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Sample records for iers international terrestrial

  1. IERS Conventions (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Service International de la Rotation Terrestre et des Systèmes de Référence IERS...Equation for the determination of the density of moist air (1981/91),” Metrologia , 29, pp. 67–70. Giacomo, P., 1982, “Equation for the determination of...the density of moist air (1981),” Metrologia , 18, pp. 33–40. Herring, T. A., 1992, “Modeling Atmospheric Delays in the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data

  2. Final Design for an International Intercomparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV: IER-148 CED-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrichs, Dave [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beller, Tim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Burch, Jennifer [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cummings, Rick [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Duluc, Matthieu [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gadd, Milan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, Joetta [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hickman, David [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McAvoy, Doug [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rathbone, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Randy [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Trompier, Francois [Inst. de Radioprotection et de Sûrete Nucleaire (ISRN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Veinot, Ken [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, Dann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Will, Rashelle [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States) Nevada National Security Site; Wilson, Chris [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Zieziulewicz, Thomas [Knolls Atomic Power Lab. (KAPL), Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This document is the Final Design (CED-2) Report for IER-148, “International Inter-comparison Exercise for Nuclear Accident Dosimetry at the DAF Using Godiva-IV.” The report describes the structure of the exercise consisting of three irradiations; identifies the participating laboratories and their points of contact; provides the details of all dosimetry elements and their placement in proximity to Godiva-IV on support stands or phantoms ; and lists the counting and spectroscopy equipment each laboratory will utilize in the Mercury NAD Lab. The exercise is tentatively scheduled for one week in August 2015.

  3. Godiva and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C

    2011-12-21

    A suite of diagnostics are being proposed for use in the Juliet experiment (IER-128). In order to calibrate and test the diagnostics prior to use, the LLNL calibration facility and Godiva pulsed reactor will be used to provide intense sources of neutrons and gammas. Due to the similarities of the Godiva and Juliet radiation fields, the diagnostics being developed and tested for Juliet can also play an on-going role in diagnostics for Godiva as well as, perhaps, other critical assembly experiments. Similar work is also being conducted for IER-147 for the purpose of characterizing the Godiva radiation field in support of an upcoming international nuclear accident dosimetry exercise. Diagnostics developed and fielded under IER-147 can provide valuable data with respect to the neutron and gamma energy spectrums in the vicinity of Godiva which is relevant to the calibration of Juliet diagnostics.

  4. The IERS Special Bureau for Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Richard D.; Chao, B. F.; Desai, S. D.

    2002-01-01

    The Global Geophysical Fluids Center of the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) comprises 8 special bureaus, one of which is the Special Bureau for Tides. Its purpose is to facilitate studies related to tidal effects in earth rotation. To that end it collects various relevant datasets and distributes them, primarily through its website at bowie.gsfc.nasa.gov/ggfc/tides. Example datasets include tabulations of tidal variations in angular momentum and in earth rotation as estimated from numerical ocean tide models and from meteorological reanalysis products. The web site also features an interactive tidal prediction "machine" which generates tidal predictions (e.g., of UT1) from lists of harmonic constants. The Special Bureau relies on the tidal and earth-rotation communities to build and enlarge its datasets; further contributions from this community are most welcome.

  5. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3...... (IER3) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p21, encodes for a glycoprotein that plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Recently, it was shown that IER3 gene aberrations frequently occur in adult MDS patients, which are not restricted to patients with chromosome 6...... aberrations and that low IER3 expression was associated with a worse outcome. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of IER3 expression in childhood MDS. Methods: IER3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in 58 childhood MDS patients of which 17 carried...

  6. On the 485-day Mode in the Atmospheric Angular Momentum: Spectral Analysis of IERS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurkis, I. Ya.; Kuchai, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    The modification of spectral analysis especially intended for studying the disturbing functions of the atmosphere and ocean, as well as the observed polar motion (Wiener-Liouville spectrum), is used. The time series of the atmospheric disturbing functions obtained by the U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) for the period from January 1, 1980 to June 20, 2014 (http://www.iers.org/.cs1?pid=43-1100116) are analyzed. It is shown that the baric disturbing function contains a regular mode with a period of 16 months; the contribution of this mode in the polar motion is estimated.

  7. IER5 gene's mRNA expression after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Kuke; Shen Jingjing; Xu Lili; Li Yanling; Zhou Ping; Ma Binrong; Zhao Zengqiang; Sui Jianli; Zhou Pingkun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of irradiation on IER5 gene expression. Methods: Two kinds of cells (AHH-1 and HeLa) and the BALB/c-nu mice inoculated with tumor cells were exposed to 60 Co γ- rays and analyzed by real-time PCR. The above-mentioned irradiated objects were firstly divided into groups by different doses and post-radiation time, then mRNA were extracted and reverse-transcripted to DNA before real-time PCR test. Results: Under the same condition, AHH-1 was more sensitive to radiation than HeLa. The dose level corresponding to the expression peak of AHH-1 was less than that of HeLa. For AHH-1 cells, the response to 2 Gy irradiation was earlier than that to 10 Gy. But there was not remarkable difference for HeLa response between 2 and 10 Gy, and the top transcriptional levels for both cells nearly simultaneously appeared at 2 h after irradiation. In addition, the IER5 gene of human liver tumor was more sensitive than that of lung cancer and brain tumor. Conclusions: IER5 might be a candidate biomarker of radiation injury, and had the potential value in radiation-therapy for liver tumor. (authors)

  8. International solar-terrestrial physics program: a plan for the core spaceflight missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This brochure has been prepared to describe the scope of the science problems to be investigated and the mission plan for the core International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. This information is intended to stimulate discussions and plans for the comprehensive worldwide ISTP Program. The plan for the study of the solar - terrestrial system is included. The Sun, geospace, and Sun-Earth interaction is discussed as is solar dynamics and the origins of solar winds.

  9. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS): Terms of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Van; Noll, Carey

    2000-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) is an established Service within Section II , Advanced Space Technology, of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG). The primary objective of the ILRS is to provide a service to support, through Satellite and Lunar Laser Ranging data and related products, geodetic and geophysical research activities as well as International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). The service also develops the necessary standards/specifications and encourages international adherence to its conventions.

  10. Terrestrial Background Reduction in RPM Systems by Direct Internal Shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Schweppe, John E.

    2008-01-01

    Gamma-ray detection systems that are close to the earth or other sources of background radiation often require shielding, especially when trying to detect a relatively weak source. One particular case of interest that we address in this paper is that encountered by the Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) systems placed at border-crossing Ports of Entry (POE). These RPM systems are used to screen for illicit radiological materials, and they are often placed in situations where terrestrial background is large. In such environments, it is desirable to consider simple physical modifications that could be implemented to reduce the effects from background radiation without affecting the flow of traffic and the normal operation of the portal. Simple modifications include adding additional shielding to the environment, either inside or outside the apparatus. Previous work (2) has shown the utility of some of these shielding configurations for increasing the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of gross-counting RPMs. Because the total cost for purchasing and installing RPM systems can be quite expensive, in the range of hundreds of thousands of dollars for each cargo-screening installation, these shielding variations may offer increases in detection capability for relatively small cost. Several modifications are considered here in regard to their real-world applicability, and are meant to give a general idea of the effectiveness of the schemes used to reduce background for both gross-counting and spectroscopic detectors. These scenarios are modeled via the Monte-Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code package (1) for ease of altering shielding configurations, as well as enacting unusual scenarios prior to prototyping in the field. The objective of this paper is to provide results representative of real modifications that could enhance the sensitivity of this, as well as the next generation of radiation detectors. The models used in this work were designed to provide the most general results for

  11. International standards: the World Organisation for Animal Health Terrestrial Animal Health Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiermann, A B

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides a description of the international standards contained in the TerrestrialAnimal Health Code of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that relate to the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. It identifies the rights and obligations of OIE Member Countries regarding the notification of animal disease occurrences, as well as the recommendations to be followed for a safe and efficient international trade of animals and their products.

  12. Study on the binding sites of radiosensitivity associated transcription factor in the promoter region of Ier5 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wei; Yin Lingling; Dong Lingyue

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To clarify the mechanism of immediate early response gene 5 (Ier5) transcription induced by radiation. Methods: Deletant construction, site-specific mutagenesis,electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were used to forecast the promoter region, binding sites and transcription factors of Ier5 gene in HeLa cells. Results: The promoter region of Ier5 gene might be in the region of Ier5 -8 deletant (-408 - -238 bp). The Ier5 gene had two transcription factors of GCF and NFI, and GCF had two binding sites located in the region of -388 - -382 bp and -274 - -270 bp of Ier5 promoter. The binding site of NFI was located in -362 - -357 bp of Ier5 promoter. GCF could inhibit the expression of Ier5 gene and this inhibition was diminished when the radiation dose increased. In contrast, NFI increased the expression of Ier5. Conclusions: The most possible region of Ier5 promoter is from -408 to -238 bp which has two binding sites for the radiosensitivity transcription factors of GCF and NFI that could negatively and positively regulate the expression of Ier5 respectively. (authors)

  13. Comparison of Directionally Solidified Samples Solidified Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, S.; Lauer, M.; Tewari, S. N.; Grugel, R. N.; Poirier, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). Terrestrial DS-experiments have been carried out at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. As of this writing, two dendritic metrics was measured: primary dendrite arm spacings and primary dendrite trunk diameters. We have observed that these dendrite-metrics of two samples grown in the microgravity environment show good agreements with models based on diffusion controlled growth and diffusion controlled ripening, respectively. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosegregation. Dendrite trunk diameters also show differences between the earth- and space-grown samples. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, the dendritic seed crystals were partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS was carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described and have modeled.

  14. Dysregulated IER3 Expression is Associated with Enhanced Apoptosis in Titin-Based Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qifeng Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Apoptosis (type I programmed cell death of cardiomyocytes is a major process that plays a role in the progression of heart failure. The early response gene IER3 regulates apoptosis in a wide variety of cells and organs. However, its role in heart failure is largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of IER3 in an inducible heart failure mouse model. Heart failure was induced in a mouse model that imitates a human titin truncation mutation we found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM. Transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL and ssDNA stainings showed induction of apoptosis in titin-deficient cardiomyocytes during heart failure development, while IER3 response was dysregulated. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and knock-down experiments revealed that IER3 proteins target the promotors of anti-apoptotic genes and act as an anti-apoptotic factor in cardiomyocytes. Its expression is blunted during heart failure development in a titin-deficient mouse model. Targeting the IER3 pathway to reduce cardiac apoptosis might be an effective therapeutic strategy to combat heart failure.

  15. Theoretical Technology Research for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Curtis, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    During the last four years the UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles) IGPP (Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics) Space Plasma Simulation Group has continued its theoretical effort to develop a Mission Oriented Theory (MOT) for the International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program. This effort has been based on a combination of approaches: analytical theory, large-scale kinetic (LSK) calculations, global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations and self-consistent plasma kinetic (SCK) simulations. These models have been used to formulate a global interpretation of local measurements made by the ISTP spacecraft. The regions of applications of the MOT cover most of the magnetosphere: solar wind, low- and high- latitude magnetospheric boundary, near-Earth and distant magnetotail, and auroral region. Most recent investigations include: plasma processes in the electron foreshock, response of the magnetospheric cusp, particle entry in the magnetosphere, sources of observed distribution functions in the magnetotail, transport of oxygen ions, self-consistent evolution of the magnetotail, substorm studies, effects of explosive reconnection, and auroral acceleration simulations. A complete list of the activities completed under the grant follow.

  16. The development and operation of the international solar-terrestrial physics central data handling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program is committed to the development of a comprehensive, multi-mission ground data system which will support a variety of national and international scientific missions in an effort to study the flow of energy from the sun through the Earth-space environment, known as the geospace. A major component of the ISTP ground data system is an ISTP-dedicated Central Data Handling Facility (CDHF). Acquisition, development, and operation of the ISTP CDHF were delegated by the ISTP Project Office within the Flight Projects Directorate to the Information Processing Division (IPD) within the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD). The ISTP CDHF supports the receipt, storage, and electronic access of the full complement of ISTP Level-zero science data; serves as the linchpin for the centralized processing and long-term storage of all key parameters generated either by the ISTP CDHF itself or received from external, ISTP Program approved sources; and provides the required networking and 'science-friendly' interfaces for the ISTP investigators. Once connected to the ISTP CDHF, the online catalog of key parameters can be browsed from their remote processing facilities for the immediate electronic receipt of selected key parameters using the NASA Science Internet (NSI), managed by NASA's Ames Research Center. The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to describe how the ISTP CDHF was successfully implemented and operated to support initially the Japanese Geomagnetic Tail (GEOTAIL) mission and correlative science investigations, and (2) to describe how the ISTP CDHF has been enhanced to support ongoing as well as future ISTP missions. Emphasis will be placed on how various project management approaches were undertaken that proved to be highly effective in delivering an operational ISTP CDHF to the Project on schedule and

  17. International Living With a Star (ILWS), a new collaborative space program in Solar, Heliospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Guhathakurta, M.; Liu, W.; Kosugi, T.; Zelenyi, L.

    2003-04-01

    International cooperation has long been a vital element in the scientific investigation of solar variability and its impact on Earth and its space environment. Recently a new international cooeperative program in solar terrestrial physics has been established by the major space agencies of the world, called the International Living With a Star (ILWS) program. ILWS is a follow on to the highly successful International Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) program which involved international parterners. ISTP, with its steady flow of discoveries and new knowledge in solar Terrestrial physics, has laid the foundation for the coordinated study of the Sun-Earth sytem as a connected stellar-planetary system, system which is humanity's home. The first step in establishing ILWS was taken in the fall of 2000 when funding was approved for the NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) program whose goal is to develop the scientific understanding necessary to effectively address those aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that directly affect life and society. The scientific goals of ILWS are defined in a broader sense, aiming to include future solar, heliospheric and solar terrestrial missions of both applied and fundamental scientific focus. The ultimate goal of ILWS wil be to increase our understanding of how solar variability affects the terrestrial and other planetary environments both in the short and long term, and in particular how man and society may be affected by solar variability and its consequences. The mission charter of ILWS is 'to stimulate, strengthen and coordinate space research in order to understand the governing processes of the connected Sun-Earth System as an integrated entity'. More detailed ILWS Objectives are to stimulate and facilitate: - The study of the Sun Earth connected system and the effects which influence life and society - Collaboration among all potential partners in solar-terrestrial space missions - Synergistic coordination of international

  18. Internal Representation and Memory Formation of Odor Preference Based on Oscillatory Activities in a Terrestrial Slug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Tatsuhiko; Furudate, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    The terrestrial slug "Limax" exhibits a highly developed ability to learn odors with a small nervous system. When a fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow (LY), is injected into the slug's body cavity after odor-taste associative conditioning, a group of neurons in the procerebral (PC) lobe, an olfactory center of the slug, is labeled by LY. We examined…

  19. Microstructure and Macrosegregation Study of Directionally Solidified Al-7Si Samples Processed Terrestrially and Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel; Erdman, R. G.; Poirier, David R.; Tewari, S.N.; Grugel, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    This talk reports research that has been carried out under the aegis of NASA as part of a collaboration between ESA and NASA for solidification experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus has been on the effect of convection on the microstructural evolution and macrosegregation in hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys during directional solidification (DS). The DS-experiments have been carried out under 1-g at Cleveland State University (CSU) and under low-g on the International Space Station (ISS). The thermal processing-history of the experiments is well defined for both the terrestrially-processed samples and the ISS-processed samples. We have observed that the primary dendrite arm spacings of two samples grown in the low-g environment of the ISS show good agreement with a dendrite-growth model based on diffusion controlled growth. The gravity-driven convection (i.e., thermosolutal convection) in terrestrially grown samples has the effect of decreasing the primary dendrite arm spacings and causes macrosgregation. In order to process DS-samples aboard the ISS, dendritic-seed crystals have to partially remelted in a stationary thermal gradient before the DS is carried out. Microstructural changes and macrosegregation effects during this period are described.

  20. Comparison of predictions from internationally recognized assessment models for the transfer of selected radionuclides through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.; Bergstroem, U.; Gyllander, C.; Wilkens, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    Six internationally recognized terrestrial food-chain models developed in Sweden, the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the International Atomic Energy Agency are compared. This comparison includes the data bases and predictions for the transfer of Co-60, Sr-90, I-131, and Cs-137 into milk, and leafy and nonleafy vegetables from a hypothetical 30-yr continuous rate of atmospheric deposition onto agricultural systems. Model predictions are compared against United Nations summaries of empirical relationships between atmospheric deposition and concentrations in food of Sr-90 and Cs-137. The results of statistical analyses of the effect of parameter uncertainties on model predictions are also included for Sr-90, Cs-137, and I-131. Discrepancies among model predictions vary between factors of 6 and 30. These results reflect differences in model assumptions rather than uncertainties in model parameters

  1. JTRF2014, the JPL Kalman filter and smoother realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Chin, Toshio M.; Gross, Richard S.; Heflin, Michael B.; Parker, Jay W.; Soja, Benedikt S.; van Dam, Tonie; Wu, Xiaoping

    2017-10-01

    We present and discuss JTRF2014, the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) the Jet Propulsion Laboratory constructed by combining space-geodetic inputs from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite submitted for the realization of ITRF2014. Determined through a Kalman filter and Rauch-Tung-Striebel smoother assimilating position observations, Earth orientation parameters, and local ties, JTRF2014 is a subsecular, time series-based TRF whose origin is at the quasi-instantaneous center of mass (CM) as sensed by SLR and whose scale is determined by the quasi-instantaneous VLBI and SLR scales. The dynamical evolution of the positions accounts for a secular motion term, annual, and semiannual periodic modes. Site-dependent variances based on the analysis of loading displacements induced by mass redistributions of terrestrial fluids have been used to control the extent of random walk adopted in the combination. With differences in the amplitude of the annual signal within the range 0.5-0.8 mm, JTRF2014-derived center of network-to-center of mass (CM-CN) is in remarkable agreement with the geocenter motion obtained via spectral inversion of GNSS, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations and modeled ocean bottom pressure from Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). Comparisons of JTRF2014 to ITRF2014 suggest high-level consistency with time derivatives of the Helmert transformation parameters connecting the two frames below 0.18 mm/yr and weighted root-mean-square differences of the polar motion (polar motion rate) in the order of 30 μas (17 μas/d).

  2. Conservation on international boundaries: the impact of security barriers on selected terrestrial mammals in four protected areas in Arizona, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie W McCallum

    Full Text Available Several thousand terrestrial protected areas (PAs lie on international boundaries. Because international boundaries can be focal points for trade, illegal activity and development, such PAs can be vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic threats. There is an increasing trend towards the erection of international boundary infrastructure (including fences, barriers and ditches in many parts of the world, which may reduce the risk of these anthropogenic threats to some PAs. However this may restrict home range and access to resources for some native species. We sought to understand the impacts of these two different types of threat by using camera traps to measure the activity level of humans, native and invasive mammals in four US PAs on the Mexican international boundary. Comparisons were made between treatment areas with barriers and those without. Results showed that puma and coati were more likely to appear in treatment areas without barriers, whereas humans were not observed more frequently in one treatment area over another. The suggestion is that the intermittent fencing present in this part of the world does affect some native species, but does not necessarily restrict the movement of humans (including illegal migrants, who may negatively impact native species.

  3. Godiva IV and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1, Rev. 1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C; Myers, W L

    2012-04-11

    The Juliet experiment is currently in preliminary design (IER-128). This experiment will utilize a suite of diagnostics to measure the physical state of the device (temperature, surface motion, stress, etc.) and the total and time rate of change of neutron and gamma fluxes. A variety of potential diagnostics has been proposed in this CED-1 report. Based on schedule and funding, a subset of diagnostics will be selected for testing using the Godiva IV pulsed reactor as a source of neutrons and gammas. The diagnostics development and testing will occur over a two year period (FY12-13) culminating in a final set of diagnostics to be fielded for he Juliet experiment currently proposed for execution in FY15.

  4. PROJECTS PORTOFOLIO FOR ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE IER VALLEZ AND THEIR FUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Ioan Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Ier Valley has been taken into the survey as it is drained by a polluted river and strongly affected by sewerages and inning, with the aim to establish ecological reabilitation measures. In this view, a SWOT analysis was carried out, which highlighted a number of weaknessess regarding the ecological status of the river, and in order to remove them, a portofolio of 14 environment projects was drawn. Their implementation would require over than 40 millions lei that means in a proportion of 91% other resources, especially European Funds. The environment investment projects were evaluated at a total economical value of about 40 millions lei. Their funding was conceived in partnership terms and accessing funds from several sources, mainly on short term.

  5. terrestrial gamma radia its inhalation to the internal or of pahang s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    health physics. The presence of natural occurring radionuclides in the environment ma result in an external and internal dose receive by a population exposed to them directly an ... e values are more than two times the world average values of 34 m. Considering the tissue .... The effective dose is, by definition, an estimate of ...

  6. Degassing of primordial hydrogen and helium as the major energy source for internal terrestrial processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Lev Gilat

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Examples of the mightiest energy releases by great earthquakes and volcanic eruptions and hypotheses providing explanations for them are analyzed along with the results of some recently published researches and visualizations. The emerging conclusions are that the mechanism of the strong earthquake is a chemical explosion; that volcanic eruption is a special type of earthquake wherein the hypocenter rises to the earth-surface; and that there is an association between the seismic-volcanic processes and mantle “fluids” and the lack of energy for mantle plumes. A conceptual system of hypotheses is put forward to explain the conservation of energy during Earth’s accretion, its quasi-stable release by primordial H- and He-degassing and of the crucial role of the energy of degassing-comprising-reactions in endogenic processes. Specific mechanisms and chemical processes are proposed for the gas-liquid mantle plumes melting through the solid mantle using heat-energy released in reactions of their metamorphic and chemical transformation under gradual decrease of pressure and temperature; volcanic gases are put forward as energy carriers. 3He performance as a unique measuring transformer correlative to the internal heat flow was used for calculation of energy release by degassing; it equals to 5.12 × 1020 J/yr, an amount of energy five-fold greater than the entire energy loss involved in earthquake and volcanic activity. The hypotheses proposed are objectively testable.

  7. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Aafke M. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)], E-mail: a.schipper@science.ru.nl; Wijnhoven, Sander [Centre for Sustainable Management of Resources, Institute for Science, Innovation and Society, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Centre for Estuarine and Marine Ecology, Monitor Taskforce, P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke (Netherlands); Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A. [Department of Environmental Science, Institute for Wetland and Water Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels.

  8. Spatial distribution and internal metal concentrations of terrestrial arthropods in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schipper, Aafke M.; Wijnhoven, Sander; Leuven, Rob S.E.W.; Ragas, Ad M.J.; Jan Hendriks, A.

    2008-01-01

    Soil metal concentrations, inundation characteristics and abundances of 14 arthropod taxa were investigated in a moderately contaminated lowland floodplain along the Rhine River and compared to the hinterland. Internal metal concentrations were determined for the orders of Coleoptera (beetles) and Araneida (spiders) and were related to soil concentrations. The floodplain was characterized by larger arthropod abundance than the hinterland, in spite of recurrent inundations and higher soil metal concentrations. Most arthropod taxa showed increasing abundance with decreasing distance to the river channel and increasing average inundation duration. For Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, significant relations were found between arthropod concentrations and concentrations in soil. Significant relations were few but positive, indicating that increasing soil concentrations result in increasing body burdens in arthropods. For arthropod-eating vertebrates, these results might imply that larger prey availability in the floodplain coincides with higher metal concentrations in prey, possibly leading to increased exposure to metal contamination. - Recurrent floodplain inundations affect terrestrial arthropod numbers and metal contamination levels

  9. Lietu interneta drošības riski saimniecības un viedajās ierīcēs

    OpenAIRE

    Borskoviča, Sintija

    2017-01-01

    Lietu internets tiek attiecināts uz ierīcēm, kuras var savienot ar internetu, un kuras atvieglo cilvēku ikdienu. Šādas ierīces var būt gan mašīnas, gan ledusskapji. Šīs ierīču skaits pēdējo gadu laikā strauji pieaug. Taču līdz ar to pieaug arī kibernoziedznieku uzbrukumi lietu internetam, jo vairums ierīču ir nedrošas un ar lielām drošības un privātumu problēmām. Bakalaura darba ietvaros tiek apskatīts, kas ir lietu internets, tā darbības principi, kā arī drošības problēmas, kas ir saistītas...

  10. New International Agreements About Space Techniques Among Argentina, China and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A. M.; Podestá, R.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Li, J.; Saunier, J.; Podestá, F.; Ramos, F.; Aguilera, J.; Sosa, G.; Hauser, D.

    2018-01-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems (IERS) is in charge of defining and materializing celestial reference systems (ICRS - ICRF) and terrestrial reference systems (ITRS - ITRF). In order to perform this task it uses data from the following techniques: Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS). Nowadays, the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) has two instruments with these advanced techniques: SLR and a permanent GNSS station. In the nearby future a 40 m diameter radio telescope will be available that will be operated in VLBI mode along with a DORIS buoy which will be co-localized with a SLR telescope and GNSS antennas. In this way OAFA will become a zero station, first class, of the ITRF 2014 frame.

  11. La chronologie du royaume de Qatabân du Ier siècle avant J.-C. au Ier siècle après J.-C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Arbach

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Les nouvelles découvertes archéologiques et épigraphiques de ces dernières années, effectuées au cours des fouilles franco-italiennes à Tamna`, l'ancienne capitale du royaume de Qatabân, permettent d'établir une nouvelle chronologie des souverains de Qatabân entre le Ier siècle avant J.-C. et le Ier siècle après J.- C.The chronology of the kingdom of Qatabân, from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD. Archaeological and epigraphical discoveries made in recent years by the Franco-Italian excavations at Tamna`, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Qatabân, allows us to establish a new chronology for the kings of Qatabân during the 1st century BC and the 1st century AD.

  12. IER-297 CED-2: Final Design for Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments with Jemima Plates with Polyethylene and Hafnium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Percher, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zywiec, W. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-11

    This report presents the final design (CED-2) for IER-297, and focuses on 15 critical configurations using highly enriched uranium (HEU) Jemima plates moderated by polyethylene with and without hafnium diluent. The goal of the U.S. Nuclear Criticality Safety Program’s Thermal/Epithermal eXperiments (TEX) is to design and conduct new critical experiments to address high priority nuclear data needs from the nuclear criticality safety and nuclear data communities, with special emphasis on intermediate energy (0.625 eV – 100 keV) assemblies that can be easily modified to include various high priority diluent materials. The TEX (IER 184) CED-1 Report [1], completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility of meeting the TEX goals with two existing NCSP fissile assets, plutonium Zero Power Physics Reactor (ZPPR) plates and highly enriched uranium (HEU) Jemima plates. The first set of TEX experiments will focus on using the plutonium ZPPR plates with polyethylene moderator and tantalum diluents.

  13. A redescription of the specimens of “Telesto humilis” (Octocorallia) collected by Prince Albert Ier of Monaco, with the descritpion of four new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weinberg, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Four new octocoral species, Telestula stocki, Telestula batoni, Telestula verseveldti, and Telestula kuekenthali are described and illustrated and a redescription is given of Telesto humilis Thomson, 1927. All the species mentioned were collected during expeditions by Prince Albert Ier of Monaco in

  14. Kino repertuāra pārlūks Android ierīcēm

    OpenAIRE

    Zvirbulis, Jānis

    2013-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbā “Kino repertuāra pārlūks Android ierīcēm” tiek aprakstīta Android lietojumprogrammas “Kino repertuāra pārlūks” izstrāde un funkcionalitāte. Lietotne paredzēta kinoteātra repertuāra aplūkošanai izmantojot planšetdatorus un mobilos tālruņus, kas darbojas ar Android operētājsistēmu. Tā ir domāta kā parocīgāka alternatīva filmu apraksta un seansa laiku uzzināšanai caur kinoteātra mājaslapu, skrejlapām vai afišām. Atslēgvārdi: Android, filmas, pārlūks....

  15. Correction of the concentrated sunlight spot's drift of the IER-UNAM's solar furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Enciso, R.; Brito-Bazan, E.; Pérez-Rábago, C.A.; Arancibia-Bulnes, C.A.; Riveros-Rosas, D.; Estrada, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods implemented for the solution of the drift and backlash problems in the heliostat of the High Radiative Flux Solar Furnace recently built at the Renewable Energy Institute (former Center for Energy Research) of the National University of Mexico (IER-UNAM), located at the geographical coordinates 18°50′24″ North latitude and 99°15′00″ West longitude. To solve the observed drift, several algorithms were analyzed for the calculation of the solar vector, and a closed loop through an electronic device (peephole) was implemented which makes corrections to the position of the heliostat. Using the peephole, drift heliostat decreased significantly; 70% in the horizontal direction and 63% in the vertical direction relative to the no use of peephole. The backlash was corrected by means of unbalancing the heliostat

  16. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    The Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF), the biodiversity working group of the Arctic Council, established the Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program (CBMP) to address the need for coordinated and standardized monitoring of Arctic environments. The CBMP includes an international...... on developing and implementing long-term plans for monitoring the integrity of Arctic biomes: terrestrial, marine, freshwater, and coastal (under development) environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Expert Monitoring Group (CBMP-TEMG) has developed the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan (CBMP......-Terrestrial Plan/the Plan) as the framework for coordinated, long-term Arctic terrestrial biodiversity monitoring. The goal of the CBMP-Terrestrial Plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long...

  17. Histories of terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, K.

    1981-01-01

    The uneven historical development of terrestrial planets - Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon and Mars - is probably due to the differences in their size, weight and rotational dynamics in association with the internal planet structure, their distance from the Sun, etc. A systematic study of extraterrestrial planets showed that the time span of internal activity was not the same for all bodies. It is assumed that the initial history of all terrestrial planets was marked with catastrophic events connected with the overall dynamic development of the solar system. In view of the fact that the cores of small terrestrial bodies cooled quicker, their geological development almost stagnated after two or three thousand million years. This is what probably happened to the Mercury and the Moon as well as the Mars. Therefore, traces of previous catastrophic events were preserved on the surface of the planets. On the other hand, the Earth is the most metamorphosed terrestrial planet and compared to the other planets appears to be atypical. Its biosphere is significantly developed as well as the other shell components, its hydrosphere and atmosphere, and its crust is considerably differentiated. (J.P.)

  18. Terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, D.C.; Agarwal, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a review about terrestrial magnetosphere. During the last few years considerable investigation have been carried out about the properties of Solar Wind and its interaction with planetary magnetic fields. It is therefore of high importance to accumulate all the investigations in a comprehensive form. The paper reviews the property of earth's magnetosphere, magnetosheath, magneto pause, polar cusps, bow shook and plasma sheath. (author)

  19. IER 203 CED-2 Report: LLNL Final Design for BERP Ball With a Composite Reflector of Thin Polyethylene Backed by Nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, C. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Heinrichs, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, S. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-07-18

    This report documents the results of final design (CED-2) for IER 203, BERP Ball Composite Reflection, and focuses on critical configurations with a 4.5 kg α-phase plutonium sphere reflected by a combination of thin high-density polyethylene (HDPE) backed by a thick nickel reflector. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL’s) Nuclear Criticality Safety Division, in support of fissile material operations, calculated surprisingly reactive configurations when a fissile core was surrounded by a thin, moderating reflector backed by a thick metal reflector. These composite reflector configurations were much more reactive than either of the single reflector materials separately. The calculated findings have resulted in a stricter-than-anticipated criticality control set, impacting programmatic work. IER 203 was requested in response to these seemingly anomalous calculations to see if the composite reflection effect could be shown experimentally. This report focuses on the Beryllium Reflected Plutonium (BERP) ball as a fissile material core reflected by polyethylene and nickel. A total of four critical configurations were designed as part of CED-2. Fabrication costs are estimated to be $98,500, largely due to the cost of the large nickel reflectors. The IER 203 experiments could reasonably be expected to begin in early FY2017.

  20. Dose-dependent and gender-related radiation-induced transcription alterations of Gadd45a and Ier5 in human lymphocytes exposed to gamma ray emitted by 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, H.; Manoochehri, M.; Mosalla, S. M. M.; Ghafori, M.; Karimi, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Growth arrest DNA damage-inducible 45a gene (Gadd45a) and immediate early response gene 5 (Ier5) have been emphasised as ideal radiation bio-markers in several reports. However, some aspects of radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of these genes are unknown. In this study, gender-dependency and dose-dependency as two factors that may affect radiation induced transcription of Gadd45a and Ier5 genes were investigated. Human lymphocyte cells from six healthy voluntary blood donors (three women and three men) were irradiated in vitro with doses of 0.5-4.0 Gy from a 60 Co source and RNA isolated 4 h later using the High Pure RNA Isolation Kit. Dose and gender dependency of radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of Gadd45a and Ier5 genes were studied by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that as a whole, Gadd45a and Ier5 gave responses to gamma rays, while the responses were independent of radiation doses. Therefore, regardless of radiation dose, Gadd45a and Ier5 can be considered potential radiation bio-markers. Besides, although radiation-induced transcriptional alterations of Gadd45a in female and male lymphocyte samples were insignificant at 0.5 Gy, at other doses, their quantities in female samples were at a significantly higher level than in male samples. Radiation induced transcription of Ier5 of females samples had a reduction in comparison with male samples at 1 and 2 Gy, but at doses of 0.5 and 4 Gy, females were significantly more susceptible to radiation-induced transcriptional alteration of Ier5. (authors)

  1. Growth of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    In x Ga 1- x Sb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. To investigate the dissolution and growth process of In x Ga 1- x Sb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. In x Ga 1- x Sb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the In x Ga 1- x Sb alloy semiconductor.

  2. Terrestrial ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The main effort of the Terrestrial Ecology Division has been redirected to a comprehensive study of the Espiritu Santo Drainage Basin located in northeastern Puerto Rico. The general objective are to provide baseline ecological data for future environmental assessment studies at the local and regional levels, and to provide through an ecosystem approach data for the development of management alternatives for the wise utilization of energy, water, and land resources. The interrelationships among climate, vegetation, soils, and man, and their combined influence upon the hydrologic cycle will be described and evaluated. Environmental management involves planning and decision making, and both require an adequate data base. At present, little is known about the interworkings of a complete, integrated system such as a drainage basin. A literature survey of the main research areas confirmed that, although many individual ecologically oriented studies have been carried out in a tropical environment, few if any provide the data base required for environmental management. In view of rapidly changing socio-economic conditions and natural resources limitations, management urgently requires data from these systems: physical (climatological), biological, and cultural. This integrated drainage basin study has been designed to provide such data. The scope of this program covers the hydrologic cycle as it is affected by the interactions of the physical, biological, and cultural systems

  3. IERS Conventions (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    2MASS near-IR catalog (ɛ>) provides accurate positions of over 470 million stars at individual mean epochs (around 2000), however, without proper motions...An overview of other current and future, ground- and space-based densification projects is given at ɜ>. 3http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ 2mass /releases...and proper motions on the ICRS. Combining USNO-B1.0 and the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ),” Astron. J., 139(6), pp. 2440–2447, doi: 10.1088/0004

  4. Structure of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttleton, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent reviews (cf. Runcorn, 1968; or Cook, 1972, 1975) on the structure of the planets omit reference to the phase-change hypothesis for the nature of the terrestrial core, despite that numerous prior predictions of the theory based on this hypothesis have subsequently been borne out as correct. These reviews also ignore the existence of theoretical calculations of the internal structure of Venus which can be computed with high accuracy by use of the terrestrial seismic data. Several examples of numerous mistakes committed in these reviews are pointed out. (Auth.)

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Support of IER 252 and the Dose Characterization of the Flattop Reactor at the DAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffers, K. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Radev, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tai, L. I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ward, D. C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Leonard, E. I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-06

    In support of IER 252 “Characterization of the Flattop Reactor at the NCERC”, LLNL performed ROSPEC measurements of the neutron spectrum and deployed 129 Personnel Nuclear Accident Dosimeters (PNAD) to establish the need for height corrections and verification of neutron spectrum evaluation of the fluences and dose. A very limited number of heights (typically only one or two heights) can be measured using neutron spectrometers, therefore it was important to determine if any height correction would be needed in future intercomparisons and studies. Specific measurement positions around the Flatttop reactor are provided in Figure 1. Table 1 provides run and position information for LLNL measurements. The LLNL ROSPEC (R2) was used for run numbers 1 – 7, and vi. PNADs were positioned on trees during run numbers 9, 11, and 13.

  6. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; Raines, Gilbert E.; Bloom, S.G.; Levin, A.A.

    1969-01-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  7. Ecological transfer mechanisms - Terrestrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, W E; Raines, Gilbert E; Bloom, S G; Levin, A A [Battelle Memorial Institute, CoIumbus, OH (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Radionuclides produced by nuclear excavation detonations and released to the environment may enter a variety of biogeochemical cycles and follow essentially the same transfer pathways as their stable-element counterparts. Estimation of potential internal radiation doses to individuals and/or populations living in or near fallout-contaminated areas requires analysis of the food-chain and other ecological pathways by which radionuclides released to the environment may be returned to man. A generalized materials transfer diagram, applicable to the forest, agricultural, freshwater and marine ecosystems providing food and water to the indigenous population of Panama and Colombia in regions that could be affected by nuclear excavation of a sea-level canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, is presented. Transfer mechanisms effecting the movement of stable elements and radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems are discussed, and methods used to simulate these processes by means of mathematical models are described to show how intake values are calculated for different radionuclides in the major ecological pathways leading to man. These data provide a basis for estimating potential internal radiation doses for comparison with the radiation protection criteria established by recognized authorities; and this, in turn, provides a basis for recommending measures to insure the radiological safety of the nuclear operation plan. (author)

  8. Characterizing Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, V. S.; Lustig-Yaeger, J.; Lincowski, A.; Arney, G. N.; Robinson, T. D.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Deming, L. D.; Tovar, G.

    2017-11-01

    We will provide an overview of the measurements, techniques, and upcoming missions required to characterize terrestrial planet environments and evolution, and search for signs of habitability and life.

  9. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  10. Tidally Heated Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade Garrett

    This work models the surface and internal temperatures for hypothetical terrestrial planets in situations involving extreme tidal heating. The feasibility of such planets is evaluated in terms of the orbital perturbations that may give rise to them, their required proximity to a hoststar, and the potential for the input tidal heating to cause significant partial melting of the mantle. Trapping terrestrial planets into 2:1 resonances with migrating Hot Jupiters is considered as a reasonable way for Earth-like worlds to both maintain high eccentricities and to move to short enough orbital periods (1-20 days) for extreme tidal heating to occur. Secular resonance and secular orbital perturbations may support moderate tidal heating at a low equilibrium eccentricity. At orbital periods below 10-30 days, with eccentricities from 0.01 to 0.1, tidal heat may greatly exceed radiogenic heat production. It is unlikely to exceed insolation, except when orbiting very low luminosity hosts, and thus will have limited surface temperature expression. Observations of such bodies many not be able to detect tidal surface enhancements given a few percent uncertainty in albedo, except on the nightside of spin synchronous airless objects. Otherwise detection may occur via spectral detection of hotspots or high volcanic gas concentrations including sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The most extreme cases may be able to produce magma oceans, or magma slush mantles with up to 40-60% melt fractions. Tides may alter the habitable zones for smaller red dwarf stars, but are generally detrimental. Multiple viscoelastic models, including the Maxwell, Voigt-Kelvin, Standard Anelastic Solid, and Burgers rheologies are explored and applied to objects such as Io and the super-Earth planet GJ 876d. The complex valued Love number for the Burgers rheology is derived and found to be a useful improvement when modeling the low temperature behavior of tidal bodies, particularly during low eccentricity

  11. The Importance of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis in Process-based Models of Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in Terrestrial Ecosystems with Particular Emphasis on Forest Ecosystems — Selected Papers from a Workshop Organized by the International Society for Ecological Modelling (ISEM) at the Third Biennal Meeting of the International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (IEMSS) in Burlington, Vermont, USA, August 9-13, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Liu, Jinxun; Ascough, James C.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2008-01-01

    Many process-based models of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles have been developed for terrestrial ecosystems, including forest ecosystems. They address many basic issues of ecosystems structure and functioning, such as the role of internal feedback in ecosystem dynamics. The critical factor in these phenomena is scale, as these processes operate at scales from the minute (e.g. particulate pollution impacts on trees and other organisms) to the global (e.g. climate change). Research efforts remain important to improve the capability of such models to better represent the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems, including the C, nutrient, (e.g. N) and water cycles. Existing models are sufficiently well advanced to help decision makers develop sustainable management policies and planning of terrestrial ecosystems, as they make realistic predictions when used appropriately. However, decision makers must be aware of their limitations by having the opportunity to evaluate the uncertainty associated with process-based models (Smith and Heath, 2001 and Allen et al., 2004). The variation in scale of issues currently being addressed by modelling efforts makes the evaluation of uncertainty a daunting task.

  12. Introduced Terrestrial Species (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data represent predicted future potential distributions of terrestrial plants, animals, and pathogens non-native to the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are...

  13. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  14. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  15. Terrestrial and extraterrestrial fullerenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymann, D.; Jenneskens, L.W.; Jehlicka, J; Koper, C.; Vlietstra, E. [Rice Univ, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science

    2003-07-01

    This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous-Tertiary-Boundary and Pennian-Triassic-Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated processes of fullerene formation, including the suggestion that some natural fullerenes might have formed from biological (algal) remains.

  16. Terrestrial planet formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K; O'Brien, D P

    2011-11-29

    Advances in our understanding of terrestrial planet formation have come from a multidisciplinary approach. Studies of the ages and compositions of primitive meteorites with compositions similar to the Sun have helped to constrain the nature of the building blocks of planets. This information helps to guide numerical models for the three stages of planet formation from dust to planetesimals (~10(6) y), followed by planetesimals to embryos (lunar to Mars-sized objects; few 10(6) y), and finally embryos to planets (10(7)-10(8) y). Defining the role of turbulence in the early nebula is a key to understanding the growth of solids larger than meter size. The initiation of runaway growth of embryos from planetesimals ultimately leads to the growth of large terrestrial planets via large impacts. Dynamical models can produce inner Solar System configurations that closely resemble our Solar System, especially when the orbital effects of large planets (Jupiter and Saturn) and damping mechanisms, such as gas drag, are included. Experimental studies of terrestrial planet interiors provide additional constraints on the conditions of differentiation and, therefore, origin. A more complete understanding of terrestrial planet formation might be possible via a combination of chemical and physical modeling, as well as obtaining samples and new geophysical data from other planets (Venus, Mars, or Mercury) and asteroids.

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  18. Can space ties on board GNSS satellites replace terrestrial ties in the implementation of Terrestrial Reference Frames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Rebischung, Paul; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2016-04-01

    The realization of Terrestrial Reference Frames (TRFs) must be periodically updated in order to account for newly acquired observations and for upgrades in data analysis procedures and/or combination techniques. Any innovative computation strategy should ameliorate the definition of the frame physical parameters, upon which a number of scientific applications critically rely. On the basis of the requirements of scientific cutting edge studies, the geodetic community has estimated that the present day challenge in the determination of TRFs is to provide a frame that is accurate and long-term stable at the level of 1 mm and 0.1 mm/y respectively. This work aims at characterizing the frame realized by a combination of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations via their co-location on board GNSS spacecrafts. In particular, it is established how such a frame compares to the traditional ITRF computation and what is the impact on the realization of the frame origin and scale. Four years of data from a global network encompassing about one hundred GNSS stations and all SLR sites have been analyzed. In order to ensure the highest possible consistency, the raw data of both techniques are treated with the same analysis Software (Bernese GNSS Software 5.2) following IERS2010 Conventions. Both weekly and long term solutions are carried out exploiting either the Bernese or the Combination and Analysis of Terrestrial Reference Frames (CATREF) Software packages. We present the results of a combination study involving GNSS data and SLR observations to the two LAGEOS and to the GNSS satellites equipped with retroreflector arrays. The latter type of measurements is currently not included in the computation of the official ITRF solutions. The assessment of the benefit that they could provide to the definition of the origin and scale of the ITRF is however worth investigating, as such data provide the potential for linking the GNSS and

  19. Plan for IER-443 Testing of the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hudson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garbett, S. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Auld, G. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Horrne, A. [Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE), Berkshire (United Kingdom); Beller, T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Goda, J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Haught, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Woodrow, C. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ward, D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-24

    This document provides the scope and details of the “Plan for Testing the Y-12 and AWE Criticality Accident Alarm System Detectors at the Godiva IV Burst Reactor”. Due to the relative simplicity of the testing goals, scope, and methodology, the NCSP Manager approved execution of the test when ready. No preliminary CED-1 or final design CED-2 reports were required or issued. The test will subject Criticality Accident Alarm System (CAAS) detectors supplied by Y- 12 and AWE to very intense and short duration mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields. The goals of the test will be to (1) substantiate functionality, for both existing and newly acquired Y- 12 CAAS detectors, and (2) the ability of the AWE detectors to provide quality temporal dose information after a hypothetical criticality accident. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 states that the “system shall be sufficiently robust as to actuate an alarm signal when exposed to the maximum radiation expected”, which has been defined at Y-12, in Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs), to be a dose rate of 10 Rad/s. ANSI/ANS-8.3.1997 further states that “alarm actuation shall occur as a result of a minimum duration transient” which may be assumed to be 1 msec. The pulse widths and dose rates which will be achieved in this test will exceed these requirements. Pulsed radiation fields will be produced by the Godiva IV fast metal burst reactor at the National Criticality Experimental Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The magnitude of the pulses and the relative distances to the detectors will be varied to afford a wide range of radiation fluence and pulse widths. The magnitude of the neutron and gamma fields will be determined by reactor temperature rise to fluence and dose conversions which have been previously established through extensive measurements performed under IER-147. The requirements for CAAS systems to detect and alarm under a “minimum accident of concern” as well as other

  20. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the factors affecting the evolution of antler size. Better knowledge of ... elaphus), which is related to our Kashmir hangul (Cerous elaphus hangiu), having very ..... have led to a market in dried antler velvet as an aphrodisiac. Many countries ...

  1. Working group 4: Terrestrial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A working group at a Canada/USA symposium on climate change and the Arctic identified major concerns and issues related to terrestrial resources. The group examined the need for, and the means of, involving resource managers and users at local and territorial levels in the process of identifying and examining the impacts and consequences of climatic change. Climatic change will be important to the Arctic because of the magnitude of the change projected for northern latitudes; the apparent sensitivity of its terrestrial ecosystems, natural resources, and human support systems; and the dependence of the social, cultural, and economic welfare of Arctic communities, businesses, and industries on the health and quality of their environment. Impacts of climatic change on the physical, biological, and associated socio-economic environment are outlined. Gaps in knowledge needed to quantify these impacts are listed along with their relationships with resource management. Finally, potential actions for response and adaptation are presented

  2. Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M; Riaz, M; Talpur, M M A; Pirzada, T

    2016-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an annual herb which belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family. This plant has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases for hundreds of decades. The main active phytoconstituents of this plant include flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, lignin, amides, and glycosides. The plant parts have different pharmacological activities including aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential. T. terrestris is most often used for infertility and loss of libido. It has potential application as immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, anthelmintic and anticarcinogenic activities. The aim of the present article is to create a database for further investigation of the phytopharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This study will definitely help to confirm its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant.

  3. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  4. Mobilo ierīču skriešanas aplikāciju izmantošanas iespējas interešu izglītībā sākumskolas vecumposmā

    OpenAIRE

    Pluģis, Mārtiņš

    2017-01-01

    21. gadsimta tehnoloģiju pasaulē gandrīz katram cilvēkam ir viedtālrunis, kurā ir daudz daţādas aplikācijas. Mobilo ierīču lietotāju vidū, kuri īsteno veselīgu dzīvesveidu, populāras ir fizisko aktivitāšu aplikācijas. Mūsdienās arvien jaunākiem bērniem ir pašiem savi viedtālruņi vai pieeja tiem. Diplomdarba tēma - Mobilo ierīču skriešanu aplikāciju izmantošanas iespējas interešu izglītībā sākumskolas vecumposmā. Darbs sastāv no ievada, teorētiskās un praktiskās daļas, nobeiguma secinājumiem u...

  5. Comparative Climatology of Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackwell, Stephen J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Harder, Jerald W.; Bullock, Mark A.

    Public awareness of climate change on Earth is currently very high, promoting significant interest in atmospheric processes. We are fortunate to live in an era where it is possible to study the climates of many planets, including our own, using spacecraft and groundbased observations as well as advanced computational power that allows detailed modeling. Planetary atmospheric dynamics and structure are all governed by the same basic physics. Thus differences in the input variables (such as composition, internal structure, and solar radiation) among the known planets provide a broad suite of natural laboratory settings for gaining new understanding of these physical processes and their outcomes. Diverse planetary settings provide insightful comparisons to atmospheric processes and feedbacks on Earth, allowing a greater understanding of the driving forces and external influences on our own planetary climate. They also inform us in our search for habitable environments on planets orbiting distant stars, a topic that was a focus of Exoplanets, the preceding book in the University of Arizona Press Space Sciences Series. Quite naturally, and perhaps inevitably, our fascination with climate is largely driven toward investigating the interplay between the early development of life and the presence of a suitable planetary climate. Our understanding of how habitable planets come to be begins with the worlds closest to home. Venus, Earth, and Mars differ only modestly in their mass and distance from the Sun, yet their current climates could scarcely be more divergent. Our purpose for this book is to set forth the foundations for this emerging science and to bring to the forefront our current understanding of atmospheric formation and climate evolution. Although there is significant comparison to be made to atmospheric processes on nonterrestrial planets in our solar system — the gas and ice giants — here we focus on the terrestrial planets, leaving even broader comparisons

  6. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  7. Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Chambers, D. P.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    During 2014 dryness continued in the Northern Hemisphere and relative wetness continued in the Southern Hemisphere (Fig. 2.21; Plate 2.1g). These largely canceled out such that the global land surface began and ended the year with a terrestrial water storage (TWS) anomaly slightly below 0 cm (equivalent height of water; Fig. 2.22). TWS is the sum of groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow, and ice. Groundwater responds more slowly to meteorological phenomena than the other components because the overlying soil acts as a low pass filter, but often it has a larger range of variability on multiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001; Alley et al. 2002).In situ groundwater data are only archived and made and Tanzania. The rest of the continent experienced mixed to dry conditions. Significant reductions in TWS in Greenland, Antarctica, and southern coastal Alaska reflect ongoing ice sheet and glacier ablation, not groundwater depletion.

  8. Solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, V.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: geomagnetic field; coordinate systems; geomagnetic indices; Dst index; auroral electrojet index AE; daily, 27-day and semi-annual variations of geomagnetic field; micropulsation; geomagnetic storms; storm sudden commencement (SSC) or sudden commencement (SC); initial phase; ring current; sudden impulses; ionosphere; D region; polar cap absorption; sudden ionospheric disturbance; E region; sporadic E; equatorial electrojet; solar flare effect; F 1 and F 2 regions; spread F; travelling ionospheric disturbances; magnetosphere; magnetospheric coordinate systems; plasmasphere; magnetosheath; magnetospheric tail; substorm; radiation belts or Van Allen belts; whistlers; VLF emissions; aurora; auroral forms; auroral oval and auroral zones; auroral intensity; stable auroral red arcs; pulsing aurora; polar glow aurora; and airglow. (B.R.H.)

  9. Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. M.; Boutrup, S.; Bijl, L. van der

    This report presents the 2004 results of the Danish National Monitoring and Assess-ment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments (NOVANA). 2004 was the first year in which terrestrial nature was included in the monitoring pro-gramme. The report reviews the state of the groundwater......, watercourses, lakes and marine waters and the pressures upon them and reviews the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and selected plants and animals. The report is based on the annual reports prepared for each subprogramme by the Topic Centres. The latter reports are mainly based on data collected...

  10. Grand scheme for solar-terrestrial research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    The study of solar wind and its interaction with magnetic fields and electrical currents is examined. The effects of magnetic storms caused by solar wind interaction with magnetic fields in the magnetosphere and ionosphere are described. The effect of magnetospheric plasma processes on spacecraft operations and the operation of ground-based systems are explained. The development of an International Solar Terrestrial Physics program, which will be designed to place diagnostic experiments on a collection of spacecraft positioned near space is discussed; the components of the program are described

  11. Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Kamide, Y

    2007-01-01

    The Handbook of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment is a unique compendium. Recognized international leaders in their field contribute chapters on basic topics of solar physics, space plasmas and the Earth's magnetosphere, and on applied topics like the aurora, magnetospheric storms, space weather, space climatology and planetary science. This book will be of highest value as a reference for researchers working in the area of planetary and space science. However, it is also written in a style accessible to graduate students majoring in those fields.

  12. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  13. Evaluation of radiological doses to the terrestrial plants around Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajay Kumar; Singhal, R.K.; Preetha, J.; Joshi, S.N.; Hegde, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Existing policies for radiation protection do not provide explicit criteria for the protection of species other than humans, i.e. not for flora and fauna. Concern over this omission is now being widely expressed and moves are under way to evaluate the doses to terrestrial and aquatic biota. During the present work radiological doses (external and internal) to the terrestrial plants were evaluated by estimating the concentration of anthropogenic ( 137 Cs, 90 Sr) and natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) in the plant leaves and by measuring the external gamma radiation due to different radionuclide. The soil and vegetation sample were collected from fifteen sampling locations around the different locations at Trombay. The samples were processed as per IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) protocol for the estimation of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in soil and terrestrial plants. The gamma emitting radionuclides were measured by high resolution gamma (HPGe) spectrometry system. Maximum exposure (external + internal) to the terrestrial plants was observed due to 232 Th while 238 U showed minimum exposure. The average value of radiation exposure to the terrestrial plants for 40 K, 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 238 U and 232 Th was 1555.2 ± 92.4, 691.2 ± 54.3, 2564.1 ± 534.9, 82.5 ±5.2, and 4419.6 ± 1165.5 μGy/y respectively. The radiation exposure (external + internal ) to the terrestrial plants due to all radionuclides was found within the permissible limits (i.e. 10 mGy/d) as per recommended by the United States, Department of Energy (DOE). (author)

  14. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  15. Soil and terrestrial biology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Soil and terrestrial biology studies focused on developing an understanding of the uptake of gaseous substances from the atmosphere by plants, biodegradation of oil, and the movement of Pu in the terrestrial ecosystems of the southeastern United States. Mathematical models were developed for SO 2 and tritium uptake from the atmosphere by plants; the uptake of tritium by soil microorganisms was measured; and the relationships among the Pu content of soil, plants, and animals of the Savannah River Plant area were studied. Preliminary results are reported for studies on the biodegradation of waste oil on soil surfaces

  16. Priapism caused by 'Tribulus terrestris'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, M; De Thomasis, R; Tenaglia, R L

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old Caucasian man was diagnosed with a 72-h-lasting priapism that occurred after the assumption of a Herbal supplement based on Tribulus terrestris, which is becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. The patient underwent a cavernoglandular shunt (Ebbehoj shunt) in order to obtain complete detumescence, from which derived negative post-episode outcomes on sexual function. All patients consuming non-FDA-approved alternative supplements such as Tribulus terrestris should be warned about the possible serious side effects.

  17. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Kennedy, V.H.; Nelson, A.

    1983-06-01

    A bibliographical database has been developed to provide quick access to research and background literature in the field of radioecology. This is a development of an earlier database described by Nelson (Bocock 1981). ITE's particular fields of interest have led to a subject bias in the bibliography towards studies in Cumbria, especially those concerned with radionuclides originating from the reprocessing plant at Sellafield, and towards ecological research studies that are complementary to radionuclide studies. Other subjects covered, include the chemistry of radionuclides, budgets and transfers within ecosystems and techniques for the analysis of environmental samples. ITE's research objectives have led to the establishment of a specialized database which is intended to complement rather than compete with the large international databases made available by suppliers such as IRS-DIALTECH or DIALOG. Currently the database holds about 1900 references which are stored on a 2 1/2 megabyte hard disk on a Digital PDP11/34 computer operating under a time shared system. The references follow a standard format. (author)

  18. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  19. Terrestrial Steering Group. 2014. Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aastrup, Peter; Aronsson, Mora; Barry, Tom

    capacity and information may be currently available and (b) to outline near-term required steps to begin implementing the plan and reporting on an initial set of Arctic terrestrial biodiversity focal ecosystem component attributes. The specific objectives of the workshop were to: Identify key products...... for TSG for the next two years. Identify key components of a pan-Arctic status report for priority focal ecosystem components (FEC) attributes for policy and decision makers. Develop a prioritized set of activities to meet reporting objectives. Identify key milestones and timelines for the successful...... implementation of the Arctic Terrestrial Biodiversity Monitoring Plan for the next two years. Identify expert networks required for successful implementation of the plan. Identify key gaps and opportunities for the TSG related to plan implementation and identify near-term next steps to address gaps....

  20. The Digital Dividend of Terrestrial Broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The “digital revolution” of the last two decades has pervaded innumerable aspects of our daily lives and changed our planet irreversibly. The shift from analog to digital broadcasting has facilitated a seemingly infinite variety of new applications—audience interactivity being but one example. The greater efficiency and compression of digital media have endowed broadcasters with a “digital dividend” of spare transmission capacity over and above the requirements of terrestrial broadcasting. The question is, who will use it, and how? Comparing the European experience with that of broadcasters elsewhere in the world, the author sketches the current status of international frequency management, quantifies the value of the “dividend” itself, analyzes the details of the analog-to-digital switchovers already completed, and posits what the future holds for the sector. As we grapple with new devices, inconceivable a mere generation ago, that allow us to access digital media instantly, anywhere and at any...

  1. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  2. Spatial vision in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravin eChakravarthi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris is one of the most commonly used insect models to investigate visually guided behavior and spatial vision in particular. Two fundamental measures of spatial vision are spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity. In this study, we report the threshold of spatial resolution in B. terrestris and characterize the contrast sensitivity function of the bumblebee visual system for a dual choice discrimination task. We trained bumblebees in a Y-maze experimental set-up to associate a vertical sinusoidal grating with a sucrose reward, and a horizontal grating with absence of a reward. Using a logistic psychometric function, we estimated a resolution threshold of 0.21 cycles deg-1 of visual angle. This resolution is in the same range but slightly lower than that found in honeybees (Apis mellifera and A. cerana and another bumblebee species (B. impatiens. We also found that the contrast sensitivity of B. terrestris was 1.57 for the spatial frequency 0.09 cycles deg-1 and 1.26. for 0.18 cycles deg-1.

  3. Terrestrial dissolved organic matter distribution in the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Stuart C; Lapworth, Dan J; Woodward, E Malcolm S; Kroeger, Silke; Evans, Chris D; Mayor, Daniel J; Sanders, Richard J

    2018-07-15

    The flow of terrestrial carbon to rivers and inland waters is a major term in the global carbon cycle. The organic fraction of this flux may be buried, remineralized or ultimately stored in the deep ocean. The latter can only occur if terrestrial organic carbon can pass through the coastal and estuarine filter, a process of unknown efficiency. Here, data are presented on the spatial distribution of terrestrial fluorescent and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (FDOM and CDOM, respectively) throughout the North Sea, which receives organic matter from multiple distinct sources. We use FDOM and CDOM as proxies for terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) to test the hypothesis that tDOM is quantitatively transferred through the North Sea to the open North Atlantic Ocean. Excitation emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) revealed a single terrestrial humic-like class of compounds whose distribution was restricted to the coastal margins and, via an inverse salinity relationship, to major riverine inputs. Two distinct sources of fluorescent humic-like material were observed associated with the combined outflows of the Rhine, Weser and Elbe rivers in the south-eastern North Sea and the Baltic Sea outflow to the eastern central North Sea. The flux of tDOM from the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean appears insignificant, although tDOM export may occur through Norwegian coastal waters unsampled in our study. Our analysis suggests that the bulk of tDOM exported from the Northwest European and Scandinavian landmasses is buried or remineralized internally, with potential losses to the atmosphere. This interpretation implies that the residence time in estuarine and coastal systems exerts an important control over the fate of tDOM and needs to be considered when evaluating the role of terrestrial carbon losses in the global carbon cycle. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The terrestrial record of Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Donald R.; Byerly, Gary R.

    2018-04-01

    Until recently, the known impact record of the early Solar System lay exclusively on the surfaces of the Moon, Mars, and other bodies where it has not been erased by later weathering, erosion, impact gardening, and/or tectonism. Study of the cratered surfaces of these bodies led to the concept of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), an interval from about 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) during which the surfaces of the planets and moons in the inner Solar System were subject to unusually high rates of bombardment followed by a decline to present low impact rates by about 3.5 Ga. Over the past 30 years, however, it has become apparent that there is a terrestrial record of large impacts from at least 3.47 to 3.22 Ga and from 2.63 to 2.49 Ga. The present paper explores the earlier of these impact records, providing details about the nature of the 8 known ejecta layers that constitute the evidence for large terrestrial impacts during the earlier of these intervals, the inferred size of the impactors, and the potential effects of these impacts on crustal development and life. The existence of this record implies that LHB did not end abruptly at 3.8-3.7 Ga but rather that high impact rates, either continuous or as impact clusters, persisted until at least the close of the Archean at 2.5 Ga. It implies that the shift from external, impact-related controls on the long-term development of the surface system on the Earth to more internal, geodynamic controls may have occurred much later in geologic history than has been supposed previously.

  5. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Torsten M; Sander, P Martin

    2007-08-07

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys quenstedti. Comparison of their shell bone histology with that of extant turtles preferring either aquatic habitats or terrestrial habitats clearly reveals congruence with terrestrial turtle taxa. Similarities in the shell bones of these turtles are a diploe structure with well-developed external and internal cortices, weak vascularization of the compact bone layers and a dense nature of the interior cancellous bone with overall short trabeculae. On the other hand, 'aquatic' turtles tend to reduce cortical bone layers, while increasing overall vascularization of the bone tissue. In contrast to the study of limb bone proportions, the present study is independent from the uncommon preservation of appendicular skeletal elements in fossil turtles, enabling the palaeoecological study of a much broader range of incompletely known turtle taxa in the fossil record.

  6. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial water storage (TWS) comprises groundwater, soil moisture, surface water, snow,and ice. Groundwater typically varies more slowly than the other TWS components because itis not in direct contact with the atmosphere, but often it has a larger range of variability onmultiannual timescales (Rodell and Famiglietti, 2001; Alley et al., 2002). In situ groundwaterdata are only archived and made available by a few countries. However, monthly TWSvariations observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE; Tapley et al.,2004) satellite mission, which launched in 2002, are a reasonable proxy for unconfinedgroundwater at climatic scales.

  7. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  8. Terrestrial Zone Exoplanets and Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brenda

    2018-01-01

    One of the most exciting results from ALMA has been the detection of significant substructure within protoplanetary disks that can be linked to planet formation processes. For the first time, we are able to observe the process of assembly of material into larger bodies within such disks. It is not possible, however, for ALMA to probe the growth of planets in protoplanetary disks at small radii, i.e., in the terrestrial zone, where we expect rocky terrestrial planets to form. In this regime, the optical depths prohibit observation at the high frequencies observed by ALMA. To probe the effects of planet building processes and detect telltale gaps and signatures of planetary mass bodies at such small separations from the parent star, we require a facility of superior resolution and sensitivity at lower frequencies. The ngVLA is just such a facility. We will present the fundamental science that will be enabled by the ngVLA in protoplanetary disk structure and the formation of planets. In addition, we will discuss the potential for an ngVLA facility to detect the molecules that are the building blocks of life, reaching limits well beyond those reachable with the current generation of telescopes, and also to determine whether such planets will be habitable based on studies of the impact of stars on their nearest planetary neighbours.

  9. Riparian vegetation in the alpine connectome: Terrestrial-aquatic and terrestrial-terrestrial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Palanca-Soler, Antonio; Hooda, Peter S; Tanase, Catalin; Burghelea, Carmen I; Lester, Richard N

    2017-12-01

    Alpine regions are under increased attention worldwide for their critical role in early biogeochemical cycles, their high sensitivity to environmental change, and as repositories of natural resources of high quality. Their riparian ecosystems, at the interface between aquatic and terrestrial environments, play important geochemical functions in the watershed and are biodiversity hotspots, despite a harsh climate and topographic setting. With climate change rapidly affecting the alpine biome, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the extent of interactions between riparian surface, lake and catchment environments. A total of 189 glacial - origin lakes were surveyed in the Central Pyrenees to test how key elements of the lake and terrestrial environments interact at different scales to shape riparian plant composition. Secondly, we evaluated how underlying ecotope features drive the formation of natural communities potentially sensitive to environmental change and assessed their habitat distribution. At the macroscale, vegetation composition responded to pan-climatic gradients altitude and latitude, which captured in a narrow geographic area the transition between large European climatic zones. Hydrodynamics was the main catchment-scale factor connecting riparian vegetation with major water fluxes, followed by topography and geomorphology. Lake sediment Mg and Pb, and water Mn and Fe contents reflected local influences from mafic bedrock and soil water saturation. Community analysis identified four keystone ecosystems: (i) damp ecotone, (ii) snow bed-silicate bedrock, (iii) wet heath, and (iv) calcareous substrate. These communities and their connections with ecotope elements could be at risk from a number of environmental change factors including warmer seasons, snow line and lowland species advancement, increased nutrient/metal input and water level fluctuations. The results imply important natural terrestrial-aquatic linkages in the riparian environment

  10. IERS and its importance for global geodynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, J.; Vondrák, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 131 (2003), s. 7-15 ISSN 1211-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : astrometry * geodesy * geodynamics Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  11. NCSP IER 422 CED-3b Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-22

    A Subcritical Copper-Reflected α-phase Plutonium (SCRαP) integral benchmark experiment has been designed and measured. In this experiment, multiplication is approximated using correlated neutron data from a detector system consisting of 3He tubes inside high density polyethylene (HDPE). Measurements were performed on various subcritical experimental configurations consisting of a weapons-grade plutonium sphere surrounded by different Cu thicknesses. In addition to the proposed base experimental configurations with Cu, additional configurations were performed with the plutonium ball nested in various thicknesses of interleaved HDPE spherical shells mixed in with the Cu shells. The HDPE is intended to provide fast neutron moderation and reflection, resulting in additional measurements with differing multiplication, spectra, and nuclear data sensitivity.

  12. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3...

  13. Terrestrial ecology. Comprehensive study of the grassland biome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Terrestrial ecology and grassland biome studies are designed to characterize the biota of the Hanford Reservation, elucidate seasonal dynamics of plant productivity, decomposition and mineral behavior patterns of important plant communities, and, to study the response of these communities to important natural environmental stresses, such as weather, wildfire and man-induced alterations of communities (influenced by grazing cattle and severe mechanical disturbance of the soil, such as affected by plowing or burial of waste materials or construction activities). A detailed account of the important findings of a 5-yr study is currently being prepared by the terrestrial ecology section staff for publication as a contribution to the International Biological Program Grassland Biome project

  14. Survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J L; Ivanova, E S; Hatteland, B A; Brurberg, M B; Haukeland, S

    2016-09-01

    A survey of nematodes associated with terrestrial slugs was conducted for the first time in Norway. A total of 611 terrestrial slugs were collected from 32 sample sites. Slugs were identified by means of morphological examination, dissection of genitalia and molecular analysis using mitochondrial DNA. Twelve slug species were identified, representing four different slug families. Internal nematodes were identified by means of morphological analysis and the sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Of the sample sites studied, 62.5% were found to be positive for nematode parasites, with 18.7% of all slugs discovered being infected. Five nematode species were identified in this study: Alloionema appendiculatum, Agfa flexilis, Angiostoma limacis, Angiostoma sp. and Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Of these species, only one nematode was previously undescribed (Angiostoma sp.). This is the first record of the presence of A. appendiculatum, A. flexilis and A. limacis in Norway.

  15. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  16. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  17. The Solar-Terrestrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, John Keith

    1995-05-01

    The book begins with three introductory chapters that provide some basic physics and explain the principles of physical investigation. The principal material contained in the main part of the book covers the neutral and ionized upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and structures, dynamics, disturbances, and irregularities. The concluding chapter deals with technological applications. The account is introductory, at a level suitable for readers with a basic background in engineering or physics. The intent is to present basic concepts, and for that reason, the mathematical treatment is not complex. SI units are given throughout, with helpful notes on cgs units where these are likely to be encountered in the research literature. This book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students who are taking introductory courses on upper atmospheric, ionospheric, or magnetospheric physics. This is a successor to The Upper Atmosphere and Solar-Terrestrial Relations, published in 1979.

  18. Radionuclide transfer in terrestrial animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGregorio, D.; Kitchings, T.; Van Voris, P.

    1978-01-01

    The analysis of dispersion of radionuclides in terrestrial food chains, generally, is a series of equations identifying the fractional input and outflow rates from trophic level to trophic level. Data that are prerequisite inputs for these food chain transport models include: (1) identification of specific transport pathway, (2) assimilation at each pathway link, and (3) the turnover rate or retention function by successive receptor species in the appropriate food chain. In this report, assimilation coefficients, biological half-lives, and excretion rates for a wide variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species and radionuclides have been compiled from an extensive search of the available literature. Using the information accumulated from the literature, correlations of nuclide metabolism and body weight are also discussed. (author)

  19. Methyl mercury in terrestrial compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeppler, M.; Burow, M.; Padberg, S.; May, K.

    1993-09-01

    On the basis of the analytical methodology available at present the state of the art for the determination of total mercury and of various organometallic compounds of mercury in air, precipitation, limnic systems, soils, plants and biota is reviewed. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of examples for the data obtained hitherto for trace and ultratrace levels of total mercury and mainly methyl mercury in terrestrial and limnic environments as well as in biota. The data discussed stem predominantly from the past decade in which, due to significant methodological progress, many new aspects were elucidated. They include the most important results in this area achieved by the Research Centre (KFA) Juelich within the project 'Origin and Fate of Methyl Mercury' (contracts EV4V-0138-D and STEP-CT90-0057) supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Brussels. (orig.) [de

  20. Traumatic insemination in terrestrial arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Cassis, Gerasimos; Siva-Jothy, Michael T

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic insemination is a bizarre form of mating practiced by some invertebrates in which males use hypodermic genitalia to penetrate their partner's body wall during copulation, frequently bypassing the female genital tract and ejaculating into their blood system. The requirements for traumatic insemination to evolve are stringent, yet surprisingly it has arisen multiple times within invertebrates. In terrestrial arthropods traumatic insemination is most prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha, where it has evolved independently at least three times. Traumatic insemination is thought to occur in the Strepsiptera and has recently been recorded in fruit fly and spider lineages. We review the putative selective pressures that may have led to the evolution of traumatic insemination across these lineages, as well as the pressures that continue to drive divergence in male and female reproductive morphology and behavior. Traumatic insemination mechanisms and attributes are compared across independent lineages.

  1. Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhatre, Saurabh; Nesari, Tanuja; Somani, Gauresh; Kanchan, Divya; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae), commonly known as Gokshur or Gokharu or puncture vine, has been used for a long time in both the Indian and Chinese systems of medicine for treatment of various kinds of diseases. Its various parts contain a variety of chemical constituents which are medicinally important, such as flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, steroidal saponins, and alkaloids. It has diuretic, aphrodisiac, antiurolithic, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, absorption enhancing, hypolipidemic, cardiotonic, central nervous system, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antispasmodic, anticancer, antibacterial, anthelmintic, larvicidal, and anticariogenic activities. For the last few decades or so, extensive research work has been done to prove its biological activities and the pharmacology of its extracts. The aim of this review is to create a database for further investigations of the discovered phytochemical and pharmacological properties of this plant to promote research. This will help in confirmation of its traditional use along with its value-added utility, eventually leading to higher revenues from the plant. PMID:24600195

  2. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  3. Terrestrial pathways of radionuclide particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Ng, Y.C.

    1981-01-01

    Formulations are developed for computing potential human intake of 13 radionuclides via the terrestrial food chains. The formulations are an extension of the NRC methodology. Specific regional crop and livestock transfer and fractional distribution data from the southern part of the U.S.A. are provided and used in the computation of comparative values with those computed by means of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.109 formulations. In the development of the model, emphasis was also placed on identifying the various time-delay compartments of the food chains and accounting for all of the activity initially deposited. For all radionuclides considered, except 137 Cs, the new formulations predict lower potential intakes from the total of all food chains combined than do the comparable Regulatory Guide formulations by as much as a factor of 40. For 137 Cs the new formulations predict 10% higher potential intakes. (author)

  4. A Spherical Aerial Terrestrial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher J.

    This thesis focuses on the design of a novel, ultra-lightweight spherical aerial terrestrial robot (ATR). The ATR has the ability to fly through the air or roll on the ground, for applications that include search and rescue, mapping, surveillance, environmental sensing, and entertainment. The design centers around a micro-quadcopter encased in a lightweight spherical exoskeleton that can rotate about the quadcopter. The spherical exoskeleton offers agile ground locomotion while maintaining characteristics of a basic aerial robot in flying mode. A model of the system dynamics for both modes of locomotion is presented and utilized in simulations to generate potential trajectories for aerial and terrestrial locomotion. Details of the quadcopter and exoskeleton design and fabrication are discussed, including the robot's turning characteristic over ground and the spring-steel exoskeleton with carbon fiber axle. The capabilities of the ATR are experimentally tested and are in good agreement with model-simulated performance. An energy analysis is presented to validate the overall efficiency of the robot in both modes of locomotion. Experimentally-supported estimates show that the ATR can roll along the ground for over 12 minutes and cover the distance of 1.7 km, or it can fly for 4.82 minutes and travel 469 m, on a single 350 mAh battery. Compared to a traditional flying-only robot, the ATR traveling over the same distance in rolling mode is 2.63-times more efficient, and in flying mode the system is only 39 percent less efficient. Experimental results also demonstrate the ATR's transition from rolling to flying mode.

  5. Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of Tribulus Terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harraz, Fathalla M; Ghazy, Nabila M; Hammoda, Hala M; Nafeaa, Abeer A.; Abdallah, Ingy I.

    2015-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. has been used in folk medicine throughout history. The present study examined the acute toxicity of the total ethanolic extract of T. Terrestris followed by investigation of the hepatoprotective activity of the total ethanolic extract and different fractions of the aerial

  6. Towards a global terrestrial species monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, Dirk S.; Julliard, Romain; Bellingham, Peter J.; Böhm, Monika; Brummitt, Neil; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Couvet, Denis; Elmendorf, Sarah; Forsyth, David M.; Moreno, Jaime García; Gregory, Richard D.; Magnusson, William E.; Martin, Laura J.; McGeoch, Melodie A.; Mihoub, Jean-Baptiste; Pereira, Henrique M.; Proença, Vânia; van Swaay, Chris A.M.; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Belnap, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Convention for Biological Diversity’s (CBD) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 envisions that “By 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used, maintaining ecosystem services, sustaining a healthy planet and delivering benefits essential for all people.” Although 193 parties have adopted these goals, there is little infrastructure in place to monitor global biodiversity trends. Recent international conservation policy requires such data to be up-to-date, reliable, comparable among sites, relevant, and understandable; as is becoming obvious from the work plan adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES: www.ipbes.net/; http://tinyurl.com/ohdnknq). In order to meet the five strategic goals of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and its 20 accompanying Aichi Targets for 2020 (www.cbd.int/sp/targets/), advances need to be made in coordinating large-scale biodiversity monitoring and linking these with environmental data to develop a comprehensive Global Observation Network, as is the main idea behind GEOSS the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (Christian 2005)...Here we identify ten requirements important for the successful implementation of a global biodiversity monitoring network under the flag of GEO BON and especially a global terrestrial species monitoring program.

  7. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry, E-mail: wade.g.henning@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R{sub E} is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  8. Tidal Heating in Multilayered Terrestrial Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R(sub E) is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  9. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R E is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  10. Development of ITS sequence based molecular marker to distinguish, Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) from its adulterants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramani, Subramani Paranthaman; Murugan, Ramar; Ravikumar, Kaliamoorthy; Venkatasubramanian, Padma

    2010-09-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) is one of the highly traded raw drugs and also used as a stimulative food additive in Europe and USA. While, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India recognizes T. terrestris as Goksura, Tribulus lanuginosus and T. subramanyamii are also traded by the same name raising issues of quality control. The nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and ITS (internal transcribed spacer) sequence were used to develop species-specific DNA markers. The species-specific markers efficiently amplified 295bp for T. terrestris (TT1F and TT1R), 300bp for T. lanuginosus (TL1F and TL1R) and 214bp for T. subramanyamii (TS1F and TS1R). These DNA markers can be used to distinguish T. terrestris from its adulterants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A Model International Partnership for Community-based Research on Vaccine-preventable Diseases: the Kamphaeng Phet-AFRIMS Virology Research Unit (KAVRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    4500 Table 3 Acknowledgment of contributions. Participant Role Albert Sabin Led effort to make JEV Vaccine during WWII Richard Mason Member of...R A v R R K D S a b c d e f g h i j a A R R A A K V S J H D I C T P p ( C t 0 h Vaccine 31 (2013) 4487– 4500 Contents lists available at...ScienceDirect Vaccine jou rn al hom ep age: www.elsev ier .com/ locat e/vacc ine eview model international partnership for community-based research on

  12. Does terrestrial epidemiology apply to marine systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Hamish I.; Kuris, Armand M.; Harvell, C. Drew; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Smith, Garriet W.; Porter, James

    2004-01-01

    Most of epidemiological theory has been developed for terrestrial systems, but the significance of disease in the ocean is now being recognized. However, the extent to which terrestrial epidemiology can be directly transferred to marine systems is uncertain. Many broad types of disease-causing organism occur both on land and in the sea, and it is clear that some emergent disease problems in marine environments are caused by pathogens moving from terrestrial to marine systems. However, marine systems are qualitatively different from terrestrial environments, and these differences affect the application of modelling and management approaches that have been developed for terrestrial systems. Phyla and body plans are more diverse in marine environments and marine organisms have different life histories and probably different disease transmission modes than many of their terrestrial counterparts. Marine populations are typically more open than terrestrial ones, with the potential for long-distance dispersal of larvae. Potentially, this might enable unusually rapid propagation of epidemics in marine systems, and there are several examples of this. Taken together, these differences will require the development of new approaches to modelling and control of infectious disease in the ocean.

  13. The solar generation childhood and adolescence of terrestrial photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Philip R

    2018-01-01

    The first book to address the early development of the photovoltaic industry, and the pioneering researchers and companies in the sector. Well before the end of this century, solar power will be the world's dominant power source. This book looks at the origins of this smart sustainable energy technology, tracing the pioneering years from its inception following the 1973 oil crisis to the end of the last millennium—just as the sector was poised for explosive growth. It focuses on the progress of the early terrestrial photovoltaic sector, often in the face of skepticism or apathy. It also covers the research and achievements of people and organizations within the PV business. Written by a leader in the field with more than 40 years of experience and an international reputation in the sustainable energy industry, The Solar Generation: Childhood and Adolescence of Terrestrial Photovoltaics offers enlightening coverage on the terrestrial PV industry. The first part of this 3-volume set provides a historical bac...

  14. Terrestrial ecosystems: an ecological content for radionuclide research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heal, O.W.; Horrill, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution and retention of radionuclides within terrestrial ecosystems varies greatly with both the radionuclide and the environmental conditions. Physico-chemical conditions, particularly those of the soil, strongly influence element retention but superimposed and interacting with these conditions are the biological processes which control the dynamics of the labile fraction of most elements. Net ecosystem production expresses the complementary biological processes of primary production and decomposition which control the internal element dynamics and the balance of inputs to and outputs from terrestrial ecosystems. Analysis of ecosystem structure and function has shown that although research often concentrates on relatively stable stages of ecosystem development, element retention is high during the early stages of ecosystem succession through the accumulation of plant biomass and dead organic matter. Element output tends to increase with time reaching a balance with inputs in mature ecosystems. Following disturbance, plant uptake tends to be reduced and decomposition stimulated, resulting in increased output until secondary succession and accumulation is re-established. Research on element dynamics in ecosystems indicates that major factors influencing the mobility of radionuclides in terrestrial systems will be the successional state of the ecosystem and intensity of disturbance. (author)

  15. Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Li-Ping; Wu, Ke-Lei; Yu, He-Shui; Pang, Xu; Liu, Jie; Han, Li-Feng; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yang; Xiong, Cheng-Qi; Song, Xin-Bo; Liu, Chao; Cong, Yu-Wen; Ma, Bai-Ping

    2014-11-01

    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex ratio variation in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duchateau, Marie José; Velthuis, Hayo H. W.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2004-01-01

    Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation......Bombus terrestris, bumblebees, colony development, queen control, reproductive strategies, sex allocation...

  17. The Circumpolar Biodiversity Monitoring Program Terrestrial Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity, and to identify knowledge gaps and priorities. This poster will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based monitoring...... and coastal environments. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan is a framework to focus and coordinate monitoring of terrestrial biodiversity across the Arctic. The goal of the plan is to improve the collective ability of Arctic traditional knowledge (TK) holders, northern communities, and scientists to detect...

  18. Methane emissions form terrestrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, P.; Dentener, F.; Grassi, G.; Leip, A.; Somogyi, Z.; Federici, S.; Seufert, G.; Raes, F. [European Commission, DG Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Ispra (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In a recent issue of Nature Keppler et al. (2006) report the discovery that terrestrial plants emit CH4 under aerobic conditions. Until now it was thought that bacterial decomposition of plant material under anaerobic conditions, such as in wetlands and water flooded rice paddies, is the main process leading to emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. In a first attempt to upscale these measurements, the authors estimate that global total emissions may be 149 Tg CH4/yr (62-236 Tg CH4/yr), with the main contribution estimated from tropical forests and grasslands (107 Tg CH4/yr with a range of 46-169 Tg CH4/yr). If confirmed, this new source of emission would constitute a significant fraction of the total global methane sources (estimated 500-600 Tg CH4/yr for present day total natural and anthropogenic sources) and have important implications for the global CH4 budget. To accommodate it within the present budget some sources would need to be re-assessed downwards and/or some sinks re-assessed upwards. Furthermore, also considering that methane is a {approx}23 times more powerful greenhouse gas than CO2, the possible feedbacks of these hitherto unknown CH4 emissions on global warming and their impacts on greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation strategies need to be carefully evaluated. The merit of the paper is without doubt related to the remarkable discovery of a new process of methane emissions active under aerobic conditions. However, we think that the applied approach of scaling up emissions from the leaf level to global totals by using only few measured data (mainly from herbaceous species) and the Net Primary Productivity of the main biomes is scientifically questionable and tends to overestimate considerably the global estimates, especially for forest biomes. Furthermore, some significant constraints on the upper limit of the global natural CH4 emissions arise from the pre-industrial CH4 budget. Pre-industrial atmospheric CH4 mixing ratios have been measured

  19. Possible climates on terrestrial exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, F; Leconte, J

    2014-04-28

    What kind of environment may exist on terrestrial planets around other stars? In spite of the lack of direct observations, it may not be premature to speculate on exoplanetary climates, for instance, to optimize future telescopic observations or to assess the probability of habitable worlds. To begin with, climate primarily depends on (i) the atmospheric composition and the volatile inventory; (ii) the incident stellar flux; and (iii) the tidal evolution of the planetary spin, which can notably lock a planet with a permanent night side. The atmospheric composition and mass depends on complex processes, which are difficult to model: origins of volatiles, atmospheric escape, geochemistry, photochemistry, etc. We discuss physical constraints, which can help us to speculate on the possible type of atmosphere, depending on the planet size, its final distance for its star and the star type. Assuming that the atmosphere is known, the possible climates can be explored using global climate models analogous to the ones developed to simulate the Earth as well as the other telluric atmospheres in the solar system. Our experience with Mars, Titan and Venus suggests that realistic climate simulators can be developed by combining components, such as a 'dynamical core', a radiative transfer solver, a parametrization of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection, a thermal ground model and a volatile phase change code. On this basis, we can aspire to build reliable climate predictors for exoplanets. However, whatever the accuracy of the models, predicting the actual climate regime on a specific planet will remain challenging because climate systems are affected by strong positive feedbacks. They can drive planets with very similar forcing and volatile inventory to completely different states. For instance, the coupling among temperature, volatile phase changes and radiative properties results in instabilities, such as runaway glaciations and runaway greenhouse effect.

  20. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  1. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering

    OpenAIRE

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Philip; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimi...

  2. Parallel Computing for Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dali; Post, Wilfred M.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Berry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a primary component of research on global environmental change. Observational and modeling research on terrestrial ecosystems at the global scale, however, has lagged behind their counterparts for oceanic and atmospheric systems, largely because the unique challenges associated with the tremendous diversity and complexity of terrestrial ecosystems. There are 8 major types of terrestrial ecosystem: tropical rain forest, savannas, deserts, temperate grassland, deciduous forest, coniferous forest, tundra, and chaparral. The carbon cycle is an important mechanism in the coupling of terrestrial ecosystems with climate through biological fluxes of CO 2 . The influence of terrestrial ecosystems on atmospheric CO 2 can be modeled via several means at different timescales. Important processes include plant dynamics, change in land use, as well as ecosystem biogeography. Over the past several decades, many terrestrial ecosystem models (see the 'Model developments' section) have been developed to understand the interactions between terrestrial carbon storage and CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, as well as the consequences of these interactions. Early TECMs generally adapted simple box-flow exchange models, in which photosynthetic CO 2 uptake and respiratory CO 2 release are simulated in an empirical manner with a small number of vegetation and soil carbon pools. Demands on kinds and amount of information required from global TECMs have grown. Recently, along with the rapid development of parallel computing, spatially explicit TECMs with detailed process based representations of carbon dynamics become attractive, because those models can readily incorporate a variety of additional ecosystem processes (such as dispersal, establishment, growth, mortality etc.) and environmental factors (such as landscape position, pest populations, disturbances, resource manipulations, etc.), and provide information to frame policy options for climate change

  3. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  4. Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.

    2013-12-01

    Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.

  5. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  6. Anthropogenic transformation of the terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erle C

    2011-03-13

    Human populations and their use of land have transformed most of the terrestrial biosphere into anthropogenic biomes (anthromes), causing a variety of novel ecological patterns and processes to emerge. To assess whether human populations and their use of land have directly altered the terrestrial biosphere sufficiently to indicate that the Earth system has entered a new geological epoch, spatially explicit global estimates of human populations and their use of land were analysed across the Holocene for their potential to induce irreversible novel transformation of the terrestrial biosphere. Human alteration of the terrestrial biosphere has been significant for more than 8000 years. However, only in the past century has the majority of the terrestrial biosphere been transformed into intensively used anthromes with predominantly novel anthropogenic ecological processes. At present, even were human populations to decline substantially or use of land become far more efficient, the current global extent, duration, type and intensity of human transformation of ecosystems have already irreversibly altered the terrestrial biosphere at levels sufficient to leave an unambiguous geological record differing substantially from that of the Holocene or any prior epoch. It remains to be seen whether the anthropogenic biosphere will be sustained and continue to evolve.

  7. Groundwater and Terrestrial Water Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodell, Matthew; Chambers, Don P.; Famiglietti, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Most people think of groundwater as a resource, but it is also a useful indicator of climate variability and human impacts on the environment. Groundwater storage varies slowly relative to other non-frozen components of the water cycle, encapsulating long period variations and trends in surface meteorology. On seasonal to interannual timescales, groundwater is as dynamic as soil moisture, and it has been shown that groundwater storage changes have contributed to sea level variations. Groundwater monitoring well measurements are too sporadic and poorly assembled outside of the United States and a few other nations to permit direct global assessment of groundwater variability. However, observational estimates of terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations from the GRACE satellites largely represent groundwater storage variations on an interannual basis, save for high latitude/altitude (dominated by snow and ice) and wet tropical (surface water) regions. A figure maps changes in mean annual TWS from 2009 to 2010, based on GRACE, reflecting hydroclimatic conditions in 2010. Severe droughts impacted Russia and the Amazon, and drier than normal weather also affected the Indochinese peninsula, parts of central and southern Africa, and western Australia. Groundwater depletion continued in northern India, while heavy rains in California helped to replenish aquifers that have been depleted by drought and withdrawals for irrigation, though they are still below normal levels. Droughts in northern Argentina and western China similarly abated. Wet weather raised aquifer levels broadly across western Europe. Rains in eastern Australia caused flooding to the north and helped to mitigate a decade long drought in the south. Significant reductions in TWS seen in the coast of Alaska and the Patagonian Andes represent ongoing glacier melt, not groundwater depletion. Figures plot time series of zonal mean and global GRACE derived non-seasonal TWS anomalies (deviation from the mean of

  8. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.W. King; R.J. Andres; K J. Davis; M. Hafer; D.J. Hayes; D.N. Huntzinger; B. de Jong; W.A. Kurz; A.D. McGuire; R. Vargas; Y. Wei; T.O. West; C.W. Woodall

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net...

  9. IntCal04 terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 0-26 cal kyr BP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, Paula J.; Baillie, Mike G.L.; Bard, Edouard; Bayliss, Alex; Beck, J. Warren; Bertrand, Chanda J.H.; Blackwell, Paul G.; Buck, Caitlin E.; Burr, George S.; Cutler, Kirsten B.; Damon, Paul E.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Fairbanks, Richard G.; Friedrich, Michael; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Hogg, Alan G.; Hughen, Konrad A.; Kromer, Bernd; McCormac, Gerry; Manning, Sturt; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Reimer, Ron W.; Remmele, Sabine; Southon, John R.; Stuiver, Minze; Talamo, Sahra; Taylor, F.W.; Plicht, Johannes van der; Weyhenmeyer, Constanze E.

    2004-01-01

    A new calibration curve for the conversion of radiocarbon ages to calibrated (cal) ages has been constructed and internationally ratified to replace IntCal98, which extended from 0–24 cal kyr BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950). The new calibration data set for terrestrial samples extends from

  10. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.

    2006-03-01

    This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began) and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production) and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in plant growth has

  11. Biological control of the terrestrial carbon sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-D. Schulze

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture reviews the past (since 1964 when the International Biological Program began and the future of our understanding of terrestrial carbon fluxes with focus on photosynthesis, respiration, primary-, ecosystem-, and biome-productivity. Photosynthetic capacity is related to the nitrogen concentration of leaves, but the capacity is only rarely reached under field conditions. Average rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance are closely correlated and operate near 50% of their maximal rate, with light being the limiting factor in humid regions and air humidity and soil water the limiting factor in arid climates. Leaf area is the main factor to extrapolate from leaves to canopies, with maximum surface conductance being dependent on leaf level stomatal conductance. Additionally, gas exchange depends also on rooting depth which determines the water and nutrient availability and on mycorrhizae which regulate the nutrient status. An important anthropogenic disturbance is the nitrogen uptake from air pollutants, which is not balanced by cation uptake from roots and this may lead to damage and breakdown of the plant cover. Photosynthesis is the main carbon input into ecosystems, but it alone does not represent the ecosystem carbon balance, which is determined by respiration of various kinds. Plant respiration and photosynthesis determine growth (net primary production and microbial respiration balances the net ecosystem flux. In a spruce forest, 30% of the assimilatory carbon gain is used for respiration of needles, 20% is used for respiration in stems. Soil respiration is about 50% the carbon gain, half of which is root respiration, half is microbial respiration. In addition, disturbances lead to carbon losses, where fire, harvest and grazing bypass the chain of respiration. In total, the carbon balance at the biome level is only about 1% of the photosynthetic carbon input, or may indeed become negative. The recent observed increase in

  12. Microplastics in the terrestrial ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.D.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, <150 μm)

  13. Theoretical Prediction of Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectra of R- Glyceraldehyde, R-Erythrose, and R-Threose. 2. Development of a Procedure to Scale the Force Constant Matrix Expressed in Terms of Internal Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    IS PROGRAM NUMBER 1 OF THE COMPLETE VIBRATIONAL PACKAGE. C C BMAT ... WIL.riON B MATRIX ELDEMETS FOR INTERNAL COORDINATES C iVERSIONO JUL 28, 1977) C...MATRIX ISCAN=ISCAN+ 1 IER=O GO TO 30 210 WRITE(6,1120) STOP 1000 FORMAT(20A4/20A4/214) 1010 FORMAT(’l’,20A4,24X.’ BMAT (VERSIONO JUL 28. 1977)’/1X,20A4

  14. Terrestrial Energy bets on molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial Energy is a Canadian enterprise, founded in 2013, for marketing the integral molten salt reactor (IMSR). A first prototype (called MSRE and with an energy output of 8 MW) was designed and operated between 1965 and 1969 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. IMSR is a small, modular reactor with a thermal energy output of 400 MW. According to Terrestrial Energy the technology of conventional power reactors is too complicated and too expensive. On the contrary IMSR's technology appears to be simple, easy to operate and affordable. With a staff of 30 people Terrestrial Energy appears to be a start-up in the nuclear sector. A process of pre-licensing will be launched in 2016 with the Canadian nuclear safety authority. (A.C.)

  15. Ancient Terrestrial Carbon: Lost and Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon fluxes in terrestrial environments dominate the global carbon cycle. The fluxes of terrestrial carbon are strongly tied to regional climate due to the influences of temperature, water, and nutrient dynamics on plant productivity. However, climate also influences the destruction of terrestrial organic matter, through weathering, erosion, and biomass loss via fire and oxidative microbial processes. Organic geochemical methods enable us to interrogate past terrestrial carbon dynamics and learn how continental processes might accelerate, or mitigate carbon transfer to the atmosphere, and the associated greenhouse warming. Terrestrial soil systems represent the weathering rind of the continents, and are inherently non-depositional and erosive. The production, transport, and depositional processes affecting organics in continental settings each impart their own biases on the amount and characteristics of preserved carbon. Typically, the best archives for biomarker records are sediments in ancient lakes or subaqueous fans, which represents a preservation bias that tends to favor wetter environments. Paleosols, or ancient soils, formed under depositional conditions that, for one reason or another, truncated soil ablation, erosion, or other loss processes. In modern soils, widely ranging organic carbon abundances are almost always substantially greater than the trace amounts of carbon left behind in ancient soils. Even so, measureable amounts of organic biomarkers persist in paleosols. We have been investigating processes that preserve soil organic carbon on geologic timescales, and how these mechanisms may be sensitive to past climate change. Climate-linked changes in temperature, moisture, pH, and weathering processes can impact carbon preservation via organo-mineral sorption, soil biogeochemistry, and stability based on the physical and chemical properties of organic compounds. These will be discussed and illustrated with examples from our studies of Cenozoic

  16. Evolutionary tracks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Takafumi; Abe, Yutaka

    1987-01-01

    On the basis of the model proposed by Matsui and Abe, the authors show that two major factors - distance from the Sun and the efficiency of retention of accretional energy - control the early evolution of the terrestrial planets. A diagram of accretional energy versus the optical depth of a proto-atmosphere provides a means to follow the evolutionary track of surface temperature of the terrestrial planets and an explanation for why the third planet in our solar system is an 'aqua'-planet. 15 refs; 3 figs

  17. Magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    An overview is given of quantitative comparisons between measured phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere thought to be associated with magnetic reconnection, and related theoretical predictions based on Petschek's simple model. Although such a comparison cannot be comprehensive because of the extended nature of the process and the relatively few in situ multipoint measurements made to date, the agreement is impressive where comparisons have been possible. This result leaves little doubt that magnetic reconnection does indeed occur in the terrestrial magnetosphere. The maximum reconnection rate, expressed in terms of the inflow Mach number, M/sub A/, is measured to be M/sub A/ = 0.2 +- 0.1

  18. Terrestrial propagation of long electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial Propagation of Long Electromagnetic Waves deals with the propagation of long electromagnetic waves confined principally to the shell between the earth and the ionosphere, known as the terrestrial waveguide. The discussion is limited to steady-state solutions in a waveguide that is uniform in the direction of propagation. Wave propagation is characterized almost exclusively by mode theory. The mathematics are developed only for sources at the ground surface or within the waveguide, including artificial sources as well as lightning discharges. This volume is comprised of nine chapte

  19. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40

  20. Terrestrial and exposure histories of Antarctic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    1986-01-01

    Records of cosmogenic effects were studied in a large suite of Antarctic meteorites. The cosmogenic nuclide measurements together with cosmic ray track measurements on Antartic meteorites provide information such as exposure age, terrestrial age, size and depth in meteoroid or parent body, influx rate in the past, and pairing. The terrestrail age is the time period between the fall of the meteorite on the Earth and the present. To define terrestrial age, two or more nuclides with different half-lives and possibly noble gases are required. The cosmogenic radionuclides used are C-14, Kr-81, Cl-36, Al-26, Be-10, Mn-53, and K-40.

  1. Global screening for Critical Habitat in the terrestrial realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauneder, Kerstin M; Montes, Chloe; Blyth, Simon; Bennun, Leon; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hoffmann, Michael; Burgess, Neil D; Cuttelod, Annabelle; Jones, Matt I; Kapos, Val; Pilgrim, John; Tolley, Melissa J; Underwood, Emma C; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Brooks, Sharon E

    2018-01-01

    Critical Habitat has become an increasingly important concept used by the finance sector and businesses to identify areas of high biodiversity value. The International Finance Corporation (IFC) defines Critical Habitat in their highly influential Performance Standard 6 (PS6), requiring projects in Critical Habitat to achieve a net gain of biodiversity. Here we present a global screening layer of Critical Habitat in the terrestrial realm, derived from global spatial datasets covering the distributions of 12 biodiversity features aligned with guidance provided by the IFC. Each biodiversity feature is categorised as 'likely' or 'potential' Critical Habitat based on: 1. Alignment between the biodiversity feature and the IFC Critical Habitat definition; and 2. Suitability of the spatial resolution for indicating a feature's presence on the ground. Following the initial screening process, Critical Habitat must then be assessed in-situ by a qualified assessor. This analysis indicates that a total of 10% and 5% of the global terrestrial environment can be considered as likely and potential Critical Habitat, respectively, while the remaining 85% did not overlap with any of the biodiversity features assessed and was classified as 'unknown'. Likely Critical Habitat was determined principally by the occurrence of Key Biodiversity Areas and Protected Areas. Potential Critical Habitat was predominantly characterised by data representing highly threatened and unique ecosystems such as ever-wet tropical forests and tropical dry forests. The areas we identified as likely or potential Critical Habitat are based on the best available global-scale data for the terrestrial realm that is aligned with IFC's Critical Habitat definition. Our results can help businesses screen potential development sites at the early project stage based on a range of biodiversity features. However, the study also demonstrates several important data gaps and highlights the need to incorporate new and

  2. Po-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial and freshwater environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Brown, Justin [eds.; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Holm, Elis [Univ. of Lund (Sweden); Roos, Per [Risoe DTU (Denmark); Saxen, Ritva; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    This report provides new information on Po-210 (and where appropriate its grandparent Pb-210) behaviour in environmental systems including humans. This has primarily been achieved through measurements of Po-210 in aquatic and terrestrial environments that has led to the derivation of information on the levels of this radioisotope in plants, animals and the biotic components of their habitat (i.e. water, soil) providing basic information on transfer where practicable. For freshwater environments, Po-210 concentration ratios derived for freshwater benthic fish and bivalve mollusc were substantially different to values collated from earlier review work. For terrestrial environments, activity concentrations of Po-210 in small mammals (although of a preliminary nature because no correction was made for ingrowth from Pb-210) were considerably higher than values derived from earlier data compilations. It was envisaged that data on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides would render underpinning data sets more comprehensive and would thus allow more robust background dose calculations to be performed subsequently. By way of example, unweighted background dose-rates arising from internal distributions of Po-210 were calculated for small mammals in the terrestrial study. The biokinetics of polonium in humans has been studied following chronic and acute oral intakes of selected Po radioisotopes. This work has provided information on gastrointestinal absorption factors and biological retention times thus improving the database upon which committed effective doses to humans are derived. The information generated in the report, in its entirety, should be of direct relevance for both human and non-human impact assessments. (au)

  3. Po-210 and other radionuclides in terrestrial and freshwater environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjelsvik, Runhild; Brown, Justin; Roos, Per; Saxen, Ritva; Outola, Iisa

    2009-01-01

    This report provides new information on Po-210 (and where appropriate its grandparent Pb-210) behaviour in environmental systems including humans. This has primarily been achieved through measurements of Po-210 in aquatic and terrestrial environments that has led to the derivation of information on the levels of this radioisotope in plants, animals and the biotic components of their habitat (i.e. water, soil) providing basic information on transfer where practicable. For freshwater environments, Po-210 concentration ratios derived for freshwater benthic fish and bivalve mollusc were substantially different to values collated from earlier review work. For terrestrial environments, activity concentrations of Po-210 in small mammals (although of a preliminary nature because no correction was made for ingrowth from Pb-210) were considerably higher than values derived from earlier data compilations. It was envisaged that data on levels of naturally occurring radionuclides would render underpinning data sets more comprehensive and would thus allow more robust background dose calculations to be performed subsequently. By way of example, unweighted background dose-rates arising from internal distributions of Po-210 were calculated for small mammals in the terrestrial study. The biokinetics of polonium in humans has been studied following chronic and acute oral intakes of selected Po radioisotopes. This work has provided information on gastrointestinal absorption factors and biological retention times thus improving the database upon which committed effective doses to humans are derived. The information generated in the report, in its entirety, should be of direct relevance for both human and non-human impact assessments. (au)

  4. Acclimation of a terrestrial plant to submergence facilitates gas exchange under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommer, L.; Pedersen, O.; Visser, E. J. W.

    2004-01-01

    Flooding imposes stress upon terrestrial plants since it severely hampers gas exchange rates between the shoot and the environment. The resulting oxygen deficiency is considered to be the major problem for submerged plants. Oxygen microelectrode studies have, however, shown that aquatic plants...... of this terrestrial plant species to submergence for gas exchange capacity is also shown. Shoot acclimation to submergence involved a reduction of the diffusion resistance to gases, which was not only functional by increasing diffusion of oxygen into the plant, but also by increasing influx of CO2, which enhances...... maintain relatively high internal oxygen pressures under water, and even may release oxygen via the roots into the sediment, also in dark. Based on these results, we challenge the dogma that oxygen pressures in submerged terrestrial plants immediately drop to levels at which aerobic respiration is impaired...

  5. Microplastics in the Terrestrial Ecosystem: Implications for Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2016-03-01

    Plastic debris is widespread in the environment, but information on the effects of microplastics on terrestrial fauna is completely lacking. Here, we studied the survival and fitness of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) exposed to microplastics (Polyethylene, digestion of ingested organic matter, microplastic was concentrated in cast, especially at the lowest dose (i.e., 7% in litter) because that dose had the highest proportion of digestible organic matter. Whereas 50 percent of the microplastics had a size of earthworms. These concentration-transport and size-selection mechanisms may have important implications for fate and risk of microplastic in terrestrial ecosystems.

  6. Aquatic carbon cycling in the conterminous United States and implications for terrestrial carbon accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stets, Edward; McDonald, Cory P; Clow, David W; Striegl, Robert G

    2016-01-05

    Inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon. However, the transport of carbon through aquatic environments has not been quantitatively integrated in the context of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present the first integrated assessment, to our knowledge, of freshwater carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, where 106 (range: 71-149) teragrams of carbon per year (TgC⋅y(-1)) is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 21 (range: 9-65) TgC⋅y(-1) in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant flux at 69 (range: 36-110) TgC⋅y(-1) or 65% of the total aquatic carbon flux for the conterminous United States. Comparing our results with the output of a suite of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), we suggest that within the current modeling framework, calculations of net ecosystem production (NEP) defined as terrestrial only may be overestimated by as much as 27%. However, the internal production and mineralization of carbon in freshwaters remain to be quantified and would reduce the effect of including aquatic carbon fluxes within calculations of terrestrial NEP. Reconciliation of carbon mass-flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional research and modeling capacity.

  7. Aquatic carbon cycling in the conterminous United States and implications for terrestrial carbon accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, David; Stackpoole, Sarah; Stets, Edward; McDonald, Cory P.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Inland water ecosystems dynamically process, transport, and sequester carbon. However, the transport of carbon through aquatic environments has not been quantitatively integrated in the context of terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we present the first integrated assessment, to our knowledge, of freshwater carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, where 106 (range: 71–149) teragrams of carbon per year (TgC⋅y−1) is exported downstream or emitted to the atmosphere and sedimentation stores 21 (range: 9–65) TgC⋅y−1 in lakes and reservoirs. We show that there is significant regional variation in aquatic carbon flux, but verify that emission across stream and river surfaces represents the dominant flux at 69 (range: 36–110) TgC⋅y−1 or 65% of the total aquatic carbon flux for the conterminous United States. Comparing our results with the output of a suite of terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs), we suggest that within the current modeling framework, calculations of net ecosystem production (NEP) defined as terrestrial only may be overestimated by as much as 27%. However, the internal production and mineralization of carbon in freshwaters remain to be quantified and would reduce the effect of including aquatic carbon fluxes within calculations of terrestrial NEP. Reconciliation of carbon mass–flux interactions between terrestrial and aquatic carbon sources and sinks will require significant additional research and modeling capacity. PMID:26699473

  8. Forest inventory with terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauwens, Sébastien; Bartholomeus, Harm; Calders, Kim; Lejeune, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS) would reduce this occlusion. In this

  9. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  10. Solar and terrestrial radiation: methods and measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coulson, Kinsell L

    1975-01-01

    ... AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Ill Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10003 United Kingdom Edition published by A C A D E M I C PRESS, INC. (LONDON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NW1 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Coulson, Kinsell L Solar and terrestrial radiation. Inclu...

  11. Strategies for monitoring terrestrial animals and habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Holthausen; Raymond L. Czaplewski; Don DeLorenzo; Greg Hayward; Winifred B. Kessler; Pat Manley; Kevin S. McKelvey; Douglas S. Powell; Leonard F. Ruggiero; Michael K. Schwartz; Bea Van Horne; Christina D. Vojta

    2005-01-01

    This General Technical Report (GTR) addresses monitoring strategies for terrestrial animals and habitats. It focuses on monitoring associated with National Forest Management Act planning and is intended to apply primarily to monitoring efforts that are broader than individual National Forests. Primary topics covered in the GTR are monitoring requirements; ongoing...

  12. South African red data book - Terrestrial mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smithers, RHN

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 243 species of terrestrial wild mammals are known to occur in the Republic of South Africa. Using the well established IUCN definitions, 42 of these may be considered as exposed to some level of threat of extinction. Three species...

  13. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Bing-Bing; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Fang-Xu; Sun, Yan; Guo, Rui-Jie; Song, Xin-Bo; Xin, Hai-Li; Sun, Xin-Guang

    2016-03-30

    Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J-T (1-11), and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12), together with seven known steroidal saponins 13-19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  14. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Schlaepfer; Brent E. Ewers; Bryan N. Shuman; David G. Williams; John M. Frank; William J. Massman; William K. Lauenroth

    2014-01-01

    The fraction of evapotranspiration (ET) attributed to plant transpiration (T) is an important source of uncertainty in terrestrial water fluxes and land surface modeling (Lawrence et al. 2007, Miralles et al. 2011). Jasechko et al. (2013) used stable oxygen and hydrogen isotope ratios from 73 large lakes to investigate the relative roles of evaporation (E) and T in ET...

  15. Ethnopharmacological Studies of Tribulus Terrestris (Linn). in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synergism and antagonism impact of different plant metabolites present in crude fruit extract of Tribulus terrestris 'the herbal Viagra' have been studied. Variability in plant composition, biomass and metabolites concentration in different modules was significantly contributed by spatial factor. However the edhaphic ...

  16. Terrestrial ecotoxicity of eight chemicals in a systematic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund-Rinke, K.; Simon, M. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Schmallenberg (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    , the results indicate that terrestrial ecotoxicological tests should be accompanied by chemical analyses, to be sure to derive sound EC{sub 50}-values. As the tests were performed according to international guidelines, the comprehensive data pool relevant for the terrestrial ecotoxicity of eight chemicals is considered to be of great value for further research and discussions dealing with the habitat function of soils. (orig.)

  17. A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léveillé, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

  18. International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Cryocoolers 13

    2005-01-01

    This is the 13th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature super-capacitor applications.

  19. A two-level approach to VLBI terrestrial and celestial reference frames using both least-squares adjustment and Kalman filter algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, B.; Krasna, H.; Boehm, J.; Gross, R. S.; Abbondanza, C.; Chin, T. M.; Heflin, M. B.; Parker, J. W.; Wu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The most recent realizations of the ITRS include several innovations, two of which are especially relevant to this study. On the one hand, the IERS ITRS combination center at DGFI-TUM introduced a two-level approach with DTRF2014, consisting of a classical deterministic frame based on normal equations and an optional coordinate time series of non-tidal displacements calculated from geophysical loading models. On the other hand, the JTRF2014 by the combination center at JPL is a time series representation of the ITRF determined by Kalman filtering. Both the JTRF2014 and the second level of the DTRF2014 are thus able to take into account short-term variations in the station coordinates. In this study, based on VLBI data, we combine these two approaches, applying them to the determination of both terrestrial and celestial reference frames. Our product has two levels like DTRF2014, with the second level being a Kalman filter solution like JTRF2014. First, we compute a classical TRF and CRF in a global least-squares adjustment by stacking normal equations from 5446 VLBI sessions between 1979 and 2016 using the Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software VieVS (solution level 1). Next, we obtain coordinate residuals from the global adjustment by applying the level-1 TRF and CRF in the single-session analysis and estimating coordinate offsets. These residuals are fed into a Kalman filter and smoother, taking into account the stochastic properties of the individual stations and radio sources. The resulting coordinate time series (solution level 2) serve as an additional layer representing irregular variations not considered in the first level of our approach. Both levels of our solution are implemented in VieVS in order to test their individual and combined performance regarding the repeatabilities of estimated baseline lengths, EOP, and radio source coordinates.

  20. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  1. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  2. On the Assessment of Global Terrestrial Reference Frame Temporal Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampatzidis, Dimitrios; Koenig, Rolf; Zhu, Shengyuan

    2015-04-01

    Global Terrestrial Reference Frames (GTRFs) as the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) provide reliable 4-D position information (3-D coordinates and their evolution through time). The given 3-D velocities play a significant role in precise position acquisition and are estimated from long term coordinate time series from the space-geodetic techniques DORIS, GNSS, SLR, and VLBI. GTRFs temporal evolution is directly connected with their internal stability: The more intense and inhomogeneous velocity field, the less stable TRF is derived. The assessment of the quality of the GTRF is mainly realized by comparing it to each individual technique's reference frame. E.g the comparison of GTRFs to SLR-only based TRF gives the sense of the ITRF stability with respect to the Geocenter and scale and their associated rates respectively. In addition, the comparison of ITRF to the VLBI-only based TRF can be used for the scale validation. However, till now there is not any specified methodology for the total assessment (in terms of origin, orientation and scale respectively) of the temporal evolution and GTRFs associated accuracy. We present a new alternative diagnostic tool for the assessment of GTRFs temporal evolution based on the well-known time-dependent Helmert type transformation formula (three shifts, three rotations and scale rates respectively). The advantage of the new methodology relies on the fact that it uses the full velocity field of the TRF and therefore all points not just the ones common to different techniques. It also examines simultaneously rates of origin, orientation and scale. The methodology is presented and implemented to the two existing GTRFs on the market (ITRF and DTRF which is computed from DGFI) , the results are discussed. The results also allow to compare directly each GTRF dynamic behavior. Furthermore, the correlations of the estimated parameters can also provide useful information to the proposed GTRFs assessment scheme.

  3. MODIS-derived terrestrial primary production [chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maosheng Zhao; Steven Running; Faith Ann Heinsch; Ramakrishna Nemani

    2011-01-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in terrestrial biological productivity have a large impact on humankind because terrestrial ecosystems not only create environments suitable for human habitation, but also provide materials essential for survival, such as food, fiber and fuel. A recent study estimated that consumption of terrestrial net primary production (NPP; a list of...

  4. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  5. Effect factors for terrestrial acidification in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crespo Mendes, Natalia; Laurent, Alexis; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    conditions, which is an essential approach considering countries like Brazil, with high biodiversity. Previous studies have assessed the impacts of terrestrial acidification from the estimations of the potential losses of vascular plants species richness as a result of exposure to acidifying substances...... for 13 biomes, with 2409 species addressed for whole world. In this context this work aims to provide spatially-differentiated effect factors (EF) for terrestrial acidification in Brazil and support the development of spatially-differentiated characterization factors for Brazil. In order to maintain...... in Brazil, represented by 33167 species, indicating that this is a comprehensive study. Maps of soil pH in Brazil were extracted at 1-km resolution and pH values were extracted for the depth range of 0-30cm. For each ecoregion, species richness was plotted against soil pH and the exposure-response curves...

  6. Application of Terrestrial Environments in Orion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbre, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the Marshall Space Flight Center Natural Environments Terrestrial and Planetary Environments (TPE) Team support to the NASA Orion space vehicle. The TPE utilizes meteorological data to assess the sensitivities of the vehicle due to the terrestrial environment. The Orion vehicle, part of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program, is designed to carry astronauts beyond low-earth orbit and is currently undergoing a series of tests including Exploration Test Flight (EFT) - 1. The presentation describes examples of TPE support for vehicle design and several tests, as well as support for EFT-1 and planning for upcoming Exploration Missions while emphasizing the importance of accounting for the natural environment's impact to the vehicle early in the vehicle's program.

  7. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  8. The circumpolar biodiversity monitoring program - Terrestrial plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tom; Payne, J.; Doyle, M.

    , northern communities, and scientists to detect, understand and report on long-term change in Arctic terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity. This presentation will outline the key management questions the plan aims to address and the proposed nested, multi-scaled approach linking targeted, research based...... monitoring with survey-based monitoring and remotely sensed data. The CBMP Terrestrial Plan intends to build upon and expand existing monitoring networks, engaging participants across a range of capacity and interests. The presentation will summarize the recommended focal soil ecosystem components...... and attributes to monitor in the plan related to soil invertebrates. Focal Ecosystem Components (FECs) of the soil decomposer system include the soil living invertebrates such as microarthropods, enchytraeids and earthworms and the functions performed by microorganisms such as nitrification, decomposition...

  9. Matrix effect correction with internal flux monitor in radiation waste characterization with the Differential Die-away Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, Rodolphe; Passard, Christian; Loridon, Joel; Perot, Bertrand; Batifol, Marc; Tarnec, Stephane-le; Guillaumin, Francois; Grassi, Gabriele; Strock, Pierre

    2013-06-01

    Radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant are measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). The purpose is to assay fissile material quantities present in radioactive waste packages. In the future, old hulls and nozzles containing Ion-Exchange Resin (IER) will be measured. IERs provide moderating properties to the matrix, not encountered during the current measurement. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of the CEA Cadarache has been asked by AREVA NC to explore the possibility of implementing a matrix effect correction method, based on internal monitor ( 3 He proportional counter) signal correlated to the matrix effect. In order to validate this method, a benchmark was performed with PROMETHEE 6 R and D measurement cell at the NML, with a similar cavity configuration to that of the industrial station. An experience design on two main factors regarding the matrix effect (absorbing and moderating ratios) has been studied. Considering the variation range of both factors for old waste measurement, 5 test matrices have been defined. They have been measured in PROMETHEE 6 and simulated using the particle transport code MCNP. Tests have been carried out experimentally using 235 U platelets. Results show that the experimental internal monitor is sensitive to the matrix but not to the fissile material presence and location. In addition, differences between experiment and model are satisfactory (<10%), in terms of prompt calibration coefficient (useful signal of fissile materials) and internal monitor signal, considering the complexity of the measurement method and numerical model, and the large range of moderator and absorption ratios. The relationship between the prompt calibration coefficient and the internal monitor signal observed in PROMETHEE 6, both for experience and model, can be fitted with a

  10. Matrix effect correction with internal flux monitor in radiation waste characterization with the differential die-away technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, R.; Passard, C.; Loridon, J.; Perot, B.; Batifol, M.; Tarnec, S. le; Guillaumin, F.; Grassi, G.; Strock, P.

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste drums filled with compacted metallic residues (spent fuel hulls and nozzles) produced at AREVA La Hague reprocessing plant are measured by neutron interrogation with the Differential Die-away measurement Technique (DDT). The purpose is to assay fissile material quantities present in radioactive waste packages. In the future, old hulls and nozzles containing Ion-Exchange Resin (IER) will be measured. IERs provide moderating properties to the matrix, not encountered during the current measurement. In this context, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory (NML) of the CEA Cadarache has been asked by AREVA NC to explore the possibility of implementing a matrix effect correction method, based on internal monitor ( 3 He proportional counter) signal correlated to the matrix effect. In order to validate this method, a benchmark was performed with PROMETHEE 6 R and D measurement cell at the NML, with a similar cavity configuration to that of the industrial station. An experimental design on two main factors regarding the matrix effect (absorbing and moderating ratios) has been studied. Considering the variation range of both factors for old waste measurement, 5 test matrices have been defined. They have been measured in PROMETHEE 6 and simulated using the particle transport code MCNP. Tests have been carried out experimentally using platelets. Results show that the experimental internal monitor is sensitive to the matrix but not to the fissile material presence and location. In addition, differences between experiment and model are satisfactory (≤10%), in terms of prompt calibration coefficient (useful signal of fissile materials) and internal monitor signal, considering the complexity of the measurement method and numerical model, and the large range of moderator and absorption ratios. The relationship between the prompt calibration coefficient and the internal monitor signal observed in PROMETHEE 6, both for experience and model, can be fitted with a similar

  11. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the food surveillance programme of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), in particular the Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. To define the surveillance programme the following issues need to be decided upon: 1) the type of food which should be analysed; 2) the nature of the contaminants which should be analysed; and 3) the geographical location from which the food samples should be taken. (author)

  12. A molecular palaeobiological exploration of arthropod terrestrialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano-Fernandez, Jesus; Carton, Robert; Tanner, Alastair R.

    2016-01-01

    to the colonization of land is the most likely scenario.Molecular clock analyses confirmed an origin for the three terrestrial lineages bracketed between the Cambrian and the Silurian. While molecular divergence times for Arachnida are consistent with the fossil record,Myriapoda are inferred to have colonized land......, consistent with morphological arguments for convergence in tracheal systems. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks’....

  13. Astrophysical and terrestrial neutrinos in Supernova detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagage, P.O.

    1985-09-01

    Supernova (SN) explosions are the place of very fundamental phenomena, whose privileged messengers are neutrinos. But such events are very rare. Then, SN detection has to be combined with other purposes. The recent developments of SN detectors have been associated with developments of underground particle physics (proton decay, monopoles ...). But here, I will restrict myself to discuss the possibilities for a supernova detector to be sensitive to other sources of neutrinos, astrophysical or terrestrial

  14. Furostanol and Spirostanol Saponins from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Fang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Twelve new steroidal saponins, including eleven furostanol saponins, terrestrinin J–T (1–11, and one spirostanol saponin, terrestrinin U (12, together with seven known steroidal saponins 13–19 were isolated from T. terrestris. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic data, including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS, and comparisons with published data.

  15. Sampling Terrestrial Environments for Bacterial Polyketides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hill

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyketides are highly biologically active molecules that are frequently used as drugs, particularly as antibiotics and anticancer agents, thus the discovery of new polyketides is of major interest. Since the 1980s discovery of polyketides has slowed dramatically due in large part to the repeated rediscovery of known compounds. While recent scientific and technical advances have improved our ability to discover new polyketides, one key area has been under addressed, namely the distribution of polyketide-producing bacteria in the environment. Identifying environments where producing bacteria are abundant and diverse should improve our ability to discover (bioprospect new polyketides. This review summarizes for the bioprospector the state-of-the-field in terrestrial microbial ecology. It provides insight into the scientific and technical challenges limiting the application of microbial ecology discoveries for bioprospecting and summarizes key developments in the field that will enable more effective bioprospecting. The major recent efforts by researchers to sample new environments for polyketide discovery is also reviewed and key emerging environments such as insect associated bacteria, desert soils, disease suppressive soils, and caves are highlighted. Finally strategies for taking and characterizing terrestrial samples to help maximize discovery efforts are proposed and the inclusion of non-actinomycetal bacteria in any terrestrial discovery strategy is recommended.

  16. Terrestrial water fluxes dominated by transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Sharp, Zachary D; Gibson, John J; Birks, S Jean; Yi, Yi; Fawcett, Peter J

    2013-04-18

    Renewable fresh water over continents has input from precipitation and losses to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. Global-scale estimates of transpiration from climate models are poorly constrained owing to large uncertainties in stomatal conductance and the lack of catchment-scale measurements required for model calibration, resulting in a range of predictions spanning 20 to 65 per cent of total terrestrial evapotranspiration (14,000 to 41,000 km(3) per year) (refs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5). Here we use the distinct isotope effects of transpiration and evaporation to show that transpiration is by far the largest water flux from Earth's continents, representing 80 to 90 per cent of terrestrial evapotranspiration. On the basis of our analysis of a global data set of large lakes and rivers, we conclude that transpiration recycles 62,000 ± 8,000 km(3) of water per year to the atmosphere, using half of all solar energy absorbed by land surfaces in the process. We also calculate CO2 uptake by terrestrial vegetation by connecting transpiration losses to carbon assimilation using water-use efficiency ratios of plants, and show the global gross primary productivity to be 129 ± 32 gigatonnes of carbon per year, which agrees, within the uncertainty, with previous estimates. The dominance of transpiration water fluxes in continental evapotranspiration suggests that, from the point of view of water resource forecasting, climate model development should prioritize improvements in simulations of biological fluxes rather than physical (evaporation) fluxes.

  17. Recommendations for the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial photovoltaic solar panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble, F. C.

    1976-01-01

    A review of recommendations for standardizing the performance rating of flat plate terrestrial solar panels is given to develop an international standard code of practice for performance rating. Required data to characterize the performance of a solar panel are listed. Other items discussed are: (1) basic measurement procedures; (2) performance measurement in natural sunlight and simulated sunlight; (3) standard solar cells; (4) the normal incidence method; (5) global method and (6) definition of peak power.

  18. UAS CNPC Satellite Link Performance - Sharing Spectrum with Terrestrial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Bishop, William D.

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide for the safe integration of unmanned aircraft systems into the National Airspace System, the control and non-payload communications (CNPC) link connecting the ground-based pilot with the unmanned aircraft must be highly reliable. A specific requirement is that it must operate using aviation safety radiofrequency spectrum. The 2012 World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) provided a potentially suitable allocation for radio line-of-sight (LOS), terrestrial based CNPC link at 5030-5091 MHz. For a beyond radio line-of-sight (BLOS), satellite-based CNPC link, aviation safety spectrum allocations are currently inadequate. Therefore, the 2015 WRC will consider the use of Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) bands to provide BLOS CNPC under Agenda Item 1.5. This agenda item requires studies to be conducted to allow for the consideration of how unmanned aircraft can employ FSS for BLOS CNPC while maintaining existing systems. Since there are terrestrial Fixed Service systems also using the same frequency bands under consideration in Agenda Item 1.5 one of the studies required considered spectrum sharing between earth stations on-board unmanned aircraft and Fixed Service station receivers. Studies carried out by NASA have concluded that such sharing is possible under parameters previously established by the International Telecommunications Union. As the preparation for WRC-15 has progressed, additional study parameters Agenda Item 1.5 have been proposed, and some studies using these parameters have been added. This paper examines the study results for the original parameters as well as results considering some of the more recently proposed parameters to provide insight into the complicated process of resolving WRC-15 Agenda Item 1.5 and achieving a solution for BLOS CNPC for unmanned aircraft.

  19. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  20. International Cooperation With Japan in the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics/GGS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    The origin of the Geotail Program and the collaboration with Japan traces back to the Origin of Plasmas in the Earth's Neighborhood (OPEN) Program, a fleet of four spacecraft studied at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in the early 1980s to conduct multipoint, coordinated measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere and the interplanetary medium. The OPEN program was the natural evolution of the early discovery missions, which although finding many new regions and plasmaphysical phenomena in the magnetosphere had problems separating cause-and effect relationships and resolving space-time ambiguities. The primary scientific objective was the coordinated study of the flow of energy, mass, and momentum from the Sun through the interplanetary medium and its eventual deposition in the Earth's atmosphere. This objective was to be achieved in a quantitative manner and to that extent theory, models, and ground-based observations were incorporated for the first time as an integral part of the project baseline. An ambitious ground system, capable of processing and visualizing the vast amounts of data generated by these spacecraft, was also conceived and incorporated in the OPEN concept.

  1. Natural radiation doses for cosmic and terrestrial components in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Picado, Esteban; Minato, Susumu

    2007-01-01

    A study of external natural radiation, cosmic and terrestrial components, was carried out with in situ measurements using NaI scintillation counters while driving along the roads in Costa Rica for the period July 2003-July 2005. The geographical distribution of the terrestrial air-absorbed dose rates and the total effective dose rates (including cosmic) are represented on contour maps. Information on the population density of the country permitted the calculation of the per capita doses. The average effective dose for the total cosmic component was 46.88±18.06 nSv h -1 and the average air-absorbed dose for the terrestrial component was 29.52±14.46 nGy h -1 . The average total effective dose rate (cosmic plus terrestrial components) was 0.60±0.18 mSv per year. The effective dose rate per capita was found to be 83.97 nSv h -1 which gives an annual dose of 0.74 mSv. Assuming the world average for the internal radiation component, the natural radiation dose for Costa Rica will be 2.29 mSv annually

  2. Terrestrial Planet Formation from an Annulus -- Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deienno, Rogerio; Walsh, Kevin J.; Kretke, Katherine A.; Levison, Harold F.

    2018-04-01

    Numerous recent theories of terrestrial planet formation suggest that, in order to reproduce the observed large Earth to Mars mass ratio, planets formed from an annulus of material within 1 au. The success of these models typically rely on a Mars sized embryo being scattered outside 1 au (to ~1.5 au) and starving, while those remaining inside 1 au continue growing, forming Earth and Venus. In some models the scattering is instigated by the migration of giant planets, while in others an embryo-instability naturally occurs due to the dissipation of the gaseous solar nebula. While these models can typically succeed in reproducing the overall mass ratio among the planets, the final angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the present terrestrial planets in our Solar System, and their radial mass concentration (RMC), namely the position where Mars end up in the simulations, are not always well reproduced. Assuming that the gas nebula may not be entirely dissipated when such an embryo-instability happens, here, we study the effects that the time of such an instability can have on the final AMD and RMC. In addition, we also included energy dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions by assuming a given coefficient of restitution for collisions. Our results show that: i) dissipation within embryo-embryo collisions do not play any important role in the final terrestrial planetary system; ii) the final AMD decreases only when the number of final planets formed increases; iii) the RMC tends to always be lower than the present value no matter the number of final planets; and iv) depending on the time that the embryo-instability happen, if too early, with too much gas still present, a second instability will generally happen after the dissipation of the gas nebula.

  3. Scaling properties of planetary calderas and terrestrial volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sanchez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Volcanism plays an important role in transporting internal heat of planetary bodies to their surface. Therefore, volcanoes are a manifestation of the planet's past and present internal dynamics. Volcanic eruptions as well as caldera forming processes are the direct manifestation of complex interactions between the rising magma and the surrounding host rock in the crust of terrestrial planetary bodies. Attempts have been made to compare volcanic landforms throughout the solar system. Different stochastic models have been proposed to describe the temporal sequences of eruptions on individual or groups of volcanoes. However, comprehensive understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for volcano formation and eruption and more specifically caldera formation remains elusive. In this work, we propose a scaling law to quantify the distribution of caldera sizes on Earth, Mars, Venus, and Io, as well as the distribution of calderas on Earth depending on their surrounding crustal properties. We also apply the same scaling analysis to the distribution of interevent times between eruptions for volcanoes that have the largest eruptive history as well as groups of volcanoes on Earth. We find that when rescaled with their respective sample averages, the distributions considered show a similar functional form. This result implies that similar processes are responsible for caldera formation throughout the solar system and for different crustal settings on Earth. This result emphasizes the importance of comparative planetology to understand planetary volcanism. Similarly, the processes responsible for volcanic eruptions are independent of the type of volcanism or geographical location.

  4. Halogens in chondritic meteorites and terrestrial accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Patricia L.; Burgess, Ray; Busemann, Henner; Ruzié-Hamilton, Lorraine; Joachim, Bastian; Day, James M. D.; Ballentine, Christopher J.

    2017-11-01

    Volatile element delivery and retention played a fundamental part in Earth’s formation and subsequent chemical differentiation. The heavy halogens—chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br) and iodine (I)—are key tracers of accretionary processes owing to their high volatility and incompatibility, but have low abundances in most geological and planetary materials. However, noble gas proxy isotopes produced during neutron irradiation provide a high-sensitivity tool for the determination of heavy halogen abundances. Using such isotopes, here we show that Cl, Br and I abundances in carbonaceous, enstatite, Rumuruti and primitive ordinary chondrites are about 6 times, 9 times and 15-37 times lower, respectively, than previously reported and usually accepted estimates. This is independent of the oxidation state or petrological type of the chondrites. The ratios Br/Cl and I/Cl in all studied chondrites show a limited range, indistinguishable from bulk silicate Earth estimates. Our results demonstrate that the halogen depletion of bulk silicate Earth relative to primitive meteorites is consistent with the depletion of lithophile elements of similar volatility. These results for carbonaceous chondrites reveal that late accretion, constrained to a maximum of 0.5 ± 0.2 per cent of Earth’s silicate mass, cannot solely account for present-day terrestrial halogen inventories. It is estimated that 80-90 per cent of heavy halogens are concentrated in Earth’s surface reservoirs and have not undergone the extreme early loss observed in atmosphere-forming elements. Therefore, in addition to late-stage terrestrial accretion of halogens and mantle degassing, which has removed less than half of Earth’s dissolved mantle gases, the efficient extraction of halogen-rich fluids from the solid Earth during the earliest stages of terrestrial differentiation is also required to explain the presence of these heavy halogens at the surface. The hydropilic nature of halogens, whereby they track

  5. Global analytic treatment of terrestrial photogrammetric networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mayoud, M

    1980-01-01

    In order to solve certain special CERN metrology problems, analytical terrestrial photogrammetry may have some advantages which are first discussed along with their drawbacks and limitations. In this application, it is necessary to carry out a rigorous and global adjustment of the observations and simultaneously process all the perspective ray bundles. The basic principles, the least squares solution and the stochastic analysis of the results are presented. However, for the CERN project, one wonders if the production of digital theodolites is going to reduce the advantages of the photogrammetric method. (12 refs).

  6. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R. D.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In its first two years of operation, the Fermi Gamma Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has observed 79 Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGFs). The thick Bismuth Germanate (BGO) detectors are excellent for TGF spectroscopy, having a high probability of recording the full energy of an incident photon, spanning a broad energy range from 150 keV to 40 MeV, and recording a large number of photons per TGF. Correlations between GBM TGF triggers and lightning sferics detected with the World-Wide Lightning Location Network indicate that TGFs and lightning are simultaneous to within tens of microseconds.

  7. Terrestrial plant methane production and emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    In this minireview, we evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants and plant. Clearly, despite much uncertainty and skepticism, we conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce...... aerobic CH4 into a global budget is inadequate. Thus it is too early to draw the line under the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  8. Digital terrestrial television broadcasting technology and system

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Now under massive deployment worldwide, digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) offers one of the most attractive ways to deliver digital TV over the VHF/UHF band. Written by a team of experts for specialists and non-specialists alike, this book serves as a comprehensive guide to DTTB. It covers the fundamentals of channel coding and modulation technologies used in DTTB, as well as receiver technology for synchronization, channel estimation, and equalization. It also covers the recently introduced Chinese DTTB standard, using the SFN network in Hong Kong as an example.

  9. MAFF monitoring of the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherlock, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses the MAFF food surveillance programme, in particular our Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP), and the estimation of dietary intake of radionuclides. The MAFF programme exists primarily to demonstrate that authorized discharges of radioactivity to the environment do not result in individuals receiving doses of radiation in excess of accepted limits. The estimation radionuclide intake ensures over estimation rather than underestimation of dose. Improvements in detection limits and absorption level research could lower the calculated dose to man from radionuclides in food without losing their validity. (author)

  10. Bryophyte in the Beginning of Terrestrial Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan ŞİMŞEK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of life has been wondered by human beings since ancient ages. The widely accepted opinion is that life began in water and after that landed. In this process, the landing of plants and adapting to terrestrial life of plants are important stages. The last 20 years it’s been done many researches to find out the relationship of bryophytes and tracheophytes. The results of these researches revealed that in evolutionary development process bryophytes and tracheophytes are sister groups. Thesis about earliest land plants are bryophytes is widely accepted recent years. To understand evolutionary process and plants of today’s better, researches about bryophytes must increase.

  11. A New Furostanol Glycoside from Tribulus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonghua Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S-5α-furostane-20(22-en-12-one-3β, 26-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1 on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  12. Two new furostanol saponins from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ya-Juan; Xu, Tun-Hai; Zhou, Hai-Ou; Li, Bo; Xie, Sheng-Xu; Si, Yun-Shan; Liu, Yue; Liu, Tong-Hua; Xu, Dong-Ming

    2010-05-01

    Two new furostanol saponins were isolated from the fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-3beta,26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furost-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (2) on the basis of spectroscopic data as well as chemical evidence.

  13. A new furostanol glycoside from Tribulus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yajuan; Liu, Yonghong; Xu, Tunhai; Xie, Shengxu; Si, Yunshan; Liu, Yue; Zhou, Haiou; Liu, Tonghua; Xu, Dongming

    2010-01-27

    Besides two known glycosides, a new furostanol glycoside was isolated from the Fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. The structure of the new furostanol glycoside was established as 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5alpha-furostane-20(22)-en-12-one-3beta, 26-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1) on the basis of 1D and 2D-NMR techniques, including COSY, HMBC, and HMQC correlations.

  14. Terrestrial invertebrates in the Rhynie chert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Jason A; Garwood, Russell J

    2018-02-05

    The Early Devonian Rhynie and Windyfield cherts remain a key locality for understanding early life and ecology on land. They host the oldest unequivocal nematode worm (Nematoda), which may also offer the earliest evidence for herbivory via plant parasitism. The trigonotarbids (Arachnida: Trigonotarbida) preserve the oldest book lungs and were probably predators that practiced liquid feeding. The oldest mites (Arachnida: Acariformes) are represented by taxa which include mycophages and predators on nematodes today. The earliest harvestman (Arachnida: Opiliones) includes the first preserved tracheae, and male and female genitalia. Myriapods are represented by a scutigeromorph centipede (Chilopoda: Scutigeromorpha), probably a cursorial predator on the substrate, and a putative millipede (Diplopoda). The oldest springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) were probably mycophages, and another hexapod of uncertain affinities preserves a gut infill of phytodebris. The first true insects (Hexapoda: Insecta) are represented by a species known from chewing (non-carnivorous?) mandibles. Coprolites also provide insights into diet, and we challenge previous assumptions that several taxa were spore-feeders. Rhynie appears to preserve a largely intact community of terrestrial animals, although some expected groups are absent. The known fossils are (ecologically) consistent with at least part of the fauna found around modern Icelandic hot springs.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The Rhynie cherts: our earliest terrestrial ecosystem revisited'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Carbon dioxide efficiency of terrestrial enhanced weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosdorf, Nils; Renforth, Phil; Hartmann, Jens

    2014-05-06

    Terrestrial enhanced weathering, the spreading of ultramafic silicate rock flour to enhance natural weathering rates, has been suggested as part of a strategy to reduce global atmospheric CO2 levels. We budget potential CO2 sequestration against associated CO2 emissions to assess the net CO2 removal of terrestrial enhanced weathering. We combine global spatial data sets of potential source rocks, transport networks, and application areas with associated CO2 emissions in optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. The results show that the choice of source rocks and material comminution technique dominate the CO2 efficiency of enhanced weathering. CO2 emissions from transport amount to on average 0.5-3% of potentially sequestered CO2. The emissions of material mining and application are negligible. After accounting for all emissions, 0.5-1.0 t CO2 can be sequestered on average per tonne of rock, translating into a unit cost from 1.6 to 9.9 GJ per tonne CO2 sequestered by enhanced weathering. However, to control or reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations substantially with enhanced weathering would require very large amounts of rock. Before enhanced weathering could be applied on large scales, more research is needed to assess weathering rates, potential side effects, social acceptability, and mechanisms of governance.

  16. Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.

    2018-04-01

    Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.

  17. Consequences of simulating terrestrial N dynamics for projecting future terrestrial C storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S.; Friend, A. D.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2009-04-01

    We present results of a new land surface model, O-CN, which includes a process-based coupling between the terrestrial cycling of energy, water, carbon, and nitrogen. The model represents the controls of the terrestrial nitrogen (N) cycling on carbon (C) pools and fluxes through photosynthesis, respiration, changes in allocation patterns, as well as soil organic matter decomposition, and explicitly accounts for N leaching and gaseous losses. O-CN has been shown to give realistic results in comparison to observations at a wide range of scales, including in situ flux measurements, productivity databases, and atmospheric CO2 concentration data. Notably, O-CN simulates realistic responses of net primary productivity, foliage area, and foliage N content to elevated atmospheric [CO2] as evidenced at free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) sites (Duke, Oak Ridge). We re-examine earlier model-based assessments of the terrestrial C sequestration potential using a global transient O-CN simulation driven by increases in atmospheric [CO2], N deposition and climatic changes over the 21st century. We find that accounting for terrestrial N cycling about halves the potential to store C in response to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations; mainly due to a reduction of the net C uptake in temperate and boreal forests. Nitrogen deposition partially alleviates the effect of N limitation, but is by far not sufficient to compensate for the effect completely. These findings underline the importance of an accurate representation of nutrient limitations in future projections of the terrestrial net CO2 exchanges and therefore land-climate feedback studies.

  18. Intersystem Interference Reduction for Overlaid HAPS-Terrestrial CDMA System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeng-Ji; Wang, Wei-Ting; Li, Mingfu; Shiung, David; Ferng, Huei-Wen

    In this letter, we propose that directional antennas, combined with power management, be incorporated to reduce intersystem interference in a shared band overlaid high altitude platform station (HAPS)-terrestrial code division multiple access (CDMA) system. To eliminate the HAPS to terrestrial interference, the HAPS is accessed only via directional antennas under the proposed scheme. By doing so, the uplink power to the HAPS can accordingly be increased, so that the terrestrial to HAPS interference is also effectively suppressed.

  19. Equilibration of the terrestrial water, nitrogen, and carbon cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Schimel, David S.; Braswell, B. H.; Parton, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in biologically based ecosystem models of the coupled terrestrial, hydrological, carbon, and nutrient cycles have provided new perspectives on the terrestrial biosphere’s behavior globally, over a range of time scales. We used the terrestrial ecosystem model Century to examine relationships between carbon, nitrogen, and water dynamics. The model, run to a quasi-steady-state, shows strong correlations between carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes that l...

  20. Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for commercialization of terrestrial energy systems based upon aerospace power technology's explored. Threats to the aerospace power technology industry, caused by the end of the cold war and weak world economy are described. There are also new opportunities caused by increasing terrestrial energy needs and world-wide concern for the environment. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of the aerospace power industry in commercializing terrestrial energy technologies are reviewed. Finally, actions which will enable the aerospace power technology industry to commercialize products into terrestrial energy markets are described

  1. The impacts of past climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, R.H.W.; Anderson, N.J.

    2001-01-01

    The last two million years of global history have been dominated by the impacts of rapid climate change. This influence is not immediately obvious to most biologists whose observations rarely extend beyond a period of a few years, but becomes apparent when interpreting long-term data sets whether they be population studies or palaeoecological data. It is appropriate therefore to consider how terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems have responded to climate change during the Quaternary when speculating about response to future climatic developments. In this chapter we discuss and illustrate the complex interactions between climate and anthropogenic influence on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems during the Holocene. Climate influences ecosystems both directly (e.g. physiological responses or lake thermal stratification) and indirectly (e.g. via fire frequency or catchment hydrology). Lake sediments can be used to study both past climatic change directly and the effects of past climatic variability. In this chapter we present summary examples of the influence of past climate change on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well showing how lake sediment records can provide proxy records of past climate change. The geological record from the last 18 000 years documents large changes in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that are primarily driven by climatic change, but are modified by internal ecosystem processes. These changes are comparable in magnitude and rapidity to those predicted for the near future. Species at their distributional limits are particularly sensitive to climate change and contractions of range can be sudden in response to extreme climatic events such as the storm of December 1999 that damaged Picea trees far more than tree species that lay within their natural range limits. Palaeoecological records provide compelling evidence for direct climate forcing of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems but importantly also permit comparative analyses of impacts

  2. Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets, July 20-23,2004, Santa Fe, New Mexico. The contents include: 1) Experimental Constraints on Oxygen and Other Light Element Partitioning During Planetary Core Formation; 2) In Situ Determination of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe of Spinels by Electron Microprobe: An Evaluation of the Flank Method; 3) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Large-Strain Deformation and Recrystallization of Olivine; 4) Plagioclase-Liquid Trace Element Oxygen Barometry and Oxygen Behaviour in Closed and Open System Magmatic Processes; 5) Core Formation in the Earth: Constraints from Ni and Co; 6) Oxygen Isotopic Compositions of the Terrestrial Planets; 7) The Effect of Oxygen Fugacity on Electrical Conduction of Olivine and Implications for Earth s Mantle; 8) Redox Chemical Diffusion in Silicate Melts: The Impact of the Semiconductor Condition; 9) Ultra-High Temperature Effects in Earth s Magma Ocean: Pt and W Partitioning; 10) Terrestrial Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Variations: Primordial Values, Systematics, Subsolidus Effects, Planetary Comparisons, and the Role of Water; 11) Redox State of the Moon s Interior; 12) How did the Terrestrial Planets Acquire Their Water?; 13) Molecular Oxygen Mixing Ratio and Its Seasonal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere; 14) Exchange Between the Atmosphere and the Regolith of Mars: Discussion of Oxygen and Sulfur Isotope Evidence; 15) Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Systematics of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Meteoric Waters: Evidence from North Texas; 16) Implications of Isotopic and Redox Heterogeneities in Silicate Reservoirs on Mars; 17) Oxygen Isotopic Variation of the Terrestrial Planets; 18) Redox Exchanges in Hydrous Magma; 19) Hydrothermal Systems on Terrestrial Planets: Lessons from Earth; 20) Oxygen in Martian Meteorites: A Review of Results from Mineral Equilibria Oxybarometers; 21) Non-Linear Fractionation of Oxygen Isotopes Implanted in

  3. Autogenic geomorphic processes determine the resolution and fidelity of terrestrial paleoclimate records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Brady Z; Straub, Kyle M

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial paleoclimate records rely on proxies hosted in alluvial strata whose beds are deposited by unsteady and nonlinear geomorphic processes. It is broadly assumed that this renders the resultant time series of terrestrial paleoclimatic variability noisy and incomplete. We evaluate this assumption using a model of oscillating climate and the precise topographic evolution of an experimental alluvial system. We find that geomorphic stochasticity can create aliasing in the time series and spurious climate signals, but these issues are eliminated when the period of climate oscillation is longer than a key time scale of internal dynamics in the geomorphic system. This emergent autogenic geomorphic behavior imparts regularity to deposition and represents a natural discretization interval of the continuous climate signal. We propose that this time scale in nature could be in excess of 10 4 years but would still allow assessments of the rates of climate change at resolutions finer than the existing age model techniques in isolation.

  4. 17th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Cryocoolers 17 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 17th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Los Angeles, California, on July 9-12, 2012. The program of this conference consisted of 94 papers; of these, 71 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  5. 16th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2011-01-01

    Cryocoolers 16 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 16th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 17-20, 2010. The program of this conference consisted of 116 papers; of these, 89 are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  6. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  7. Nonlinear Waves in the Terrestrial Quasiparallel Foreshock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnat, B; Kolotkov, D Y; O'Connell, D; Nakariakov, V M; Rowlands, G

    2016-12-02

    We provide strongly conclusive evidence that the cubic nonlinearity plays an important part in the evolution of the large amplitude magnetic structures in the terrestrial foreshock. Large amplitude nonlinear wave trains at frequencies above the proton cyclotron frequency are identified after nonharmonic slow variations are filtered out by applying the empirical mode decomposition. Numerical solutions of the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, predicted analytically by the use of a pseudopotential approach, are found to be consistent with the observed wave forms. The approximate phase speed of these nonlinear waves, indicated by the parameters of numerical solutions, is of the order of the local Alfvén speed. We suggest that the feedback of the large amplitude fluctuations on background plasma is reflected in the evolution of the pseudopotential.

  8. Actinide elements in aquatic and terrestrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondietti, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported in terrestrial ecology studies with regard to plutonium in biota from the White Oak Creek forest; comparative distribution of plutonium in two forest ecosystems; an ecosystem model of plutonium dynamics; actinide element metabolism in cotton rats; and crayfish studies. Progress is reported in aquatic studies with regard to transuranics in surface waters, frogs, benthic algae, and invertebrates from pond 3513; and radioecology of transuranic elements in cotton rats bordering waste pond 3513. Progress is also reported in stability of trivalent plutonium in White Oak Lake water; chemistry of plutonium, americium, curium, and uranium in pond water; uranium, thorium, and plutonium in small mammals; and effect of soil pretreatment on the distribution of plutonium

  9. Visual interface for space and terrestrial analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Edmund G.; Williams, Jason R.; George, Arthur A.; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Snyder, William A.

    1995-01-01

    The management of large geophysical and celestial data bases is now, more than ever, the most critical path to timely data analysis. With today's large volume data sets from multiple satellite missions, analysts face the task of defining useful data bases from which data and metadata (information about data) can be extracted readily in a meaningful way. Visualization, following an object-oriented design, is a fundamental method of organizing and handling data. Humans, by nature, easily accept pictorial representations of data. Therefore graphically oriented user interfaces are appealing, as long as they remain simple to produce and use. The Visual Interface for Space and Terrestrial Analysis (VISTA) system, currently under development at the Naval Research Laboratory's Backgrounds Data Center (BDC), has been designed with these goals in mind. Its graphical user interface (GUI) allows the user to perform queries, visualization, and analysis of atmospheric and celestial backgrounds data.

  10. Radio techniques for probing the terrestrial ionosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsucker, R. D.

    The subject of the book is a description of the basic principles of operation, plus the capabilities and limitations of all generic radio techniques employed to investigate the terrestrial ionosphere. The purpose of this book is to present to the reader a balanced treatment of each technique so they can understand how to interpret ionospheric data and decide which techniques are most effective for studying specific phenomena. The first two chapters outline the basic theory underlying the techniques, and each following chapter discusses a separate technique. This monograph is entirely devoted to techniques in aeronomy and space physics. The approach is unique in its presentation of the principles, capabilities and limitations of the most important presently used radio techniques. Typical examples of data are shown for the various techniques, and a brief historical account of the technique development is presented. An extended annotated bibliography of the salient papers in the field is included.

  11. Terrestrial nitrogen cycles: Some unanswered questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitousek, P.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered to be the element which most often limits the growth of plants in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. It regulates plant growth because photosynthetic rates are strongly dependent on the concentration of nitrogen in leaves, and because relatively large mounts of protein are required for cell division and growth. Yet nitrogen is abundant in the biosphere - the well-mixed pool in the atmosphere is considered inexhaustible compared to biotic demand, and the amount of already fixed organic nitrogen in soils far exceeds annual plant uptake in terrestrial ecosystems. In regions where natural vegetation is not nitrogen limited, continuous cultivation induces nitrogen deficiency. Nitrogen loss from cultivated lands is more rapid than that of other elements, and nitrogen fertilization is generally required to maintain crop yield under any continuous system. The pervasiveness of nitrogen deficiency in many natural and most managed sites is discussed.

  12. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  13. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  14. New steroidal glycosides from Tribulus terrestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Liu, Tao; Lu, Xuan; Wang, Hai-Feng; Hua, Hui-Ming; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2012-01-01

    Two new steroidal glycosides were isolated from Tribulus terrestris L. Their structures were elucidated as 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-12-one-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-5α-furostan-20(22)-ene-3β,23,26-triol-3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  15. An effective method for terrestrial arthropod euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Neil A C; Loaring, Christopher D; Bennie, Mikaella M G; Trim, Steven A

    2012-12-15

    As scientific understanding of invertebrate life increases, so does the concern for how to end that life in an effective way that minimises (potential) suffering and is also safe for those carrying out the procedure. There is increasing debate on the most appropriate euthanasia methods for invertebrates as their use in experimental research and zoological institutions grows. Their popularity as pet species has also led to an increase in the need for greater veterinary understanding. Through the use of a local injection of potassium chloride (KCl) initially developed for use in American lobsters, this paper describes a safe and effective method for euthanasia in terrestrial invertebrates. Initial work focused on empirically determining the dose for cockroaches, which was then extrapolated to other arthropod species. For this method of euthanasia, we propose the term 'targeted hyperkalosis' to describe death through terminal depolarisation of the thoracic ganglia as a result of high potassium concentration.

  16. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  17. Future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Piero; Pressey, Robert L.; Giorgini, Daniele; Maiorano, Luigi; Bakkenes, Michel; Boitani, Luigi; Alkemade, Rob; Falcucci, Alessandra; Chiozza, Federica; Rondinini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Current levels of endangerment and historical trends of species and habitats are the main criteria used to direct conservation efforts globally. Estimates of future declines, which might indicate different priorities than past declines, have been limited by the lack of appropriate data and models. Given that much of conservation is about anticipating and responding to future threats, our inability to look forward at a global scale has been a major constraint on effective action. Here, we assess the geography and extent of projected future changes in suitable habitat for terrestrial mammals within their present ranges. We used a global earth-system model, IMAGE, coupled with fine-scale habitat suitability models and parametrized according to four global scenarios of human development. We identified the most affected countries by 2050 for each scenario, assuming that no additional conservation actions other than those described in the scenarios take place. We found that, with some exceptions, most of the countries with the largest predicted losses of suitable habitat for mammals are in Africa and the Americas. African and North American countries were also predicted to host the most species with large proportional global declines. Most of the countries we identified as future hotspots of terrestrial mammal loss have little or no overlap with the present global conservation priorities, thus confirming the need for forward-looking analyses in conservation priority setting. The expected growth in human populations and consumption in hotspots of future mammal loss mean that local conservation actions such as protected areas might not be sufficient to mitigate losses. Other policies, directed towards the root causes of biodiversity loss, are required, both in Africa and other parts of the world. PMID:21844048

  18. Intermittent Astrophysical Radiation Sources and Terrestrial Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melott, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial life is exposed to a variety of radiation sources. Astrophysical observations suggest that strong excursions in cosmic ray flux and spectral hardness are expected. Gamma-ray bursts and supernovae are expected to irradiate the atmosphere with keV to GeV photons at irregular intervals. Supernovae will produce large cosmic ray excursions, with time development varying with distance from the event. Large fluxes of keV to MeV protons from the Sun pose a strong threat to electromagnetic technology. The terrestrial record shows cosmogenic isotope excursions which are consistent with major solar proton events, and there are observations of G-stars suggesting that the rate of such events may be much higher than previously assumed. In addition there are unknown and unexplained astronomical transients which may indicate new classes of events. The Sun, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are all capable of producing lethal fluences, and some are expected on intervals of 10^8 years or so. The history of life on Earth is filled with mass extinctions at a variety of levels of intensity. Most are not understood. Astrophysical radiation may play a role, particularly from large increases in muon irradiation on the ground, and changes in atmospheric chemistry which deplete ozone, admitting increased solar UVB. UVB is strongly absorbed by DNA and proteins, and breaks the chemical bonds---it is a known carcinogen. High muon fluxes will also be damaging to such molecules, but experiments are needed to pin down the rate. Solar proton events which are not directly dangerous for the biota may nevertheless pose a major threat to modern electromagnetic technology through direct impact on satellites and magnetic induction of large currents in power grids, disabling transformers. We will look at the kind of events that are expected on timescales from human to geological, and their likely consequences.

  19. TERRESTRIAL PLANET FORMATION FROM AN ANNULUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Kevin J.; Levison, Harold F., E-mail: kwalsh@boulder.swri.edu [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St. Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    It has been shown that some aspects of the terrestrial planets can be explained, particularly the Earth/Mars mass ratio, when they form from a truncated disk with an outer edge near 1.0 au. This has been previously modeled starting from an intermediate stage of growth utilizing pre-formed planetary embryos. We present simulations that were designed to test this idea by following the growth process from km-sized objects located between 0.7 and 1.0 au up to terrestrial planets. The simulations explore initial conditions where the solids in the disk are planetesimals with radii initially between 3 and 300 km, alternately including effects from a dissipating gaseous solar nebula and collisional fragmentation. We use a new Lagrangian code known as LIPAD, which is a particle-based code that models the fragmentation, accretion, and dynamical evolution of a large number of planetesimals, and can model the entire growth process from km-sizes up to planets. A suite of large (∼ Mars mass) planetary embryos is complete in only ∼1 Myr, containing most of the system mass. A quiescent period then persists for 10–20 Myr characterized by slow diffusion of the orbits and continued accretion of the remaining planetesimals. This is interrupted by an instability that leads to embryos crossing orbits and embryo–embryo impacts that eventually produce the final set of planets. While this evolution is different than that found in other works exploring an annulus, the final planetary systems are similar, with roughly the correct number of planets and good Mars-analogs.

  20. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  1. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L; Isaeus, M [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T; Schueldt, R [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a

  2. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M.

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m 2 for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results in a coarse

  3. The terrestrial biosphere in the SFR region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerling, L.; Isaeus, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany; Lanneck, J. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Physical Geography; Lindborg, T.; Schueldt, R. [Danish Nature Council, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-03-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1.SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, one km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. A part of the SAFE-analysis aims at analysing the transport of radionuclides in the ecosystems.To do so one has to build a model that includes a large amount of information concerning the biosphere.The first step is to collect and compile descriptions of the biosphere.This report is a first attempt to characterise the terrestrial environment of the SFR area of Forsmark. In the first part of the report the terrestrial environment, land class distribution and production of the area is described. The primary production in different terrestrial ecosystems is estimated for a model area in the Forsmark region. The estimations are based on the actual land class distribution and the values for the total primary production (d.w. above ground biomass)and the amount carbon produced, presented as g/m{sup 2} for each land class respectively. An important aspect of the biosphere is the vegetation and its development. The future development of vegetation is of interest since production,decomposition and thus storage of organic material, vary strongly among vegetation types and this has strong implications for the transport of radionuclides.Therefore an attempt to describe the development of terrestrial vegetation has been made in the second part. Any prediction of future vegetation is based on knowledge of the past together with premises for the future development.The predictions made, thus, becomes marred with errors enforced by the assumptions and incomplete information of the past. The assumptions made for the predictions in this report are crude and results

  4. Divergent apparent temperature sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystem respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Song; Shuli Niu; Ruise Luo; Yiqi Luo; Jiquan Chen; Guirui Yu; Janusz Olejnik; Georg Wohlfahrt; Gerard Kiely; Ako Noormets; Leonardo Montagnani; Alessandro Cescatti; Vincenzo Magliulo; Beverly Elizabeth Law; Magnus Lund; Andrej Varlagin; Antonio Raschi; Matthias Peichl; Mats B. Nilsson; Lutz Merbold

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies revealed convergent temperature sensitivity of ecosystem respiration (Re) within aquatic ecosystems and between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We do not know yet whether various terrestrial ecosystems have consistent or divergent temperature sensitivity. Here, we synthesized 163 eddy covariance flux sites across the world and...

  5. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der I.R.; Bloom, J.; Exbrayat, J.; Feng, L.; Williams, M.

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  6. Microplastics as an emerging threat to terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Anderson Abel; Kloas, Werner; Zarfl, Christiane; Hempel, Stefan; Rillig, Matthias C

    2018-04-01

    Microplastics (plastics plastic litter or from direct environmental emission. Their potential impacts in terrestrial ecosystems remain largely unexplored despite numerous reported effects on marine organisms. Most plastics arriving in the oceans were produced, used, and often disposed on land. Hence, it is within terrestrial systems that microplastics might first interact with biota eliciting ecologically relevant impacts. This article introduces the pervasive microplastic contamination as a potential agent of global change in terrestrial systems, highlights the physical and chemical nature of the respective observed effects, and discusses the broad toxicity of nanoplastics derived from plastic breakdown. Making relevant links to the fate of microplastics in aquatic continental systems, we here present new insights into the mechanisms of impacts on terrestrial geochemistry, the biophysical environment, and ecotoxicology. Broad changes in continental environments are possible even in particle-rich habitats such as soils. Furthermore, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that microplastics interact with terrestrial organisms that mediate essential ecosystem services and functions, such as soil dwelling invertebrates, terrestrial fungi, and plant-pollinators. Therefore, research is needed to clarify the terrestrial fate and effects of microplastics. We suggest that due to the widespread presence, environmental persistence, and various interactions with continental biota, microplastic pollution might represent an emerging global change threat to terrestrial ecosystems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuixiang Yi; Daniel Ricciuto; Runze Li; John Wolbeck; Xiyan Xu; Mats Nilsson; John Frank; William J. Massman

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes...

  8. Growing technology earthy Tribulus terrestris (Tribulus terrestris L.) and its use

    OpenAIRE

    HUDSKÁ, Miluše

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) as for planting, content substances, pharmacological use and with influences of planting technology or elicitors upon the active substance contents. Saponines, flavonoids, and phytosterols are the main active substances of Puncturevine. The saponines act as aphrodisiacs, the flavonoids treat with heart diseases and the phytosterols decrease the cholesterol concentration in blood plasma. The active substance contents depend on ...

  9. Microbial ecology of the salmon necrobiome: evidence salmon carrion decomposition influences aquatic and terrestrial insect microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric

    2016-05-01

    Carrion decomposition is driven by complex relationships that affect necrobiome community (i.e. all organisms and their genes associated with a dead animal) interactions, such as insect species arrival time to carrion and microbial succession. Little is understood about how microbial communities interact with invertebrates at the aquatic-terrestrial habitat interface. The first objective of the study was to characterize internal microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons for aquatic insects (three mayfly species) in streams with salmon carcasses compared with those in streams without salmon carcasses. The second objective was to assess the epinecrotic microbial communities of decomposing salmon carcasses (Oncorhynchus keta) compared with those of terrestrial necrophagous insects (Calliphora terraenovae larvae and adults) associated with the carcasses. There was a significant difference in the internal microbiomes of mayflies collected in salmon carcass-bearing streams and in non-carcass streams, while the developmental stage of blow flies was the governing factor in structuring necrophagous insect internal microbiota. Furthermore, the necrophagous internal microbiome was influenced by the resource on which the larvae developed, and changes in the adult microbiome varied temporally. Overall, these carrion subsidy-driven networks respond to resource pulses with bottom-up effects on consumer microbial structure, as revealed by shifting communities over space and time. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Geometric Mechanics Reveals Optimal Complex Terrestrial Undulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaohui; Astley, Henry; Schiebel, Perrin; Dai, Jin; Travers, Matthew; Goldman, Daniel; Choset, Howie; CMU Team; GT Team

    Geometric mechanics offers useful tools for intuitively analyzing biological and robotic locomotion. However, utility of these tools were previously restricted to systems that have only two internal degrees of freedom and in uniform media. We show kinematics of complex locomotors that make intermittent contacts with substrates can be approximated as a linear combination of two shape bases, and can be represented using two variables. Therefore, the tools of geometric mechanics can be used to analyze motions of locomotors with many degrees of freedom. To demonstrate the proposed technique, we present studies on two different types of snake gaits which utilize combinations of waves in the horizontal and vertical planes: sidewinding (in the sidewinder rattlesnake C. cerastes) and lateral undulation (in the desert specialist snake C. occipitalis). C. cerastes moves by generating posteriorly traveling body waves in the horizontal and vertical directions, with a relative phase offset equal to +/-π/2 while C. occipitalismaintains a π/2 offset of a frequency doubled vertical wave. Geometric analysis reveals these coordination patterns enable optimal movement in the two different styles of undulatory terrestrial locomotion. More broadly, these examples demonstrate the utility of geometric mechanics in analyzing realistic biological and robotic locomotion.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Terrestrial Emergency Communication System in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Gwang Sub; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accident induced by the great earthquake and tsunami reveals the vulnerability of I and C System. In the severe environment, the normal I and C system did not work properly and results in false information about the internal situation in NPP. Eventually the accident was not properly handled at the early stage. Therefore advanced emergency response system using a wireless channel is necessary to cope with the severe accident. In this paper, we introduce the ERS consisting of the HMS and MCS the ECS linking the HMS with MCS and the performance requirement of the ECS is analyzed. The ECS satisfying the requirement is designed conceptually and the performance of the ECS is evaluated through analysis and simulator. The terrestrial communication system is designed based on the IEEE 802.11. Analyzed performance results prove that the performance requirement can be sufficiently achieved. But if the scalability of data capacity is considered later, use of the advanced 802.11 standard such as 802.11n and multiple signal paths between the HMS and MCS are necessary

  12. Performance Evaluation of Terrestrial Emergency Communication System in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Gwang Sub; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima accident induced by the great earthquake and tsunami reveals the vulnerability of I and C System. In the severe environment, the normal I and C system did not work properly and results in false information about the internal situation in NPP. Eventually the accident was not properly handled at the early stage. Therefore advanced emergency response system using a wireless channel is necessary to cope with the severe accident. In this paper, we introduce the ERS consisting of the HMS and MCS the ECS linking the HMS with MCS and the performance requirement of the ECS is analyzed. The ECS satisfying the requirement is designed conceptually and the performance of the ECS is evaluated through analysis and simulator. The terrestrial communication system is designed based on the IEEE 802.11. Analyzed performance results prove that the performance requirement can be sufficiently achieved. But if the scalability of data capacity is considered later, use of the advanced 802.11 standard such as 802.11n and multiple signal paths between the HMS and MCS are necessary.

  13. The early evolution of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets

    CERN Document Server

    Raulin, François; Muller, Christian; Nixon, Conor; Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings : Volume 35

    2013-01-01

    “The Early Evolution of the Atmospheres of Terrestrial Planets” presents the main processes participating in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. A group of experts in the different fields provide an update of our current knowledge on this topic. Several papers in this book discuss the key role of nitrogen in the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial planets. The earliest setting and evolution of planetary atmospheres of terrestrial planets is directly associated with accretion, chemical differentiation, outgassing, stochastic impacts, and extremely high energy fluxes from their host stars. This book provides an overview of the present knowledge of the initial atmospheric composition of the terrestrial planets. Additionally it includes some papers about the current exoplanet discoveries and provides additional clues to our understanding of Earth’s transition from a hot accretionary phase into a habitable world. All papers included were reviewed by experts in their respective fields. We are ...

  14. Accelerator mass analyses of meteorites - carbon-14 terrestrial ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Rucklidge, J.; Beukens, R.; Fireman, E.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon-14 terrestrial ages of ten Antarctic meteorites have been measured by the IsoTrace accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The 14 C terrestrial age of 1 gram sample was determined from 14 C concentrations collected at melt and re-melt temperatures, compared with the 14 C concentration of the known Bruderheim chondrite. Yamato-790448 (LL3) chondrite was found to be the oldest terrestrial age of 3x10 4 years in the nine Yamato chondrites, whereas Yamato-791630 (L4) chondrite is considered to be the youngest chondrites less than thousand years. Allan Hills chondrite of ALH-77231 (L6) shows older terrestrial age than the nine Yamato chondrites. New accelerator data of the terrestrial age show higher accuracy with smaller sample than the previous counting method. (author)

  15. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Design. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. Results. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes’ holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. PMID:27694560

  16. Tribulus terrestris Extract Improves Human Sperm Parameters In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, Sara; Bakhtiari, Mitra; Asadmobini, Atefeh; Esmaeili, Farzane

    2016-09-30

    The object of present study was to investigate the effects of direct addition of Tribulus terrestris extract on human sperm parameters. Semen specimens from 40 healthy men volunteers were divided into 4 groups: one group received no treatment (control group) while the others were incubated with 20, 40, and 50 µg/mL of T terrestris extract (experimental groups). Motility, viability, and DNA fragmentation were assessed in all groups. The incubation of human semen with 40 and 50 μg/mL of T terrestris extract significantly enhanced total sperm motility, number of progressive motile spermatozoa, and curvilinear velocity over 60 to 120 minutes' holding time (P terrestris extract (P terrestris extract to human sperm could affect male fertility capacity. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  18. Estimating Exposure of Terrestrial Wildlife to Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sample, B.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a general model for exposure of terrestrial wildlife to contaminants (Sect. 2), methods for estimating parameters of the model (Sect. 3), species specific parameters for endpoint species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) (Sect. 4), and a sample application (Sect. 5). Exposure can be defined as the coincidence in both space and time of a receptor and a stressor, such that the receptor and stressor come into contact and interact (Risk Assessment Forum 1992). In the context of ecological risk assessment, receptors include all endpoint species or communities identified for a site [see Suter (1989) and Suter et al. (1994) for discussions of ecological endpoints for waste sites]. In the context of waste site assessments, stressors are chemical contaminations, and the contact and interaction are uptake of the contaminant by the receptor. Without sufficient exposure of the receptor to the contaminants, there is no ecological risk. Unlike some other endpoint assemblages, terrestrial wildlife are significantly exposed to contaminants in multiple media. They may drink or swim in contaminated water, ingest contaminated food and soil, and breath contaminated air. In addition, because most wildlife are mobile, moving among and within habitats, exposure is not restricted to a single location. They may integrate contamination from several spatially discrete sources. Therefore, exposure models for terrestrial wildlife must include multiple media. This document provides models and parameters for estimating exposure of birds and mammals. Reptiles and amphibians are not considered because few data exist with which to assess exposure to these organisms. In addition, because toxicological data are scarce for both classes, evaluation of the significance of exposure estimates is problematic. However, the general exposure estimation procedure developed herein for birds and mammals is applicable to reptiles and amphibians. Exposure models must be appropriate to the

  19. 15th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    This is the 15th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocooler Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  20. 14th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2007-01-01

    This is the 14th volume in the conference series. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  1. The fragmentation of Pangaea and Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavrek, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    During the Mesozoic (242-66 million years ago), terrestrial regions underwent a massive shift in their size, position and connectivity. At the beginning of the era, the land masses were joined into a single supercontinent called Pangaea. However, by the end of the Mesozoic, terrestrial regions had become highly fragmented, both owing to the drifting apart of the continental plates and the extremely high sea levels that flooded and divided many regions. How terrestrial biodiversity was affected by this fragmentation and large-scale flooding of the Earth's landmasses is uncertain. Based on a model using the species-area relationship (SAR), terrestrial vertebrate biodiversity would be expected to nearly double through the Mesozoic owing to continental fragmentation, despite a decrease of 24% in total terrestrial area. Previous studies of Mesozoic vertebrates have generally found increases in terrestrial diversity towards the end of the era, although these increases are often attributed to intrinsic or climatic factors. Instead, continental fragmentation over this time may largely explain any observed increase in terrestrial biodiversity. This study demonstrates the importance that non-intrinsic effects can have on the taxonomic success of a group, and the importance of geography to understanding past biodiversity. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, Sami J; Galloway, Aaron W E; Aalto, Sanni L; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-08-11

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terrestrial-origin carbohydrates for energy and sparing essential fatty acids and amino acids for somatic growth and reproduction. Assimilated terrestrial-origin fatty acids from shoreline reed particles exceeded available diet, indicating that Daphnia may convert a part of their dietary carbohydrates to saturated fatty acids. This conversion was not observed with birch leaf diets, which had lower carbohydrate content. Subsequent analysis of 21 boreal and subarctic lakes showed that diet of herbivorous zooplankton is mainly based on high-quality phytoplankton rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. The proportion of low-quality diets (bacteria and terrestrial particulate organic matter) was <28% of the assimilated carbon. Taken collectively, the incorporation of terrestrial carbon into zooplankton was not directly related to the concentration of terrestrial organic matter in experiments or lakes, but rather to the low availability of phytoplankton.

  3. THE COMPOSITIONAL DIVERSITY OF EXTRASOLAR TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. II. MIGRATION SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter-Bond, Jade C.; O'Brien, David P.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2012-01-01

    Prior work has found that a variety of terrestrial planetary compositions are expected to occur within known extrasolar planetary systems. However, such studies ignored the effects of giant planet migration, which is thought to be very common in extrasolar systems. Here we present calculations of the compositions of terrestrial planets that formed in dynamical simulations incorporating varying degrees of giant planet migration. We used chemical equilibrium models of the solid material present in the disks of five known planetary host stars: the Sun, GJ 777, HD4203, HD19994, and HD213240. Giant planet migration has a strong effect on the compositions of simulated terrestrial planets as the migration results in large-scale mixing between terrestrial planet building blocks that condensed at a range of temperatures. This mixing acts to (1) increase the typical abundance of Mg-rich silicates in the terrestrial planets' feeding zones and thus increase the frequency of planets with Earth-like compositions compared with simulations with static giant planet orbits, and (2) drastically increase the efficiency of the delivery of hydrous phases (water and serpentine) to terrestrial planets and thus produce waterworlds and/or wet Earths. Our results demonstrate that although a wide variety of terrestrial planet compositions can still be produced, planets with Earth-like compositions should be common within extrasolar planetary systems.

  4. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Burgos, J.; Cujic, M.; Fesenko, S.; Kryshev, A.; Pachal, N.; Real, A.; Su, B.S.; Tagami, K.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Wells, C.; Wood, M.D.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. - Highlights: • 1907 biological half-life values have been collated for wildlife species. • Data cover 52 elements. • 27 marine, freshwater, riparian and terrestrial organisms are included.

  5. Diversity of introduced terrestrial flatworms in the Iberian Peninsula: a cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Álvarez-Presas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many tropical terrestrial planarians (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae have been introduced around the globe. One of these species is known to cause significant decline in earthworm populations, resulting in a reduction of ecological functions that earthworms provide. Flatworms, additionally, are a potential risk to other species that have the same dietary needs. Hence, the planarian invasion might cause significant economic losses in agriculture and damage to the ecosystem. In the Iberian Peninsula only Bipalium kewense Moseley, 1878 had been cited till 2007. From that year on, four more species have been cited, and several reports of the presence of these animals in particular gardens have been received. In the present study we have: (1 analyzed the animals sent by non-specialists and also the presence of terrestrial planarians in plant nurseries and garden centers; (2 identified their species through morphological and phylogenetic molecular analyses, including representatives of their areas of origin; (3 revised their dietary sources and (4 used Species Distribution Modeling (SDM for one species to evaluate the risk of its introduction to natural areas. The results have shown the presence of at least ten species of alien terrestrial planarians, from all its phylogenetic range. International plant trade is the source of these animals, and many garden centers are acting as reservoirs. Also, landscape restoration to reintroduce autochthonous plants has facilitated their introduction close to natural forests and agricultural fields. In conclusion, there is a need to take measures on plant trade and to have special care in the treatment of restored habitats.

  6. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  7. Pollen and spores of terrestrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen and spores are valuable tools in reconstructing past sea level and climate because of their ubiquity, abundance, and durability as well as their reciprocity with source vegetation to environmental change (Cronin, 1999; Traverse, 2007; Willard and Bernhardt, 2011). Pollan is found in many sedimentary environments, from freshwater to saltwater, terrestrial to marine. It can be abundant in a minimal amount of sample material, for example half a gram, as concentrations can be as high as four million grains per gram (Traverse, 2007). The abundance of pollen in a sample lends it to robust statistical analysis for the quantitative reconstruction of environments. The outer cell wall is resistant to decay in sediments and allows palynomorphs (pollen and spores) to record changes in plant communities and sea level over millions of years. These characteristics make pollen and spores a powerful tool to use in sea-level research.This chapter describes the biology of pollen and spores and how they are transported and preserved in sediments. We present a methodology for isolating pollen from sediments and a general language and framework to identify pollen as well as light micrographs of a selection of common pollen grains, We then discuss their utility in sea-level research.

  8. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  9. Crustal development in the terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of planetary crusts may be divided into primary, resulting from melting during accretion, and secondary crusts developed by partial melting from planetary mantles. The Mercurian crust is probably primary with no compelling evidence of later basaltic extrusions. Reflectance spectral evidence for the existence Fe2(+) is equivocal. The Viking Lander XRF data on Mars indicate basaltic material at both sites 4,000 km apart. Surface aeolian processes would be expected to provide a homogeneous average of the crust, but no evidence of more siliceous material is present. This conclusion is weakly supported by the Russian gamma ray data. No evidence for granite appears from the Russian Venera XRF data which indicates MORB-type and alkali basalt (4% K2O) surface compositions. The highlands of Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite probably owe their elevation to tectonic processes rather than compositional effects. Venus may thus resemble the early Archean Earth. The terrestrial granitic continental crust is a product of episodic multiple partial melting events, probably a consequence of the presence of surface water.

  10. The shape of terrestrial abundance distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alroy, John

    2015-01-01

    Ecologists widely accept that the distribution of abundances in most communities is fairly flat but heavily dominated by a few species. The reason for this is that species abundances are thought to follow certain theoretical distributions that predict such a pattern. However, previous studies have focused on either a few theoretical distributions or a few empirical distributions. I illustrate abundance patterns in 1055 samples of trees, bats, small terrestrial mammals, birds, lizards, frogs, ants, dung beetles, butterflies, and odonates. Five existing theoretical distributions make inaccurate predictions about the frequencies of the most common species and of the average species, and most of them fit the overall patterns poorly, according to the maximum likelihood–related Kullback-Leibler divergence statistic. Instead, the data support a low-dominance distribution here called the “double geometric.” Depending on the value of its two governing parameters, it may resemble either the geometric series distribution or the lognormal series distribution. However, unlike any other model, it assumes both that richness is finite and that species compete unequally for resources in a two-dimensional niche landscape, which implies that niche breadths are variable and that trait distributions are neither arrayed along a single dimension nor randomly associated. The hypothesis that niche space is multidimensional helps to explain how numerous species can coexist despite interacting strongly. PMID:26601249

  11. Some Studies of Terrestrial Impact Cratering Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetsu L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, a 28.4 Myr periodicity was detected in the ages of terrestrial impact craters and a 26 Myr periodicity in the epochs of mass extinctions of species. Periodic comet showers from the Oort cloud seemed to cause catastrophic events linked to mass extinctions of species. Our first study revealed that the only significant detected periodicity is the “human signal” caused by the rounding of these data into integer numbers. The second study confirmed that the original 28.4 Myr periodicity detection was not significant. The third study revealed that the quality and the quantity of the currently available data would allow detection of real periodicity only if all impacts have been periodic, which cannot be the case. The detection of a periodic signal, if present, requires that more craters should be discovered and the accuracy of age estimates improved. If we sometimes will be able to find the difference between the craters caused by asteroid and comet impacts, the aperiodic component could be removed. The lunar impact craters may eventually provide the required supplementary data.

  12. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715

  13. Energetics of the terrestrial bow shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Maria; Gunell, Herbert; Norqvist, Patrik

    2017-04-01

    The solar wind is the primary energy source for the magnetospheric energy budget. Energy can enter through the magnetopause both as kinetic energy (plasma entering via e.g. magnetic reconnection and impulsive penetration) and as electromagnetic energy (e.g. by the conversion of solar wind kinetic energy into electromagnetic energy in magnetopause generators). However, energy is extracted from the solar wind already at the bow shock, before it encounters the terrestrial magnetopause. At the bow shock the supersonic solar wind is slowed down and heated, and the region near the bow shock is known to host many complex processes, including the accelerating of particles and the generation of waves. The processes at and near the bow shock can be discussed in terms of energetics: In a generator (load) process kinetic energy is converted to (from) electromagnetic energy. Bow shock regions where the solar wind is decelerated correspond to generators, while regions where particles are energized (accelerated and heated) correspond to loads. Recently, it has been suggested that currents from the bow shock generator should flow across the magnetosheath and connect to the magnetospause current systems [Siebert and Siscoe, 2002; Lopez et al., 2011]. In this study we use data from the Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) mission to investigate the energetics of the bow shock and the current closure, and we compare with the MHD simulations of Lopez et al., 2011.

  14. Terrestrial nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions at the global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, S

    2013-07-05

    Interactions between the terrestrial nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycles shape the response of ecosystems to global change. However, the global distribution of nitrogen availability and its importance in global biogeochemistry and biogeochemical interactions with the climate system remain uncertain. Based on projections of a terrestrial biosphere model scaling ecological understanding of nitrogen-carbon cycle interactions to global scales, anthropogenic nitrogen additions since 1860 are estimated to have enriched the terrestrial biosphere by 1.3 Pg N, supporting the sequestration of 11.2 Pg C. Over the same time period, CO2 fertilization has increased terrestrial carbon storage by 134.0 Pg C, increasing the terrestrial nitrogen stock by 1.2 Pg N. In 2001-2010, terrestrial ecosystems sequestered an estimated total of 27 Tg N yr(-1) (1.9 Pg C yr(-1)), of which 10 Tg N yr(-1) (0.2 Pg C yr(-1)) are due to anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. Nitrogen availability already limits terrestrial carbon sequestration in the boreal and temperate zone, and will constrain future carbon sequestration in response to CO2 fertilization (regionally by up to 70% compared with an estimate without considering nitrogen-carbon interactions). This reduced terrestrial carbon uptake will probably dominate the role of the terrestrial nitrogen cycle in the climate system, as it accelerates the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. However, increases of N2O emissions owing to anthropogenic nitrogen and climate change (at a rate of approx. 0.5 Tg N yr(-1) per 1°C degree climate warming) will add an important long-term climate forcing.

  15. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum of their indivi......The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  16. Transfer coefficients for terrestrial foodchain: their derivation and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Y.C.; Colsher, C.S.; Thompson, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    Transfer coefficients to predict the passage of isotopes from the environment to terrestrial foods have been derived for various radionuclides of importance in the nuclear fuel cycle. These data update and extend previously recommended handbook values. We derive transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods and describe the systematics of the derived transfer coefficients. Suggestions are offered for changes in the values of transfer coefficients to terrestrial foods that now appear in federal regulatory guides. Deficiencies in our present knowledge concerning transfer coefficients and limitations in the use of these values to ensure compliance with radiation protection standards are discussed

  17. Interworking evolution of mobile satellite and terrestrial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyas, R.; Kelleher, P.; Moller, P.; Jones, T.

    1993-01-01

    There is considerable interest among mobile satellite service providers in interworking with terrestrial networks to provide a universal global network. With such interworking, subscribers may be provided a common set of services such as those planned for the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), and future Intelligent Networks (IN's). This paper first reviews issues in satellite interworking. Next the status and interworking plans of terrestrial mobile communications service providers are examined with early examples of mobile satellite interworking including a discussion of the anticipated evolution towards full interworking between mobile satellite and both fixed and mobile terrestrial networks.

  18. NOVANA - National Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, L. M.

    This report is Part 1 of the Programme Description of NOVANA - the Nationwide Monitoring and Assessment Programme for the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments. Part 1 comprises a general description of the background for the programme, including the international obliga-tions and requirements...... for monitoring of nature and the environment. The overall objective and the scientific and strategic background for the priorities upon which NOVANA pro-gramme is based are described, as are the organization of the programme, the overall economy and the technical assumptions made. Finally the scientific content...

  19. Hyperresolution global land surface modeling: Meeting a grand challenge for monitoring Earth's terrestrial water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; DöLl, Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; Gochis, David; van de Giesen, Nick; Houser, Paul; Jaffé, Peter R.; Kollet, Stefan; Lehner, Bernhard; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Sheffield, Justin; Wade, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul

    2011-05-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (˜10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 109 unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a "grand challenge" to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  20. Hyperresolution Global Land Surface Modeling: Meeting a Grand Challenge for Monitoring Earth's Terrestrial Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Eric F.; Roundy, Joshua K.; Troy, Tara J.; van Beek, L. P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; 4 Blyth, Eleanor; de Roo, Ad; Doell. Petra; Ek, Mike; Famiglietti, James; hide

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring Earth's terrestrial water conditions is critically important to many hydrological applications such as global food production; assessing water resources sustainability; and flood, drought, and climate change prediction. These needs have motivated the development of pilot monitoring and prediction systems for terrestrial hydrologic and vegetative states, but to date only at the rather coarse spatial resolutions (approx.10-100 km) over continental to global domains. Adequately addressing critical water cycle science questions and applications requires systems that are implemented globally at much higher resolutions, on the order of 1 km, resolutions referred to as hyperresolution in the context of global land surface models. This opinion paper sets forth the needs and benefits for a system that would monitor and predict the Earth's terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles. We discuss six major challenges in developing a system: improved representation of surface-subsurface interactions due to fine-scale topography and vegetation; improved representation of land-atmospheric interactions and resulting spatial information on soil moisture and evapotranspiration; inclusion of water quality as part of the biogeochemical cycle; representation of human impacts from water management; utilizing massively parallel computer systems and recent computational advances in solving hyperresolution models that will have up to 10(exp 9) unknowns; and developing the required in situ and remote sensing global data sets. We deem the development of a global hyperresolution model for monitoring the terrestrial water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles a grand challenge to the community, and we call upon the international hydrologic community and the hydrological science support infrastructure to endorse the effort.

  1. Recent Improvements in IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Center Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stamatakos, N; Luzum, B; Wooden, W

    2007-01-01

    ...) at USNO has made several improvements to its combination and pre- diction products. These improvements are due to the inclusion of new input data sources as well as modifications to the combination and prediction algorithms...

  2. Gii der faer en Diæffwel i ier!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen tager udgangspunkt i en række specielle eksempler på gid-sætninger i Leonora Christinas Jammers Minde, og forholder dem til den gængse viden og empiri om leksikaliseringen af Gud give det-konstruktionen til partiklen gid. Det foreslås bl.a. at Jammers Minde-varianter kan betragtes som et...

  3. Radiochemistry Results from the IER-163 COMET Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackman, Kevin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bredeweg, Todd Allen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schake, Ann R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oldham, Warren J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanchez, Rene Gerardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Attrep, Moses [C-NR: NUCLEAR & RADIOCHEMISTRY; Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-08-07

    The COMET assembly at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) was used to irradiate twelve foils in September 2011. The intention of this irradiation was to measure 'peak yield' fission product activities, activation products, and so-called 'endpoint R values' for different foil materials in a non-thermal neutron spectrum. After irradiation, several of the foils were shipped to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for radiochemical analysis. The results from the non-destructive and radiochemical analyses of six of these foils are presented.

  4. Valuation of Travel Time and TravelIer Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet

    2003-01-01

    The value of travel time plays an important role in cost benefit analysis of infrastructureprojects. However, the issue of uncertainty on travel times and the implications this has forestimations of travel time values has received much less attention in the literature. In thispaper we compare

  5. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  6. Cause of Cambrian Explosion - Terrestrial or Cosmic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Edward J; Al-Mufti, Shirwan; Augustyn, Kenneth A; Chandrajith, Rohana; Coghlan, John P; Coulson, S G; Ghosh, Sudipto; Gillman, Mark; Gorczynski, Reginald M; Klyce, Brig; Louis, Godfrey; Mahanama, Kithsiri; Oliver, Keith R; Padron, Julio; Qu, Jiangwen; Schuster, John A; Smith, W E; Snyder, Duane P; Steele, Julian A; Stewart, Brent J; Temple, Robert; Tokoro, Gensuke; Tout, Christopher A; Unzicker, Alexander; Wainwright, Milton; Wallis, Jamie; Wallis, Daryl H; Wallis, Max K; Wetherall, John; Wickramasinghe, D T; Wickramasinghe, J T; Wickramasinghe, N Chandra; Liu, Yongsheng

    2018-08-01

    We review the salient evidence consistent with or predicted by the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe (H-W) thesis of Cometary (Cosmic) Biology. Much of this physical and biological evidence is multifactorial. One particular focus are the recent studies which date the emergence of the complex retroviruses of vertebrate lines at or just before the Cambrian Explosion of ∼500 Ma. Such viruses are known to be plausibly associated with major evolutionary genomic processes. We believe this coincidence is not fortuitous but is consistent with a key prediction of H-W theory whereby major extinction-diversification evolutionary boundaries coincide with virus-bearing cometary-bolide bombardment events. A second focus is the remarkable evolution of intelligent complexity (Cephalopods) culminating in the emergence of the Octopus. A third focus concerns the micro-organism fossil evidence contained within meteorites as well as the detection in the upper atmosphere of apparent incoming life-bearing particles from space. In our view the totality of the multifactorial data and critical analyses assembled by Fred Hoyle, Chandra Wickramasinghe and their many colleagues since the 1960s leads to a very plausible conclusion - life may have been seeded here on Earth by life-bearing comets as soon as conditions on Earth allowed it to flourish (about or just before 4.1 Billion years ago); and living organisms such as space-resistant and space-hardy bacteria, viruses, more complex eukaryotic cells, fertilised ova and seeds have been continuously delivered ever since to Earth so being one important driver of further terrestrial evolution which has resulted in considerable genetic diversity and which has led to the emergence of mankind. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Terrestrial and aquatic mammals of the Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJR. Alho

    Full Text Available Different works have registered the number of mammal species within the natural habitats of the Pantanal based on currently known records, with species richness ranging from 89 to 152 of annotated occurrences. Our present list sums 174 species. However, at least three factors have to be emphasised to deal with recorded numbers: 1 to establish the ecotone limit between the floodplain (which is the Pantanal and its neighbouring domain like the Cerrado, besides the existence of maps recently produced; 2 the lack of intensive surveys, especially on small mammals, rodents and marsupials; and 3 the constant taxonomic revision on bats, rodents and marsupials. Some species are very abundant - for example the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris and the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous, and some are rare, and others are still intrinsically rare - for example, the bush dog Speothos venaticus. Abundance of species is assumed to reflect ecological resources of the habitat. Local diversity and number of individuals of wild rodents and marsupials also rely on the offering of ecological resources and behavioural specialisation to microhabitat components. A large number of species interact with the type of the vegetation of the habitat, by means of habitat selection through active patterns of ecological behaviour, resulting on dependency on arboreal and forested habitats of the Pantanal. In addition, mammals respond to seasonal shrinking-and-expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal. The highest number of species is observed during the dry season, when there is a considerable expansion of terrestrial habitats, mainly seasonally flooded grassland. Major threats to mammal species are the loss and alteration of habitats due to human intervention, mainly deforestation, unsustainable agricultural and cattle-ranching practices, which convert the natural vegetation into pastures. The Pantanal still harbours about a dozen of species officially listened

  8. Environmental aspects: - Atmospheric, - aquatic, - terrestrial dispersion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchmann, R.

    1982-01-01

    After general introductory remarks the paper deals with the dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and in the aquatic environment as well as with the transfer through the terrestrial environment. (RW)

  9. High Efficiency, High Density Terrestrial Panel. [for solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Wihl, M.; Rosenfield, T.

    1979-01-01

    Terrestrial panels were fabricated using rectangular cells. Packing densities in excess of 90% with panel conversion efficiencies greater than 13% were obtained. Higher density panels can be produced on a cost competitive basis with the standard salami panels.

  10. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  11. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  12. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  13. Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Terrestrial radiation level in selected asphalt plants in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ... An environmental radiation survey in asphalt processing plants in Rivers State was been carried out ... Therefore the results show significant radiological risk.

  14. Generation of terrestrial radiation database in the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali; Dhabekar, Bhushan; Jose, Jis Romal; Chinnaesakki, S.; Bakshi, A.K.; Datta, D.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation in the environment includes terrestrial radiation, cosmic radiation from space and air activity due to radon/thoron. It is known that cosmic contribution increases near the poles. The terrestrial component is largely due to 232 Th and 238 U series and 40 K. BARC under the cosmic ray dosimetry project with National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) has taken up measurement of natural background radiation at Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. The project includes generation of baseline data on terrestrial radioactivity in water, soil and rock and estimation of cosmic ray doses. Extensive radiation surveys were carried out by the BARC team in the 35 th and 36 th expedition in and around Larsemann hills in East Antarctica where the third Indian station 'Bharati' is situated. This paper presents mapping of terrestrial radiation levels in Antarctica which will help in strengthening the background radiation database and develop a Radiation Informatics System (RIS)

  15. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Ricciuto, Daniel; Li, Runze

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships betwe...

  16. Taiwan's industrial heavy metal pollution threatens terrestrial biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, M.J.; Selvaraj, K.; Agoramoorthy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The bioconcentration levels of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Zn) and non-essential (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Sn) elements have been investigated in different terrestrial biota such as fungi, plant, earthworm, snail, crab, insect, amphibian, lizard, snake, and bat including the associated soil, to investigate the ecosystem health status in Kenting National Park, Taiwan. High bioconcentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in snail, earthworm, crab, lizard, snake, and bat indicated a contaminated terrestrial ecosystem. High concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Sn in plant species, effective bioaccumulation of Cd by earthworm, snail, crab and bat, as well as very high levels of Hg found in invertebrates, amphibians, and reptiles revealed a strong influence from industrial pollution on the biotic community. This study for the first time presents data on the impact of heavy metal pollution on various terrestrial organisms in Taiwan. - Metal effects occur at any terrestrial levels in Taiwan

  17. Research progress in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burson, Z.G.

    1974-01-01

    Progress during the last few years in airborne surveys of terrestrial gamma radiation, i.e. in the measuring, recording, and interpreting of gamma ray signals in NaI(Tl) crystals, is discussed. Non-terrestrial background contributions have been accurately characterized. The feasibility of determining the water equivalent of snow cover by aerial survey techniques has been demonstrated. Repeat surveys over areas surrounding reactor sites can now be used to detect average differences of less than 1.0 μR/hr in terrestrial gamma radiation levels. New data acquisition and recording systems allow isotope concentrations and total inventories to be measured in spatial resolutions of a few hundred feet. Aerial survey data have been combined with population distribution data to obtain population exposure values from natural terrestrial gamma radiation around reactor sites

  18. Floral display, reproductive success, and conservation of terrestrial orchids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Jersáková, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, - (2005), s. 136-144 ISSN 0361-185X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : deceptiveness * fruit set * number of flowers * Orchis morio * terrestrial orchids Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Allium hookeri , Thw. Enum. A lesser known terrestrial perennial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A lesser known terrestrial perennial herb used as food and its ethnobotanical ... from the wilderness, for consumption and traditional healing of various ailments. ... plants, the lifestyles of the people are changed and they prefer 'junk foods'.

  20. Coastal niches for terrestrial predators: a stable isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellbrand, K.; Hamback, P.A., E-mail: peter.hamback@botan.su.se [Stockholm Univ., Dept. of Botany, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify the use of marine versus terrestrial food items by terrestrial arthropod predators on Baltic Sea shores. The inflow of marine nutrients in the area consists mainly of marine algal detritus and emerging aquatic insects (e.g., chironomids). Diets of coastal arthropods were examined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in a two source mixing model. The results suggest that spiders are the terrestrial predators mainly utilizing nutrients and energy of marine origin on Baltic Sea shores, whereas insect predators such as beetles and heteropterans mainly utilize nutrients and energy derived from terrestrial sources, possibly owing to differences in hunting behaviour. That spiders are the predators which benefit the most from the marine inflow suggest that eventual effects of marine subsidies for the coastal ecosystem as a whole are likely mediated by spiders. (author)

  1. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph High Accuracy Optical Propagation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project is considering several approaches to discovering planets orbiting stars far from earth and assessing their suitability to...

  2. Coastal niches for terrestrial predators: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellbrand, K.; Hamback, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the use of marine versus terrestrial food items by terrestrial arthropod predators on Baltic Sea shores. The inflow of marine nutrients in the area consists mainly of marine algal detritus and emerging aquatic insects (e.g., chironomids). Diets of coastal arthropods were examined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis in a two source mixing model. The results suggest that spiders are the terrestrial predators mainly utilizing nutrients and energy of marine origin on Baltic Sea shores, whereas insect predators such as beetles and heteropterans mainly utilize nutrients and energy derived from terrestrial sources, possibly owing to differences in hunting behaviour. That spiders are the predators which benefit the most from the marine inflow suggest that eventual effects of marine subsidies for the coastal ecosystem as a whole are likely mediated by spiders. (author)

  3. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Li, R.; Hendriks, D.M.D.; Moors, E.J.; Valentini, R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between

  4. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, C.; Jacobs, C.M.J.; Moors, E.J.; Elbers, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate–carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between

  5. Terrestrial carbohydrates support freshwater zooplankton during phytoplankton deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Taipale, Sami J.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Aalto, Sanni L.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Strandberg, Ursula; Kankaala, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater food webs can be partly supported by terrestrial primary production, often deriving from plant litter of surrounding catchment vegetation. Although consisting mainly of poorly bioavailable lignin, with low protein and lipid content, the carbohydrates from fallen tree leaves and shoreline vegetation may be utilized by aquatic consumers. Here we show that during phytoplankton deficiency, zooplankton (Daphnia magna) can benefit from terrestrial particulate organic matter by using terr...

  6. Microbial rhodopsins on leaf surfaces of terrestrial plants

    OpenAIRE

    Atamna-Ismaeel, Nof; Finkel, Omri M.; Glaser, Fabian; Sharon, Itai; Schneider, Ron; Post, Anton F.; Spudich, John L.; von Mering, Christian; Vorholt, Julia A.; Iluz, David; Béjà, Oded; Belkin, Shimshon

    2011-01-01

    The above-ground surfaces of terrestrial plants, the phyllosphere, comprise the main interface between the terrestrial biosphere and solar radiation. It is estimated to host up to 1026 microbial cells that may intercept part of the photon flux impinging on the leaves. Based on 454-pyrosequencing-generated metagenome data, we report on the existence of diverse microbial rhodopsins in five distinct phyllospheres from tamarisk (Tamarix nilotica), soybean (Glycine max), Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis t...

  7. Investigation on the toxic potential of Tribulus terrestris in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abudayyak, M; Jannuzzi, A T; Özhan, G; Alpertunga, B

    2015-04-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae) has been commonly used to energize, vitalize, and improve sexual function and physical performance in men. This study investigates the potential cytotoxic and genotoxic, and endocrine disrupting activities of T. terrestris in vitro. The whole T. terrestris plant was extracted with water, methanol, and chloroform. The genotoxic potential of T. terrestris extracts at 3-2400 µg/mL was assessed by Comet assay in a rat kidney cell line (NRK-52E) and by Ames assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Endocrine disrupting effects of the extracts at concentrations of 0.22-25 000 µg/mL were assessed by YES/YAS assay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cytotoxic activity of the extracts was determined by the MTT test in NRK-52E cells. The different exposure times were used for four tests (3-48 h). The methanol extract of T. terrestris IC50 value was 160 µg/mL. The other extracts did not show cytotoxic effects. In the Comet and Ames genotoxicity assays, none of the extracts possessed genotoxic activities at concentrations of 0-2400 µg/mL. Only the water extract of T. terrestris induced frame shift mutations after metabolic activation. The water extract also showed estrogenic activity by YES/YAS assay in S. cerevisiae at concentrations ≥27 µg/mL (≥2.6-fold), while the other T. terrestris extracts had anti-estrogenic properties. Tribulus terrestris had estrogenic and genotoxic activities. The study was useful in determining its toxicological effects and the precautions regarding consumption.

  8. STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanad H. Hussein.

    2018-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluated antimicrobial activity of Tribulus terrestris aqueous extract against some pathogenic microorganisms. So that, the aqueous extract of Tribulus terrestris was screened for its anti-microbial activity using the plate agar diffusion method. It was tested against four bacteria species; two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The susceptibility of the...

  9. Data base for terrestrial food pathways dose commitment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program is under development to allow calculation of the dose-to-man in Georgia and South Carolina from ingestion of radionuclides in terrestrial foods resulting from deposition of airborne radionuclides. This program is based on models described in Regulatory Guide 1.109 (USNRC, 1977). The data base describes the movement of radionuclides through the terrestrial food chain, growth and consumption factors for a variety of radionuclides

  10. Shell bone histology indicates terrestrial palaeoecology of basal turtles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheyer, Torsten; Sander, P. Martin

    2009-01-01

    The palaeoecology of basal turtles from the Late Triassic was classically viewed as being semi-aquatic, similar to the lifestyle of modern snapping turtles. Lately, this view was questioned based on limb bone proportions, and a terrestrial palaeoecology was suggested for the turtle stem. Here, we present independent shell bone microstructural evidence for a terrestrial habitat of the oldest and basal most well-known turtles, i.e. the Upper Triassic Proterochersis robusta and Proganochelys que...

  11. The Potential for Volcanism and Tectonics on Extrasolar Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Roberge, Aki

    2018-01-01

    JWST and other next-generation space telescopes (e.g., LUVOIR, HabEx, & OST) will usher in a new era of exoplanet characterization that may lead to the identification of habitable, Earth-like worlds. Like the planets and moons in our solar system, the surfaces and interiors of terrestrial exoplanets may be shaped by volcanism and tectonics (Fu et al., 2010; van Summeren et al., 2011; Henning and Hurford, 2014). The magnitude and rate of occurrence of these dynamic processes can either facilitate or preclude the existence of habitable environments. Likewise, it has been suggested that detections of cryovolcanism on icy exoplanets, in the form of geyser-like plumes, could indicate the presence of subsurface oceans (Quick et al., 2017).The presence of volcanic and tectonic activity on solid exoplanets will be intimately linked to planet size and heat output in the form of radiogenic and/or tidal heating. In order to place bounds on the potential for such activity, we estimated the heat output of a variety of exoplanets observed by Kepler. We considered planets whose masses and radii range from 0.067 ME (super-Ganymede) to 8 ME (super-Earth), and 0.5 to 1.8 RE, respectively. These heat output estimates were then compared to those of planets, moons, and dwarf planets in our solar system for which we have direct evidence for the presence/absence of volcanic and tectonic activity. After exoplanet heating rates were estimated, depths to putative molten layers in their interiors were also calculated. For planets such as TRAPPIST-1h, whose densities, orbital parameters, and effective temperatures are consistent with the presence of significant amounts of H2O (Luger et al., 2017), these calculations reveal the depths to internal oceans which may serve as habitable niches beneath surface ice layers.

  12. Consistent realization of Celestial and Terrestrial Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Younghee; Bloßfeld, Mathis; Schmid, Ralf; Angermann, Detlef; Gerstl, Michael; Seitz, Manuela

    2018-03-01

    The Celestial Reference System (CRS) is currently realized only by Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) because it is the space geodetic technique that enables observations in that frame. In contrast, the Terrestrial Reference System (TRS) is realized by means of the combination of four space geodetic techniques: Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), VLBI, Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite. The Earth orientation parameters (EOP) are the link between the two types of systems, CRS and TRS. The EOP series of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service were combined of specifically selected series from various analysis centers. Other EOP series were generated by a simultaneous estimation together with the TRF while the CRF was fixed. Those computation approaches entail inherent inconsistencies between TRF, EOP, and CRF, also because the input data sets are different. A combined normal equation (NEQ) system, which consists of all the parameters, i.e., TRF, EOP, and CRF, would overcome such an inconsistency. In this paper, we simultaneously estimate TRF, EOP, and CRF from an inter-technique combined NEQ using the latest GNSS, VLBI, and SLR data (2005-2015). The results show that the selection of local ties is most critical to the TRF. The combination of pole coordinates is beneficial for the CRF, whereas the combination of Δ UT1 results in clear rotations of the estimated CRF. However, the standard deviations of the EOP and the CRF improve by the inter-technique combination which indicates the benefits of a common estimation of all parameters. It became evident that the common determination of TRF, EOP, and CRF systematically influences future ICRF computations at the level of several μas. Moreover, the CRF is influenced by up to 50 μas if the station coordinates and EOP are dominated by the satellite techniques.

  13. Terrestrial Magnetism in Ottoman Empire: Documents and Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcep, Ferhat

    2016-04-01

    In the modern sense, geophysics started with geomagnetic works in the 1600s in Ottoman geography. The period between 1600 and 1800 includes the measurement of magnetic declination, inclination and magnetic field strength. Before these years, there is a little information, such as how to use a compass, in the Kitab-i Bahriye (the Book of Navigation) of Piri Reis, who is one of the most important mariners of the Ottoman Empire. However, this may not mean that magnetic declination was generally understood. The first Turkish scientific book relating to terrestrial magnetism is the book of Fuyuzat-i Miknatissiye that was translated by Ibrahim Müteferrika and printed in 1731. The subject of this book is earth's magnetism. Magnetic compass was mentioned in several books. These areMuhammed al Awfi's "Jami al- Hikayat" (translated into Turkish by Ibn Arabşah); Piri Reis's Kitab-I Bahriye (The Book of "Navigation" or "Seafaring" or "Sea"); Seydi Ali Reis's "Risale-i Mirat-I Kainat min Alat-I Irtifa" (The Treatise called the Mirror of Universe according to the instrument for measuring Altitude) and Kitab Al-"Muhit" Fi˙Ilm'al-Eflak Va'l Abhur (Book of the Regional Seas and the Science of Astronomy and Navigation). There are two original magnetic declination determinations in Istanbul in 1727 and 1893 by Ottoman Turks. Also, many geomagnetic measurements between 1600 and 1917 were carried out during international campaigns in Ottoman geography.This study was carried out in History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge and supported by Istanbul University Reseach Project Unite (project Numbver: IRP-49162).

  14. Astronomical observations from outside the terrestrial atsmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Achievements by this Commission over the period 1976 to 1978 are reported, under the topics radioastronomy from space, infrared space astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, high energy astronomy, and space solar astronomy. Details of the NASA high energy astronomy observatory (HEAO) program and the international ultraviolet explorer are presented. (C.F.)

  15. Interoperable web applications for sharing data and products of the International DORIS Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudarin, L.; Ferrage, P.

    2017-12-01

    The International DORIS Service (IDS) was created in 2003 under the umbrella of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) to foster scientific research related to the French satellite tracking system DORIS and to deliver scientific products, mostly related to the International Earth rotation and Reference systems Service (IERS). Since its start, the organization has continuously evolved, leading to additional and improved operational products from an expanded set of DORIS Analysis Centers. In addition, IDS has developed services for sharing data and products with the users. Metadata and interoperable web applications are proposed to explore, visualize and download the key products such as the position time series of the geodetic points materialized at the ground tracking stations. The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) encourages the IAG Services to develop such interoperable facilities on their website. The objective for GGOS is to set up an interoperable portal through which the data and products produced by the IAG Services can be served to the user community. We present the web applications proposed by IDS to visualize time series of geodetic observables or to get information about the tracking ground stations and the tracked satellites. We discuss the future plans for IDS to meet the recommendations of GGOS. The presentation also addresses the needs for the IAG Services to adopt common metadata thesaurus to describe data and products, and interoperability standards to share them.

  16. Rethinking Trade-Driven Extinction Risk in Marine and Terrestrial Megafauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B; Dulvy, Nicholas K

    2016-06-20

    Large animals hunted for the high value of their parts (e.g., elephant ivory and shark fins) are at risk of extinction due to both intensive international trade pressure and intrinsic biological sensitivity. However, the relative role of trade, particularly in non-perishable products, and biological factors in driving extinction risk is not well understood [1-4]. Here we identify a taxonomically diverse group of >100 marine and terrestrial megafauna targeted for international luxury markets; estimate their value across three points of sale; test relationships among extinction risk, high value, and body size; and quantify the effects of two mitigating factors: poaching fines and geographic range size. We find that body size is the principal driver of risk for lower value species, but that this biological pattern is eliminated above a value threshold, meaning that the most valuable species face a high extinction risk regardless of size. For example, once mean product values exceed US$12,557 kg(-1), body size no longer drives risk. Total value scales with size for marine animals more strongly than for terrestrial animals, incentivizing the hunting of large marine individuals and species. Poaching fines currently have little effect on extinction risk; fines would need to be increased 10- to 100-fold to be effective. Large geographic ranges reduce risk for terrestrial, but not marine, species, whose ranges are ten times greater. Our results underscore both the evolutionary and ecosystem consequences of targeting large marine animals and the need to geographically scale up and prioritize conservation of high-value marine species to avoid extinction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Debris disks as signposts of terrestrial planet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S. N.; Armitage, P. J.; Moro-Martín, A.; Booth, M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Armstrong, J. C.; Mandell, A. M.; Selsis, F.; West, A. A.

    2011-06-01

    There exists strong circumstantial evidence from their eccentric orbits that most of the known extra-solar planetary systems are the survivors of violent dynamical instabilities. Here we explore the effect of giant planet instabilities on the formation and survival of terrestrial planets. We numerically simulate the evolution of planetary systems around Sun-like stars that include three components: (i) an inner disk of planetesimals and planetary embryos; (ii) three giant planets at Jupiter-Saturn distances; and (iii) an outer disk of planetesimals comparable to estimates of the primitive Kuiper belt. We calculate the dust production and spectral energy distribution of each system by assuming that each planetesimal particle represents an ensemble of smaller bodies in collisional equilibrium. Our main result is a strong correlation between the evolution of the inner and outer parts of planetary systems, i.e. between the presence of terrestrial planets and debris disks. Strong giant planet instabilities - that produce very eccentric surviving planets - destroy all rocky material in the system, including fully-formed terrestrial planets if the instabilities occur late, and also destroy the icy planetesimal population. Stable or weakly unstable systems allow terrestrial planets to accrete in their inner regions and significant dust to be produced in their outer regions, detectable at mid-infrared wavelengths as debris disks. Stars older than ~100 Myr with bright cold dust emission (in particular at λ ~ 70 μm) signpost dynamically calm environments that were conducive to efficient terrestrial accretion. Such emission is present around ~16% of billion-year old Solar-type stars. Our simulations yield numerous secondary results: 1) the typical eccentricities of as-yet undetected terrestrial planets are ~0.1 but there exists a novel class of terrestrial planet system whose single planet undergoes large amplitude oscillations in orbital eccentricity and inclination; 2) by

  18. The response of terrestrial ecosystems to global climate change: Towards an integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustad, Lindsey E.

    2008-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to an anthropogenic 'fingerprint' on the global climate change that has occurred in the last century. Climate change has, and will continue to have, profound effects on the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. As such, there is a critical need to continue to develop a sound scientific basis for national and international policies regulating carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions. This paper reflects on the nature of current global change experiments, and provides recommendations for a unified multidisciplinary approach to future research in this dynamic field. These recommendations include: (1) better integration between experiments and models, and amongst experimental, monitoring, and space-for-time studies; (2) stable and increased support for long-term studies and multi-factor experiments; (3) explicit inclusion of biodiversity, disturbance, and extreme events in experiments and models; (4) consideration of timing vs intensity of global change factors in experiments and models; (5) evaluation of potential thresholds or ecosystem 'tipping points'; and (6) increased support for model-model and model-experiment comparisons. These recommendations, which reflect discussions within the TERACC international network of global change scientists, will facilitate the unraveling of the complex direct and indirect effects of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and their components

  19. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissling, W. Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    , the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals (“MammalDIET”). Diet information was digitized from two global...... species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally...... information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external validation showed that: (1) extrapolations were most reliable for primary food items; (2) several diet categories (“Animal”, “Mammal...

  20. Methods for calculating dose conversion coefficients for terrestrial and aquatic biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulanovsky, A.; Proehl, G.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Plants and animals may be exposed to ionizing radiation from radionuclides in the environment. This paper describes the underlying data and assumptions to assess doses to biota due to internal and external exposure for a wide range of masses and shapes living in various habitats. A dosimetric module is implemented which is a user-friendly and flexible possibility to assess dose conversion coefficients for aquatic and terrestrial biota. The dose conversion coefficients have been derived for internal and various external exposure scenarios. The dosimetric model is linked to radionuclide decay and emission database, compatible with the ICRP Publication 38, thus providing a capability to compute dose conversion coefficients for any nuclide from the database and its daughter nuclides. The dosimetric module has been integrated into the ERICA Tool, but it can also be used as a stand-alone version

  1. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Some effects of pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, W.H.; McIntyre, A.D.; Mills, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    occur when persistent chemicals enter organisms that eliminate them poorly. However, loss of chemicals in the food chain must be more common than accumulation. The great concentration from water to aquatic organism is chiefly a physical phenomenon, not a food chain effect, but it affords high starting levels for these chains. Terrestrial food chains often start at a high level with heavily contaminated, struggling prey. Litter feeders are another important base. Vegetation may be contaminated enough to be dangerous to animals that eat it. Dermal and respiratory routes of intoxication occur in the wild, but the oral route is far more important at most times and places. The organisms that govern soil fertility and texture are affected more by cultivation than by pesticides. Above ground, growing knowledge of resistance, species differences, and biological controls is leading to integrated control, in which use of chemicals is limited and specific. We do not know what is happening to most nontarget invertebrates. Amphibians and reptiles may be killed by applications of insecticides, but are not highly sensitive and can carry large residues. Effects of these residues on reproduction are little known. Heavy kills of birds by pesticides still occur in the field. Fish-eating and bird-eating birds also undergo shell thinning and related reproductive troubles in many areas, sometimes to the point of population decline and local or regional extermination. DDE most often correlates with shell thinning in the wild and in experiments. No other known chemical approaches DDE in causing severe and lasting shell thinning. Herbivorous birds seem to be largely immune to this effect. It is uncertain how much dieldrin and PCBs contribute to embryotoxicity in carnivorous birds. Mammals may be killed by the more toxic pesticides, but some of the commonest small rodents are so resistant, and lose their residues so rapidly, that they are of little

  3. Community Decadal Panel for Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, N. G.; Farr, T.; Baker, V. R.; Bridges, N.; Carsey, F.; Duxbury, N.; Gilmore, M. S.; Green, J. R.; Grin, E.; Hansen, V.; Keszthelyi, L.; Lanagan, P.; Lentz, R.; Marinangeli, L.; Morris, P. A.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Robinson, C.; Thomson, B.

    2001-11-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites for Mars, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel is considering the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the MEPAG science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel is considering the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  4. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  5. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  6. TERRESTRIAL, HABITABLE-ZONE EXOPLANET FREQUENCY FROM KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traub, Wesley A.

    2012-01-01

    Data from Kepler's first 136 days of operation are analyzed to determine the distribution of exoplanets with respect to radius, period, and host-star spectral type. The analysis is extrapolated to estimate the percentage of terrestrial, habitable-zone (HZ) exoplanets. The Kepler census is assumed to be complete for bright stars (magnitude 0.5 Earth radius and periods β–1 , with β ≅ 0.71 ± 0.08; and an extrapolation to longer periods gives the frequency of terrestrial planets in the HZs of FGK stars as η ⊕ ≅ (34 ± 14)%. Thus about one-third of FGK stars are predicted to have at least one terrestrial, HZ planet.

  7. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  8. Busting dust: from cosmic grains to terrestrial microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Electrostatic charging can have important consequences for both the growth and disruption of microparticulates immersed in a plasma. In this topical review, my emphasis is on the latter process, while I extend the term microparticulates not only to include ordinary inanimate cosmic or terrestrial dust but also to include terrestrial microbes whose sizes range from tens of nanometers (viruses) to tens of micrometers (bacteria). Following a description of the basic mechanism of electrostatic disruption of a solid body, I will discuss the role of size, shape and surface irregularity on the process. I will also consider the mitigating role of electric field emission of electrons on the disruption process of a negatively charged grain as its size falls below a critical size. I will conclude by reviewing some early evidence for the electrostatic disruption of cosmic grains, and the very recent evidence for the electrostatic disruption of the bacterial cell membranes in terrestrial sterilization experiments. (orig.)

  9. [Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Chunyu; Han, Meiw; Yang, Limin

    2009-09-01

    The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time. The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed that there were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

  10. Distribution of {sup 129}I in terrestrial surface water environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuegao [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Gong, Meng [College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Yi, Peng, E-mail: pengyi1915@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Aldahan, Ala [Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Department of Geology, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Yu, Zhongbo [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China); Possnert, Göran [Tandem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Chen, Li [State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-15

    The global distribution of the radioactive isotope iodine-129 in surface waters (lakes and rivers) is presented here and compared with the atmospheric deposition and distribution in surface marine waters. The results indicate relatively high concentrations in surface water systems in close vicinity of the anthropogenic release sources as well as in parts of Western Europe, North America and Central Asia. {sup 129}I level is generally higher in the terrestrial surface water of the Northern hemisphere compared to the southern hemisphere. The highest values of {sup 129}I appear around 50°N and 40°S in the northern and southern hemisphere, separately. Direct gaseous and marine atmospheric emissions are the most likely avenues for the transport of {sup 129}I from the sources to the terrestrial surface waters. To apply iodine-129 as process tracer in terrestrial surface water environment, more data are needed on {sup 129}I distribution patterns both locally and globally.

  11. Earth as a radio source: terrestrial kilometric radiation. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.

    1974-02-01

    Radio wave experiments on the IMP-6 and 8 satellites have shown that the earth emits very intense electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from about 50 kHz to 500 kHz. A peak intensity the total power emitted in this frequency range is about 1 billion watts. The earth is, therefore, a very intense planetary radio source, with a total power output comparable to the decametric radio emission from Jupiter. This radio emission from the earth is referred to as terrestrial kilometric radiation. Terrestrial kilometric radiation appears to originate from low altitudes (less than 3.0 Re) in the auroral region. Possible mechanisms which can explain the generation and propagation of the terrestrial kilometric radiation are discussed. (U.S.)

  12. Microalgal and Terrestrial Transport Biofuels to Displace Fossil Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Reijnders

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn, sugar beet or wheat and biodiesel from rapeseed. When terrestrial biofuels are to replace mineral oil-derived transport fuels, large areas of good agricultural land are needed: about 5x108 ha in the case of biofuels from sugarcane or oil palm, and at least 1.8-3.6x109 ha in the case of ethanol from wheat, corn or sugar beet, as produced in industrialized countries. Biofuels from microalgae which are commercially produced with current technologies do not appear to outperform terrestrial plants such as sugarcane in their ability to displace fossil fuels. Whether they will able to do so on a commercial scale in the future, is uncertain.

  13. Mercury in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberg, Mary; Chételat, John; Poulain, Alexandre J; Zdanowicz, Christian; Zheng, Jiancheng

    2015-03-15

    Contaminants in the Canadian Arctic have been studied over the last twenty years under the guidance of the Northern Contaminants Program. This paper provides the current state of knowledge on mercury (Hg) in the Canadian Arctic terrestrial environment. Snow, ice, and soils on land are key reservoirs for atmospheric deposition and can become sources of Hg through the melting of terrestrial ice and snow and via soil erosion. In the Canadian Arctic, new data have been collected for snow and ice that provide more information on the net accumulation and storage of Hg in the cryosphere. Concentrations of total Hg (THg) in terrestrial snow are highly variable but on average, relatively low (Porcupine caribou herd vary among years but there has been no significant increase or decrease over the last two decades. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars: NRC Community Panel Decadal Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.

    2002-12-01

    A report was completed recently by a Community Panel for the NRC Decadal Study of Solar System Exploration. The desire was for a review of the current state of knowledge and for recommendations for action over the next decade. The topic of this panel, Terrestrial Analogs to Mars, was chosen to bring attention to the need for an increase in analog studies in support of the increased pace of Mars exploration. It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all of these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the overarching science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel considered the issues of data collection and archiving, value of field workshops, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities. Parts of this work were performed under contract to NASA.

  15. Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlák Vladimír

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Transformation procedures belong to the main tasks of surveyor working in a field of geodesy, for example in satellite geodesy or astronomical geodesy. It is necessary to know transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial (Earth coordinate systems. Increasingly a dynamic advance growth of application of satellite navigation systems, for example GPS (Global Positioning System into engineering surveying, real estate register and others spheres of applied geodesy and geo-surveying (mine surveying exacts knowledge of these transformation procedures between coordinates in various coordinate systems. These tasks are common for daily work for various practical surveyors too, not only for theoretical scientific working surveyors.Conventional Terrestrial System is 3D coordinate system what is the most important coordinate system in global geodesy. Conventional Terrestrial System is an approximation of the nature coordinate system of the Earth. The origin of this coordinate system is placed in the earth substantial centre of gravity and in the centre of geoid. Conventional Terrestrial System is the Cartesian right-handed coordinate system, i.e. positive one. The Local Astronomical System is 3D coordinate system too and it belongs to an important coordinate system in geodesy from its practical point of view. Many geodetic measurements are realized in this coordinate system. Designation of this coordinate system as astronomical system expresses its sticking to a normal line to an equipotential plane, i.e. to a vertical. Local Astronomical system is the left-handed cartesian coordinate system.Transformation procedures in 3D terrestrial coordinate systems with theory of these systems are presented in the paper. Transformation in the local astronomical coordinate system presents common transformation in a frame of an adjustment of various local geodetic networks. In a case of satellite measurements (GPS, satellite altimetry, etc. transformation between local and

  16. Linking terrestrial and marine conservation planning and threats analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Heather; Ferdaña, Zach; Gray, Elizabeth

    2008-02-01

    The existence of the Gulf of Mexico dead zone makes it clear that marine ecosystems can be damaged by terrestrial inputs. Marine and terrestrial conservation planning need to be aligned in an explicit fashion to fully represent threats to marine systems. To integrate conservation planning for terrestrial and marine systems, we used a novel threats assessment that included 5 cross-system threats in a site-prioritization exercise for the Pacific Northwest coast ecoregion (U.S.A.). Cross-system threats are actions or features in one ecological realm that have effects on species in another realm. We considered bulkheads and other forms of shoreline hardening threats to terrestrial systems and roads, logging, agriculture, and urban areas threats to marine systems. We used 2 proxies of freshwater influence on marine environments, validated against a mechanistic model and field observations, to propagate land-based threats into marine sites. We evaluated the influence of cross-system threats on conservation priorities by comparing MARXAN outputs for 3 scenarios that identified terrestrial and marine priorities simultaneously: (1) no threats, (2) single-system threats, and (3) single- and cross-system threats. Including cross-system threats changed the threat landscape dramatically. As a result the best plan that included only single-system threats identified 323 sites (161,500 ha) at risk from cross-system threats. Including these threats changed the location of best sites. By comparing the best and sum solutions of the single- and cross-system scenarios, we identified areas ideal for preservation or restoration through integrated management. Our findings lend quantitative support to the call for explicitly integrated decision making and management action in terrestrial and marine ecosystems.

  17. Co-location satellite GPS and SLR geodetic techniques at the Felix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory of San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestá, R.; Pacheco, A. M.; Alvis Rojas, H.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.; Albornoz, E.; Navarro, A.; Luna, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work shows the strategy followed for the co-location of the Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) ILRS 7406 telescope and the antenna of the permanent Global Positioning System (GPS) station, located at the Félix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The accomplishment of the co-location consisted in the design, construction, measurement, adjustment and compensation of a geodesic net between the stations SLR and GPS, securing support points solidly built in the soil. The co-location allows the coordinates of the station to be obtained by combining the data of both SLR and GPS techniques, achieving a greater degree of accuracy than individually. The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) considers the co-located stations as the most valuable and important points for the maintenance of terrestrial reference systems and their connection with the celestial ones. The 3 mm precision required by the IERS has been successfully achieved.

  18. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovsky, I.; Baklanov, A.; Jacovlev, V.; Prutskov, V.; Bergman, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: 'Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia' is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: 'Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: 'Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  19. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  20. Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in advanced memory devices

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Takashi; Ibe, Eishi; Yahagi, Yasuo; Kameyama, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    Terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors in semiconductor memory devices are currently a major concern in reliability issues. Understanding the mechanism and quantifying soft-error rates are primarily crucial for the design and quality assurance of semiconductor memory devices. This book covers the relevant up-to-date topics in terrestrial neutron-induced soft errors, and aims to provide succinct knowledge on neutron-induced soft errors to the readers by presenting several valuable and unique features. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Introduction (238 KB). Table A.30 mentioned in Appendix A.6 on

  1. Environmental radionuclides tracers and timers of terrestrial processes

    CERN Document Server

    Froehlich, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The book presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which i

  2. Terrestrial radioactivity monitoring programme (TRAMP) report for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) undertakes a comprehensive independent monitoring programme for radioactivity in terrestrial foodstuffs in England and Wales, this report presents the results from the first full year of operation of this programme and complements the data published annually by the Ministry's Directorate of Fisheries Research in respect of the aquatic environment. This work is undertaken in Wales on behalf of the Secretary of State. The Terrestrial Radioactivity Monitoring Programme (TRAMP) concentrates on samples of agricultural produce (milk, crops, meat) collected from the vicinity of the major nuclear sites in England and Wales and is independent of monitoring undertaken for various purposes by site operators. (author)

  3. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  4. Comparision of the Martian Gullies With Terrestrial Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2005-12-01

    Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies. Some theories developed tried to explained its origin, either by liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones. We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies formed at cold enviroment, sited at the Nevado de Toluca volcanoe near Toluca City, Mexico. We compare them with Martian gullies, choisen from four different areas, to recognize possible processes evolved in its formation. Also, we measured the lenghts of those Martian gullies and their range was from 24 m 1775 m.

  5. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  6. Pulses, linkages, and boundaries of coupled aquatic-terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tockner, K.

    2009-04-01

    Riverine floodplains are linked ecosystems where terrestrial and aquatic habitats overlap, creating a zone where they interact, the aquatic-terrestrial interface. The interface or boundary between aquatic and terrestrial habitats is an area of transition, contact or separation; and connectivity between these habitats may be defined as the ease with which organisms, matter or energy traverse these boundaries. Coupling of aquatic and terrestrial systems generates intertwining food webs, and we may predict that coupled systems are more productive than separated ones. For example, riparian consumers (aquatic and terrestrial) have alternative prey items external to their respective habitats. Such subsidized assemblages occupy a significant higher trophic position than assemblages in unsubsidized areas. Further, cross-habitat linkages are often pulsed; and even small pulses of a driver (e.g. short-term increases in flow) can cause major resource pulses (i.e. emerging aquatic insects) that control the recipient community. For example, short-term additions of resources, simulating pulsed inputs of aquatic food to terrestrial systems, suggest that due to resource partitioning and temporal separation among riparian arthropod taxa the resource flux from the river to the riparian zone increases with increasing riparian consumer diversity. I will discuss the multiple transfer and transformation processes of matter and organisms across aquatic-terrestrial habitats. Key landscape elements along river corridors are vegetated islands that function as instream riparian areas. Results from Central European rivers demonstrate that islands are in general more natural than fringing riparian areas, contribute substantially to total ecotone length, and create diverse habitats in the aquatic and terrestrial realm. In braided rivers, vegetated islands are highly productive landscape elements compared to the adjacent aquatic area. However, aquatic habitats exhibit a much higher decomposition

  7. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  8. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of 89 Sr/ 9 0 Sr, by beta counting and 131 I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  9. NASA Astronaut Occupational Surveillance Program and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, LSAH, Astronaut Exposures and Risk in the Terrestrial and Spaceflight Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keprta, Sean R.; Tarver, William; Van Baalen, Mary; McCoy, Torin

    2015-01-01

    United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a microgravity exposed astronaut. Over the years that program has been modified, now termed Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, still LSAH. Astronaut spaceflight exposures have also changed, with the move from short duration shuttle flights to long duration stays on international space station and considerable terrestrial training activities. This new LSAH incorporates more of an occupational health and medicine model to the study of occupationally exposed astronauts. The presentation outlines the baseline exposures and monitoring of the astronaut population to exposures, both terrestrial, and in space.

  10. Challenges to natural resource monitoring in a small border park: terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, Cochise County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Don E.; Bucci, Melanie; Kuenzi, Amy J.; Alberti, Barbara N.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.; Halvorson, William L.; van Riper, Charles; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in national parks is essential to meet National Park Service and other important public goals. Terrestrial mammals are often proposed for monitoring because large mammals are of interest to visitors and small mammals are important as prey. However, traditional monitoring strategies for mammals are often too expensive and complex to sustain for long periods, particularly in small parks. To evaluate potential strategies for long-term monitoring in small parks, we conducted an intensive one-year inventory of terrestrial mammals at Coronado National Memorial, located in Arizona on the U.S.-Mexico international border, then continued less-intensive monitoring at the site for 7 additional years. During 1996-2003 we confirmed 44 species of terrestrial mammals. Most species (40) were detected in the intensive first year of the study, but we continued to detect new species in later years. Mark-recapture data on small mammals indicated large inter-annual fluctuations in population size, but no significant trend over the 7-year period. Issues associated with the international border affected monitoring efforts and increased sampling costs. Our study confirms that sustained annual monitoring of mammals is probably not feasible in small park units like Coronado. However, comparisons of our data with past studies provide insight into important changes in the mammal community since the 1970s, including an increase in abundance and diversity of grassland rodents. Our results suggest that intensive inventories every 10-20 years may be a valuable and cost-effective approach for detecting long-term trends in terrestrial mammal communities in small natural areas.

  11. TIDALLY HEATED TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANETS: VISCOELASTIC RESPONSE MODELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Wade G.; O'Connell, Richard J.; Sasselov, Dimitar D.

    2009-01-01

    Tidal friction in exoplanet systems, driven by orbits that allow for durable nonzero eccentricities at short heliocentric periods, can generate internal heating far in excess of the conditions observed in our own solar system. Secular perturbations or a notional 2:1 resonance between a hot Earth and hot Jupiter can be used as a baseline to consider the thermal evolution of convecting bodies subject to strong viscoelastic tidal heating. We compare results first from simple models using a fixed Quality factor and Love number, and then for three different viscoelastic rheologies: the Maxwell body, the Standard Anelastic Solid (SAS), and the Burgers body. The SAS and Burgers models are shown to alter the potential for extreme tidal heating by introducing the possibility of new equilibria and multiple response peaks. We find that tidal heating tends to exceed radionuclide heating at periods below 10-30 days, and exceed insolation only below 1-2 days. Extreme cases produce enough tidal heat to initiate global-scale partial melting, and an analysis of tidal limiting mechanisms such as advective cooling for earthlike planets is discussed. To explore long-term behaviors, we map equilibria points between convective heat loss and tidal heat input as functions of eccentricity. For the periods and magnitudes discussed, we show that tidal heating, if significant, is generally detrimental to the width of habitable zones.

  12. 18th International Cryocooler Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Ronald G

    2014-01-01

    Cryocoolers 18 Cryocoolers 18 archives developments and performance measurements in the field of cryocoolers based on the contributions of leading international experts at the 18th International Cryocooler Conference that was held in Syracuse, New York, on June 9-12, 2014. The program of this conference lead to the 76 peer-reviewed papers that are published here. Over the years the International Cryocoolers Conference has become the preeminent worldwide conference for the presentation of the latest developments and test experiences with cryocoolers. The typical applications of this technology include cooling space and terrestrial infrared focal plane arrays, space x-ray detectors, medical applications, and a growing number of high-temperature superconductor applications.

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards

  14. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, GPO Box 3023, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kirschbaum, M.U.F. [Environmental Biology Group, RSBS, Australian National University, GPO Box 475, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Kurz, W.A. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC V8Z 1M5 (Canada); Sanz, M.J. [Fundacion CEAM, Parque Tecnologico, Charles H. Darwin 14, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Schlamadinger, B. [Joanneum Research, Elisabethstrasse 11, Graz A-8010 (Austria); Yamagata, Y. [Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute of Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan)

    2007-06-15

    The capacity to partition natural, indirect, and direct human-induced effects on terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is necessary to be able to predict future terrestrial C dynamics and thus their influence on atmospheric CO2 growth. However, it will take a number of years before we can better attribute quantitative estimates of the contribution of various C processes to the net C balance. In a policy context, factoring out natural and indirect human-induced effects on C sources and sinks from the direct human-induced influences, is seen as a requirement of a C accounting approach that establishes a clear and unambiguous connection between human activities and the assignment of C credits and debits. We present options for factoring out various groups of influences including climate variability, CO2 and N fertilization, and legacies from forest management. These are: (1) selecting longer accounting or measurement periods to reduce the effects of inter-annual variability; (2) correction of national inventories for inter-annual variability; (3) use of activity-based accounting and C response curves; (4) use of baseline scenarios or benchmarks at the national level; (5) stratification of the landscape into units with distinct average C stocks. Other, more sophisticated modeling approaches (e.g., demographic models in combination with forest inventories; process-based models) are possible options for future C accounting systems but their complexity and data requirements make their present adoption more difficult in an inclusive international C accounting system.

  15. The thermal state and evolution of the earth and terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozer, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    In considering the problem of planetary evolution it is suggested that a completely fresh look at the working of the heat transfer process has made it possible to give a general interpretation of many of the recent discoveries of the Earth's present dynamism and past development without appealing to any but very general assumptions about the material behaviour. Once again, the flow properties of rock are in the forefront of the understanding of the Earth's internal heat while the temperature has somewhat receded into the background as a determined rather than a determining characteristic of the behaviour of the terrestrial planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) and the Moon. Misunderstanding about the nature of material properties has made theorists go too far in seeing planets as aggregates of potential laboratory samples, rather than as systems in their own right whose sheer size brings out behaviour requiring distinct ways of describing in situ planetary material. Study of the way in which the evolution of the terrestrial planets becomes regulated by a degree of creep resistance that is quite impossible to measure in the laboratory underlines the similarity of this situation with that which faced attempts to understand stellar evolution. (U.K.)

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on terrestrial plants and animals: A workshop report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Air, Water, and Radiation Division (EH-412) is preparing to issue protective radiological standards for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. To support this effort, DOE sponsored a workshop to evaluate the adequacy of current approaches to radiological protection. Workshop participants reviewed and discussed a 1992 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) report on radiological protection of biota for its adequacy and completeness in answering the following questions: can DOE use these data and conclusions for promulgating radiological standards for the protection of terrestrial organisms; are the conclusions given in this report still valid or have they been superseded by more recent data? The consensus of the workshop participants was that the dose limits for animals and plants recommended by the IAEA are adequately supported by the available scientific information. Participants agreed, however, that better guidance on application of those dose limits is needed. Participants further agreed with the IAEA that dose limits deigned to protect humans generally protect biota as well, except when (1) human access is restricted without restricting access by biota, (2) unique exposure pathways exist, (3) rare or endangered species are present, or (4) other stresses are significant. To deal with these exceptions, site-specific exposures should be considered in developing secondary standards.

  17. Landsat-8: Science and product vision for terrestrial global change research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, David P.; Wulder, M.A.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Woodcock, C.E.; Allen, R. G.; Anderson, M. C.; Helder, D.; Irons, J.R.; Johnson, D.M.; Kennedy, R.; Scambos, T.A.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, J.R.; Sheng, Y.; Vermote, E. F.; Belward, A.S.; Bindschadler, R.; Cohen, W.B.; Gao, F.; Hipple, J. D.; Hostert, Patrick; Huntington, J.; Justice, C.O.; Kilic, A.; Kovalskyy, Valeriy; Lee, Z. P.; Lymburner, Leo; Masek, J.G.; McCorkel, J.; Shuai, Y.; Trezza, R.; Vogelmann, James; Wynne, R.H.; Zhu, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Landsat 8, a NASA and USGS collaboration, acquires global moderate-resolution measurements of the Earth's terrestrial and polar regions in the visible, near-infrared, short wave, and thermal infrared. Landsat 8 extends the remarkable 40 year Landsat record and has enhanced capabilities including new spectral bands in the blue and cirrus cloud-detection portion of the spectrum, two thermal bands, improved sensor signal-to-noise performance and associated improvements in radiometric resolution, and an improved duty cycle that allows collection of a significantly greater number of images per day. This paper introduces the current (2012–2017) Landsat Science Team's efforts to establish an initial understanding of Landsat 8 capabilities and the steps ahead in support of priorities identified by the team. Preliminary evaluation of Landsat 8 capabilities and identification of new science and applications opportunities are described with respect to calibration and radiometric characterization; surface reflectance; surface albedo; surface temperature, evapotranspiration and drought; agriculture; land cover, condition, disturbance and change; fresh and coastal water; and snow and ice. Insights into the development of derived ‘higher-level’ Landsat products are provided in recognition of the growing need for consistently processed, moderate spatial resolution, large area, long-term terrestrial data records for resource management and for climate and global change studies. The paper concludes with future prospects, emphasizing the opportunities for land imaging constellations by combining Landsat data with data collected from other international sensing systems, and consideration of successor Landsat mission requirements.

  18. Ecological succession reveals potential signatures of marine-terrestrial transition in salt marsh fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pylro, Victor Satler; Baldrian, Petr; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Salles, Joana Falcão

    2016-08-01

    Marine-to-terrestrial transition represents one of the most fundamental shifts in microbial life. Understanding the distribution and drivers of soil microbial communities across coastal ecosystems is critical given the roles of microbes in soil biogeochemistry and their multifaceted influence on landscape succession. Here, we studied the fungal community dynamics in a well-established salt marsh chronosequence that spans over a century of ecosystem development. We focussed on providing high-resolution assessments of community composition, diversity and ecophysiological shifts that yielded patterns of ecological succession through soil formation. Notably, despite containing 10- to 100-fold lower fungal internal transcribed spacer abundances, early-successional sites revealed fungal richnesses comparable to those of more mature soils. These newly formed sites also exhibited significant temporal variations in β-diversity that may be attributed to the highly dynamic nature of the system imposed by the tidal regime. The fungal community compositions and ecophysiological assignments changed substantially along the successional gradient, revealing a clear signature of ecological replacement and gradually transforming the environment from a marine into a terrestrial system. Moreover, distance-based linear modelling revealed soil physical structure and organic matter to be the best predictors of the shifts in fungal β-diversity along the chronosequence. Taken together, our study lays the basis for a better understanding of the spatiotemporally determined fungal community dynamics in salt marshes and highlights their ecophysiological traits and adaptation in an evolving ecosystem.

  19. Factoring out natural and indirect human effects on terrestrial carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, J.G.; Kirschbaum, M.U.F.; Kurz, W.A.; Sanz, M.J.; Schlamadinger, B.; Yamagata, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The capacity to partition natural, indirect, and direct human-induced effects on terrestrial carbon (C) sources and sinks is necessary to be able to predict future terrestrial C dynamics and thus their influence on atmospheric CO2 growth. However, it will take a number of years before we can better attribute quantitative estimates of the contribution of various C processes to the net C balance. In a policy context, factoring out natural and indirect human-induced effects on C sources and sinks from the direct human-induced influences, is seen as a requirement of a C accounting approach that establishes a clear and unambiguous connection between human activities and the assignment of C credits and debits. We present options for factoring out various groups of influences including climate variability, CO2 and N fertilization, and legacies from forest management. These are: (1) selecting longer accounting or measurement periods to reduce the effects of inter-annual variability; (2) correction of national inventories for inter-annual variability; (3) use of activity-based accounting and C response curves; (4) use of baseline scenarios or benchmarks at the national level; (5) stratification of the landscape into units with distinct average C stocks. Other, more sophisticated modeling approaches (e.g., demographic models in combination with forest inventories; process-based models) are possible options for future C accounting systems but their complexity and data requirements make their present adoption more difficult in an inclusive international C accounting system

  20. Root structural and functional dynamics in terrestrial biosphere models--evaluation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M; Hanson, Paul J; Iversen, Colleen M; Kumar, Jitendra; Walker, Anthony P; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2015-01-01

    There is wide breadth of root function within ecosystems that should be considered when modeling the terrestrial biosphere. Root structure and function are closely associated with control of plant water and nutrient uptake from the soil, plant carbon (C) assimilation, partitioning and release to the soils, and control of biogeochemical cycles through interactions within the rhizosphere. Root function is extremely dynamic and dependent on internal plant signals, root traits and morphology, and the physical, chemical and biotic soil environment. While plant roots have significant structural and functional plasticity to changing environmental conditions, their dynamics are noticeably absent from the land component of process-based Earth system models used to simulate global biogeochemical cycling. Their dynamic representation in large-scale models should improve model veracity. Here, we describe current root inclusion in models across scales, ranging from mechanistic processes of single roots to parameterized root processes operating at the landscape scale. With this foundation we discuss how existing and future root functional knowledge, new data compilation efforts, and novel modeling platforms can be leveraged to enhance root functionality in large-scale terrestrial biosphere models by improving parameterization within models, and introducing new components such as dynamic root distribution and root functional traits linked to resource extraction. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. Enchytraeids as indicator organisms for chemical stress in terrestrial ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, W.; Römbke, J.

    2001-01-01

    This review article surveys the available data on enchytraeid sensitivity toward chemical stress, and the effects of chemical stress on enchytraeid communities in terrestrial ecosystems. The factors affecting bioavailability of stressors to enchytraeids and the nature of direct and indirect effects

  2. Facial trauma among victims of terrestrial transport accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avila, Sérgio; Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Bernardino, Ítalo de Macedo; da Nóbrega, Lorena Marques; Bento, Patrícia Meira; E Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, terrestrial transport accidents - TTA, especially those involving automobiles and motorcycles - are a major cause of facial trauma, surpassing urban violence. This cross-sectional census study attempted to determine facial trauma occurrence with terrestrial transport accidents etiology, involving cars, motorcycles, or accidents with pedestrians in the northeastern region of Brazil, and examine victims' socio-demographic characteristics. Morbidity data from forensic service reports of victims who sought care from January to December 2012 were analyzed. Altogether, 2379 reports were evaluated, of which 673 were related to terrestrial transport accidents and 103 involved facial trauma. Three previously trained and calibrated researchers collected data using a specific form. Facial trauma occurrence rate was 15.3% (n=103). The most affected age group was 20-29 years (48.3%), and more men than women were affected (2.81:1). Motorcycles were involved in the majority of accidents resulting in facial trauma (66.3%). The occurrence of facial trauma in terrestrial transport accident victims tends to affect a greater proportion of young and male subjects, and the most prevalent accidents involve motorcycles. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, H.F.; Gooren, H.; Peters, P.; Salanki, T.E.; Ploeg, van der M.; Besseling, E.; Koelmans, A.A.; Geissen, V.

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that

  4. Automatic registration of terrestrial point cloud using panoramic reflectance images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is paid to registration of terrestrial point clouds nowadays. Research is carried out towards improved efficiency and automation of the registration process. This paper reports a new approach for point clouds registration utilizing reflectance panoramic images. The approach follows a

  5. Heritability of sperm length in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, Boris; de Jong, Gerdien; Schmid-Hempel, Regula

    2006-01-01

    estimates of narrow sense heritability of sperm length in a social insect, the bumblebee Bombus terrestris. In spite of a balanced and straightforward rearing design of colonies, and the possibility to replicate measurements of sperm within single males nested within colonies, the analysis proved...

  6. A larval hunger signal in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den Boer, Susanne Petronella A; Duchateau, Marie-Jose

    2006-01-01

    Larvae of Bombus terrestris, a pollen-storing bumblebee, are dependent on progressive provisioning by workers. We test the hypothesis that larval cuticular chemicals can act as a hunger signal. We first show with a new classical conditioning experiment, using a Y-shaped tube, that workers can...

  7. Herbivores Enforce Sharp Boundaries Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarneel, Judith M.; Huig, N.; Veen, G. F.; Rip, W.; Bakker, E. S.

    2014-01-01

    The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper

  8. Terrestrial acidification during the end-Permian biosphere crisis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Jiao, Dan; Engel, Michael H.; Looy, Cindy V.; Visscher, Henk

    Excessive acid rainfall associated with emplacement of the Siberian Traps magmatic province is increasingly accepted as a major contributing factor to the end-Permian biosphere crisis. However, direct proxy evidence of terrestrial acidification is so far not available. In this paper, we seek to

  9. Heinrich event 4 characterized by terrestrial proxies in southwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. López-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Heinrich event 4 (H4 is well documented in the North Atlantic Ocean as a cooling event that occurred between 39 and 40 Ka. Deep-sea cores around the Iberian Peninsula coastline have been analysed to characterize the H4 event, but there are no data on the terrestrial response to this event. Here we present for the first time an analysis of terrestrial proxies for characterizing the H4 event, using the small-vertebrate assemblage (comprising small mammals, squamates and amphibians from Terrassa Riera dels Canyars, an archaeo-palaeontological deposit located on the seaboard of the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. This assemblage shows that the H4 event is characterized in northeastern Iberia by harsher and drier terrestrial conditions than today. Our results were compared with other proxies such as pollen, charcoal, phytolith, avifauna and large-mammal data available for this site, as well as with the general H4 event fluctuations and with other sites where H4 and the previous and subsequent Heinrich events (H5 and H3 have been detected in the Mediterranean and Atlantic regions of the Iberian Peninsula. We conclude that the terrestrial proxies follow the same patterns as the climatic and environmental conditions detected by the deep-sea cores at the Iberian margins.

  10. Remote sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Wade T. Tinkham; Alan F. Talhelm; John D. Marshall; Andrew T. Hudak; Luigi Boschetti; Michael J. Falkowski; Jonathan A. Greenberg; John W. Anderson; Andrew Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Robert F. Keefe; James R. Gosz

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the species composition, structure, and function of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems. These changes can also impact the essential ecosystem goods and services derived from these ecosystems. Following disturbances, remote-sensing datasets have been used to monitor the disturbance and describe antecedent conditions as a means of...

  11. A Google Earth Grand Tour of the Terrestrial Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paor, Declan; Coba, Filis; Burgin, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Google Earth is a powerful instructional resource for geoscience education. We have extended the virtual globe to include all terrestrial planets. Downloadable Keyhole Markup Language (KML) files (Google Earth's scripting language) associated with this paper include lessons about Mercury, Venus, the Moon, and Mars. We created "grand…

  12. Terrestrial ecological responses of climate change in the Northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forchhammer, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on the single most important atmospheric phenomenon in the Northern hemisphere, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the author reviews the recent studies coupling the NAO with the ecology of a wide range of terrestrial organisms. In particular, the author focuses on low variations in the NAO affect phenotypic variation in life history Traits and, ultimately, dynamics of populations and of interacting species. (LN)

  13. A review of climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. M. Finch; K. E. Bagne; M. M. Friggens; D. M. Smith; K. M. Brodhead

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated existing literature on predicted and known climate change effects on terrestrial rangeland birds. We asked the following questions: 1) How does climate change affect birds? 2) How will birds respond to climate change? 3) Are species already responding? 4) How will habitats be impacted?

  14. Medicinal properties, phytochemistry and pharmacology of tribulus terrestris l. (zygophyllaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, S.; Bakht, T.

    2014-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine) belongs to family Zygophyllaceae and it is a herbaceous, mat forming plant in nature. It extensively grows in warm dry tropics all over the world and ecologically adaptated as a typical C4 xeromorphic plant. T. terrestris is a noxious weed along with its use in many countries as a folk medicine for different purposes from time immemorial. Ancient records describe various medicinal properties of T. terrestris as a popular source to cure variety of different disease conditions in China, India, and Greece. The plant is used directly as a herb or as a main component for production of a number of medicines and food supplements such as for physical rejuvenation, therapy for the conditions affecting liver, kidney, cardiovascular system and immune systems. Also it is used as a folk medicine for increased muscle strength, sexual potency and in treatments of urinary infections, heart diseases and cough. It is considered invigorating stimulant, aphrodisiac, and nutritive. This review discusses the most commonly recognized medicinal properties of this herb. The chemistry of T. terrestris extracts to establish the relationship between medicinal properties of this important plant will also be reviewed. (author)

  15. Data acquisition considerations for Terrestrial Laser Scanning of forest plots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkes, Phil; Lau Sarmiento, Alvaro; Disney, Mathias; Calders, Kim; Burt, Andrew; Gonzalez De Tanago Meñaca, J.; Bartholomeus, Harm; Brede, Benjamin; Herold, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The poor constraint of forest Above Ground Biomass (AGB) is responsible, in part, for large uncertainties in modelling future climate scenarios. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) can be used to derive unbiased and non-destructive estimates of tree structure and volume and can, therefore, be used to

  16. Endogenous circadian regulation of carbon dioxide exchange in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the hypothesis that diurnal changes in terrestrial CO2 exchange are driven exclusively by the direct effect of the physical environment on plant physiology. We failed to corroborate this assumption, finding instead large diurnal fluctuations in whole ecosystem carbon assimilation across a ...

  17. Integration of Satellite and Terrestrial Networks at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinck, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation focuses on the activities at JPL on the integration of satellite and terrestrial networks for mobile and personal communications. Activities fall into two categories: 1)advanced systems work, and 2)laboratory and field experimentation. Results of a workshop held at JPL on PCS integration and interoperability will be presented. Experiments will be described.

  18. DECIPHERING THERMAL PHASE CURVES OF DRY, TIDALLY LOCKED TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koll, Daniel D. B.; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: dkoll@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-03-20

    Next-generation space telescopes will allow us to characterize terrestrial exoplanets. To do so effectively it will be crucial to make use of all available data. We investigate which atmospheric properties can, and cannot, be inferred from the broadband thermal phase curve of a dry and tidally locked terrestrial planet. First, we use dimensional analysis to show that phase curves are controlled by six nondimensional parameters. Second, we use an idealized general circulation model to explore the relative sensitivity of phase curves to these parameters. We find that the feature of phase curves most sensitive to atmospheric parameters is the peak-to-trough amplitude. Moreover, except for hot and rapidly rotating planets, the phase amplitude is primarily sensitive to only two nondimensional parameters: (1) the ratio of dynamical to radiative timescales and (2) the longwave optical depth at the surface. As an application of this technique, we show how phase curve measurements can be combined with transit or emission spectroscopy to yield a new constraint for the surface pressure and atmospheric mass of terrestrial planets. We estimate that a single broadband phase curve, measured over half an orbit with the James Webb Space Telescope, could meaningfully constrain the atmospheric mass of a nearby super-Earth. Such constraints will be important for studying the atmospheric evolution of terrestrial exoplanets as well as characterizing the surface conditions on potentially habitable planets.

  19. Ageing effects on image sensors due to terrestrial cosmic radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nampoothiri, G.G.; Horemans, M.L.R.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the “ageing” effect on image sensors introduced by neutrons present in natural (terrestrial) cosmic environment. The results obtained at sea level are corroborated for the first time with accelerated neutron beam tests and for various image sensor operation conditions. The results reveal

  20. On a specimen of Lumbricus terrestris, L. with bifurcated tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1886-01-01

    In the last number of the »Annals and Magazine of Nat. History” (Dec. 1885), I find a notice of Prof. Jeffrey Bell about two Lumbrici with bifid hinder ends, one specimen belonging to L. terrestris, the other to L. foetidus; moreover he mentions a specimen, presenting a similar remarquable

  1. Feeding frequency and caste differentiation in Bombus terrestris larvae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, M.F.; Velthuis, H.H.W.; Duchateau, Marie José; Tweel, I. van der

    1998-01-01

    The frequency with which bumble bee larvae are fed during their development was studied using video-recordings. The behaviour of the workers while feeding worker, male and queen larvae of Bombus terrestris was recorded. At the beginning of development, female larvae of both castes were fed at a

  2. Serine protease from midgut of Bombus terrestris males

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabcová, Jana; Kindl, Jiří; Valterová, Irena; Pichová, Iva; Zarevúcka, Marie; Brabcová, J.; Jágr, Michal; Mikšík, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2013), s. 117-128 ISSN 0739-4462 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446; GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:67985823 Keywords : Bombus terrestris * midgut * serine protease * bumblebee Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CE - Biochemistry (FGU-C) Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2013

  3. Enhanced Estimation of Terrestrial Loadings for TMDLs: Normalization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    TMDL implementation plans to remediate pathogen-impaired streams are usually based on deterministic terrestrial fate and transport (DTFT) models. A novel protocol is proposed that can effectively, efficiently, and explicitly capture the predictive uncertainty of DTFT models used to establish terres...

  4. Structural monitoring of tunnels using terrestrial laser scanning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenbergh, R.C.; Uchanski, L.; Bucksch, A.; Van Gosliga, R.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years terrestrial laser scanning is rapidly evolving as a surveying technique for the monitoring of engineering objects like roof constructions, mines, dams, viaducts and tunnels. The advantage of laser scanning above traditional surveying methods is that it allows for the rapid

  5. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Draft Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Library at http://www.nrc... Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for comment... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations...

  6. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris L.: noxious weed or powerful medical herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Pacanoski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L., an annual dicot species of the family Zygophyllaceae, is a common herb that is often found in disturbed habitats and agricultural areas in many parts of the temperate, tropical and desert regions of the world. T. terrestris is an aggressive species that has the potential to injure livestock, reduce hay and wool values, detour recreationists and reduces plant biodivesity. The species may become troublesome because of its weedy potential. It has been declared a weed in at least 37 countries and in at least 21 crops (cotton, maize, vineyards, orchards, etc.. It is adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions and grows on a wide variety of soil types. The management of T. terrestris can be achieved by herbicide application, mechanical (hand pulling, hoeing, mulching and biological control methods. Beside its invasive potential as a noxious and troublesome weed, T. terrestris is considered highly useful herb which is used for various purposes in folk and modern medicine and sport, as well.

  7. FLAVONOIDS IN THE GRASS OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Khudenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents active parts of Tribulus terrestris L. as a perspective sample for study. We have provided an example of flavo-noids determination with high-performance liquid chromatography / MS at the Waters Acquility chromatographer with tandem quad-rupolar MS-detector TQD (Waters.

  8. Origin and evolution of life on terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Horneck, G; Cockell, C S; Bérces, A; Belisheva, N K; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Liseau, Réne; Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Franck; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The ultimate goal of terrestrial planet-finding missions is not only to discover terrestrial exoplanets inside the habitable zone (HZ) of their host stars but also to address the major question as to whether life may have evolved on a habitable Earth-like exoplanet outside our Solar System. We note that the chemical evolution that finally led to the origin of life on Earth must be studied if we hope to understand the principles of how life might evolve on other terrestrial planets in the Universe. This is not just an anthropocentric point of view: the basic ingredients of terrestrial life, that is, reduced carbon-based molecules and liquid H(2)O, have very specific properties. We discuss the origin of life from the chemical evolution of its precursors to the earliest life-forms and the biological implications of the stellar radiation and energetic particle environments. Likewise, the study of the biological evolution that has generated the various life-forms on Earth provides clues toward the understanding of the interconnectedness of life with its environment.

  9. Effects of climate change on terrestrial animals [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan M. Friggens; Mary I. Williams; Karen E. Bagne; Tosha T. Wixom; Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-01-01

    The Intermountain Adaptation Partnership (IAP) region encompasses a high diversity of grassland, shrubland, and forest habitats across a broad range of elevational gradients, supporting high biodiversity in the interior western United States. Terrestrial species comprise a wide range of life forms, each expressing varying levels of habitat specialization and life...

  10. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yi, C.; Ricciuto, D.; Marek, Michal V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2010), s. 034007 ISSN 1748-9326 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : NEE * climate control * terrestrial carbon sequestration * temperature * dryness * eddy flux * biomes * photosynthesis * respiration * global carbon cycle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.049, year: 2010

  11. Terrestrial biological carbon sequestration: science for enhancement and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfred M. Post; James E. Amonette; Richard Birdsey; Charles T. Jr. Garten; R. Cesar Izaurralde; Philip Jardine; Julie Jastrow; Rattan Lal; Gregg. Marland

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration and evaluate the potential carbon storage capacity if present and new techniques are more aggressively utilized. Photosynthetic CO2 capture from the atmosphere and storage of the C in aboveground and belowground biomass and in soil organic and inorganic forms can...

  12. Status and potential of terrestrial carbon sequestration in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benktesh D. Sharma; Jingxin. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood products to estimate the net current annual C sequestration in West Virginia. Several management options within these components were simulated using a...

  13. Microalgal and terrestrial transport biofuels to displace fossil fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.

    2009-01-01

    Terrestrial transport biofuels differ in their ability to replace fossil fuels. When both the conversion of solar energy into biomass and the life cycle inputs of fossil fuels are considered, ethanol from sugarcane and biodiesel from palm oil do relatively well, if compared with ethanol from corn,

  14. Modelling of the radionuclide transport through terrestrial food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanusik, V.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a terrestrial food chains model for computing potential human intake of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during normal NPP operation. Attention is paid to the choice of model parameter values. Results obtained by our approach are compared to those applied in current methodology. (orig.) [de

  15. Water and the Interior Structure of Terrestrial Planets and Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Golabek, G. J.; Rubie, D. C.; Tobie, G.; Young, E. D.

    2018-02-01

    Water content and the internal evolution of terrestrial planets and icy bodies are closely linked. The distribution of water in planetary systems is controlled by the temperature structure in the protoplanetary disk and dynamics and migration of planetesimals and planetary embryos. This results in the formation of planetesimals and planetary embryos with a great variety of compositions, water contents and degrees of oxidation. The internal evolution and especially the formation time of planetesimals relative to the timescale of radiogenic heating by short-lived 26Al decay may govern the amount of hydrous silicates and leftover rock-ice mixtures available in the late stages of their evolution. In turn, water content may affect the early internal evolution of the planetesimals and in particular metal-silicate separation processes. Moreover, water content may contribute to an increase of oxygen fugacity and thus affect the concentrations of siderophile elements within the silicate reservoirs of Solar System objects. Finally, the water content strongly influences the differentiation rate of the icy moons, controls their internal evolution and governs the alteration processes occurring in their deep interiors.

  16. a Method for Simultaneous Aerial and Terrestrial Geodata Acquisition for Corridor Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, P.; Blázquez, M.; Sastre, J.; Colomina, I.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present mapKITE, a new mobile, simultaneous terrestrial and aerial, geodata collection and post-processing method. On one side, the method combines a terrestrial mobile mapping system (TMMS) with an unmanned aerial mapping one, both equipped with remote sensing payloads (at least, a nadir-looking visible-band camera in the UA) by means of which aerial and terrestrial geodata are acquired simultaneously. This tandem geodata acquisition system is based on a terrestrial vehicle (TV) and on an unmanned aircraft (UA) linked by a 'virtual tether', that is, a mechanism based on the real-time supply of UA waypoints by the TV. By means of the TV-to-UA tether, the UA follows the TV keeping a specific relative TV-to-UA spatial configuration enabling the simultaneous operation of both systems to obtain highly redundant and complementary geodata. On the other side, mapKITE presents a novel concept for geodata post-processing favoured by the rich geometrical aspects derived from the mapKITE tandem simultaneous operation. The approach followed for sensor orientation and calibration of the aerial images captured by the UA inherits the principles of Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and adds the pointing-and-scaling photogrammetric measurement of a distinctive element observed in every UA image, which is a coded target mounted on the roof of the TV. By means of the TV navigation system, the orientation of the TV coded target is performed and used in the post-processing UA image orientation approach as a Kinematic Ground Control Point (KGCP). The geometric strength of a mapKITE ISO network is therefore high as it counts with the traditional tie point image measurements, static ground control points, kinematic aerial control and the new point-and-scale measurements of the KGCPs. With such a geometry, reliable system and sensor orientation and calibration and eventual further reduction of the number of traditional ground control points is feasible. The different

  17. Terrestrial carbon storage dynamics: Chasing a moving target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Shi, Z.; Jiang, L.; Xia, J.; Wang, Y.; Kc, M.; Liang, J.; Lu, X.; Niu, S.; Ahlström, A.; Hararuk, O.; Hastings, A.; Hoffman, F. M.; Medlyn, B. E.; Rasmussen, M.; Smith, M. J.; Todd-Brown, K. E.; Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated to absorb roughly 30% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Past studies have identified myriad drivers of terrestrial carbon storage changes, such as fire, climate change, and land use changes. Those drivers influence the carbon storage change via diverse mechanisms, which have not been unified into a general theory so as to identify what control the direction and rate of terrestrial carbon storage dynamics. Here we propose a theoretical framework to quantitatively determine the response of terrestrial carbon storage to different exogenous drivers. With a combination of conceptual reasoning, mathematical analysis, and numeric experiments, we demonstrated that the maximal capacity of an ecosystem to store carbon is time-dependent and equals carbon input (i.e., net primary production, NPP) multiplying by residence time. The capacity is a moving target toward which carbon storage approaches (i.e., the direction of carbon storage change) but usually does not attain. The difference between the capacity and the carbon storage at a given time t is the unrealized carbon storage potential. The rate of the storage change is proportional to the magnitude of the unrealized potential. We also demonstrated that a parameter space of NPP, residence time, and carbon storage potential can well characterize carbon storage dynamics quantified at six sites ranging from tropical forests to tundra and simulated by two versions (carbon-only and coupled carbon-nitrogen) of the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere Land Ecosystem (CABLE) Model under three climate change scenarios (CO2 rising only, climate warming only, and RCP8.5). Overall this study reveals the unified mechanism unerlying terrestrial carbon storage dynamics to guide transient traceability analysis of global land models and synthesis of empirical studies.

  18. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  19. An investigation of Martian and terrestrial dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Timothy John

    2004-10-01

    It is the purpose of this work to provide an insight into the theoretical and practical dynamics of dust devils and how they are detected remotely from orbit or in situ on planetary surfaces. There is particular interest in the detection of convective vortices on Mars; this has been driven by involvement in the development of the Beagle 2 Environmental Sensor Suite. This suite of sensors is essentially a martian weather station and will be the first planetary lander experiment specifically looking for the presence of dust devils on Mars. Dust devils are characterised by their visible dusty core and intense rotation. The physics of particle motion, including dust lofting and the rotational dynamics within convective vortices are explained and modelled. This modelling has helped in identifying dust devils in meteorological data from both terrestrial and martian investigations. An automated technique for dust devil detection using meteorological data has been developed. This technique searches data looking for the specific vortex signature as well as detecting other transient events. This method has been tested on both terrestrial and martian data with surprising results. 38 possible convective vortices were detected in the first 60 sols of the Viking Lander 2 meteorological data. Tests were also carried out on data from a terrestrial dust devil campaign, which provided conclusive evidence from visual observations of the reliability of this technique. A considerable amount of this work does focus on terrestrial vortices. This is to aid in the understanding of dust devils, specifically how, why and when they form. Both laboratory and terrestrial fieldwork is investigated, providing useful data on the general structure of dust devils.

  20. Preparation and characterization of Tribulus terrestris-loaded nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khanavi*

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Tribulus terrestris is a flowering herb (Zygophyllaceae with several properties in folk medicine such as diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, analgesic, astringent, and stomachic-lithotripter activities. Although, some extracts and phytochemicals represent excellent bio-activity in vitro, less or no in vivo activity is observed due to their improper molecular size. The intend of this research was investigation of the feasibility of encapsulating T. terrestris into [poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid] PLGA nanoparticles. Methods: Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with aqueous ethanol 85% by percolation apparatus. The nanoparticles of T. terrestris-loaded were prepared using a modified simultaneous double-emulsion solvent evaporation/diffusion method. Elucidations were made on the basis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The content of nanoparticles was analyzed by HPLC with indirect method. Results: The results stated that increasing the portion of plant extract could cause bigger size with no considerable increase in polydispersity index (PDI. The encapsulation efficiency of T. terrestris-loaded nanoparticles was 40.3 to 78.5 and the drug loadings were 0.806 to 6.104, with different ratios of extract. The overall pattern of the release in SDS 1% in dialysis bag in all formulations showed similar and biphasic release kinetic, an initial burst release in the first day followed by constant release over 10 days. Conclusion: An effective approach for the preparation of T. terrestris-loaded PLGA nanoparticles was performed. The controlled release profile showed that these biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles had great potential and should be given particular consideration in further biological researches.

  1. The terrestrial carbon cycle on the regional and global scale : modeling, uncertainties and policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, van J.G.

    2008-01-01

    Contains the chapters: The importance of three centuries of climate and land-use change for the global and regional terrestrial carbon cycle; and The terrestrial C cycle and its role in the climate change policy

  2. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris methanol extract against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoei Sara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tribulus terrestris L. is traditionally used for treatment of urinary tract infections. Escherichia coli, as the most prominent agent of urinary tract infections, can be sensitive to T. terrestris extract.

  3. Variations and trends of terrestrial NPP and its relation to climate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Using global terrestrial ecosystem net primary productivity (NPP) data, we validated the simulated multi-model ensemble ..... tion on the solar radiation at six Canadian stations; Solar ... balance have enhanced the terrestrial carbon sink in the.

  4. Effect of including decay chains on predictions of equilibrium-type terrestrial food chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.

    1990-01-01

    Equilibrium-type food chain models are commonly used for assessing the radiological impact to man from environmental releases of radionuclides. Usually these do not take into account build-up of radioactive decay products during environmental transport. This may be a potential source of underprediction. For estimating consequences of this simplification, the equations of an internationally recognised terrestrial food chain model have been extended to include decay chains of variable length. Example calculations show that for releases from light water reactors as expected both during routine operation and in the case of severe accidents, the build-up of decay products during environmental transport is generally of minor importance. However, a considerable number of radionuclides of potential radiological significance have been identified which show marked contributions of decay products to calculated contamination of human food and resulting radiation dose rates. (author)

  5. Utilization of a terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01, for space habitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunta; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Arai, Mayumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Katoh, Hiroshi; Ajioka, Reiko; Inoue, Kotomi

    2016-07-01

    A terrestrial cyanobacterium, Nostoc sp. HK-01 (hereafter HK-01), has several useful abilities for space habitation; photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and space environmental tolerances to vacuum, UV, gamma-ray, heavy particle beam, low and high temperature. Space environmental tolerances are important for transportation to Mars. HK-01 can grow on Martian regolith simulant (MRS) in vitro. Furthermore, HK-01 is useful as food. HK-01 may be utilized as oxygen supply, soil formation and food material for bio-chemical circulation in closed bio-ecosystems, including space habitation such as Mars. HK-01 was adopted as a biological material for the "TANPOPO" mission (JAXA et al.,), because of their high environmental tolerances. The "TANPOPO" mission is performing the space exposure experiments on the Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). The results of these experiments will show the ability of HK-01 to survive in space.

  6. Impact of non-native terrestrial mammals on the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin S Strong

    Full Text Available The island of Newfoundland is unique because it has as many non-native terrestrial mammals as native ones. The impacts of non-native species on native flora and fauna can be profound and invasive species have been identified as one of the primary drivers of species extinction. Few studies, however, have investigated the effects of a non-native species assemblage on community and ecosystem properties. We reviewed the literature to build the first terrestrial mammal food web for the island of Newfoundland and then used network analyses to investigate how the timing of introductions and trophic position of non-native species has affected the structure of the terrestrial mammal food web in Newfoundland. The first non-native mammals (house mouse and brown rat became established in Newfoundland with human settlement in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Coyotes and southern red-backed voles are the most recent mammals to establish themselves on the island in 1985 and 1998, respectively. The fraction of intermediate species increased with the addition of non-native mammals over time whereas the fraction of basal and top species declined over time. This increase in intermediate species mediated by non-native species arrivals led to an overall increase in the terrestrial mammal food web connectance and generality (i.e. mean number of prey per predator. This diverse prey base and sources of carrion may have facilitated the natural establishment of coyotes on the island. Also, there is some evidence that the introduction of non-native prey species such as the southern red-backed vole has contributed to the recovery of the threatened American marten. Long-term monitoring of the food web is required to understand and predict the impacts of the diverse novel interactions that are developing in the terrestrial mammal food web of Newfoundland.

  7. Un établissement rural gallo-romain à Gellainville " Le Radray " (Eure-et-Loir (fin du Ier s. av. J.-C.-fin du IVe s. ap. J.-C. The development of a Gallo-Roman rural settlement over four centuries at Gellainville "Le Radray" (Eure et Loir, France (end of the 1st century BC - end of the 4th century AC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Delhoofs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Le site du " Radray " sur la commune de Gellainville (28 a été fouillé en 2007. L’article présente les principaux résultats de la partie gallo-romaine du site. L’occupation se met en place à partir de la première moitié du Ier s. de notre ère. Dès les dernières décennies avant notre ère s’organise un réseau parcellaire et s’établissent les premiers bâtiments. À partir du milieu du Ier s., l’exploitation agricole se répartit selon deux ensembles : à l’est, la partie résidentielle et les dépendances, à l’ouest, la partie agricole et les bâtiments d’exploitation. L’établissement est abandonné au cours du IIIe s. Les structures du Bas-Empire ne tiennent plus compte des limites précédentes. L’occupation est matérialisée par quelques bâtiments et mares disposés à l’intérieur et en bordure d’un enclos trapézoïdal. Un petit groupe de greniers aériens est installé à l’écart, au sud-ouest. L’abandon systématique des structures d’habitation à partir de 375 ap. J.-C. montre une transformation globale de l’espace.Abstract: The site of "Radray" in the municipality of Gellainville (28 has been excavated in 2007. The article presents the main results of the Gallo-Roman part of the site. The occupation begins from the first half of the first century A.D. During the augustean period, a "parcellaire" system gets organized and the first buildings are established. Since the middle of the first century, the space is organized for the setting up of a rural settlement. On both sides of a rural path, the farming is distribued in two groups: eastwards the residential part and the outbuildings, westwards the agricultural part and the farming buildings. The settlement is abandoned during the third century. The structures of the late antiquity do not follow the former limits. The occupation is materialized by four pouds and some buildings disposed inside und south of a trapezoïdal enclosure

  8. BIOMOVS: an international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1988-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (author)

  9. BIOMOVS: An international model validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, C.; Johansson, G.

    1987-01-01

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international study where models used for describing the distribution of radioactive and nonradioactive trace substances in terrestrial and aquatic environments are compared and tested. The main objectives of the study are to compare and test the accuracy of predictions between such models, explain differences in these predictions, recommend priorities for future research concerning the improvement of the accuracy of model predictions and act as a forum for the exchange of ideas, experience and information. (orig.)

  10. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  11. The sensitivity of terrestrial carbon storage to historical climate variability and atmospheric CO2 in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Melillo, J. M.; Kicklighter, D. W.; McGuire, A. D.; Helfrich, J.

    1999-04-01

    We use the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, Version 4.1) and the land cover data set of the international geosphere biosphere program to investigate how increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate variability during 1900 1994 affect the carbon storage of terrestrial ecosystems in the conterminous USA, and how carbon storage has been affected by land-use change. The estimates of TEM indicate that over the past 95years a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 with historical temperature and precipitation variability causes a 4.2% (4.3Pg C) decrease in total carbon storage of potential vegetation in the conterminous US, with vegetation carbon decreasing by 7.2% (3.2Pg C) and soil organic carbon decreasing by 1.9% (1.1Pg C). Several dry periods including the 1930s and 1950s are responsible for the loss of carbon storage. Our factorial experiments indicate that precipitation variability alone decreases total carbon storage by 9.5%. Temperature variability alone does not significantly affect carbon storage. The effect of CO2 fertilization alone increases total carbon storage by 4.4%. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate variability are not additive. Interactions among CO2, temperature and precipitation increase total carbon storage by 1.1%. Our study also shows substantial year-to-year variations in net carbon exchange between the atmosphere and terrestrial ecosystems due to climate variability. Since the 1960s, we estimate these terrestrial ecosystems have acted primarily as a sink of atmospheric CO2 as a result of wetter weather and higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations. For the 1980s, we estimate the natural terrestrial ecosystems, excluding cropland and urban areas, of the conterminous US have accumulated 78.2 Tg C yr1 because of the combined effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 and climate variability. For the conterminous US, we estimate that the conversion of natural ecosystems to cropland and urban areas has caused a 18.2% (17.7Pg C

  12. Applications of landscape genetics to connectivity research in terrestrial animals [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisette P. Waits; Samuel A. Cushman; Steve F. Spear

    2016-01-01

    Landscape genetic studies have focused on terrestrial animals more than any other taxonomic group. This chapter focuses on applications of landscape genetics for understanding connectivity of terrestrial animal populations. It starts with a general introduction covering unique characteristics and challenges of the terrestrial study system. This is followed by...

  13. A novel proxy for terrestrial organic matter in sediments based on branched and isoprenoid tetraether lipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Schefuß, E.; Herfort, L.; Schouten, S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a novel tracer for terrestrial organic carbon in sediments based on the analysis of tetraether lipids using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Analysis of terrestrial soil and peats shows that branched tetraether lipids are predominant in terrestrial

  14. Pengaruh Jamu Dengan Tribulus Terrestris Terhadap Kualitas Sperma Tikus Wistar Jantan (Rattus Norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pelealu, Delano; Tendean, Lydia; Wantouw, Benny

    2015-01-01

    : Tribulus terrestris dikenal sebagai bahan yang dapat memperbaiki kualitas sperma. Salah satu jenis jamu yang diproduksi di Indonesia mengandung Tribulus terrestris Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh jamu dengan Tribulus terrestris terhadap konsentrasi, motilitas, dan morfologi spermatozoa tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus). Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimental. Sampel 9 ekor tikus wistar jantan (Rattus norvegicus) dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok yakni, kelompok P0 ...

  15. Establishing macroecological trait datasets: digitalization, extrapolation, and validation of diet preferences in terrestrial mammals worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Wilm Daniel; Dalby, Lars; Fløjgaard, Camilla; Lenoir, Jonathan; Sandel, Brody; Sandom, Christopher; Trøjelsgaard, Kristian; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2014-07-01

    Ecological trait data are essential for understanding the broad-scale distribution of biodiversity and its response to global change. For animals, diet represents a fundamental aspect of species' evolutionary adaptations, ecological and functional roles, and trophic interactions. However, the importance of diet for macroevolutionary and macroecological dynamics remains little explored, partly because of the lack of comprehensive trait datasets. We compiled and evaluated a comprehensive global dataset of diet preferences of mammals ("MammalDIET"). Diet information was digitized from two global and cladewide data sources and errors of data entry by multiple data recorders were assessed. We then developed a hierarchical extrapolation procedure to fill-in diet information for species with missing information. Missing data were extrapolated with information from other taxonomic levels (genus, other species within the same genus, or family) and this extrapolation was subsequently validated both internally (with a jack-knife approach applied to the compiled species-level diet data) and externally (using independent species-level diet information from a comprehensive continentwide data source). Finally, we grouped mammal species into trophic levels and dietary guilds, and their species richness as well as their proportion of total richness were mapped at a global scale for those diet categories with good validation results. The success rate of correctly digitizing data was 94%, indicating that the consistency in data entry among multiple recorders was high. Data sources provided species-level diet information for a total of 2033 species (38% of all 5364 terrestrial mammal species, based on the IUCN taxonomy). For the remaining 3331 species, diet information was mostly extrapolated from genus-level diet information (48% of all terrestrial mammal species), and only rarely from other species within the same genus (6%) or from family level (8%). Internal and external

  16. Opportunities and Challenges for Terrestrial Carbon Offsetting and Marketing, with Some Implications for Forestry in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nijnik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Climate change and its mitigation have become increasingly high profile issues since the late 1990s, with the potential of forestry in carbon sequestration a particular focus. The purpose of this paper is to outline the importance of socio-economic considerations in this area. Opportunities for forestry to sequester carbon and the role of terrestrial carbon uptake credits in climate change negotiations are addressed, together with the feasibility of bringing terrestrial carbon offsets into the regulatory emission trading scheme. The paper discusses whether or not significant carbon offsetting and trading will occur on a large scale in the UK or internationally. Material and Methods: The paper reviews the literature on the socio-economic aspects of climate change mitigation via forestry (including the authors’ research on this topic to assess the potential for carbon offsetting and trading, and the likely scale of action. Results and Conclusion: We conclude that the development of appropriate socio-economic framework conditions (e.g. policies, tenure rights, including forest carbon ownership, and markets and incentives for creating and trading terrestrial carbon credits are important in mitigating climate change through forestry projects, and we make suggestions for future research that would be required to support such developments.

  17. Assessment of the possible contribution of space ties on-board GNSS satellites to the terrestrial reference frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Sara; Rebischung, Paul; Zerbini, Susanna; Altamimi, Zuheir; Errico, Maddalena; Santi, Efisio

    2018-04-01

    The realization of the international terrestrial reference frame (ITRF) is currently based on the data provided by four space geodetic techniques. The accuracy of the different technique-dependent materializations of the frame physical parameters (origin and scale) varies according to the nature of the relevant observables and to the impact of technique-specific errors. A reliable computation of the ITRF requires combining the different inputs, so that the strengths of each technique can compensate for the weaknesses of the others. This combination, however, can only be performed providing some additional information which allows tying together the independent technique networks. At present, the links used for that purpose are topometric surveys (local/terrestrial ties) available at ITRF sites hosting instruments of different techniques. In principle, a possible alternative could be offered by spacecrafts accommodating the positioning payloads of multiple geodetic techniques realizing their co-location in orbit (space ties). In this paper, the GNSS-SLR space ties on-board GPS and GLONASS satellites are thoroughly examined in the framework of global reference frame computations. The investigation focuses on the quality of the realized physical frame parameters. According to the achieved results, the space ties on-board GNSS satellites cannot, at present, substitute terrestrial ties in the computation of the ITRF. The study is completed by a series of synthetic simulations investigating the impact that substantial improvements in the volume and quality of SLR observations to GNSS satellites would have on the precision of the GNSS frame parameters.

  18. From COST 271 to 296 EU actions on ionospheric monitoring and modelling for terrestrial and Earth space radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.; Altadill, D.

    The ionospheric community has long been aware that co-operative research on an international basis is essential to deal with temporal and spatial changes in the ionosphere that influence the performance of terrestrial and Earth-space radio systems. The EU COST (Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) 271 Action on "Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-space Communications" has had during the period of October 2000-August 2004 the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate the influence of upper atmospheric conditions on terrestrial and Earth-space communications, (2) to develop methods and techniques to improve ionospheric models over Europe for telecommunication and navigation applications and (3) to transfer the results to the appropriate radiocommunication study groups of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) and other national and international organizations dealing with the modern communication systems. At the beginning of 2005 the new 296 Action in the COST Telecommunications, Information Science and Technology domain on "Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems (MIERS)" was approved for the period 2005-2009. The main objectives of the MIERS are: (a) to support and enhanced the existing European facilities for historical and real-time digital ionospheric data collection and exchange; (b) to develop an integrated approach to ionospheric modelling, create the mechanism needed to ingest processed data into models, extend and develop suitable mitigation models and define the protocols needed to link models together; and (c) to strengthen the areas of expertise that already exist by stimulating closer cooperation between scientists and users, focusing the scope of all the previous COST ionospheric related studies to the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio systems. This paper summarises briefly how the major objectives of the COST271 Action have been achieved and what are the most important

  19. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  20. The behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.V.

    1990-02-01

    Literature on the geochemistry of iodine is surveyed, focusing on fundamental chemical aspects which influence the migration behaviour of iodine in the terrestrial environment. It is stated that the organic fraction in soil plays the predominant role in the retention of iodine. Simple aromatic molecules serve as simple models for humic acid, and humic acid is iodinated catalyzed by haloperoxidases. The enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acid is described in detail and it is demonstrated that the results may reflect a kind of equilibrium. It is shown that soil extracts are able to catalyze the iodination of humic acid and it is suggested that extracellular peroxidases in soil are reponsible for the reaction. The enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acid is discussed and some considerations about the influence on the migration of iodine in the terrestrial environment are given. (author) 4 tabs., 26 ills., 82 refs

  1. The carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available A comment is made on a recent letter published on Nature, in which different methodologies are applied to estimate the carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems of China. A global carbon sink of 0.19-0.26 Pg per year is estimated during the 1980s and 1990s, and it is estimated that in 2006 terrestrial ecosystems have absorbed 28-37 per cent of global carbon emissions in China. Most of the carbon absorption is attributed to large-scale plantation made since the 1980s and shrub recovery. These results will certainly be valuable in the frame of the so-called “REDD” (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation forest Degradation in developing countries mechanism (UN convention on climate change UNFCCC.

  2. Osmotic stress tolerance in semi-terrestrial tardigrades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Nanna W T; Smith, Daniel K.; Hygum, Thomas L.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about ionic and osmotic stress tolerance in tardigrades. Here, we examine salt stress tolerance in Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri and Echiniscus testudo from Nivå (Denmark) and address whether limno-terrestrial tardigrades can enter a state of quiescence (osmobiosis) in the face of high......-ionic osmolytes as compared to NaCl. Ramazzottius oberhaeuseri furthermore readily regained activity following gradual increases in non-ionic osmolytes and NaCl of up to 2434 ± 28 and 1905 ± 3 mOsm kg−1, respectively, showing that short-term acclimation promoted salt stress tolerance. Our results suggest...... that the limno-terrestrial R. oberhaeuseri enters a state of quiescence in the face of high external osmotic pressure and that it, in this state, is highly tolerant of ionic and osmotic stress....

  3. Capture of terrestrial-sized moons by gas giant planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Darren M

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial moons with masses >0.1 M (symbol in text) possibly exist around extrasolar giant planets, and here we consider the energetics of how they might form. Binary-exchange capture can occur if a binary-terrestrial object (BTO) is tidally disrupted during a close encounter with a giant planet and one of the binary members is ejected while the other remains as a moon. Tidal disruption occurs readily in the deep gravity wells of giant planets; however, the large encounter velocities in the wells make binary exchange more difficult than for planets of lesser mass. In addition, successful capture favors massive binaries with large rotational velocities and small component mass ratios. Also, since the interaction tends to leave the captured moons on highly elliptical orbits, permanent capture is only possible around planets with sizable Hill spheres that are well separated from their host stars.

  4. In situ measurements of dose rates from terrestrial gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horng, M.C.; Jiang, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    A portable, high purity germanium (HPGe) detector was employed for the performance of in situ measurements of radionuclide activity concentrations in the ground in Taiwan, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 3900 m. The absolute peak efficiency of the HPGe detector for a gamma-ray source uniformly distributed in the semi-infinite ground was determined using a semi-empirical method. The gamma-ray dose rates from terrestrial radionuclides were calculated from the measured activity levels using recently published dose rate conversion factors. The absorbed dose rate in air due to cosmic rays was derived by subtracting the terrestrial gamma-ray dose rate from the overall absorbed dose rate in air measured using a high-pressure ionization chamber. The cosmic-ray dose rate calculated as a function of altitude, was found to be in good agreement with the data reported by UNSCEAR. (orig.)

  5. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wilkins

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  6. Optimal Strategies for Probing Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Natasha E.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Line, Michael

    2018-01-01

    It is imperative that the exoplanet community determines the feasibility and the resources needed to yield high fidelity atmospheric compositions from terrestrial exoplanets. In particular, LHS 1140b and the TRAPPIST-1 system, already slated for observations by JWST’s Guaranteed Time Observers, will be the first two terrestrial planets observed by JWST. I will discuss optimal observing strategies for observing these two systems, focusing on the NIRSpec Prism (1-5μm) and the combination of NIRISS SOSS (1-2.7μm) and NIRSpec G395H (3-5μm). I will also introduce currently unsupported JWST readmodes that have the potential to greatly increase the precision on our atmospheric spectra. Lastly, I will use information content theory to compute the expected confidence interval on the retrieved abundances of key molecular species and temperature profiles as a function of JWST observing cycles.

  7. Prospects for Detecting Thermal Emission from Terrestrial Exoplanets with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura

    2018-01-01

    A plethora of nearby, terrestrial exoplanets has been discovered recently by ground-based surveys. Excitingly, some of these are in the habitable zones of their host stars, and may be hospitable for life. However, all the planets orbit small, cool stars and have considerably different irradiation environments from the Earth, making them vulnerable to atmospheric escape, erosion and collapse. Atmosphere characterization is therefore critical to assessing the planets' habitability. I will discuss possible JWST thermal emission measurements to determine the atmospheric properties of nearby terrestrial planets. I will focus on prospects for detecting physically motivated atmospheres for planets orbiting LHS 1140, GJ 1132, and TRAPPIST-1. I will also discuss the potential for using phase curve observations to determine whether an atmosphere has survived on the non-transiting planet Proxima b.

  8. Hidden dental diversity in the oldest terrestrial apex predator Dimetrodon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Kirstin S; Reisz, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Paleozoic sphenacodontid synapsids are the oldest known fully terrestrial apex predators. Dimetrodon and other sphenacodontids are the first terrestrial vertebrates to have strong heterodonty, massive skulls and well-developed labio-lingually compressed and recurved teeth with mesial and distal cutting edges (carinae). Here we reveal that the dentition of Dimetrodon and other sphenacodontids is diverse. Tooth morphology includes simple carinae with smooth cutting edges and elaborate enamel features, including the first occurrence of cusps and true denticles (ziphodonty) in the fossil record. A time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis indicates that changes in dental morphology occur in the absence of any significant changes in skull morphology, suggesting that the morphological change is associated with changes in feeding style and trophic interactions in these ecosystems. In addition, the available evidence indicates that ziphodonty evolved for the first time in the largest known species of the genus Dimetrodon and independently from the ziphodont teeth observed in some therapsids.

  9. Terrestrial gamma dose rate in Pahang state Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabdo, H.T.; Federal College of Education, Yola; Ramli, A.T.; Sanusi, M.S.; Saleh, M.A.; Garba, N.N.; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria

    2014-01-01

    Environmental terrestrial gamma radiations (TGR) were measured in Pahang state Malaysia between January and April 2013. The TGR dose rates ranged from 26 to 750 nGy h -1 . The measurements were done based on geology and soil types of the area. The mean TGR dose rate was found to be 176 ± 5 nGy h -1 . Few areas of relatively enhanced activity were located in Raub, Temerloh, Bentong and Rompin districts. These areas have external gamma dose rates of between 500 and 750 nGy h -1 . An Isodose map of the state was produced using ArcGIS9 software version 9.3. To evaluate the radiological hazard due to terrestrial gamma dose, the annual effective dose equivalent and the mean population weighted dose rate were calculated and found to be 0.22 mSv year -1 and 168 nGy h -1 respectively. (author)

  10. European Policies of Digital Terrestrial Television. Antecedents, Characterization and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. María Trinidad García Leiva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DTT is one of the existing platforms that can deliver audiovisual content and digital services. Such profile is precisely what includes it in the European Union’s agenda to ensure access to the benefits of Information Society (IS and presents it as the natural successor for the role of offering universal television services once switch-off has taken place. In 1993, a new phase in the history of the European audiovisual policy began, characterized by the concern around the IS and the Convergence. In this context, a positioning regarding digital television arose, conditioning the European policies related to the digitalization of the terrestrial nets in a polarized and subordinated sense. To the study of these DTT policies is devoted this article, which defends the need of its democratization to reach a more efficient terrestrial television service, enabling at the same time, a digital platform that could offer IS services to the whole population.

  11. Irregular flowering patterns in terrestrial orchids: theories vs. empirical data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kindlmann

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical data on many species of terrestrial orchids suggest that their between-year flowering pattern is extremely irregular and unpredictable. A long search for the reason has hitherto proved inconclusive. Here we summarise and critically review the hypotheses that were put forward as explanations of this phenomenon: irregular flowering was attributed to costs associated with sexual reproduction, to herbivory, or to the chaotic behaviour of the system represented by difference equations describing growth of the vegetative and reproductive organs. None of these seems to explain fully the events of a transition from flowering one year to sterility or absence the next year. Data on the seasonal growth of leaves and inflorescence of two terrestrial orchid species, Epipactis albensis and Dactylorhiza fuchsii and our previous results are then used here to fill gaps in what has been published until now and to test alternative explanations of the irregular flowering patterns of orchids.

  12. [Extrasolar terrestrial planets and possibility of extraterrestrial life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Shigeru

    2003-12-01

    Recent development of research on extrasolar planets are reviewed. About 120 extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets have been discovered through the observation of Doppler shift in the light of their host stars that is caused by acceleration due to planet orbital motions. Although the extrasolar planets so far observed may be limited to gas giant planets and their orbits differ from those of giant planets in our Solar system (Jupiter and Saturn), the theoretically predicted probability of existence of extrasolar terrestrial planets that can have liquid water ocean on their surface is comparable to that of detectable gas giant planets. Based on the number of extrasolar gas giants detected so far, about 100 life-sustainable planets may exist within a range of 200 light years. Indirect observation of extrasolar terrestrial planets would be done with space telescopes within several years and direct one may be done within 20 years. The latter can detect biomarkers on these planets as well.

  13. Trends and future challenges in sampling the deep terrestrial biosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Michael J; Daly, Rebecca A; Mouser, Paula J; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R; Wrighton, Kelly C; Biddle, Jennifer F; Denis, Elizabeth H; Fredrickson, Jim K; Kieft, Thomas L; Onstott, Tullis C; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M; Phelps, Tommy J; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2014-01-01

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on "Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface" was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation's Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  14. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  15. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In th...

  16. Terrestrial photovoltaic technologies - Recent progress in manufacturing R&D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, C. E.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R. L.; Symko-Davies, M.; Thomas, H. P.

    2000-05-15

    This paper describes photovoltaics (PV) as used for energy generation in terrestrial applications. A brief historical perspective of PV development is provided. Solar-to-electricity conversion efficiencies for various photovoltaic materials are presented, as well as expectations for further material improvements. Recent progress in reducing manufacturing costs through process R&D and product improvements are described. Applications that are most suitable for the different technologies are discussed. Finally, manufacturing capacities and current and projected module manufacturing costs are presented.

  17. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  18. Land use related silica dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

    OpenAIRE

    Clymans, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Silicon (Si) provides the base component for well-balanced food-webs in aquatic systems. Here, together with nitrogen and phosphorous Si determines phytoplankton composition, and plays a major role in eutrophication problems and carbon sequestration. Rivers are the primary source of Si for the oceans, and is ultimately derived from mineral weathering. However there is growing evidence illustrating the importance of biological Si cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Riverine Si fluxes will be af...

  19. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.

  20. Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.

  1. Myoglobin oxygen affinity in aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Traver J; Davis, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Myoglobin (Mb) is an oxygen binding protein found in vertebrate skeletal muscle, where it facilitates intracellular transport and storage of oxygen. This protein has evolved to suit unique physiological needs in the muscle of diving vertebrates that express Mb at much greater concentrations than their terrestrial counterparts. In this study, we characterized Mb oxygen affinity (P50) from 25 species of aquatic and terrestrial birds and mammals. Among diving species, we tested for correlations between Mb P50 and routine dive duration. Across all species examined, Mb P50 ranged from 2.40 to 4.85 mmHg. The mean P50 of Mb from terrestrial ungulates was 3.72±0.15 mmHg (range 3.70-3.74 mmHg). The P50 of cetaceans was similar to terrestrial ungulates ranging from 3.54 to 3.82 mmHg, with the exception of the melon-headed whale, which had a significantly higher P50 of 4.85 mmHg. Among pinnipeds, the P50 ranged from 3.23 to 3.81 mmHg and showed a trend for higher oxygen affinity in species with longer dive durations. Among diving birds, the P50 ranged from 2.40 to 3.36 mmHg and also showed a trend of higher affinities in species with longer dive durations. In pinnipeds and birds, low Mb P50 was associated with species whose muscles are metabolically active under hypoxic conditions associated with aerobic dives. Given the broad range of potential globin oxygen affinities, Mb P50 from diverse vertebrate species appears constrained within a relatively narrow range. High Mb oxygen affinity within this range may be adaptive for some vertebrates that make prolonged dives. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.

    2005-01-01

    What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.

  3. Smart Rotorcraft Field Assistants for Terrestrial and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Larry A.; Aiken, Edwin W.; Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    Field science in extreme terrestrial environments is often difficult and sometimes dangerous. Field seasons are also often short in duration. Robotic field assistants, particularly small highly mobile rotary-wing platforms, have the potential to significantly augment a field season's scientific return on investment for geology and astrobiology researchers by providing an entirely new suite of sophisticated field tools. Robotic rotorcraft and other vertical lift planetary aerial vehicle also hold promise for supporting planetary science missions.

  4. Non-terrestrial food source for Fiordland brachiopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, G.L.; Richardson, Joyce

    1983-05-01

    Carbon-13 analyses were determined for brachiopods and particulate organic matter from Fiordland waters. Brachiopod delta 13 $ 0 C are about -18 per mille which is significantly enriched in 13 C relative to the particulate matter (about -23 per mille) and different from local terrestrial matter (about -28 per mille). There is no carbon-13 evidence for non-marine food in the diet of brachiopods

  5. Integration of Satellite and Terrestrial Systems in Future Multimedia Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Barry; Werner, Markus; Lutz, Erich; Bousquet, Michel; Corazza, Giovanni E; Maral, Gerard; Rumeau, Robert; Ferro, Erina

    2005-01-01

    In this article we examine the role of satellite communications in future telecommunication networks and service provision. Lessons from the past indicate that satellites are successful as a result of their wide area coverage or speed to market for new services. Niche areas such as coverage of air and sea will persist, but for land masses convergence of fixed, mobile, and broadcasting will dictate that the only way forward for satellites is in an integrated format with terrestrial systems. We...

  6. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by active lightning leader channels

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    The production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) requires a seed energetic electron source and a strong electric field. Lightning leaders naturally provide seed electrons by cold runaway and strong electric fields by charge accumulation on the channel. We model possible TGF production in such fields by simulating the charges and currents on the channel. The resulting electric fields then drive simulations of runaway relativistic electron avalanche and photon emission. Photon spectra and...

  7. Terrestrial gamma ray flash production by lightning current pulses

    OpenAIRE

    İnan, Umran Savaş; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.

    2017-01-01

    Terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) are brief bursts of gamma rays observed by satellites, typically in coincidence with detectable lightning. We incorporate TGF observations and the key physics behind current TGF production theories with lightning physics to produce constraints on TGF production mechanisms. The combined constraints naturally suggest a mechanism for TGF production by current pulses in lightning leader channels. The mechanism involves local field enhancements due to charge re...

  8. Sustained periodic terrestrial locomotion in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, C M; Gibb, A C

    2014-03-01

    While emergent behaviours have long been reported for air-breathing osteichthyians, only recently have researchers undertaken quantitative analyses of terrestrial locomotion. This review summarizes studies of sustained periodic terrestrial movements by air-breathing fishes and quantifies the contributions of the paired appendages and the axial body to forward propulsion. Elongate fishes with axial-based locomotion, e.g. the ropefish Erpetoichthys calabaricus, generate an anterior-to-posterior wave of undulation that travels down the axial musculoskeletal system and pushes the body against the substratum at multiple points. In contrast, appendage-based locomotors, e.g. the barred mudskipper Periophthalmus argentilineatus, produce no axial bending during sustained locomotion, but instead use repeated protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins to elevate the centre of mass and propel the entire body anteriorly. Fishes that use an axial-appendage-based mechanism, e.g. walking catfishes Clarias spp., produce side-to-side, whole-body bending in co-ordination with protraction-retraction cycles of the pectoral fins. Once the body is maximally bent to one side, the tail is pressed against the substratum and drawn back through the mid-sagittal plane, which elevates the centre of mass and rotates it about a fulcrum formed by the pectoral fin and the ground. Although appendage-based terrestrial locomotion appears to be rare in osteichthyians, many different species appear to have converged upon functionally similar axial-based and axial-appendage-based movements. Based on common forms observed across divergent taxa, it appears that dorsoventral compression of the body, elongation of the axial skeleton or the presence of robust pectoral fins can facilitate effective terrestrial movement by air-breathing fishes. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Ecological effects of transuranics in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter explores the ecological effects of transuranium radionuclides in terrestrial environments. No direct studies that relate the level of transuranic contamination to specific changes in structure or function of ecological systems have been carried out. The only alternative approach presently available is to infer such relationships from observations of biota in contaminated environments and models. Advantages and shortcomings of these observations as well as those of the direct experimental approach are discussed

  10. Measurement of the terrestrial magnetic field and its anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, D.

    1994-01-01

    After a presentation of the terrestrial magnetic field and its various anomalies, the different types of magnetometers commonly used are reviewed with their characteristics and performances: scalar magnetometers (free precession and continuous polarization proton magnetometers, dynamic polarization proton magnetometers, optical pumping magnetometers, electronic resonance scalar magnetometers (without pumping)); vectorial magnetometers (flux gate magnetometers, induction magnetometers, suspended magnet magnetometers, superconducting magnetometers, integrated magnetometers, resonance directional magnetometers). The magnetometry market and applications are discussed. 20 figs., 9 tabs., 72 refs

  11. Nematodes from terrestrial and freshwater habitats in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We present an updated list of terrestrial and freshwater nematodes from all regions of the Arctic, for which records of properly identified nematode species are available: Svalbard, Jan Mayen, Iceland, Greenland, Nunavut, Northwest territories, Alaska, Lena River estuary, Taymyr and Severnaya Zemlya and Novaya Zemlya. The list includes 391 species belonging to 146 genera, 54 families and 10 orders of the phylum Nematoda. PMID:25197239

  12. Limno-terrestrial Tardigrada of the Nearctic Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana G. HINTON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined all available records of limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in the Nearctic realm (Greenland, Canada, Alaska, the continental United States of America, and northern Mexico, both to compare this fauna with other realms and to investigate distribution within North America. We included only those records in which tardigrades had been identified to species. Of 204 Nearctic limno-terrestrial tardigrade species, 38 were cosmopolitan, while 55 were unique to the Nearctic realm. The Nearctic tardigrade fauna is most similar to the Palearctic, with 135 species in common, 39 of which have not been reported elsewhere. The Nearctic realm shares 82 species with the Neotropical realm, only 10 which are not also Palearctic. These data are consistent with the geological history of the three realms, and indicate a distinction between Laurasian and Gondwanan tardigrade faunas. Although little is known about limno-terrestrial tardigrade distribution in much of North America, there are several excellent regional or local surveys. Many species are distributed widely throughout the continent, but 30.0% of Nearctic species have been reported from a single site. Cluster analysis of the fauna of 11 Nearctic regions shows that the Arctic and sub-Arctic fauna constitute a regional fauna distinct from the rest of the continent. Ecological analysis is hampered by inconsistent reporting of tardigrade substrate, though available data suggest little substrate specificity in terrestrial tardigrades. Most species are found in both mosses and lichens. Many are also present in soil and leaf litter, but few are found only in these substrates.

  13. Schistosomiasis and nutritional myopathy in a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, B; Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1988-10-01

    Gross lesions suggestive of severe hepatoenteropathy and myopathy were noted in a 4.5-yr-old Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestris) from a zoo in Michigan (USA). The major microscopic lesions were granulomatous hepatitis and hemorrhagic enteritis associated with non-operculated eggs compatible with those of the Schistosomatidae (Digenea). Skeletal muscle and tongue contained foci of severe acute myodegeneration and necrosis. The hepatic vitamin E value of 1.3 ppm dry weight was considered critically low.

  14. Contaminants in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment. National assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riget, F.; Aastrup, P.; Dietz, R.

    1997-01-01

    The present report reviews the available information on heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and radioactivity in the Greenland freshwater and terrestrial environments. Levels in lake sediments, soil, humus and organisms are presented, spatial and temporal trends are discussed and where possible also biological effects. Many of the contaminants that occur in the Greenland environment originate from distant sources outside of the region, and are transported to the Arctic via three major pathways - atmospheric, terrestrial/freshwater and marine. The main sources of pollution in Greenland is considered to be the industrialization of Eurasia. Pollutants are mainly. The organochlorine levels in Greenland char are typically in the low range compared to values reported from Canada. The Greenland sediment samples showed all organochlorine values below the detection limits of 0.1 μg/kg dry weight, thus being among the lowest contaminated sediments within the Arctic. The total content of PAH in the Greenland sediment samples ranged between 78-635 μ3 g/kg dry wight, with a geometric mean of 178 μg/kg, comparable to or lower than reported values from other arctic countries. The lowest concentrations of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Greenland terrestrial and freshwater environment are found in the northern parts of Greenland and the highest in the south western parts. The main source of anthropogenic radioactivity is nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere and the fallout from this activity is closely related to the amounts of precipitation. The predominant foodchain in the Arctic with regard to transport of radiocaesium to man is: Lichen-reindeer-man. Although the doses from the terrestrial foodchain are 20 times higher than those received from the marine foodchain, they are not considered to be of any relevance for the human health in Greenland. 4 appendices contain experimental results. (EG)

  15. Resource subsidies between stream and terrestrial ecosystems under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stefano; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.; Marti Roca, Maria Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Streams and adjacent terrestrial ecosystems are characterized by permeable boundaries that are crossed by resource subsidies. Although the importance of these subsidies for riverine ecosystems is increasingly recognized, little is known about how they may be influenced by global environmental change. Drawing from available evidence, in this review we propose a conceptual framework to evaluate the effects of global change on the quality and spatiotemporal dynamics of stream–terrestrial subsidies. We illustrate how changes to hydrological and temperature regimes, atmospheric CO2 concentration, land use and the distribution of nonindigenous species can influence subsidy fluxes by affecting the biology and ecology of donor and recipient systems and the physical characteristics of stream–riparian boundaries. Climate-driven changes in the physiology and phenology of organisms with complex life cycles will influence their development time, body size and emergence patterns, with consequences for adjacent terrestrial consumers. Also, novel species interactions can modify subsidy dynamics via complex bottom-up and top-down effects. Given the seasonality and pulsed nature of subsidies, alterations of the temporal and spatial synchrony of resource availability to consumers across ecosystems are likely to result in ecological mismatches that can scale up from individual responses, to communities, to ecosystems. Similarly, altered hydrology, temperature, CO2 concentration and land use will modify the recruitment and quality of riparian vegetation, the timing of leaf abscission and the establishment of invasive riparian species. Along with morphological changes to stream–terrestrial boundaries, these will alter the use and fluxes of allochthonous subsidies associated with stream ecosystems. Future research should aim to understand how subsidy dynamics will be affected by key drivers of global change, including agricultural intensification, increasing water use and biotic

  16. Indexes and parameters of activity in solar-terrestrial physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasyants, G.S.; Minasyants, T.M.

    2005-01-01

    The daily variation of different indexes and parameters of the solar-terrestrial physics at the 23 cycle were considered to find the most important from them for the forecast of geomagnetic activity. The validity of application of the Wolf numbers in quality of the characteristic of solar activity at sunspots is confirmed. The best geo-effective parameter in the arrival of the interplanetary shock from coronal mass ejection to an orbit of the Earth. (author)

  17. Towards 250 m mapping of terrestrial primary productivity over Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsamo, A.; Chen, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are an important part of the climate and global change systems. Their role in climate change and in the global carbon cycle is yet to be well understood. Dataset from satellite earth observation, coupled with numerical models provide the unique tools for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of territorial carbon cycle. The Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) is a remote sensing based approach to quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle by that gross and net primary productivity (GPP and NPP) and terrestrial carbon sinks and sources expressed as net ecosystem productivity (NEP). We have currently implemented a scheme to map the GPP, NPP and NEP at 250 m for first time over Canada using BEPS model. This is supplemented by improved mapping of land cover and leaf area index (LAI) at 250 m over Canada from MODIS satellite dataset. The results from BEPS are compared with MODIS GPP product and further evaluated with estimated LAI from various sources to evaluate if the results capture the trend in amount of photosynthetic biomass distributions. Final evaluation will be to validate both BEPS and MODIS primary productivity estimates over the Fluxnet sites over Canada. The primary evaluation indicate that BEPS GPP estimates capture the over storey LAI variations over Canada very well compared to MODIS GPP estimates. There is a large offset of MODIS GPP, over-estimating the lower GPP value compared to BEPS GPP estimates. These variations will further be validated based on the measured values from the Fluxnet tower measurements over Canadian. The high resolution GPP (NPP) products at 250 m will further be used to scale the outputs between different ecosystem productivity models, in our case the Canadian carbon budget model of Canadian forest sector CBM-CFS) and the Integrated Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon model (InTEC).

  18. The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.

    1991-04-01

    The transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment have been investigated. The thesis is divided into two parts. Part I; Dynamic model for the transfer of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment. The study comprises the development of a compartment model, that simulates the dynamic transport of radioactive pollution in the terrestrial environment. The dynamic processes include, dry and wet deposition, soil resuspension, plant growth, root uptake, foliar interception, animal metabolism, agricultural practice, and production of bread. The ingested amount of radioactivity, by man, is multiplied by a dose conversion factor to yield a dose estimate. The dynamic properties and the predictive accuracy of the model have been tested. The results support the dynamics very well and predicitions within a factor of three, of a hypothetical accident, are likely. Part II; Influence of plant variety on the root transfer of radiocaesium. Studies of genetic differences, in plant uptake of radiocaesium, were concluded with a pot experiment. Four varieties of spring barley and three varieties of rye-grass have been tested in two types of soil. The results for barley showed a significant difference between the four varieties. Analyses of variance confirmed a high root uptake of radiocaesium in the variety Sila and a significantly lower root uptake in the variety Apex in each type of soil. The pattern between the varieties was identical in 1988, 1989 and 1990. Similarly for the grass varieties, one variety, the Italian rye grass, was identified as having the relatively highest uptake of radiocaesium. (author) 22 tabs., 30 ills., 56 refs

  19. Biodiversity of Terrestrial Vegetation during Past Warm Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Barnard, T.; Valdes, P. J.; Ridgwell, A.

    2016-12-01

    Previous modelling studies of vegetation have generally used a small number of plant functional types to understand how the terrestrial biosphere responds to climate changes. Whilst being useful for understanding first order climate feedbacks, this climate-envelope approach makes a lot of assumptions about past vegetation being very similar to modern. A trait-based method has the advantage for paleo modelling in that there are substantially less assumptions made. In a novel use of the trait-based dynamic vegetation model JeDi, forced with output from climate model HadCM3, we explore past biodiversity and vegetation carbon changes. We use JeDi to model an optimal 2000 combinations of fifteen different traits to enable assessment of the overall level of biodiversity as well as individual growth strategies. We assess the vegetation shifts and biodiversity changes in past greenhouse periods to better understand the impact on the terrestrial biosphere. This work provides original insights into the response of vegetation and terrestrial carbon to climate and hydrological changes in high carbon dioxide climates over time, including during the Late Permian and Cretaceous. We evaluate how the location of biodiversity hotspots and species richness in past greenhouse climates is different to the present day.

  20. Measurement Axis Searching Model for Terrestrial Laser Scans Registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoxing Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, terrestrial Lidar scans can cover rather a large area; the point densities are strongly varied because of the line-of-sight measurement principle in potential overlaps with scans taken from different viewpoints. Most of the traditional methods focus on registration algorithm and ignore searching model. Sometimes the traditional methods are directly used to align two point clouds; a large critically unsolved problem of the large biases will be created in areas distant from the overlaps while the local overlaps are often aligned well. So a novel measurement axis searching model (MASM has been proposed in this paper. The method includes four steps: (1 the principal axis fitting, (2 the measurement axis generation, (3 low-high-precision search, and (4 result generation. The principal axis gives an orientation to the point cloud; the search scope is limited by the measurement axis. The point cloud orientation can be adjusted gradually until the achievement of the global optimum using low- and high-precision search. We perform some experiments with simulated point clouds and real terrestrial laser scans. The results of simulated point clouds have shown the processing steps of our method, and the results of real terrestrial laser scans have shown the sensitivity of the approach with respect to the indoor and outdoor scenes.

  1. Peatland geoengineering: an alternative approach to terrestrial carbon sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Christopher; Fenner, Nathalie; Shirsat, Anil H

    2012-09-13

    Terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems contribute almost equally to the sequestration of ca 50 per cent of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions, and already play a role in minimizing our impact on Earth's climate. On land, the majority of the sequestered carbon enters soil carbon stores. Almost one-third of that soil carbon can be found in peatlands, an area covering just 2-3% of the Earth's landmass. Peatlands are thus well established as powerful agents of carbon capture and storage; the preservation of archaeological artefacts, such as ancient bog bodies, further attest to their exceptional preservative properties. Peatlands have higher carbon storage densities per unit ecosystem area than either the oceans or dry terrestrial systems. However, despite attempts over a number of years at enhancing carbon capture in the oceans or in land-based afforestation schemes, no attempt has yet been made to optimize peatland carbon storage capacity or even to harness peatlands to store externally captured carbon. Recent studies suggest that peatland carbon sequestration is due to the inhibitory effects of phenolic compounds that create an 'enzymic latch' on decomposition. Here, we propose to harness that mechanism in a series of peatland geoengineering strategies whereby molecular, biogeochemical, agronomical and afforestation approaches increase carbon capture and long-term sequestration in peat-forming terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. Structural Analysis of Hand Drawn Bumblebee Bombus terrestris Silk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Woodhead

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bombus terrestris, commonly known as the buff-tailed bumblebee, is native to Europe, parts of Africa and Asia. It is commercially bred for use as a pollinator of greenhouse crops. Larvae pupate within a silken cocoon that they construct from proteins produced in modified salivary glands. The amino acid composition and protein structure of hand drawn B. terrestris, silk fibres was investigated through the use of micro-Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were obtained from single fibres drawn from the larvae salivary gland at a rate of 0.14 cm/s. Raman spectroscopy enabled the identification of poly(alanine, poly(alanine-glycine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, which is consistent with the results of amino acid analysis. The dominant protein conformation was found to be coiled coil (73% while the β-sheet content of 10% is, as expected, lower than those reported for hornets and ants. Polarized Raman spectra revealed that the coiled coils were highly aligned along the fibre axis while the β-sheet and random coil components had their peptide carbonyl groups roughly perpendicular to the fibre axis. The protein orientation distribution is compared to those of other natural and recombinant silks. A structural model for the B. terrestris silk fibre is proposed based on these results.

  3. Forelimb bone curvature in terrestrial and arboreal mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Henderson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been proposed that the caudal curvature (concave caudal side observed in the radioulna of terrestrial quadrupeds is an adaptation to the habitual action of the triceps muscle which causes cranial bending strains (compression on cranial side. The caudal curvature is proposed to be adaptive because longitudinal loading induces caudal bending strains (increased compression on the caudal side, and these opposing bending strains counteract each other leaving the radioulna less strained. If this is true for terrestrial quadrupeds, where triceps is required for habitual elbow extension, then we might expect that in arboreal species, where brachialis is habitually required to maintain elbow flexion, the radioulna should instead be cranially curved. This study measures sagittal curvature of the ulna in a range of terrestrial and arboreal primates and marsupials, and finds that their ulnae are curved in opposite directions in these two locomotor categories. This study also examines sagittal curvature in the humerus in the same species, and finds differences that can be attributed to similar adaptations: the bone is curved to counter the habitual muscle action required by the animal’s lifestyle, the difference being mainly in the distal part of the humerus, where arboreal animals tend have a cranial concavity, thought to be in response the carpal and digital muscles that pull cranially on the distal humerus.

  4. TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS OF NEARBY SUPERNOVAE IN THE EARLY PLEISTOCENE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, B. C.; Engler, E. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washburn University, Topeka, KS 66621 (United States); Kachelrieß, M. [Institutt for fysikk, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Melott, A. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Overholt, A. C. [Department of Science and Mathematics, MidAmerica Nazarene University, Olathe, KS 66062 (United States); Semikoz, D. V., E-mail: brian.thomas@washburn.edu [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, F-119 75205 Paris (France)

    2016-07-20

    Recent results have strongly confirmed that multiple supernovae happened at distances of ∼100 pc, consisting of two main events: one at 1.7–3.2 million years ago, and the other at 6.5–8.7 million years ago. These events are said to be responsible for excavating the Local Bubble in the interstellar medium and depositing {sup 60}Fe on Earth and the Moon. Other events are indicated by effects in the local cosmic ray (CR) spectrum. Given this updated and refined picture, we ask whether such supernovae are expected to have had substantial effects on the terrestrial atmosphere and biota. In a first look at the most probable cases, combining photon and CR effects, we find that a supernova at 100 pc can have only a small effect on terrestrial organisms from visible light and that chemical changes such as ozone depletion are weak. However, tropospheric ionization right down to the ground, due to the penetration of ≥TeV CRs, will increase by nearly an order of magnitude for thousands of years, and irradiation by muons on the ground and in the upper ocean will increase twentyfold, which will approximately triple the overall radiation load on terrestrial organisms. Such irradiation has been linked to possible changes in climate and increased cancer and mutation rates. This may be related to a minor mass extinction around the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, and further research on the effects is needed.

  5. Processing horizontal networks measured by integrated terrestrial and GPS technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jakub

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Local horizontal networks in which GPS and terrestrial measurements (TER are done are often established at present. Iin other networks, the previous terrestrial measurements can be completed with quantities from contemporary GPS observations (tunnel nets, mining nets with surface and underground parts and other long-shaped nets.The processing of such heterobeneous (GPS, TER networks whose terrestrial measurements are performed as point coordinate measurements (∆X, ∆Y using (geodetic total stationIn is presented in this paper. In such network structures it is then available:- the values ∆X, ∆Y from TER observations which are transformed in the plane of S-JTSK for adjustement,- the values ∆X, ∆Y in the plane S-JTSK that can be obtained by 3D transformation of WGS84 netpoint coordinates from GPS observations to corresponding coordinates S-JTSK.For common adjusting all the ∆X, ∆Y, some elements of the network geometry (e.g. distances should be measured by both methods (GPS, TER. This approach makes possible an effective homogenisation of both network parts what is equivalent to saying that an expressive influence reduction on local frame realizations of S-JTSK in the whole network can be made.Results of network processing obtained in proposed manner are acceptable in general and they are equivalent (accuracy, reliability to results of another processing methods.

  6. Substrate attributes determine gait in a terrestrial gastropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amberle; Voltzow, Janice; Pernet, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Some terrestrial gastropods are able to move using two gaits: adhesive crawling, where the entire foot is separated from the substrate only by a thin layer of mucus and the snail leaves a continuous mucus trail; and loping, where regions of the foot arch above the substrate and the snail leaves a discontinuous mucus trail. Loping has been interpreted as a means of rapidly escaping predators. We found that the pulmonate Cornu aspersum moved using adhesive crawling on dry acrylic or glass substrates, but loped on dry concrete or wood. Loping snails did not move more rapidly than snails using adhesive crawling. Snails moving on concrete secreted a greater volume of pedal mucus per area of trail than those moving on acrylic; locomotion on concrete thus requires greater expenditure of mucus than does locomotion on acrylic. Because loping snails deposit a smaller area of mucus per distance traveled than do snails using adhesive crawling, loping may conserve mucus when moving on porous, absorbent substrates. Members of several other terrestrial pulmonate taxa can also lope on concrete, suggesting that this plasticity in gait is widespread among terrestrial snails.

  7. A collaborative approach for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Jason I.; Kaczensky, Petra; Lubow, Bruce C.; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Altansukh, Nanjid

    2012-01-01

    Accurately estimating abundance of wildlife is critical for establishing effective conservation and management strategies. Aerial methodologies for estimating abundance are common in developed countries, but they are often impractical for remote areas of developing countries where many of the world's endangered and threatened fauna exist. The alternative terrestrial methodologies can be constrained by limitations on access, technology, and human resources, and have rarely been comprehensively conducted for large terrestrial mammals at landscape scales. We attempted to overcome these problems by incorporating local peoples into a simultaneous point count of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus) and goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) across the Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area, Mongolia. Paired observers collected abundance and covariate metrics at 50 observation points and we estimated population sizes using distance sampling theory, but also assessed individual observer error to examine potential bias introduced by the large number of minimally trained observers. We estimated 5671 (95% CI = 3611–8907) wild asses and 5909 (95% CI = 3762–9279) gazelle inhabited the 11,027 km2 study area at the time of our survey and found that the methodology developed was robust at absorbing the logistical challenges and wide range of observer abilities. This initiative serves as a functional model for estimating terrestrial wildlife abundance while integrating local people into scientific and conservation projects. This, in turn, creates vested interest in conservation by the people who are most influential in, and most affected by, the outcomes.

  8. Dechlorane Plus flame retardant in terrestrial raptors from northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Wang, Yan; Yu, Lehuan; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Li, Shaoshan

    2013-05-01

    While a number of studies have addressed the environmental presence and behavior of the Dechlorane Plus (DP) flame retardant, there is still a dearth of information in terrestrial ecosystems. The present study revealed that median ∑DP (including anti- and syn-DP isomers) concentrations ranged from 10 to 810 ng/g lipid weight in muscle and liver tissues of six terrestrial raptor species collected in 2004-2006 from Beijing, China. Some concentrations rival the greatest DP burdens ever reported in global wildlife. Significant, positive correlations were observed between fanti (concentration ratio of anti-isomer to ∑DP) and ∑DP concentrations in the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) tissues. These results suggested that the DP burdens could be substantially driven by the accumulation of the anti-isomer in terrestrial birds. The tissue-specific accumulation of DP further suggested that factors (e.g., hepatic binding enzymes) other than lipid solubility could be important in determining tissue deposition of DP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Solar cosmic rays in the system of solar terrestrial relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnichenko, Leonty I.

    2008-02-01

    In this brief review, we discuss a number of geophysical effects of solar energetic particles (SEPs) or solar cosmic rays (SCR). We concentrate mainly on the observational evidence and proposed mechanisms of some expected effects and/or poor-studied phenomena discovered within the last three decades, in particular, depletion of the ozone layer, perturbations in the global electric current, effects on the winter storm vorticity, change of the atmospheric transparency and production of nitrates. Some "archaeological" data on SCR fluxes in the past and upper limit of total energy induced by SEPs are also discussed. Due attention is paid to the periodicities in the solar particle fluxes. Actually, many solar, heliospheric and terrestrial parameters changing generally in phase with the solar activity are subjected to a temporary depression close to the solar maximum ("Gnevyshev Gap"). A similar gap has been found recently in the yearly numbers of the >10 MeV proton events. All the above-mentioned findings are evidently of great importance in the studies of general proton emissivity of the Sun and long-term trends in the behaviour of solar magnetic fields. In addition, these data can be very helpful for elaborating the methods for prediction of the radiation conditions in space and for estimation of the SEPs' contribution to solar effects on the geosphere, their relative role in the formation of terrestrial weather and climate and in the problem of solar-terrestrial relations (STR) on the whole.

  10. Synergistic Antimicrobial Effect of Tribulus terrestris and Bitter Almond Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abtahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The antimicrobial effects of the extracts of different kinds of plants have been demonstrated in several studies. However, no study has been conducted so far on the synergistic effects of two herbal extracts on their germicidal effects. In this study, in addition to antibacterial effects of the aqueous, methanol or ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris and bitter almond on some bacteria, the synergistic effects of the extracts of these two plants were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, water, methanol and ethanol extracts of seeds were screened against some bacterial strains. Seeds were extracted by percolation method. Aliquots of the extracts at variable concentrations were then incubated with different bacterial strains, and the antimicrobial activities of the extracts from seeds were determined by MIC. Three antibiotics were used as reference compounds for antibacterial activities. Seeds extract inhibited significantly the growth of the tested bacterial strains. Results: The greatest synergistic effect of T. terrestris and bitter almond extracts is detected in methanol and aqueous extracts. Among the bacterial strains tested, Staphylococcus aureus was most susceptibility. Conclusion: The results showed the highest antibacterial effect in the combination of methanol extract of T. terrestris and the aqueous extract of the bitter almond.

  11. Vulnerability of the global terrestrial ecosystems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Delong; Wu, Shuyao; Liu, Laibao; Zhang, Yatong; Li, Shuangcheng

    2018-05-27

    Climate change has far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. Recent attempts to quantify such impacts focus on measuring exposure to climate change but largely ignore ecosystem resistance and resilience, which may also affect the vulnerability outcomes. In this study, the relative vulnerability of global terrestrial ecosystems to short-term climate variability was assessed by simultaneously integrating exposure, sensitivity, and resilience at a high spatial resolution (0.05°). The results show that vulnerable areas are currently distributed primarily in plains. Responses to climate change vary among ecosystems and deserts and xeric shrublands are the most vulnerable biomes. Global vulnerability patterns are determined largely by exposure, while ecosystem sensitivity and resilience may exacerbate or alleviate external climate pressures at local scales; there is a highly significant negative correlation between exposure and sensitivity. Globally, 61.31% of the terrestrial vegetated area is capable of mitigating climate change impacts and those areas are concentrated in polar regions, boreal forests, tropical rainforests, and intact forests. Under current sensitivity and resilience conditions, vulnerable areas are projected to develop in high Northern Hemisphere latitudes in the future. The results suggest that integrating all three aspects of vulnerability (exposure, sensitivity, and resilience) may offer more comprehensive and spatially explicit adaptation strategies to reduce the impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. HOVE-Wedge-Filtering of Geomorphologic Terrestrial Laser Scan Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Panholzer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanning has become an important surveying technique in many fields such as natural hazard assessment. To analyse earth surface processes, it is useful to generate a digital terrain model originated from laser scan point cloud data. To determine the terrain surface as precisely as possible, it is often necessary to filter out points that do not represent the terrain surface. Examples are vegetation, vehicles, and animals. In mountainous terrain with a small-structured topography, filtering is very difficult. Here, automatic filtering solutions usually designed for airborne laser scan data often lead to unsatisfactory results. In this work, we further develop an existing approach for automated filtering of terrestrial laser scan data, which is based on the assumption that no other surface point can be located in the area above a direct line of sight between scanner and another measured point. By taking into account several environmental variables and a repetitive calculation method, the modified method leads to significantly better results. The root-mean-square-error (RSME for the same test measurement area could be reduced from 5.284 to 1.610. In addition, a new approach for filtering and interpolation of terrestrial laser scanning data is presented using a grid with horizontal and vertical angular data and the measurement length.

  13. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  14. Broad-Scale Comparison of Photosynthesis in Terrestrial and Aquatic Plant Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Krause-Jensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons of photosynthesis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats have been impaired by differences in methods and time-scales of measurements. We compiled information on gross photosynthesis at high irradiance and photosynthetic efficiency at low irradiance from 109 published terrestrial studies...... communities probably due to more efficient light utilization and gas exchange in the terrestrial habitats. By contrast only small differences were found within different aquatic plant communities or within different terrestrial plant communities....... of forests, grasslands and crops and 319 aquatic studies of phytoplankton, macrophyte and attached microalgal communities to test if specific differences existed between the communities. Maximum gross photosynthesis and photosynthetic efficiency were systematically higher in terrestrial than in aquatic...

  15. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  16. Incorporation of microplastics from litter into burrows of Lumbricus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta Lwanga, Esperanza; Gertsen, Hennie; Gooren, Harm; Peters, Piet; Salánki, Tamás; van der Ploeg, Martine; Besseling, Ellen; Koelmans, Albert A; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Pollution caused by plastic debris is an urgent environmental problem. Here, we assessed the effects of microplastics in the soil surface litter on the formation and characterization of burrows built by the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in soil and quantified the amount of microplastics that was transported and deposited in L. terrestris burrows. Worms were exposed to soil surface litter treatments containing microplastics (Low Density Polyethylene) for 2 weeks at concentrations of 0%, 7%, 28%, 45% and 60%. The latter representing environmentally realistic concentrations found in hot spot soil locations. There were significantly more burrows found when soil was exposed to the surface treatment composed of 7% microplastics than in all other treatments. The highest amount of organic matter in the walls of the burrows was observed after using the treatments containing 28 and 45% microplastics. The highest microplastic bioturbation efficiency ratio (total microplastics (mg) in burrow walls/initial total surface litter microplastics (mg)) was found using the concentration of 7% microplastics, where L. terrestris introduced 73.5% of the surface microplastics into the burrow walls. The highest burrow wall microplastic content per unit weight of soil (11.8 ± 4.8 g kg- 1 ) was found using a concentration of 60% microplastics. L. terrestris was responsible for size-selective downward transport when exposed to concentrations of 7, 28 and 45% microplastics in the surface litter, as the fraction ≤50 μm microplastics in burrow walls increased by 65% compared to this fraction in the original surface litter plastic. We conclude that the high biogenic incorporation rate of the small-fraction microplastics from surface litter into burrow walls causes a risk of leaching through preferential flow into groundwater bodies. Furthermore, this leaching may have implications for the subsequent availability of microplastics to terrestrial organisms or for the transport

  17. 1km Global Terrestrial Carbon Flux: Estimations and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Saito, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating global scale of the terrestrial carbon flux change with high accuracy and high resolution is important to understand global environmental changes. Furthermore the estimations of the global spatiotemporal distribution may contribute to the political and social activities such as REDD+. In order to reveal the current state of terrestrial carbon fluxes covering all over the world and a decadal scale. The satellite-based diagnostic biosphere model is suitable for achieving this purpose owing to observing on the present global land surface condition uniformly at some time interval. In this study, we estimated the global terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km grids by using the terrestrial biosphere model (BEAMS). And we evaluated our new carbon flux estimations on various spatial scales and showed the transition of forest carbon stocks in some regions. Because BEAMS required high resolution meteorological data and satellite data as input data, we made 1km interpolated data using a kriging method. The data used in this study were JRA-55, GPCP, GOSAT L4B atmospheric CO2 data as meteorological data, and MODIS land product as land surface satellite data. Interpolating process was performed on the meteorological data because of insufficient resolution, but not on MODIS data. We evaluated our new carbon flux estimations using the flux tower measurement (FLUXNET2015 Datasets) in a point scale. We used 166 sites data for evaluating our model results. These flux sites are classified following vegetation type (DBF, EBF, ENF, mixed forests, grass lands, croplands, shrub lands, Savannas, wetlands). In global scale, the BEAMS estimations was underestimated compared to the flux measurements in the case of carbon uptake and release. The monthly variations of NEP showed relatively high correlations in DBF and mixed forests, but the correlation coefficients of EBF, ENF, and grass lands were less than 0.5. In the meteorological factors, air temperature and solar radiation showed

  18. Carbon Fluxes and Transport Along the Terrestrial Aquatic Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, D. E.; Kolka, R.; Fennel, K.; Stackpoole, S. M.; Trettin, C.; Windham-Myers, L.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial wetlands, inland surface waters, tidal wetlands and estuaries, and the coastal ocean are distinct aquatic ecosystems that integrate carbon (C) fluxes and processing among the major earth system components: the continents, oceans, and atmosphere. The development of the 2nd State of the Carbon Cycle Report (SOCCR2) noted that incorporating the C cycle dynamics for these ecosystems was necessary to reconcile some of the gaps associated with the North American C budget. We present major C stocks and fluxes for Canada, Mexico and the United States. North America contains nearly 42% of the global terrestrial wetland area. Terrestrial wetlands, defined as soils that are seasonally or permanently inundated or saturated, contain significant C stocks equivalent to 174,000 Tg C in the top 40 cm of soil. While terrestrial wetlands are a C sink of approximately 64 Tg C yr-1, they also emit 21 Tg of CH4 yr-1. Inland waters are defined as lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams. Carbon fluxes, which include lateral C export to the coast, riverine and lacustrine CO2 emissions, and C burial in lakes and reservoirs are estimated at 507 Tg yr-1. Estuaries and tidal wetlands assimilate C and nutrients from uplands and rivers, and their total C stock is 1,323 Tg C in the top 1 m of soils and sediment. Accounting for soil accretion, lateral C flux, and CO2 assimilation and emission, tidal wetlands and estuaries are net sinks with a total flux equal to 6 Tg C yr-1. The coastal ocean and sea shelfs, defined as non-estuarine waters within 200 nautical miles (370 km) of the coast, function as net sinks, with the air-sea exchange of CO2 estimated at 150 Tg C yr-1. In total, fluxes from these four aquatic ecosystems are equal to a loss of 302 Tg C yr-1. Including these four discrete fluxes in this assessment demonstrates the importance of linking hydrology and biogeochemical cycling to evaluate the impacts of climate change and human activities on carbon fluxes across the

  19. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Methods: Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. Results: T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. Conclusion: This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women. PMID:27840471

  20. Efficacy of Tribulus Terrestris Extract on the Serum Glucose and Lipids of Women with Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samani, Nasrin Babadai; Jokar, Azam; Soveid, Mahmood; Heydari, Mojtaba; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah

    2016-05-01

    Considering folkloric use of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) in diabetes and proven anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of T. terrestris in animal studies, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the hydro alcoholic extract of T. terrestris on the serum glucose and lipid profile of women with diabetes mellitus. Ninety-eight diabetic women were randomly allocated to receive the T. terrestris (1000 mg/day) or placebo for three months. The patients were evaluated in terms of the fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile. T. terrestris showed a significant blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic women compared to placebo (Pterrestris group was significantly reduced compared with placebo, while no significant effect was observed in the triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein levels. This study showed preliminary promising hypoglycemic effect of T. terrestris in diabetic women.

  1. Amphibian populations in the terrestrial environment: Is there evidence of declines of terrestrial forest amphibians in northwestern California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Gary M. Fellers; Amy J. Lind

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian declines have been documented worldwide; however the vast majority are species associated with aquatic habitats. Information on the status and trends of terrestrial amphibians is almost entirely lacking. Here we use data collected across a 12-yr period (sampling from 1984–86 and from 1993–95) to address the question of whether evidence exists for declines...

  2. Tribulus terrestris versus placebo in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, randomized, double blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C A; Reis, L O; Destro-Saade, R; Luiza-Reis, A; Fregonesi, A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris herbal medicine in the erectile dysfunction treatment and to quantify its potential impact on serum testosterone levels. Prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study including thirty healthy men selected from 100 patients who presented themselves spontaneously complaining of erectile dysfunction, ≥ 40 years of age, nonsmokers, not undergoing treatment for prostate cancer or erectile dysfunction, no dyslipidemia, no phosphodiesterase inhibitor use, no hormonal manipulation and, if present hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus should be controlled. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) and serum testosterone were obtained before randomization and after 30 days of study. Patients were randomized into two groups of fifteen subjects each. The study group received 800 mg of Tribulus terrestris, divided into two doses per day for thirty days and the control group received placebo administered in the same way. The groups were statistically equivalent in all aspects evaluated. The mean (SD) age was 60 (9.4) and 62.9 (7.9), P = .36 for intervention and placebo groups, respectively. Before treatment, the intervention group showed mean IIEF-5 of 13.2 (5-21) and mean total testosterone 417.1 ng/dl (270.7-548.4 ng/dl); the placebo group showed mean IIEF-5 of 11.6 (6-21) and mean total testosterone 442.7 ng/dl (301-609.1 ng/dl). After treatment, the intervention group showed mean IIEF-5 of 15.3 (5-21) and mean total testosterone 409.3 ng/dl (216.9-760.8 ng/dl); the placebo group showed mean IIEF-5 of 13.7 (6-21) and mean total testosterone 466.3 ng/dl (264.3-934.3 ng/dl). The time factor caused statistically significant changes in both groups for IIEF-5 only (P = .0004), however, there was no difference between the two groups (P = .7914). At the dose and interval studied, Tribulus terrestris was not more effective than placebo on improving symptoms of erectile dysfunction or serum total

  3. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.; Andres, R. J.; Davis, K. J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D. J.; Huntzinger, D. N.; de Jong, B.; Kurz, W. A.; McGuire, A. D.; Vargas, R.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.; Woodall, C. W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990-2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.

  4. A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommaerts, Veerle; Sterk, Guido; Hoffmann, Lucien; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to identify any potential adverse side effects of the use of seven microbiological control agents (MCAs) on the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris L., in the context of combined use in integrated pest management (IPM). AQ10 (Ampelomyces quisqualis), Binab-T-vector (Hypocrea parapilulifera + T. atroviride; 1/1), Prestop-Mix (Gliocladium catenulatum J1446), Serenade (Bacillus subtilis QST713), Trianum-P (Trichoderma harzianum T22), Botanigard (Beauveria bassiana GHA) and Granupom (Cydia pomonella granulovirus), comprising five biofungicides and two bioinsecticides, were investigated. Bumblebee workers were exposed under laboratory conditions to each MCA at its maximum field recommended concentration (MFRC) via three different routes of exposure: dermal contact and orally via either treated sugar water or pollen. The tested MCAs were found to be safe for workers of B. terrestris, with the exception of Botanigard and Serenade. Exposure to Botanigard via contact at its MFRC caused 92% mortality after 11 weeks, while the 1/10 MFRC killed 46% of exposed workers. For Serenade, topical contact and oral delivery via sugar water resulted in 88 and 100% worker mortality respectively. With lower concentrations (1/2, 1/5 and 1/10 MFRC) the toxicity decreased, but the effect depended on the route of exposure. In addition to lethal effects, nests were also evaluated for sublethal effects after treatment with the seven MCAs at their respective MFRCs over 11 weeks. In these bioassays, only Botanigard and Serenade gave rise to a significant (P drone production. Sublethal effects on foraging behaviour were also evaluated, and only Botanigard at its MFRC delivered via treated sugar water induced negative effects. The results demonstrated that most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification. However, some can be

  5. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.W.; Andres, R.J.; Davis, K.J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, D.J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, W.A.; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo I.; Wei, Y.; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North American land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from −890 to −280 Tg C yr−1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, "best" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are −472 ± 281 Tg C yr−1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and −360 Tg C yr−1 (with an interquartile range of −496 to −337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr−1 and assuming the estimate of −472 Tg C yr−1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was

  6. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  7. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  8. Allometric methodology for the assessment of radon exposures to terrestrial wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives i Batlle, J.; Copplestone, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    A practical approach to calculate 222 Rn daughter dose rates to terrestrial wildlife is presented. The method scales allometrically the relevant parameters for respiration in different species of wildlife, allowing inter-species calculation of the dose per unit radon concentration in air as simple base-and-exponent power functions of the mass. For plants, passive gas exchange through the leaf surface is assumed, also leading to specific power relationships with mass. The model generates conservative predictions in which the main contributor to the dose rate of target tissues of the respiratory system is from α radiation arising from 222 Rn daughters. Tabulated 222 Rn DPURn values are given for 69 species used by the England and Wales Environment Agency for habitats assessments. The approach is then applied to assess the authorised discharges of 222 Rn from sites in England, demonstrating that, from a whole-body dose perspective, the biota considered are protected from effects at the population level. - Highlights: ► Allometric method developed to calculate radon daughter doses to 69 species of terrestrial wildlife. ► Model satisfactorily compared with previous studies of lung dose rates for mammals. ► The main contributor to the dose rate of the respiratory system is internal α-radiation from the 222 Rn daughters. ► Air immersion is the principal contributor to the external dose rate. ► Assessment for 7 authorised sites in England suggests that wildlife populations are adequately protected from the anthropogenic radon emissions considered in this study.

  9. Plans for an Enhanced Terrestrial and Freshwater Environmental Observation Network in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everson, C. S.; Bond, W. J.; Moncrieff, G. R.; Everson, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    There is currently little information in South Africa concerning the influence of terrestrial ecosystems on biosphere-atmosphere interactions and their impact on the earth system. Climate modellers require data on energy exchanges between the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum to develop surface models of carbon, energy and water to scale up from the different biomes in South Africa, to regional and, ultimately, global scales. Atmospheric exchanges of South African biomes (ecosystems) are important due to the large and varied pant diversity they represent. The important ecosystem services (including water) delivered by these natural systems and their potential role in the long-term CO2 uptake from the atmosphere and carbon storage is a key gap in South African research. South Africa is already a water-scarce country so the predicted impacts of climate change on water resources are likely to have devastating effects. It is against this diminishing water supply that the South African government must develop innovative investments in water technologies and infrastructure to mitigate the impacts of growing water shortages due to climate change. The Department of Science and Technology of South Africa is planning a multi-million rand investment in long-term ecological infrastructure with a focus on carbon, water and energy. The terrestrial programme will comprise six to seven landscape-scale 'climate change observatories', some in urban and agricultural situations, with eddy covariance flux towers for carbon water and energy measurements, regular remote sensing, for the long-term collection of environmental, ecological and social data. The South African flux network measurement programme aims to become a key role player in the assessment of the consequences of rapid land use change and future impacts of climate change both regionally and internationally. Key words: flux towers, eddy co-variance, carbon, water and energy

  10. Recent Acceleration of the Terrestrial Hydrologic Cycle in the U.S. Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Wu, Chuanhao

    2018-03-01

    Most hydroclimatic trend studies considered only a subset of water budget variables; hence, the trend consistency and a holistic assessment of hydrologic changes across the entire water cycle cannot be evaluated. Here we use a unique 31 year (1983-2013) observed data set in Illinois (a representative region of the U.S. Midwest), including temperature (T), precipitation (P), evaporation (E), streamflow (R), soil moisture, and groundwater level (GWL), to estimate the trends and their sensitivity to different data periods and lengths. Both the Mann-Kendall trend test and the least squares linear method identify trends in close agreement. Despite no clear trends during 1983-2013, increasing trends are found in P (8.73-9.05 mm/year), E (6.87-7.47 mm/year), and R (1.57-3.54 mm/year) during 1992-2013, concurrently with a pronounced warming trend of 0.029-0.037 °C/year. However, terrestrial water storageis decreased by -2.0 mm/year (mainly due to declining GWL), suggesting that the increased R is caused by increased surface runoff rather than baseflow. Monthly analyses identify warming trends for all months except winter. In summer, P (E) exhibits an increasing (decreasing) trend, leading to increasing R, soil moisture, GWL, and terrestrial water storage. Most trends estimated for different subperiods are found to be sensitive to data lengths and periods. Overall, this study provides an internally consistent observed evidence on the intensification of the hydrologic cycle in response to recent climate warming in U.S. Midwest, in agreement with and well supported by several recent studies consistently reporting the increased P, R and E over the Midwest and Mississippi River basin.

  11. Water Use Efficiency of China's Terrestrial Ecosystems and Responses to Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Xiao, J.; Ju, W.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, S.; Wu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Yibo Liu1, 2, Jingfeng Xiao2, Weimin Ju3, Yanlian Zhou4, Shaoqiang Wang5, Xiaocui Wu31 Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, School of Applied Meteorology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China, 2Earth Systems Research Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA, 3 International Institute for Earth System Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China, 4 School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China, 5 Key Laboratory of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China Water use efficiency (WUE) measures the trade-off between carbon gain and water loss of terrestrial ecosystems, and better understanding its dynamics and controlling factors is essential for predicting ecosystem responses to climate change. We assessed the magnitude, spatial patterns, and trends of WUE of China's terrestrial ecosystems and its responses to drought using a process-based ecosystem model. During the period from 2000 to 2011, the national average annual WUE (net primary productivity (NPP)/evapotranspiration (ET)) of China was 0.79 g C kg-1 H2O. Annual WUE decreased in the southern regions because of the decrease in NPP and increase in ET and increased in most northern regions mainly because of the increase in NPP. Droughts usually increased annual WUE in Northeast China and central Inner Mongolia but decreased annual WUE in central China. "Turning-points" were observed for southern China where moderate and extreme drought reduced annual WUE and severe drought slightly increased annual WUE. The cumulative lagged effect of drought on monthly WUE varied by region. Our findings have implications for ecosystem management and climate policy making. WUE is expected to continue to change under future climate

  12. Allometric methodology for the assessment of radon exposures to terrestrial wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vives i Batlle, J., E-mail: jordi.vives.i.batlle@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Copplestone, D. [School of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling (United Kingdom); Jones, S.R. [SJ Scientific Ltd, 13 Fern Bank, Cockermouth, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    A practical approach to calculate {sup 222}Rn daughter dose rates to terrestrial wildlife is presented. The method scales allometrically the relevant parameters for respiration in different species of wildlife, allowing inter-species calculation of the dose per unit radon concentration in air as simple base-and-exponent power functions of the mass. For plants, passive gas exchange through the leaf surface is assumed, also leading to specific power relationships with mass. The model generates conservative predictions in which the main contributor to the dose rate of target tissues of the respiratory system is from {alpha} radiation arising from {sup 222}Rn daughters. Tabulated {sup 222}Rn DPURn values are given for 69 species used by the England and Wales Environment Agency for habitats assessments. The approach is then applied to assess the authorised discharges of {sup 222}Rn from sites in England, demonstrating that, from a whole-body dose perspective, the biota considered are protected from effects at the population level. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Allometric method developed to calculate radon daughter doses to 69 species of terrestrial wildlife. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model satisfactorily compared with previous studies of lung dose rates for mammals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The main contributor to the dose rate of the respiratory system is internal {alpha}-radiation from the {sup 222}Rn daughters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air immersion is the principal contributor to the external dose rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment for 7 authorised sites in England suggests that wildlife populations are adequately protected from the anthropogenic radon emissions considered in this study.

  13. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  14. A segmentation approach for a delineation of terrestrial ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowosad, J.; Stepinski, T.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecoregions are the result of regionalization of land into homogeneous units of similar ecological and physiographic features. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World (TEW) is a commonly used global ecoregionalization based on expert knowledge and in situ observations. Ecological Land Units (ELUs) is a global classification of 250 meters-sized cells into 4000 types on the basis of the categorical values of four environmental variables. ELUs are automatically calculated and reproducible but they are not a regionalization which makes them impractical for GIS-based spatial analysis and for comparison with TEW. We have regionalized terrestrial ecosystems on the basis of patterns of the same variables (land cover, soils, landform, and bioclimate) previously used in ELUs. Considering patterns of categorical variables makes segmentation and thus regionalization possible. Original raster datasets of the four variables are first transformed into regular grids of square-sized blocks of their cells called eco-sites. Eco-sites are elementary land units containing local patterns of physiographic characteristics and thus assumed to contain a single ecosystem. Next, eco-sites are locally aggregated using a procedure analogous to image segmentation. The procedure optimizes pattern homogeneity of all four environmental variables within each segment. The result is a regionalization of the landmass into land units characterized by uniform pattern of land cover, soils, landforms, climate, and, by inference, by uniform ecosystem. Because several disjoined segments may have very similar characteristics, we cluster the segments to obtain a smaller set of segment types which we identify with ecoregions. Our approach is automatic, reproducible, updatable, and customizable. It yields the first automatic delineation of ecoregions on the global scale. In the resulting vector database each ecoregion/segment is described by numerous attributes which make it a valuable GIS resource for

  15. Threats from climate change to terrestrial vertebrate hotspots in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorano, Luigi; Amori, Giovanni; Capula, Massimo; Falcucci, Alessandra; Masi, Monica; Montemaggiori, Alessandro; Pottier, Julien; Psomas, Achilleas; Rondinini, Carlo; Russo, Danilo; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Boitani, Luigi; Guisan, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    We identified hotspots of terrestrial vertebrate species diversity in Europe and adjacent islands. Moreover, we assessed the extent to which by the end of the 21(st) century such hotspots will be exposed to average monthly temperature and precipitation patterns which can be regarded as extreme if compared to the climate experienced during 1950-2000. In particular, we considered the entire European sub-continent plus Turkey and a total of 1149 species of terrestrial vertebrates. For each species, we developed species-specific expert-based distribution models (validated against field data) which we used to calculate species richness maps for mammals, breeding birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Considering four global circulation model outputs and three emission scenarios, we generated an index of risk of exposure to extreme climates, and we used a bivariate local Moran's I to identify the areas with a significant association between hotspots of diversity and high risk of exposure to extreme climates. Our results outline that the Mediterranean basin represents both an important hotspot for biodiversity and especially for threatened species for all taxa. In particular, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas host particularly high species richness as measured over all groups, while the eastern Mediterranean basin is particularly rich in amphibians and reptiles; the islands (both Macaronesian and Mediterranean) host the highest richness of threatened species for all taxa occurs. Our results suggest that the main hotspots of biodiversity for terrestrial vertebrates may be extensively influenced by the climate change projected to occur over the coming decades, especially in the Mediterranean bioregion, posing serious concerns for biodiversity conservation.

  16. Biogeochemical signals from deep microbial life in terrestrial crust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohey Suzuki

    Full Text Available In contrast to the deep subseafloor biosphere, a volumetrically vast and stable habitat for microbial life in the terrestrial crust remains poorly explored. For the long-term sustainability of a crustal biome, high-energy fluxes derived from hydrothermal circulation and water radiolysis in uranium-enriched rocks are seemingly essential. However, the crustal habitability depending on a low supply of energy is unknown. We present multi-isotopic evidence of microbially mediated sulfate reduction in a granitic aquifer, a representative of the terrestrial crust habitat. Deep meteoric groundwater was collected from underground boreholes drilled into Cretaceous Toki granite (central Japan. A large sulfur isotopic fractionation of 20-60‰ diagnostic to microbial sulfate reduction is associated with the investigated groundwater containing sulfate below 0.2 mM. In contrast, a small carbon isotopic fractionation (<30‰ is not indicative of methanogenesis. Except for 2011, the concentrations of H2 ranged mostly from 1 to 5 nM, which is also consistent with an aquifer where a terminal electron accepting process is dominantly controlled by ongoing sulfate reduction. High isotopic ratios of mantle-derived 3He relative to radiogenic 4He in groundwater and the flux of H2 along adjacent faults suggest that, in addition to low concentrations of organic matter (<70 µM, H2 from deeper sources might partly fuel metabolic activities. Our results demonstrate that the deep biosphere in the terrestrial crust is metabolically active and playing a crucial role in the formation of reducing groundwater even under low-energy fluxes.

  17. Lunar and terrestrial planet formation in the Grand Tack scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present conclusions from a large number of N-body simulations of the giant impact phase of terrestrial planet formation. We focus on new results obtained from the recently proposed Grand Tack model, which couples the gas-driven migration of giant planets to the accretion of the terrestrial planets. The giant impact phase follows the oligarchic growth phase, which builds a bi-modal mass distribution within the disc of embryos and planetesimals. By varying the ratio of the total mass in the embryo population to the total mass in the planetesimal population and the mass of the individual embryos, we explore how different disc conditions control the final planets. The total mass ratio of embryos to planetesimals controls the timing of the last giant (Moon-forming) impact and its violence. The initial embryo mass sets the size of the lunar impactor and the growth rate of Mars. After comparing our simulated outcomes with the actual orbits of the terrestrial planets (angular momentum deficit, mass concentration) and taking into account independent geochemical constraints on the mass accreted by the Earth after the Moon-forming event and on the time scale for the growth of Mars, we conclude that the protoplanetary disc at the beginning of the giant impact phase must have had most of its mass in Mars-sized embryos and only a small fraction of the total disc mass in the planetesimal population. From this, we infer that the Moon-forming event occurred between approximately 60 and approximately 130 Myr after the formation of the first solids and was caused most likely by an object with a mass similar to that of Mars. PMID:25114304

  18. Hydrogen isotopic fractionation during crystallization of the terrestrial magma ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, K.; Karato, S. I.

    2016-12-01

    Models of the Moon-forming giant impact extensively melt and partially vaporize the silicate Earth and deliver a substantial mass of metal to the Earth's core. The subsequent evolution of the terrestrial magma ocean and overlying vapor atmosphere over the ensuing 105-6 years has been largely constrained by theoretical models with remnant signatures from this epoch proving somewhat elusive. We have calculated equilibrium hydrogen isotopic fractionation between the magma ocean and overlying steam atmosphere to determine the extent to which H isotopes trace the evolution during this epoch. By analogy with the modern silicate Earth, the magma ocean-steam atmosphere system is often assumed to be chemically oxidized (log fO2 QFM) with the dominant atmospheric vapor species taken to be water vapor. However, the terrestrial magma ocean - having held metallic droplets in suspension - may also exhibit a much more reducing character (log fO2 IW) such that equilibration with the overlying atmosphere renders molecular hydrogen the dominant H-bearing vapor species. This variable - the redox state of the magma ocean - has not been explicitly included in prior models of the coupled evolution of the magma ocean-steam atmosphere system. We find that the redox state of the magma ocean influences not only the vapor speciation and liquid-vapor partitioning of hydrogen but also the equilibrium isotopic fractionation during the crystallization epoch. The liquid-vapor isotopic fractionation of H is substantial under reducing conditions and can generate measurable D/H signatures in the crystallization products but is largely muted in an oxidizing magma ocean and steam atmosphere. We couple equilibrium isotopic fractionation with magma ocean crystallization calculations to forward model the behavior of hydrogen isotopes during this epoch and find that the distribution of H isotopes in the silicate Earth immediately following crystallization represents an oxybarometer for the terrestrial

  19. Automated Feature Extraction of Foredune Morphology from Terrestrial Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spore, N.; Brodie, K. L.; Swann, C.

    2014-12-01

    Foredune morphology is often described in storm impact prediction models using the elevation of the dune crest and dune toe and compared with maximum runup elevations to categorize the storm impact and predicted responses. However, these parameters do not account for other foredune features that may make them more or less erodible, such as alongshore variations in morphology, vegetation coverage, or compaction. The goal of this work is to identify other descriptive features that can be extracted from terrestrial lidar data that may affect the rate of dune erosion under wave attack. Daily, mobile-terrestrial lidar surveys were conducted during a 6-day nor'easter (Hs = 4 m in 6 m water depth) along 20km of coastline near Duck, North Carolina which encompassed a variety of foredune forms in close proximity to each other. This abstract will focus on the tools developed for the automated extraction of the morphological features from terrestrial lidar data, while the response of the dune will be presented by Brodie and Spore as an accompanying abstract. Raw point cloud data can be dense and is often under-utilized due to time and personnel constraints required for analysis, since many algorithms are not fully automated. In our approach, the point cloud is first projected into a local coordinate system aligned with the coastline, and then bare earth points are interpolated onto a rectilinear 0.5 m grid creating a high resolution digital elevation model. The surface is analyzed by identifying features along each cross-shore transect. Surface curvature is used to identify the position of the dune toe, and then beach and berm morphology is extracted shoreward of the dune toe, and foredune morphology is extracted landward of the dune toe. Changes in, and magnitudes of, cross-shore slope, curvature, and surface roughness are used to describe the foredune face and each cross-shore transect is then classified using its pre-storm morphology for storm-response analysis.

  20. Nonautonomous linear system of the terrestrial carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Carbon cycle has been studied by uses of observation through various networks, field and laboratory experiments, and simulation models. Much less has been done on theoretical thinking and analysis to understand fundament properties of carbon cycle and then guide observatory, experimental, and modeling research. This presentation is to explore what would be the theoretical properties of terrestrial carbon cycle and how those properties can be used to make observatory, experimental, and modeling research more effective. Thousands of published data sets from litter decomposition and soil incubation studies almost all indicate that decay processes of litter and soil organic carbon can be well described by first order differential equations with one or more pools. Carbon pool dynamics in plants and soil after disturbances (e.g., wildfire, clear-cut of forests, and plows of soil for cropping) and during natural recovery or ecosystem restoration also exhibit characteristics of first-order linear systems. Thus, numerous lines of empirical evidence indicate that the terrestrial carbon cycle can be adequately described as a nonautonomous linear system. The linearity reflects the nature of the carbon cycle that carbon, once fixed by photosynthesis, is linearly transferred among pools within an ecosystem. The linear carbon transfer, however, is modified by nonlinear functions of external forcing variables. In addition, photosynthetic carbon influx is also nonlinearly influenced by external variables. This nonautonomous linear system can be mathematically expressed by a first-order linear ordinary matrix equation. We have recently used this theoretical property of terrestrial carbon cycle to develop a semi-analytic solution of spinup. The new methods have been applied to five global land models, including NCAR's CLM and CABLE models and can computationally accelerate spinup by two orders of magnitude. We also use this theoretical property to develop an analytic framework to

  1. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven

    2018-01-01

    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  2. Cernavoda NPP impact study on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobric, Elena; Bucur, Cristina; Popescu, Ion; Simionov, Vasile; Titescu, Gheorghe; Varlam, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the awareness of the vulnerability of the environment has increased and the need to protect it against industrial pollutants has been recognized. The concept of sustainable development, requires new and developing international policies for environmental protection. See 'Protection of the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation' IAEA-TECDOC-1091, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. As it is recommended in 'Cernavoda Unit No. 2 NPP Environmental Impact Assessment CES-03702-IAD-006', it is Cernavoda NPP responsibility to conduct an Ecological Risk Assessment study, mainly to assess the impact of nuclear power plant operation on terrestrial and aquatic biota. Long records from normal operation of Cernavoda Unit 1, wind pattern, meteorological conditions, and source terms data were used to evaluate areas of interest for environmental impact, conducting to a circle of 20 km radius around mentioned nuclear objective. The screening campaign established tritium level (because Cernavoda NPP is a CANDU type reactor, and tritium is the most important radioisotope evacuated in the environment) in air, water, soil and vegetation, focusing the interest area on particular ecosystem. Using these primary data it was evaluated which are the monitored ecological receptors and which are the measurement endpoints.This paper presents the Ecological Risk Assessment at Cernavoda NPP technical requirements, and the preliminary results of evaluating criteria for representative ecosystem components at Cernavoda NPP. (authors)

  3. Probing properties of neutron stars with terrestrial nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, C.M.; Steiner, Andrew W.; Yong Gaochan

    2006-01-01

    Heavy-ion reactions induced by neutron-rich nuclei provide the unique opportunity in terrestrial laboratories to constrain the nuclear symmetry energy Esym in a broad density range. A conservative constraint, 32(ρ/ρ0)0.7 < Esym(ρ) < 32(ρ/ρ0)1.1, around the nuclear matter saturation density ρ0 has recently been obtained from analyzing the isospin diffusion data within a transport model for intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions. This subsequently puts a stringent constraint on properties of neutron stars, especially their radii and cooling mechanisms

  4. VLF emissions in the Venus foreshock - Comparison with terrestrial observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. K.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1993-01-01

    An examination is conducted of ELF/VLF emissions observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus shock, for the 100 Hz-30 kHz range, using data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter's electric field detector and magnetometer instruments. Detailed comparisons are made with terrestrial measurements for both the electron and ion foreshocks. The results obtained support the Crawford et al. (1990) identification of the Venus electron foreshock emissions as electron plasma oscillations, whose waves are generated in situ and act to isotropize the electron distributions.

  5. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  6. Heavy metals and terrestrial cryptograms. A bibliographic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margot, J.; Romain, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution is a present-day problem as it concerns the entire continent. Terrestrial cryptograms are not of long-standing use as bioindicators in this respect and require a synthesis of the recent publications. Characteristics of heavy metals in the atmosphere, especially mosses and lichens, utilizable as bioindicators are briefly reported. They are followed by more accurate descriptions of phenomena on the level with the plant itself: absorption, accumulation, translocation, tolerance and other physico-chemical processes. The statement of deleterious effects on these organisms is then given: external symptoms, cytological localization, metabolic disturbances and ecological aspects. Further research propositions are presented. 128 references.

  7. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Reyna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction.

  8. Synthesis of Volumetric Ring Antenna Array for Terrestrial Coverage Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Alberto; Panduro, Marco A.; Del Rio Bocio, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of a volumetric ring antenna array for a terrestrial coverage pattern. This synthesis regards the spacing among the rings on the planes X-Y, the positions of the rings on the plane X-Z, and uniform and concentric excitations. The optimization is carried out by implementing the particle swarm optimization. The synthesis is compared with previous designs by resulting with proper performance of this geometry to provide an accurate coverage to be applied in satellite applications with a maximum reduction of the antenna hardware as well as the side lobe level reduction. PMID:24701150

  9. Multivariate and multiscale data assimilation in terrestrial systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Pauwels, Valentijn R N; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-11-26

    More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA) methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Particle Filter (PF) and variational methods (3/4D-VAR). In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1) univariate single-scale DA (UVSS), which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2) univariate multiscale DA (UVMS) referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3) multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS) dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4) combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS). Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  10. Multivariate and Multiscale Data Assimilation in Terrestrial Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Vereecken

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF, Particle Filter (PF and variational methods (3/4D-VAR. In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1 univariate single-scale DA (UVSS, which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2 univariate multiscale DA (UVMS referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3 multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4 combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  11. Photovoltaics. [research and development of terrestrial electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The federal government has sponsored a program of research and development on terrestrial photovoltaic systems that is designed to reduce the costs of such systems through technological advances. There are many potential paths to lower system costs, and successful developments have led to increased private investment in photovoltaics. The prices for photovoltaic collectors and systems that appear to be achievable within this decade offer hope that the systems will soon be attractive in utility applications within the United States. Most of the advances achieved will also be directly applicable to the remote markets in which photovoltaic systems are now commercially successful

  12. Energy use, entropy and extra-terrestrial civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetesi, Zsolt

    2010-01-01

    The possible number of extra-terrestrial civilizations is estimated by the Drake-equation. Many articles pointed out that there are missing factors and over-estimations in the original equation. In this article we will point out that assuming some axioms there might be several limits for a technical civilization. The key role of the energy use and the problem of the centres and periphery strongly influence the value of the Llifetime of a civilization. Our development have several edifications of the investigations of the growth of an alien civilization.

  13. Ionospheric effects on terrestrial communications: Working Group 3 overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Bourdillon, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 47, 2/3 (2004), s. 1269-1277 ISSN 1593-5213. [Final Meeting COST271 Action. Effects of the upper atmosphere on terrestrial and Earth-space communications (EACOS). Abingdon, 26.08.2004-27.08.2004] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 271.10; GA AV ČR IBS3012007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : ionospheric reflection * telecommunications * gravity waves * planetary waves Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.413, year: 2004 http://www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/3299/3345

  14. Simulation of carbon isotope discrimination of the terrestrial biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suits, N. S.; Denning, A. S.; Berry, J. A.; Still, C. J.; Kaduk, J.; Miller, J. B.; Baker, I. T.

    2005-03-01

    We introduce a multistage model of carbon isotope discrimination during C3 photosynthesis and global maps of C3/C4 plant ratios to an ecophysiological model of the terrestrial biosphere (SiB2) in order to predict the carbon isotope ratios of terrestrial plant carbon globally at a 1° resolution. The model is driven by observed meteorology from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), constrained by satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and run for the years 1983-1993. Modeled mean annual C3 discrimination during this period is 19.2‰; total mean annual discrimination by the terrestrial biosphere (C3 and C4 plants) is 15.9‰. We test simulation results in three ways. First, we compare the modeled response of C3 discrimination to changes in physiological stress, including daily variations in vapor pressure deficit (vpd) and monthly variations in precipitation, to observed changes in discrimination inferred from Keeling plot intercepts. Second, we compare mean δ13C ratios from selected biomes (Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal) to the observed values from Keeling plots at these biomes. Third, we compare simulated zonal δ13C ratios in the Northern Hemisphere (20°N to 60°N) to values predicted from high-frequency variations in measured atmospheric CO2 and δ13C from terrestrially dominated sites within the NOAA-Globalview flask network. The modeled response to changes in vapor pressure deficit compares favorably to observations. Simulated discrimination in tropical forests of the Amazon basin is less sensitive to changes in monthly precipitation than is suggested by some observations. Mean model δ13C ratios for Broadleaf, Temperate Broadleaf, Temperate Conifer, and Boreal biomes compare well with the few measurements available; however, there is more variability in observations than in the simulation, and modeled δ13C values for tropical forests are heavy relative to observations

  15. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  16. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  17. Comparative metagenomics of eight geographically remote terrestrial hot springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Peter; Islin, Sóley Ruth; Rike, Anne Gunn

    2015-01-01

    Hot springs are natural habitats for thermophilic Archaea and Bacteria. In this paper, we present the metagenomic analysis of eight globally distributed terrestrial hot springs from China, Iceland, Italy, Russia, and the USA with a temperature range between 61 and 92 (∘)C and pH between 1.8 and 7....... A comparison of the biodiversity and community composition generally showed a decrease in biodiversity with increasing temperature and decreasing pH. Another important factor shaping microbial diversity of the studied sites was the abundance of organic substrates. Several species of the Crenarchaeal order...

  18. Utilization of space technology for terrestrial solar power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, R. K.; Patterson, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the evolution of photovoltaic power systems designed and built for terrestrial applications, giving attention to problem areas which are currently impeding the further development of such systems. The rooftop testing of surplus solar panels is considered along with solar powered seismic observatories, solar powered portable radio sets, and design considerations identified from past experience. Present activities discussed are related to a solar powered on-shore beacon flasher system, a solar powered buoy, and a solar powered beacon flasher buoy.

  19. Relative locations of the bow shocks of the terrestrial planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1977-01-01

    The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus

  20. Box jellyfish use terrestrial visual cues for navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders; Oskarsson, Magnus; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    been a puzzle why they need such a complex set of eyes. Here we report that medusae of the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora are capable of visually guided navigation in mangrove swamps using terrestrial structures seen through the water surface. They detect the mangrove canopy by an eye type...... that is specialized to peer up through the water surface and that is suspended such that it is constantly looking straight up, irrespective of the orientation of the jellyfish. The visual information is used to navigate to the preferred habitat at the edge of mangrove lagoons....