SPICA is proposed. The physics objectives of the modified experiment (SPICA II) as well as the planning are described. More detailed information can be obtained from the appendices. (Auth.)

  5. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. Embryonic Stem Cells and their Genetic Modification - The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007. Mitradas M Panicker. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 172-180 ...

  6. Histone modifications and nuclear architecture: A review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Eva; Kroupová, Jana; Harničarová, Andrea; Galiová-Šustáčková, Gabriela; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 8 (2008), s. 711-721 ISSN 0722-186X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA204/06/0978; GA MŠk(CZ) LC535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : histones * histone modifications * nuclear architecture Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  7. A Suggested Modification to Maslow's Need Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Since its development, Maslow's need hierarchy has been criticized and applauded. This investigation was undertaken to explore a modification of the upper levels of the need hierarchy based upon the application of power, competition, and achievement to self, as well as the concept of "other directed." (Author)

  8. 14 CFR 1274.938 - Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL... the term of this agreement and in the interest of achieving program objectives, the parties may agree... agreement. Any changes to this agreement will be accomplished by a written bilateral modification. [End of...

  9. Albumin modification and fragmentation in renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadio, Carlo; Tognotti, Danika; Donadio, Elena

    2012-02-18

    Albumin is the most important antioxidant substance in plasma and performs many physiological functions. Furthermore, albumin is the major carrier of endogenous molecules and exogenous ligands. This paper reviews the importance of post-translational modifications of albumin and fragments thereof in patients with renal disease. First, current views and controversies on renal handling of proteins, mainly albumin, will be discussed. Post-translational modifications, namely the fragmentation of albumin found with proteomic techniques in nephrotic patients, diabetics, and ESRD patients will be presented and discussed. It is reasonable to hypothesize that proteolytic fragmentation of serum albumin is due to a higher susceptibility to proteases, induced by oxidative stress. The clinical relevance of the fragmentation of albumin has not yet been established. These modifications could affect some physiological functions of albumin and have a patho-physiological role in uremic syndrome. Proteomic analysis of serum allows the identification of over-expressed proteins and can detect post-translational modifications of serum proteins, hitherto hidden, using standard laboratory techniques. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modification ... to a system changes its mass, stiffness and damping. Thus ... due to the phase difference between stress ' and strain or 'a И E1 З iE2 for direct strain.

  11. Radiation modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Lesnichaya, V.A.; Ol'khov, Yu.A.; Belov, G.P.; Dixon, D.A.; Kispert, L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Modification of glass fiber - reinforced plastics (GFRPs) by gamma-irradiation has been researched to receipt of polymeric composite materials. They were produced by the film - technology method and the cheapest thermoplastics (polythene, polyamide were used as polymeric matrixes for their manufacture. GFRPs were irradiated with Co 60 gamma-rays from a Gammatok-100 source in air and in vacuum. The strength properties of GFRPs and initial polymeric matrixes were investigated before and after radiolysis. Molecular - topological structure of the polymeric matrixes were tested by the method of thermomechanical spectroscopy. The strength properties of GFRPs depend on a parity of speeds of structural (physical) and chemical modification of the polymeric matrixes. These two processes proceed simultaneously. The structural modification includes physical transformation of polymers at preservation of their chemical structure. Covalent bonds between various macromolecules or between macromolecules and surface of fiberglasses are formed at the chemical modification of polymeric matrixes induced by radiation. Action of ionizing radiation on the used polymeric matrix results to its structurization (polythene) or to destruction (polyamide). Increasing of durability of GFRPs containing polythene is caused by formation of the optimum molecular topological structure of the polymeric matrix. (authors)

  12. The ethics of molecular memory modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Katrina; Fisher, Carl E

    2015-07-01

    Novel molecular interventions have recently shown the potential to erase, enhance and alter specific long-term memories. Unique features of this form of memory modification call for a close examination of its possible applications. While there have been discussions of the ethics of memory modification in the literature, molecular memory modification (MMM) can provide special insights. Previously raised ethical concerns regarding memory enhancement, such as safety issues, the 'duty to remember', selfhood and personal identity, require re-evaluation in light of MMM. As a technology that exploits the brain's updating processes, MMM helps correct the common misconception that memory is a static entity by demonstrating how memory is plastic and subject to revision even in the absence of external manipulation. Furthermore, while putatively safer than other speculative technologies because of its high specificity, MMM raises notable safety issues, including potential insidious effects on the agent's emotions and personal identity. Nonetheless, MMM possesses characteristics of a more permissible form of modification, not only because it is theoretically safer, but because its unique mechanism of action requires a heightened level of cooperation from the agent. Discussions of memory modification must consider the specific mechanisms of action, which can alter the weight and relevance of various ethical concerns. MMM also highlights the need for conceptual accuracy regarding the term 'enhancement'; this umbrella term will have to be differentiated as new technologies are applied to a widening array of purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Epigenetic modification and inheritance in sexual reversal of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changwei; Li, Qiye; Chen, Songlin; Zhang, Pei; Lian, Jinmin; Hu, Qiaomu; Sun, Bing; Jin, Lijun; Liu, Shanshan; Wang, Zongji; Zhao, Hongmei; Jin, Zonghui; Liang, Zhuo; Li, Yangzhen; Zheng, Qiumei; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Guojie

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sex determination (ESD) occurs in divergent, phylogenetically unrelated taxa, and in some species, co-occurs with genetic sex determination (GSD) mechanisms. Although epigenetic regulation in response to environmental effects has long been proposed to be associated with ESD, a systemic analysis on epigenetic regulation of ESD is still lacking. Using half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) as a model-a marine fish that has both ZW chromosomal GSD and temperature-dependent ESD-we investigated the role of DNA methylation in transition from GSD to ESD. Comparative analysis of the gonadal DNA methylomes of pseudomale, female, and normal male fish revealed that genes in the sex determination pathways are the major targets of substantial methylation modification during sexual reversal. Methylation modification in pseudomales is globally inherited in their ZW offspring, which can naturally develop into pseudomales without temperature incubation. Transcriptome analysis revealed that dosage compensation occurs in a restricted, methylated cytosine enriched Z chromosomal region in pseudomale testes, achieving equal expression level in normal male testes. In contrast, female-specific W chromosomal genes are suppressed in pseudomales by methylation regulation. We conclude that epigenetic regulation plays multiple crucial roles in sexual reversal of tongue sole fish. We also offer the first clues on the mechanisms behind gene dosage balancing in an organism that undergoes sexual reversal. Finally, we suggest a causal link between the bias sex chromosome assortment in the offspring of a pseudomale family and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of sexual reversal in tongue sole fish.

  14. Cell shape and organelle modification in apoptotic U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Montinari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available U937 cells induced to apoptosis, progressively and dramatically modified their cell shape by intense blebbing formation, leading to the production of apoptotic bodies. The blebs evolved with time; milder forms of blebbing involving only a region or just the cortical part of the cytoplasm were observed within the first hour of incubation with puromycin; blebbing involving the whole cell body with very deep constrictions is the most frequent event observed during late times of incubation. The ultrastructural analysis of apoptotic cells revealed characteristic features of nuclear fragmentation (budding and cleavage mode and cytoplasmatic modifications. The cytoplasm of blebs does not contain organelles, such as ribosomes or mitochondria. Scarce presence of endoplasmic reticulum can be observed at the site of bleb detachment. However, blebbing is a dispensable event as evaluated by using inhibitor of actin polymerization. In the present study, the progressive modifications of the nucleus, mitochondria, nuclear fragmentation, cytoplasmic blebs formation and production of apoptotic bodies in U937 monocytic cells induced to apoptosis by puromycin (an inhibitor of protein synthesis were simultaneously analyzed.

  15. Biotinylation is a natural, albeit rare, modification of human histones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroishi, Toshinobu; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Pestinger, Valerie; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S. K.; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that histones H3 and H4 are posttranslationally modified by binding of the vitamin biotin, catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Albeit a rare epigenetic mark, biotinylated histones were repeatedly shown to be enriched in repeat regions and repressed loci, participating in the maintenance of genome stability and gene regulation. Recently, a team of investigators failed to detect biotinylated histones and proposed that biotinylation is not a natural modification of histones, but rather an assay artifact. Here, we describe the results of experiments, including the comparison of various analytical protocols, antibodies, cell lines, classes of histones, and radiotracers. These studies provide unambiguous evidence that biotinylation is a natural, albeit rare, histone modification. Less than 0.001% of human histones H3 and H4 are biotinylated, raising concerns that the abundance might too low to elicit biological effects in vivo. We integrated information from this study, previous studies, and ongoing research efforts to present a new working model in which biological effects are caused by a role of HCS in multiprotein complexes in chromatin. In this model, docking of HCS in chromatin causes the occasional binding of biotin to histones as a tracer for HCS binding sites. PMID:21930408

  16. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES... having jurisdiction at the mine where such equipment is to be operated stating the modifications which...

  17. Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression and promoter CpG modifications throughout the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao-Lei, Lei; Suwansirikul, Songkiet; Jutavijittum, Prapan; Mériaux, Sophie B; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2013-11-01

    Glucocorticoids and the glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors have been implicated in many processes, particularly in negative feedback regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Epigenetically programmed GR alternative promoter usage underlies transcriptional control of GR levels, generation of GR 3' splice variants, and the overall GC response in the brain. No detailed analysis of GR first exons or GR transcript variants throughout the human brain has been reported. Therefore we investigated post mortem tissues from 28 brain regions of 5 individuals. GR first exons were expressed throughout the healthy human brain with no region-specific usage patterns. First exon levels were highly inter-correlated suggesting that they are co-regulated. GR 3' splice variants (GRα and GR-P) were equally distributed in all regions, and GRβ expression was always low. GR/MR ratios showed significant differences between the 28 tissues with the highest ratio in the pituitary gland. Modification levels of individual CpG dinucleotides, including 5-mC and 5-hmC, in promoters 1D, 1E, 1F, and 1H were low, and diffusely clustered; despite significant heterogeneity between the donors. In agreement with this clustering, sum modification levels rather than individual CpG modifications correlated with GR expression. Two-way ANOVA showed that this sum modification was both promoter and brain region specific, but that there was however no promoter*tissue interaction. The heterogeneity between donors may however hide such an interaction. In both promoters 1F and 1H modification levels correlated with GRα expression suggesting that 5-mC and 5-hmC play an important role in fine tuning GR expression levels throughout the brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry M Zee

    Full Text Available Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC, which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state.

  19. Surface modification of fluorocarbon polymers by synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanda, K; Matsui, S; Ideta, T; Ishigaki, H

    2003-01-01

    The surface modification of a poly (tetrafluoroethylene) sheet was carried out by synchrotron radiation in the soft X-ray region. The poly (tetrafluoroethylene) substrate was exposed to synchrotron radiation while varying the substrate temperature from room temperature to 200degC. The contact angle of the modified surfaces with a water drop decreased from 96deg to 72deg by the irradiation at room temperature, while the contact angle increased to 143deg by the irradiation at the substrate temperature of 200degC. Scanning electron microscopy suggested that this repellence was ascribable to the microstructure of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface. We succeeded in controlling the wettability of the poly (tetrafluoroethylene) surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by irradiation of the soft X-ray light. (author)

  20. Diagonal chromatography to study plant protein modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Alan; Tsiatsiani, Liana; Jacques, Silke; Stes, Elisabeth; Messens, Joris; Van Breusegem, Frank; Goormachtig, Sofie; Gevaert, Kris

    2016-08-01

    An interesting asset of diagonal chromatography, which we have introduced for contemporary proteome research, is its high versatility concerning proteomic applications. Indeed, the peptide modification or sorting step that is required between consecutive peptide separations can easily be altered and thereby allows for the enrichment of specific, though different types of peptides. Here, we focus on the application of diagonal chromatography for the study of modifications of plant proteins. In particular, we show how diagonal chromatography allows for studying proteins processed by proteases, protein ubiquitination, and the oxidation of protein-bound methionines. We discuss the actual sorting steps needed for each of these applications and the obtained results. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adaptive Control with Reference Model Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a modification of the conventional model reference adaptive control (MRAC) architecture in order to improve transient performance of the input and output signals of uncertain systems. A simple modification of the reference model is proposed by feeding back the tracking error signal. It is shown that the proposed approach guarantees tracking of the given reference command and the reference control signal (one that would be designed if the system were known) not only asymptotically but also in transient. Moreover, it prevents generation of high frequency oscillations, which are unavoidable in conventional MRAC systems for large adaptation rates. The provided design guideline makes it possible to track a reference commands of any magnitude from any initial position without re-tuning. The benefits of the method are demonstrated with a simulation example

  2. Chitosan Modification and Pharmaceutical/Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan has received much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications, especially in pharmaceutics and medicine. Our recent efforts focused on the chemical and biological modification of chitosan in order to increase its solubility in aqueous solutions and absorbability in the in vivo system, thus for a better use of chitosan. This review summarizes chitosan modification and its pharmaceutical/biomedical applications based on our achievements as well as the domestic and overseas developments: (1 enzymatic preparation of low molecular weight chitosans/chitooligosaccharides with their hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulating effects; (2 the effects of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives on blood hemostasis; and (3 synthesis of a non-toxic ion ligand—D-Glucosaminic acid from Oxidation of D-Glucosamine for cancer and diabetes therapy.

  3. Chemical modifications and reactions in DNA nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2017-01-01

    such as hydrocarbons or steroids have been introduced to change the surface properties of DNA origami structures, either to protect the DNA nanostructure or to dock it into membranes and other hydrophobic surfaces. DNA nanostructures have also been used to control covalent chemical reactions. This article provides......DNA nanotechnology has the power to form self-assembled and well-defined nanostructures, such as DNA origami, where the relative positions of each atom are known with subnanometer precision. Our ability to synthesize oligonucleotides with chemical modifications in almost any desired position...... provides rich opportunity to incorporate molecules, biomolecules, and a variety of nanomaterials in specific positions on DNA nanostructures. Several standard modifications for oligonucleotides are available commercially, such as dyes, biotin, and chemical handles, and such modified oligonucleotides can...

  4. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  5. Modification of plastic by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalager, P.

    1974-01-01

    Very few of the modifications of plastic materials have got industrial status. Nearly all of the succesful industrial irradiations processes are performed with polyethylene. Irradiated polyethylene has been used in industries and products such as wire, cables, foams and heat shrinkable products, i.e. films, tubings and molded parts. Also the irradiation of finished products, i.e. improvement on a thermoplastic material into thermosetting material, has been developed in this field. (M.S.)

  6. Tipping the balance by manipulating posttranslational modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Christopher A.; Orth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Bacteria use a variety of mechanisms during infection to ensure their survival including the delivery of virulence factors via a type III secretion system into the infected cell. The factors exhibit diverse activities that in many cases mimic eukaryotic mechanisms used by the host to defend against infection. Herein we describe a class of effectors that use posttranslational modifications, some reversible and others irreversible, to manipulate host signaling systems to subvert the host response. PMID:20071215

  7. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  8. Dietary modification of human macular pigment density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B R; Johnson, E J; Russell, R M; Krinsky, N I; Yeum, K J; Edwards, R B; Snodderly, D M

    1997-08-01

    The retinal carotenoids lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) that form the macular pigment (MP) may help to prevent neovascular age-related macular degeneration. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MP density in the retina could be raised by increasing dietary intake of L and Z from foods. Macular pigment was measured psychophysically for 13 subjects. Serum concentrations of L, Z, and beta-carotene were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eleven subjects modified their usual daily diets by adding 60 g of spinach (10.8 mg L, 0.3 mg Z, 5 mg beta-carotene) and ten also added 150 g of corn (0.3 mg Z, 0.4 mg L); two other subjects were given only corn. Dietary modification lasted up to 15 weeks. For the subjects fed spinach or spinach and corn, three types of responses to dietary modification were identified: Eight "retinal responders" had increases in serum L (mean, 33%; SD, 22%) and in MP density (mean, 19%; SD, 11%); two "retinal nonresponders" showed substantial increases in serum L (mean, 31%) but not in MP density (mean, -11%); one "serum and retinal nonresponder" showed no changes in serum L, Z, or beta-carotene and no change in MP density. For the two subjects given only corn, serum L changed little (+11%, -6%), but in one subject serum Z increased (70%) and MP density increased (25%). Increases in MP density were obtained within 4 weeks of dietary modification for most, but not all, subjects. When MP density increased with dietary modification, it remained elevated for at least several months after resuming an unmodified diet. Augmentation of MP for both experimental and clinical investigation appears to be feasible for many persons.

  9. Surface Modification of Mg and Mg Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Turhan, Can Metehan

    2012-01-01

    Progressively, the well explored and studied mechanical properties of a bulk metal are compared with the corrosion behaviour obtained from its surface, which enables promising improvements in desired applications. An example is magnesium metal: where, by developing new types of surface modifications by understanding its inconsistent corrosion behaviour, it would be possible to apply this engineering metal safely as a biocompatible metal, in addition to its widely used application areas such a...

  10. Modifications to the control program HASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, M.; Dall'Olio, L.; Mareso, T.; Ricci, F.

    1973-01-01

    Modification to HASP version 3, level 0, a control program for an electronic computer, was described with the purpose of solving some operative and managing problems not solved by the standard version for the IBM 360/75 computer. The application and utilization of these facilities require a deep knowledge of the HASP II design, version 3, level 0, 360D-05.1.014

  11. The modification of the Rossendorf Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehre, G.; Hieronymus, W.; Kampf, T.; Ringel, V.; Robbander, W.

    1990-01-01

    The Rossendorf Research Reactor is of the WWR-SM type. It is a heterogeneous water moderated and cooled tank reactor with a thermal power of 10 MW, which was in operation from 1957 to 1986. It was shut down in 1987 for comprehensive modifications to increase its safety and to improve the efficiency of irradiation and experimentals. The modifications will be implemented in two steps. The first one to be finished in 1989 comprises: 1) the replacement of the reactor tank and its components, the reactor cooling system, the ventilation system and the electric power installation; 2) the construction of a new reactor control room and of filtering equipment; 3) the renewal of process instrumentation and control engineering equipment for reactor operation, equipment for radiation protection monitoring, and reactor operation and safety documentation. The second step, to be implemented in the nineties, is to comprise: 1) the enlargement of the capacity for storage of spent fuel; 2) the modernization of reactor operations by computer-aided control; 3) the installation of an automated measuring systems for accident and environmental monitoring. Two objects of the modification, the replacement of the reactor tank and the design of a new and safer one as well as the increase of the redundancy of the core emergency cooling system are described in detail. For the tank replacement the exposure data are also given. Furthermore, the licensing procedures based on national ordinances and standards as well as on international standards and recommendations and the mutual responsibilities and activities of the licensing authority and of the reactor manager are presented. Finally, the present state of the modifications and the schedule up to the reactor recommissioning and test operation at full power is outlined

  12. Do multiple body modifications alter pain threshold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamotová, A; Hrabák, P; Hříbek, P; Rokyta, R

    2017-12-30

    In recent years, epidemiological data has shown an increasing number of young people who deliberately self-injure. There have also been parallel increases in the number of people with tattoos and those who voluntarily undergo painful procedures associated with piercing, scarification, and tattooing. People with self-injury behaviors often say that they do not feel the pain. However, there is no information regarding pain perception in those that visit tattoo parlors and piercing studios compared to those who don't. The aim of this study was to compare nociceptive sensitivity in four groups of subjects (n=105, mean age 26 years, 48 women and 57 men) with different motivations to experience pain (i.e., with and without multiple body modifications) in two different situations; (1) in controlled, emotionally neutral conditions, and (2) at a "Hell Party" (HP), an event organized by a piercing and tattoo parlor, with a main event featuring a public demonstration of painful techniques (burn scars, hanging on hooks, etc.). Pain thresholds of the fingers of the hand were measured using a thermal stimulator and mechanical algometer. In HP participants, information about alcohol intake, self-harming behavior, and psychiatric history were used in the analysis as intervening variables. Individuals with body modifications as well as without body modifications had higher thermal pain thresholds at Hell Party, compared to thresholds measured at control neutral conditions. No such differences were found relative to mechanical pain thresholds. Increased pain threshold in all HP participants, irrespectively of body modification, cannot be simply explained by a decrease in the sensory component of pain; instead, we found that the environment significantly influenced the cognitive and affective component of pain.

  13. Magnetic field modification of optical magnetic dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelles, Gaspar; Caballero, Blanca; Cebollada, Alfonso; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Meneses-Rodríguez, David

    2015-03-11

    Acting on optical magnetic dipoles opens novel routes to govern light-matter interaction. We demonstrate magnetic field modification of the magnetic dipolar moment characteristic of resonant nanoholes in thin magnetoplasmonic films. This is experimentally shown through the demonstration of the magneto-optical analogue of Babinet's principle, where mirror imaged MO spectral dependencies are obtained for two complementary magnetoplasmonic systems: holes in a perforated metallic layer and a layer of disks on a substrate.

  14. MODIFICATION OF PAPERMAKING GRADE FILLERS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of fillers in paper products can provide cost and energy savings, improved paper properties, increased productivities, and specifically desired paper functionalities. There are many problems associated with the use of fillers, such as unsuitability of calcium carbonate fillers in acid papermaking, negative effects of filler loading on paper strength, sizing, and retention, and tendencies of fillers to cause abrasion and dusting. In order to solve these problems and to make better use of fillers, many methods have been proposed, among which filler modification has been a hot topic. The available technologies of filler modification mainly include modification with inorganic substances, modification with natural polymers or their derivatives, modification with water-soluble synthetic polymers, modification with surfactants, modification with polymer latexes, hydrophobic modification, cationic modification, surface nano-structuring, physical modification by compressing, calcination or grinding, and modification for use in functional papers. The methods of filler modification can provide improved acid tolerant and optical properties of fillers, enhanced fiber-filler bonding, improved filler retention and filler sizabilities, alleviated filler abrasiveness, improved filler dispersability, and functionalization of filled papers. Filler modification has been an indispensable way to accelerate the development of high filler technology in papermaking, which is likely to create additional benefits to papermaking industry in the future.

  15. Reproductive cloning combined with genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, C

    2005-11-01

    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child's lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so that they have unique nuclear DNA. The genetic modifications could be aimed at giving such children genetic characteristics of both members of the couple concerned. Thus, cloning combined with genetic modification could be appealing to infertile, lesbian, or gay couples who seek genetically related children who have genetic characteristics of both members. In such scenarios, the various objections to human reproductive cloning that are based on the lack of genetic uniqueness would no longer be applicable. The author argues that it would be ethically justifiable for such couples to create children in this manner, assuming these techniques could be used safely.

  16. On P values and effect modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin

    2017-12-01

    A crucial element of evidence-based healthcare is the sound understanding and use of statistics. As part of instilling sound statistical knowledge and practice, it seems useful to highlight instances of unsound statistical reasoning or practice, not merely in captious or vitriolic spirit, but rather, to use such error as a springboard for edification by giving tangibility to the concepts at hand and highlighting the importance of avoiding such error. This article aims to provide an instructive overview of two key statistical concepts: effect modification and P values. A recent article published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology on side effects related to statin therapy offers a notable example of errors in understanding effect modification and P values, and although not so critical as to entirely invalidate the article, the errors still demand considerable scrutiny and correction. In doing so, this article serves as an instructive overview of the statistical concepts of effect modification and P values. Judicious handling of statistics is imperative to avoid muddying their utility. This article contributes to the body of literature aiming to improve the use of statistics, which in turn will help facilitate evidence appraisal, synthesis, translation, and application.

  17. Subtractive Structural Modification of Morpho Butterfly Wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qingchen; He, Jiaqing; Ni, Mengtian; Song, Chengyi; Zhou, Lingye; Hu, Hang; Zhang, Ruoxi; Luo, Zhen; Wang, Ge; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao; Shang, Wen

    2015-11-11

    Different from studies of butterfly wings through additive modification, this work for the first time studies the property change of butterfly wings through subtractive modification using oxygen plasma etching. The controlled modification of butterfly wings through such subtractive process results in gradual change of the optical properties, and helps the further understanding of structural optimization through natural evolution. The brilliant color of Morpho butterfly wings is originated from the hierarchical nanostructure on the wing scales. Such nanoarchitecture has attracted a lot of research effort, including the study of its optical properties, its potential use in sensing and infrared imaging, and also the use of such structure as template for the fabrication of high-performance photocatalytic materials. The controlled subtractive processes provide a new path to modify such nanoarchitecture and its optical property. Distinct from previous studies on the optical property of the Morpho wing structure, this study provides additional experimental evidence for the origination of the optical property of the natural butterfly wing scales. The study also offers a facile approach to generate new 3D nanostructures using butterfly wings as the templates and may lead to simpler structure models for large-scale man-made structures than those offered by original butterfly wings. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  19. SERVICES AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven ILLERIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to discuss what roles the different economic sectors, and in particular services activities (the tertiary sector play in regional development, understood as growth in production, incomes and employment in weakly developedregions. This question is approached in two ways. The contribution first contains a – primarily theoretical – re-examination of the so-called economic base model, which states that services play a passive role in regional development. The discussion leads to substantial modifications of the model. The second approach is more empirical. It will take as its point of departure the proposition – often heard, but rarely examined – that since service activities are more concentrated in big cities than other activities and in recent decades have shown higher growth rates than other economic activities, it follows that the economic development is now pulled towards big city regions. Examined by way of a statistical analysisin Denmark and France, this proposition could not be verified.

  20. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  1. Modification of Material Surface Using Plasma-Enhanced Ion Beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bystritskii, V

    1998-01-01

    ...) Technology for Materials Surface Modification. Following second year programmatic plan, formulated in the conclusion of the 1-st year report we focused our effort on study of aluminum alloys modification (Al2024, 6061, 7075...

  2. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    Protein modifications not only affect protein homeostasis but can also establish new cellular protein functions and are important components of complex cellular signal sensing and transduction networks. Among these post-translational modifications, protein phosphorylation represents the one that ...

  3. Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tribological effects of polymer surface modification through plastic deformation. K O Low K J Wong ... In this regard, a surface modification technique through plastic deformation has been implemented. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  4. Nuclear Plant Modification in a Risk-Informed Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines a specific nuclear power plant modification performed in a risk-informed regulatory environment. It quantifies both the permanent and temporary effects of the modification, and performs a cost-benefit evaluation. (authors)

  5. 14 CFR 21.9 - Replacement and modification articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Replacement and modification articles. 21.9... CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.9 Replacement and modification articles. (a) If a person knows, or should know, that a replacement or modification article is reasonably likely to be...

  6. MODIFICATION OF SURFACE KONDENSITSIONNYH AEROSOLS WELDING AND METALLURGICHESKIH PRODUCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ennan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modification of surface kondensitsionnyh aerosols (KA which formation when heat treatment metals (process of weld, foundry processes with application chlorosilanes are suggested. Adsorbtion vapor of water on modification powders KA decreases and changes in varies from modifier and conditions modification are setted.

  7. 23 CFR 630.110 - Modification of original agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of original agreement. 630.110 Section 630... OPERATIONS PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Project Authorization and Agreements § 630.110 Modification of original agreement. (a) When changes are needed to the original project agreement, a modification of agreement shall...

  8. HMCan: A method for detecting chromatin modifications in cancer samples using ChIP-seq data

    KAUST Repository

    Ashoor, Haitham

    2013-09-09

    Motivation: Cancer cells are often characterized by epigenetic changes, which include aberrant histone modifications. In particular, local or regional epigenetic silencing is a common mechanism in cancer for silencing expression of tumor suppressor genes. Though several tools have been created to enable detection of histone marks in ChIP-seq data from normal samples, it is unclear whether these tools can be efficiently applied to ChIP-seq data generated from cancer samples. Indeed, cancer genomes are often characterized by frequent copy number alterations: gains and losses of large regions of chromosomal material. Copy number alterations may create a substantial statistical bias in the evaluation of histone mark signal enrichment and result in underdetection of the signal in the regions of loss and overdetection of the signal in the regions of gain. Results: We present HMCan (Histone modifications in cancer), a tool specially designed to analyze histone modification ChIP-seq data produced from cancer genomes. HMCan corrects for the GC-content and copy number bias and then applies Hidden Markov Models to detect the signal from the corrected data. On simulated data, HMCan outperformed several commonly used tools developed to analyze histone modification data produced from genomes without copy number alterations. HMCan also showed superior results on a ChIP-seq dataset generated for the repressive histone mark H3K27me3 in a bladder cancer cell line. HMCan predictions matched well with experimental data (qPCR validated regions) and included, for example, the previously detected H3K27me3 mark in the promoter of the DLEC1 gene, missed by other tools we tested. The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Semiclassical anomalies of the quantum mechanical systems and their modifications for the asymptotic matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, Coskun

    2011-01-01

    JWKB solutions to the Initial Value Problems (IVPs) of the Time Independent Schrodinger's Equation (TISE) for the Simple Linear Potentials (SLPs) with a turning point parameter have been studied according to the turning points by graphical analysis to test the results of the JWKB solutions and suggested modifications. The anomalies happening in the classically inaccessible region where the SLP function is smaller than zero and the results of the suggested modifications, which are in consistent with the quantum mechanical theories, to remove these anomalies in this region have been presented. The origins of the anomalies and verifications of the suggested modifications showing a great success in the results have also been studied in terms of a suggested M ij =S ∼ i-1,j matrix elements made up of the JWKB expansion terms, S i-1,j (where i = 1, 2, 3 and j 1, 2). The results of the modifications for the IVPs and their application to the Bound State Problems (BSPs) with an example application of the Harmonic Oscillator (HO) have been presented and their generalization for any potential function have been discussed and classified accordingly.

  10. Surface Modifications in Adhesion and Wetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Jonathan

    Advances in surface modification are changing the world. Changing surface properties of bulk materials with nanometer scale coatings enables inventions ranging from the familiar non-stick frying pan to advanced composite aircraft. Nanometer or monolayer coatings used to modify a surface affect the macro-scale properties of a system; for example, composite adhesive joints between the fuselage and internal frame of Boeing's 787 Dreamliner play a vital role in the structural stability of the aircraft. This dissertation focuses on a collection of surface modification techniques that are used in the areas of adhesion and wetting. Adhesive joints are rapidly replacing the familiar bolt and rivet assemblies used by the aerospace and automotive industries. This transition is fueled by the incorporation of composite materials into aircraft and high performance road vehicles. Adhesive joints have several advantages over the traditional rivet, including, significant weight reduction and efficient stress transfer between bonded materials. As fuel costs continue to rise, the weight reduction is accelerating this transition. Traditional surface pretreatments designed to improve the adhesion of polymeric materials to metallic surfaces are extremely toxic. Replacement adhesive technologies must be compatible with the environment without sacrificing adhesive performance. Silane-coupling agents have emerged as ideal surface modifications for improving composite joint strength. As these coatings are generally applied as very thin layers (coatings using the buckling instability formed between two materials of a large elastic mismatch. The elastic modulus is found to effectively predict the joint strength of an epoxy/aluminum joint that has been reinforced with silane coupling agents. This buckling technique is extended to investigate the effects of chemical composition on the elastic modulus. Finally, the effect of macro-scale roughness on silane-reinforced joints is investigated

  11. Efficient reanalysis of structures by a direct modification method. [local stiffness modifications of large structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibstein, A. I.; Kalev, I.; Pipano, A.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure for the local stiffness modifications of large structures is described. It enables structural modifications without an a priori definition of the changes in the original structure and without loss of efficiency due to multiple loading conditions. The solution procedure, implemented in NASTRAN, involved the decomposed stiffness matrix and the displacement vectors of the original structure. It solves the modified structure exactly, irrespective of the magnitude of the stiffness changes. In order to investigate the efficiency of the present procedure and to test its applicability within a design environment, several real and large structures were solved. The results of the efficiency studies indicate that the break-even point of the procedure varies between 8% and 60% stiffness modifications, depending upon the structure's characteristics and the options employed.

  12. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changnon, S A [Illinois State Water Survey, Champaign, IL (USA)

    1992-05-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally.

  13. Modification of inertial oscillations by the mesoscale eddy field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elipot, Shane; Lumpkin, Rick; Prieto, GermáN.

    2010-09-01

    The modification of near-surface near-inertial oscillations (NIOs) by the geostrophic vorticity is studied globally from an observational standpoint. Surface drifter are used to estimate NIO characteristics. Despite its spatial resolution limits, altimetry is used to estimate the geostrophic vorticity. Three characteristics of NIOs are considered: the relative frequency shift with respect to the local inertial frequency; the near-inertial variance; and the inverse excess bandwidth, which is interpreted as a decay time scale. The geostrophic mesoscale flow shifts the frequency of NIOs by approximately half its vorticity. Equatorward of 30°N and S, this effect is added to a global pattern of blue shift of NIOs. While the global pattern of near-inertial variance is interpretable in terms of wind forcing, it is also observed that the geostrophic vorticity organizes the near-inertial variance; it is maximum for near zero values of the Laplacian of the vorticity and decreases for nonzero values, albeit not as much for positive as for negative values. Because the Laplacian of vorticity and vorticity are anticorrelated in the altimeter data set, overall, more near-inertial variance is found in anticyclonic vorticity regions than in cyclonic regions. While this is compatible with anticyclones trapping NIOs, the organization of near-inertial variance by the Laplacian of vorticity is also in very good agreement with previous theoretical and numerical predictions. The inverse bandwidth is a decreasing function of the gradient of vorticity, which acts like the gradient of planetary vorticity to increase the decay of NIOs from the ocean surface. Because the altimetry data set captures the largest vorticity gradients in energetic mesoscale regions, it is also observed that NIOs decay faster in large geostrophic eddy kinetic energy regions.

  14. Inadvertent weather modification urban areas - lessons for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changnon, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    Large metropolitan areas in North America, home to 65% of the USA's population, have created major changes in their climates over the past 150 years. The rate and amount of the urban climate change approximate those being predicted globally using climate models. Knowledge of urban weather and climate modification holds lessons for the global climate change issue. First, adjustments to urban climate changes can provide guidance for adjusting to global change. A second lesson relates to the difficulty but underscores the necessity of providing scientifically credible proof of change within the noise of natural climatic variability. The evolution of understanding about how urban conditions influence weather reveals several unexpected outcomes, particularly relating to precipitation changes. These suggest that similar future surprises can be expected in a changed global climate, a third lesson. In-depth studies of how urban climate changes affected the hydrologic cycle, the regional economy, and human activities were difficult because of data problems, lack of impact methodology, and necessity for multidisciplinary investigations. Similar impact studies for global climate change will require diverse scientific talents and funding commitments adequate to measure the complexity of impacts and human adjustments. Understanding the processes whereby urban areas and other human activities have altered the atmosphere and changed clouds and precipitation regionally appears highly relevant to the global climate-change issue. Scientific and governmental policy development needs to recognize an old axiom that became evident in the studies of inadvertent urban and regional climate change and their behavioural implications: Think globally but act locally. Global climate change is an international issue, and the atmosphere must be treated globally. But the impacts and the will to act and adjust will occur regionally

  15. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  16. Ultrasonic Recovery and Modification of Food Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkhu, Kamaljit; Manasseh, Richard; Mawson, Raymond; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    There are two general classes of effects that sound, and ultrasound in particular, can have on a fluid. First, very significant modifications to the nature of food and food ingredients can be due to the phenomena of bubble acoustics and cavitation. The applied sound oscillates bubbles in the fluid, creating intense forces at microscopic scales thus driving chemical changes. Second, the sound itself can cause the fluid to flow vigorously, both on a large scale and on a microscopic scale; furthermore, the sound can cause particles in the fluid to move relative to the fluid. These streaming phenomena can redistribute materials within food and food ingredients at both microscopic and macroscopic scales.

  17. In medium modification of nucleon electromagnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, F.; Rakhimov, A.; Yakhsiev, U.

    1997-01-01

    Since nucleons are composite objects, their internal structure is expected to be changed by nuclear environment. A Skyrme like Lagrangian is proposed to consider such effects, namely the modification of electromagnetic (EM) properties of the nucleon. The static properties and EM form factors were obtained. It was shown that the charge radius of the nucleon increased in medium and the mass and axial coupling constant are reduced. The enhancement of magnetic moment of proton is smaller than that obtained in non-topological soliton model.Obtained results may be useful in electron nucleus scattering analysis.(A.A.D.)

  18. Dynamic Binary Modification Tools, Techniques and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hazelwood, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic binary modification tools form a software layer between a running application and the underlying operating system, providing the powerful opportunity to inspect and potentially modify every user-level guest application instruction that executes. Toolkits built upon this technology have enabled computer architects to build powerful simulators and emulators for design-space exploration, compiler writers to analyze and debug the code generated by their compilers, software developers to fully explore the features, bottlenecks, and performance of their software, and even end-users to extend

  19. ASPOD modifications of 1993-1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jennifer J. (Editor); Fogarty, Paul W.; Muller, Matthew; Martucci, Thomas A., III; Williams, Daniel; Rowney, David A.

    1994-01-01

    ASPOD, Autonomous Space Processors for Orbital Debris, provides a unique way of collecting the space debris that has built up over the past 37 years. For the past several years, ASPOD has gone through several different modifications. This year's concentrations were on the solar cutting array, the solar tracker, the earth based main frame/tilt table, the controls for the two robotic arms, and accurate autocad drawings of ASPOD. This final report contains the reports written by the students who worked on the ASPOD project this year.

  20. EG and G electron linac modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, N.J.; Detch, J.L.; Kocimski, S.M.; Sawyer, C.R.; Hudson, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    A three-year modification of the EG and G electron linac has been performed to replace obsolete equipment and bring all subsystems up to the current state of the art. Components and subsystems were designed, constructed, and tested off-line to minimize interruption of experiments. The configuration of the modified linac is shown schematically, and performance characteristics are give. Each subsystem is described, including: the electron gun; solenoid focusing system; subharmonic bunchers; accelerating system; RF system; klystron modulators and power supplies; control system; beam handling system; vacuum system; and beam current monitors. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2005-11-28

    We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

  2. Cigar Product Modification Among High School Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapl, Erika S; Koopman Gonzalez, Sarah J; Cofie, Leslie; Yoder, Laura D; Frank, Jean; Sterling, Kymberle L

    2018-02-07

    Prevalence of cigar use has been increasing among youth. Research indicates that youth are modifying cigar products either by "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) or "blunting" (removing the tobacco and supplementing or replacing with marijuana), yet little is known about youth who engage in this behavior. Thus, this study examines demographic and concurrent substance use behaviors of youth who modify cigars. Data from the 2013 Cuyahoga County Youth Risk Behavior survey were examined (n = 16 855). The survey collected data on demographics, cigar product use, cigar modification behaviors, and current cigarette, hookah and marijuana use. Responses to cigar product use items were used to create a composite to classify youth in one of eight unique user categories. Univariate and bivariate statistics were calculated using SPSS complex samples procedures. Overall, 15.2% reported current cigar product use, 11.0% reported current freaking, and 18.5% reported current blunt use; taken together, 25.3% of respondents reported any current use of a cigar product. When examined by user category, of those who endorsed any cigar product use, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars use only was most endorsed (26.3%), followed by Blunt only (25.2%) and all three (ie, cigars, cigarillos, and little cigars, freaking, and blunting; 17.4%). A substantial proportion of high school youth who report using cigar products are modifying them in some way, with nearly half freaking and nearly two-thirds blunting. Given the FDA Center for Tobacco products recent extension of its regulatory authority to include cigar products, it is imperative to understand more about the prevalence of and reasons for cigar modification behaviors. Although the FDA has recently enacted regulatory authority over cigar products, little is known about cigar product modification. This is the first study to concurrently examine two unique cigar modification behaviors, "freaking" (ie, removing the filter paper) and

  3. Structure modification of particle track membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueck, H.B.; Gemende, B.; Heinrich, B.

    1991-01-01

    Three different structure modifications were studied in order to improve the flux and dirt loading capacity of particle track membranes without affecting their retention characteristic. Divergent irradiation is a very effective tool for decreasing the number of multiple pores and increasing the porosity up to 20 per cent. The technique leads to a remarkable but not efficient enhancement of the surface porosity. Improved surface porosity produced by a double irradiation technique turns out to be very effective with respect to the filtration performance. (author)

  4. Medication for Behavior Modification in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    The use of behavior modifying drugs may be considered in birds with behavior problems, especially those refractory to behavior modification therapy and environmental management. To accomplish behavior change, a variety of drugs can be used, including psychoactive drugs, hormones, antihistamines, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Because their prescription to birds is off-label, these drugs are considered appropriate only when a sound rationale can be provided for their use. This requires a (correct) behavioral diagnosis to be established. In addition, regular monitoring and follow-up are warranted to determine the efficacy of the treatment and evaluate the occurrence of potential adverse side effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modification-specific proteomics: strategies for characterization of post-translational modifications using enrichment techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yingming; Jensen, Ole N

    2009-01-01

    More than 300 different types of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) have been described, many of which are known to have pivotal roles in cellular physiology and disease. Nevertheless, only a handful of PTMs have been extensively investigated at the proteome level. Knowledge of protein...... substrates and their PTM sites is key to dissection of PTM-mediated cellular processes. The past several years have seen a tremendous progress in developing MS-based proteomics technologies for global PTM analysis, including numerous studies of yeast and other microbes. Modification-specific enrichment...

  6. Value-impact assessment of safety-related modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, W.M.C.; Dinnie, K.S.; Gordon, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Like other nuclear utilities, Ontario Hydro, as part of its risk management activities, continually assesses the safety of its nuclear operations. In addition, new regulatory requirements are being applied to the older nuclear power plants. Both of these result in proposed plant modifications designed to reduce the risk to the public. However, modifications to an operating plant can have serious economic effects, and the resources, both financial and personnel, required for the implementation of these modifications are limited. Thus, all potential benefits and effects of a proposed modification must be thoroughly investigated to judge whether the modification is beneficial. Ontario Hydro has begun to use comprehensive value-impact assessments, utilizing plant-specific probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), as tools to provide an informed basis for judgments on the benefit of safety-related modifications. The results from value-impact assessments can also be used to prioritize the implementation of these modifications

  7. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, J.G.; Bowman, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities P/sub n/1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=such thatub f/-n/sub i/ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison

  8. Wave vector modification of the infinite order sudden approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Judith Grobe; Bowman, Joel M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple method is proposed to modify the infinite order sudden approximation (IOS) in order to extend its region of quantitative validity. The method involves modifying the phase of the IOS scattering matrix to include a part calculated at the outgoing relative kinetic energy as well as a part calculated at the incoming kinetic energy. An immediate advantage of this modification is that the resulting S matrix is symmetric. We also present a closely related method in which the relative kinetic energies used in the calculation of the phase are determined from quasiclassical trajectory calculations. A set of trajectories is run with the initial state being the incoming state, and another set is run with the initial state being the outgoing state, and the average final relative kinetic energy of each set is obtained. One part of the S-operator phase is then calculated at each of these kinetic energies. We apply these methods to vibrationally inelastic collinear collisions of an atom and a harmonic oscillator, and calculate transition probabilities Pn1→nf for three model systems. For systems which are sudden, or nearly so, the agreement with exact quantum close-coupling calculations is substantially improved over standard IOS ones when Δn=‖nf-ni‖ is large, and the corresponding transition probability is small, i.e., less than 0.1. However, the modifications we propose will not improve the accuracy of the IOS transition probabilities for any collisional system unless the standard form of IOS already gives at least qualitative agreement with exact quantal calculations. We also suggest comparisons between some classical quantities and sudden predictions which should help in determining the validity of the sudden approximation. This is useful when exact quantal data is not available for comparison.

  9. The NEDD8 modification pathway in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus eSchwechheimer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available NEDD8, in plants and yeasts also known as RELATED TO UBIQUITIN (RUB, is an evolutionarily conserved 76 amino acid protein highly related to ubiquitin. Like ubiquitin, NEDD8 can be conjugated to and deconjugated from target proteins, but unlike ubiquitin, NEDD8 has not been reported to form chains similar to the different polymeric ubiquitin chains that have a role in a diverse set of cellular processes. NEDD8-modification is best known as a posttranslational modification of the cullin subunits of cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligases. In this context, structural analyses have revealed that neddylation induces a conformation change of the cullin that brings the ubiquitylation substrates into proximity of the interacting E2 conjugating enzyme. In turn, NEDD8 deconjugation destabilizes the cullin RING ligase complex allowing for the exchange of substrate recognition subunits via the exchange factor CAND1. In plants, components of the neddylation and deneddylation pathway were identified based on mutants with defects in auxin and light responses and the characterization of these mutants has been instrumental for the elucidation of the neddylation pathway. More recently, there has been evidence from animal and plant systems that NEDD8 conjugation may also regulate the behavior or fate of non-cullin substrates in a number of ways. Here, the current knowledge on NEDD8 processing, conjugation and deconjugation is presented, where applicable, in the context of specific signaling pathways from plants.

  10. Electron beam induced modification of grafted polyamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Brasoveanu, M.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Popov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that irradiation, when applied on its own or in combination with other physical and chemical treatments, can manifest in radiation damage to materials. Radiation processing technology focuses upon producing favourable modification of materials through use of relatively high dose and dose rates. Current interest is in modifying the thermal and electrical properties of textured polymers in an effort to improve safety and wear comfort of clothing. No less important is the production of textiles which are safe to use, both in homes and offices. Present investigations provide additional data in support of findings which show that polyamides, a particular class of textured polymer, are amenable to radiation processing. Accelerated electron beam irradiation of sheets of polyamide fibre results in induced grafting of acrylic and methacrylic acids. The degree of grafting is critically dependent upon irradiation dose and the extent of monomers dilution. Of particular importance is the high correlation which is found between degree of grafting and a decrease in the softening rate of the modified polyamide. A systematic modification of electrical conductivity is also observed. (author)

  11. Oxidative modification of ferritin induced by methylglyoxal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ho An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Methylglyoxal (MG was identified as an intermediate innon-enzymatic glycation and increased levels were reported inpatients with diabetes. In this study, we evaluated the effects ofMG on the modification of ferritin. When ferritin wasincubated with MG, covalent crosslinking of the proteinincreased in a time- and MG dose-dependent manner.Reactive oxygen species (ROS scavengers, N-acetyl-L-cysteineand thiourea suppressed the MG-mediated ferritinmodification. The formation of dityrosine was observed inMG-mediated ferritin aggregates and ROS scavengers inhibitedthe formation of dityrosine. During the reaction betweenferritin and MG, the generation of ROS was increased as afunction of incubation time. These results suggest that ROSmay play a role in the modification of ferritin by MG. Thereaction between ferritin and MG led to the release of ironions from the protein. Ferritin exposure to MG resulted in aloss of arginine, histidine and lysine residues. It was assumedthat oxidative damage to ferritin caused by MG may induce anincrease in the iron content in cells, which is deleterious tocells. This mechanism, in part, may provide an explanation orthe deterioration of organs under diabetic conditions. [BMBreports 2012; 45(3: 147-152

  12. Excimer laser surface modification: Process and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hirvonen, J.P. [Technical Research Institute, Espoo (Finland). Metallurgy Lab.

    1992-12-01

    Surface modification can improve materials for structural, tribological, and corrosion applications. Excimer laser light has been shown to provide a rapid means of modifying surfaces through heat treating, surface zone refining, and mixing. Laser pulses at modest power levels can easily melt the surfaces of many materials. Mixing within the molten layer or with the gas ambient may occur, if thermodynamically allowed, followed by rapid solidification. The high temperatures allow the system to overcome kinetic barriers found in some ion mixing experiments. Alternatively, surface zone refinement may result from repeated melting-solidification cycles. Ultraviolet laser light couples energy efficiently to the surface of metallic and ceramic materials. The nature of the modification that follows depends on the properties of the surface and substrate materials. Alloying from both gas and predeposited layer sources has been observed in metals, semiconductors, and ceramics as has surface enrichment of Cr by zone refinement of stainless steel. Rapid solidification after melting often results in the formation of nonequilibrium phases, including amorphous materials. Improved surface properties, including tribology and corrosion resistance, are observed in these materials.

  13. Electron beam modification of vanadium dioxide oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaev, Maksim; Velichko, Andrey; Putrolaynen, Vadim; Perminov, Valentin; Pergament, Alexander [Petrozavodsk State University, Petrozavodsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The paper presents the results of a study of electron-beam modification (EBM) of VO{sub 2}-switch I-V curve threshold parameters and the self-oscillation frequency of a circuit containing such a switching device. EBM in vacuum is reversible and the parameters are restored when exposed to air at pressure of 150 Pa. At EBM with a dose of 3 C cm{sup -2}, the voltages of switching-on (V{sub th}) and off (V{sub h}), as well as the OFF-state resistance R{sub off}, decrease down to 50% of the initial values, and the oscillation frequency increases by 30% at a dose of 0.7 C cm{sup -2}. Features of physics of EBM of an oscillator are outlined considering the contribution of the metal and semiconductor phases of the switching channel. Controlled modification allows EBM forming of switches with preset parameters. Also, it might be used in artificial oscillatory neural networks for pattern recognition based on frequency shift keying. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. STIFFNESS MODIFICATION OF COTTON IN CHITOSAN TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOS Juan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin, and among their most important aspects highlights its applications in a lot of industrial sectors due to its intrinsic properties, especially in the textile sector. In the last years, chitosan is widely used in the cotton and wool finishing processes due to its bond between them and its properties as an antifungical and antimicrobial properties. In this paper three different molecular weight chitosan are used in the finishing process of cotton to evaluate its influence in the surface properties modification. In order to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chitosan, flexural stiffness test is performed in warp and weft direction, and then the total value is calculated. The cotton fabric is treated with 5 g/L of different types of chitosan in an impregnation bath. This study shows the extent of surface properties modification of the cotton provided by three types of chitosan treatment. The results show that all types of chitosan modify the cotton flexural rigidity properties but the one which modifies it in a relevant manner is chitosan originated from shrimps. Chitosan, textile, flexural stiffnes, chitin, cotton.

  15. Posttranslational Modifications and the Immunogenicity of Biotherapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jefferis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the amino acid sequence of a protein is determined by its gene sequence, the final structure and function are determined by posttranslational modifications (PTMs, including quality control (QC in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and during passage through the Golgi apparatus. These processes are species and cell specific and challenge the biopharmaceutical industry when developing a production platform for the generation of recombinant biologic therapeutics. Proteins and glycoproteins are also subject to chemical modifications (CMs both in vivo and in vitro. The individual is naturally tolerant to molecular forms of self-molecules but nonself variants can provoke an immune response with the generation of anti-drug antibodies (ADA; aggregated forms can exhibit enhanced immunogenicity and QC procedures are developed to avoid or remove them. Monoclonal antibody therapeutics (mAbs are a special case because their purpose is to bind the target, with the formation of immune complexes (ICs, a particular form of aggregate. Such ICs may be removed by phagocytic cells that have antigen presenting capacity. These considerations may frustrate the possibility of ameliorating the immunogenicity of mAbs by rigorous exclusion of aggregates from drug product. Alternate strategies for inducing immunosuppression or tolerance are discussed.

  16. Heavy flavored jet modification in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2084335

    2016-01-01

    The energy loss of jets in heavy-ion collisions is expected to depend on the flavor of the fragmenting parton. Thus, measurements of jet quenching as a function of flavor place powerful constraints on the thermodynamical and transport properties of the hot and dense medium. Measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the heavy-flavor-tagged jets (from charm and bottom quarks) in both PbPb and pPb collisions can quantify such energy loss effects. Specifically, pPb measurements provide crucial insights into the behavior of the cold nuclear matter effect, which is required to fully understand the hot and dense medium effects on jets in PbPb collisions. In this talk, we present the heavy flavor jet spectra and measurements of the nuclear modification factors in both PbPb and pPb as a function of transverse momentum and pseudorapidity, using the high statistics pp, pPb and PbPb data taken in 2011 and 2013. Finally, we also will present a proposal for c-jet tagging methodology to be used for the upcoming hi...

  17. Amalyse modifications during production and application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Connie

    a-Amylases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of a-D-(1,4) glucosidic linkages in starch and related compounds. a-Amylases are some of the most important industrial enzymes and they are used in a number of different industries one of these being the detergent industry. The comm......a-Amylases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of a-D-(1,4) glucosidic linkages in starch and related compounds. a-Amylases are some of the most important industrial enzymes and they are used in a number of different industries one of these being the detergent industry......I value can be identified when analysing the final enzyme product, hereby indicating that the protein is modified. The purpose of the present Ph.D. project is to identify differences between the multiple forms of a-amylase derived from the same gene and determine if or how these various modifications...... affect the activity and wash performance. The focus of the present project is on a-amylases fromBacillus species used in the detergent industry. The thesis begins with an introduction to Bacillus a-amylases, modifications which could cause the multiple forms varying in pI value and mass spectrometry (MS...

  18. AMHARA REGION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the contribution of school curriculum committee in facilitating and coordinating ... schools of Amhara Region' ln undertaking the study the descriptive survey method was used. .... pupil and the teacher are available. ... prepared for each level and grade has ..... the principals have the opinion that the.

  19. Atlantic Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elands, B.H.M.; Bell, S.; Blok, J.

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 explores recreation and tourism practices in forest areas in the Atlantic region, which refers to the geographical area close to the North Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic countries described in this section are Belgium (Flanders and Wallonia), Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, the

  20. Mapping posttranscriptional modifications in 5S ribosomal RNA by MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpekar, F; Douthwaite, S; Roepstorff, P

    2000-02-01

    We present a method to screen RNA for posttranscriptional modifications based on Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). After the RNA is digested to completion with a nucleotide-specific RNase, the fragments are analyzed by mass spectrometry. A comparison of the observed mass data with the data predicted from the gene sequence identifies fragments harboring modified nucleotides. Fragments larger than dinucleotides were valuable for the identification of posttranscriptional modifications. A more refined mapping of RNA modifications can be obtained by using two RNases in parallel combined with further fragmentation by Post Source Decay (PSD). This approach allows fast and sensitive screening of a purified RNA for posttranscriptional modification, and has been applied on 5S rRNA from two thermophilic microorganisms, the bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus and the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, as well as the halophile archaea Halobacterium halobium and Haloarcula marismortui. One S. acidocaldarius posttranscriptional modification was identified and was further characterized by PSD as a methylation of cytidine32. The modified C is located in a region that is clearly conserved with respect to both sequence and position in B. stearothermophilus and H. halobium and to some degree also in H. marismortui. However, no analogous modification was identified in the latter three organisms. We further find that the 5' end of H. halobium 5S rRNA is dephosphorylated, in contrast to the other 5S rRNA species investigated. The method additionally gives an immediate indication of whether the expected RNA sequence is in agreement with the observed fragment masses. Discrepancies with two of the published 5S rRNA sequences were identified and are reported here.

  1. Active core profile and transport modification by application of ion Bernstein wave power in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, B.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Blush, L.; de la Luna, E.; Doerner, R.; Dunlap, J.; England, A.; Garcia, I.; Ignat, D.; Isler, R.; Jones, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Luckhardt, S.; Mutoh, T.; Okabayashi, M.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Petravich, G.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauthoff, N.; Schmitz, L.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; Talvard, M.; Tighe, W.; Tynan, G.; von Goeler, S.; Woskov, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-03-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1271 (1990)] tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH-assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large ∇ne, ∇Te, ∇νφ, and ∇Ti, delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high) mode, but with a confinement zone moved inward. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhances NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central Ti results from χi reduction (compared to the H mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32-0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma.

  2. Active core profile and transport modification by application of ion Bernstein wave power in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.; Batha, S.; Bell, R.; Bernabei, S.; Blush, L.; de la Luna, E.; Doerner, R.; Dunlap, J.; England, A.; Garcia, I.; Ignat, D.; Isler, R.; Jones, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; Levinton, F.; Luckhardt, S.; Mutoh, T.; Okabayashi, M.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Petravich, G.; Post-Zwicker, A.; Sauthoff, N.; Schmitz, L.; Sesnic, S.; Takahashi, H.; Talvard, M.; Tighe, W.; Tynan, G.; von Goeler, S.; Woskov, P.; Zolfaghari, A.

    1995-01-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1271 (1990)] tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH-assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large ∇n e , ∇T e , ∇ν φ , and ∇T i , delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high) mode, but with a confinement zone moved inward. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhances NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central T i results from χ i reduction (compared to the H mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma

  3. Profiling of integral membrane proteins and their post translational modifications using high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souda, Puneet; Ryan, Christopher M.; Cramer, William A.; Whitelegge, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins pose challenges to traditional proteomics approaches due to unique physicochemical properties including hydrophobic transmembrane domains that limit solubility in aqueous solvents. A well resolved intact protein molecular mass profile defines a protein’s native covalent state including post-translational modifications, and is thus a vital measurement toward full structure determination. Both soluble loop regions and transmembrane regions potentially contain post-translational modifications that must be characterized if the covalent primary structure of a membrane protein is to be defined. This goal has been achieved using electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) with low-resolution mass analyzers for intact protein profiling, and high-resolution instruments for top-down experiments, toward complete covalent primary structure information. In top-down, the intact protein profile is supplemented by gas-phase fragmentation of the intact protein, including its transmembrane regions, using collisionally activated and/or electroncapture dissociation (CAD/ECD) to yield sequence-dependent high-resolution MS information. Dedicated liquid chromatography systems with aqueous/organic solvent mixtures were developed allowing us to demonstrate that polytopic integral membrane proteins are amenable to ESI-MS analysis, including top-down measurements. Covalent post-translational modifications are localized regardless of their position in transmembrane domains. Top-down measurements provide a more detail oriented high-resolution description of post-transcriptional and post-translational diversity for enhanced understanding beyond genomic translation. PMID:21982782

  4. Diagnostics of the solar wind transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotova, N.A.; Nagelis, Ya.V.; Rudnitskij, G.M.; Smirnova, T.V.; AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga. Radioastrofizicheskaya Observatoriya; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed of a more complete study of hardly observable regions of the interplanetary medium, in the zone of the solar wind formation, where transition from subsonic to supersonic flow occurs at R sun . It is shown that an investigation of fine structure of the extended transonic region of the solar wind and of the sequence of changes in the parameters of the interplanetary plasma in the region of the solar wind formation with the changing distance from the Sun can be effectuated by using jointly different modifications of the occupation method. Combination of two or more modifications of this method supposes using compact radio sources of different classes and observations in two different wavelength ranges, namely at short centimeter and at meter waves

  5. Activated Carbon Preparation and Modification for Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuhe

    Butanol is considered a promising, infrastructure-compatible biofuel. Butanol has a higher energy content than ethanol and can be used in conventional gas engines without modifications. Unfortunately, the fermentation pathway for butanol production is restricted by its toxicity to the microbial strains used in the process. Butanol is toxic to the microbes, and this can slow fermentation rates and reduce butanol yields. Gas stripping technology can efficiently remove butanol from the fermentation broth as it is produced, thereby decreasing its inhibitory effects. Traditional butanol separation heavily depends on the energy intensive distillation method. One of the main issues in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation is that butanol concentrations in the fermentation broth are low, ranging from 1 to 1.2 percent in weight, because of its toxicity to the microorganisms. Therefore distillation of butanol is even worse than distillation of corn ethanol. Even new separation methods, such as solid- extraction methods involve adding substances, such as polymer resin and zeolite or activated carbon, to biobutanol fermentatioon broth did not achieve energy efficient separation of butanol due to low adsorption selectivity and fouling in broth. Gas-stripping - condensation is another new butanol recovery method, however, the butanol in gas-stripping stream is too low to be condensed without using expensive and energy intensive liquid nitrogen. Adsorption can then be used to recover butanol from the vapor phase. Activated carbon (AC) samples and zeolite were investigated for their butanol vapor adsorption capacities. Commercial activated carbon was modified via hydrothermal H2O2 treatment, and the specific surface area and oxygen-containing functional groups of activated carbon were tested before and after treatment. Hydrothermal H2O 2 modification increased the surface oxygen content, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, micropore volume, and total pore volume of active carbon

  6. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  7. A modification of the Oersted experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyanov, Dimitar G [Sliven Engineering and Pedagogical Faculty, Sofia Technical University, 59 Burgasko Shosse Blvd, 8800 Sliven (Bulgaria)], E-mail: dgstoyanov@abv.bg

    2009-05-15

    The paper describes a simple set-up of the Oersted experiment. A planar coil of wires has been used to deflect vigorously the magnetic needle (more than 80 angular degrees) when a current of up to 1 A flows along it. Based on theoretical analysis the torque on the magnetic field is analytically expressed taking into account the inhomogeneity of the field and the needle shape. This modification of the Oersted experiment can be used as an easily-made and low-cost set-up or a laboratory workshop at the undergraduate level. Moreover, a procedure to measure the Earth's magnetic component is implied and implemented and its magnitude has been estimated following the same steps.

  8. Controller modification applied for active fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2014-01-01

    This paper is focusing on active fault detection (AFD) for parametric faults in closed-loop systems. This auxiliary input applied for the fault detection will also disturb the external output and consequently reduce the performance of the controller. Therefore, only small auxiliary inputs are used...... with the result that the detection and isolation time can be long. In this paper it will be shown, that this problem can be handled by using a modification of the feedback controller. By applying the YJBK-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify...... the frequency for the auxiliary input is selected. This gives that it is possible to apply an auxiliary input with a reduced amplitude. An example is included to show the results....

  9. Modification of graphene by ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukowska, Hanna; Akcoeltekin, Sevilay; El Kharrazi, Mourad; Schleberger, Marika [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Duisburg (Germany); Osmani, Orkhan [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Fakultaet fuer Physik, Duisburg (Germany); Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Fachbereich Physik, Gottlieb-Daimler-Strasse, Gebaeude 47, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Ion irradiation can be used to modify surfaces on the nanometer scale. We investigate graphene on different insulator (SrTiO{sub 3}, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and semiconductor (SiO{sub 2}) substrates. The bombardment of those target surfaces with swift heavy ions under grazing angle of incidence creates chains of nanodots on the substrate and folds graphene to typical origami-like structures. The shape of the folded graphene seems to depend on the length of the tracks. The length can be controlled by the angle of incidence. From the analysis of atomic force microscopy measurements, we classify the different types of modifications, with the aim to determine the relationship between chain length and origami shape. Further more we want to develop a theoretical understanding of the physical processes leading to the folding.

  10. Autoantibodies to Posttranslational Modifications in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burska, Agata N.; Hunt, Laura; Strollo, Rocky; Ryan, Brent J.; Vital, Ed; Nissim, Ahuva; Winyard, Paul G.; Emery, Paul; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    Autoantibodies have been associated with human pathologies for a long time, particularly with autoimmune diseases (AIDs). Rheumatoid factor (RF) is known since the late 1930s to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The discovery of anticitrullinated protein antibodies in the last century has changed this and other posttranslational modifications (PTM) relevant to RA have since been described. Such PTM introduce neoepitopes in proteins that can generate novel autoantibody specificities. The recent recognition of these novel specificities in RA provides a unique opportunity to understand human B-cell development in vivo. In this paper, we will review the three of the main classes of PTMs already associated with RA: citrullination, carbamylation, and oxidation. With the advancement of research methodologies it should be expected that other autoantibodies against PTM proteins could be discovered in patients with autoimmune diseases. Many of such autoantibodies may provide significant biomarker potential. PMID:24782594

  11. Surface modification of metals by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaki, Masaya

    1988-01-01

    Ion implantation in metals has attracted the attention as a useful technology for the formation of new metastable alloys and compounds in metal surface layers without thermal equilibrium. Current studies of metal surface modification by ion implantation with high fluences have expanded from basic research areas and to industrial applications for the improvement of life time of tools. Many results suggest that the high fluence implantation produces the new surface layers with un-expected microscopic characteristics and macroscopic properties due to implant particles, radiation damage, sputtering, and knock-on doping. In this report, the composition, structure and chemical bonding state in surface layers of iron, iron-based alloy and aluminum sheets implanted with high fluences have been investigated by means of secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tribological properties such as hardness, friction and wear are introduced. (author)

  12. Modification of Food Systems by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Carrillo-Lopez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the mechanism, operation, and recent potential applications of ultrasound in various food systems, as well as the physical and chemical effects of ultrasound treatments on the conservation and modification of different groups of food. Acoustic energy has been recognized as an emerging technology with great potential for applications in the food industry. The phenomenon of acoustic cavitation, which modifies the physical, chemical, and functional properties of food, can be used to improve existing processes and to develop new ones. The combination of ultrasonic energy with a sanitizing agent can improve the effect of microbial reduction in foods and, thereby, their quality. Finally, it is concluded that the use of ultrasound in food is a very promising area of research; however, more research is still needed before applying this technology in a wider range of industrial sectors.

  13. Machining, joining and modifications of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in mechanical and materials engineering applied to the machining, joining and modification of modern engineering materials. The contributions cover the classical fields of casting, forming and injection moulding as representative manufacturing methods, whereas additive manufacturing methods (rapid prototyping and laser sintering) are treated as more innovative and recent technologies that are paving the way for the manufacturing of shapes and features that traditional methods are unable to deliver. The book also explores water jet cutting as an innovative cutting technology that avoids the heat build-up typical of classical mechanical cutting. It introduces readers to laser cutting as an alternative technology for the separation of materials, and to classical bonding and friction stir welding approaches in the context of joining technologies. In many cases, forming and machining technologies require additional post-treatment to achieve the required level of surface quali...

  14. Genetic modification of stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M Ian; Tang, Yao Liang

    2008-01-14

    Gene modification of cells prior to their transplantation, especially stem cells, enhances their survival and increases their function in cell therapy. Like the Trojan horse, the gene-modified cell has to gain entrance inside the host's walls and survive and deliver its transgene products. Using cellular, molecular and gene manipulation techniques the transplanted cell can be protected in a hostile environment from immune rejection, inflammation, hypoxia and apoptosis. Genetic engineering to modify cells involves constructing modules of functional gene sequences. They can be simple reporter genes or complex cassettes with gene switches, cell specific promoters and multiple transgenes. We discuss methods to deliver and construct gene cassettes with viral and non-viral delivery, siRNA, and conditional Cre/Lox P. We review the current uses of gene-modified stem cells in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, neurological diseases, (including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and spinal cord injury repair), bone defects, hemophilia, and cancer.

  15. Genetic modification of cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi; Drobinskaya, Irina; Kolossov, Eugen; Chen, Chunguang; Linn, Thomas

    2008-01-14

    Progress in gene therapy has produced promising results that translate experimental research into clinical treatment. Gene modification has been extensively employed in cell transplantation. The main barrier is an effective gene delivery system. Several viral vectors were utilized in end-stage differentiated cells. Recently, successful applications were described with adenovirus-associated vectors. As an alternative, embryonic stem cell- and stem cell-like systems were established for generation of tissue-specified gene-modified cells. Owing to the feasibility for genetic manipulations and the self-renewing potency of these cells they can be used in a way enabling large-scale in vitro production. This approach offers the establishment of in vitro cell culture systems that will deliver sufficient amounts of highly purified, immunoautologous cells suitable for application in regenerative medicine. In this review, the current technology of gene delivery systems to cells is recapitulated and the latest developments for cell transplantation are discussed.

  16. Materials Modification Under Ion Irradiation: JANNUS Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serruys, Y.; Trocellier, P.; Ruault, M.-O.; Henry, S.; Kaietasov, O.; Trouslard, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    JANNUS (Joint Accelerators for Nano-Science and Nuclear Simulation) is a project designed to study the modification of materials using multiple ion beams and in-situ TEM observation. It will be a unique facility in Europe for the study of irradiation effects, the simulation of material damage due to irradiation and in particular of combined effects. The project is also intended to bring together experimental and modelling teams for a mutual fertilisation of their activities. It will also contribute to the teaching of particle-matter interactions and their applications. JANNUS will be composed of three accelerators with a common experimental chamber and of two accelerators coupled to a 200 kV TEM

  17. FRX-C Large Source Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrien, R.E.; Tuszewski, M.; Yavornik, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    The FRX-C Large Source Modification (LSM) consists of a larger discharge tube and a larger radius coil connected to the existing FRX-C collector plates and capacitor banks. The objectives of LSM are to (1) study the size dependences of processes governing FRC formation and poloidal flux trapping in order to improve the design of larger field-reversed theta pinch devices, (2) increase the parameter s (number of local ion gyroradii between the field null and separatrix) to seek access to predicted new regimes of improved confinement and possible instability, (3) search for evidence of internal tilt instability at higher values of s where the mode is predicted to grow more rapidly, and (4) observe the effect of s and larger size on FRC confinement. In this paper we will discuss the construction of LSM, the experimental plan, and preliminary experimental results

  18. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...... fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments...

  19. Fault diagnosis based on controller modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Detection and isolation of parametric faults in closed-loop systems will be considered in this paper. A major problem is that a feedback controller will in general reduce the effects from variations in the systems including parametric faults on the controlled output from the system. Parametric...... faults can be detected and isolated using active methods, where an auxiliary input is applied. Using active methods for the diagnosis of parametric faults in closed-loop systems, the amplitude of the applied auxiliary input need to be increased to be able to detect and isolate the faults in a reasonable......-parameterization (after Youla, Jabr, Bongiorno and Kucera) for the controller, it is possible to modify the feedback controller with a minor effect on the closed-loop performance in the fault-free case and at the same time optimize the detection and isolation in a faulty case. Controller modification in connection...

  20. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Saavedra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Major depressive disorder (MDD is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders.

  1. A study of microbial profile modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, J.H.; Lee, H.O.

    1995-12-31

    A microbial profile modification method using spores was investigated. A halotolerant, spore-forming, biopolymer-producing mesophile was used in Berea cores with a specifically formulated nutrient package to reduce the permeability of the rock. The degree of permeability reduction varied widely depending on the stimulation protocols used. The incubation period had a significant impact on permeability reduction, and there appeared to be an optimum incubation time for maximum permeability reduction. The reduction persisted for many PV of brine injection and appeared very stable. For our microbes used in this study, the permeability reduction was about the same when the NaCl concentration was above 2 wt% in the range from 0 wt% to 10 wt%.

  2. Functionalization and modification of carbon nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diachkova, Tatyana P.; Tkachev, Alexey G.; Orlova, Nataliya V.; Orlov, Andrej Yu. [Tambov State Technical University, Tambov (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Some regularities of covalent functionalization multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by oxygen- containing groups were studied. The resulting materials were characterized by electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. The dependence of the degree of functionalization of MWCNTs from the process conditions was stated. The advantages of the gas phase to the liquid phase oxidation were shown. The effect of pristine and functionalized MWCNTs on the properties of composites with polysulfone was studied. Pristine and functionalized MWCNTs were modified with polyaniline. The effect of the method and degree of pre-functionalization of carbon nanotubes on the regularities of the oxidative polymerization of aniline and the properties of the obtained materials was shown. Key words: multiwalled carbon nanotubes, functionalization, modification, oxidation, composites, polyaniline.

  3. Cell Signalling Through Covalent Modification and Allostery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Louise N.

    Phosphorylation plays essential roles in nearly every aspect of cell life. Protein kinases catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to a serine, threonine or tyrosine residue in protein substrates. This covalent modification allows activation or inhibition of enzyme activity, creates recognition sites for other proteins and promotes order/disorder or disorder/order transitions. These properties regulate ­signalling pathways and cellular processes that mediate metabolism, transcription, cell cycle progression, differentiation, cytoskeleton arrangement and cell movement, apoptosis, intercellular communication, and neuronal and immunological functions. In this lecture I shall review the structural consequences of protein phosphorylation using our work on glycogen phosphorylase and the cell cycle cyclin dependent protein kinases as illustrations. Regulation of protein phosphorylation may be disrupted in the diseased state and protein kinases have become high profile targets for drug development. To date there are 11 compounds that have been approved for clinical use in the treatment of cancer.

  4. Local modification of the magnetic vortex-core velocity by gallium implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Hauke H., E-mail: hlangner@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Vogel, Andreas; Beyersdorff, Björn [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Zentrum für Mikrostrukturforschung, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); Weigand, Markus [Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstraße 3, 70596 Stuttgart (Germany); Frömter, Robert; Peter Oepen, Hans; Meier, Guido [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Zentrum für Mikrostrukturforschung, Universität Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany); The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-03-14

    The dynamics of magnetic vortices in microsquares with local modifications of magnetic parameters and thickness are investigated. By implanting gallium ions with focussed ion beam into permalloy thin-film elements, we have locally tailored their magnetic properties and the layer thickness. The vortex of the Landau domain pattern of a square is resonantly excited to a gyrotropic motion and crosses regions with and without implantation. With time-resolved scanning transmission x-ray microscopy, we observe an abrupt change in the vortex velocity close to the borders between the two regions.

  5. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10 10 - 5 x 10 12 ions/cm 2 ). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic species. While

  6. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events ("minor stroke" or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically "similar" to the TGA. TGA GROUP: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Microstructural modification associated with tga could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress.

  7. Safety of modifications at nuclear power plants - the role of minor modifications and human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure safety in all plant configurations it is important that modification processes are given proper attention both by the utilities and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has recently addressed the issue of modifications by organising a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors'. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF), and it was held at the OECD Headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. The initiative to organise the workshop was taken by the WGOE and the SEGHOF based on findings from events and incidents due to modifications at nuclear power plants in the world and weaknesses experienced in modification processes. During the workshop, the WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while the SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. This report is based on material collected before the workshop, the workshop proceedings, discussions of the group of experts responsible for the arrangement of the workshop, and additional material collected by a consultant. The workshop was preceded by extensive preparations, which included collection of national surveys in response to questionnaires on modifications at the NPPs. Not all of these surveys were available at the workshop, but their findings have now been included

  8. Asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences by polyploidization in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiang; Han, Fangpu

    2014-11-01

    rRNA genes consist of long tandem repeats clustered on chromosomes, and their products are important functional components of the ribosome. In common wheat (Triticum aestivum), rDNA loci from the A and D genomes were largely lost during the evolutionary process. This biased DNA elimination may be related to asymmetric transcription and epigenetic modifications caused by the polyploid formation. Here, we observed both sets of parental nucleolus organizing regions (NORs) were expressed after hybridization, but asymmetric silencing of one parental NOR was immediately induced by chromosome doubling, and reversing the ploidy status could not reactivate silenced NORs. Furthermore, increased CHG and CHH DNA methylation on promoters was accompanied by asymmetric silencing of NORs. Enrichment of H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 modifications was also observed to be a direct response to increased DNA methylation and transcriptional inactivation of NOR loci. Both A and D genome NOR loci with these modifications started to disappear in the S4 generation and were completely eliminated by the S7 generation in synthetic tetraploid wheat. Our results indicated that asymmetric epigenetic modification and elimination of rDNA sequences between different donor genomes may lead to stable allopolyploid wheat with increased differentiation and diversity. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Targeting Antibodies to Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors by Pyrene Hydrazide Modification of Heavy Chain Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET studies have used immobilized antibodies as the ligand binding moiety. However, antibodies are not optimal for CNT-FET detection due to their large size and charge. Their size can prevent ligands from reaching within the Debye length of the CNTs and a layer of charged antibodies on the circuits can drown out any ligand signal. In an attempt to minimize the antibody footprint on CNT-FETs, we examined whether pyrene hydrazide modification of antibody carbohydrates could reduce the concentration required to functionalize CNT circuits. The carbohydrates are almost exclusively on the antibody Fc region and this site-specific modification could mediate uniform antibody orientation on the CNTs. We compared the hydrazide modification of anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies to pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester-coated CNTs and carbodiimide-mediated antibody CNT attachment. Our results show that the pyrene hydrazide modification was superior to those methods with respect to bacteria detection and less than 1 nM labeled antibody was required to functionalize the circuits.

  10. Diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome in resource limited settings: the Kigali modification of the Berlin definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviello, Elisabeth D; Buregeya, Egide; Twagirumugabe, Theogene

    2017-02-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was re-defined by a panel of experts in Berlin in 2012. Although the Berlin criteria improved upon the validity and reliability of the definition, it did not make diagnosis of ARDS in resource limited settings possible. Mechanical ventilation, arterial blood gas measurements, and chest radiographs are not feasible in many regions of the world. In 2014, we proposed and applied the Kigali modification of the Berlin definition in a hospital in Rwanda. This review synthesizes literature from the last 18 months relevant to the Kigali modification. In the last 18 months, the need for a universally applicable ARDS definition was reinforced by advances in supportive care that can be implemented in resource poor settings. Research demonstrating the variable impact of positive end expiratory pressure on hypoxemia, the validity of using pulse oximetry rather than arterial blood gas to categorize hypoxemia, and the accuracy of lung ultrasound support the use of the Kigali modification of the Berlin definition. Studies directly comparing the Berlin definition to the Kigali modification are needed. Ongoing clinical research on ARDS needs to include low-income countries.

  11. Modifications of the thorax radiography after postoperative irradiation in mammary carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheier, M; Rhomberg, W; Schelling, F

    1987-02-01

    The radiogenic modifications of the thorax radiography were evaluated in 100 patients irradiated postoperatively for mammary carcinoma between January, 1980 and March, 1983. No adjuvant chemotherapy was given. A telecobalt unit was used for the irradiations. A computer-assisted planning (Evados) was applied in order to obtain an individual optimization especially for the fields situated at the thoracic walls. The average focal doses to the thoracic wall and the regional lymph nodes were between 50 and 52 Gy. Taking into consideration all modifications visualized by radiography, 65% of patients had subacute radiogenic reactions in the lungs, especially in the apex fields. In general the modifications had no clinical importance. Only seven patients presented more severe forms of pneumonitis with clinical symptoms. Fibroses were developed only in the apex fields; infraclavicular infiltrations were seen only in exceptional cases. There were no costal necroses, essential pleural reactions, or radiogenic enlargements of the heart shadow. The rate of pulmonary reactions with clinical symptoms is reduced as compared with former techniques, e.g. opposing tangential fields. The knowledge of anamnesis and typical radiographic modifications should help to avoid problems of differentiation between apex reactions and tuberculosis.

  12. Coordinated action of histone modification and microRNA regulations in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Zheng, Guantao; Dong, Dong

    2015-10-10

    Both histone modifications and microRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal role in gene expression regulation. Although numerous studies have been devoted to explore the gene regulation by miRNA and epigenetic regulations, their coordinated actions have not been comprehensively examined. In this work, we systematically investigated the combinatorial relationship between miRNA and epigenetic regulation by taking advantage of recently published whole genome-wide histone modification data and high quality miRNA targeting data. The results showed that miRNA targets have distinct histone modification patterns compared with non-targets in their promoter regions. Based on this finding, we proposed a machine learning approach to fit predictive models on the task to discern whether a gene is targeted by a specific miRNA. We found a considerable advantage in both sensitivity and specificity in diverse human cell lines. Finally, we found that our predicted miRNA targets are consistently annotated with Gene Ontology terms. Our work is the first genome-wide investigation of the coordinated action of miRNA and histone modification regulations, which provide a guide to deeply understand the complexity of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surface modification of ceramics. Ceramics no hyomen kaishitsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hioki, T. (Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-07-05

    Surface modification of ceramics and some study results using in implantation in surface modification are introduced. The mechanical properties (strength, fracture toughness, flaw resistance) of ceramics was improved and crack was repaired using surface modification by ion implantation. It is predicted that friction and wear properties are considerably affected because the hardness of ceramics is changed by ion implantation. Cementing and metalization are effective as methods for interface modification and the improvement of the adhesion power of the interface between metal and ceramic is their example. It was revealed that the improvement of mechanical properties of ceramics was achieved if appropriate surface modification was carried out. The market of ceramics mechanical parts is still small, therefore, the present situation is that the field of activities for surface modification of ceramics is also narrow. However, it is thought that in future, ceramics use may be promoted surely in the field like medicine and mechatronics. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Mapping Base Modifications in DNA by Transverse-Current Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose R.; Skachkov, Dmitry; Massey, Steven E.; Kalitsov, Alan; Velev, Julian P.

    2018-02-01

    Sequencing DNA modifications and lesions, such as methylation of cytosine and oxidation of guanine, is even more important and challenging than sequencing the genome itself. The traditional methods for detecting DNA modifications are either insensitive to these modifications or require additional processing steps to identify a particular type of modification. Transverse-current sequencing in nanopores can potentially identify the canonical bases and base modifications in the same run. In this work, we demonstrate that the most common DNA epigenetic modifications and lesions can be detected with any predefined accuracy based on their tunneling current signature. Our results are based on simulations of the nanopore tunneling current through DNA molecules, calculated using nonequilibrium electron-transport methodology within an effective multiorbital model derived from first-principles calculations, followed by a base-calling algorithm accounting for neighbor current-current correlations. This methodology can be integrated with existing experimental techniques to improve base-calling fidelity.

  15. On the genetic modification of psychology, personality, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzke, Alex B

    2012-12-01

    I argue that the use of heritable modifications for psychology, personality, and behavior should be limited to the reversal or prevention of relatively unambiguous instances of pathology or likely harm (e.g. sociopathy). Most of the likely modifications of psychological personality would not be of this nature, however, and parents therefore should not have the freedom to make such modifications to future children. I argue by examining the viewpoints of both the individual and society. For individuals, modifications would interfere with their capacity for self-determination in a way that undermines the very concept of self-determination. I argue that modification of psychology and personality is unlike present parenting in morally significant ways. For society, modification offers a medium for power to manipulate the makeup of persons and populations, possibly causing biological harm to the species and altering our conceptions of social responsibility.

  16. Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiyin; Su, Zhonghua; Ji, Feng; Zhu, Min; Bai, Bo

    2014-08-01

    Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings. We seek to summarize behavior modification techniques that are commonly used in clinical practice of behavioral medicine in China and discuss possible biobehavioral mechanisms. We reviewed common behavior modification techniques in clinical settings in China, and we reviewed studies that explored possible biobehavioral mechanisms. Commonly used clinical approaches of behavior modification in China include behavior therapy, cognitive therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, health education, behavior management, behavioral relaxation training, stress management intervention, desensitization therapy, biofeedback therapy, and music therapy. These techniques have been applied in the clinical treatment of a variety of diseases, such as chronic diseases, psychosomatic diseases, and psychological disorders. The biobehavioral mechanisms of these techniques involve the autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine system, neurobiochemistry, and neuroplasticity. Behavior modification techniques are commonly used in the treatment of a variety of somatic and psychological disorders in China. Multiple biobehavioral mechanisms are involved in successful behavior modification.

  17. Direct solution of the biharmonic equation on rectangular regions and the Poisson equation on irregular regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzbee, B.L.; Dorr, F.W.

    1974-01-01

    The discrete biharmonic equation on a rectangular region and the discrete Poisson equation on an irregular region can be treated as modifications to matrix problems with very special structure. It is shown how to use the direct method of matrix decomposition to formulate an effective numerical algorithm for these problems. For typical applications the operation count is O(N 3 ) for an N x N grid. Numerical comparisons with other techniques are included. (U.S.)

  18. A Helical Undulator Wave-guide Inverse Free-Electron Laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.; Bodzin, N.; Frigola, P.; Musumeci, P.; Pellegrini, C.; Travish, G.; Joshi, C.; Tochitsky, S.

    2004-01-01

    With recent success in high gradient, high-energy gain IFEL experiments at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory, future experiments are now being contemplated. The Neptune IFEL was designed to use a tightly focused, highly diffracting, near-TW peak power 10 micron laser. This choice of laser focusing, driven by power-handling limitations of the optics near the interaction region, led to design and use of a very complex undulator, and to sensitivity to both laser misalignment and focusing errors. As these effects limited the performance of the IFEL experiment, a next generation experiment at Neptune has been studied which avoids the use of a highly diffractive laser beam through use of a waveguide. We discuss here the choice of low-loss waveguide, guided mode characteristics and likely power limitations. We also examine a preferred undulator design, which is chosen to be helical in order to maximize the acceleration achieved for a given power. With the limitations of these laser and undulator choices in mind, we show the expected performance of the IFEL using 1D simulations. Three-dimensional effects are examined, in the context of use of a solenoid for focusing and acceleration enhancement

  19. Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Gallardo, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Sandweiss, J.

    1992-09-01

    The study of the INVERSE FREE ELECTRON LASER, as a potential mode of electron acceleration, is being pursued at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent studies have focussed on the development of a low energy, high gradient, multi stage linear accelerator. The elementary ingredients for the IFEL interaction are the 50 MeV Linac e - beam and the 10 11 Watt CO 2 laser beam of BNL's Accelerator Test Facility (ATF), Center for Accelerator Physics (CAP) and a wiggler. The latter element is designed as a fast excitation unit making use of alternating stacks of Vanadium Permendur (VaP) ferromagnetic laminations, periodically interspersed with conductive, nonmagnetic laminations, which act as eddy current induced field reflectors. Wiggler parameters and field distribution data will be presented for a prototype wiggler in a constant period and in a ∼ 1.5 %/cm tapered period configuration. The CO 2 laser beam will be transported through the IFEL interaction region by means of a low loss, dielectric coated, rectangular waveguide. Short waveguide test sections have been constructed and have been tested using a low power cw CO 2 laser. Preliminary results of guide attenuation and mode selectivity will be given, together with a discussion of the optical issues for the IFEL accelerator. The IFEL design is supported by the development and use of 1D and 3D simulation programs. The results of simulation computations, including also wiggler errors, for a single module accelerator and for a multi-module accelerator will be presented

  20. Medium Modifications of Hadrons in Photon Induced Reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schadmand, S.

    2004-01-01

    Indications for in-medium modifications of hadron properties are reported from photoabsorption and meson production experiments. Strong medium modifications are observed in inclusive photoabsorption experiments and theoretical models investigate the in-medium dynamics of baryon resonances and their coupling to mesons. Recent experiments study the in-medium behavior of scalar and vector mesons where theoretical models expect in-medium modifications of the meson spectral functions that might be connected to partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  1. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Deming, TJ

    2017-01-01

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-cont...

  2. Modification of JRR-4 based on safety evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumo, Hironobu; Nakajima, Teruo; Funayama, Yoshiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-10-01

    Since the first criticality was achieved on January 28, 1965, JRR-4 has been operated safely until on January 12, 1996. The modification of JRR-4 was planned according to the framework of reduced enrichment on research reactor program. The modification was designed based on the several national safety guides. JRR-4 has some modifications of facilities to satisfy the guides and guides criteria. (author)

  3. Pnp gene modification for improved xylose utilization in Zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G G; Qi, Min; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-12-16

    The endogenous pnp gene encoding polynucleotide phosphorylase in the Zymomonas genome was identified as a target for modification to provide improved xylose utilizing cells for ethanol production. The cells are in addition genetically modified to have increased expression of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) activity, as compared to cells without this genetic modification, and are not limited in xylose isomerase activity in the absence of the pnp modification.

  4. Interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The Interaction Region Group addressed the basic questions of how to collide the SLC beams, how to maximize and monitor the luminosity, and how to minimize the detector backgrounds at the interaction region. In practice, five subgroups evolved to study these questions. The final focus group provided three alternative designs to acheive the 1 to 2 micron beam spot size required by the SLC, as well as studying other problems including: eta, eta' matching from the collider arcs, the implementation of soft bends near the interaction region, beam emittance growth, and magnet tolerances in the final focus. The beam position monitor group proposed two devices, a strip line monitor, and a beamstrahlung monitor, to bring the beams into collision. The luminosity monitor group reviewed the possible QED processes that would be insensitive to weak interaction (Z 0 ) effects. The beam dumping group proposed locations for kicker and septum magnets in the final focus that would achieve a high dumping efficiency and would meet the desired beam tolerances at the Moller scattering target in the beam dump line. Working with the Polarization Group, the Moller experiment was designed into the beam dump beam line. A beam dump was proposed that would maintain radiation backgrounds (penetrating muons) at acceptible levels. The detector backgrounds group proposed soft-bend and masking configurations to shield the detector from synchrotron radiation from the hard/soft bends and from the final focus quadrupoles and evaluated the effectiveness of these designs for the three final focus optics designs. Backgrounds were also estimated from: large angle synchrotron radiation, local and distant beam-gas interactions, 2-photon interactions, and from neutrons and backscattered photons from the beamstrahlung dump

  5. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  6. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  7. Cepstral domain modification of audio signals for data embedding: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Kaliappan

    2004-06-01

    A method of embedding data in an audio signal using cepstral domain modification is described. Based on successful embedding in the spectral points of perceptually masked regions in each frame of speech, first the technique was extended to embedding in the log spectral domain. This extension resulted at approximately 62 bits /s of embedding with less than 2 percent of bit error rate (BER) for a clean cover speech (from the TIMIT database), and about 2.5 percent for a noisy speech (from an air traffic controller database), when all frames - including silence and transition between voiced and unvoiced segments - were used. Bit error rate increased significantly when the log spectrum in the vicinity of a formant was modified. In the next procedure, embedding by altering the mean cepstral values of two ranges of indices was studied. Tests on both a noisy utterance and a clean utterance indicated barely noticeable perceptual change in speech quality when lower range of cepstral indices - corresponding to vocal tract region - was modified in accordance with data. With an embedding capacity of approximately 62 bits/s - using one bit per each frame regardless of frame energy or type of speech - initial results showed a BER of less than 1.5 percent for a payload capacity of 208 embedded bits using the clean cover speech. BER of less than 1.3 percent resulted for the noisy host with a capacity was 316 bits. When the cepstrum was modified in the region of excitation, BER increased to over 10 percent. With quantization causing no significant problem, the technique warrants further studies with different cepstral ranges and sizes. Pitch-synchronous cepstrum modification, for example, may be more robust to attacks. In addition, cepstrum modification in regions of speech that are perceptually masked - analogous to embedding in frequency masked regions - may yield imperceptible stego audio with low BER.

  8. Fabrication and Modification of Nanoporous Silicon Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Mauro; Liu, Xuewu

    2010-01-01

    Silicon-based nanoporous particles as biodegradable drug carriers are advantageous in permeation, controlled release, and targeting. The use of biodegradable nanoporous silicon and silicon dioxide, with proper surface treatments, allows sustained drug release within the target site over a period of days, or even weeks, due to selective surface coating. A variety of surface treatment protocols are available for silicon-based particles to be stabilized, functionalized, or modified as required. Coated polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains showed the effective depression of both plasma protein adsorption and cell attachment to the modified surfaces, as well as the advantage of long circulating. Porous silicon particles are micromachined by lithography. Compared to the synthesis route of the nanomaterials, the advantages include: (1) the capability to make different shapes, not only spherical particles but also square, rectangular, or ellipse cross sections, etc.; (2) the capability for very precise dimension control; (3) the capacity for porosity and pore profile control; and (4) allowance of complex surface modification. The particle patterns as small as 60 nm can be fabricated using the state-of-the-art photolithography. The pores in silicon can be fabricated by exposing the silicon in an HF/ethanol solution and then subjecting the pores to an electrical current. The size and shape of the pores inside silicon can be adjusted by the doping of the silicon, electrical current application, the composition of the electrolyte solution, and etching time. The surface of the silicon particles can be modified by many means to provide targeted delivery and on-site permanence for extended release. Multiple active agents can be co-loaded into the particles. Because the surface modification of particles can be done on wafers before the mechanical release, asymmetrical surface modification is feasible. Starting from silicon wafers, a treatment, such as KOH dipping or reactive ion

  9. Chemical Modification of Semiconductor Surfaces for Molecular Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilan, Ayelet; Cahen, David

    2017-03-08

    Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts. One of the greatest merits of molecular monolayers is their capability to form excellent thin dielectrics, yielding rich and unique current-voltage characteristics for transport across metal/molecular monolayer/semiconductor interfaces. We explain the interplay between the monolayer as tunneling barrier on the one hand, and the electrostatic barrier within the semiconductor, due to its space-charge region, on the other hand, as well as how different monolayer chemistries control each of these barriers. Practical tools to experimentally identify these two barriers and distinguish between them are given, followed by a short look to the future. This review is accompanied by another one, concerning the formation of large-area molecular junctions and charge transport that is dominated solely by molecules.

  10. Surface modifications induced by hydrogen in AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelista, G.E.; Miranda, P.E.V. de

    1983-01-01

    Hydrogen induced surface modifications of type AISI 304 SS were studied by charging the samples in a 1N a 1N H 2 SO 4 electrolyte at room temperature. Current densities were varied from 500 to 4000 A/m 2 and charging times from 2 to 50 hours. Charged specimens were analysed using optical and electron scanning microscopy. Vickers microhardness tests with small load was also performed. Metallographic etching metodologies were developed (in black and white and colored photographies) which permited identification of all phases present. It was shown that delayed cracks appear somewhat curved on austenite and perfectly strainght on martensite, following the intersections of a phase platlets. These are the regions where α' martensite is located. The habit plane of these cracks might belong to (100) sub(γ) or (221) sub(γ) plane families. A new phenomenon termed hydrogen induced softening was observed on type AISI 304 SS at elevated current densities and/or charging times. (Author) [pt

  11. Proposal for modification to forward module design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, S.; Taylor, G.

    2000-01-01

    Concern for the baseline forward module thermal and mechanical viability has led to a proposed modification to the design described here. In view of the tight schedule to finalise the module design, proposed changes are constrained so that calculations and proto typing can be carried out without major changes to the key elements in the module. The following constraints were considered in the process of this work: 1. The hybrid contributes the bulk of the power to be removed from the module. 2. The temperature and its variation across the detector are the key specifications for the cooling design of the module. The hybrid temperature may impact via (secondary) convection and radiation heating, but its operation temperature is not assumed to be the major constraint. 3. The forward hybrid design is well advanced and represents a large effort that should be preserved. 4. The overall design of the module, in particular overall dimensions and placement of precision mounting points is well advanced. Assembly jigs based upon these dimensions are also advanced. The following problems are addressed by the current proposal: 1. The constraint of the small cooling point required to cool both the hybrid and the detector in the baseline is considered a serious limitation demanding high performance in the design and implementation of this contact in the baseline. 2. The small surface area of this contact is critical. Concerns that distortions of the block or relative distortions in the module between the detector and the hybrid, might further reduce the critical effective contact area, as well as possibly causing other problems, give further impetus to the proposed design modification. 3. Thermo-mechanical stress due to the cooling points at both ends of the module. 4. Lack of support of the hybrid near to the cable connectors. 5. Close proximity of the cooling pipe to the front-end electronics and the wire bonds. The proposal involves extending the hybrid substrate with two

  12. Histone posttranslational modifications predict specific alternative exon subtypes in mammalian brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiwen Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A compelling body of literature, based on next generation chromatin immunoprecipitation and RNA sequencing of reward brain regions indicates that the regulation of the epigenetic landscape likely underlies chronic drug abuse and addiction. It is now critical to develop highly innovative computational strategies to reveal the relevant regulatory transcriptional mechanisms that may underlie neuropsychiatric disease. We have analyzed chromatin regulation of alternative splicing, which is implicated in cocaine exposure in mice. Recent literature has described chromatin-regulated alternative splicing, suggesting a novel function for drug-induced neuroepigenetic remodeling. However, the extent of the genome-wide association between particular histone modifications and alternative splicing remains unexplored. To address this, we have developed novel computational approaches to model the association between alternative splicing and histone posttranslational modifications in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a brain reward region. Using classical statistical methods and machine learning to combine ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data, we found that specific histone modifications are strongly associated with various aspects of differential splicing. H3K36me3 and H3K4me1 have the strongest association with splicing indicating they play a significant role in alternative splicing in brain reward tissue.

  13. The modification of the typhoon rainfall climatology model in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-S. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the modification of a typhoon rainfall climatological model, by using the dataset up to 2006 and including data collected from rain gauge stations established after the 921 earthquake (1999. Subsequently, the climatology rainfall models for westward- and northward-moving typhoons are established by using the typhoon track classification from the Central Weather Bureau. These models are also evaluated and examined using dependent cases collected between 1989 and 2006 and independent cases collected from 2007 to 2011. For the dependent cases, the average total rainfall at all rain gauge stations forecasted using the climatology rainfall models for westward- (W-TRCM12 and northward-moving (N-TRCM12 typhoons is superior to that obtained using the original climatological model (TRCM06. Model W-TRCM12 significantly improves the precipitation underestimation of model TRCM06. The independent cases show that model W-TRCM12 provides better accumulated rainfall forecasts and distributions than model TRCM06. A climatological model for accompanied northeastern monsoons (A-TRCM12 for special typhoon types has also been established. The current A-TRCM12 model only contains five historical cases and various typhoon combinations can cause precipitation in different regions. Therefore, precipitation is likely to be significantly overestimated and high false alarm ratios are likely to occur in specific regions. For example, model A-TRCM12 significantly overestimates the rainfall forecast for Typhoon Mitag, an independent case from 2007. However, it has a higher probability of detection than model TRCM06. From a disaster prevention perspective, a high probability of detection is much more important than a high false alarm ratio. The modified models can contribute significantly to operational forecast.

  14. Cortical activity in tinnitus patients and its modification by phonostimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Pawlak-Osińska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to observe spontaneous cortical activity and cortical activity modulated by tinnitus-matched sound in tinnitus patients and healthy subjects with no otoneurologic symptoms. METHOD: Data were prospectively collected from 50 tinnitus patients and 25 healthy subjects. Cortical activity was recorded in all subjects with eyes closed and open and during photostimulation, hyperventilation and acoustic stimulation using 19-channel quantitative electroencephalography. The sound applied in the tinnitus patients was individually matched with the ability to mask or equal the tinnitus. The maximal and mean amplitude of the delta, theta, alpha and beta waves and the type and amount of the pathologic EEG patterns were noted during each recording. Differences in cortical localization and the influence of sound stimuli on spontaneous cortical activity were evaluated between the groups. RESULTS: The tinnitus group exhibited decreased delta activity and increased alpha and beta activity. Hyperventilation increased the intensity of the differences. The tinnitus patients had more sharp-slow waves and increased slow wave amplitude. Sound stimuli modified the EEG recordings; the delta and beta wave amplitudes were increased, whereas the alpha-1 wave amplitude was decreased. Acoustic stimulation only slightly affected the temporal region. CONCLUSION: Cortical activity in the tinnitus patients clearly differed from that in healthy subjects, i.e., tinnitus is not a “phantom” sign. The changes in cortical activity included decreased delta wave amplitudes, increased alpha-1, beta-1 and beta-h wave amplitudes and pathologic patterns. Cortical activity modifications occurred predominantly in the temporal region. Acoustic stimulation affected spontaneous cortical activity only in tinnitus patients, and although the applied sound was individually matched, the pathologic changes were only slightly improved.

  15. Modifications of resting state networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Sirio; Saccà, Francesco; Cervo, Amedeo; Marsili, Angela; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Giorgio, Sara Maria Delle Acque; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Brunetti, Arturo; Quarantelli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the integrity of the Resting State Networks in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and the correlations between the modification of these networks and clinical variables. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) data from 19 SCA2 patients and 29 healthy controls were analyzed using an independent component analysis and dual regression, controlling at voxel level for the effect of atrophy by co-varying for gray matter volume. Correlations between the resting state networks alterations and disease duration, age at onset, number of triplets, and clinical score were assessed by Spearman's coefficient, for each cluster which was significantly different in SCA2 patients compared with healthy controls. In SCA2 patients, disruption of the cerebellar components of all major resting state networks was present, with supratentorial involvement only for the default mode network. When controlling at voxel level for gray matter volume, the reduction in functional connectivity in supratentorial regions of the default mode network, and in cerebellar regions within the default mode, executive and right fronto-parietal networks, was still significant. No correlations with clinical variables were found for any of the investigated resting state networks. The SCA2 patients show significant alterations of the resting state networks, only partly explained by the atrophy. The default mode network is the only resting state network that shows also supratentorial changes, which appear unrelated to the cortical gray matter volume. Further studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of these changes. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  16. Proton beam modification of lead white pigments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Gutiérrez, P.C.; Miserque, F.; Thomé, L.

    2013-01-01

    Pigments and paint materials are known to be sensitive to particle irradiation. Occasionally, the analysis of paintings by PIXE can induce a slight or dark stain depending on the experimental conditions (beam current, dose, particle energy). In order to understand this discoloration, we have irradiated various types of art white pigments – lead white (hydrocerussite and basic lead sulfate), gypsum, calcite, zinc oxide and titanium oxide – with an external 3 MeV proton micro-beam commonly used for PIXE experiments. We have observed various sensitivities depending on the pigment. No visible change occurs for calcite and titanium oxide, whereas lead white pigments are very sensitive. For the majority of the studied compounds, the discoloration is proportional to the beam current and charge. The damage induced by proton beam irradiation in lead white pigments was studied by micro-Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Structural modifications and dehydration were detected. Damage recovery was investigated by thermal treatment and UV-light irradiation. The discoloration disappeared after one week of UV illumination, showing that PIXE experiments could be safely undertaken for pigments and paintings

  17. Attentional bias modification encourages healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2014-01-01

    The continual exposure to unhealthy food cues in the environment encourages poor dietary habits, in particular consuming too much fat and sugar, and not enough fruit and vegetables. According to Berridge's (2009) model of food reward, unhealthy eating is a behavioural response to biased attentional processing. The present study used an established attentional bias modification paradigm to discourage the consumption of unhealthy food and instead promote healthy eating. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who were randomly assigned to two groups: one was trained to direct their attention toward pictures of healthy food ('attend healthy' group) and the other toward unhealthy food ('attend unhealthy' group). It was found that participants trained to attend to healthy food cues demonstrated an increased attentional bias for such cues and ate relatively more of the healthy than unhealthy snacks compared to the 'attend unhealthy' group. Theoretically, the results support the postulated link between biased attentional processing and consumption (Berridge, 2009). At a practical level, they offer potential scope for interventions that focus on eating well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. FRX-C/T large source modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Chrien, R.E.; Yavornik, E.J.; Armstrong, W.T.; Hugrass, W.; Linford, R.K.; McKenna, K.F.; Rej, D.J.; Siemon, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    FRC experiments on FRX-C/T during the past two years have been devoted to translation studies and, more recently, to formation studies in situ. The interest in the latter became stronger as FRX-D was proposed. It is intended that, in summer 1985, FRX-C/T be modified with a larger coil that would be essentially a half-scale prototype of FRX-D. This would allow studies of flux trapping with increased size and with the associated enhanced axial dynamics. The results from these formation studies, with and without some improved formation techniques, may influence the design of the FRX-D source in a major way. In addition, this FRX-C/T Large Source Modification may allow the study of FRC's with somewhat increased values of anti s, in the range 2-3. This may be sufficient to reach a new stability regime where the predicted internal tilt mode may occur. Finally, the larger coil size should yield improved FRC confinement times by about 50%, and may allow with a minimum of plasma decompression the study of FRC's with x/sub s/ in the range 0.6-0.7 in possible future translation experiments

  19. Electrochemical surface modification of titanium in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Han; Ramaswamy, Narayanan

    2009-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys have good biocompatibility with body cells and tissues and are widely used for implant applications. However, clinical procedures place more stringent and tough requirements on the titanium surface necessitating artificial surface treatments. Among the many methods of titanium surface modification, electrochemical techniques are simple and cheap. Anodic oxidation is the anodic electrochemical technique while electrophoretic and cathodic depositions are the cathodic electrochemical techniques. By anodic oxidation it is possible to obtain desired roughness, porosity and chemical composition of the oxide. Anodic oxidation at high voltages can improve the crystallinity of the oxide. The chief advantage of this technique is doping of the coating of the bath constituents and incorporation of these elements improves the properties of the oxide. Electrophoretic deposition uses hydroxyapatite (HA) powders dispersed in a suitable solvent at a particular pH. Under these operating conditions these particles acquire positive charge and coatings are obtained on the cathodic titanium by applying an external electric field. These coatings require a post-sintering treatment to improve the coating properties. Cathodic deposition is another type of electrochemical method where HA is formed in situ from an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. It is also possible to alter structure and/or chemistry of the obtained deposit. Nano-grained HA has higher surface energy and greater biological activity and therefore emphasis is being laid to produce these coatings by cathodic deposition.

  20. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  1. Evaluation and modification of existing CETP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhavisha; Shah, A R

    2013-07-01

    For the development of small and medium scale industries in various Gujarat industrial development corporation (GIDC) areas and in clusters of industrial areas, the common effluent treatment plant (CETP) has always been found advantageous in view of cost of treatment, operation and maintenance and disposal of residues being produced. In small scale industrial units due to market requirement, product changes and quantity enhancement are taking place. Due to such changes, the effluent characteristics are continuously changing which affects performance of CETP. Hence it has been found necessary to study continuously the performance, evaluation and modification in the working of the CETP. This paper contains a case study of one of the existing CETP near Baroda which is facing the problem of disposal of treated effluent in which the important parameters like COD, BOD, Suspended Solid, NH3-N and oil and grease were analyzed. Based on the characterization of wastewater, the various treatability studies were carried out on CETP wastewater. To comply with disposal standard prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, various treatments in form of ammonia stripping, coagulation and flocculation, biological treatment, filtration and chlorination are suggested.

  2. Structural modifications of spinels under radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quentin, A.

    2010-12-01

    This work is devoted to the study of spinel structure materials under radiation. For that purpose, samples of polycrystalline ZnAl 2 O 4 and monocrystalline MgAl 2 O 4 were irradiated by different heavy ions with different energies. Samples of ZnAl 2 O 4 were studied par electron transmission microscopy, and by grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis. Samples of MgAl 2 O 4 were studied by optical spectroscopy. Most of the results concern amorphization and crystalline structure modification of ZnAl 2 O 4 especially the inversion. We were able to determine a stopping power threshold for amorphization, between 11 keV/nm and 12 keV/nm, and also the amorphization process, which is a multiple impacts process. We studied the evolution of the amorphous phase by TEM and showed a nano-patterning phenomenon. Concerning the inversion, we determined that it did happen by a single impact process, and the saturation value did not reach the random cation distribution value. Inversion and amorphization have different, but close, stopping power threshold. However, amorphization seems to be conditioned by a pre-damage of the material which consists in inversion. (author)

  3. Prognostic implications of 2005 Gleason grade modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Brasso, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ,890 men assessed with the modified Gleason classification, diagnosed between 2003 and 2007, underwent primary RP. Histopathology was reported according to the Gleason Grading Groups (GGG): GGG1 = Gleason score (GS) 6, GGG2 = GS 7(3 + 4), GGG3 = GS 7(4 + 3), GGG4 = GS 8 and GGG5 = GS 9-10. Cumulative...... incidence and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess difference in BCR. RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of BCR was lower using the modified compared to the original classification: GGG2 (16% vs. 23%), GGG3 (21% vs. 35%) and GGG4 (18% vs. 34%), respectively. Risk......OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the 2005 modification of the Gleason classification on risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy (RP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), 2,574 men assessed with the original Gleason classification and 1...

  4. Histone modifications influence mediator interactions with chromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Yongqiang; Bjornsdottir, Gudrun; Liu, Zhongle; Quan, Amy; Costanzo, Michael; Dávila López, Marcela; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Ronne, Hans; Boone, Charles; Gustafsson, Claes M.; Myers, Lawrence C.

    2011-01-01

    The Mediator complex transmits activation signals from DNA bound transcription factors to the core transcription machinery. Genome wide localization studies have demonstrated that Mediator occupancy not only correlates with high levels of transcription, but that the complex also is present at transcriptionally silenced locations. We provide evidence that Mediator localization is guided by an interaction with histone tails, and that this interaction is regulated by their post-translational modifications. A quantitative, high-density genetic interaction map revealed links between Mediator components and factors affecting chromatin structure, especially histone deacetylases. Peptide binding assays demonstrated that pure wild-type Mediator forms stable complexes with the tails of Histone H3 and H4. These binding assays also showed Mediator—histone H4 peptide interactions are specifically inhibited by acetylation of the histone H4 lysine 16, a residue critical in transcriptional silencing. Finally, these findings were validated by tiling array analysis that revealed a broad correlation between Mediator and nucleosome occupancy in vivo, but a negative correlation between Mediator and nucleosomes acetylated at histone H4 lysine 16. Our studies show that chromatin structure and the acetylation state of histones are intimately connected to Mediator localization. PMID:21742760

  5. Mobilome and genetic modification of bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmetti, S; Mayo, B; Álvarez-Martín, P

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, proper development of molecular studies in Bifidobacterium species has been hampered by growth difficulties, because of their exigent nutritive requirements, oxygen sensitivity and lack of efficient genetic tools. These studies, however, are critical to uncover the cross-talk between bifidobacteria and their hosts' cells and to prove unequivocally the supposed beneficial effects provided through the endogenous bifidobacterial populations or after ingestion as probiotics. The genome sequencing projects of different bifidobacterial strains have provided a wealth of genetic data that will be of much help in deciphering the molecular basis of the physiological properties of bifidobacteria. To this end, the purposeful development of stable cloning and expression vectors based on robust replicons - either from temperate phages or resident plasmids - is still needed. This review addresses the current knowledge on the mobile genetic elements of bifidobacteria (prophages, plasmids and transposons) and summarises the different types of vectors already available, together with the transformation procedures for introducing DNA into the cells. It also covers recent molecular studies performed with such vectors and incipient results on the genetic modification of these organisms, establishing the basis that would allow the use of bifidobacteria for future biotechnological applications.

  6. Progress on nuclear modifications of structure functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumano S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report progress on nuclear structure functions, especially on their nuclear modifications and a new tensor structure function for the deuteron. To understand nuclear structure functions is an important step toward describing nuclei and QCD matters from low to high densities and from low to high energies in terms of fundamental quark and gluon degrees of freedom beyond conventional hadron and nuclear physics. It is also practically important for understanding new phenomena in high-energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. Furthermore, since systematic errors of current neutrinooscillation experiments are dominated by uncertainties of neutrino-nucleus interactions, such studies are valuable for finding new physics beyond current framework. Next, a new tensor-polarized structure function b1 is discussed for the deuteron. There was a measurement by HERMES; however, its data are inconsistent with the conventional convolution estimate based on the standard deuteron model with D-state admixture. This fact suggests that a new hadronic phenomenon should exist in the tensor-polarized deuteron at high energies, and it will be experimentally investigated at JLab from the end of 2010’s.

  7. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  8. Modification of polymer blends by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuchowska, D.; Zagorski, Z.P.

    1999-01-01

    Modification of polymers, especially of polyolefin-elastomer blends (e. g. ethylene/propylene/diene terpolymer, ethylene propylene copolymer, ethylene/vinyl acetate copolymer etc.), by irradiation with a beam of fast electrons is discussed. Irradiation of polymer blends usually results in enhanced interactions between the constituents, caused among other things, by grafting induced at the polymer interphase. As a result, mechanical properties are affected to an extent depending on the proportion and type of constituent polymers, stabilizer content and radiation dose. Breaking strength (σ) relative elongation at break (ε) and melt flow rate (MFR), were examined for a triblock styrene/butadiene/styrene (SBS) copolymer, polypropylene (PP), and a PP-SBS blend (50:50 by wt.). In PP, the content of the crystal phase was determined. Irradiation was found to make SBS crosslink, as a result, σ rose by 25% and ε remained unaffected. PP was found to become degraded upon irradiation (MFR rose as much as 16 times), thereby σ and ε decreased considerably. In pure PP, the content of the crystal phase was found to increase. The variations of σ and ε in the irradiated PP-SBS blend follow a tendency similar to that in the SBS copolymer examined. This fact suggests the SBS copolymer to have a decisive effect on the macroscopic properties of the PP-SBS blend. (author)

  9. On topological modifications of Newton's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floratos, E.G.; Leontaris, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent cosmological data for very large distances challenge the validity of the standard cosmological model. Motivated by the observed spatial flatness the accelerating expansion and the various anisotropies with preferred axes in the universe we examine the consequences of the simple hypothesis that the three-dimensional space has a global R 2 × S 1 topology. We take the radius of the compactification to be the observed cosmological scale beyond which the accelerated expansion starts. We derive the induced corrections to the Newton's gravitational potential and we find that for distances smaller than the S 1 radius the leading 1/r-term is corrected by convergent power series of multipole form in the polar angle making explicit the induced anisotropy by the compactified third dimension. On the other hand, for distances larger than the compactification scale the asymptotic behavior of the potential exhibits a logarithmic dependence with exponentially small corrections. The change of Newton's force from 1/r 2 to 1/r behavior implies a weakening of the deceleration for the expanding universe. Such topologies can also be created locally by standard Newtonian axially symmetric mass distributions with periodicity along the symmetry axis. In such cases we can use our results to obtain measurable modifications of Newtonian orbits for small distances and flat rotation spectra, for large distances at the galactic level

  10. Novel concepts in modification of radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bump, E.A.; Palayoor, S.T.; Lai, L.L.; Cerce, B.A.; Langley, R.E.; Coleman, C.N.; Braunhut, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether biological effects of radiation, such as apoptosis, that differ from classical clonogenic cell killing, can be modified with agents that would not be expected to modify classical clonogenic cell killing. This would expand the range of potential modifiers of radiation therapy. EL4 murine lymphoma cell apoptosis was determined by electrophoretic analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation. DNA was extracted 24 h after irradiation or addition of inducing agents. Modifiers of radiation-induced apoptosis were added immediately after irradiation. The effects of radiation on wounded endothelial monolayers were studied by scraping a line across the monolayer 30 min after irradiation. Cell detachment was used as an endpoint to determine the protective effect of prolonged exposure to retinol prior to irradiation. EL4 cell apoptosis can be induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide or the glutathione oxidant SR-4077. Radiation-induced EL4 cell apoptosis can be inhibited with 3-aminobenzamide, an agent that sensitizes cells to classical clonogenic cell killing. Radiation-induced endothelial cell detachment from confluent monolayers can be modified by pretreatment with retinol. These results raise the possibility that radiation could induce apoptosis by an oxidative stress mechanism that is different from that involved in classical clonogenic cell killing. These and other recent findings encourage the notion that differential modification of classical clonogenic cell killing and other important endpoints of radiation action may be possible. 47 refs., 3 figs

  11. Catalytic modification of cellulose and hemicellulose - Sugarefine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repo, T. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland),Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry], email: timo.repo@helsinki.fi

    2012-07-01

    The main goal of the project is to develop catalytic methods for the modification of lignocellulose-based saccharides in the biorefineries. The products of these reactions could be used for example as biofuel components, raw materials for the chemical industry, solvents and precursors for biopolymers. The catalyst development aims at creating efficient, selective and green catalytic methods for profitable use in biorefineries. The project is divided in three work packages: In WP1 (Catalytic dehydration of cellulose) the aim is at developing non-toxic, efficient methods for the catalytic dehydration of cellulose the target molecule being here 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is an interesting platform chemical for the production of fuel additives, solvents and polymers. In WP2 (Catalytic reduction), the objective of the catalytic reduction studies is to produce commercially interesting monofunctional chemicals, such as 1-butanol or 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MeTHF). In WP3 (Catalytic oxidation), the research focuses on developing a green and efficient oxidation method for producing acids. Whereas acetic and formic acids are bulk chemicals, diacids such as glucaric and xylaric acids are valuable specialty chemicals for detergent, polymer and food production.

  12. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  13. Modification of Salmonella Lipopolysaccharides Prevents the Outer Membrane Penetration of Novobiocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Thatyane M.; Martynowycz, Michael W.; Andreev, Konstantin; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Gidalevitz, David

    2015-12-01

    Small hydrophilic antibiotics traverse the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria through porin channels. Large lipophilic agents traverse the outer membrane through its bilayer, containing a majority of lipopolysaccharides in its outer leaflet. Genes controlled by the two-component regulatory system PhoPQ modify lipopolysaccharides. We isolate lipopolysaccharides from isogenic mutants of Salmonella sp., one lacking the modification, the other fully modified. These lipopolysaccharides were reconstituted asmonolayers at the air-water interface, and their properties, aswell as their interaction with a large lipophilic drug, novobiocin, was studied. X-ray reflectivity showed that the drug penetrated the monolayer of the unmodified lipopolysaccharides reaching the hydrophobic region,butwas prevented fromthis penetration intothemodified lipopolysaccharides.Results correlatewith behavior of bacterial cells, which become resistant to antibiotics after PhoPQ-regulated modifications. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction showed that novobiocin produced a striking increase in crystalline coherence length, and the size of the near-crystalline domains.

  14. Vocal Modification Abilities and Brain Structures in Parrots – how do they Correlate?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpøth, Solveig Walløe

    are among the most encephalized birds and posses excellent vocal imitation abilities. This along with their complex fission-­fusion societies and thereby dynamic use of communication make parrots unparalleled as a model system for the neurobiology behind vocal learning. This PhD thesis is based on three...... independent studies where I 1) compare the level of vocal complexity (i.e. modification of the contact call in response to playback stimuli) with the social complexity of four different parrot species, 2) correlate the vocal modification ability of parrots with a brain region involved in vocal learning, i...... and the peach-faced lovebird with a brain nucleus, MO, involved in vocal learning. We show that the species with the highest level of vocal complexity (i.e. the peach-fronted conure) was also the species with the largest volume of MO and the highest number of neurons in MO. The budgerigar had the smallest...

  15. Golgi structure formation, function, and post-translational modifications in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijiao; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2017-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus is a central membrane organelle for trafficking and post-translational modifications of proteins and lipids in cells. In mammalian cells, it is organized in the form of stacks of tightly aligned flattened cisternae, and dozens of stacks are often linked laterally into a ribbon-like structure located in the perinuclear region of the cell. Proper Golgi functionality requires an intact architecture, yet Golgi structure is dynamically regulated during the cell cycle and under disease conditions. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the relationship between Golgi structure formation, function, and regulation, with focus on how post-translational modifications including phosphorylation and ubiquitination regulate Golgi structure and on how Golgi unstacking affects its functions, in particular, protein trafficking, glycosylation, and sorting in mammalian cells.

  16. Modification of transition's factor in the compact surface-potential-based MOSFET model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevkić Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modification of an important transition's factor which enables continual behavior of the surface potential in entire useful range of MOSFET operation is presented. The various modifications have been made in order to obtain an accurate and computationally efficient compact MOSFET model. The best results have been achieved by introducing the generalized logistic function (GL in fitting of considered factor. The smoothness and speed of the transition of the surface potential from the depletion to the strong inversion region can be controlled in this way. The results of the explicit model with this GL functional form for transition's factor have been verified extensively with the numerical data. A great agreement was found for a wide range of substrate doping and oxide thickness. Moreover, the proposed approach can be also applied on the case where quantum mechanical effects play important role in inversion mode.

  17. 21 CFR 640.74 - Modification of Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modification of Source Plasma. 640.74 Section 640...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.74 Modification of Source Plasma. (a) Upon approval by the Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and...

  18. Comparison of several innovative bridge cable surface modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, Kenneth; Georgakis, Christos T.

    Over the last two decades, several bridge cable manufacturers have introduced surface modifications on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheathing that is installed for the protection of inner cable strands or wires. The modifications are based on research undertaken predominantly in Europe...

  19. Behavior Modification Revisited: Practical Application for the Reading Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Deborah Odom; Lang, William Steve

    An informal study examined the impact of a simple behavior modification procedure on the reading habits of second and fifth grade students. Behavior modification theory was pared down to two rules ("reinforce proper behavior" and "reinforce anything close to proper behavior") so that no additional burdens would be placed on…

  20. Chemical mechanisms of histone lysine and arginine modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Brian C.; Denu, John M.

    2008-01-01

    Histone lysine and arginine residues are subject to a wide array of post-translational modifications including methylation, citrullination, acetylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation. The combinatorial action of these modifications regulates critical DNA processes including replication, repair, and transcription. In addition, enzymes that modify histone lysine and arginine residues have been correlated with a variety of human diseases including arthritis, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, an...

  1. Posttranslational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min eMao

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues on their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling and protein-protein interactions, subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery and clustering, and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamines. Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction.

  2. ZT-40M system design, modification, and installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    ZT-40 is a reversed field pinch experiment which had been operated as originally designed, with a ceramic discharge tube until November 1980. At that time, the experiment was shut down for major modifications. This paper will describe these modifications in general and discuss in detail the design of the energy system

  3. Cuba: Juragua NPP. Upgrades. Modifications and improvements. Annex 5A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales Aguilera, H.

    1999-01-01

    This annex deals with upgrades - modifications and improvements. Planning for resumption of work at Juragua NPP is under way, and a strategic plan of upgrades and modifications has been prepared. The proposed improvements were categorized, reviewed by the regulatory body and generally approved. This annex outlines the format of the plan. (author)

  4. 12 CFR 725.21 - Modification of agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification of agreements. 725.21 Section 725.21 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL LIQUIDITY FACILITY § 725.21 Modification of agreements. The...

  5. Treating Retentive Encopresis: Dietary Modification and Behavioral Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Morgan, Sam B.

    1995-01-01

    A home-based contingency management program, consisting of diet modification, laxatives, correction for soiling accidents, stimulus control training, and positive reinforcement, was implemented for treatment of a 4-year-old encopretic male. The findings provide evidence supporting the effectiveness of dietary modification combined with behavior…

  6. Assessment of lifestyle modification measures and their effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: life style modification measures are essential in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. This study compared the effect of lifestyle modification measures on adult type 2 diabetes patients who were on hypoglycemic and lifestyle measures and those on hypoglycemic alone. Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study ...

  7. Safety improvement plant modifications at Forsmark 3, 1986-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellander, M. [Kaernkraftsaekerhet och utbildning, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1998-10-01

    All important plant modifications implemented in safety-related equipment or software at Forsmark 3 are compiled in this report. The report covers the period from the start of commercial operation in 1985 up to and including 1995. The plant modifications, which were carried out by different suppliers during the guarantee period, are not included in the report since they have not been administered by the Forsmark organisation. The report contains references to relevant modification notices and to files and file divider numbers. These data refer to the Safety Department central archives. The report is based on Forsmark 3 Technical Specifications (STF) which means that Chapter 3 is divided into the same sections as in the STF. Modifications, which cannot be directly attributed to any specific STF chapter, and major modifications are described separately

  8. Pretreatment and Membrane Hydrophilic Modification to Reduce Membrane Fouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Chu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM. This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.. Perspectives of further research are also discussed.

  9. Investigating MCTS Modifications in General Video Game Playing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenberg, Frederik; Andersen, Kasper; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    -style video games. This paper investigates of how well these modifications perform in general video game playing using the general video game AI (GVG-AI) framework and introduces a new MCTS modification called UCT reverse penalty that penalizes the MCTS controller for exploring recently visited children......While Monte Carlo tree search (MCTS) methods have shown promise in a variety of different board games, more complex video games still present significant challenges. Recently, several modifications to the core MCTS algorithm have been proposed with the hope to increase its effectiveness on arcade....... The results of our experiments show that a combination of two MCTS modifications can improve the performance of the vanilla MCTS controller, but the effectiveness of the modifications highly depends on the particular game being played....

  10. WaveSeq: a novel data-driven method of detecting histone modification enrichments using wavelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Mitra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing is a genome-wide analysis technique that can be used to detect various epigenetic phenomena such as, transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications. Histone modification profiles can be either punctate or diffuse which makes it difficult to distinguish regions of enrichment from background noise. With the discovery of histone marks having a wide variety of enrichment patterns, there is an urgent need for analysis methods that are robust to various data characteristics and capable of detecting a broad range of enrichment patterns. RESULTS: To address these challenges we propose WaveSeq, a novel data-driven method of detecting regions of significant enrichment in ChIP-Seq data. Our approach utilizes the wavelet transform, is free of distributional assumptions and is robust to diverse data characteristics such as low signal-to-noise ratios and broad enrichment patterns. Using publicly available datasets we showed that WaveSeq compares favorably with other published methods, exhibiting high sensitivity and precision for both punctate and diffuse enrichment regions even in the absence of a control data set. The application of our algorithm to a complex histone modification data set helped make novel functional discoveries which further underlined its utility in such an experimental setup. CONCLUSIONS: WaveSeq is a highly sensitive method capable of accurate identification of enriched regions in a broad range of data sets. WaveSeq can detect both narrow and broad peaks with a high degree of accuracy even in low signal-to-noise ratio data sets. WaveSeq is also suited for application in complex experimental scenarios, helping make biologically relevant functional discoveries.

  11. Histone modification alteration coordinated with acquisition of promoter DNA methylation during Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funata, Sayaka; Matsusaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Ryota; Yamamoto, Shogo; Okabe, Atsushi; Fukuyo, Masaki; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Fukayama, Masashi; Kaneda, Atsushi

    2017-08-15

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation is a major epigenetic mechanism to inactivate tumor suppressor genes in cancer. Epstein-Barr virus positive gastric cancer is the most frequently hypermethylated tumor among human malignancies. Herein, we performed comprehensive analysis of epigenomic alteration during EBV infection, by Infinium HumanMethylation 450K BeadChip for DNA methylation and ChIP-sequencing for histone modification alteration during EBV infection into gastric cancer cell line MKN7. Among 7,775 genes with increased DNA methylation in promoter regions, roughly half were "DNA methylation-sensitive" genes, which acquired DNA methylation in the whole promoter regions and thus were repressed. These included anti-oncogenic genes, e.g. CDKN2A . The other half were "DNA methylation-resistant" genes, where DNA methylation is acquired in the surrounding of promoter regions, but unmethylated status is protected in the vicinity of transcription start site. These genes thereby retained gene expression, and included DNA repair genes. Histone modification was altered dynamically and coordinately with DNA methylation alteration. DNA methylation-sensitive genes significantly correlated with loss of H3K27me3 pre-marks or decrease of active histone marks, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac. Apoptosis-related genes were significantly enriched in these epigenetically repressed genes. Gain of active histone marks significantly correlated with DNA methylation-resistant genes. Genes related to mitotic cell cycle and DNA repair were significantly enriched in these epigenetically activated genes. Our data show that orchestrated epigenetic alterations are important in gene regulation during EBV infection, and histone modification status in promoter regions significantly associated with acquisition of de novo DNA methylation or protection of unmethylated status at transcription start site.

  12. Next Generation Catalyst Engineering via Support Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    performance, specifically in the mass transfer region. Rotating disk electrode ( RDE ) results show that after 5000 cycles of accelerated durability...materials, combining their evaluation in RDE with SEM analysis. We have identified specific solvents and aging treatments that greatly improve the

  13. Identification and modification of dynamical regions in proteins for alteration of enzyme catalytic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pratul K.

    2013-04-09

    A method for analysis, control, and manipulation for improvement of the chemical reaction rate of a protein-mediated reaction is provided. Enzymes, which typically comprise protein molecules, are very efficient catalysts that enhance chemical reaction rates by many orders of magnitude. Enzymes are widely used for a number of functions in chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and other purposes. The method identifies key protein vibration modes that control the chemical reaction rate of the protein-mediated reaction, providing identification of the factors that enable the enzymes to achieve the high rate of reaction enhancement. By controlling these factors, the function of enzymes may be modulated, i.e., the activity can either be increased for faster enzyme reaction or it can be decreased when a slower enzyme is desired. This method provides an inexpensive and efficient solution by utilizing computer simulations, in combination with available experimental data, to build suitable models and investigate the enzyme activity.

  14. On the modification of light ion concentration profiles above seismically active regions: a qualitative consideration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shklyar, D. R.; Truhlík, Vladimír

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 60, - (1998), s. 1025-1033 ISSN 0021-9169 Grant - others:NASA- RSA (US) NAS15-10110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.652, year: 1996

  15. Modification of the Near Surface Region Metastable Phases and Ion Induced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-03

    cell Si Dave Lilienfeld - amorphous Si layer thickness Au diffusion in metallic glasses Dave Lilienfeld & - low temperature Cu diffusion in Si Tim...Sullivan Fritz Stafford - defect characterization in implanted & annealed silicon-on-sapphire Peter Zielinski - Composition of CuZr metallic glass...ribbons 5. Prof. Johnson Dave Kuhn - measurement of Pd layer thickness Alexandra Elve - hydrogen profiles in metals Lauren Heitner - hydrogen diffusion in

  16. Structual Effects of Cytidine 2^' Ribose Modifications as Determined by Irmpd Action Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlow, Lucas; He, Chenchen; Fan, Lin; Wu, Ranran; Yang, Bo; Rodgers, M. T.; Berden, Giel; Oomens, J.

    2015-06-01

    Modified nucleosides, both naturally occurring and synthetic play an important role in understanding and manipulating RNA and DNA. Naturally occurring modified nucleosides are commonly found in functionally important regions of RNA and also affect antibiotic resistance or sensitivity. Synthetic modifications of nucleosides such as fluorinated and arabinosyl nucleosides have found uses as anti-virals and chemotherapy agents. Understanding the effect that modifications have on structure and glycosidic bond stability may lend insight into the functions of these modified nucleosides. Modifications such as the naturally occurring 2^'-O-methylation and the synthetic 2^'-fluorination are believed to help stabilize the nucleoside through the glycosidic bond stability and intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Changing the sugar from ribose to arabinose alters the stereochemistry at the 2^' position and thus shifts the 3D orientation of the 2^'-hydroxyl group, which also affects intramolecular hydrogen bonding and glycosidic bond stability. The structures of 2^'-deoxy-2^'-fluorocytidine, 2^'-O-methylcytidine and cytosine arabinoside are examined in the current work by measuring the infrared spectra in the IR fingerprint region using infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy. The structures accessed in the experiments were determined via comparison of the measured IRMPD action spectra to the theoretical linear IR spectra determined by density functional theory and molecular modeling for the stable low-energy structures. Although glycosidic bond stability cannot be quantitatively determined from this data, complementary TCID studies will establish the effect of these modifications. Comparison of these modified nucleosides with their RNA and DNA analogues will help elucidate differences in their intrinsic chemistry.

  17. Characterization of histone H3K27 modifications in the β-globin locus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yea Woon; Kim, AeRi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The β-globin locus control region is hyperacetylated and monomethylated at histone H3K27. → Highly transcribed globin genes are marked by H3K27ac, but H3K27me2 is remarkable at silent globin genes in erythroid K562 cells. → Association of PRC2 subunits is comparable with H3K27me3 pattern. → Modifications of histone H3K27 are established in an enhancer-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Histone H3K27 is acetylated or methylated in the environment of nuclear chromatin. Here, to characterize the modification pattern of H3K27 in locus control region (LCR) and to understand the correlation of various H3K27 modifications with transcriptional activity of genes, we analyzed the human β-globin locus using the ChIP assay. The LCR of the human β-globin locus was enriched by H3K27ac and H3K27me1 in erythroid K562 cells. The highly transcribed globin genes were hyperacetylated at H3K27, but the repressed globin genes were highly dimethylated at this lysine in these cells. However, in non-erythroid 293FT cells, the β-globin locus was marked by a high level of H3K27me3. EZH2 and SUZ12, subunits of polycomb repressive complex 2, were comparably detected with the H3K27me3 pattern in K562 and 293FT cells. In addition, H3K27ac, H3K27me1 and H3K27me3 were established in an enhancer-dependent manner in a model minichromosomal locus containing an enhancer and its target gene. Taken together, these results show that H3K27 modifications have distinctive correlations with the chromatin state or transcription level of genes and are influenced by an enhancer.

  18. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing.

  19. Hemostatic Modifications of the Bentall Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Corte, Alessandro; Baldascino, Francesco; La Marca, Francesca; Scardone, Michelangelo; Nappi, Gianantonio; Cefarelli, Mariano; De Santo, Luca S.; Pepino, Paolo; Cotrufo, Maurizio; De Feo, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding is an important predictor of morbidity and mortality rates after the Bentall operation. This study reports our recent experience with composite aortic root replacement via a slightly modified button-Bentall operation. Fifty-six consecutive patients underwent a Bentall operation on an elective basis from January 2008 through December 2009. In all cases, we used 2 modifications: we imbricated the pledgeted 2-0 polyester interrupted U stitches of the proximal suture line, and at that same suture line we sealed with fibrin glue the possible sources of oozing. The series featured high proportions of associated procedures (25%) and reoperations (23%). The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 166 ± 50 and 113 ± 27 min, respectively. No case of operative or hospital (30-day) death was observed. Postoperative drainage amounted to 705 mL (median) on the first postoperative day and 377 mL (mean) on the second. Surgical re-exploration for bleeding was needed in only 1 patient (1.8%). Postoperative acute kidney injury was observed in 5 patients, neurologic complications in 3, and respiratory insufficiency requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation in another 3. Both respiratory and renal complications were significantly associated with greater consumption of blood products (P=0.03 and P=0.001, respectively). We conclude that the combined use of imbricated proximal suture-line stitches and subsequent fibrin-sealant spraying were associated with no deaths and with low rates of bleeding and other adverse postoperative sequelae in our 2-year experience with the Bentall operation in an elective series of patients characterized by a difficult mixture of prognoses. PMID:22740732

  20. Effects of luminance contrast and its modifications on fixation behavior during free viewing of images from different categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açik, Alper; Onat, Selim; Schumann, Frank; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; König, Peter

    2009-06-01

    During viewing of natural scenes, do low-level features guide attention, and if so, does this depend on higher-level features? To answer these questions, we studied the image category dependence of low-level feature modification effects. Subjects fixated contrast-modified regions often in natural scene images, while smaller but significant effects were observed for urban scenes and faces. Surprisingly, modifications in fractal images did not influence fixations. Further analysis revealed an inverse relationship between modification effects and higher-level, phase-dependent image features. We suggest that high- and mid-level features--such as edges, symmetries, and recursive patterns--guide attention if present. However, if the scene lacks such diagnostic properties, low-level features prevail. We posit a hierarchical framework, which combines aspects of bottom-up and top-down theories and is compatible with our data.

  1. Surface defect modification of ZnO quantum dots based on rare earth acetylacetonate and their impacts on optical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lixi, E-mail: wanglixi_njut@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Yang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Weimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Jing [China Geol Survey, Nanjing Ctr, Nanjing, 210016, Jiangsu (China); Zhang, Qitu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaboration Innovation Center for Advanced Inorganic Function Composites, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu (China); Song, Bo; Wong, Chingping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332, GA (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Graphical abstract: RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy and Tb) can realize the defects modification of ZnO QDs based on the linkage occurs between the protons of the hydroxyl groups on the surface of ZnO QDs and the π–system of acetylacetone. The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. The stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with average sizes of about 3.0 nm can be obtained. The calculated band gap data also proved the efficient modification of Ce(AcAc){sub 3} for ZnO QDs with the largest variation of band gap energy of 0.039 eV (from 3.583 eV to 3.544 eV). - Highlights: • Defects modification of ZnO QDs based on rare earth acetylacetonate. • Stable Ce(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs with an average sizes of about 3.0 nm. • The color coordinate could be shifted among yellow-green, blue-green, and green region by changing the RE (AcAc){sub 3} ratios. - Abstract: The surface defect modification has an important effect on the application of ZnO quantum dots, and it has gained much progress in recently years, propelled by the development of additives. Our research efforts are directed toward developing a new surface modification additive RE(AcAc){sub 3} (RE = Ce, Dy, Tb) to achieve fine ZnO QDs and adjust their surface properties. RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs nanostructured materials have been designed and prepared, and particular emphasis has been given to the relation between the surface modification and optical properties. The effects of RE(III) acetylacetonate modification on the FT-IR, TEM images and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were investigated, and the surface defect modification principle and effect were discussed in details. The band gap (E{sub g}) was also calculated to prove the surface modification effect. For the RE(AcAc){sub 3}/ZnO QDs complex materials, stable linkage occurs because of the affinity of −COOH from acetylacetonate anionic ligand to zinc oxide surfaces, with attachment

  2. Surface modification of polyester biomaterials for tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yanpeng; Cui Fuzhai

    2007-01-01

    Surfaces play an important role in a biological system for most biological reactions occurring at surfaces and interfaces. The development of biomaterials for tissue engineering is to create perfect surfaces which can provoke specific cellular responses and direct new tissue regeneration. The improvement in biocompatibility of biomaterials for tissue engineering by directed surface modification is an important contribution to biomaterials development. Among many biomaterials used for tissue engineering, polyesters have been well documented for their excellent biodegradability, biocompatibility and nontoxicity. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites on the surface of polyesters have greatly limited their further application in the tissue engineering field. Therefore, how to introduce functional groups or molecules to polyester surfaces, which ideally adjust cell/tissue biological functions, becomes more and more important. In this review, recent advances in polyester surface modification and their applications are reviewed. The development of new technologies or methods used to modify polyester surfaces for developing their biocompatibility is introduced. The results of polyester surface modifications by surface morphological modification, surface chemical group/charge modification, surface biomacromolecule modification and so on are reported in detail. Modified surface properties of polyesters directly related to in vitro/vivo biological performances are presented as well, such as protein adsorption, cell attachment and growth and tissue response. Lastly, the prospect of polyester surface modification is discussed, especially the current conception of biomimetic and molecular recognition. (topical review)

  3. Statistical density modification using local pattern matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    Statistical density modification can make use of local patterns of density found in protein structures to improve crystallographic phases. A method for improving crystallographic phases is presented that is based on the preferential occurrence of certain local patterns of electron density in macromolecular electron-density maps. The method focuses on the relationship between the value of electron density at a point in the map and the pattern of density surrounding this point. Patterns of density that can be superimposed by rotation about the central point are considered equivalent. Standard templates are created from experimental or model electron-density maps by clustering and averaging local patterns of electron density. The clustering is based on correlation coefficients after rotation to maximize the correlation. Experimental or model maps are also used to create histograms relating the value of electron density at the central point to the correlation coefficient of the density surrounding this point with each member of the set of standard patterns. These histograms are then used to estimate the electron density at each point in a new experimental electron-density map using the pattern of electron density at points surrounding that point and the correlation coefficient of this density to each of the set of standard templates, again after rotation to maximize the correlation. The method is strengthened by excluding any information from the point in question from both the templates and the local pattern of density in the calculation. A function based on the origin of the Patterson function is used to remove information about the electron density at the point in question from nearby electron density. This allows an estimation of the electron density at each point in a map, using only information from other points in the process. The resulting estimates of electron density are shown to have errors that are nearly independent of the errors in the original map using

  4. Human errors related to maintenance and modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Pyy, P.; Reiman, L.

    1998-01-01

    about weakness in audits made by the operating organisation and in tests relating to plant operation. The number of plant-specific maintenance records used as input material was high and the findings were discussed thoroughly with the plant maintenance personnel. The results indicated that instrumentation is more prone to human error than the rest of maintenance. Most errors stem from refuelling outage periods and about a half of them were identified during the same outage they were committed. Plant modifications are a significant source of common cause failures. The number of dependent errors could be reduced by improved co-ordination and auditing, post-installation checking, training and start-up testing programmes. (orig.)

  5. Galileon as a local modification of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Trincherini, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) model, the 'self-accelerating' solution is plagued by a ghost instability, which makes the solution untenable. This fact, as well as all interesting departures from general relativity (GR), are fully captured by a four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, valid at distances smaller than the present Hubble scale. The 4D effective theory involves a relativistic scalar π, universally coupled to matter and with peculiar derivative self-interactions. In this paper, we study the connection between self-acceleration and the presence of ghosts for a quite generic class of theories that modify gravity in the infrared. These theories are defined as those that at distances shorter than cosmological, reduce to a certain generalization of the DGP 4D effective theory. We argue that for infrared modifications of GR locally due to a universally coupled scalar, our generalization is the only one that allows for a robust implementation of the Vainshtein effect--the decoupling of the scalar from matter in gravitationally bound systems--necessary to recover agreement with solar-system tests. Our generalization involves an internal Galilean invariance, under which π's gradient shifts by a constant. This symmetry constrains the structure of the π Lagrangian so much so that in 4D there exist only five terms that can yield sizable nonlinearities without introducing ghosts. We show that for such theories in fact there are ''self-accelerating'' de Sitter solutions with no ghostlike instabilities. In the presence of compact sources, these solutions can support spherically symmetric, Vainshtein-like nonlinear perturbations that are also stable against small fluctuations. We investigate a possible infrared completion of these theories at scales of order of the Hubble horizon, and larger. There are however some features of our theories that may constitute a problem at the theoretical or phenomenological level: the presence of superluminal excitations; the

  6. POSTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS OF P53: UPSTREAM SIGNALING PATHWAYS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDERSON,C.W.APPELLA,E.

    2003-10-23

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a tetrameric transcription factor that is posttranslational modified at >20 different sites by phosphorylation, acetylation, or sumoylation in response to various cellular stress conditions. Specific posttranslational modifications, or groups of modifications, that result from the activation of different stress-induced signaling pathways are thought to modulate p53 activity to regulate cell fate by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or cellular senescence. Here we review recent progress in characterizing the upstream signaling pathways whose activation in response to various genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses result in p53 posttranslational modifications.

  7. Muonic X-ray intensities in phosphorus- and selenium modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, K.; Robert-Tissot, B.; Schaller, L.A.; Schellenberg, L.; Schneuwly, H.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray intensity measurements have been performed at SIN on allotropic modifications of phosphorus (white, red and black) and of selenium (red and black). Structure effects have been found in the intensity ratios of the K-series between amorphous and crystalline modifications of the same element. The effect in the higher series (Se) is less pronounced. On the other hand, the two crystalline phosphorus modifications (red and black) show the same intensity behavior. The root-mean-square radii 2 >sup(1/2) of phosphorus and (natural) selenium were found to be 3.187(3) fm and 4.138(1) fm respectively. (Auth.)

  8. Modifications to the NRAD reactor (1977 to present)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, A.A.; Pruett, D.P.; Heidel, C.C.

    1986-01-01

    The NRAD facility utilizes a 250-kW TRIGA reactor and is completely dedicated to neutron radiography and the development of radiography techniques. Criticality was first achieved at the NRAD reactor in October 1977. Since that time, a number of modifications have been implemented to improve operational efficiency and radiography production. The modifications to the NRAD reactor are categorized as either 'operational improvements', which have increased operational efficiency and reliability, or as 'production improvements', which have reduced the number of unscheduled shutdowns due to instrument malfunctions or mechanical failures. A brief synopsis of the significant reactor modifications in both categories is presented

  9. Modification and backfitting in safety related systems at Ringhals 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidh, B. [KSU, Nykoeping (Sweden); Stroemqvist, E. [ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-08-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Ringhals-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 4 refs.

  10. Investigation of surface halide modification of nitrile butadiene rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Mastalygina, E. E.; Popov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The investigation is devoted to the novel technology of surface halide modification of rubber samples based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). 1,1,2-trifluoro-1,2,2-trichlorethane was used as halide modifier. The developed technology is characterized by production stages reduction to one by means of treating the rubber compound with a halide modifier. The surface halide modification of compounds based on nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was determined to result in increase of resistance to thermal oxidation and aggressive media. The conducted research revealed the influence of modification time on chemical resistance and physical-mechanical properties of rubbers under investigation.

  11. The continual fuel management modification in Qinshan project II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Guodong; Pan Zefei; Zhang Xingtian

    2010-01-01

    The fuel management strategy is the basis of the nuclear power plants. The performance of the fuel management strategy affects the plants' safety and economy indicators directly. The paper summarizes all the modifications on the fuel management work in Qinshan Project II since the plant was established. It includes the surveillance system of physics tests, fetching in high performance fuel assemblies, reloading pattern optimization, and the modifications of the final safety analysis report. At the same time, it evaluates the benefit of the modifications in the few years. The experience in this paper is much helpful and could be implemented on the same type plants. (authors)

  12. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  13. Modification and backfitting in safety related systems at Ringhals 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidh, B.; Stroemqvist, E.

    1995-08-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Ringhals-2, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 4 refs

  14. Modification of cadmium pigments for colouring of polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinskaya, T.V.; Livshits, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    Modification conditions are studied of cadmium pigments, obtained by different methods, aliphatic acids(C 5 , C 8 and C 17 ). It is found, that cadmium pigments can adsorb acids with the number of atoms of carbon not less than 8. Stearic acid adsorption on lemon cadmium pigment taken as an example has shown the efficiency of pigment modification influence on its dispersancy in non-polar medium. Modification of yellow cadmium pigments of stearic acid makes possible to obtain pigment output forms ensuring a good particle distribution during polyolefine colouring

  15. Modification of Polymer Materials by Ion Bombardment: Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielinski, D. M.; Jagielski, J.; Lipinski, P.; Pieczynska, D.; Ostaszewska, U.; Piatkowska, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses possibility of application of ion beam bombardment for modification of polymers. Changes to composition, structure and morphology of the surface layer produced by the treatment and their influence on engineering and functional properties of wide range of polymer materials are presented. Special attention has been devoted to modification of tribological properties. Ion bombardment results in significant reduction of friction, which can be explained by increase of hardness and wettability of polymer materials. Hard but thin enough skin does not result in cracking but improves their abrasion resistance. Contrary to conventional chemical treatment ion beam bombardment works even for polymers hardly susceptible to modification like silicone rubber or polyolefines.

  16. Recent Advances in Attention Bias Modification for Substance Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvyn Weibin Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on attentional bias modification has increased since 2014. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates evidence for bias modification for substance disorders, including alcohol and tobacco use disorders. Several pharmacological trials have shown that pharmacological agents can attenuate and modify such attentional bias. The pharmacological trials that have appeared to date have produced mixed results, which has clinical implications. Developments in Internet and mobile technologies have transformed how attention bias modification is currently being achieved. There remains great potential for further research that examines the efficacy of technology-aided attention bias interventions.

  17. Modifications of nucleons in nuclei in quasi-elastic electron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    In inelastic electron scattering two scaling regions are observed in which the scattering is dominated by quasi-elastic scattering. For large momentum transfers, √Q 2 > 2 GeV/c, the scattering process is dominated by quasi-elastic scattering off quarks, whereas for √Q 2 ≅ 0.5 GeV/c the dominant contribution is quasi-elastic scattering off nucleons. This corresponds nicely to our first order picture of the nucleus consisting of nucleons, which in turn are composed of quarks. In the nucleon-scaling region, possible modifications of nucleon properties show up through a study of the Q 2 dependence and the relative strength of the transverse and longitudinal cross sections. Results of both inclusive (e,e') and exclusive (e,e'p) experiments in the quasi-elastic scattering region indeed show a behavior that could indicate modifications of intrinsic properties of individual nucleons in the nucleus, although the question remains if one has correctly disentangled the effects of the (long range) interactions between nucleons and those connected to the internal structure of nucleons. Even so, a simple (one-parameter) size rescaling for nucleons appears to be inconsistent with the data and also with some known conventional nuclear physics observables. Therefore the inclusion of two-nucleon correlations appears necessary in order to be able to understand the data. Such correlations can for instance be due to the effect of the Pauli principle on the quark level. (orig.)

  18. An Assessment of Radiation Modification from a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, J. E.; Lawrence, M. G.; Boucher, O.; Haywood, J. M.; Irvine, P. J.; Muri, H.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, M.; Vaughan, N.; Watson, M.; Born, W.; Schaefer, S.; Stelzer, H.

    2014-12-01

    The European Transdisciplinary Assessment of Climate Engineering (EuTRACE) project (2012-2014) is funded by the European Commission (EC). In EuTRACE, researchers from the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities have joined forces to assess various proposed geoengineering techniques concerning their radiative forcing potential and side effects, ethical aspects, economics aspects, as well as governance and regulation aspects. A comprehensive assessment report will be submitted to the EC in autumn 2014. We will present some highlights of the part of the EuTRACE assessment that deals with the natural science aspects of proposed Radiation Modification (RM) techniques. The techniques considered are: a) Stratospheric Sulfur Injections; b) Marine Cloud Brightening; c) Desert Brightening; d) Vegetation Brightening; and e) Cirrus Cloud Thinning. A large number of publications in the scientific literature has been considered, as well as recently published assessment reports by the Royal Society in the UK and the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Some of the findings of the assessment are: Globally averaged, the current anthropogenic radiative forcing could conceivably be offset by the RM techniques considered. The RM techniques could have a significant global effect already after 1 year or less. Model simulations consistently show that Solar RM leads to regional imbalances due to different spatial footprints of solar and carbon dioxide radiative forcings. This may have significant consequences for precipitation patterns and the hydrological cycle. Very rapid warming is virtually certain if RM were to be stopped abruptly or over a period of one to a few years. Model studies of RM usually assume that the techniques are technologically feasible. In fact, the technological challenges are poorly known, and in many cases the physical processes involved are poorly understood. We will end by discussing key research questions and knowledge gaps.

  19. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  20. A dynamic modification to sneutrino chaotic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhijit Kumar; Sil, Arunansu

    2015-01-01

    We consider a right-handed scalar neutrino as the inflaton which carries a gravitational coupling with a supersymmetric QCD sector responsible for breaking supersymmetry dynamically. The framework suggests an inflaton potential which is a deformed version of the quadratic chaotic inflation leading to a flatter potential. We find that this deformation results a sizable tensor to scalar ratio which falls within the allowed region by PLANCK 2015. At the same time supersymmetry breaking at the end of inflation can naturally be induced in this set-up. The symmetries required to construct the framework allows the neutrino masses and mixing to be of right order.

  1. Effects of electron-transfer chemical modification on the electrical characteristics of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xiaoyan; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Nouchi, Ryo; Yin Lichang

    2010-01-01

    Because of the large reactivity of single layer graphene to electron-transfer chemistries, 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate is employed to modify the electrical properties of graphene field-effect transistors. After modification, the transfer characteristics of chemically modified graphene show a reduction in the minimum conductivity, electron-hole mobility asymmetry, a decrease in the electron/hole mobility, and a positive shift of the charge neutrality point with broadening of the minimum conductivity region. These phenomena are attributed to a dediazoniation reaction and the adsorbates on the graphene surface.

  2. Effects of electron-transfer chemical modification on the electrical characteristics of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xiaoyan; Tanigaki, Katsumi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Nouchi, Ryo [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yin Lichang, E-mail: nouchi@sspns.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2010-11-26

    Because of the large reactivity of single layer graphene to electron-transfer chemistries, 4-nitrobenzene diazonium tetrafluoroborate is employed to modify the electrical properties of graphene field-effect transistors. After modification, the transfer characteristics of chemically modified graphene show a reduction in the minimum conductivity, electron-hole mobility asymmetry, a decrease in the electron/hole mobility, and a positive shift of the charge neutrality point with broadening of the minimum conductivity region. These phenomena are attributed to a dediazoniation reaction and the adsorbates on the graphene surface.

  3. Calculation about a modification to the toroidal magnetic field of the Tokamak Novillo. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez A, E.; Melendez L, L.; Colunga S, S.; Valencia A, R.; Lopez C, R.; Gaytan G, E.

    1991-07-01

    The charged particles that constitute the plasma in the tokamaks are located in magnetic fields that determine its behavior. The poloidal magnetic field of the plasma current and the toroidal magnetic field of the tokamak possess relatively big gradients, which produce drifts on these particles. These drifts are largely the cause of the continuous lost of particles and of energy of the confinement region. In this work the results of numerical calculations of a modification to the 'traditional' toroidal magnetic field that one waits it diminishes the drifts by gradient and improve the confinement properties of the tokamaks. (Author)

  4. Nano-scale surface modification of materials with slow, highly charged ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, M.; Tona, M.; Takahashi, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nakamura, N.; Yoshiyasu, N.; Yamada, C.; Ohtani, S.; Sakaue, H.A.; Kawase, Y.; Mitsumori, K.; Terui, T.; Mashiko, S.

    2007-01-01

    Some results on surface modification of Si and graphite with highly charged ions (HCIs) are presented. Modified surfaces were observed using scanning tunneling microscopy. Crater-like structure with a diameter in nm region is formed on a Si(1 1 1)-(7 x 7) surface by the incidence of a single HCI. The protrusion structure is formed on a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite surface on the other hand, and the structure becomes an active site for molecular adsorption. A new, intense HCI source and an experimental apparatus are under development in order to process and observe aligned nanostructures created by the impact of collimated HCI beam

  5. Photoreactive molecular layers containing aryl ester units: Preparation, UV patterning and post-exposure modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefler, Thomas [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Track, Anna M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Pacher, Peter [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Shen, Quan [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Flesch, Heinz-Georg [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Hlawacek, Gregor [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Koller, Georg; Ramsey, Michael G. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Schennach, Robert; Resel, Roland [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Teichert, Christian [Institute of Physics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Kern, Wolfgang [Institute of Chemistry of Polymers, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Trimmel, Gregor [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Griesser, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.griesser@unileoben.ac.at [Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Materials, Graz University of Technology, Stremayrgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Institute of Chemistry of Polymers, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2010-01-15

    The photolithographic modification of thin functional silane layers provides a versatile and powerful means of fabricating functionalized patterned surfaces which can be applied for tuning inorganic surface properties and for modern immobilisation techniques. In this contribution we present the synthesis of a new functional trichloro organosilane bearing photoreactive aryl ester groups and its application in thin silane layers on silicon oxide surfaces. Whereas the trichlorosilyl group acts as anchoring unit to the inorganic surface, the aryl ester group undergoes the photo-Fries rearrangement to yield hydroxyketones upon irradiation with UV-light of 254 nm which leads to a change in chemical reactivity of the surface. By a subsequent reaction with perfluorobutyryl chloride, the photogenerated hydroxy groups yield the corresponding perfluorinated ester compound, which allows further tuning of surface properties. The layer formation as well as the photoreaction and post-modification reaction was monitored by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The thickness of the obtained thin layers was determined by X-ray reflectivity (XRR). Photopatterned surfaces were produced using a contact mask during illumination followed by the post-modification reaction. Friction force microscopy (FFM) revealed the contrast between modified and unmodified regions of the patterned samples.

  6. Effect of surface modification and hybridization on dynamic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Epoxy; Roystonea regia; glass; surface modification; hybridization; dynamic mechanical ... other advantages such as light weight, low cost, high specific ... ful technique to study the mechanical behaviour of mate- ... The test reveals response.

  7. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  8. Identifying modifications in RNA by MALDI mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, Stephen; Kirpekar, Finn

    2007-01-01

    as RNA modifications added in cell-free in vitro systems. MALDI-MS is particularly useful in cases in which other techniques such as those involving primer extension or chromatographic analyses are not practicable. To date, MALDI-MS has been used to localize rRNA modifications that are involved......Posttranscriptional modifications on the base or sugar of ribonucleosides generally result in mass increases that can be measured by mass spectrometry. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a direct and accurate means of determining the masses of RNAs. Mass...... spectra produced by MALDI are relatively straightforward to interpret, because they are dominated by singly charged ions, making it possible to analyze complex mixtures of RNA oligonucleotides ranging from trinucleotides up to 20-mers. Analysis of modifications within much longer RNAs, such as ribosomal...

  9. Post-translational modifications regulate signalling by Ror1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaucká, M.; Krejčí, Pavel; Plevová, K.; Pavlová, Š.; Procházková, Jiřina; Janovská, P.; Valnohová, J.; Kozubík, Alois; Pospíšilová, Š.; Bryja, Vítězslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 203, č. 3 (2011), s. 351-362 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : chronic lymphocytic leukaemia * glycosylation * post-translational modification Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.090, year: 2011

  10. Industrial assessment of nonbackfittable PWR design modifications. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, R.A.; Daleas, R.S.; Miller, D.D.

    1980-11-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy's Advanced Reactor Design Study, various nonbackfittable PWR design modifications were evaluated to determine their potential for improved uranium utilization and commercial viability. Combustion Engineering, Inc. contributed to this effort through participation in the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory industrial assessment of such design modifications. Seven modifications, including the use of higher primary system temperatures and pressures, rapid-frequent refueling, end-of-cycle stretchout, core periphery modifications, radial blankets, low power density cores, and small PWR assemblies, were evaluated with respect to uranium utilization, economics, technical and operational complexity, and several other subjective considerations. Rapid-frequent refueling was judged to have the highest potential although it would probably not be economical for the majority of reactors with the design assumptions used in this assessment

  11. Detection of Genetic Modification 'ac2' in Potato Foodstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kralik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic modification 'ac2' is based on the insertion and expression of ac2 gene, originally found in seeds of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus, into the genome of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum. The purpose of the present study is to develop a PCR method for the detection of the mentioned genetically modified potatoes in various foodstuffs. The method was used to test twenty different potato-based products; none of them was positive for the genetic modification 'ac2'. The European Union legislation requires labelling of products made of or containing more than 0.9 % of genetically modified organisms. The genetic modification 'ac2' is not allowed on the European Union market. For that reason it is suitable to have detection methods, not only for the approved genetic modifications, but also for the 'unknown' ones, which could still occur in foodstuffs.

  12. Assessment of Design Modifications to Final Clothe the Soldier Rucksack

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, S. A; Stevenson, J. M

    2006-01-01

    .... Quantitative assessment of these functional parameters was undertaken to compare the behaviour of a proposed modification to that of the currently fielded design to ensure no degradation in performance...

  13. Relativistic description of Marinov's modification of the Harress experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groen, Oe.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that Marinov's modification of the Harress experiment does not provide a means of giving an experimental decision between the theory of space-time absoluteness and the special theory of relativity. (Auth.)

  14. Aberrant Chromatin Modification as a Mechanism of Prostate Cancer Progression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Hongwu

    2004-01-01

    .... However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that aberrant chromatin modification plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression...

  15. Host Specificity of Salmonella typhimurium Deoxyribonucleic Acid Restriction and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Harvey; Boyer, Herbert W.

    1973-01-01

    The restriction and modification genes of Salmonella typhimurium which lie near the thr locus were transferred to a restrictionless mutant of Escherichia coli. These genes were found to be allelic to the E. coli K, B, and A restriction and modification genes. E. coli recombinants with the restriction and modification host specificity of S. typhimurium restricted phage λ that had been modified by each of the seven known host specificities of E. coli at efficiency of plating levels of about 10−2. Phage λ modified with the S. typhimurium host specificity was restricted by six of the seven E. coli host specificities but not by the RII (fi− R-factor controlled) host specificity. It is proposed that the restriction and modification enzymes of this S. typhimurium host specificity have two substrates, one of which is a substrate for the RII host specificity enzymes. PMID:4570605

  16. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  17. Ion-beam modification of properties of metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodasevich, V.V.; Uglov, V.V.; Ponaryadov, V.V.; Zhukova, S.I.

    2002-01-01

    Physical fundaments for ion-beam modification and plasma-vacuum synthesis of new types of coatings and compounds in technically important metals and alloys were development as well as corresponding installation and technologies were created. (authors)

  18. Hypnotherapy: A Combined Approach Using Psychotherapy and Behavior Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Discusses use of hypnosis in traditional psychoanalysis, compares use of hypnosis in behavior modification therapy versus psychoanalysis, and presents a hypno-behavioral model which combines both approaches using hypnosis as the medium. (Author/NB)

  19. Regulation of the tumor suppressor PML by sequential posttranslational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lienhard eSchmitz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Posttranslational modifications (PTMs regulate multiple biological functions of the PML (promyelocytic leukemia protein and also the fission, disassembly and rebuilding of PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs during the cell cycle. Pathway-specific PML modification patterns ensure proper signal output from PML-NBs that suit the specific functional requirements. Here we comprehensively review the signaling pathways and enzymes that modify PML and also the oncogenic PML-RARα fusion protein. Many PTMs occur in a hierarchical and timely organized fashion. Phosphorylation or acetylation constitute typical starting points for many PML modifying events, while degradative ubiquitination is an irreversible end point of the modification cascade. As this hierarchical organization of PTMs frequently turns phosphorylation events as primordial events, kinases or phosphatases regulating PML phosphorylation may be interesting drug targets to manipulate the downstream modifications and thus the stability and function of PML or PML-RARα.

  20. The experimental modification of a computer software package for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental modification of a computer software package for graphing algebraic functions. ... No Abstract Available South African Journal of Education Vol.25(2) 2005: 61-68. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  1. Modification of the principles of the ventral wall alloplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Vasiliev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The experience in modification of the surgical methods in implantation and fixation of the prostheses was estimated in 152 patients. Application of the author's methods significantly reduces postoperative complications and prevents hernia relapses.

  2. Modifications to Battery chargers and inverters Units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raison, Florent

    2015-01-01

    monitoring functions are separately split per PCB. This provides a few technical advantages related to robustness and reliability: Lower sensitivity to vibration, Low EMC disturbance, Low MTTR (Mean Time To Repair). On the top of this technical choice, AEG is offering: 1. a 1+1 redundancy for two key functions: Power supply of the PCB, DC overvoltage protection (Forsmark); 2. An intelligent power supply: Thanks to an automatic switch off of the non-operating functions, in case of a transfer from the grid to the batteries, AEG Power Solutions equipment will limit the internal power consumption of the PCBs, for the benefit of the overall battery autonomy. 3. An independent auxiliary supply between regulation and control. 4. One single regulation and monitoring solutions for all types of products (rating, voltage), involving a simplified spare parts management, and facilitating qualification operations. The general concept of the diagnostic tools is to perform regular maintenance in an easier and more efficient way, preventing any modification of the already qualified equipment on site. AEG Power Solutions diagnostic tools and equipment (battery chargers or inverters) are connected through two single connectors only. Safe and efficient, the AEG Power Solutions diagnostic tools are calibrated internally (AEG qualified for calibration), so that AEG is performing a permanent control of the whole product chain. (authors)

  3. Comparison of remove-compute-restore and least squares modification of Stokes' formula techniques to quasi-geoid determination over the Auvergne test area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, H.; Forsberg, René; Ågren, J.

    2012-01-01

    The remove-compute-restore (RCR) technique for regional geoid determination implies that both topography and low-degree global geopotential model signals are removed before computation and restored after Stokes' integration or Least Squares Collocation (LSC) solution. The Least Squares Modification...... area. All methods showed a reasonable agreement with GPS-levelling data, in the order of a 3-3.5 cm in the central region having relatively smooth topography, which is consistent with the accuracies of GPS and levelling. When a 1-parameter fit is used, the FFT method using kernel modification performs...

  4. LASER SURFACE MODIFICATION OF TITANIUM ALLOYS — A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. TIAN; C. Z. CHEN; D. Y. WANG; T. Q. LEI

    2005-01-01

    Recent developments of laser surface modification of titanium alloys for increasing their corrosion, wear and oxidation resistance are introduced. The effects of laser processing parameters on the resulting surface properties of titanium alloys are reviewed. The problems to be solved and the prospects in the field of laser modification of Ti alloys are discussed. Due to the intrinsic properties, a laser beam can be focused onto the metallic surface to produce a broad range of treatments depen...

  5. A modification scheme for seismic acceleration - time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethell, J.

    1979-05-01

    A technique is described for the modification of recorded earthquake acceleration-time histories which gives reduced peak accelerations whilst leaving other significant characteristics unchanged. Such modifications are of use in constructing design basis acceleration-time histories such that all important parameters conform to a specified return period. The technique is applied to two recordings from the 1966 Parkfield earthquake, their peak accelerations being reduced in each case from about 40% g to 25% g. (author)

  6. Modification in fuel processing of Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel's Tokai Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study by the Committee for Examination of Fuel Safety, reported to the AEC of Japan, are presented, concerning safety of the modifications of Tokai Works, Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd. Safety has been confirmed thereof. The modifications covered are the following: storage facility of nuclear fuel in increase, analytical facility in transfer, fuel assemblage equipment in addition, incineration facility of combustible solid wastes in installation, experimental facility of uranium recovery in installation, and warehouse in installation. (Mori, K.)

  7. Organic light emitting diode with surface modification layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, John D.; Bhandari, Abhinav; Buhay, Harry; Arbab, Mehran; Marietti, Gary J.

    2017-09-12

    An organic light emitting diode (10) includes a substrate (12) having a first surface (14) and a second surface (16), a first electrode (32), and a second electrode (38). An emissive layer (36) is located between the first electrode (32) and the second electrode (38). The organic light emitting diode (10) further includes a surface modification layer (18). The surface modification layer (18) includes a non-planar surface (30, 52).

  8. Organic Metals. Systematic Molecular Modifications of Hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engler, E. M.; Patel, V. V.; Andersen, Jan Rud

    1978-01-01

    Two synthetic approaches for modifying hexamethylenetetraheterofulvalene donors are described for the purpose of perturbing in a systematic way the interesting solid state properties of the TCNQ salts of the parent systems. The first approach consists of a steric modification in which a methyl gr...... group is introduced into the outer five-membered rings of the parent molecules. The second type of modification involves an electronic perturbation in which the outer five-membered alkyl rings are replaced with fused thiophene derivatives...

  9. Modificated ammonium nitrate based on its melt and bentonic clay

    OpenAIRE

    TURDIALIEV UMID MUHTARALIEVICH; NAMAZOV SHAFOAT SATTAROVICH; REYMOV AHMED MAMBETKARIMOVICH; BEGLOV BORIS MIHAYLOVICH; MIRSALIMOVA SAODAT RAHMATJANOVNA

    2016-01-01

    The approaches of nonexplosive ammonium nitrate by mean introduction of different inorganic matter into ammonium nitrate’s composition have been analyzed in the study. The results of thermostable ammonium nitrate obtain using Azkamarsk, Lagonsk, Kattakurgansk, and Navbahorsk bentonite from Uzbekistan as an additive, have been given. Composition and property (granule strength, modification transition temperature, thermal effect of modification transition, dimensions of granule’s micropores and...

  10. Effects of aluminium surface morphology and chemical modification on wettability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Maral; Fojan, Peter; Gurevich, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    -life aluminium surfaces of different morphology: unpolished aluminium, polished aluminium, and aluminium foil, were subjected to surface modification procedures which involved the formation of a layer of hydrophilic hyperbranched polyethyleneglycol via in situ polymerization, molecular vapour deposition...... of a monolayer of fluorinated silane, and a combination of those. The effect of these surface modification techniques on roughness and wettability of the aluminium surfaces was elucidated by ellipsometry, contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrated that by employing different types...

  11. The Human Factors Engineering in Process Design Modifications CNAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foronda Delgado, A.; Almeida Parra, P.; Bote Moreno, J.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution presents the process followed at the Almaraz and Trillo Nuclear Power Plants in order to integrate Human Factors Engineering (HFE) in the Design Modifications. This includes the applicable rules and regulations, the classification criteria used to categorize the modification, the activities that are to be carried out in each case, as well as recent examples where the full HFE program model was applied at Almaraz (Alternate Shutdown Panel) and Trillo (Primary Bleed and Feed).

  12. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable

  13. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    OpenAIRE

    de Mel, Achala; Cousins, Brian G.; Seifalian, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification ...

  14. Preparation, Modification, and Application of Hollow Gold Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiong-Qiong Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hollow gold nanospheres (HGNs have great potential applications in biological sensing, biomedical imaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery due to their unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR feature, easy modification, good biocompatibility, and excellent photothermal conversion properties. In this review, the latest developments of HGNs in biosensing, bioimaging, photothermal therapy, and drug delivery are summarized, the synthesis methods, surface modification and bioconjugation of HGNs are also covered in this summary.

  15. Design review report for modifications to RMCS safety class equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1997-05-30

    This report documents the completion of the formal design review for modifications to the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) safety class equipment. These modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to approve the Engineering Change Notices affecting safety class equipment used in the RMCS system. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that these changes are acceptable.

  16. Modification of semiconductors with proton beams. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Lomasov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis is given of the progress in the modification of semiconductors by proton beams in fields such as proton-enhanced diffusion, ion-beam mixing, and formation of porous layers. This method of modification (doping) is shown to have high potential in monitoring the properties of semiconductor materials and designing devices of micro and nano electronics as compared to the conventional doping techniques such as thermal diffusion, epitaxy, and ion implantation

  17. Trophic interaction modifications: an empirical and theoretical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J Christopher D; Morris, Rebecca J; Bonsall, Michael B

    2017-10-01

    Consumer-resource interactions are often influenced by other species in the community. At present these 'trophic interaction modifications' are rarely included in ecological models despite demonstrations that they can drive system dynamics. Here, we advocate and extend an approach that has the potential to unite and represent this key group of non-trophic interactions by emphasising the change to trophic interactions induced by modifying species. We highlight the opportunities this approach brings in comparison to frameworks that coerce trophic interaction modifications into pairwise relationships. To establish common frames of reference and explore the value of the approach, we set out a range of metrics for the 'strength' of an interaction modification which incorporate increasing levels of contextual information about the system. Through demonstrations in three-species model systems, we establish that these metrics capture complimentary aspects of interaction modifications. We show how the approach can be used in a range of empirical contexts; we identify as specific gaps in current understanding experiments with multiple levels of modifier species and the distributions of modifications in networks. The trophic interaction modification approach we propose can motivate and unite empirical and theoretical studies of system dynamics, providing a route to confront ecological complexity. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Surface Modification of Biomaterials: A Quest for Blood Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achala de Mel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular implants must resist thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia to maintain patency. These implants when in contact with blood face a challenge to oppose the natural coagulation process that becomes activated. Surface protein adsorption and their relevant 3D confirmation greatly determine the degree of blood compatibility. A great deal of research efforts are attributed towards realising such a surface, which comprise of a range of methods on surface modification. Surface modification methods can be broadly categorized as physicochemical modifications and biological modifications. These modifications aim to modulate platelet responses directly through modulation of thrombogenic proteins or by inducing antithrombogenic biomolecules that can be biofunctionalised onto surfaces or through inducing an active endothelium. Nanotechnology is recognising a great role in such surface modification of cardiovascular implants through biofunctionalisation of polymers and peptides in nanocomposites and through nanofabrication of polymers which will pave the way for finding a closer blood match through haemostasis when developing cardiovascular implants with a greater degree of patency.

  19. A Kantian argument against comparatively advantageous genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, David

    2011-08-01

    The genetic modification of children is becoming a more likely possibility given our rapid progress in medical technologies. I argue, from a broadly Kantian point of view, that at least one kind of such modification-modification by a parent for the sake of a child's comparative advantage-is not rationally justified. To argue this, I first characterize a necessary condition on reasons and rational justification: what is a reason for an agent to do an action in one set of circumstances must be a reason for any in those circumstances to do the action. I then show that comparatively advantageous genetic modification violates this principle since a child's "getting ahead" through genetic modification cannot be rationally justified unless other children also could receive the modification, thus rendering the advantage useless. Finally, I consider the major objection to this it seems to disallow all cases of a parent's helping a child get ahead, something that parents normally engage in with their children. I argue that typical practices of developing a comparative advantage in a child, as well as practices of societal competition in general, do not conflict because they involve circumstances that mitigate the universal character of reasons. Many ordinary cases of competitive advantage that we think of as unjust, in fact, can be explained by my argument.

  20. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin β (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  1. Functional significance of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating neuronal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hongik; Rhim, Hyewhon

    2018-03-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) covalently modify proteins and diversify protein functions. Along with protein phosphorylation, another common PTM is the addition of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) to serine and/or threonine residues. O-GlcNAc modification is similar to phosphorylation in that it occurs to serine and threonine residues and cycles on and off with a similar time scale. However, a striking difference is that the addition and removal of the O-GlcNAc moiety on all substrates are mediated by the two enzymes regardless of proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively. O-GlcNAcylation can interact or potentially compete with phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues, and thus serves as an important molecular mechanism to modulate protein functions and activation. However, it has been challenging to address the role of O-GlcNAc modification in regulating protein functions at the molecular level due to the lack of convenient tools to determine the sites and degrees of O-GlcNAcylation. Studies in this field have only begun to expand significantly thanks to the recent advances in detection and manipulation methods such as quantitative proteomics and highly selective small-molecule inhibitors for OGT and OGA. Interestingly, multiple brain regions, especially hippocampus, express high levels of both OGT and OGA, and a number of neuron-specific proteins have been reported to undergo O-GlcNAcylation. This review aims to discuss the recent updates concerning the impacts of O-GlcNAc modification on neuronal functions at multiple levels ranging from intrinsic neuronal properties to synaptic plasticity and animal behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seal modification for a V-band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbatiello, A.A.

    1975-10-01

    An aluminum gasket with a small volume added at one point has been developed and is recommended for sealing a leak in the HFIR HB-1 beam-tube flange. This type of gasket, in a symmetrical form, was originally tested and proposed in February, 1972. It has now been revised to fit a specific eroded area (found when the HFIR was disassembled for a scheduled major overhaul, after ten years of operation. The modified gasket consists of a ring made of 0.093-in.-diam wire with the normal contour increased to 1 / 8 in. 2 in the section at the cavity region and oriented to place this section over the eroded area. Special tools and viewers are available for checking its position

  3. Modification of Antibody Function by Mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasch, James R; Dasch, Amy L

    2017-09-01

    The ability to "fine-tune" recombinant antibodies by mutagenesis separates recombinant antibodies from hybridoma-derived antibodies because the latter are locked with respect to their properties. Recombinant antibodies can be modified to suit the application: Changes in isotype, format (e.g., scFv, Fab, bispecific antibodies), and specificity can be made once the heavy- and light-chain sequences are available. After immunoglobulin heavy and light chains for a particular antibody have been cloned, the binding site-namely, the complementarity determining regions (CDR)-can be manipulated by mutagenesis to obtain antibody variants with improved properties. The method described here is relatively simple, uses commercially available reagents, and is effective. Using the pComb3H vector, a commercial mutagenesis kit, PfuTurbo polymerase (Agilent), and two mutagenic primers, a library of phage with mutagenized heavy and light CDR3 can be obtained. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. RHIC BPM System Modifications and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Satogata, Todd; Cameron, Peter; Cerniglia, Phil; Cupolo, John; Curcio, Anthony J; Dawson, William C; Degen, Christopher; Gullotta, Justin; Mead, Joe; Michnoff, Robert; Russo, Thomas; Sikora, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system provides independent average orbit and turn-by-turn (TBT) position measurements. In each ring, there are 162 measurement locations per plane (horizontal and vertical) for a total of 648 BPM planes in the RHIC machine. During 2003 and 2004 shutdowns, BPM processing electronics were moved from the RHIC tunnel to controls alcoves to reduce radiation impact, and the analog signal paths of several dozen modules were modified to eliminate gain-switching relays and improve signal stability. This paper presents results of improved system performance, including stability for interaction region and sextupole beam-based alignment efforts. We also summarize performance of improved million-turn TBT acquisition channels for nonlinear dynamics and echo studies.

  5. Novel metal ion surface modification technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Yu, K.M.

    1990-10-01

    We describe a method for applying metal ions to the near-surface region of solid materials. The added species can be energetically implanted below the surface or built up as a surface film with an atomically mixed interface with the substrate; the metal ion species can be the same as the substrate species or different from it, and more than one kind of metal species can be applied, either simultaneously or sequentially. Surface structures can be fabricated, including coatings and thin films of single metals, tailored alloys, or metallic multilayers, and they can be implanted or added onto the surface and ion beam mixed. We report two simple demonstrations of the method: implantation of yttrium into a silicon substrate at a mean energy of 70 keV and a dose of 1 x 10 16 atoms/cm 2 , and the formation of a titanium-yttrium multilayer structure with ion beam mixing to the substrate. 17 refs., 3 figs

  6. DNA methylation-histone modification relationships across the desmin locus in human primary cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Gayle K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present here an extensive epigenetic analysis of a 500 kb region, which encompasses the human desmin gene (DES and its 5' locus control region (LCR, the only muscle-specific transcriptional regulatory element of this type described to date. These data complement and extend Encyclopaedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE studies on region ENr133. We analysed histone modifications and underlying DNA methylation patterns in physiologically relevant DES expressing (myoblast/myotube and non-expressing (peripheral blood mononuclear primary human cells. Results We found that in expressing myoblast/myotube but not peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC cultures, histone H4 acetylation displays a broadly distributed enrichment across a gene rich 200 kb region whereas H3 acetylation localizes at the transcriptional start site (TSS of genes. We show that the DES LCR and TSS of DES are enriched with hyperacetylated domains of acetylated histone H3, with H3 lysine 4 di- and tri-methylation (H3K4me2 and me3 exhibiting a different distribution pattern across this locus. The CpG island that extends into the first intron of DES is methylation-free regardless of the gene's expression status and in non-expressing PBMCs is marked with histone H3 lysine 27 tri-methylation (H3K27me3. Conclusion Overall, our results constitute the first study correlating patterns of histone modifications and underlying DNA methylation of a muscle-specific LCR and its associated downstream gene region whilst additionally placing this within a much broader genomic context. Our results clearly show that there are distinct patterns of histone H3 and H4 acetylation and H3 methylation at the DES LCR, promoter and intragenic region. In addition, the presence of H3K27me3 at the DES methylation-free CpG only in non-expressing PBMCs may serve to silence this gene in non-muscle tissues. Generally, our work demonstrates the importance of using multiple, physiologically relevant

  7. Permanent hydrophilic modification of polypropylene and poly(vinyl alcohol) films by vacuum ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmonte, Guilherme Kretzmann [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Charles, German [Centro de Química Aplicada (CEQUIMAP), Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Unversidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Strumia, Miriam Cristina [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, IPQA-Conicet, Haya de la Torre y Medina Allende, Edificio de Ciencias II, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Weibel, Daniel Eduardo, E-mail: danielw@iq.ufrgs.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Avenida Bento Gonçalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Polypropylene and Poly(vinyl alcohol) were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. • The hydrophilicity of the treated films was permanent and resisted aging for several months. • Grafting of styrene monomer was only observed in the VUV irradiated regions. • The obtained results showed the potential in the use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) both synthetics polymers but one of them biodegradable, were surface modified by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation. After VUV irradiation in an inert nitrogen atmosphere, the films were exposed to oxygen gas. The treated films were characterized by water contact angle measurements (WCA), optical profilometry, FTIR-ATR, XPS, UPS and NEXAFS techniques. PP and PVA VUV-treated films reached superhydrophilic conditions (WCAs <10°) in about 30 min of irradiation under our experimental conditions. It was observed that when the WCAs reached about 35–40° the hydrophilicity was permanent in both polymers. These results contrasted with typical plasma treatments were a rapid hydrophobic recovery with aging time is usually observed. UPS and XPS data showed the presence of new functionalities on the PP and PVA surfaces that were assigned to COO, C=O, C−O and C=C functional groups. Finally, grafting of styrene (ST) as a typical monomer was tested on PP films. It was confirmed that only in the VUV irradiated region an efficient grafting of ST or polymerized ST was found. Outside the irradiated regions no ST grafted was observed. Our results showed the potential use of VUV treatment for surface modification and processing of polymers which lack chromophores in the UV region.

  8. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  9. Microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil modification and modification effect with different amino group contents based on molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Liping; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Dachuan; Yuan, Jianmin; Lu, Gang; Zhou, Dianwu

    2018-05-01

    The microscopic mechanism of amino silicone oil (ASO) modification of natural fiber was investigated for the first time using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at the atomic and molecular levels. The MD simulation results indicated that the ASO molecular interacted with the cellulose molecular within the natural fiber, mainly by intermolecular forces of Nsbnd Hsbnd O and Osbnd Hsbnd N hydrogen bonds and the molecular chain of ASO absorbed onto the natural fiber in a selective orientation, i.e., the hydrophobic alkyl groups (sbnd CnH2n+1) project outward and the polar amino groups (sbnd NH2) point to the surface of natural fiber. Consequently, the ASO modification changed the surface characteristic of natural fiber from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Furthermore, the modification effects of the ASO modification layer with different amino group contents (m:n ratio) were also evaluated in this study by calculating the binding energy between the ASO modifier and natural fiber, and the cohesive energy density and free volume of the ASO modification layer. The results showed that the binding energy reached a maximum when the m:n ratio of ASO was of 8:4, suggesting that a good bonding strength was achieved at this m:n ratio. It was also found that the cohesive energy density enhanced with the increase in the amino group content, and the higher the cohesive energy density, the easier the formation of the ASO modification layer. However, the fraction free volume decreased with the increase in the amino group content. This is good for improving the water-proof property of natural fiber. The present work can provide an effective method for predicting the modification effects and designing the optimized m:n ratio of ASO modification.

  10. Behavior Modification in Special Education in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkey, Peter

    1977-01-01

    West German literature on educational behavior modification is summarized, and empirical studies of behavior modification intervention with special education students at the elementary level are surveyed. (SBH)

  11. Effects of Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on the Residual Stress, Microstructure, and Corrosion Resistance of 304 Stainless Steel Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chang; Telang, Abhishek; Gill, Amrinder; Wen, Xingshuo; Mannava, Seetha R.; Qian, Dong; Vasudevan, Vijay K.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic nanocrystal surface modification (UNSM) of 304 stainless steel welds was carried out. UNSM effectively eliminates the tensile stress generated during welding and imparts beneficial compressive residual stresses. In addition, UNSM can effectively refine the grains and increase hardness in the near-surface region. Corrosion tests in boiling MgCl2 solution demonstrate that UNSM can significantly improve the corrosion resistance due to the compressive residual stresses and changes in the near-surface microstructure.

  12. Ion-induced surface modification of alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1983-11-01

    In addition to the accumulation of the implanted species, a considerable number of processes can affect the composition of an alloy in the surface region during ion bombardment. Collisions of energetic ions with atoms of the alloy induce local rearrangement of atoms by displacements, replacement sequences and by spontaneous migration and recombination of defects within cascades. Point defects form clusters, voids, dislocation loops and networks. Preferential sputtering of elements changes the composition of the surface. At temperatures sufficient for thermal migration of point defects, radiation-enhanced diffusion promotes alloy component redistribution within and beyond the damage layer. Fluxes of interstitials and vacancies toward the surface and into the interior of the target induce fluxes of alloying elements leading to depth-dependent compositional changes. Moreover, Gibbsian surface segregation may affect the preferential loss of alloy components by sputtering when the kinetics of equilibration of the surface composition becomes competitive with the sputtering rate. Temperature, time, current density and ion energy can be used to influence the individual processes contributing to compositional changes and, thus, produce a rich variety of composition profiles near surfaces. 42 references

  13. Modification of Plasma Solitons by Resonant Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpman, Vladimir; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul

    1980-01-01

    A consistent theory of plasma soliton interaction with resonant particles is developed. A simple derivation of a perturbed Korteweg–de Vries equation with the interaction term is presented. It is shown how the known limit cases (such as Ott–Sudan’s, etc.) can be derived from the general equations...... Korteweg–de Vries equation. Laboratory measurements carried out in a strongly magnetized, plasma‐filled waveguide and results from particle simulation are interpreted in terms of the analytical results.......A consistent theory of plasma soliton interaction with resonant particles is developed. A simple derivation of a perturbed Korteweg–de Vries equation with the interaction term is presented. It is shown how the known limit cases (such as Ott–Sudan’s, etc.) can be derived from the general equations...... and what their regions of applicability are. Some effects caused by the soliton‐particle interaction (amplitude change‐rate, tail formation, etc.) are analyzed by means of a recently developed perturbation method. The analytical results are compared with a direct numerical integration of the perturbed...

  14. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  15. Micro glow plasma for localized nanostructural modification of carbon nanotube forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, Mirza Saquib us; Xiao, Zhiming; Saleh, Tanveer; Nojeh, Alireza; Takahata, Kenichi [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2016-08-22

    This paper reports the localized selective treatment of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes, or CNT forests, for radial size modification of the nanotubes through a micro-scale glow plasma established on the material. An atmospheric-pressure DC glow plasma is shown to be stably sustained on the surface of the CNT forest in argon using micromachined tungsten electrodes with diameters down to 100 μm. Experiments reveal thinning or thickening of the nanotubes under the micro glow depending on the process conditions including discharge current and process time. These thinning and thickening effects in the treated nanotubes are measured to be up to ∼30% and ∼300% in their diameter, respectively, under the tested conditions. The elemental and Raman analyses suggest that the treated region of the CNT forest is pure carbon and maintains a degree of crystallinity. The local plasma treatment process investigated may allow modification of material characteristics in different domains for targeted regions or patterns, potentially aiding custom design of micro-electro-mechanical systems and other emerging devices enabled by the CNT forest.

  16. Modification of combustion aerosols in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingartner, E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Combustion aerosols particles are released on large scale into the atmosphere in the industrialized regions as well as in the tropics (by wood fires). The particles are subjected to various aging processes which depend on the size, morphology, and chemical composition of the particles. The interaction of combustion particles with sunlight and humidity as well as adsorption and desorption of volatile material to or from the particles considerably changes their physical and chemical properties and thus their residence time in the atmosphere. This is of importance because combustion particles are known to have a variety of health effects on people. Moreover, atmospheric aerosol particles have an influence on climate, directly through the reflection and absorption of solar radiation and indirectly through modifying the optical properties and lifetime of clouds. In a first step, a field experiment was carried out to study the sources and characteristics of combustion aerosols that are emitted from vehicles in a road tunnel. It was found that most of the fine particles were tail pipe emissions of diesel powered vehicles. The calculation shows that on an average these vehicles emit about 300 mg fine particulate matter per driven kilometer. This emission factor is at least 100 times higher than the mean emission factor estimated for gasoline powered vehicles. Furthermore, it is found that during their residence time in the tunnel, the particles undergo significant changes: The particles change towards a more compact structure. The conclusion is reached that this is mainly due to adsorption of volatile material from the gas phase to the particle surface. In the atmosphere, the life cycle as well as the radiative and chemical properties of an aerosol particle is strongly dependent on its response to humidity. Therefore the hygroscopic behavior of combustion particles emitted from single sources (i.e. from a gasoline and a diesel engine) were studied in laboratory experiments.

  17. Caprine Butchery and Bone Modification Templates: A step towards standardisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Popkin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Widely accepted zooarchaeological procedure for recording butchery marks and other types of bone modification involves two processes: Drawing the bone showing the exact location and orientation of the modification and recording all of the information about the bone and its modification into an electronic database. No recording templates have ever been published, however, resulting in individual zooarchaeologists repeating the effort of developing their own templates or drawings for each bone in an assemblage showing a modification. Both of these tasks are time consuming and lead to inconsistencies in recording and quantification methods. To help alleviate this problem a series of caprine (sheep and goat bone templates have been created. These templates show every bone in a goat skeleton, apart from the skull, from six views at life-size when printed on A4 paper. They have intentionally been produced with a minimum of detail (without shading or stippling etc. so that the recorded butchery marks and bone modifications will be clearly visible. Because the skeletal morphology of sheep and goats is so similar these templates may be used interchangeably for either species. They may also be used for many other artiodactyl species such as cattle and deer as no scale has been indicated. The study of butchery marks and bone modification has the potential to provide zooarchaeologists with information about taphonomy, site formation processes, burial/ritual practices, human behaviour, ancient technologies and possibly ethnicity amongst other things, but only if the recording of these bone modifications is undertaken in a standardised fashion across the field. While much effort has been directed towards standardising the recognition and classification of various bone modifications, the recording of these modifications regularly occurs in various ways. Using standardised recording templates will save valuable time and help to alleviate problems of data

  18. Global study of nuclear modifications on parton distribution functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global analysis of nuclear medium modifications of parton distributions is presented using deeply inelastic scattering data of various nuclear targets. Two obtained data sets are provided for quark and gluon nuclear modification factors, referred as nIMParton16. One is from the global fit only to the experimental data of isospin-scalar nuclei (Set A, and the other is from the fit to all the measured nuclear data (Set B. The scale-dependence is described by DGLAP equations with nonlinear corrections in this work. The Fermi motion and off-shell effect, nucleon swelling, and parton–parton recombination are taken into account together for modeling the complicated x-dependence of nuclear modification. The nuclear gluon shadowing in this paper is dynamically generated by the QCD evolution of parton splitting and recombination processes with zero gluon density at the input scale. Sophisticated nuclear dependence of nuclear medium effects is studied with only two free parameters. With the obtained free parameters from the global analysis, the nuclear modifications of parton distribution functions of unmeasured nuclei can be predicted in our model. Nuclear modification of deuteron is also predicted and shown with recent measurement at JLab.

  19. Engineerig of structural modifications for operating nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, T.J.; Gazda, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    The engineering of structural modifications for operating nuclear plants offers many challenges in the areas of scheduling of work, field adjustments, and engineering staff planning. The scheduling of structural modification work for operating nuclear plants is normally closely tied to planned or unplanned outages of the plant. Coordination between the structural engineering effort, the operating plant staff, and the contractor who will be performing the modifications is essential to ensure that all work can be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inaccessibility of areas in operating plants or the short time available to perform the structural engineering in the case of an unscheduled outage, field verification of a design is not always possible prior to initiating the construction of the modification. This requires the structural engineer to work closely with the contractor to promptly resolve problems due to unanticipated interferences or material procurement that may arise during the course of construction. The engineering staff planning for structural modifications at an operating nuclear plant must be flexible enough to permit rapid response to the common 'fire drills', but controlled enough to assure technically correct designs and minimize the expenditure of man-hours and resulting engineering cost. (orig.)

  20. OCCASIONAL ADNOMINAL IDIOM MODIFICATION - A COGNITIVE LINGUISTIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langlotz

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available occasional Adnominal Idiom Modification - A Cognitive Linguistic Approach From a cognitive-linguistic perspective, this paper explores alternative types of adnoniinal modification in occasional variants of English verbal idioms. Being discussed against data extracted from the British National Corpiis (BNC, the model claims that in idioni-production idiomatic constructions are activated as complex linguistic schemas to code a context-specific target-conceptualisation. Adnominal pre- and postmodifications are one specific form of creative alteration to adapt the idiom for this purpose. Semantically, idiom-interna1 NPextension is not a uniforni process. It is necessary to distinguish two systematic types of adnominal modification: external and internal modification (Ernst 1981. While external NPmodification has adverbial function, ¡.e. it modifies the idiom as a unit, internal modification directly applies to the head-noun and thus depends on the degree of motivation and analysability of a given idiom. Following the cognitive-linguistic framework, these dimensions of idiom-transparency result from the language user's ability to remotivate the bipartite semantic structure by conceptual metaphors and metonymies.

  1. TEXTILE SURFACE MODIFICATION BY PYHSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION – (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUCE Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile products are used in various branches of the industry from automotive to space products. Textiles produced for industrial use are generally referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles are nowadays applied to several areas including transportation, medicine, agriculture, protection, sports, packaging, civil engineering and industry. There are rapid developments in the types of materials used in technical textiles. Therefore, modification and functionalization of textile surfaces is becoming more crucial. The improvements of the properties such as anti-bacterial properties, fire resistivity, UV radiation resistance, electrical conductivity, self cleaning, and super hydrophobic, is getting more concern with respect to developments in textile engineering. The properties of textile surfaces are closely related to the fiber structure, the differences in the polymer composition, the fiber mixture ratio, and the physical and chemical processes applied. Textile surface modifications can be examined in four groups under the name mechanical, chemical, burning and plasma. Surface modifications are made to improve the functionality of textile products. Textile surface modifications affect the properties of the products such as softness, adhesion and wettability. The purpose of this work is to reveal varieties of vapor deposition modifications to improve functionality. For this purpose, the pyhsical vapor deposition methods, their affects on textile products and their end-uses will be reviewed.

  2. Cellular modifications produced by D2O in yeast culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihancea, I.; Mircea, R.Al.

    1996-01-01

    The cellular cycle of the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, chosen as experimental object, is unmodified by the presence in the culture medium of D 2 O at different concentrations. An increased concentration of D 2 O in the culture medium leads to a decrease of the number of budded cells, to metabolic alterations, to DNA structure modification as well as to enzymatic changes produced by blocking. Other anomalies appear, as a function of the cell defence capacity and of the influence of the factors from the nutrient substrate or exterior medium. Due to D 2 O, the medium's pH changes and modifications at the enzyme level and of the cell microstructure and morphology occur. The enzymatic reactions take place in D 2 O slower than in H 2 O. Three-dimensional modifications appear in the organic components of the live cell which, in turn, produce profound modifications in the cell growth and division. Due to the kinetic and isotopic effects, modifications of the biochemical reactions affecting the cell integrity happen

  3. Role of Oxidative Stress in Epigenetic Modification in Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuminori; Yamada, Yuki; Shigemitsu, Aiko; Akinishi, Mika; Kaniwa, Hiroko; Miyake, Ryuta; Yamanaka, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification are associated with an increased risk of reproductive disorders such as endometriosis. However, a cause-effect relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and endometriosis development has not been fully determined. This review provides current information based on oxidative stress in epigenetic modification in endometriosis. This article reviews the English-language literature on epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modification, and oxidative stress associated with endometriosis in an effort to identify epigenetic modification that causes a predisposition to endometriosis. Oxidative stress, secondary to the influx of hemoglobin, heme, and iron during retrograde menstruation, is involved in the expression of CpG demethylases, ten-eleven translocation, and jumonji (JMJ). Ten-eleven translocation and JMJ recognize a wide range of endogenous DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The increased expression levels of DNMTs may be involved in the subsequent downregulation of the decidualization-related genes. This review supports the hypothesis that there are at least 2 distinct phases of epigenetic modification in endometriosis: the initial wave of iron-induced oxidative stress would be followed by the second big wave of epigenetic modulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes. We summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms focusing on oxidative stress in endometriosis.

  4. Posttranslational modifications of proopiomelanocortin in vertebrates and their biological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiyoshi eTakahashi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Proopiomelanocortin (POMC is the precursor of several peptide hormones generated in the pituitary gland. After biosynthesis, POMC undergoes several posttranslational modifications, including proteolytic cleavage, acetylation, amidation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, and disulfide linkage formation, which generate mature POMC-derived peptides. Therefore, POMC is a useful model for the investigation of posttranslational modifications. These processes have been extensively investigated in mammals, primarily in rodents. In addition, over the last decade, much information has been obtained about the posttranslational processing of POMC in non-mammalian animals such as fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds through sequencing and peptide identification by mass spectrometry. One POMC modification, acetylation, is known to modulate the biological activities of POMC-derived alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH having an acetyl group at N-terminal through potentiation or inhibition. This bidirectional regulation depends on its intrinsic roles in the tissue or cell; for example, alpha-MSH, as well as desacety-alpha-MSH, stimulates pigment dispersion in the xanthophores of a flounder. In contrast, alpha-MSH does not stimulate pigment dispersion in the melanophores of the same species, whereas desacetyl-alpha-MSH does. Regulation of pigment-dispersing activities may be associated with the subtle balance in the expression of receptor genes. In this review, we consider the posttranslational modifications of POMC in vertebrates from an evolutionary aspect, with a focus on the relationship between acetylation and the biological activities of alpha-MSH as an important consequence of posttranslational modification.

  5. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kurotani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  6. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Atsushi; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2015-08-20

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST) and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  7. Ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Object of the present thesis was the systematic study of ion-beam induced structure modifications in amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers due to low- (LEI) and high-energetic (SHI) ion irradiation. The LEI irradiation of crystalline Ge (c-Ge) effects because the dominating nuclear scattering of the ions on the solid-state atoms the formation of a homogeneous a-Ge Layer. Directly on the surface for fluences of two orders of magnitude above the amorphization fluence the formation of stable cavities independently on the irradiation conditions was observed. For the first time for the ion-beam induced cavity formation respectively for the steady expansion of the porous layer forming with growing fluence a linear dependence on the energy ε n deposed in nuclear processes was detected. Furthermore the formation of buried cavities was observed, which shows a dependence on the type of ions. While in the c-Ge samples in the range of the high electronic energy deposition no radiation defects, cavities, or plastic deformations were observed, the high electronic energy transfer in the 3.1 μm thick pre-amorphized a-Ge surface layers leads to the formation of randomly distributed cavities. Basing on the linear connection between cavity-induced vertical volume expansion and the fluence determined for different energy transfers for the first time a material-specific threshold value of ε e HRF =(10.5±1.0) kev nm -1 was determined, above which the ion-beam induced cavity formation in a-Ge sets on. The anisotropic plastic deformation of th a-Ge layer superposed at inclined SHI irradiation on the cavity formation was very well described by an equation derived from the viscoelastic Maxwell model, but modified under regardment of the experimental results. The positive deformation yields determined thereby exhibit above a threshold value for the ion-beam induced plastic deformation ε e S a =(12±2) keV nm -1 for the first time extracted for a Ge the characteristic linear behaviour of the

  8. Low-k films modification under EUV and VUV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimova, T V; Rakhimov, A T; Mankelevich, Yu A; Lopaev, D V; Kovalev, A S; Vasil'eva, A N; Zyryanov, S M; Kurchikov, K; Proshina, O V; Voloshin, D G; Novikova, N N; Krishtab, M B; Baklanov, M R

    2014-01-01

    Modification of ultra-low-k films by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission with 13.5, 58.4, 106, 147 and 193 nm wavelengths and fluences up to 6 × 10 18  photons cm −2 is studied experimentally and theoretically to reveal the damage mechanism and the most ‘damaging’ spectral region. Organosilicate glass (OSG) and organic low-k films with k-values of 1.8–2.5 and porosity of 24–51% are used in these experiments. The Si–CH 3 bonds depletion is used as a criterion of VUV damage of OSG low-k films. It is shown that the low-k damage is described by two fundamental parameters: photoabsorption (PA) cross-section σ PA and effective quantum yield φ of Si–CH 3 photodissociation. The obtained σ PA and φ values demonstrate that the effect of wavelength is defined by light absorption spectra, which in OSG materials is similar to fused silica. This is the reason why VUV light in the range of ∼58–106 nm having the highest PA cross-sections causes strong Si–CH 3 depletion only in the top part of the films (∼50–100 nm). The deepest damage is observed after exposure to 147 nm VUV light since this emission is located at the edge of Si–O absorption, has the smallest PA cross-section and provides extensive Si–CH 3 depletion over the whole film thickness. The effective quantum yield slowly increases with the increasing porosity but starts to grow quickly when the porosity exceeds the critical threshold located close to a porosity of ∼50%. The high degree of pore interconnectivity of these films allows easy movement of the detached methyl radicals. The obtained results have a fundamental character and can be used for prediction of ULK material damage under VUV light with different wavelengths. (paper)

  9. Genetic Modification of Oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus for Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xing; Wang, Weijia; Xu, Qi; Harper, James; Carroll, Danielle; Galinski, Mark S; Suzich, JoAnn; Jin, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Clinical development of a mesogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as an oncolytic agent for cancer therapy has been hampered by its select agent status due to its pathogenicity in avian species. Using reverse genetics, we have generated a lead candidate oncolytic NDV based on the mesogenic NDV-73T strain that is no longer classified as a select agent for clinical development. This recombinant NDV has a modification at the fusion protein (F) cleavage site to reduce the efficiency of F protein cleavage and an insertion of a 198-nucleotide sequence into the HN-L intergenic region, resulting in reduced viral gene expression and replication in avian cells but not in mammalian cells. In mammalian cells, except for viral polymerase (L) gene expression, viral gene expression is not negatively impacted or increased by the HN-L intergenic insertion. Furthermore, the virus can be engineered to express a foreign gene while still retaining the ability to grow to high titers in cell culture. The recombinant NDV selectively replicates in and kills tumor cells and is able to drive potent tumor growth inhibition following intratumoral or intravenous administration in a mouse tumor model. The candidate is well positioned for clinical development as an oncolytic virus. Avian paramyxovirus type 1, NDV, has been an attractive oncolytic agent for cancer virotherapy. However, this virus can cause epidemic disease in poultry, and concerns about the potential environmental and economic impact of an NDV outbreak have precluded its clinical development. Here we describe generation and characterization of a highly potent oncolytic NDV variant that is unlikely to cause Newcastle disease in its avian host, representing an essential step toward moving NDV forward as an oncolytic agent. Several attenuation mechanisms have been genetically engineered into the recombinant NDV that reduce chicken pathogenicity to a level that is acceptable worldwide without impacting viral production in

  10. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - Region 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 4, which is comprised of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Geor...

  11. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe : Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 2, : which is comprised of Arizona, Oklahoma, New Mexic...

  12. Regional alternative transportation evaluation report - region 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Volpe Center (Volpe Center) conducted a regional alternative transportation evaluation (RATE) in Region 3, which is comprised of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michiga...

  13. Tunable single photonic defect-mode in cholesteric liquid crystals with laser-induced local modifications of helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chee Heng; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The authors demonstrate a tunable single photonic defect-mode in a single cholesteric liquid crystal material based on a structural defect introduced by local modification of the helix. An unpolymerized region of cholesteric liquid crystal acting as the defect was left between two polymerized regions via a two-photon excitation laser-lithography process. Upon polymerization, the cholesteric liquid crystal helix elongated and became thermally stable, and a single photonic defect mode was exhibited due to the contrast in the helix pitch at the defect. The defect mode showed tunability upon heating, and a 36 nm redshift was seen over a temperature range of 30 deg. C

  14. Chemical Strategies for the Covalent Modification of Filamentous Phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Francis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Historically filamentous bacteriophage have been known to be the workhorse of phage display due to their ability to link genotype to phenotype. More recently, the filamentous phage scaffold has proved to be powerful outside the realms of phage display technology in fields such as molecular imaging, cancer research and materials and vaccine development. The ability of the virion to serve as a platform for a variety of applications heavily relies on the functionalization of the phage coat proteins with a wide variety of functionalities. Genetic modification of the coat proteins has been the most widely used strategy for functionalizing the virion; however complementary chemical modification strategies can help to diversify the range of materials that can be developed. This review emphasizes the recent advances that have been made in the chemical modification of filamentous phage as well as some of the challenges that are involved functionalizing the virion.

  15. Recent advances in the chemical modification of unsaturated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D. N.; Turner, S. R.; Golub, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    The present discussion has the objective to update the most comprehensive reviews on the considered subject and to fill in the gaps of less complete, but more modern treatments. Only simple chemical functionalization or structural modification of unsaturated polymers are covered, and the literature of diene polymer modification since 1974 is emphasized. Attention is given to hydrogenation, halogenation and hydrohalogenation, cyclization, cis-trans isomerization, epoxidation, ene and other cycloaddition reactions, sulfonation, carboxylation, phosphonylation, sulfenyl chloride addition, carbene addition, metalation, and silylation. It is pointed out that modern synthetic reagents and catalysts have been advantageously employed to improve process and/or product quality. Synthetic techniques have been refined to allow the selective modification of specific polymer microstructures or blocks.

  16. Polymeric membranes: surface modification for minimizing (bio)colloidal fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochkodan, Victor; Johnson, Daniel J; Hilal, Nidal

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents an overview on recent developments in surface modification of polymer membranes for reduction of their fouling with biocolloids and organic colloids in pressure driven membrane processes. First, colloidal interactions such as London-van der Waals, electrical, hydration, hydrophobic, steric forces and membrane surface properties such as hydrophilicity, charge and surface roughness, which affect membrane fouling, have been discussed and the main goals of the membrane surface modification for fouling reduction have been outlined. Thereafter the recent studies on reduction of (bio)colloidal of polymer membranes using ultraviolet/redox initiated surface grafting, physical coating/adsorption of a protective layer on the membrane surface, chemical reactions or surface modification of polymer membranes with nanoparticles as well as using of advanced atomic force microscopy to characterize (bio)colloidal fouling have been critically summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The New Genetics and Natural versus Artificial Genetic Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mae-Wan Ho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The original rationale and impetus for artificial genetic modification was the “central dogma” of molecular biology that assumed DNA carries all the instructions for making an organism, which are transmitted via RNA to protein to biological function in linear causal chains. This is contrary to the reality of the “fluid genome” that has emerged since the mid-1970s. In order to survive, the organism needs to engage in natural genetic modification in real time, an exquisitely precise molecular dance of life with RNA and DNA responding to and participating in “downstream” biological functions. Artificial genetic modification, in contrast, is crude, imprecise, and interferes with the natural process. It drives natural systems towards maximum biosemiotic entropy as the perturbations are propagated and amplified through the complex cascades of interactions between subsystems that are essential for health and longevity.

  18. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included.

  19. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, D.M.; Oldenhof, M.T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection...... and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring...... of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence...

  20. Disparity modifications and the emotional effects of stereoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Atsuta, Daiki; Tomiyama, Yuya; Kim, Sanghyun; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Reiko; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a study that focuses on disparity changes in emotional scenes of stereoscopic (3D) images, in which an examination of the effects on pleasant and arousal was carried out by adding binocular disparity to 2D images that evoke specific emotions, and applying disparity modification based on the disparity analysis of famous 3D movies. From the results of the experiment, for pleasant, a significant difference was found only for the main effect of the emotions. On the other hand, for arousal, there was a trend of increasing the evaluation values in the order 2D condition, 3D condition and 3D condition applied the disparity modification for happiness, surprise, and fear. This suggests the possibility that binocular disparity and the modification affect arousal.

  1. Reduction of density-modification bias by β correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skubák, Pavol; Pannu, Navraj S.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-validation-based method for bias reduction in ‘classical’ iterative density modification of experimental X-ray crystallography maps provides significantly more accurate phase-quality estimates and leads to improved automated model building. Density modification often suffers from an overestimation of phase quality, as seen by escalated figures of merit. A new cross-validation-based method to address this estimation bias by applying a bias-correction parameter ‘β’ to maximum-likelihood phase-combination functions is proposed. In tests on over 100 single-wavelength anomalous diffraction data sets, the method is shown to produce much more reliable figures of merit and improved electron-density maps. Furthermore, significantly better results are obtained in automated model building iterated with phased refinement using the more accurate phase probability parameters from density modification

  2. Y-12 Industrial Landfill V. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report contains the modifications in operations and design to meet the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conversation (TDEC) July 10, 1993, amendments to the regulations for Class 2 landfills. These modifications, though extensive in design and construction cost, are considered minor revisions and should not require a processing fee. Area 1 of ILF V, comprising approximately 20% of the ILF V footprint, was designed and submitted to TDEC prior to the implementation of current regulations. This initial area was constructed with a compacted clay liner and leachate collection system, and became operational in April 1994. The current regulations require landfills to have a composite liner with leachate collection system and closure cap. Modifications to upgrade Areas 2 and 3 of ILF V to meet the current TDEC requirements are included

  3. Germline Genetic Modification and Identity: the Mitochondrial and Nuclear Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rosamund; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    In a legal 'first', the UK removed a prohibition against modifying embryos in human reproduction, to enable mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs), a move the Government distanced from 'germline genetic modification', which it aligned with modifying the nuclear genome. This paper (1) analyzes the uses and meanings of this term in UK/US legal and policy debates; and (2) evaluates related ethical concerns about identity. It shows that, with respect to identity, MRTs and nuclear genome editing techniques such as CRISPR/Cas-9 (now a policy topic), are not as different as has been supposed. While it does not follow that the two should be treated exactly alike, one of the central reasons offered for treating MRTs more permissively than nuclear genetic modification, and for not regarding MRTs as 'germline genetic modification', is thereby in doubt. Identity cannot, by itself, do the work thus far assigned to it, explicitly or otherwise, in law and policy.

  4. Modeling polyvinyl chloride Plasma Modification by Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changquan

    2018-03-01

    Neural networks model were constructed to analyze the connection between dielectric barrier discharge parameters and surface properties of material. The experiment data were generated from polyvinyl chloride plasma modification by using uniform design. Discharge voltage, discharge gas gap and treatment time were as neural network input layer parameters. The measured values of contact angle were as the output layer parameters. A nonlinear mathematical model of the surface modification for polyvinyl chloride was developed based upon the neural networks. The optimum model parameters were obtained by the simulation evaluation and error analysis. The results of the optimal model show that the predicted value is very close to the actual test value. The prediction model obtained here are useful for discharge plasma surface modification analysis.

  5. Shock modification and chemistry and planetary geologic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boslough, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper brings the rapid advances on shock processing of materials to the attention of Earth scientists, and to put these advances in the context of planetary geologic processes. Most of the recent research in this area has been directed at materials modification an synthesis, and the information gained has direct relevance to shock effects in nature. Research on various types of shock modification and chemistry in both naturally and experimentally shocked rocks and minerals is reviewed, and where appropriate their significance to planetary processes is indicated. As a case study, the surface of Mars is suggested as a place where conditions are optimal for shock processing to be a dominant factor. The various mechanisms of shock modification, activation, synthesis and decomposition are all proposed as major contributors to the evolution of chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the Martian regolith

  6. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes: An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1986-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation). These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  7. Plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes - An emerging technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.

    1987-01-01

    A broad understanding of the numerous ion or plasma assisted surface coating/modification processes is sought. An awareness of the principles of these processes is needed before discussing in detail the ion nitriding technology. On the basis of surface modifications arising from ion or plasma energizing and interactions, it can be broadly classified as deposition of distinct overlay coatings (sputtering-dc, radio frequency, magnetron, reactive; ion plating-diode, triode) and surface property modification without forming a discrete coating (ion implantation, ion beam mixing, laser beam irradiation, ion nitriding, ion carburizing, plasma oxidation. These techniques offer a great flexibility and are capable in tailoring desirable chemical and structural surface properties independent of the bulk properties.

  8. Chemical modification of b-lactoglobulin by quinones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUSAN SLADIC

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The avarone/avarol quinone/hydroquinone couple, as well as their derivatives show considerable antitumor activity. In this work, covalent modifications of b-lactoglobulin, isolated from cow milk, by avarone, its model compound 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone, and several of their alkylthio derivatives were studied. The techniques applied for assaying the modifications were: UV/VIS spectrophotometry, SDS PAGE and isoelectrofocusing. The results of the SDS PAGE suggest that polymerisation of the protein occurs. The shift of the pI of the protein upon modification toward lower values indicates that lysine amino groups are the principal site of the reaction of b-lactoglobulin with the quinones.

  9. Enzyme Technology of Peroxidases: Immobilization, Chemical and Genetic Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoria, Adriana; Tinoco, Raunel; Torres, Eduardo

    An overview of enzyme technology applied to peroxidases is made. Immobilization on organic, inorganic, and hybrid supports; chemical modification of amino acids and heme group; and genetic modification by site-directed and random mutagenesis are included. Different strategies that were carried out to improve peroxidase performance in terms of stability, selectivity, and catalytic activity are analyzed. Immobilization of peroxidases on inorganic and organic materials enhances the tolerance of peroxidases toward the conditions normally found in many industrial processes, such as the presence of an organic solvent and high temperature. In addition, it is shown that immobilization helps to increase the Total Turnover Number at levels high enough to justify the use of a peroxidase-based biocatalyst in a synthesis process. Chemical modification of peroxidases produces modified enzymes with higher thermostability and wider substrate variability. Finally, through mutagenesis approaches, it is possible to produce modified peroxidases capable of oxidizing nonnatural substrates with high catalytic activity and affinity.

  10. Laser modification of macroscopic properties of metal surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek

    1995-03-01

    Surface laser treatment of metals comprises a number of diversified technological operations out of which the following can be considered the most common: oxidation and rendering surfaces amorphous, surface hardening of steel, modification of selected physical properties of metal surface layers. In the paper basic results of laser treatment of a group of metals used as base materials for electric contacts have been presented. The aim of the study was to test the usability of laser treatment from the viewpoint of requirements imposed on materials for electric contacts. The results presented in the paper refer to two different surface treatment technologies: (1) modification of infusible metal surface layer: tungsten and molybdenum through laser fusing of their surface layer and its crystallization, and (2) modification of surface layer properties of other metals through laser doping of their surface layer with foreign elements. In the paper a number of results of experimental investigations obtained by the team under the author's supervision are presented.

  11. Structure and Modification of Electrode Materials for Protein Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuken, Lars J C

    The interactions between proteins and electrode surfaces are of fundamental importance in bioelectrochemistry, including photobioelectrochemistry. In order to optimise the interaction between electrode and redox protein, either the electrode or the protein can be engineered, with the former being the most adopted approach. This tutorial review provides a basic description of the most commonly used electrode materials in bioelectrochemistry and discusses approaches to modify these surfaces. Carbon, gold and transparent electrodes (e.g. indium tin oxide) are covered, while approaches to form meso- and macroporous structured electrodes are also described. Electrode modifications include the chemical modification with (self-assembled) monolayers and the use of conducting polymers in which the protein is imbedded. The proteins themselves can either be in solution, electrostatically adsorbed on the surface or covalently bound to the electrode. Drawbacks and benefits of each material and its modifications are discussed. Where examples exist of applications in photobioelectrochemistry, these are highlighted.

  12. Modification and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose with succinic anhydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Clecio M.R.; Santos, Douglas C.; Freitas, Gizele B.; Cardoso, Giselia

    2011-01-01

    Cellulose is a natural polymer, non-toxic, biodegradable and renewable source. With increasing global attention to environmental problems, the chemical modification of cellulose has been evaluated with increasing applicability in various industrial sectors. The cellulose can be chemical modified through the hydroxyl present in their molecules. This paper aims to present the main results in the modification of microcrystalline cellulose. The sample was pure and modified chemically and morphologically characterized by absorption spectroscopy in the infrared (IR) and showed the band in the 1551cm -1 characterization modification made, X-ray diffraction (XRD) where it was observed that the change led to a reduction significant crystallinity, and determination of average pore radius through the analyzer porosity and surface area resulting in values of 6.97 angstrom for pure sample and 8.62 angstrom for the modified. In addition to these tests we determined the average degree of substitution finding the value of 1.67. (author)

  13. Organic modification of metal / semiconductor Schottky contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Pinzon, H.A.

    2006-07-10

    In the present work a Metal / organic / inorganic semiconductor hybrid heterostructure (Ag / DiMe-PTCDI / GaAs) was built under UHV conditions and characterised in situ. The aim was to investigate the influence of the organic layer in the surface properties of GaAs(100) and in the electrical response of organic-modified Ag / GaAs Schottky diodes. The device was tested by combining surface-sensitive techniques (Photoemission spectroscopy and NEXAFS) with electrical measurements (current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, impedance and charge transient spectroscopies). Core level examination by PES confirms removal of native oxide layers on sulphur passivated (S-GaAs) and hydrogen plasma treated GaAs(100) (H+GaAs) surfaces. Additional deposition of ultrathin layers of DiMe-PTCDI may lead to a reduction of the surface defects density and thereby to an improvement of the electronic properties of GaAs. The energy level alignment through the heterostructure was deduced by combining UPS and I-V measurements. This allows fitting of the I-V characteristics with electron as majority carriers injected over a barrier by thermionic emission as a primary event. For thin organic layers (below 8 nm thickness) several techniques (UPS, I-V, C-V, QTS and AFM) show non homogeneous layer growth, leading to formation of voids. The coverage of the H+GaAs substrate as a function of the nominal thickness of DiMe-PTCDI was assessed via C-V measurements assuming a voltage independent capacitance of the organic layer. The frequency response of the device was evaluated through C-V and impedance measurements in the range 1 kHz-1 MHz. The almost independent behaviour of the capacitance in the measured frequency range confirmed the assumption of a near geometrical capacitor, which was used for modelling the impedance with an equivalent circuit of seven components. From there it was found a predominance of the space charge region impedance, so that A.C. conduction can only takes place through the

  14. Evaluation of proposed panel closure modifications at WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Lawrence E.; Silva, Matthew K.; Channell, James K.; Abel, John F.; Morgan, Dudley R.

    2001-12-31

    A key component in the design of the WIPP repository is the installation of concrete structures as panel seals in the intake and exhaust drifts after a panel has been filled with waste containers. As noted in the EPA final rule, the panel seal closure system is intended to block brine flow between the waste panels at the WIPP. On April 17, 2001, the DOE proposed seven modifications to the EPA concerning the design of the panel closure system. EPA approval of these modifications is necessary since the details of the panel design are specified in EPA’s final rule as a condition for WIPP certification. However, the EPA has not determined whether a rulemaking would be required for these proposed design modifications. On September 4, 2001, the DOE withdrew the request, noting that it would be resubmitted on a future date. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) contracted with two engineers, Dr. John Abel and Dr. Rusty Morgan, to evaluate the proposed modifications. The EEG has accepted the conclusions and recommendations from these two experts: 1) replacement of Salado Mass Concrete with a generic salt-based concrete; 2) replacement of the explosion wall with a construction wall; 3) replacement of freshwater grouting with salt-based grouting; 4) option to allow surface or underground mixing; and 5) option to allow up to one year for completion of closure. The proposed modification to allow local carbonate river rock as aggregate is acceptable pending demonstration that no problems will exist in the resulting concrete. The proposed modification to give the contractor discretion in removal of steel forms is not supported. Instead, several recommendations are made to specifically reduce the number of forms left, thereby reducing potential migration pathways.

  15. Genetic analysis of the heparan modification network in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert A; Bülow, Hannes E

    2011-05-13

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are highly modified sugar polymers in multicellular organisms that function in cell adhesion and cellular responses to protein signaling. Functionally distinct, cell type-dependent HS modification patterns arise as the result of a conserved network of enzymes that catalyze deacetylations, sulfations, and epimerizations in specific positions of the sugar residues. To understand the genetic interactions of the enzymes during the HS modification process, we have measured the composition of HS purified from mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. From these measurements we have developed a genetic network model of HS modification. We find the interactions to be highly recursive positive feed-forward and negative feedback loops. Our genetic analyses show that the HS C-5 epimerase hse-5, the HS 2-O-sulfotransferase hst-2, or the HS 6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6 inhibit N-sulfation. In contrast, hse-5 stimulates both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation and, hst-2 and hst-6 inhibit 6-O- and 2-O-sulfation, respectively. The effects of hst-2 and hst-6 on N-sulfation, 6-O-sulfation, and 2-O-sulfation appear largely dependent on hse-5 function. This core of regulatory interactions is further modulated by 6-O-endosulfatase activity (sul-1). 47% of all 6-O-sulfates get removed from HS and this editing process is dependent on hst-2, thereby providing additional negative feedback between 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. These findings suggest that the modification patterns are highly sensitive to the relative composition of the HS modification enzymes. Our comprehensive genetic analysis forms the basis of understanding the HS modification network in metazoans.

  16. Genetic Analysis of the Heparan Modification Network in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert A.; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are highly modified sugar polymers in multicellular organisms that function in cell adhesion and cellular responses to protein signaling. Functionally distinct, cell type-dependent HS modification patterns arise as the result of a conserved network of enzymes that catalyze deacetylations, sulfations, and epimerizations in specific positions of the sugar residues. To understand the genetic interactions of the enzymes during the HS modification process, we have measured the composition of HS purified from mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. From these measurements we have developed a genetic network model of HS modification. We find the interactions to be highly recursive positive feed-forward and negative feedback loops. Our genetic analyses show that the HS C-5 epimerase hse-5, the HS 2-O-sulfotransferase hst-2, or the HS 6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6 inhibit N-sulfation. In contrast, hse-5 stimulates both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation and, hst-2 and hst-6 inhibit 6-O- and 2-O-sulfation, respectively. The effects of hst-2 and hst-6 on N-sulfation, 6-O-sulfation, and 2-O-sulfation appear largely dependent on hse-5 function. This core of regulatory interactions is further modulated by 6-O-endosulfatase activity (sul-1). 47% of all 6-O-sulfates get removed from HS and this editing process is dependent on hst-2, thereby providing additional negative feedback between 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. These findings suggest that the modification patterns are highly sensitive to the relative composition of the HS modification enzymes. Our comprehensive genetic analysis forms the basis of understanding the HS modification network in metazoans. PMID:21454666

  17. Chronic Δ⁸-THC Exposure Differently Affects Histone Modifications in the Adolescent and Adult Rat Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prini, Pamela; Penna, Federica; Sciuccati, Emanuele; Alberio, Tiziana; Rubino, Tiziana

    2017-10-04

    Adolescence represents a vulnerable period for the psychiatric consequences of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁸-THC) exposure, however, the molecular underpinnings of this vulnerability remain to be established. Histone modifications are emerging as important epigenetic mechanisms involved in the etiopathogenesis of psychiatric diseases, thus, we investigated the impact of chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure on histone modifications in different brain areas of female rats. We checked histone modifications associated to both transcriptional repression (H3K9 di- and tri-methylation, H3K27 tri-methylation) and activation (H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation) after adolescent and adult chronic Δ⁸-THC exposure in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. Chronic exposure to increasing doses of Δ⁸-THC for 11 days affected histone modifications in a region- and age-specific manner. The primary effect in the adolescent brain was represented by changes leading to transcriptional repression, whereas the one observed after adult treatment led to transcriptional activation. Moreover, only in the adolescent brain, the primary effect was followed by a homeostatic response to counterbalance the Δ⁸-THC-induced repressive effect, except in the amygdala. The presence of a more complex response in the adolescent brain may be part of the mechanisms that make the adolescent brain vulnerable to Δ⁸-THC adverse effects.

  18. Microstructure modification of 2024 aluminum alloy produced by friction drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A.A., E-mail: alan@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Fortuna, S.V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Kolubaev, E.A. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Kalashnikova, T.A. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-13

    In this study modification of AA2024 microstructure produced by friction drilling was investigated. To reveal the role of deformation, high temperature and friction on microstructure modification methods of optical and scanning electron microscopy and microhardness test were used. Different zones of material around friction drilling hole has a special characterization through grain size, volume fraction and size of incoherent second phase particles and microhardness. It has been found that deformation, high temperature and friction in friction drilling process lead to recrystallization of grain structure and dissolution of incoherent second phase particles due to strain-induced dissolution effect. Microhardness of recrystallized material has increased.

  19. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children. A favorable response to dietary modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Hasan M; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G; Mohamed, Afaf M

    2016-02-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification.

  20. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children. A favorable response to dietary modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan M. Isa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification.

  1. Success of behaviour modification in a child with Asperger's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Šteh, Urška

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this degree dissertation is the success rate of behaviour modification in a child with the autistic spectrum disorder Asperger’s syndrome. I decided to pursue this subject based on my work in a kindergarten, where I became acquainted with a boy with Asperger’s syndrome. The issue I encountered was that I could find no sources where the method of behaviour modification was implemented with persons that have Asperger’s syndrome. For this reason I decided to determine, by using...

  2. Nuclear modification factor using Tsallis non-extensive statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Garg, Prakhar; Kumar, Prateek; Sahoo, Raghunath [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Sciences, Simrol (India); Bhattacharyya, Trambak; Cleymans, Jean [University of Cape Town, UCT-CERN Research Centre and Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    2016-09-15

    The nuclear modification factor is derived using Tsallis non-extensive statistics in relaxation time approximation. The variation of the nuclear modification factor with transverse momentum for different values of the non-extensive parameter, q, is also observed. The experimental data from RHIC and LHC are analysed in the framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistics in a relaxation time approximation. It is shown that the proposed approach explains the R{sub AA} of all particles over a wide range of transverse momentum but does not seem to describe the rise in R{sub AA} at very high transverse momenta. (orig.)

  3. Underling modification in ion beam induced Si wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazra, S.; Chini, T.K.; Sanyal, M.K.; Grenzer, J.; Pietsch, U.

    2005-01-01

    Subsurface (amorphous-crystalline interface) structure of keV ion beam modified Si(001) wafers was studied for the first time using non-destructive technique and compared with that of the top one. Ion-beam modifications of the Si samples were done using state-of-art high-current ion implanter facility at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics by changing energy, dose and angle of incidence of the Ar + ion beam. To bring out the underlying modification depth-resolved x-ray grazing incidence diffraction has been carried out using synchrotron radiation facility, while the structure of the top surface was studied through atomic force microscopy

  4. More on neutrosophic soft rough sets and its modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Marei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce and discuss anew mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainties, which is a combination of neutrosophic sets, soft sets and rough sets, namely neutrosophic soft rough set model. Also, its modification is introduced. Some of their properties are studied and supported with proved propositions and many counter examples. Some of rough relations are redefined as a neutrosophic soft rough relations. Comparisons among traditional rough model, suggested neutrosophic soft rough model and its modification, by using their properties and accuracy measures are introduced. Finally, we illustrate that, classical rough set model can be viewed as a special case of suggested models in this paper.

  5. Qualified equipment for spare parts and modifications in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure followed for the procurement of components for spare parts and systems modifications, the legal and quality assurance environment and the specific measures taken to cope with various codes and standards. For pressure components, the regulation aspects of the American code used during the construction phase of plants had to be adapted to the Belgian context and to the actual industry situation. Obsolescence of products is treated either by qualification of a new product or by design modifications, or by replacement with an already qualified product. In these cases, the work is handled by the utility's engineering organization. 2 figs

  6. PEEK with Reinforced Materials and Modifications for Dental Implant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Rahmitasari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK is a semi-crystalline linear polycyclic thermoplastic that has been proposed as a substitute for metals in biomaterials. PEEK can also be applied to dental implant materials as a superstructure, implant abutment, or implant body. This article summarizes the current research on PEEK applications in dental implants, especially for the improvement of PEEK surface and body modifications. Although various benchmark reports on the reinforcement and surface modifications of PEEK are available, few clinical trials using PEEK for dental implant bodies have been published. Controlled clinical trials, especially for the use of PEEK in implant abutment and implant bodies, are necessary.

  7. Applications of high power microwaves to atmospheric modification and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current state of proposals to use high power microwaves in the atmosphere is reviewed. HPM has been proposed to aid in the conservation of stratospheric ozone by partial breakdown, facilitating chemistry to eliminate chlorine. Another proposal is over-the-horizon radar using a partial breakdown area in the ionosphere. A key to any such effort is rapid diagnosis of the state of the atmosphere before, during and after intervention. Technology requirements of these modification and measurement proposals are reviewed. The elements of an atmospheric modification program are identified and political, economic and ideological factors are discussed

  8. Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautray, Tapash R; Narayanan, R; Kwon, Tae-Yub; Kim, Kyo-Han

    2010-05-01

    Titanium and titanium alloys are widely used in biomedical devices and components, especially as hard tissue replacements as well as in cardiac and cardiovascular applications, because of their desirable properties, such as relatively low modulus, good fatigue strength, formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. However, titanium and its alloys cannot meet all of the clinical requirements. Therefore, to improve the biological, chemical, and mechanical properties, surface modification is often performed. In view of this, the current review casts new light on surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys by ion beam implantation. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Surface modifications of polypropylene by high energy carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, A.; Chakraborty, V.; Dutta, R.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    Polypropylene was irradiated with 12 C ions of 3.6 and 5.4 MeV energies using 3 MV tandem accelerator. The surface modification was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Optical changes were monitored by UV-VIS and FTIR spectroscopy. At the lowest ion fluence, only blister formation of various sizes (1-6 μm) was observed. Polymer when irradiated at a fluence of 1x10 14 ions/cm 2 exhibited a network structure. A comparative study on dose dependence of surface and bulk modification has been described. (author)

  10. Modification of smoothing in 4253H[T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nurul Nisa'Khairol; Adam, Mohd Bakri; Shitan, Mahendran; Ali, Norhaslinda Mohd

    2017-05-01

    Some modified non-linear smoothers particularly 4253H[T] are explained in this paper. The modifications are focused on estimating the middle point of running median for even span by applying the following types of means; geometric, harmonic, quadratic and contraharmonic. The performance of the techniques is assessed by applying it to daily price index of a bank in Malaysia that issues sukuk for funding in Islamic banking and financial business. The results show that 4253H[T] with geometric mean modification is better than others in preserving variation and curve fitting.

  11. Modification of meson properties in the vicinty of nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Peter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest that modification of meson properties (lifetimes and branching ratios can occur due to the interaction of constituent quark magnetic moments with strong magnetic fields present in the close vicinity of nuclei. A superposition of (J =0 and (J =1, mz =0 particle-antiparticle quantum states (as observed for ortho-Positronium may occur also in the case of quarkonium states J/Ψ, ηc ϒ, ηb in heavy ion collisions. We speculate on possible modification of η(548 meson properties (related to C parity and CP violation in strong magnetic fields which are present in the vicinity of nuclei.

  12. Targeting post-translational modifications of histones for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y-C; Hsieh, Y-H; Liao, C-C; Chong, L-W; Lee, C-Y; Yu, Y-L; Chou, R-H

    2015-10-30

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) on histones including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, citrullination, ubiquitination, ADP ribosylation, and sumoylation, play important roles in different biological events including chromatin dynamics, DNA replication, and transcriptional regulation. Aberrant histones PTMs leads to abnormal gene expression and uncontrolled cell proliferation, followed by development of cancers. Therefore, targeting the enzymes required for specific histone PTMs holds a lot of potential for cancer treatment. In this review article, we retrospect the latest studies in the regulations of acetylation, methylation, and phosphorylation of histones. We also summarize inhibitors/drugs that target these modifications for cancer treatment.

  13. Surface modification and characterization Collaborative Research Center at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Surface Modification and Characterization Collaborative Research Center (SMAC/CRC) is a unique facility for the alteration and characterization of the near-surface properties of materials. The SMAC/CRC facility is equipped with particle accelerators and high-powered lasers which can be used to improve the physical, electrical, and/or chemical properties of solids and to create unique new materials not possible to obtain with conventional ''equilibrium'' processing techniques. Surface modification is achieved using such techniques as ion implantation doping, ion beam mixing, laser mixing, ion deposition, and laser annealing

  14. Thermophysical properties of solid lithium hydride and its isotopic modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikova, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    The theory of the anharmonic lattice is used to calculate the thermophysical properties (thermal expansivity, lattice constant, compressibility, and elastic moduli) of all the isotopic modifications of solid lithium hydride sup(6,7)Li(H,D,T) at temperatures up to the melting point. A general analysis of isotopic effects is carried out; in particular the reverse isotopic effect in the lattice constant is explained and the isotopic effect in melting is discussed. The results of the calculations agree with available experimental data and can be used for those isotopic modifications of lithium hydride for which there exist no experimental results. (author)

  15. Role of dust in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarazin, C.L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to determine quantitatively the effects of U.V. absorbing dust on H II regions, and compare these effects with observations. Many observations indicate that dust grains are present within H II regions. An analytic theory is presented which describes all three of the effects of dust in H II regions. Although this model is relatively crude, it is useful in determining the approximate size of the modifications due to dust. In order to explore this problem more carefully, detailed numerical models of H II regions with dust were constructed. The ionization and thermal structure of these model H II regions is discussed. The observational consequences of the presence of dust are explored; the optical line intensities, radio continuum and line fluxes, and infrared emission of model H II regions with dust are given. These numerical models are compared with observations of diffuse nebulae. The optical line ratios are compared to several nearby bright H II regions, and it is found that the dust models may explain several anomalies in their spectrum

  16. Swift heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Umme Habiba

    2015-01-15

    In this thesis, the high energy heavy ion induced modification of aliphatic polymers is studied. Two polymer groups, namely polyvinyl polymers (PVF, PVAc, PVA and PMMA) and fluoropolymers (PVDF, ETFE, PFA and FEP) were used in this work. Polyvinyl polymers were investigated since they will be used as insulating materials in the superconducting magnets of the new ion accelerators of the planned International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at the GSI Helmholtz-Centre of Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. In order to study ion-beam induced degradation, all polymer foils were irradiated at the GSI linear accelerator UNILAC using several projectiles (U, Au, Sm, Xe) and experimentation sites (beam lines X0 and M3) over a large fluence regime (1 x 10{sup 10} - 5 x 10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}). Five independent techniques, namely infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, residual gas analysis (RGA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass loss analysis (ML), were used to analyze the irradiated samples. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that ion irradiation led to the decrease of characteristic band intensities showing the general degradation of the polymers, with scission of side groups and the main backbone. As a consequence of the structural modification, new bands appeared. UV-Vis transmission analysis showed an absorption edge shift from the ultraviolet region towards the visible region indicating double bond and conjugated double bond formation. On-line massspectrometric residual gas analysis showed the release of small gaseous fragment molecules. TGA analysis gave evidence of a changed thermal stability. With ML analysis, the considerable mass loss was quantified. The results of the five complementary analytical methods show how heavy ion irradiation changes the molecular structure of the polymers. Molecular degradation mechanisms are postulated. The amount of radiation damage is found to be sensitive to the used type of ionic

  17. Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification Training via Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranming Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC.Methods:Seventy-six undergraduate participants with high social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS ≥ 30 were randomly assigned to four groups: CBM-A (n = 20, CBM-I (n = 20, AIM (n = 16, and CC (n = 20.Results: The results showed that the effects of CBM training, CBM-I training, or AIM training vs. CC for attention yielded no significant differences in dot-probe attention bias scores. The CBM-I group showed significantly less threat interpretation and more benign interpretation than the CC group on interpretation bias scores.Conclusions: The present results supported the feasibility of delivering CBM-I via smartphones, but the effectiveness of CBM-A and AIM training via smartphones was limited.

  18. Modification of inorganic surface with 1-alkenes and 1-alkynes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter J.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification is important because it allows the tuning of surface properties, thereby enabling new applications of a material. It can change physical properties such as wettability and friction, but can also introduce chemical functionalities and binding specificity. Several techniques

  19. Characterization of materials used for neutron spectra modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solieman, A.H.M.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Fahmey, M.A.; Morsy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo Simulation is used to study the thickness-dependent neutron-spectral-modification after transport in different materials. A collection of significant materials is studied, for choosing of potential candidates in the construction and design of accelerator-based neutron irradiation system suitable for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT)

  20. Advancing Sustainable Catalysis with Magnetite Surface Modification and Synthetic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article surveys the recent developments in the synthesis, surface modification, and synthetic applications of magnetitenanoparticles. The emergence of iron(II,III) oxide (triiron tetraoxide or magnetite; Fe3O4, or FeO•Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a sustainable support in heteroge...

  1. Piezoelectric Accelerometers Modification Based on the Finite Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the modification of piezoelectric accelerometers using a Finite Element (FE) method. Brüel & Kjær Accelerometer Type 8325 is chosen as an example to illustrate the advanced accelerometer development procedure. The deviation between the measurement and FE simulation results...

  2. Design Package for Fuel Retrieval System Fuel Handling Tool Modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEDESCHI, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This is a design package that contains the details for a modification to a tool used for moving fuel elements during loading of MCO Fuel Baskets for the Fuel Retrieval System. The tool is called the fuel handling tool (or stinger). This document contains requirements, development design information, tests, and test reports

  3. Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modification of unsaturated polyester resins using nano-size core-shell particles. MO Munyati, PA Lovell. Abstract. No Abstract Available Journal of Science and Technology Special Edition 2004: 24-31. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. 40 CFR 790.68 - Modification of consent agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... negotiations and invite parties who wish to participate in or monitor these negotiations to contact the Agency...) and describing the nature of the modifications. (iii) Where, in EPA's judgment, the requested... lack of laboratory availability, lack of availability of suitable test substance (e.g., 14-C labelled...

  5. Posttranslational modifications of Forkhead box O transcription factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Aart Arno van der

    2006-01-01

    FOXO transcription factors play an important role in essential biological processes such as differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair, metabolism and stress resistance. Phosphorylation is the modification that was first found on FOXOs and much of the subsequent studies focused on this

  6. 77 FR 10649 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ...-1313; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-17] Modification of Class E Airspace; Douglas, AZ AGENCY: Federal... Bisbee Douglas International Airport, Douglas, AZ. Decommissioning of the Cochise VHF Omni-Directional... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend controlled airspace at Douglas, AZ (76 FR 78180...

  7. Optical Associative Memory Model With Threshold Modification Using Complementary Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Shaoping; Xu, Kebin; Hong, Jing

    1989-02-01

    A new criterion to evaluate the similarity between two vectors in associative memory is presented. According to it, an experimental research about optical associative memory model with threshold modification using complementary vector is carried out. This model is capable of eliminating the posibility to recall erroneously. Therefore the accuracy of reading out is improved.

  8. Modification of Casein by the Lipid Oxidation Product Malondialdehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.; Kimpe, de N.; Boekel, van T.

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of malondialdehyde with casein was studied in aqueous solution to evaluate the impact of this lipid oxidation product on food protein modification. By using multiresponse modeling, a kinetic model was developed for this reaction. The influence of temperature and pH on protein browning

  9. 29 CFR 1902.12 - Opportunity for modifications and clarifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunity for modifications and clarifications. 1902.12 Section 1902.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Submission, Approval and Rejection of...

  10. Listener Responses According to Stuttering Self-Acknowledgment and Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjae; Manning, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Given the well-documented understanding that stuttering behavior elicits stereotypically negative responses from listeners, two experiments explored the equivocal results of earlier investigations concerning the potential for self-acknowledgment and modification of stuttering to elicit positive responses from naive (unfamiliar with stuttering)…

  11. 21 CFR 516.161 - Modifications to indexed drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modifications to indexed drugs. 516.161 Section 516.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index...

  12. Contribution of granule bound starch synthase in kernel modification

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    ... modification is rated on a scale of 1(completely hard / vitreous) to 5 (soft opaque). ... synthesis. Therefore this study aimed at understanding the role of gbssI in ... strand cDNA synthesis using the ... cDNA were served as templates for semi-.

  13. 40 CFR 136.6 - Method modifications and analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... modifications and analytical requirements. (a) Definitions of terms used in this section. (1) Analyst means the..., oil and grease, total suspended solids, total phenolics, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, and.... Except as set forth in paragraph (b)(3) of this section, an analyst may modify an approved test procedure...

  14. Aqueous polymer emulsions by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Youchun; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aqueous polymer emulsions were prepared by chemical modifications of thermosetting alternating polyketones in a one-pot reaction. Polymeric amines derived from the polyketones can act as polymeric surfactants for the self-emulsification of polyketones. The stability and structure of the emulsions

  15. Modification of the Charlesby law. Pt. 2. Macroscopic sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiltz, A.; Weil, A.; Paniez, P.

    1984-01-01

    In part II, results are presented showing that for doses below macroscopic sensitivity, Qsub(sm), degradation due to fluence of the particles seems to be non-uniform over the entire area. In the light of this, a modification of the Charlesby's law is proposed providing a solution to the problems considered in part I [fr

  16. Structure modification of UHMWPE used for total joint replacements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nevoralová, Martina; Baldrian, Josef; Pospíšil, Jan; Chodák, I.; Horák, Zdeněk

    74B, č. 2 (2005), s. 800-807 ISSN 1552-4973 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4050009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : UHMWPE * modification * gamma radiation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.621, year: 2005

  17. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergink, Steven; Jentsch, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    With the discovery in the late 1980s that the DNA-repair gene RAD6 encodes a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, it became clear that protein modification by ubiquitin conjugation has a much broader significance than had previously been assumed. Now, two decades later, ubiquitin and its cousin SUMO are

  18. Modifications in sperm quality of Wister Albino Rats by Ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    to the experimental animals for 14 days. Epidydymal ... that the claim that P. amarus affects sexual potency in man may be true. Further ... This study was thus conducted to investigate the modifications, and the extent to which this claim is true.

  19. Task Modification and Knowledge Utilization by Korean Prospective Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Eun-Jung; Park, Min-Sun

    2016-01-01

    It has been asserted that mathematical tasks play a critical role in the teaching and learning of mathematics. Modification of tasks included in intended curriculum materials, such as textbooks, can be an effective activity for prospective teachers to understand the role of mathematical tasks in the teaching and learning of mathematics; designing…

  20. 33 CFR 385.32 - Comprehensive Plan Modification Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Implementation Reports. It is not the intent of this section to require a continual cycle of report writing for... Report 385.32 Section 385.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Incorporating New Information Into the Plan § 385.32 Comprehensive Plan Modification Report Whenever the Corps...