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Sample records for iep transportation suspension

  1. Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)

  2. Sugar transport by maize endosperm suspension cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felker, F.C.; Goodwin, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of sugar uptake by suspension cultures derived from developing maize (Zea mays L.) endosperm, incorporation of radioactivity from 14 C-sugars by the tissue in the mid-log phase of growth was examined. Among the sugars tested was l'-deoxy-l'-fluorosucrose (FS), a derivative not hydrolyzed by invertase but recognized by sucrose carriers in other systems. At 40 mM, uptake of label from FS was 23% of that from sucrose, while uptake of label from L-glucose (used as a control for medium carry-over and adsorption) was 16% of that from sucrose. Uptake of label from sucrose did not increase at concentrations above 50 mM, possibly due to a rate-limiting requirement for extracellular hydrolysis. Kinetic analysis revealed both saturable and linear components of uptake for glucose and fructose. The rate of fructose uptake exceeded that of glucose at all concentrations. Fructose uptake at 20 mM was inhibited by NaN 3 , HgCl 2 , dinitrophenol, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, and p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. Results suggest that sucrose is hydrolyzed prior to uptake, and that fructose is transported preferentially by a carrier sensitive to an external sulfhydryl group inhibitor. Metabolic activity is required for sugar uptake. The specificity of the hexose transporter is currently being investigated

  3. Red de iep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Kopinga, J.; Buiteveld, J.

    2007-01-01

    Het gebruik van de iep - ook resistente iepen - is in de afgelopen decennia dan ook sterk afgenomen. Hierdoor verdwijnt de iep steeds meer uit het Nederlandse landschap. De onvrede van groenbeheerders en boomkwekers leidde in de afgelopen jaren tot een aantal discussiebijeenkomsten over de toekomst

  4. Superconducting magnet suspensions in high speed ground transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A

    1973-08-01

    A technical and economic definition of high speed ground transport systems using magnetic suspensions is given. The full range of common superconducting suspensions and of propulsions are covered with designs produced for speeds ranging from 100 m/s (225 miles/hr) to 250 m/s (560 mile/hr). Technical descriptions of the vehicles, their suspensions, propulsions and tracks are given in some detail and operating costs are presented for all the systems together with details of the breakdown of costs and the capital costs involved. The design assumptions, the costing procedure and a cost sensitivity study are presented. It is concluded that the systems are technically feasible; that they are suited to existing duorail track for low speed running and that, in these circumstances, they would be economically viable over many routes.

  5. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media

  6. Resistentie geeft Iep weer toekomst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    De iep was lang één van de meest gekweekte boomsoorten in Nederland, totdat deze door problemen met de iepziekte bij veel afnemers een slechte naam kreeg. Onderzoek door PPO en Alterra laat nu echter zien dat de iep weer volop toekomst heeft. De nieuwe rassen die inmiddels op de markt zijn, hebben

  7. Desarrollando el IEP de su Hijo. Guia para Padres (Developing Your Child's IEP. A Parent's Guide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhorn, Theresa

    This Spanish language guide for parents of children with disabilities explains the basics of the special education process, especially parent participation developing the child's individualized education program (IEP). The first section reviews the IEP process, including what's involved, the IEP meeting, who attends the IEP meeting, the role of…

  8. 34 CFR 300.321 - IEP Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false IEP Team. 300.321 Section 300.321 Education Regulations... Placements Individualized Education Programs § 300.321 IEP Team. (a) General. The public agency must ensure that the IEP Team for each child with a disability includes— (1) The parents of the child; (2) Not less...

  9. Determination of Weight Suspension Rigidity in the Transport-Erector Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Zverev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine weight suspension rigidity in aggregates designed to perform technological transport-erector operations at the miscellaneous launch complexes.We consider the weight suspension comprising the following distinctive structural components: the executive weight-lowering mechanism, polyspast mechanism, rope, traverse, and rods. A created structural dynamic model of suspension allowed us to define weight suspension rigidity. Within the framework of design analysis of a dynamic model we determined the rigidity of its structural units, i.e. traverse, rope, and polyspast.Known analytical relationships were used to calculate the rope rigidity. To determine rigidity of polyspast and traverse have been created special models based on the finite element method. For each model deformation in the specific points under the test load have been defined. Data obtained were used to determine trigidity of traverses and polyspast, and also rigidity of suspension in total. The rigidity models of polispast mechanism and traverse have been developed and calculated using the software complex "Zenit-95".As the research results, the paper presents a dynamic model of the weight suspension of the transport-erector aggregate, the finite element models of the polispast mechanism and traverse, an algorithm for determining the weight suspension rigidity and relevant analytical relationships.Independent calculation of weight suspension rigidity enables us to simplify further dynamic calculation of the aggregate-weight system because it allows attaining a simpler model of the aggregate-weight system that uses the weight suspension model as an element of equivalent rigidity. Despite this simplification the model allows us to determine correctly weight movement parameters and overloads in the aggregate-weight system in the process of technical operations.

  10. De iep heeft weer toekomst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Door de iepziekte is de iep grotendeels uit het landschap verdwenen. Zonde, want het is voor veel moeilijke plekken de ideale boom. Onderzoek van PPO en Alterra laat nu echter zien dat er voldoende resistente iepen zijn om de boom weer volop te gaan gebruiken.

  11. Increasing Student Involvement in IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan-Spohn, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that students who led their Individual Education Program (IEP) meetings were better informed about their own disabilities, rights, and accommodations, and that the act of leading the meeting resulted in improved self-advocacy and self-confidence. Also, in understanding their list of accommodations and…

  12. Stability of titania nanoparticles in soil suspensions and transport in saturated homogeneous soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Jing [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Shan Xiaoquan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: xiaoquan@rcees.ac.cn; Wen Bei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China)], E-mail: bwen@rcees.ac.cn; Lin Jinming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2871, Beijing 100085 (China); Owens, Gary [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    The stability of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in soil suspensions and their transport behavior through saturated homogeneous soil columns were studied. The results showed that TiO{sub 2} could remain suspended in soil suspensions even after settling for 10 days. The suspended TiO{sub 2} contents in soil suspensions after 24 h were positively correlated with the dissolved organic carbon and clay content of the soils, but were negatively correlated with ionic strength, pH and zeta potential. In soils containing soil particles of relatively large diameters and lower solution ionic strengths, a significant portion of the TiO{sub 2} (18.8-83.0%) readily passed through the soils columns, while TiO{sub 2} was significantly retained by soils with higher clay contents and salinity. TiO{sub 2} aggregate sizes in the column outflow significantly increased after passing through the soil columns. The estimated transport distances of TiO{sub 2} in some soils ranged from 41.3 to 370 cm, indicating potential environmental risk of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles to deep soil layers. - TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could efficiently suspend in soil suspensions and potentially transport to deeper soil layers.

  13. Stability of titania nanoparticles in soil suspensions and transport in saturated homogeneous soil columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jing; Shan Xiaoquan; Wen Bei; Lin Jinming; Owens, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The stability of TiO 2 nanoparticles in soil suspensions and their transport behavior through saturated homogeneous soil columns were studied. The results showed that TiO 2 could remain suspended in soil suspensions even after settling for 10 days. The suspended TiO 2 contents in soil suspensions after 24 h were positively correlated with the dissolved organic carbon and clay content of the soils, but were negatively correlated with ionic strength, pH and zeta potential. In soils containing soil particles of relatively large diameters and lower solution ionic strengths, a significant portion of the TiO 2 (18.8-83.0%) readily passed through the soils columns, while TiO 2 was significantly retained by soils with higher clay contents and salinity. TiO 2 aggregate sizes in the column outflow significantly increased after passing through the soil columns. The estimated transport distances of TiO 2 in some soils ranged from 41.3 to 370 cm, indicating potential environmental risk of TiO 2 nanoparticles to deep soil layers. - TiO 2 nanoparticles could efficiently suspend in soil suspensions and potentially transport to deeper soil layers

  14. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  15. Six Tips for Successful IEP Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diliberto, Jennifer A.; Brewer, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA, 2004) mandates that each student with a disability has an individualized education program (IEP). The IEP serves as the curriculum roadmap for special education services. In order to generate a clear roadmap, full team communication is necessary. The purpose of this paper is to…

  16. Weer volop toekomst voor de iep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    De iep is eeuwenlang een van de beeldbepalende bomen geweest in het Nederlandse landschap en de Nederlandse steden. Door de opkomst van de iepziekte zijn in de loop van de vorige eeuw veel van deze Hollandse iepen verdwenen. Door de voortdurende problemen met de iepziekte kreeg de iep bij veel

  17. IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Rotter

    2014-01-01

    The role of general and special educators in implementing the Individualized Education Program (IEP) is critical. This study investigated the perceptions of those teachers on when they read the IEP, how they measure attainment of IEP goals and objectives, and the IEPs usefulness in instructional planning. Four hundred twenty-six teachers from suburban school districts in central New Jersey were respondents. Results ind...

  18. Elliptic random-walk equation for suspension and tracer transport in porous media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Bedrikovetsky, P. G.

    2008-01-01

    . The new theory predicts delay of the maximum of the tracer, compared to the velocity of the flow, while its forward "tail" contains much more particles than in the solution of the classical parabolic (advection-dispersion) equation. This is in agreement with the experimental observations and predictions......We propose a new approach to transport of the suspensions and tracers in porous media. The approach is based on a modified version of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory. In the framework of this theory we derive an elliptic transport equation. The new equation contains the time...... of the CTRW theory. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. The role of suspension events in cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Suspension of sand in the surf zone is intermittent. Especially striking in a time series of concentration are periods of intense suspension, suspension events, when the water column suspended sediment concentration is an order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration. The prevalence, timing, and contribution of suspension events to cross-shore and longshore suspended sediment transport are explored using field data collected in the inner half of the surf zone during a large storm at Duck, NC. Suspension events are defined as periods when the concentration is above a threshold. Events tended to occur during onshore flow under the wave crest, resulting in an onshore contribution to the suspended sediment transport. Even though large events occurred less than 10 percent of the total time, at some locations onshore transport associated with suspension events was greater than mean-current driven offshore-directed transport during non-event periods, causing the net suspended sediment transport to be onshore. Events and fluctuations in longshore velocity were not correlated. However, events did increase the longshore suspended sediment transport by approximately the amount they increase the mean concentration, which can be up to 35%. Because of the lack of correlation, the longshore suspended sediment transport can be modeled without considering the details of the intensity and time of events as the vertical integration of the product of the time-averaged longshore velocity and an event-augmented time-averaged concentration. However, to accurately model cross-shore suspended sediment transport, the timing and intensity of suspension events must be reproduced.

  20. Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of specific school skills, such as reading or math, as well as more general developmental skills, such ... to update the goals and make sure the levels of service meet your child's needs. However, IEPs ...

  1. Vertical unstable stability of electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiko, A.V.; Voevodskii, K.E.; Kochetkov, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The problem considered is the vertical oscillation of a superconducting solenoid moving over a conducting sheet in connection with the electrodynamic suspension of high-speed ground transport. The oscillation is considered to be unstable at a sufficiently high speed. The current oscillation in the superconducting solenoid caused by its mechanical oscillation is also investigated. The superconducting properties of a solenoid are found to have a pronounced effect on stability. Both the theory and numerical results are presented. Methods of oscillation damping are also discussed. (author)

  2. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, A; Djordjevic, D; Polic, P

    2001-04-01

    Coal ash obtained by coal combustion in the "Nikola Tesla A" power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. Considering concentrations of seven trace elements as well as five major elements in extracts from a total of 12 samples, it can be concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  3. Trace and major element pollution originating from coal ash suspension and transport processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.; Polic, P. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Science, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-07-01

    Coal ash obtained from Nikola Tesla A power plant in Obrenovac, near Belgrade, Yugoslavia, is mixed with water of the Sava river and transported to the dump. In order to assess pollution caused by leaching of some minor and major elements during ash transport through the pipeline, two sets of samples (six samples each) were subjected to a modified sequential extraction. The first set consisted of coal ash samples taken immediately after combustion, while the second set was obtained by extraction with river water, imitating the processes that occur in the pipeline. Samples were extracted consecutively with distilled water and a 1 M solution of KCl, pH 7, and the differences in extractability were compared in order to predict potential pollution. It is concluded that lead and cadmium do not present an environmental threat during and immediately after ash transport to the dump. Portions of zinc, nickel and chromium are released during the ash transport, and arsenic and manganese are released continuously. Copper and iron do not present an environmental threat due to element leaching during and immediately after the coal ash suspension and transport. On the contrary, these elements, as well as chromium, become concentrated during coal ash transport. Adsorbed portions of calcium, magnesium and potassium are also leached during coal ash transport.

  4. Statistical model for suspension transport in porous media; Modelo estatistico para o transporte de suspensoes em meios porosos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Adriano dos; Barros, Paulo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    An analytical model for transport of particulate suspensions in porous medium is discussed. The model takes microscopic rock characteristics into account and considers that size exclusion is the dominant particle retention mechanism. Analytical solutions for suspended and retained particle concentrations are obtained and the inverse problem is solved, allowing the filtration coefficients determination from experiments. The filtration coefficients for the proposed and the classical deep bed filtration models are calculated from experimental data available in the literature and the results are compared. Finally, it is shown that the proposed model tends to the classical deep bed filtration model when the particle retention probability tends to zero. (author)

  5. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool’s reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine associations between IEP quality and school, teacher, and child characteristics. IEPs for 35 students with autism (Mage = 6.1 years; SD = 1.6) from 35 d...

  6. My IEP: A Student-Directed Individualized Education Program Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, David J.

    2017-01-01

    Students with disabilities need to be more involved in planning and presenting individualized education program (IEP) meetings, and teachers need an effective, efficient curriculum to teach students how. "My IEP" curriculum uses folding graphic organizers to teach students to self-direct IEP meetings, targeting self-advocacy and…

  7. 34 CFR 300.112 - Individualized education programs (IEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individualized education programs (IEP). 300.112 Section 300.112 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF... education programs (IEP). The State must ensure that an IEP, or an IFSP that meets the requirements of...

  8. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  9. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo-Kai; Ma Yu-Qiang; Li Jian; Chen Kang; Tian Wen-De

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. (rapid communication)

  10. A laboratory investigation of the suspension, transport, and settling of silver carp eggs using synthetic surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  11. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  12. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  13. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  14. IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Rotter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of general and special educators in implementing the Individualized Education Program (IEP is critical. This study investigated the perceptions of those teachers on when they read the IEP, how they measure attainment of IEP goals and objectives, and the IEPs usefulness in instructional planning. Four hundred twenty-six teachers from suburban school districts in central New Jersey were respondents. Results indicated that the majority of general and special education teachers are reading their students’ IEPs in a fairly timely manner and that they find them moderately useful in planning instruction. Results also suggested that teachers relied heavily on grades to document attainment of IEP goals and that teachers felt that the IEPs themselves could be improved if they were shorter with student-specific, critical information that was more relevant to classroom instruction.

  15. Music in the IEP: Therapy/Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Jayne M.

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the roles of music education and music therapy in special education, specifically with reference to the concept of the individualized education program (IEP) as mandated by the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142). Journal availability: National Association for Music Therapy, Inc., P.O. Box 610, Lawrence,…

  16. De iep is weer te vertrouwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Beintema, N.

    2012-01-01

    De iep is door de iepziekte grotendeels uit Europa verdwenen. Mede dankzij Wagenings onderzoek zijn er nu resistente rassen op de markt. Wat nog ontbreekt is het vertrouwen van beheerders om de karakteristieke boom weer aan te planten. ‘Iepen waren synoniem met ellende.’

  17. IEP Documentation for Effective Systematic Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Peng-Sim

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how the process for IEP documentation was used in a training program for a group of young inexperienced teachers and teaching aides to effectively address the educational needs of children with diverse disabilities. Teachers at Kianh Centre in Vietnam received explicit instructions for writing effective functional individual…

  18. IEP Meetings: Building Compassion and Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialka, Janice; Fialka-Feldman, Emma

    2017-01-01

    Why are IEP meetings often uncomfortable, awkward, and stiff? Educators and families all have a common goal--to support the growth of a child. Yet educators often feel confused that families act like reluctant participants who are just fulfilling a requirement. And families often feel that they're viewed as intruders, whose insights and dreams for…

  19. 34 CFR 300.323 - When IEPs must be in effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disability within its jurisdiction, an IEP, as defined in § 300.320. (b) IEP or IFSP for children aged three...), the IEP Team must consider an IFSP that contains the IFSP content (including the natural environments... accordance with the IEP procedures under this part. The IFSP may serve as the IEP of the child, if using the...

  20. Superconducting solenoids for suspension of high-speed overhead transportation facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omel' yanenko, V I [Kharkov Polytechnical Inst., USSR; Bocharov, V I; Dolgosheev, E A; Usichenko, Y G

    1977-08-01

    A superconducting solenoid is the most important component of a suspension for overhead transportation facilities operating on the repulsion principle. Its design is aimed at producing an adequate magnetic field within the active zone, to ensure a high ratio of lifting force to braking force, the necessary speed dependence of both forces, and a high ratio of lifting force to solenoid mass. The design must also be both technologically and economically feasible. For safety considerations, the magnetic field intensity inside the passenger compartment must be minimum. A survey of existing designs indicates a preference for race track solenoids of quasi-rectangular shape. While all designers already agree on a coil width within 0.25 to 0.6 m, the optimum coil length has not yet been established. Intrinsic stabilization of superconductors by stranding and twisting has pushed the maximum allowable current density to 200 A/mm/sup 2/ and the energy storing capacity of magnets to 100 kJ, a capacity of 1 MJ being within reach. The recommended coil dimensions for laboratory models are 1 m length and 0.3 m width, to carry magnetizing currents up to 0.3 MA.

  1. Transport coefficients and mechanical response in hard-disk colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo-Kai; Li, Jian; Chen, Kang; Tian, Wen-De; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the transport properties and mechanical response of glassy hard disks using nonlinear Langevin equation theory. We derive expressions for the elastic shear modulus and viscosity in two dimensions on the basis of thermal-activated barrier-hopping dynamics and mechanically accelerated motion. Dense hard disks exhibit phenomena such as softening elasticity, shear-thinning of viscosity, and yielding upon deformation, which are qualitatively similar to dense hard-sphere colloidal suspensions in three dimensions. These phenomena can be ascribed to stress-induced “landscape tilting”. Quantitative comparisons of these phenomena between hard disks and hard spheres are presented. Interestingly, we find that the density dependence of yield stress in hard disks is much more significant than in hard spheres. Our work provides a foundation for further generalizing the nonlinear Langevin equation theory to address slow dynamics and rheological behavior in binary or polydisperse mixtures of hard or soft disks. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB821500) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21374073 and, 21574096).

  2. The Effectiveness of Alternative IEP Dispute Resolution Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, David; Saenz, Lauren; Kelly, Michael P.

    2018-01-01

    Alternative Individualized Education Program (IEP) dispute resolution models should respond to limitations of current options. An experimental IEP dispute resolution program provides parents and schools with an evidence-supported neutral perspective on what is needed for free and appropriate education (FAPE) and least restrictive environment…

  3. Promoting IEP Participation: Effects of Interventions, Considerations for CLD Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Various interventions have been developed to promote student individualized education program (IEP) participation. Although they are generally endorsed by educators and researchers, critics argue that interventions to promote self-determination and IEP participation may be counter to the values of culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD)…

  4. Examining the Quality of IEPs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A.; McGrew, John; Dalrymple, Nancy; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an Individual Education Program (IEP) evaluation tool based on Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements and National Research Council recommendations for children with autism; determine the tool's reliability; test the tool on a pilot sample of IEPs of young children; and examine…

  5. Investigation of Health Care Components in Transition IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Jeanne B.; Jaress, Jennifer; Lindsey, Jenna; Bae, Jungah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the inclusion of health care components in transition Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students diagnosed with Other Health Impaired (OHI). In this study, we analyzed 50 IEPs of students with an OHI diagnosis to establish whether there are health-related components or other common health care…

  6. Back to the Basics: Practical Tips for IEP Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Angela L.

    2016-01-01

    The individualized education program (IEP) is the foundation for the provision of special education services for a child with a disability. While special education teachers learn about IEP writing in their teacher preparation programs, it can still be difficult to translate this knowledge into practice. Therefore, when faced with the task of…

  7. How Individualised Are the Individualised Education Programmes (IEPs): An Analysis of the Contents and Quality of the IEPs Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Ferreira, Manuela; Lopes-dos-Santos, Pedro; Alves, Sílvia; Santos, Miguel; Silveira-Maia, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    The Individualised Education Programme (IEP) is a fundamental document that describes all educational responses to the additional support needs of students, setting up the guideline for their learning and developmental experiences. Specifically, the IEP goals represent the personal destination translated into desirable behaviours and skills that…

  8. Interaction between breaking/broken waves and infragravity-scale phenomena to control sediment suspension transport in the surf zone

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, GG

    2002-07-30

    Full Text Available suspension was further found to be related to the onset of lower water-levels associated with infragravity wave action, which corresponded with a predominance of breaking/broken waves. These breaking/broken waves (which are induced by the low water... is transported down- wards. Nadaoka et al. (1989) have furthermore identi?ed an eddy structure whereby the surface roller is dominated by a nearly two-dimensional ?ow structure, bounded below by strongly three- dimensional obliquely descending eddies bringing...

  9. Making MEPA-IEP work: tools for professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRoy, Ruth; Mica, Maryanne; Freundlich, Madelyn; Kroll, Joe

    2007-01-01

    The Multiethnic Placement Act of 1994 and the Interethnic Adoption Provisions of 1996 (MEPA-IEP) require states to develop plans that "provide for the diligent recruitment of potential foster and adoptive families that reflect the ethnic and racial diversity of children in the state for whom foster and adoptive homes are needed." This paper explores the background of MEPA-IEP, describes the disparate outcomes for minority children in the child welfare system, and identifies agency challenges in finding permanent families for African American children. Tools are provided for successfully recruiting families while following MEPA-IEP and avoiding potentially discriminatory practices in placement decisionmaking.

  10. Deposition of Lanthanum Strontium Cobalt Ferrite (LSCF) Using Suspension Plasma Spraying for Oxygen Transport Membrane Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, E. S. C.; Kesler, O.

    2015-08-01

    Suspension plasma spray deposition was utilized to fabricate dense lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite oxygen separation membranes (OSMs) on porous metal substrates for mechanical support. The as-sprayed membranes had negligible and/or reversible material decomposition. At the longer stand-off distance (80 mm), smooth and dense membranes could be manufactured using a plasma with power below approximately 81 kW. Moreover, a membrane of 55 μm was observed to have very low gas leakage rates desirable for OSM applications. This thickness could potentially be decreased further to improve oxygen diffusion by using metal substrates with finer surface pores.

  11. Levitation or suspension: Which one is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Kang, Dong; Yang, X. F.; Wang, Fei; Peng, G. H.; Zheng, Jun; Ma, G. T.; Wang, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    Because of the limitation of permanent magnet (PM), the efficient of bulk high-Tc superconductor (HTSC) in a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system is not very high. It is better to magnetize the bulk HTSC with a high trapped field to increase the force density. The different application type of magnetized bulk HTSC in a maglev system, namely, levitation or suspension type, will bring quite different operation performance. This paper discusses the influence of application type on operation performance of magnetized bulk HTSC by experiments and simulations. From the discussion, it can be found which application type is better for the heavy-load HTS maglev system.

  12. Studies on transport phenomena in polymer solutions and suspensions flowing through tubes of tortuous wall geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attempts have been made to analyse the momentum and heat transfer characteristics in tortuous flow of non-Newtonian fluids such as suspensions and polymer solutions through tubes of diverging-converging geometry. The results of the study indicate that the transfer coefficients are significantly higher in such systems as compared to the conventional couette flow (through uniform cylindrical tubes). Moreover, the simultaneous increase in pressure drop due to the tortuous wall geometry has been observed to be relatively insignificant. Fluids with different rheological characteristics such as Bingham plastic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids, Ellis model fluids and fluids obeying Reiner-Philippoff rheology have been studied. The specific advantages of these geometries in providing enhanced performance efficiency have been effectively highlighted.

  13. Individualized Education Program (IEP) Facilitation. A Guide for Parents of Children & Youth (Ages 3-21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Individualized Education Program (IEP) Facilitation is an optional process, not required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), that state educational agencies (SEA) or school districts may provide to parents and schools. The goal of a Facilitated IEP meeting is to develop an IEP that is supported by team members and benefits…

  14. Beyond Legal: Crafting High-Quality IEPs for Children With Complex Communication Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Charity Mary; Quinn, Emily Dayle; Steiner, Sandra A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Individualized Education Program (IEP) is a legal document developed for each student with a disability. The IEP outlines the student's learning needs and associated educational goals, as well as the program placement and services required to support the attainment of these goals in the least restrictive environment. Most IEPs include all…

  15. Toekomst voor de iep : Resistentie, vermeerdering en gebruikswaarde van het huidige sortiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Buitenveld [sic], J.; Kopinga, J.

    2012-01-01

    De iep was aan het begin van de 20e eeuw de belangrijkste laanboomsoort in Nederland. Door de problemen met iepziekte nam het belang van de iep in de loop van de 20e eeuw sterk af. De iep is echter een ideale laan-en straatboom die in grote delen van Nederland niet gemist kan worden. Inmiddels zijn

  16. Effects of the silica nanoparticles (NPSiO2 on the stabilization and transport of hazardous nanoparticle suspensions into landfill soil columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluates the stability and transport behaviors of hazardous nanoparticles into soil landfills using experimental procedures to simulate the effects of natural silica nanoparticle suspensions during their percolation into the soil layers of municipal waste landfills. For this, we prepared stabilized suspensions of nanoparticle oxides containing silicon (NPSiO2, titanium (NPTiO2, copper (NPCuO and zinc (NPZnO, which are recognized as hazardous to the environment, and we conducted leaching experiments within the soil column by simulating landfills layers and simulating the capture and attenuation of nanomaterials into municipal waste landfills. The results demonstrated that the presence of NPSiO2 in suspensions increases the stable concentrations of copper, zinc and titanium oxides and strongly decreases soil layer effectiveness. In contrast, NPZnO improves effectiveness due to its ability to promote agglomeration and setting conditions, allowing further complexation.

  17. 49 CFR 570.8 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 570.8 Section 570.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Pounds or Less § 570.8 Suspension systems. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut or...

  18. Tablet Technology to Monitor Physical Education IEP Goals and Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavay, Barry; Sakai, Joyce; Ortiz, Cris; Roth, Kristi

    2015-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that all children who are eligible for special education services receive an individualized education program (IEP). Adapted physical education (APE) professionals who teach physical education to children with disabilities are challenged with how to best collect and monitor student…

  19. Legal IEPs: A Common Sense Approach with Barbara Bateman. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Div. for Learning Disabilities.

    In this 2-hour videotape workshop designed for teachers, administrators, parents, and others, Dr. Barbara Bateman answers many key questions that have been raised about Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) since the 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the 1999 regulations. The videotape reviews the…

  20. Transformational Leadership in Special Education: Leading the IEP Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Kirby

    2012-01-01

    Using the principles of transformational leadership, IEP teams become effective tools to ensure student success and achievements. There is a difference of teams that are simply chaired and those that are lead. Teams with transformational leaders promote the best efforts of all participants including parents and students to effectively deliver…

  1. Student IEP Participation and Academic Achievement across Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lechtenberger, DeAnn

    2010-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates that students with disabilities be provided the necessary special education and related services that will allow them the benefit of a free and appropriate public education. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are the product of a team planning process that facilitates the coordination…

  2. Student and Parent IEP Collaboration: A Comparison across School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Diehm, Kendra L.; Brandes, Joyce A.; Chesnut, Pik Wah; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if differences existed across rural, urban, and suburban environments when special education teachers reported perceived levels of student and parent involvement and participation during IEP meetings. The investigators surveyed special education teachers (N = 159) across a Southwest state and applied log…

  3. The HAWK Highway: A Vertical Model for Student IEP Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quann, Monica; Lyman, Jennifer; Crumlish, Jamie; Hines, Sally; Williams, Lynn; Pleet-Odle, Amy; Eisenman, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Special educators at an inclusive career-technical high school created a model to support annually increasing expectations for self-determination and levels of student participation in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning and implementation. The grade-specific components of the model and supporting context are described. Students were…

  4. Belang en toekomst van de iep in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.; Buiteveld, J.; Kopinga, J.; Kranenborg, K.G.; Ravesloot, M.B.M.; Sluis, van der B.J.; Vries, de S.M.G.

    2006-01-01

    In dit rapport het resultaat van een door PPO Bomen en Alterra uitgevoerde orienterende studie in opdracht van het PT naar de rol, het belang en de toekomstmogelijkheden van de iep in Nederland. Hierbij aandacht voor de in Nederland inheemse iepensoorten en hun eigenschappen, de gebruikswaarde van

  5. Iep of Olm - Karakterboom van de Lage Landen -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heybroek, H.; Goudzwaard, L.; Kaljee, H.

    2009-01-01

    Iep of Olm – karakterboom van de Lage Landen vertelt het verhaal van deze karakteristieke bomen in het licht van 7500 jaar Nederlandse cultuurgeschiedenis. Het boek geeft een historisch overzicht van iepen in stad en landschap, vertelt over oeroude gebruiken en schetst de geschiedenis van een eeuw

  6. Purification and biochemical characterization of NpABCG5/NpPDR5, a plant pleiotropic drug resistance transporter expressed in Nicotiana tabacum BY-2 suspension cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Frédéric; Pierman, Baptiste; Bertin, Aurélie; Lévy, Daniel; Boutry, Marc

    2017-05-04

    Pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) transporters belong to the ABCG subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and are involved in the transport of various molecules across plasma membranes. During evolution, PDR genes appeared independently in fungi and in plants from a duplication of a half-size ABC gene. The enzymatic properties of purified PDR transporters from yeast have been characterized. This is not the case for any plant PDR transporter, or, incidentally, for any purified plant ABC transporter. Yet, plant PDR transporters play important roles in plant physiology such as hormone signaling or resistance to pathogens or herbivores. Here, we describe the expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and 2D analysis by electron microscopy of NpABCG5/NpPDR5 from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia , which has been shown to be involved in the plant defense against herbivores. We constitutively expressed NpABCG5/NpPDR5, provided with a His-tag in a homologous system: suspension cells from Nicotiana tabacum (Bright Yellow 2 line). NpABCG5/NpPDR5 was targeted to the plasma membrane and was solubilized by dodecyl maltoside and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The ATP-hydrolyzing specific activity (27 nmol min -1  mg -1 ) was stimulated seven-fold in the presence of 0.1% asolectin. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that NpABCG5/NpPDR5 is monomeric and with dimensions shorter than those of known ABC transporters. Enzymatic data (optimal pH and sensitivity to inhibitors) confirmed that plant and fungal PDR transporters have different properties. These data also show that N. tabacum suspension cells are a convenient host for the purification and biochemical characterization of ABC transporters. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  7. 49 CFR 570.61 - Suspension system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension system. 570.61 Section 570.61... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE IN USE INSPECTION STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.61 Suspension system. (a) Suspension condition. Ball joint seals shall not be cut...

  8. The Effects of Using the Transition Planning Inventory and a Structured IEP Process as a Transition Planning Intervention on IEP Meeting Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeldt, Jason D.; Clark, Gary M.; Lee, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined two areas. First, the authors looked at whether secondary individualized education program (IEP) teams who used the "Transition Planning Inventory" (TPI) in conjunction with a structured IEP meeting that based discussions and decisions on TPI data as a planning intervention generated significantly more…

  9. Perceptions of Self-Determination by Special Education and Rehabilitation Practitioners Based on Viewing a Self-Directed IEP versus an External-Directed IEP Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branding, Dave; Bates, Paul; Miner, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated perception of self-determination by special education and rehabilitation practitioners following their exposure to a videotaped simulation of a self-directed IEP meeting and an external-directed IEP meeting involving an adolescent with mild mental retardation. Groups of special education practitioners and rehabilitation…

  10. Individualized Education Program (IEP Mata Pelajaran Kimia untuk Siswa Slow Learner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovik Rovik

    2017-06-01

    [Siswa slow learner menempati populasi tertinggi untuk siswa berkebutuhan khusus. Sebagai salah satu jenis learning disability, slow learner masih dapat belajar dengan teman sebayanya asalkan guru mempersiapkan program pembelajaran khusus yang telah dimodifikasi dari pembelajaran reguler. Program ini disebut Individualized Education Program (IEP. Penelitian ini mencoba mengembangkan IEP mata pelajaran kimia untuk slow learner, mengidentifikasi komponen yang dibutuhkan dalam menyusun IEP untuk slow learner, dan menganalisis judgement reviewers (guru kimia dan guru pendamping khusus dan peer reviewers terhadap IEP yang dikembangkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan slow learner membutuhkan IEP sebagai dokumen utama panduan guru dalam pembelajaran kimia di kelas. Komponen pengembangan IEP meliputi identitas peserta didik, tim pengembangan dan pelaksana, asesmen yang pernah dilakukan, hambatan dan kekuatan, kebutuhan dan perlakuan, faktor pendukung dan penghambat, rencana perlakuan, dan modifikasi terhadap perangkat pembelajaran kimia reguler

  11. Compilation of PZC and IEP of sparingly soluble metal oxides and hydroxides from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-11-30

    The values of PZC and IEP of metal oxides reported in the literature are affected by the choice of the specimens to be studied. The specimens, which have PZC and IEP similar to the "recommended" value, are preferred by the scientists. The biased choice leads to accumulation of results for a few specimens, and the other specimens are seldom studied or they are subjected to washing procedures aimed at shift of the original IEP toward the "recommended" value. Taking the average or median of all published PZC and IEP for certain oxide as the "recommended" value leads to substantiation of previously published results due to overrepresentation of certain specimens in the sample.

  12. Local anti-fertility effect of inhibin-enriched preparation (IEP) in female hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, B V; Nandedkar, T D; Sheth, A R

    1984-04-01

    An inhibin-enriched preparation (IEP) involved in the regulation of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is known to play an important role in the normal ovarian cycle. In utero administration of 10 micrograms of IEP on day 3 of pregnancy completely prevented implantation in hamsters. No toxic effect of IEP was observed on the blastocysts as indicated by the dye exclusion test performed with Trypan blue. Thus, the results of the present study indicate an extra-pituitary site of action for the anti-implantation effect of IEP.

  13. BC Hydro's integrated resource planning : the 2004 IEP and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulsby, R.

    2004-01-01

    An outline of BC Hydro Integrated Electricity Plan (IEP) was presented in this paper, along with details of its environmental, social and business performance and statistics of its net income and revenue for 2003-2004. The IEP was created to match long term load to supply in the most cost-effective way and is also the basis for resource acquisition plans. In addition, the IEP models performance of portfolios of resources on a system-wide basis, considers uncertainties through sensitivity analysis and measures and evaluates multiple attributes from various portfolios. A flow chart of processes informed by the IEP was presented. Guiding principles behind the creation of the plan include low electricity rates and public ownership; secure, reliable supply; private sector development; environmental responsibility, with no nuclear power sources; ensuring energy self-sufficiency; and maintaining a balanced portfolio of resources. A pie chart of BC Hydro's current portfolio mix was presented as well as a supply and demand outlook and details of plans and new capacity resources required before 2013. Various resource options were presented. Key outcomes of First Nations and stakeholder engagement include the acceptance of BC Hydro as a sustainable energy company; a desire for higher priority on reliability and low cost; an agreement over the Power Smart 10 year plan; a general agreement that the current, balanced approach to resource acquisition was appropriate; and a desire for more rate options. There was an assurance that BC Hydro would continue to engage First Nations and stakeholders in integrated electricity planning. Other outcomes included requests for more information about outage and outage planning and process improvements; support to maintain low rates; a preference for maximizing use of existing facilities; support for wood waste cogeneration. A broad range of options were reviewed, but no superior portfolio was identified within the parameters of this paper

  14. Multiobjective suspension control problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, de A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a (controller) design problem in the field of suspension systems for transport vehicles. A ten degrees-of-freedom model for a tractor-semitrailer vehicle is presented, using parameters derived from a real vehicle, which should be used for design and verification purposes. Road

  15. Understanding, Developing, and Writing Effective IEPs: A Step-by-Step Guide for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelo, Roger; Giuliani, George A.

    2007-01-01

    Creating and evaluating Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) for students with disabilities is a major responsibility for teachers and school leaders, yet the process involves legal components not always understood by educators. In "Understanding, Developing, and Writing Effective IEPs," legal and special education experts Roger…

  16. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Parents' Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Katie; Durán, Lillian K.

    2013-01-01

    Many parents of students with disabilities face barriers to meaningful participation in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) meetings; parents who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) encounter additional challenges. Given the changing demographics of the United States and the central role of the IEP in special education, it is important…

  17. The IEP Meeting: Perceptions of Parents of Students Who Receive Special Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Wade W.

    2008-01-01

    The author investigated parental perceptions of the individualized education program (IEP) meeting among 51 parents of students who were receiving special education services from 1 family support service agency. Survey questions pertained to the following areas: (a) IEP meeting experiences, (b) knowledge level of special education law, (c)…

  18. Weer volop toekomst voor de iep Nieuwe iepen: zeer hoge mate van resistentie en algemeen bruikbaar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    De iep is eeuwenlang een van de beeldbepalende bomen geweest in het Nederlandse landschap en de Nederlandse steden. Door de opkomst van de iepziekte zijn in de loop van de vorige eeuw veel van deze Hollandse iepen verdwenen. Door de voortdurende problemen met de iepziekte kreeg de iep bij veel

  19. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of the Efficacy of Standards-Based IEP Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Traci Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Although standards-based IEP goals have been mandated in many states for almost a decade, their effectiveness is unknown. Standards-based IEP goals were first created to meet the requirements of No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which increased accountability for all students as well as those with…

  1. The Relationship of IEP Quality to Curricular Access and Academic Achievement for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Salle, Tamika P.; Roach, Andrew T.; McGrath, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and its influence on academic achievement, inclusion in general education classrooms, and curricular access for students with disabilities. 130 teachers from the state of Indiana were asked to submit the most recent IEP of one of their students in…

  2. Self-Advocacy Skills as a Predictor of Student IEP Participation among Adolescents with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Fearon, Danielle D.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of student IEP participation has been indicated by both legislative mandates such as IDEA and research literature. The purpose of the current study was to examine those variables that predict student IEP participation among adolescents with autism spectrum disorders as compared to adolescents with disabilities other than autism…

  3. Which Procedural Parts of the IEP Process Are the Most Judicially Vulnerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.; Hetrick, Allyse

    2017-01-01

    To provide a missing piece to the legal foundation of professional development and practice for the individualized education program (IEP) process, the authors report the results of a comprehensive systematic analysis of court decisions specific to IEP-related procedural violations after the 2004 amendments of the Individuals With Disabilities…

  4. Let's Get Parents Ready for Their Initial IEP Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Helen; Ingalls, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Parental participation in the initial Individual Education Program (IEP) meeting is a critical component of the process. Even though parents have rights to be equally involved in making decisions at the IEP meetings, frequently parents aren't prepared to be equal members on the team with school personnel. This study focused on a preparation…

  5. Hearing Parents of Children with Hearing Loss: Perceptions of the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Robin Fern

    2016-01-01

    Under federal guidelines, parents of school-aged children with hearing loss are required to attend an individualized education program (IEP) meeting on behalf of their child. However, it remains unclear how prepared hearing parents are to oversee development of IEPs that guarantee their children the best educational outcomes, as well as how much…

  6. The Impact of Professional Development on the Quality of the Transition Components of IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Lombardi, Allison; Kato, Mimi McGrath

    2015-01-01

    Under the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), transition needs and services are to be discussed as part of the Individual Education Program (IEP) planning process, and decisions based on students' future goals are to be documented in the IEP. These transition requirements were included in IDEA in order to plan with the student,…

  7. The IEP from A to Z: How to Create Meaningful and Measurable Goals and Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twachtman-Cullen, Diane; Twachtman-Bassett, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the skyrocketing diagnoses of ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, and related conditions in U.S. schools, there is a growing need for information on creating effective IEPs for exceptional students. The "IEP From A to Z" is a step-by-step guide showing teachers and parents how to get the right education plan in place for students with ADHD,…

  8. An Investigation into the Involvement of California Central Valley High School Students with Disabilities in the IEP Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cheryle Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of California Central Valley high school students with disabilities in the Individual Education Plan (IEP) process. Specifically, this study investigated the involvement of students with disabilities in the development of the IEP and IEP meetings. In addition, this study explored the…

  9. Perceptions of Parents of Students with Autism towards the IEP Meeting: A Case Study of One Family Support Group Chapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Wade W.

    2006-01-01

    This case study investigated parental perceptions of students with autism towards the IEP meeting from one family support group chapter in the north Texas area. Participants were asked to share their experiences of previous IEP meetings and to provide input regarding not only measures that school districts may take towards improving IEP meetings,…

  10. Emission, transport, deposition, and re-suspension of radionuclides from Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in the atmosphere - Overview of 2-year investigations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2013-04-01

    Following a huge earthquake and tsunami in Eastern Japan on 11 March, 2011, the accident in Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) occurred to emit a large amount of artificial radionuclides to the environment. Soon after the FDNPP accident, many Japanese researchers, as well as researchers in other countries, started monitoring radionuclides in various environmental fields and/or model calculations to understand extent and magnitude of radioactive pollution. In this presentation, we overview these activities for the atmospheric radionuclides in Japan as followings: 1. Investigations to evaluate radionuclide emissions by explosions at FNDPP in March 2011 and to estimate the respiration dose of the radiation at this stage. 2. Investigations to evaluate atmospheric transport and deposition processes of atmospheric radionuclide to determine the extent of radionuclide pollution. -- Based on results of the regular and urgent monitoring results, as well as the mapping of the distribution of radionuclide s accumulated by the deposition to the ground, restoration of their time-dependent emission rates has been tried, and processes determining atmospheric concentration and deposition to the ground have been investigated by using the model calculations. 3. Monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of FNDPP accident. 4. Investigations to evaluate re-suspension of radionuclide from the ground, including the soil and the vegetation. -- Intensive monitoring of the atmospheric concentrations and deposition amount of radionuclide after the initial, surge phase of the accident enable us to evaluate emission history from FNDPP, atmospheric transport and deposition processes, chemical and physical characteristics of atmospheric radionuclide especially of radio cesium, and re-suspension processes which has become dominant process to supply radio cesium to the atmosphere recently.

  11. 75 FR 1681 - University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program Grants (49 U.S.C. 5506); Suspension of Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration University..., Office of Research, Development and Technology, RDT-30, Research and Innovative Technology Administration... amended by Pub. L. 110-244) requires the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) of the U...

  12. Perceptions of self-determination by special education and rehabilitation practitioners based on viewing a self-directed IEP versus an external-directed IEP meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branding, Dave; Bates, Paul; Miner, Craig

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated perception of self-determination by special education and rehabilitation practitioners following their exposure to a videotaped simulation of a self-directed IEP meeting and an external-directed IEP meeting involving an adolescent with mild mental retardation. Groups of special education practitioners and rehabilitation practitioners did not differ from each other in their perceptions of self-determination before or after viewing either the self-directed or external-directed IEP meeting simulation. However, both groups of respondents had higher perceptions of the self-determination capability of the confederate student when they viewed her in a self-directed meeting. In addition, respondents consistently rated the self-directed meeting simulation as being of higher overall quality than the external-directed meeting. Results are discussed in relation to practitioner recommendations and future research in regard to the development and enabling of self-determination skills involving persons with disabilities.

  13. Cloning and characterization of Bacillus subtilis iep, which has positive and negative effects on production of extracellular proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, T; Kawata, M

    1988-08-01

    We have isolated a DNA fragment from Bacillus subtilis 168 which, when present in a high-copy plasmid, inhibited production of extracellular alkaline and neutral proteases. The gene responsible for this activity was referred to as iep. The open reading frame of iep was found to be incomplete in the cloned DNA fragment. When the intact iep gene was reconstructed after the missing part of the iep gene had been cloned, it showed an enhancing effect on the production of the extracellular proteases. The open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 229 amino acids with a molecular weight of ca. 25,866. Deletion of two amino acids from the N-terminal half of the putative iep protein resulted in dual effects, i.e., a decrease in the inhibitory activity shown by the incomplete iep gene and a slight increase in the enhancing activity shown by the complete iep gene. These results show that the iep gene product is a bifunctional protein, containing inhibitory and enhancing activities for the exoprotease production in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions, respectively. It was found by genetic and functional analyses that iep lies very close to sacU.

  14. IEP goals for school-age children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Kelly; Tambyraja, Sherine R; Justice, Laura M; Redle, Erin E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to describe the current state of practice for writing Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals for children with speech sound disorders (SSDs). IEP goals for 146 children receiving services for SSDs within public school systems across two states were coded for their dominant theoretical framework and overall quality. A dichotomous scheme was used for theoretical framework coding: cognitive-linguistic or sensory-motor. Goal quality was determined by examining 7 specific indicators outlined by an empirically tested rating tool. In total, 147 long-term and 490 short-term goals were coded. The results revealed no dominant theoretical framework for long-term goals, whereas short-term goals largely reflected a sensory-motor framework. In terms of quality, the majority of speech production goals were functional and generalizable in nature, but were not able to be easily targeted during common daily tasks or by other members of the IEP team. Short-term goals were consistently rated higher in quality domains when compared to long-term goals. The current state of practice for writing IEP goals for children with SSDs indicates that theoretical framework may be eclectic in nature and likely written to support the individual needs of children with speech sound disorders. Further investigation is warranted to determine the relations between goal quality and child outcomes. (1) Identify two predominant theoretical frameworks and discuss how they apply to IEP goal writing. (2) Discuss quality indicators as they relate to IEP goals for children with speech sound disorders. (3) Discuss the relationship between long-term goals level of quality and related theoretical frameworks. (4) Identify the areas in which business-as-usual IEP goals exhibit strong quality.

  15. Attitudes of Special Education Teachers and School Psychologists toward Individualized Education Plan IEPs Developed Using Traditional Assessments versus IEPs Developed Using a Multiple Intelligence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajri, Meshari A SH A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the usefulness of Multiple Intelligence for educational planning for students in special education. More specifically, this study applied the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS) to a sample of students receiving special education services who had IEPs developed using…

  16. Antidepressant-like drug effects in juvenile and adolescent mice in the tail suspension test: Relationship with hippocampal serotonin and norepinephrine transporter expression and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan C Mitchell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major health problem for which most patients are not effectively treated. This problem is further compounded in children and adolescents where only two antidepressants [both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs] are currently approved for clinical use. Mouse models provide tools to identify mechanisms that might account for poor treatment response to antidepressants. However, there are few studies in adolescent mice and none in juvenile mice. The tail suspension test (TST is commonly used to assay for antidepressant-like effects of drugs in adult mice. Here we show that the TST can also be used to assay antidepressant-like effects of drugs in C57Bl/6 mice aged 21 (juvenile and 28 (adolescent days post-partum (P. We found that the magnitude of antidepressant-like response to the SSRI escitalopram was less in P21 mice than in P28 or adult mice. The smaller antidepressant response of juveniles was not related to either maximal binding (Bmax or affinity (Kd for [3H]citalopram binding to the serotonin transporter (SERT in hippocampus, which did not vary significantly among ages. Magnitude of antidepressant-like response to the tricyclic desipramine was similar among ages, as were Bmax and Kd values for [3H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter (NET in hippocampus. Together, these findings suggest that juvenile mice are less responsive to the antidepressant-like effects of escitalopram than adults, but that this effect is not due to delayed maturation of SERT in hippocampus. Showing that the TST is a relevant behavioral assay of antidepressant-like activity in juvenile and adolescent mice sets the stage for future studies of the mechanisms underlying the antidepressant response in these young populations.

  17. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... braking system. The vehicle shall be level (not tilting to the left or right). Air leakage shall not be... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393...

  18. Do the symptoms of language disorder align with treatment goals? An exploratory study of primary-grade students' IEPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Mary Beth; Justice, Laura M; Logan, Jessica A R; Schatschneider, Christopher; Bartlett, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Individual Education Plans (IEPs) are legal documents that guide the treatment of students with language disorder (LD). This exploratory study investigated the extent to which students' symptoms of LD align with goals on their IEPs. A total of 99 kindergarten and first-grade students receiving treatment for LD in the public schools participated. IEPs were collected and coded for each student and norm-referenced measures were used to assess students' grammar, vocabulary, listening comprehension, and literacy skills in the fall of the academic year. Results showed there to be alignment between students' symptoms and IEP goals only in the area of vocabulary, such that students who had an IEP goal for vocabulary had lower scores on a vocabulary assessment than those without a goal. In general, there is limited alignment between observed symptoms of LD and treated symptoms as identified on students' IEPs. The limited alignment found in this study suggests more investigation is needed to understand the extent to which IEP goals, as potential indicators of treatment foci, should map on to students' symptoms. Readers will be able to: (1) explain the theoretical and practical relevance of treatment goals aligning to symptoms for children with language impairment; (2) identify three analytic methods used to investigate alignment between treatment goals and symptoms; and (3) describe the extent to which IEP goals align to children's symptoms in a sample of children receiving services in the public schools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Development and Evaluation of a Professional Development Model to Build Meaningful and Effective IEPs for Transition-Aged Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doren, Bonnie; Flannery, K. Brigid; Lombardi, Allison

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the potential efficacy of a professional development training model targeting IEP case managers of transition-age students. A training model was developed and a pilot study conducted to understand the promise of the model to improve the development of critical components within the IEP document that support…

  20. Structured Intervention as a Tool to Shift Views of Parent-Professional Partnerships: Impact on Attitudes toward the IEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereoiu, Mariana; Abercrombie, Sarah; Murray, Mary M.

    2016-01-01

    The Individualized Education Program (IEP) is the roadmap that helps educators and families drive the education of students with disabilities, improve outcomes, and fulfill each child's potential. However, the IEP can be challenging due to the large number and diversity of stakeholders, dynamics and culture of collaboration, and the complex…

  1. Writing IEPs for the Audience of Teachers, Parents, and Students: The Case for the Communicative Individual Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucido, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Our current paradigm of Individualized Education Program (IEP) construction, the creation of a legal document or contract between parents and schools, needs rethinking. This paradigm's unintended consequences have resulted in vast inefficiencies in special education and have detracted from the core purpose of the IEP document, the communication of…

  2. Accessing the Common Core Standards for Students with Learning Disabilities: Strategies for Writing Standards-Based IEP Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruana, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2004, standards-based individualized education plans (IEPs) have been an expectation for serving students with disabilities in the K-12 public school setting. Nearly a decade after the mandates calling for standards-based IEPs, special educators still struggle…

  3. CORPORATE STRATEGY: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE IDP, IEP AND PLANNING STRATEGIC IN IFB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Rodrigues de Camargo Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and characterize the relationship of the Institutional Development Plan - IDP -, Institutional Educational Project - IEP, - and the strategic planning, specifically in the context of organizational effectiveness.  IDP, IEP and Strategic Planning at the Federal Institution of Brasilia (Instituto Federal de Brasilia IFB interrelate and interact due to its strategic nature and focus on organizational results. The qualitative study of applied nature and exploratory personality, is instrumentalized by documentary techniques  and semi-structured interviews and content analysis. The results showed that the efficient integration of IDP, IEP and Strategic Planning, and also communicate the mission, objectives and institutional goals, corroborate the construction of a reference institution with the quality of education, stating its social function, guiding the action of servers and managers.

  4. Teacher and child predictors of achieving IEP goals of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H

    2013-12-01

    It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143-148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes.

  5. Islam - Science Integration Approach in Developing Chemistry Individualized Education Program (IEP for Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Suprihatiningrum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a research which tries to explore, explain and describe Islam - science integration approach to develop an Individualized Education Program (IEP for students with disabilities in chemistry lesson. As a qualitative case study, this paper is aimed at investigating how Islam - science integration approach can be underpinned for developing the IEP for Chemistry. Participants were recruited purposively and data were collected by interviews; documents’ analysis; and experts’ assessment (i.e. material experts, inclusive education experts, media experts, chemistry teachers and support teachers, then analyzed using content-analysis. The result shows Islam - science integration approach can be a foundation to develop the chemistry IEP by seeking support for the verses of the Qur'an and corresponding hadiths. Even although almost all the subject matter in chemistry can be integrated with Islamic values, this study only developed two contents, namely Periodic System of Elements and Reaction Rate.

  6. IEP as a parameter characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The numerical values of points of zero charge (PZC, obtained by potentiometric titration) and of isoelectric points (IEP) of various materials reported in the literature have been analyzed. In sets of results reported for the same chemical compound (corresponding to certain chemical formula and crystallographic structure), the IEP are relatively consistent. In contrast, in materials other than metal oxides, the sets of PZC are inconsistent. In view of the inconsistence in the sets of PZC and of the discrepancies between PZC and IEP reported for the same material, it seems that IEP is more suitable than PZC as the unique number characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides. The present approach is opposite to the usual approach, in which the PZC and IEP are considered as two equally important parameters characterizing the pH-dependent surface charging of materials other than metal oxides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoevasive protein (IEP)-containing surface layer covering polydnavirus particles is essential for viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furihata, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Kohjiro; Ryuda, Masasuke; Ochiai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Csikos, Gyorge; Hayakawa, Yoichi

    2014-01-01

    Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are unique symbiotic viruses associated with parasitoid wasps: PDV particles are injected into lepidopteran hosts along with the wasp eggs and express genes that interfere with aspects of host physiology such as immune defenses and development. Recent comparative genomic studies of PDVs have significantly improved our understanding of their origin as well as the genome organization. However, the structural features of functional PDV particles remain ambiguous. To clear up the structure of Cotesia kariyai PDV (CkPDV) particles, we focused on immunoevasive protein (IEP), which is a mediator of immunoevasion by the wasp from the encapsulation reaction of the host insect's hemocytes, because it has been demonstrated to be present on the surface of the virus particle. We discovered that IEP tends to polymerize and constitutes a previously unidentified thin surface layer covering CkPDV particles. This outermost surface layer looked fragile and was easily removed from CkPVD particles by mechanical stressors such as shaking, which prevented CkPDV from expressing the encoded genes in the host target tissues such as fat body or hemocytes. Furthermore, we detected IEP homologue gene expression in the wasp's venom reservoirs, implying IEP has another unknown biological function in the wasp or parasitized hosts. Taken together, the present results demonstrated that female C. kariyai wasps produce the fragile thin layer partly composed of IEP to cover the outer surfaces of CkPDV particles; otherwise, they cannot function as infectious agents in the wasp's host. The fact that IEP family proteins are expressed in both venom reservoirs and oviducts suggests an intimate relationship between both tissues in the development of the parasitism strategy of the wasp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Using laser technological unit ALTI "Karavella" for precision components of IEP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labin, N. A.; Chursin, A. D.; Paramonov, V. S.; Klimenko, V. I.; Paramonova, G. M.; Kolokolov, I. S.; Vinogradov, K. Y.; Betina, L. L.; Bulychev, N. A.; Dyakov, Yu. A.; Zakharyan, R. A.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Koshelev, K. K.; Kosheleva, O. K.; Grigoryants, A. G.; Shiganov, I. N.; Krasovskii, V. I.; Sachkov, V. I.; Plyaka, P. S.; Feofanov, I. N.; Chen, C.

    2015-12-01

    The paper revealed the using of industrial production equipment ALTI "Karavella-1", "Karavella-1M", "Karavella-2" and "Karavella-2M" precision components of IEP production [1-4]. The basis for the ALTI using in the IEP have become the positive results of research and development of technologies of foil (0.01-0.2 mm) and thin sheets (0.3-1 mm) materials micromachining by pulsed radiation CVL [5, 6]. To assess the micromachining quality and precision the measuring optical microscope (UHL VMM200), projection microscope (Mitutoyo PV5100) and Carl Zeiss microscope were used.

  9. QUANTIFICATION DU TRANSPORT SOLIDE EN SUSPENSION DANS L’OUED LABIOD- CONSEQUENCE SUR L’ENVASEMENT DU BARRAGE DE FOUM EL GHERZA (ALGERIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadila FARTAS

    2017-12-01

    strong erodibility on the South. Absence of vegetal cover in some areas has favoured a violent runoff and thus, erosion will be more or less important. For a better risks evaluation which threats our catchment, we opted for the division of the latter according to the dominant characteristics and their influence on the basin’ behaviour. The Labiod river catchment is characterized by a semi-arid to arid climate towards outlet where characteristics are showed by a cold to fresh Winter and a Summer very hot and dry. Irregularity and decrease of rain-fall are affirmed by going more and more towards the South which particularly influences on evapotranspiration (Fig. 6. Flow parameters of Labiod river basin. Flow analysis is dedicated to flows study in the stream of Labiod river. Flow study shows that the high water period is observed in months (February, March and April with maximal flows recorded in September. Runoff flows of climate year intervene thus efficiently to support surface outflow since rainfalls come from local storm in summer, either from Saharan lows. Furthermore, period of low water is also delayed. It has a limited flood frequency in hot season, and so the groundwater role supplying streams in low-water period (Fig. 7, 8. Annual flow which occurs at level of this station is more irregular. It is variable from a year to another (Fig. 9. Flow extreme shape study, focused first of all on flood, demonstrated successively: the torrential character of floods mainly to the strong rain-fall intensity, their mechanism of propagation (Fig. 10, 11. Flood of Labiod river are very violent sudden and of short duration, since coming either from local storm in summer, or from saharan lows in spring an often yet in Autumn. Erosion and solid transport Based on continuous measures of sediments in suspension, at level of Mchounech station, we have a set of measures, of about 975 values of instantaneous flows of liquid (QI, and sediment concentration in suspension (C, going from

  10. [Randomized clinical trial of IEP and EP regimens in the treatment of patients with small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Anlan; Huang, Zhihua; Zhou, Wenwei

    2004-06-20

    To observe and compare the efficacy and safety of IEP and EP regimens for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Sixty-four patients with SCLC pathologically proved were randomly divided into IEP group ( n =32) and EP group ( n =32). All the 64 patients were evaluable for response and toxicity. In IEP group, the total responsive rate, responsive rates of limited-stage patients and extensive-stage patients were 84.4%(27/32), 100.0%(15/15) and 70.6%(12/17) respectively; while in EP group, those were 75.0%(24/32), 85.7%(12/14) and 66.7% (12/18) respectively. The median duration of remission was 6 months and 1-year survival rate was 62.5% in IEP group, and 5 months and 56.2% in EP group. There was no significant difference in response rate, median duration of remission and 1-year survival between the two groups ( P > 0.05). The main toxicity was myelosuppression. Incidences of leukopenia at grade III-IV, nausea, vomiting and alopecia were significantly higher in the IEP arm than those in the EP arm ( P IEP and EP. IEP regimen shows a similar response rate compared with EP regimen. They might be considered as relevant regimens in initial patients with small cell lung cancer.

  11. The inadequacy of Individual Educational Program (IEP) goals for high school students with word-level reading difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catone, William V; Brady, Susan A

    2005-06-01

    This investigation analyzed goals from the Individual Educational Programs (IEPs) of 54 high school students with diagnosed reading disabilities in basic skills (decoding and/or word identification). Results showed that for 73% of the students, the IEPs written when they were in high school failed to specify any objectives regarding their acute difficulties with basic skills. IEPs from earlier points in the students' educations were also reviewed, as available. For 23 of the students, IEPs were present in the students' files for three time points: elementary school (ES), middle school (MS), and high school (HS). Another 20 students from the sample of 54 had IEPs available for two time points (HS and either MS or ES). Comparisons with the IEPs from younger years showed a pattern of decline from ES to MS to HS in the percentage of IEPs that commented on or set goals pertaining to weaknesses in decoding. These findings suggest that basic skills deficits that persist into the upper grade levels are not being sufficiently targeted for remediation, and help explain why older students frequently fail to resolve their reading problems.

  12. Toward Authentic IEPs and Transition Plans: Student, Parent, and Teacher Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavendish, Wendy; Connor, David

    2018-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined perspectives on factors that influence meaningful student and parent involvement in Individualized Education Program (IEP) transition planning. Survey data and open-ended qualitative interviews with urban high school students with a learning disability (LD; n = 16), their parents (n = 9), and their teachers (n =…

  13. "Doug C. v. Hawaii Department of Education": Parental Participation in IEP Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    Parental participation is a crucial component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. When developing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), school-based teams must place a high priority on involving students' parents in a collaborative effort to develop their children's educational programs and determine their placements.…

  14. The Essential and Interrelated Components of Evidenced-Based IEPs: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Marc D.

    2017-01-01

    Individualized education program (IEP) goals and objectives often provide illogical or insufficient methodological detail (e.g., Capizzi, 2008). Insufficient methods can lead to ambiguity among the staff members responsible for data collection or to data that fail to take into account factors that can affect performance or behavioral expression…

  15. State of the Art Student Support Services in an IEP Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jessica; Maxwell, Jeffrey; Mulder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Intensive English language programs (IEPs) at American universities have the task of recruiting, retaining, and preparing international students for mainstream classes. In order to achieve these tasks, many programs have explored using supplemental instruction (SI) in the form of learning centers (LCs) to support their students. In this study, we…

  16. Collaboration during IEP and IFSP Meetings in a Refugee Resettlement Community: Lessons from Cultural Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Clark, David W.; Fonseca-Foster, Katherine A.; Pyne, Sabina K.; Warren, Rachel A.

    2017-01-01

    Teachers working with refugee families who are culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) and receiving special education services often rely on cultural liaisons to provide interpreter and translator services during Individualized Educational Program (IEP) and Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) meetings. The purpose of this qualitative…

  17. Background of Individual Education Plans (IEPs) Policy in Some Countries: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Mohammed Ali; Kheirallah, Sahar Abdelfattah

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a cogent outline of the current policies that six separate countries have on Individual Education Plans (IEPs), identifying the key features in each system. The chosen countries are Australia (Queen Island), Canada (British Columbia), New Zealand, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Saudi Arabia. The…

  18. Improvement of radiological penumbra using intermediate energy photons (IEP) for stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Malley, Lauren; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beachey, David J; Keller, Brian M; Presutti, Joseph; Sharpe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Using efficient immobilization and dedicated beam collimation devices, stereotactic radiosurgery ensures highly conformal treatment of small tumours with limited microscopic extension. One contribution to normal tissue irradiation remains the radiological penumbra. This work aims at demonstrating that intermediate energy photons (IEP), above orthovoltage but below megavoltage, improve dose distribution for stereotactic radiosurgery for small irradiation field sizes due to a dramatic reduction of radiological penumbra. Two different simulation systems were used: (i) Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution of monoenergetic IEP between 100 keV and 1 MeV in water phantom; (ii) the Pinnacle 3 TPS including a virtual IEP unit to investigate the dosimetry benefit of treating with 11 non-coplanar beams a 2 cm tumour in the middle of a brain adjacent to a 1 mm critical structure. Radiological penumbrae below 300 μm are generated for field size below 2 x 2 cm 2 using monoenergetic IEP beams between 200 and 400 keV. An 800 kV beam generated in a 0.5 mm tungsten target maximizes the photon intensity in this range. Pinnacle 3 confirms the dramatic reduction in penumbra size. DVHs show for a constant dose distribution conformality, improved dose distribution homogeneity and better sparing of critical structures using a 800 kV beam compared to a 6 MV beam

  19. Improvement of radiological penumbra using intermediate energy photons (IEP) for stereotactic radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Lauren; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Beachey, David J.; Keller, Brian M.; Presutti, Joseph; Sharpe, Michael

    2006-05-01

    Using efficient immobilization and dedicated beam collimation devices, stereotactic radiosurgery ensures highly conformal treatment of small tumours with limited microscopic extension. One contribution to normal tissue irradiation remains the radiological penumbra. This work aims at demonstrating that intermediate energy photons (IEP), above orthovoltage but below megavoltage, improve dose distribution for stereotactic radiosurgery for small irradiation field sizes due to a dramatic reduction of radiological penumbra. Two different simulation systems were used: (i) Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the dose distribution of monoenergetic IEP between 100 keV and 1 MeV in water phantom; (ii) the Pinnacle3 TPS including a virtual IEP unit to investigate the dosimetry benefit of treating with 11 non-coplanar beams a 2 cm tumour in the middle of a brain adjacent to a 1 mm critical structure. Radiological penumbrae below 300 µm are generated for field size below 2 × 2 cm2 using monoenergetic IEP beams between 200 and 400 keV. An 800 kV beam generated in a 0.5 mm tungsten target maximizes the photon intensity in this range. Pinnacle3 confirms the dramatic reduction in penumbra size. DVHs show for a constant dose distribution conformality, improved dose distribution homogeneity and better sparing of critical structures using a 800 kV beam compared to a 6 MV beam.

  20. Advancing Inclusive Mathematics Education: Strategies and Resources for Effective IEP Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Personal experiences promoting inclusive mathematics education for my own child have mostly been met with staunch resistance on the part of educators, and a resulting breakdown in collaborative efforts during individualized education program (IEP) meetings. However, I found that utilizing certain strategies and introducing innovative mathematics…

  1. Demystifying the IEP Process for Diverse Parents of Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lusa

    2012-01-01

    The complicated individualized education program (IEP) process and annual team meetings can be very stressful for families of children with disabilities, especially for those whose primary language is not English and those who are unfamiliar with the American special education system. Cultural and language barriers and lack of information…

  2. High School General Education English Teachers' Perception of IEP Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Mary Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative design study was to better understand the experiences of high school general education English teachers who have students with Asperger Syndrome in their classes. More specifically, this researcher wanted to better understand the teacher's perception of the IEP-denoted accommodations the general education teachers…

  3. Social Media Literacy as an IEP Intervention for Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Donnell

    2017-01-01

    Media literacy and special education communities have largely ignored the impact of digital media useonspecial education students with Autism spectrum disorder and Emotional and Behavioral Disorder. This paper investigates the possibility of using social media literacy education as part of an individualized education plan (IEP) intervention for…

  4. An Investigation of Student Involvement in IEP Meetings in Suffolk County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the possible barriers as to why student involvement in IEP meetings has not been occurring in the past and to subsequently suggest further action and research as to how to potentially combat these barriers so students with disabilities in Suffolk County, Long Island can begin to be offered these kinds of…

  5. Six Things to Never Say or Hear during an IEP Meeting: Educators as Advocates for Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheatham, Gregory A.; Hart, Juliet E.; Malian, Ida; McDonald, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to support school professionals in their work with parents as they meet IDEA (2004) requirements during IEP meetings. The authors share tools to help recognize when IDEA principles are violated and provide alternative responses that school professionals and parents can offer. Definitions and brief explanations of the…

  6. Opinions of Prospective Classroom Teachers about Their Competence for Individualized Education Program (IEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbag, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the opinions of prospective classroom teachers about preparation and implementation of Individualized Education Program (IEP). In this study, a qualitative research method was used. The participants were 20 classroom-teaching students that had been selected through the purposive sampling method. In the study, the…

  7. How Well Does Your IEP Measure Up?: Quality Indicators for Effective Service Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twachtman-Cullen, Diane; Twachtman-Reilly, Jennifer

    This book is intended to offer guidance in writing individualized education programs (IEPs) that deliver high-quality, need-based educational programming for students with autism spectrum disorders. Following an introductory historical overview of special education law, the remaining chapters in part 1 address the quality indicators for each of…

  8. The vacuolar transport of aleurain-GFP and 2S albumin-GFP fusions is mediated by the same pre-vacuolar compartments in tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yansong; Li, Kwun Yee; Li, Hong-Ye; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Liwen

    2008-12-01

    Soluble proteins reach vacuoles because they contain vacuolar sorting determinants (VSDs) that are recognized by vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins. Pre-vacuolar compartments (PVCs), defined by VSRs and GFP-VSR reporters in tobacco BY-2 cells, are membrane-bound intermediate organelles that mediate protein traffic from the Golgi apparatus to the vacuole in plant cells. Multiple pathways have been demonstrated to be responsible for vacuolar transport of lytic enzymes and storage proteins to the lytic vacuole (LV) and the protein storage vacuole (PSV), respectively. However, the nature of PVCs for LV and PSV pathways remains unclear. Here, we used two fluorescent reporters, aleurain-GFP and 2S albumin-GFP, that represent traffic of lytic enzymes and storage proteins to LV and PSV, respectively, to study the PVC-mediated transport pathways via transient expression in suspension cultured cells. We demonstrated that the vacuolar transport of aleurain-GFP and 2S albumin-GFP was mediated by the same PVC populations in both tobacco BY-2 and Arabidopsis suspension cultured cells. These PVCs were defined by the seven GFP-AtVSR reporters. In wortmannin-treated cells, the vacuolated PVCs contained the mRFP-AtVSR reporter in their limiting membranes, whereas the soluble aleurain-GFP or 2S albumin-GFP remained in the lumen of the PVCs, indicating a possible in vivo relationship between receptor and cargo within PVCs.

  9. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    Special issue in honour of Henk Lekkerkerker's 65th birthday Professor Henk N W Lekkerkerker is a world-leading authority in the field of experimental and theoretical soft condensed matter. On the occasion of his 65th birthday in the summer of 2011, this special issue celebrates his many contributions to science. Henk Lekkerkerker obtained his undergraduate degree in chemistry at the University of Utrecht (1968) and moved to Calgary where he received his PhD in 1971. He moved to Brussels as a NATO fellow at the Université Libre de Bruxelles and was appointed to an assistant professorship (1974), an associate professorship (1977) and a full professorship (1980) in physical chemistry at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. In 1985 he returned to The Netherlands to take up a professorship at the Van 't Hoff Laboratory, where he has been ever since. He has received a series of awards during his career, including the Onsager Medal (1999) of the University of Trondheim, the Bakhuys Roozeboom Gold Medal (2003) of the Royal Dutch Academy of Arts and Sciences (KNAW), the ECIS-Rhodia European Colloid and Interface Prize (2003), and the Liquid Matter Prize of the European Physical Society (2008). He was elected a member of KNAW in 1996, was awarded an Academy Chair position in 2005, and has held several visiting lectureships. Henk's work focuses on phase transitions in soft condensed matter, and he has made seminal contributions to both the theoretical and experimental aspects of this field. Here we highlight three major themes running through his work, and a few selected publications. So-called depletion interactions may lead to phase separation in colloid-polymer mixtures, and Henk realised that the partitioning of polymer needs to be taken into account to describe the phase behaviour correctly [1]. Colloidal suspensions can be used as model fluids, with the time- and length-scales involved leading to novel opportunities, notably the direct observation of capillary waves at a

  10. 41 CFR 109-40.103-2 - Disqualification and suspension of carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suspension of carriers. 109-40.103-2 Section 109-40.103-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 40-TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT 40.1-General Provision § 109-40.103-2 Disqualification and suspension of carriers. Disqualification and suspension are...

  11. The surface chemistry of sapphire-c: A literature review and a study on various factors influencing its IEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lützenkirchen, J; Franks, G V; Plaschke, M; Zimmermann, R; Heberling, F; Abdelmonem, A; Darbha, G K; Schild, D; Filby, A; Eng, P; Catalano, J G; Rosenqvist, J; Preocanin, T; Aytug, T; Zhang, D; Gan, Y; Braunschweig, B

    2018-01-01

    A wide range of isoelectric points (IEPs) has been reported in the literature for sapphire-c (α-alumina), also referred to as basal plane, (001) or (0001), single crystals. Interestingly, the available data suggest that the variation of IEPs is comparable to the range of IEPs encountered for particles, although single crystals should be much better defined in terms of surface structure. One explanation for the range of IEPs might be the obvious danger of contaminating the small surface areas of single crystal samples while exposing them to comparatively large solution reservoirs. Literature suggests that factors like origin of the sample, sample treatment or the method of investigation all have an influence on the surfaces and it is difficult to clearly separate the respective, individual effects. In the present study, we investigate cause-effect relationships to better understand the individual effects. The reference IEP of our samples is between 4 and 4.5. High temperature treatment tends to decrease the IEP of sapphire-c as does UV treatment. Increasing the initial miscut (i.e. the divergence from the expected orientation of the crystal) tends to increase the IEP as does plasma cleaning, which can be understood assuming that the surfaces have become less hydrophobic due to the presence of more and/or larger steps with increasing miscut or due to amorphisation of the surface caused by plasma cleaning. Pre-treatment at very high pH caused an increase in the IEP. Surface treatments that led to IEPs different from the stable value of reference samples typically resulted in surfaces that were strongly affected by subsequent exposure to water. The streaming potential data appear to relax to the reference sample behavior after a period of time of water exposure. Combination of the zeta-potential measurements with AFM investigations support the idea that atomically smooth surfaces exhibit lower IEPs, while rougher surfaces (roughness on the order of nanometers) result

  12. Influence of the hydrotechnical structures on the changes of total suspension transport - illustrated by the example of the Koronowski Reservoir on Brda River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatten, Dawid; Märker, Michael

    2015-04-01

    suspension inflowing to reservoir is higher than outflowing), The Brda River is the main source of supplies of the total suspension to the reservoir and the seasonal variability of suspended material is on discharge in inflows. There is a little variation of discharge in the Brda River during the hydrological year which affects on the small diversity of the suspended material. Also the reduction of total suspension in Koronowski Reservoir results in improvement of the water quality of the Brda River. The strong morphometric variation is the reason why two zones are marked out: limnetic with a strong accumulation of sediments and fluvial with a small deposition of sediments. The limnetic area (basins of reservoir and river mouths of inflows i.e. Brda, Kamionka, Sępolna, Krówka and Kręgiel) is characterized by strong aggradation of total suspension The morphometric variation (shallows and depths) affects on the spacial differences in the accumulation process. Koronowski Reservoir is in the phase of filling with suspended material including total suspension.

  13. Suspension trauma; Le traumatisme de suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudel, S. [Le Centre de sante et de services sociaux du rocher Perce, Chandler, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This presentation discussed the precautions that should be taken to avoid falls from wind turbines or transmission towers. Suspension trauma was explained by a medical doctor in terms of physiology and the body's normal circulation and the elements that disturb normal physiology when in suspension. The trauma occurs following a fall, which carries the risk of 1or more disorders, such as massive hemorrhage, high cardiac pulse, and constriction of blood vessels. Nausea, vertigo, cardiac arrhythmia and sweating occur 15 to 20 minutes following the fall. The presentation emphasized the importance of having qualified personnel at the site and wearing proper harnesses and equipment that supports the neck. figs.

  14. Are We Practicing What We Are Preaching? An Evaluation of Self-Determination Instructional Components in IEPs at a Midwestern High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nancy; Stoner, Julia B.

    2017-01-01

    Promoting self-determination in students with disabilities is recognized as an integral component of education today. For most students with disabilities, self-determination should be addressed through instruction and in the Individualized Education Program (IEP). Yet, IEPs are rarely evaluated to determine if goals targeting self-determination…

  15. Magnetic suspension and guidance of high speed vehicles. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alston, I A; Clark, J M; Hayden, J T

    1972-12-01

    Technical and economical assessments of magnetic suspensions for high speed vehicles and transport systems are reported. In these suspensions the suspending magnet takes the form of a powerful superconducting electromagnet that induces currents while it moves over conducting sheets or loops. A number of vehicle track designs are evaluated for operating cost effectiveness. It is shown that propulsion systems using power collected from the track are more expensive than those using power generated onboard the vehicle, and that the conducting sheet suspension is slightly more expensive than the null flux suspension.

  16. 49 CFR 592.7 - Suspension, revocation, and reinstatement of suspended registrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vehicle during the time that its registration has been suspended. (d) Effect of suspension or revocation... date of the suspension or revocation all vehicles that it imported to which it has not affixed a... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension, revocation, and reinstatement of...

  17. Rheology of organoclay suspension

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hato, MJ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The authors have studied the rheological properties of clay suspensions in silicone oil, where clay surfaces were modified with three different types of surfactants. Dynamic oscillation measurements showed a plateau-like behavior for all...

  18. Hydropneumatic suspension systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    Hydropneumatic suspensions systems combine the excellent properties of gas springs with the favourable damping properties of hydraulic fluids. The advantages of these systems are particularly appropriate for automotive applications, such as passenger cars, trucks and agricultural equipment. In this book, Dr. Bauer provides an extensive overview of hydropneumatic suspension systems. Starting with a comparison of different types of suspension systems, the author subsequently describes the theoretical background associated with spring and damping characteristics of hydropneumatic systems and furthermore explains the design of the most important system components. Additionally he gives an overview of level control systems and various special functions. Finally the technology is illustrated by design examples and the outlook for future hydropneumatic suspensions is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Suspension Trauma / Orthostatic Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suspension Trauma/Orthostatic Intolerance Safety and Health Information Bulletin SHIB 03-24-2004, updated 2011 This Safety ... the harness, the environmental conditions, and the worker's psychological state all may increase the onset and severity ...

  20. The Mystical Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Santiesteban Oliva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mistical suspension, silence, time, absolute, ontology, ineffability, aletheiaIn the mystical ecstasy there is a sensorial and intellectual suspension when contemplating the absolute, the ontological Being. Silence is not only significant: it is revealing. The greatest expression of experience inner silence . The word is insufficient when the ontological reality is revealed. Revelation or truth , the Greek concept of aletheia, takes on greater significance in that transcendental experience. It is also suspended phenomenological time and remains eternity open.

  1. Can Appreciative Inquiry Increase Positive Interactions, Student Self-Advocacy and Turn-Taking during IEP Meetings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozik, Peter L.

    2018-01-01

    This comparative research study in the context of action research documents the effects of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) on positive participant interactions, student turn-taking and self-advocacy interactions during IEP meetings that focused on student transition to post-secondary outcomes. AI was implemented as a written protocol for conducting IEP…

  2. Has Technology Been Considered? A Guide for IEP Teams. CASE/TAM Assistive Technology Policy and Practice Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, A. C.

    This guide compiles information essential to a working knowledge of assistive technology for children with disabilities. It addresses the definition of assistive technology and provides information on laws which direct the provision of assistive technology. The manual provides a framework to guide the Individualized Education Program (IEP) team as…

  3. Enhancing Recognition of High Quality, Functional IEP Goals: A Training Activity for Early Childhood Special Education Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anne; Gillaspy, Kathi; Peters, Mary Louise; Hurth, Joicey

    2014-01-01

    This training activity was created to support participants' understanding of the criteria needed to develop and write high quality, participation-based Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals. The term "functional" is often used to describe what goals ought to be, yet many Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) staff (e.g.,…

  4. In the Best Interests of the Child: Individualized Education Program (IEP) Meetings When Parents Are in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Edward; Moses, Philip; Engiles, Anita; Whitehorne, Amy; Peter, Marshall

    2014-01-01

    Individual Education Program (IEP) teams are composed of diverse individuals, each bringing a unique set of experiences, knowledge, and skills to the table. Given this, it is not uncommon for team members to have different views on the special education and related services needs of the student whose plan is being developed. When divergent views…

  5. The Use of a Rubric as a Tool to Guide Pre-Service Teachers in the Development of IEPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Clarissa E.; Winterman, Kathleen G.

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of developing Individualized Education Program documents that are representative of a team decision making process and are in compliance with IDEA 2004 is well documented in the literature. One of the main objectives of IEPs is to serve as the foundation of a child's academic program. Inclusion of children with disabilities in the…

  6. Effects of School Counselor Supervised Peer Tutoring in Inclusive Settings on Meeting IEP Outcomes of Students with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odluyurt, Serhat; Tekin-Iftar, Elif; Ersoy, Gulhan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of school counselor supervised peer tutoring intervention on meeting IEP outcomes of six inclusion students with developmental disabilities in a public elementary and secondary school. The effectiveness of this intervention was evaluated by using multiple probe design across students.…

  7. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  8. Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO

  9. Magnetic Suspension Technology Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckler, C.R.; Groom, N.J.; Britcher, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to identify the state of magnetic suspension technology in such areas as rotating systems, pointing of experiments or subsystems, payload isolation, and superconducting materials, a workshop on Magnetic Suspension Technology was held at the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, on 2-4 Feb. 1988. The workshop included five technical sessions in which a total of 24 papers were presented. The technical sessions covered the areas of pointing, isolation, and measurement, rotating systems, modeling and control, and superconductors. A list of attendees is provided. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this report

  10. 75 FR 56653 - Suspension of Preparation of Environmental Impact Statement for the George Bush Intercontinental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Suspension of Preparation of... Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice suspending preparation of..., potential changes to aircraft fleet mix, and the need to update the existing terminal concept as reasons...

  11. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  12. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli , Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liq...

  13. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    OpenAIRE

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical co...

  14. Inteligência emocional percebida (IEP ajuste emocional e actividade física na terceira idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Lima de Figueiredo Queirós

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O interesse deste estudo está centrado na forma como interage a inteligência emocional percebida (IEP com a prática da actividade física e que peso específi co tem cada uma das variáveis estudadas sobre o ajuste emocional das pessoas nesta faixa etária e, consequentemente, na sua qualidade de vida.

  15. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  16. Particle interactions in concentrated suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondy, L.A.; Graham, A.L.; Abbott, J.R.; Brenner, H.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of research that focuses on slow flows of suspensions in which colloidal and inertial effects are negligibly small. The authors describe nuclear magnetic resonance imaging experiments to quantitatively measure particle migration occurring in concentrated suspensions undergoing a flow with a nonuniform shear rate. These experiments address the issue of how the flow field affects the microstructure of suspensions. In order to understand the local viscosity in a suspension with such a flow-induced, spatially varying concentration, one must know how the viscosity of a homogeneous suspension depends on such variables as solids concentration and particle orientation. The authors suggest the technique of falling ball viscometry, using small balls, as a method to determine the effective viscosity of a suspension without affecting the original microstructure significantly. They also describe data from experiments in which the detailed fluctuations of a falling ball's velocity indicate the noncontinuum nature of the suspension and may lead to more insights into the effects of suspension microstructure on macroscopic properties. Finally, they briefly describe other experiments that can be performed in quiescent suspensions (in contrast to the use of conventional shear rotational viscometers) in order to learn more about boundary effects in concentrated suspensions

  17. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  18. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Wang Xinyu; Li Shipu

    2009-01-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solution and Ca(OH) 2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm x 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  19. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  20. Administrative license suspension: Does length of suspension matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael

    2017-08-18

    Administrative license revocation (ALR) laws, which provide that the license of a driver with a blood alcohol concentration at or over the illegal limit is subject to an immediate suspension by the state department of motor vehicles, are an example of a traffic law in which the sanction rapidly follows the offense. The power of ALR laws has been attributed to how swiftly the sanction is applied, but does the length of suspension matter? Our objectives were to (a) determine the relationship of the ALR suspension length to the prevalence of drinking drivers relative to sober drivers in fatal crashes and (b) estimate the extent to which the relationship is associated to the general deterrent effect compared to the specific deterrent effect of the law. Data comparing the impact of ALR law implementation and ALR law suspension periods were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques on the ratio of drinking drivers to nondrinking drivers in fatal crashes from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). States with an ALR law with a short suspension period (1-30 days) had a significantly lower drinking driver ratio than states with no ALR law. States with a suspension period of 91-180 days had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods, while the three states with suspension lengths of 181 days or longer had significantly lower ratios than states with shorter suspension periods. The implementation of any ALR law was associated with a 13.1% decrease in the drinking/nondrinking driver fatal crash ratio but only a 1.8% decrease in the intoxicated/nonintoxicated fatal crash ratio. The ALR laws and suspension lengths had a significant general deterrent effect, but no specific deterrent effect. States might want to keep (or adopt) ALR laws for their general deterrent effects and pursue alternatives for specific deterrent effects. States with short ALR suspension periods should consider lengthening them to 91 days or longer.

  1. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  2. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  3. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth

    2017-06-01

    Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing) and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava). Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers) or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  4. Rheology of dense suspensions of non colloidal particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guazzelli Élisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense suspensions are materials with broad applications both in industrial processes (e.g. waste disposal, concrete, drilling muds, metalworking chip transport, and food processing and in natural phenomena (e.g. flows of slurries, debris, and lava. Despite its long research history and its practical relevance, the mechanics of dense suspensions remain poorly understood. The major difficulty is that the grains interact both by hydrodynamic interactions through the liquid and by mechanical contact. These systems thus belong to an intermediate regime between pure suspensions and granular flows. We show that we can unify suspension and granular rheology under a common framework by transferring the frictional approach of dry granular media to wet suspensions of spherical particles. We also discuss non-Newtonian behavior such as normal-stress differences and shear-induced migration. Beyond the classical problem of dense suspension of hard spheres which is far from being completely resolved, there are also entirely novel avenues of study concerning more complex mixtures of particles and fluids such as those involving other types of particles (e.g. fibers or non-Newtonian fluids that we will also address.

  5. Geometrical analysis of suspension flows near jamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyart, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    The viscosity of suspensions was computed early on by Einstein and Batchelor in the dilute regime. At high density however, their rheology remains mystifying. As the packing fraction increases, steric hindrance becomes dominant and particles move under stress in a more and more coordinated way. Eventually, the viscosity diverges as the suspension jams into an amorphous solid. Such a jamming transition is reminiscent of critical points: the rheology displays scaling and a diverging length scale. Jamming bear similarities with the glass transition where steric hindrance is enhanced under cooling, and where the dynamics is also observed to become more and more collective as it slows down. In all these examples, understanding the nature of the collective dynamics and the associated rheology remains a challenge. Recent progress has been made however on a related problem, the unjamming transition where a solid made of repulsive soft particles is isotropically decompressed toward vanishing pressure. In this situation various properties of the amorphous solid, such as elasticity, transport or force propagation, display scaling with the distance to threshold. Theoretically these observations can be shown to stem from the presence of soft modes in the vibrational spectrum, a result that can be extended to thermal colloidal glasses as well. Here we focus on particles driven by shear at zero temperature. We show that if hydrodynamical interactions are neglected an analogy can be made between the rheology of such a suspension and the elasticity of simple networks, building a link between the jamming and the unjamming transition. This analogy enables us to unify in a common framework key aspects of the elasticity of amorphous solids with the rheology of dense suspensions, and to relate features of the latter to the geometry of configurations visited under flow.

  6. Magnetorheological suspension electromagnetic brake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    The magnetorheological suspension (MRS) brake is of the monoblock type. The main part of the electromagnetic brake is an electromagnet, between whose poles two MRS disks are placed. For distances between disks of 0.65x10 -3 m±10%, revolutions of the electric motor, coupled to the electromagnetic brake, ranging between 200 and 1600 rev/min and braking powers of up to 85 W, there are no differences in revolutions between the disks of the electromagnetic brake. For fixed revolutions of the electric motor, the revolution of the parallel disk can be modified continuously by means of the intensity of the magnetic field. In all cases, the quantity of MRS is of 0.35x10 -3 kg

  7. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  8. Controlling active cabin suspensions in commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, W.J.E.; Besselink, I.J.M.; Teerhuis, A.P.; Knaap, van der A.C.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2009-01-01

    The field of automotive suspensions is changing. Semi-active and active suspensions are starting to become viable options for vehicle designers. Suspension design for commercial vehicles is especially interesting given its potential. An active cabin suspension for a heavy-duty truck is considered,

  9. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three perfo...

  10. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This wondrous show in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local pop...

  11. "Point de suspension"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    CERN - Globe of Science and Innovation 20 and 21 October Acrobatics, mime, a cappella singing, projections of images, a magical setting... a host of different tools of a grandeur matching that of the Universe they relate. A camera makes a massive zoom out to reveal the multiple dimensions of Nature. Freeze the frame: half way between the infinitesimally small and the infinitesimally large, a man suspends his everyday life (hence the title "Point de Suspension", which refers to the three dots at the end of an uncompleted sentence) to take a glimpse of the place he occupies in the great history of the Universe. An unusual perspective on what it means to be a human being... This spectacle in the Globe of Science and Innovation, specially created by the Miméscope* company for the official ceremony marking CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is a gift from the Government of the Republic and Canton of Geneva, which also wishes to share this moment of wonder with the local population. There will be three performances for...

  12. Effects of the CD-Rom Version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on Quality of Contributions in IEP Meetings of High School Students with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cease-Cook, Jennifer; Test, David W.; Scroggins, La' Shawndra

    2013-01-01

    This study used a multiple-probe across participants design to examine the effects of the CD-Rom version of the "Self-Advocacy Strategy" on quality of contributions in Individual Education Plan (IEP) meetings of five high school students with intellectual disability. Results indicated a functional relationship between using the CD-Rom…

  13. Creating a "Win-Win IEP" for Students with Autism: A How-To Manual for Parents and Educators. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouse, Beth

    This book is intended to provide parents of students with autism with necessary information for the Individualized Education Program (IEP) process and includes relevant information from the 1997 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Chapters discuss the following topics: (1) introductory information; (2) definitions of autism, the basic…

  14. Comparison of Transition-Related IEP Content for Young Adults with Disabilities Who Do or Do Not Have a Legal Guardian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Dorothy Squatrito

    2009-01-01

    IEP transition-related content was compared between young adults with developmental disabilities who had or did not have legal guardians. It was found that students with guardians were more likely to earn a certificate of completion, and wanted to remain living with their families, in comparison to students without guardians who were more likely…

  15. Modeling aerosol suspension from soils and oceans as sources of micropollutants to air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asif; MacLeod, Matthew; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-10-01

    Soil and marine aerosol suspension are two physical mass transfer processes that are not usually included in models describing fate and transport of environmental pollutants. Here, we review the literature on soil and marine aerosol suspension and estimate aerosol suspension mass transfer velocities for inclusion in multimedia models, as a global average and on a 1 x 1 scale. The yearly, global average mass transfer velocity for soil aerosol suspension is estimated to be 6 x 10(-10)mh(-1), approximately an order of magnitude smaller than marine aerosol suspension, which is estimated to be 8 x 10(-9)mh(-1). Monthly averages of these velocities can be as high as 10(-7)mh(-1) and 10(-5)mh(-1) for soil and marine aerosol suspension, respectively, depending on location. We use a unit-world multimedia model to analyze the relevance of these two suspension processes as a mechanism that enhances long-range atmospheric transport of pollutants. This is done by monitoring a metric of long-range transport potential, phi-one thousand (phi1000), that denotes the fraction of modeled emissions to air, water or soil in a source region that reaches a distance of 1000 km in air. We find that when the yearly, globally averaged mass transfer velocity is used, marine aerosol suspension increases phi1000 only fractionally for both emissions to air and water. However, enrichment of substances in marine aerosols, or speciation between ionic and neutral forms in ocean water may increase the influence of this surface-to-air transfer process. Soil aerosol suspension can be the dominant process for soil-to-air transfer in an emission-to-soil scenario for certain substances that have a high affinity to soil. When a suspension mass transfer velocity near the maximum limit is used, soil suspension remains important if the emissions are made to soil, and marine aerosol suspension becomes important regardless of if emissions are made to air or water compartments. We recommend that multimedia models

  16. Active Control of Suspension Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper some recent research on active control of very long suspension bridges, is presented. The presentation is based on research work at Aalborg University, Denmark. The active control system is based on movable flaps attached to the bridge girder. Wind load on bridges with or without...... flaps attached to the girder is briefly presented. A simple active control system is discussed. Results from wind tunnel experiments with a bridge section show that flaps can be used effectively to control bridge girder vibrations. Flutter conditions for suspension bridges with and without flaps...

  17. Four-Wheel Vehicle Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickler, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    Four-wheel suspension system uses simple system of levers with no compliant components to provide three-point suspension of chassis of vehicle while maintaining four-point contact with uneven terrain. Provides stability against tipping of four-point rectangular base, without rocking contact to which rigid four-wheel frame susceptible. Similar to six-wheel suspension system described in "Articulated Suspension Without Springs" (NPO-17354).

  18. Heavy vehicle pitch dynamics and suspension tuning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Dongpu; Rakheja, Subhash; Su, Chun-Yi

    2008-01-01

    The influence of suspension tuning of passenger cars on bounce and pitch ride performance has been explored in a number of studies, while only minimal efforts have been made for establishing similar rules for heavy vehicles. This study aims to explore pitch dynamics and suspension tunings of a two-axle heavy vehicle with unconnected suspension, which could also provide valuable information for heavy vehicles with coupled suspensions. Based on a generalised pitch-plane model of a two-axle heav...

  19. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is the second of two papers, describing probe measurements of deposit buildup and removal (shedding), conducted in a 350 MWth suspension-fired boiler, firing straw and wood. Investigations of deposit buildup and shedding have been made by use of an advanced online deposit probe and a s...

  20. Suspension-Firing of Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Muhammad Shafique; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Frandsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This paper is Part 1 in a series of two describing probe measurements of deposit build-up and removal (shedding) in a 350 MWth suspension boiler, firing straw and wood. The influence of fuel type (straw share in wood), probe exposure time, probe surface temperature (500, 550, and 600 °C), and flu...

  1. Nonlinear models of suspension bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 321, č. 2 (2006), s. 828-850 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : suspension bridges * principle of minimum energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2006

  2. Fracture in Kaolinite clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgodagan Acharige, Sebastien; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Arratia, Paulo E.

    2017-11-01

    Clay minerals are involved in many natural (landslides, river channels) and industrial processes (ceramics, cosmetics, oil recovery). They are plate shaped charged colloids and exhibit different flow properties than simpler colloids when suspended in a liquid such as thixotropy and shear-banding. kaolinite platelets are non-swelling, meaning that the stacks formed by the platelets do not have water layers, and thus the suspension does not have a sol-gel transition. However, it has been shown that kaolinite suspensions possesses a non-zero yield stress even at low concentrations, indicating that the particles arrange themselves in a structure through attractive interactions. Here, we experimentally investigate the sedimentation of kaolinite suspensions in a Hele-Shaw cell. The sedimentation of these dilute suspensions can display solid behavior like fracture, revealed in cross-polarized light, which is linked to the failure of the weakly-bonded structure (typical yield stress 10-2 Pa). By changing the interaction potential of the particles (by sonication or introducing salts), we show through these sedimentation experiments, how the fracture pattern can be avoided. Research was sponsored by the Army Research Laboratory and was accomplished under Grant Number 569074.

  3. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.41 Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates. (a) Applicability. This section states the Board's policy for suspending rate changes for the transportation of property...

  4. 5 MJ flywheel based on bulk HTS magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltavets, V.; Kovalev, K.; Ilyasov, R.; Glazunov, A.; Maevsky, V.; Verzbitsky, L.; Akhmadyshev, V.; Shikov, A.

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays the flywheel energy storage systems (FES) are developed intensively as uninterruptible power supply (UPS) devices for on-land and transport (especially airborne) applications worldwide. This work is devoted to the FES with magnetic suspension on the base of bulk HTS YBCO elements and permanent magnets. The developed FES is intended to be used as UPS in Russian atomic industry in case of an emergency. For the successful design of the FES the following questions should be solved: design of the motor/generator, design of the rotor (flywheel), design of the bearing system, design of the control system and system of power load matching, design of the cooling system. The developed small-scale FES with the stored energy 0.5 MJ was used to solve these basic questions. The elaborated FES consists of the synchronous electric machine with permanent magnets, the solid flywheel with axial magnetic suspension on the base of YBCO bulks and permanent magnets, the system of control and power load matching, and the system of liquid nitrogen cooling. The results of theoretical modeling of different schematics of magnetic suspension and experimental investigations of the constructed FES are presented. The design of the future full-scale FES with the stored energy ~5 MJ and output power up to 100 kW is described. The test results of the flywheel rotor and HTS magnetic suspension of 5 MJ FES are presented. This work is done under support of Rosatom within the frames of Russian Project "Superconducting Industry"

  5. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz

  6. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  7. Chain Dynamics in Magnetorheological Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, A. P.; Furst, E. M.

    1999-01-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) suspensions are composed of colloidal particles which acquire dipole moments when subjected to an external magnetic field. At sufficient field strengths and concentrations, the dipolar particles rapidly aggregate to form long chains. Subsequent lateral cross-linking of the dipolar chains is responsible for a rapid liquid-to-solid-like rheological transition. The unique, magnetically-activated rheological properties of MR suspensions make them ideal for interfacing mechanical systems to electronic controls. Additionally, the ability to experimentally probe colloidal suspensions interacting through tunable anisotropic potentials is of fundamental interest. Our current experimental work has focused on understanding the fluctuations of dipolar chains. It has been proposed by Halsey and Toor (HT) that the strong Landau-Peierls thermal fluctuations of dipolar chains could be responsible for long-range attractions between chains. Such interactions will govern the long-time relaxation of MR suspensions. We have synthesized monodisperse neutrally buoyant MR suspensions by density matching stabilized ferrofluid emulsion droplets with D2O. This allows us to probe the dynamics of the dipolar chains using light scattering without gravitational, interfacial, and polydispersity effects to resolve the short-wavelength dynamics of the dipolar chains. We used diffusing wave spectroscopy to measure these dynamics. The particle displacements at short times that show an independence to the field strength, but at long times exhibit a constrained, sub-diffusive motion that slows as the dipole strength is increased. The experiments are in good qualitative agreement with Brownian dynamics simulations of dipolar chains. Although there have been several important and detailed studies of the structure and interactions in MR suspensions, there has not been conclusive evidence that supports or contradicts the HT model prediction that long-range interactions exist between

  8. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  9. Robust Tensioned Kevlar Suspension Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph B.; Naylor, Bret J.; Holmes, Warren A.

    2012-01-01

    One common but challenging problem in cryogenic engineering is to produce a mount that has excellent thermal isolation but is also rigid. Such mounts can be achieved by suspending the load from a network of fibers or strings held in tension. Kevlar fibers are often used for this purpose owing to their high strength and low thermal conductivity. A suite of compact design elements has been developed to improve the reliability of suspension systems made of Kevlar.

  10. Polymorphism in Bacterial Flagella Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Walter J.

    Bacterial flagella are a type of biological polymer studied for its role in bacterial motility and the polymorphic transitions undertaken to facilitate the run and tumble behavior. The naturally rigid, helical shape of flagella gives rise to novel colloidal dynamics and material properties. This thesis studies methods in which the shape of bacterial flagella can be controlled using in vitro methods and the changes the shape of the flagella have on both single particle dynamics and bulk material properties. We observe individual flagellum in both the dilute and semidilute regimes to observe the effects of solvent condition on the shape of the filament as well as the effect the filament morphology has on reptation through a network of flagella. In addition, we present rheological measurements showing how the shape of filaments effects the bulk material properties of flagellar suspensions. We find that the individual particle dynamics in suspensions of flagella can vary with geometry from needing to reptate linearly via rotation for helical filaments to the prevention of long range diffusion for block copolymer filaments. Similarly, for bulk material properties of flagella suspensions, helical geometries show a dramatic enhancement in elasticity over straight filaments while block copolymers form an elastic gel without the aid of crosslinking agents.

  11. Adaptive tracking control for active suspension systems with non-ideal actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huihui; Sun, Weichao; Jing, Xingjian; Gao, Huijun; Yao, Jianyong

    2017-07-01

    As a critical component of transportation vehicles, active suspension systems are instrumental in the improvement of ride comfort and maneuverability. However, practical active suspensions commonly suffer from parameter uncertainties (e.g., the variations of payload mass and suspension component parameters), external disturbances and especially the unknown non-ideal actuators (i.e., dead-zone and hysteresis nonlinearities), which always significantly deteriorate the control performance in practice. To overcome these issues, this paper synthesizes an adaptive tracking control strategy for vehicle suspension systems to achieve suspension performance improvements. The proposed control algorithm is formulated by developing a unified framework of non-ideal actuators rather than a separate way, which is a simple yet effective approach to remove the unexpected nonlinear effects. From the perspective of practical implementation, the advantages of the presented controller for active suspensions include that the assumptions on the measurable actuator outputs, the prior knowledge of nonlinear actuator parameters and the uncertain parameters within a known compact set are not required. Furthermore, the stability of the closed-loop suspension system is theoretically guaranteed by rigorous mathematical analysis. Finally, the effectiveness of the presented adaptive control scheme is confirmed using comparative numerical simulation validations.

  12. Attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, David B.; Fontana, Richard R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic suspension systems can be used in a wide variety of applications. The decision of whether to use an attractive or repulsive suspension system for a particular application is a fundamental one which must be made during the design process. As an aid to the designer, we compare and contrast attractive and repulsive magnetic suspension systems and indicate whether and under what conditions one or the other system is preferred.

  13. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Imtiaz Hussain; Jawaid Daudpoto; Ali Asghar Memon

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability...

  14. Time Varying Behavior of the Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    The suspension part of the electrodynamic loudspeaker is often modelled as a simple linear spring with viscous damping, however the dynamic behaviour of the suspension is much more complicated than predicted by such a simple model. At higher levels the compliance becomes non-linear and often chan...... changes during excitation at high levels. This paper investigates how the compliance of the suspension depends on the excitation, i.e. level and frequency content. The measurements are compared with other known measurement methods of the suspension....

  15. Introducing Dual Suspension System in Road Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Hussain

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of suspension system is to reduce the motions of the vehicle body with respect to road disturbances. The conventional suspension systems in road vehicles use passive elements such as springs and dampers to suppress the vibrations induced by the irregularities in the road. But these conventional suspension systems can suppress vibrations to a certain limit. This paper presents a novel idea to improve the ride quality of roads vehicles without compromising vehicle?s stability. The paper proposes the use of primary and secondary suspension to suppress the vibrations more effectively.

  16. 36 CFR 296.10 - Suspension and revocation of permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 296.10 Suspension and revocation of... correct the situation which led to suspension of the permit. (b) Suspension or revocation for management...

  17. Design analysis of formula student race car suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Julian Wisnu; Ubaidillah, Aditra, Rama; Alnursyah, Rafli; Rahman, Rizki Abdul; Cahyono, Sukmaji Indro

    2018-02-01

    Design analysis of suspension especially for racecar suspension is very crucial to achieve maximum performance and handling. Suspension design may vary depending on the road terrain and the vehicle purpose itself, such as high speed or off-road vehicle. This paper focused on the suspension which used for racecar vehicle. The suspension type used was unequal double wishbone. This model is used because of its stability for high-speed usage compared to another kind of suspension. The suspension parameter was calculated to achieve desired performance. The result is the motion ratio of the designed suspension geometry. The obtained value of motion ratio was 1:2 for front suspension and 1:1 for the rear suspension. These calculation result the front suspension is still too soft, which the optimal motion ratio should be kept around 1:1 for better handling. This problem caused by the lack of space for suspension linkage.

  18. 39 CFR 320.9 - Revocation or amendment of suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION OF THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 320.9 Revocation or amendment of suspensions. These suspensions... of operations (in dollar or volume terms, whichever is larger) lower than that antedating the...

  19. Linear viscoelastic properties of aging suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H.; Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2006-01-01

    We have examined the linear viscoelastic behavior of poly-N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) microgel suspensions in order to obtain insight in the aging processes in these densely packed suspensions at various temperatures below the volume transition temperature. The system is found to display a strong

  20. 41 CFR 105-74.670 - Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension. 105-74.670 Section 105-74.670 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System...-GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 105-74.670 Suspension...

  1. 36 CFR 25.3 - Supervision; suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision; suspensions. 25.3 Section 25.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL MILITARY PARKS; LICENSED GUIDE SERVICE REGULATIONS § 25.3 Supervision; suspensions. (a) The guide service will operate under the direction...

  2. Vortex-induced suspension of sediment in the surf zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Junichi; Saruwatari, Ayumi; Watanabe, Yasunori

    2017-12-01

    A major mechanism of sediment suspension by organized vortices produced under violent breaking waves in the surf zone was identified through physical and computational experiments. Counter-rotating flows within obliquely descending eddies produced between adjacent primary roller vortices induce transverse convergent near-bed flows, driving bed load transport to form regular patterns of transverse depositions. The deposited sediment is then rapidly ejected by upward carrier flows induced between the vortices. This mechanism of vortex-induced suspension is supported by experimental evidence that coherent sediment clouds are ejected where the obliquely descending eddies reach the sea bed after the breaking wave front has passed. In addition to the effects of settling and turbulent diffusion caused by breaking waves, the effect of the vortex-induced flows was incorporated into a suspension model on the basis of vorticity dynamics and parametric characteristics of transverse flows in breaking waves. The model proposed here reasonably predicts an exponential attenuation of the measured sediment concentration due to violent plunging waves and significantly improves the underprediction of the concentration produced by previous models.

  3. Shock Absorbers Multi-Modeling and Suspension Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Ciprian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The standard dampers used by more 90% of vehicles have damping coefficients constant along stroke, so they can’t solve simultaneous all of them, situation solving practically using a relative dampingcoefficient able to made compromise between them. This paper design and simulation testing multi-models of two types of Damp (DSA and VZN. To compare the two types of suspension they are simulated in various road and load conditions. Analysis of simulation results is presente a new VZN shock absorber. This is an invention of the Institute of Mechanics of the Romanian Academy, and patented at European and U.S. [1], [2]. This is Called VZN shock absorber, iscoming from Variable Zeta Necessary acronym, for well moving in all road and load Conditions, Where zeta Represents the relative damping, Which is Adjusted automatically, stepwise, According to the piston positions [3,4,5]. Suspension systems are used in all air and ground transportation to protect that building transportation and cargo transported around against shocks and vibrations induced in the systemfrom the road Modifying damping coefficients (Zeta function piston position, being correlated with vehicle load and road unevenness.

  4. Osmotic consolidation of suspensions and gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.; Zukoski, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    An osmotic method for the consolidation of suspensions of ceramic particles is demonstrated. Concentrated solutions of poly(ethylene oxide) are separated from a suspension of ceramic particles by a semipermeable membrane, creating a gradient in solvent chemical potential. Solvent passes from the suspension into the polymer solution, lowering its free energy and consolidating the suspension. Dispersions of stable 8-nm hydrous zirconia particles were consolidated to over 47% by volume. Suspensions of α-alumina in three states of aggregation (dispersed, weakly flocculated, and strongly flocculated) were consolidated to densities greater than or equal to those produced in conventional pressure filtration. Moreover, the as-consolidated alumina bodies were partially drained of fluid during the osmotic consolidation process, producing cohesive partially dried bodies with improved handling characteristics

  5. Clogging in constricted suspension flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Alvaro; Lhuissier, Henri; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kähler, Christian J.

    2018-02-01

    The flow of a charged-stabilized suspension through a single constricted channel is studied experimentally by tracking the particles individually. Surprisingly, the behavior is found to be qualitatively similar to that of inertial dry granular systems: For small values of the neck-to-particle size ratio (D /d reported for granular systems and agree for moderate particle volume fraction (ϕ ≈20 % ) with a simple stochastic model for the number of particles at the neck. For larger neck sizes (D /d >3 ), even at the largest ϕ (≈60 %) achievable in the experiments, an uninterrupted particle flow is observed, which resembles that of an hourglass. This particularly small value of D /d (≃3 ) at the transition to a practically uninterrupted flow is attributed to the low effective friction between the particles, achieved by the particle's functionalization and lubrication.

  6. Next Generation Suspension Dynamics Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schunk, Peter Randall [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higdon, Jonathon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chen, Steven [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research project has the objective to extend the range of application, improve the efficiency and conduct simulations with the Fast Lubrication Dynamics (FLD) algorithm for concentrated particle suspensions in a Newtonian fluid solvent. The research involves a combination of mathematical development, new computational algorithms, and application to processing flows of relevance in materials processing. The mathematical developments clarify the underlying theory, facilitate verification against classic monographs in the field and provide the framework for a novel parallel implementation optimized for an OpenMP shared memory environment. The project considered application to consolidation flows of major interest in high throughput materials processing and identified hitherto unforeseen challenges in the use of FLD in these applications. Extensions to the algorithm have been developed to improve its accuracy in these applications.

  7. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.

    1965-01-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m 3 and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m 2 /g (graphite particles about 1 μ), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m 2 /g (all the particles less than 0.3 μ). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [fr

  8. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  9. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23

  10. An observational study of the effect of vibration on the caking of suspensions in oily vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Bork, Olaf; Alawi, Fadil; Nanjan, Karthigeyan; Tucker, Ian G

    2016-11-30

    An oily suspension of penethamate (PNT) that was physically stable on storage, caked solidly during road/air transport. This paper reports on the caking behaviour of PNT oily suspension formulations exposed to vibrations in a lab-based test designed to simulate road/air transport. The lab-test was used to study the effects of container type (glass v PET) and formulation (oil, surfactant type and concentration) on the physical stability of suspension under vibration. Redispersibility of the sediment was lower at longer vibrations times and at higher intensity of vibration. Caking on vibration was strongly influenced by the type of container (caking in glass but not in PET) possibly due to tribo-charging of particles. Caking on vibration was dependent on the formulation: type and concentration of surfactant; type of oil. The physical stability of oily suspensions, and the effect of vibration are two areas which have been largely neglected in the pharmaceutical literature. This paper discusses some potential mechanisms for the observations but studies using fully characterised materials are required. Finally we conclude that static testing of physical stability of oily suspensions is not sufficient and that a vibrational stress test is required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme of motor-driven active suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuai; Sun, Weichao

    2017-09-01

    Active suspension systems have advantages on mitigating the effects of vehicle vibration caused by road roughness, which are one of the most important component parts in influencing the performances of vehicles. However, high amount of energy consumption restricts the application of active suspension systems. From the point of energy saving, this paper presents a self-powered criterion of the active suspension system to judge whether a motor-driven suspension can be self-powered or not, and then a motor parameter condition is developed as a reference to design a self-powered suspension. An energy regeneration implementation scheme is subsequently proposed to make the active suspension which has the potential to be self-powered achieve energy-saving target in the real application. In this implementation scheme, operating electric circuits are designed based on different working status of the actuator and power source and it is realizable to accumulate energy from road vibration and supply energy to the actuator by switching corresponding electric circuits. To apply the self-powered suspension criterion and energy regeneration implementation scheme, an active suspension system is designed with a constrained H∞ controller and calculation results indicate that it has the capability to be self-powered. Simulation results show that the performances of the self-powered active suspension are nearly the same as those of the active suspension with an external energy source and can achieve energy regeneration at the same time.

  12. Characterization of cell suspensions from solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallavicini, M.

    1985-01-01

    The desirable features of cells in suspension will necessarily be dependent upon the use for which the cells were prepared. Adequate cell yield or recovery is defined by the measurement to be performed. Retention of cellular morphology is important for microscopic identification of cell types in a heterogenous cell suspension, and may be used to determine whether the cells in suspension are representative of those in the tumor in situ. Different dispersal protocols may yield cells with different degrees of clonogenicity, as well as altered biochemical features, such as loss of cellular proteins, surface antigens, nucleotide pools, etc. The quality of the cell suspension can be judged by the degree of cell clumping and level of cellular debris, both of which impact on flow cytometric measurements and studies in which the number of cells be known accurately. Finally, if the data measured on the cells in suspension are to be extrapolated to phenomena occurring in the tumor in situ, it is desirable that the cells in suspension are representative of those in the solid tumor in vivo. This report compares characteristics of tumor cell suspensions obtained by different types of selected disaggregation methods. 33 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  14. Suspension for the low frequency facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Di Virgilio, A; Gaddi, A; Viceré, A

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the working principles of the VIRGO Low Frequency Facility (LFF), whose main aim is the measurement of the thermal noise in the VIRGO suspension system. We evaluate the displacement thermal noise of a mirror, which is an intermediate element of a double pendulum suspension system. This double pendulum will be suspended to the last stage of a VIRGO Super-Attenuator (SA), the prototype VIRGO suspension system being tested at the Pisa section of INFN. In the proposed configuration, we evaluate the spectrum of the thermal noise for different choices of the parameters: based on this study, we comment on the future directions to be undertaken in the LFF experiment.

  15. DC electrophoresis and viscosity of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions: non-equilibrium dissociation-association processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Reina, Emilio; Carrique, Félix; Lechuga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Most of the suspensions usually found in industrial applications are concentrated, aqueous and in contact with the atmospheric CO2. The case of suspensions with a high concentration of added salt is relatively well understood and has been considered in many studies. In this work we are concerned with the case of concentrated suspensions that have no ions different than: (1) those stemming from the charged colloidal particles (the added counterions, that counterbalance their surface charge); (2) the H(+) and OH(-) ions from water dissociation, and (3) the ions generated by the atmospheric CO2 contamination. We call this kind of systems "realistic salt-free suspensions". We show some theoretical results about the electrophoretic mobility of a colloidal particle and the electroviscous effect of realistic salt-free concentrated suspensions. The theoretical framework is based on a cell model that accounts for particle-particle interactions in concentrated suspensions, which has been successfully applied to many different phenomena in concentrated suspensions. On the other hand, the water dissociation and CO2 contamination can be described following two different levels of approximation: (a) by local equilibrium mass-action equations, because it is supposed that the reactions are so fast that chemical equilibrium is attained everywhere in the suspension, or (b) by non-equilibrium dissociation-association kinetic equations, because it is considered that some reactions are not rapid enough to ensure local chemical equilibrium. Both approaches give rise to different results in the range from dilute to semidilute suspensions, causing possible discrepancies when comparing standard theories and experiments concerning transport properties of realistic salt-free suspensions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigating high-concentration monoclonal antibody powder suspension in nonaqueous suspension vehicles for subcutaneous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Mayumi; Armstrong, Nick; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2012-12-01

    Developing high-concentration monoclonal antibody (mAb) liquid formulations for subcutaneous (s.c.) administration is challenging because increased viscosity makes injection difficult. To overcome this obstacle, we investigated a nonaqueous powder suspension approach. Three IgG1 mAbs were spray dried and suspended at different concentrations in Miglyol® 840, benzyl benzoate, or ethyl lactate. Suspensions were characterized for viscosity, particle size, and syringeability; physical stability was visually inspected. Suspensions generally outperformed liquid solutions for injectability despite higher viscosity at the same mAb concentrations. Powder formulations and properties had little effect on viscosity or injectability. Ethyl lactate suspensions had lowest viscosity (Miglyol® 840 improved overall performance in high mAb concentration suspensions. This study demonstrated the viability of high mAb concentration (>300 mg/mL) in suspension formulations for s.c. administration. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  18. Heat and mass transfer in particulate suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)

    2013-01-01

    Heat and Mass Transfer in Particulate Suspensions is a critical review of the subject of heat and mass transfer related to particulate Suspensions, which include both fluid-particles and fluid-droplet Suspensions. Fundamentals, recent advances and industrial applications are examined. The subject of particulate heat and mass transfer is currently driven by two significant applications: energy transformations –primarily combustion – and heat transfer equipment. The first includes particle and droplet combustion processes in engineering Suspensions as diverse as the Fluidized Bed Reactors (FBR’s) and Internal Combustion Engines (ICE’s). On the heat transfer side, cooling with nanofluids, which include nanoparticles, has attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade both from the fundamental and the applied side and has produced several scientific publications. A monograph that combines the fundamentals of heat transfer with particulates as well as the modern applications of the subject would be...

  19. Experimental Evaluation of Mountain Bike Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Titlestad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant distinction between competitive mountain bikes is whether they have a suspension system. Research studies indicate that a suspension system gives advantages, but it is difficult to quantify the benefits because they depend on so many variables, including the physiology and psychology of the cyclist, the roughness of the track and the design of the suspension system. A laboratory based test rig has been built that allows the number of variables in the system to be reduced and test conditions to be controlled. The test rig simulates regular impacts of the rear wheel with bumps in a rolling road. The physiological variables of oxygen consumption and heart rate were measured, together with speeds and forces at various points in the system. Physiological and mechanical test results both confirm a significant benefit in using a suspension system on the simulated rough track, with oxygen consumption reduced by around 30 % and power transmitted through the pedals reduced by 30 % to 60 %.

  20. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.; Peppin, S. S. L.

    2010-01-01

    and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model

  1. Increasing Possibilities of Nano suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutradhar, K.B.; Khatun, S.; Luna, I.P.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nano technology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1-1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nano technology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular) scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and no noral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nano suspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery

  2. Suspension scheme for fuel pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butts, C.E.; Gray, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is presented of a nuclear fuel pin suspension arrangement comprising, in combination, a rod; a first beam member connected to said rod at one end; a plurality of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates attached to said first beam member, the longitudinal axis of first beam member being perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of each of said fuel support plates, a first coupling means disposed along the length of the first beam member for permitting slidable fuel support plates parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of said first beam member, a second coupling means located at one end of each of slidable fuel plates for slidably engaging first coupling means of first beam member, a second beam member connected to the other end of each of parallel-spaced slidable fuel support plates and providing an extension, second beam member being provided with a third coupling means disposed along the length of second beam member at one end thereof; and a plurality of fuel pins provided with a fourth coupling means located at one end of each fuel pin for slidably engaging third coupling means of second beam member to permit each fuel pin parallel movement with respect to the longitudinal axis of second beam member. (U.S.)

  3. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  4. Flow-induced structure in colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermant, J [Department of Chemical Engineering, K U Leuven, W de Croylaan 46, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Solomon, M J [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2136 (United States)

    2005-02-02

    We review the sequences of structural states that can be induced in colloidal suspensions by the application of flow. Structure formation during flow is strongly affected by the delicate balance among interparticle forces, Brownian motion and hydrodynamic interactions. The resulting non-equilibrium microstructure is in turn a principal determinant of the suspension rheology. Colloidal suspensions with near hard-sphere interactions develop an anisotropic, amorphous structure at low dimensionless shear rates. At high rates, clustering due to strong hydrodynamic forces leads to shear thickening rheology. Application of steady-shear flow to suspensions with repulsive interactions induces a rich sequence of transitions to one-, two-and three-dimensional order. Oscillatory-shear flow generates metastable ordering in suspensions with equilibrium liquid structure. On the other hand, short-range attractive interactions can lead to a fluid-to-gel transition under quiescent suspensions. Application of flow leads to orientation, breakup, densification and spatial reorganization of aggregates. Using a non-Newtonian suspending medium leads to additional possibilities for organization. We examine the extent to which theory and simulation have yielded mechanistic understanding of the microstructural transitions that have been observed. (topical review)

  5. DESIGN AND APPLICATION OF MAGNETIC BEARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM IN A THREE PHASE INDUCTION MOTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman GÜRDAL

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The current popularity of suspension and levitation stems no doubt the possibilities in high-speed ground transportation schemes. Although these are both challenging and exciting, there is considerable scope for application of suspension techniques to achieving frictionless bearing. The requirement in this case is often for close tolerances, low power consumption, small airgaps and ingeneral, compactness. Thus, magnetic suspension using DC electromagnets schemes have received more attention than the other techniques of repulsion levitation. Proposed prototype system consists of a conventional stator and its rotor without iron core, set of electromagnets for suspension of rotor shaft and set of compensation circuits feedbacked by optical-transducers. Prototyped system is aimed as a laboratory demonstration tool so there is no challenging to exceed the speeds of 1500 rev/min that is the speed of motor with mechanical bearings. Magnetic bearing suspension system provides a high impact visual demonstration of many principles in undergraduate educational programs in electrical education, e.g., electromagnetic design, PD controlled compensation of a unstable control system and power amplifier design. The system is capable of giving a good comparison between mechanical and magnetic bearing up to speeds 350 rev/min. Power losses without load show about 15% reduction with magnetic bearing. The noise of the motor is also decreased to a low level.

  6. A semi-active control suspension system for railway vehicles with magnetorheological fluid dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiukun; Zhu, Ming; Jia, Limin

    2016-07-01

    The high-speed train has achieved great progress in the last decades. It is one of the most important modes of transportation between cities. With the rapid development of the high-speed train, its safety issue is paid much more attention than ever before. To improve the stability of the vehicle with high speed, extra dampers (i.e. anti-hunting damper) are used in the traditional bogies with passive suspension system. However, the curving performance of the vehicle is undermined due to the extra lateral force generated by the dampers. The active suspension systems proposed in the last decades attempt to solve the vehicle steering issue. However, the active suspension systems need extra actuators driven by electrical power or hydraulic power. There are some implementation and even safety issues which are not easy to be overcome. In this paper, an innovative semi-active controlled lateral suspension system for railway vehicles is proposed. Four magnetorheological fluid dampers are fixed to the primary suspension system of each bogie. They are controlled by online controllers for enhancing the running stability on the straight track line on the one hand and further improving the curving performance by controlling the damper force on the other hand. Two control strategies are proposed in the light of the pure rolling concept. The effectiveness of the proposed strategies is demonstrated by SIMPACK and Matlab co-simulation for a full railway vehicle with two conventional bogies.

  7. 21 CFR 1301.36 - Suspension or revocation of registration; suspension of registration pending final order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension or revocation of registration; suspension of registration pending final order; extension of registration pending final order. 1301.36... registration pending final order; extension of registration pending final order. (a) For any registration...

  8. Suspension, a Wake-Up Call: Rural Educators' Attitudes toward Suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Joan; Friedland, Billie

    Data from the West Virginia Department of Education reveals that from September 1991 to January 1992, school districts reported 18,915 out-of-school suspensions involving 12,997 students. In 1995, the West Virginia State Legislature enacted the Safe Schools Act, which specifically mandates suspension for no less than 12 consecutive months for…

  9. Numerical study of suspensions of deformable particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Luca; Rosti, Marco Edoardo

    2017-11-01

    We consider a model non-Newtonian fluid consisting of a suspension of deformable particles in a Newtonian solvent. Einstein showed in his pioneering work that the relative increase in effective viscosity is a linear function of the particle volume fraction for dilute suspensions of rigid particles. Inertia has been shown to introduce deviations from the behaviour predicted by the different empirical fits, an effect that can be related to an increase of the effective volume fraction. We here focus on the effect of elasticity, i.e. visco-elastic deformable particles. To tackle the problem at hand, we perform three-dimensional Direct Numerical Simulation of a plane Couette flow with a suspension of neutrally buoyant deformable viscous hyper-elastic particles. We show that elasticity produces a shear-thinning effect in elastic suspensions (in comparison to rigid ones) and that it can be understood in terms of a reduction of the effective volume fraction of the suspension. The deformation modifies the particle motion reducing the level of mutual interaction. Normal stress differences will also be considered. European Research Council, Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG- 616186, TRITOS; SNIC (the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing).

  10. Minimally invasive brow suspension for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Peter D; Hiltzik, David H; Moche, Jason; Preminger, Aviva

    2003-01-01

    To report a new technique for unilateral brow suspension for facial paralysis that is minimally invasive, limits supraciliary scar formation, does not require specialized endoscopic equipment or expertise, and has proved to be equal to direct brow suspension in durability and symmetry. Retrospective survey of a case series of 23 patients between January 1997 and December 2000. Metropolitan tertiary care center. Patients with head and neck tumors and brow ptosis caused by facial nerve paralysis. The results of the procedure were determined using the following 3-tier rating system: outstanding (excellent elevation and symmetry); acceptable (good elevation and fair symmetry); and unacceptable (loss of elevation). The results were considered outstanding in 12 patients, acceptable in 9 patients, and unacceptable in only 1 patient. One patient developed a hematoma, and 1 patient required a secondary adjustment. The technique has proved to be superior to standard brow suspension procedures with regard to scar formation and equal with respect to facial symmetry and suspension. These results have caused us to abandon direct brow suspension and to use this minimally invasive method in all cases of brow ptosis due to facial paralysis.

  11. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  12. Modeling Suspension and Continuation of a Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on difficulties an analyst encounters when modeling suspension and continuation of a process in contemporary process modeling languages. As a basis there is introduced general lifecycle of an activity which is then compared to activity lifecycles supported by individual process modeling languages. The comparison shows that the contemporary process modeling languages cover the defined general lifecycle of an activity only partially. There are picked two popular process modeling languages and there is modeled real example, which reviews how the modeling languages can get along with their lack of native support of suspension and continuation of an activity. Upon the unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages in the modeled example, there is presented a new process modeling language which, as demonstrated, is capable of capturing suspension and continuation of an activity in much simpler and precise way.

  13. Phagocytosis in phosphate chromium (III) suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz-Arencibia, Jorge; Fano Machín, Yoiz; Cruz-Morales, Ahmed; Tamayo Fuente, Radamés; Morín-Zorrilla, José

    2015-01-01

    Phagocytosis in vivo and in vitro of a suspension of chromic phosphate (III) labeled with 51 Cr and 32 P is studied. The radioactive particles dispersed in a media of 2 % gelatin in acetate buffer pH 4-4.5 have a predominant size of 0.8 μm and 5 μm. According with biodistribution experiments in rats after 30 minutes near the 80 % of radioactivity is registered in the liver, probably associated with phagocytosis of the particles by liver Kupffer cells. Is also showed that the suspension particles are phagocytized in vitro by mouse peritoneal macrophages. This facts indicate that the studied suspension have appropriate characteristics to be used in radiosynoviorthesis according to the principal action mechanism described for this procedure, particles phagocytosis by cells present in the inflamed synovium. (author)

  14. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  15. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  16. Intelligent systems of the vehicles’ suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlin, D.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to the current condition of car’s active suspension system. It presents the tendencies in development of the active systems of suspension system, adjustable elements incorporated in them and the companies succeeded in designing such systems. It also mirrors the problem of impact of active systems on car’s safety and their importance for the driver. Advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of active elements are being described, analyzed and compared. The author concludes about the perspectives of these systems’ development.

  17. Unifying Suspension and Granular flows near Jamming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeGiuli Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of dense flows of hard particles are singular as one approaches the jamming threshold where flow ceases, both for granular flows dominated by inertia, and for over-damped suspensions. Concomitantly, the lengthscale characterizing velocity correlations appears to diverge at jamming. Here we review a theoretical framework that gives a scaling description of stationary flows of frictionless particles. Our analysis applies both to suspensions and inertial flows of hard particles. We report numerical results in support of the theory, and show the phase diagram that results when friction is added, delineating the regime of validity of the frictionless theory.

  18. Gravity Drainage Kinetics of Papermaking Fibrous Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przybysz Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses application possibilities of filtration and thickening models in evaluation of papermaking suspension drainage rate. The authors proposed their own method to estimate the drainage rate on the basis of an existing Ergun capillary model of liquid flow through a granular material. The proposed model was less sensitive to porosity changes than the Ergun model. An empirical verification proved robustness of the proposed approach. Taking into account discrepancies in the published data concerning how the drainage velocity of papermaking suspension is defined, this study examines which of the commonly applied models matches experimental results the best.

  19. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Nanometric Alumina Suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuanping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Colloidal processing is an effective and reliable approach in the fabrication of the advanced ceramic products. Successful colloidal processing of fine ceramic powders requires accurate control of the rheological properties. The accurate control relies on the understanding the influences of various colloidal parameters on the rheological properties. Almost all research done on the rheology paid less attention to the interactions of particle and solvent. However, the interactions of the particles are usually built up through the media in which the particles are suspended. Therefore, interactions of the particle with the media, the adsorbed layers on the particle surface, and chemical and physical properties of media themselves must influence the rheology of the suspension, especially for the dense suspensions containing nanosized particles. Relatively little research work has been reported in this area. This thesis addresses the rheological properties of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions, and paying more attention to the interactions between particle and solvent, which in turn influence the particle-particle interactions. Dense nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions with low viscosity were achieved by environmentally-benign fructose additives. The rheology of nanometric alumina aqueous suspensions and its variation with the particle volume fraction and concentration of fructose were explored by rheometry. The adsorptions of solute (fructose) and solvent (water) on the nanometric alumina particle surfaces were measured and analyzed by TG/DSC, TOC, and NMR techniques. The mobility of water molecules in the suspensions and its variation with particle volume fractions and fructose additive were determined by the 17O NMR relaxation method. The interactions between the nanometric alumina particles in water and fructose solutions were investigated by AFM. The results indicated that a large number of water layers were physically bound on the particles

  20. Monitoring Technology for Vehicle Loading Status Based on the Analysis of Suspension Vibration Characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwu Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and early warning of vehicle risk status was one of the key technologies of transportation security, and real-time monitoring load status could reduce the transportation accidents effectively. In order to obtain vehicle load status information, vehicle characters of suspension were analyzed and simulated under different working conditions. On the basis of this, the device that can detect suspension load with overload protection structure was designed and a method of monitored vehicle load status was proposed. The monitoring platform of vehicle load status was constructed and developed for a FAW truck and system was tested on level-A road and body twist lane. The results show that the measurement error is less than 5% and horizontal centre-of-mass of vehicle was positioned accurately. The platform enables providing technical support for the real-time monitoring and warning of vehicles risk status in transit.

  1. Decoupling Suspension Controller Based on Magnetic Flux Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module’s antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  2. On the Benefits of Semi-Active Suspensions with Inerters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Jie Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inerters have become a hot topic in recent years especially in vehicle, train, building suspension systems, etc. Eight different layouts of suspensions were analyzed with a quarter-car model in this paper. Dimensionless root mean square (RMS responses of the sprung mass vertical acceleration, the suspension travel, and the tire deflection are derived which were used to evaluate the performance of the quarter-car model. The behaviour of semi-active suspensions with inerters using Groundhook, Skyhook, and Hybrid control has been evaluated and compared to the performance of passive suspensions with inerters. Sensitivity analysis was applied to the development of a high performance semi-active suspension with an inerter. Numerical simulations indicate that a semi-active suspension with an inerter has much better performance than the passive suspension with an inerter, especially with the Hybrid control method, which has the best compromise between comfort and road holding quality.

  3. Decoupling suspension controller based on magnetic flux feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Jie; Zhang, Kun; Cui, Peng

    2013-01-01

    The suspension module control system model has been established based on MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) state feedback linearization. We have completed decoupling between double suspension points, and the new decoupling method has been applied to CMS04 magnetic suspension vehicle in national mid-low-speed maglev experiment field of Tangshan city in China. Double suspension system model is very accurate for investigating stability property of maglev control system. When magnetic flux signal is taken back to the suspension control system, the suspension module's antijamming capacity for resisting suspension load variety has been proved. Also, the external force interference has been enhanced. As a result, the robustness and stability properties of double-electromagnet suspension control system have been enhanced.

  4. Measurements on an electromagnetic active suspension system for automotive applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gysen, B.L.J.; Paulides, J.J.H.; Lomonova, E.A.; Encica, L.; Gysen, B.L.J.; Jansen, J.W.; Krop, D.C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—This paper describes the specifications for active suspension systems and provides an electromagnetic solution. Electromagnetic actuation and preliminary control strategies are investigated in order to achieve a suspension system with the ability to absorb road irregularities and perform

  5. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fuzzy logic control; active vehicle suspension; suspension space. 1. ... surface unevenness, stability and directional control during handling ..... Burton A W, Truscott A J, Wellstead P E 1995 Analysis, modeling and control of an advanced.

  6. Rheological properties of hydrate suspensions in asphaltenic crude oils; Proprietes rheologiques de suspensions d'hydrate dans des bruts asphalteniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques de Toledo Camargo, R.

    2001-03-01

    The development of offshore oil exploitation under increasing water depths has forced oil companies to increase their understanding of gas hydrate formation and transportation in multiphase flow lines in which a liquid hydrocarbon phase is present. This work deals with the flow behaviour of hydrate suspensions in which a liquid hydrocarbon is the continuous phase. Three different liquid hydrocarbons are used: an asphaltenic crude oil, a condensate completely free of asphaltenes and a mixture between the asphaltenic oil and heptane. The rheological characterisation of hydrate suspensions is the main tool employed. Two original experimental devices are used: a PVT cell adapted to operate as a Couette type rheometer and a semi-industrial flow loop. Hydrate suspensions using the asphaltenic oil showed shear-thinning behaviour and thixotropy. This behaviour is typically found in flocculated systems, in which the particles attract each other forming flocs of aggregated particles at low shear rates. The suspensions using the condensate showed Newtonian behaviour. Their relative viscosities were high, which suggests that an aggregation process between hydrate particles takes. place during hydrate formation. Finally, hydrate suspensions using the mixture asphaltenic oil-heptane showed shear-thinning behaviour, thixotropy and high relative viscosity. From these results it can be inferred that, after the achievement of the hydrate formation process, the attractive forces between hydrate particles are weak. making unlikely pipeline obstruction by an aggregation process. Nevertheless, during the hydrate formation, these attractive forces can be sufficiently high. It seems that the hydrate surface wettability is an important parameter in this phenomena. (author)

  7. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradation in an oxygen-limiting environment using a saponin-based microbubble suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ju; Kim, Young-Jin; Nam, Kyoungphile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of a saponin-based microbubble suspension to enhance aerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene by subsurface delivery. As the microbubble suspension flowed through a sand column pressure buildup and release was repeatedly observed, which delivered oxygen to the less permeable regions. Burkholderia cepacia RPH1, a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, was mainly transported in a suspended form in the microbubble suspension. When three pore volumes of the microbubble suspension containing B. cepacia RPH1 was introduced into a column contaminated with phenanthrene (100 mg/kg), the oxygen content declined to 5% from an initial value of 20% within 5 days and correspondingly, 34.4% of initial phenanthrene was removed in 8 days. The addition of two further three pore volumes enhanced the biodegradation efficiency by a factor of 2.2. Our data suggest that a saponin-based microbubble suspension could be a potential carrier for enhancing the aerobic biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting environment. - Microbubble suspension can enhance the phenanthrene biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting condition.

  8. Enhancement of aerobic biodegradation in an oxygen-limiting environment using a saponin-based microbubble suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ju; Kim, Young-Jin [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kyoungphile, E-mail: kpnam@snu.ac.k [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    This study investigated the ability of a saponin-based microbubble suspension to enhance aerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene by subsurface delivery. As the microbubble suspension flowed through a sand column pressure buildup and release was repeatedly observed, which delivered oxygen to the less permeable regions. Burkholderia cepacia RPH1, a phenanthrene-degrading bacterium, was mainly transported in a suspended form in the microbubble suspension. When three pore volumes of the microbubble suspension containing B. cepacia RPH1 was introduced into a column contaminated with phenanthrene (100 mg/kg), the oxygen content declined to 5% from an initial value of 20% within 5 days and correspondingly, 34.4% of initial phenanthrene was removed in 8 days. The addition of two further three pore volumes enhanced the biodegradation efficiency by a factor of 2.2. Our data suggest that a saponin-based microbubble suspension could be a potential carrier for enhancing the aerobic biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting environment. - Microbubble suspension can enhance the phenanthrene biodegradation under an oxygen-limiting condition.

  9. "Restorative Practices" Offer Alternatives to Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    At City Springs and many other schools across the country, restorative practices are about holding students accountable and getting them to right a wrong. The approach is getting more notice than ever as criticism grows of zero-tolerance disciplinary policies that often require out-of-school suspension and expulsion. Educators are turning to…

  10. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  11. 75 FR 68704 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 64 [Docket ID FEMA-2010-0003; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-8155] Suspension of Community Eligibility AGENCY: Federal.... Acadia Parish. Emerg; February 4, 1981, Reg; November 26, 2010, Susp. Iota, Town of, Acadia 220005...

  12. Suspension of Water Droplets on Individual Pillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tóth, T.; Ferraro, D.; Chiarello, E.

    2011-01-01

    We report results of extensive experimental and numerical studies on the suspension of water drops deposited on cylindrical pillars having circular and square cross sections and different wettabilities. In the case of circular pillars, the drop contact line is pinned to the whole edge contour unt...

  13. ENHANCEMENT OF DURABILITY OF TRACTOR SUSPENSION AXLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Doshchechkina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The ‘soft’ nitriding of the suspension axle surface of the T150K tractor at the depth of 0.08 mm enables us to enhance its constructive strength, to increase its service life by 25 % and have a considerable economic effect.

  14. Pair-correlations in swimmer suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Sankalp; Subramanian, Ganesh

    2017-11-01

    Suspensions of rear-actuated swimming microorganisms, such as E.coli, exhibit several interesting phenomena including spontaneous pattern formation above a critical concentration, novel rheological properties, shear-induced concentration banding etc. Explanations based on mean-field theory are only qualitative, since interactions between swimmers are important for typical experimental concentrations. We analytically characterize the hydrodynamic pair-interactions in a quiescent suspension of slender straight swimmers. The pair-correlation, calculated at leading order by integrating the swimmer velocity disturbances along straight trajectories, decays as 1/r2 for r >> L (L being the swimmer size). This allows us to characterize both polar and nematic correlations in an interacting swimmer suspension. In the absence of correlations, the velocity covariance asymptotes from a constant for r > L, the latter being characteristic of a suspension of non-interacting point force-dipoles. On including correlations, the slow decay of the pair-orientation correlation leads to an additional contribution to the velocity covariance that diverges logarithmically with system size.

  15. Baltimore District Tackles High Suspension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on how the Baltimore District tackles its high suspension rates. Driven by an increasing belief that zero-tolerance disciplinary policies are ineffective, more educators are embracing strategies that do not exclude misbehaving students from school for offenses such as insubordination, disrespect, cutting class, tardiness, and…

  16. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  17. Alternatives to School Disciplinary and Suspension Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Div. of Instruction.

    Policies and procedures for disciplining students should be designed to teach them responsibility, rather than simply punish them. Providing educational opportunities to behavioral deviants is a problem that does not have a simple solution. However, alternatives to suspension or expulsion must be attempted before these disciplinary actions are…

  18. Improved understanding of the acoustophoretic focusing of dense suspensions in a microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthick, S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    We provide improved understanding of acoustophoretic focusing of a dense suspension (volume fraction φ >10 % ) in a microchannel subjected to an acoustic standing wave using a proposed theoretical model and experiments. The model is based on the theory of interacting continua and utilizes a momentum transport equation for the mixture, continuity equation, and transport equation for the solid phase. The model demonstrates the interplay between acoustic radiation and shear-induced diffusion (SID) forces that is critical in the focusing of dense suspensions. The shear-induced particle migration model of Leighton and Acrivos, coupled with the acoustic radiation force, is employed to simulate the continuum behavior of particles. In the literature, various closures for the diffusion coefficient Dφ* are available for rigid spheres at high concentrations and nonspherical deformable particles [e.g., red blood cells (RBCs)] at low concentrations. Here we propose a closure for Dφ* for dense suspension of RBCs and validate the proposed model with experimental data. While the available closures for Dφ* fail to predict the acoustic focusing of a dense suspension of nonspherical deformable particles like RBCs, the predictions of the proposed model match experimental data within 15%. Both the model and experiments reveal a competition between acoustic radiation and SID forces that gives rise to an equilibrium width w* of a focused stream of particles at some distance Leq* along the flow direction. Using different shear rates, acoustic energy densities, and particle concentrations, we show that the equilibrium width is governed by Péclet number Pe and Strouhal number Stas w*=1.4(PeSt) -0.5 while the length required to obtain the equilibrium-focused width depends on St as Leq*=3.8 /(St)0.6 . The proposed model and correlations would find significance in the design of microchannels for acoustic focusing of dense suspensions such as undiluted blood.

  19. Electrostratic stabilization of suspensions in non-aqueous media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven, van der P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated suspensions of detergent powder solids in a liquid nonionic surfactant are considered for practical application as liquid detergent products. If no precautions are taken, upon storage the viscosity of such suspensions increases and the pourability drops because the suspensions are

  20. Preview based control of suspension systems for commercial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijderman, J.H.E.A.; Kok, J.J.; Huisman, R.G.M.; Veldpaus, F.E.; van Heck, J.G.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    An active suspension with preview is developed for the rear axle of a commercial vehicle. The obtained improvements are promising and justify further investigation of the more feasible semi-active suspensions with preview. The inherent non-linearity of semi-active suspensions with switching shock

  1. Professor Jesse W. Beams and the first practical magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, P. E.; Humphris, R. R.; Lewis, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    Dr. Jesse W. Beams developed the first practical magnetic suspension for high speed rotating devices. The devices included high speed rotating mirrors, ultracentrifuges, and high speed centrifugal field rotors. A brief biography of Dr. Beams is presented, and the following topics are discussed: (1) early axial magnetic suspension for ultracentrifuges; and (2) magnetic suspension for high centrifugal fields.

  2. Fuzzy logic control of vehicle suspensions with dry friction nonlinearity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We design and investigate the performance of fuzzy logic-controlled (FLC) active suspensions on a nonlinear vehicle model with four degrees of freedom, without causing any degeneration in suspension working limits. Force actuators were mounted parallel to the suspensions. In this new approach, linear combinations of ...

  3. Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates in diluted suspensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and disaggregation of micron-size aggregates in a diluted suspension made up of HSs and bentonite (B) were studied by tracing distribution of aggregate sizes and their counts in freshly prepared and aged suspensions, and at high (10 000) and low (1.0) [HS]/[B] ratios. Diluted HSB suspensions are unstable ...

  4. 15 CFR 2011.207 - Suspension of the certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Specialty Sugar § 2011.207 Suspension of the certificate system. (a) Suspension. The.... Notice of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  5. 13 CFR 120.660 - Suspension or revocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation. 120.660 Section 120.660 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Suspension Or Revocation of Participant in Secondary Market § 120.660 Suspension or revocation. (a...

  6. 39 CFR 3001.114 - Suspension pending review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension pending review. 3001.114 Section 3001... Suspension pending review. (a) Application. Application for suspension of a determination of the Postal Service to close or consolidate any post office pending the outcome of an appeal to the Postal Regulatory...

  7. 21 CFR 520.905a - Fenbendazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fenbendazole suspension. 520.905a Section 520.905a... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.905a Fenbendazole suspension. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of suspension contains 100 milligrams (mg) fenbendazole. (b...

  8. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  9. Microstructural Dynamics and Rheology of Suspensions of Rigid Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jason E.; Snook, Braden

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics and rheology of suspensions of rigid, non-Brownian fibers in Newtonian fluids are reviewed. Experiments, theories, and computer simulations are considered, with an emphasis on suspensions at semidilute and concentrated conditions. In these suspensions, interactions between the particles strongly influence the microstructure and rheological properties of the suspension. The interactions can arise from hydrodynamic disturbances, giving multibody interactions at long ranges and pairwise lubrication forces over short distances. For concentrated suspensions, additional interactions due to excluded volume (contacts) and adhesive forces are addressed. The relative importance of the various interactions as a function of fiber concentration is assessed.

  10. Study on kinematic and compliance test of suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Lixin; Wu, Liguang; Li, Xuepeng; Zhang, Yu

    2017-09-01

    Chassis performance development is a major difficulty in vehicle research and development, which is the main factor restricting the independent development of vehicles in China. These years, through a large number of studies, chassis engineers have found that the suspension K&C characteristics as a quasi-static characteristic of the suspension provides a technical route for the suspension performance R&D, and the suspension K&C test has become an important means of vehicle benchmarking, optimization and verification. However, the research on suspension K&C test is less in china, and the test conditions and setting requirements vary greatly from OEM to OEM. In this paper, the influence of different settings on the characteristics of the suspension is obtained through experiments, and the causes of the differences are analyzed; in order to fully reflect the suspension characteristics, the author recommends the appropriate test case and settings.

  11. System and technique for ultrasonic characterization of settling suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwood, Margaret S [Richland, WA; Panetta, Paul D [Richland, WA; Bamberger, Judith A [Richland, WA; Pappas, Richard A [Richland, WA

    2006-11-28

    A system for determining properties of settling suspensions includes a settling container, a mixer, and devices for ultrasonic interrogation transverse to the settling direction. A computer system controls operation of the mixer and the interrogation devices and records the response to the interrogating as a function of settling time, which is then used to determine suspension properties. Attenuation versus settling time for dilute suspensions, such as dilute wood pulp suspension, exhibits a peak at different settling times for suspensions having different properties, and the location of this peak is used as one mechanism for characterizing suspensions. Alternatively or in addition, a plurality of ultrasound receivers are arranged at different angles to a common transmitter to receive scattering responses at a variety of angles during particle settling. Angular differences in scattering as a function of settling time are also used to characterize the suspension.

  12. Nonlinear Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active suspension system is important in meeting the requirements of the ride comfort and handling stability for vehicles. In this work, a nonlinear model of active suspension system and a corresponding nonlinear robust predictive sliding mode control are established for the control problem of active suspension. Firstly, a seven-degree-of-freedom active suspension model is established considering the nonlinear effects of springs and dampers; and secondly, the dynamic model is expanded in the time domain, and the corresponding predictive sliding mode control is established. The uncertainties in the controller are approximated by the fuzzy logic system, and the adaptive controller reduces the approximation error to increase the robustness of the control system. Finally, the simulation results show that the ride comfort and handling stability performance of the active suspension system is better than that of the passive suspension system and the Skyhook active suspension. Thus, the system can obviously improve the shock absorption performance of vehicles.

  13. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Arto; Tuononen, Ari J

    2015-08-05

    Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  14. Three Three-Axis IEPE Accelerometers on the Inner Liner of a Tire for Finding the Tire-Road Friction Potential Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Niskanen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Direct tire-road contact friction estimation is essential for future autonomous cars and active safety systems. Friction estimation methods have been proposed earlier for driving conditions in the presence of a slip angle or slip ratio. However, the estimation of the friction from a freely-rolling tire is still an unsolved topic. Knowing the existing friction potential would be beneficial since vehicle control systems could be adjusted before any remarkable tire force has been produced. Since accelerometers are well-known and robust, and thus a promising sensor type for intelligent tires, this study uses three three-axis IEPE accelerometers on the inner liner of a tire to detect friction potential indicators on two equally smooth surfaces with different friction levels. The equal roughness was chosen for both surfaces in order to study the friction phenomena by neglecting the effect of surface texture on vibrations. The acceleration data before the contact is used to differentiate the two friction levels between the tire and the road. In addition, the contact lengths from the three accelerometers are used to validate the acceleration data. A method to differentiate the friction levels on the basis of the acceleration signal is also introduced.

  15. Time varying behaviour of the loudspeaker suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e., the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the loudspeaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal...... excitation the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role....

  16. Constraint Embedding for Vehicle Suspension Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Abhinandan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to achieve close to real-time dynamics performance for allowing auto-pilot in-the-loop testing of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV for urban as well as off-road scenarios. The overall vehicle dynamics performance is governed by the multibody dynamics model for the vehicle, the wheel/terrain interaction dynamics and the onboard control system. The topic of this paper is the development of computationally efficient and accurate dynamics model for ground vehicles with complex suspension dynamics. A challenge is that typical vehicle suspensions involve closed-chain loops which require expensive DAE integration techniques. In this paper, we illustrate the use the alternative constraint embedding technique to reduce the cost and improve the accuracy of the dynamics model for the vehicle.

  17. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  18. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth under submerged condition divided by the cutting depth in air at the same standoff distance. The relative cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  19. Submerged cutting characteristics of abrasive suspension jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Seiji; Peng, Guoyi; Oguma, Yasuyuki; Nishikata, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    An abrasive suspension jet (ASJ) formed by propelling abrasive suspension through a nozzle has a greater cutting capability than the conventional abrasive water jet. However the cutting capability of submerged ASJs decreases drastically with increasing the standoff distance and the pressure around the jet. A sheathed nozzle nozzle with ventilation for ASJs has been developed as a mean of extending the effective stand-off distance and improving the cutting capabilities under submerged condition. In the present investigation, cutting tests by ASJs in air and under submerged condition are conducted with specimens of aluminum alloy. Air coated ASJs are formed by using a sheathed nozzle with ventilation. The relative cutting depth is defined as the cutting depth is arranged effectually by the cavitation number based on the cavity pressure measured at the sheath. (author)

  20. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  1. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  2. Characterization of alumina suspensions by electroacoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galassi, C.; Roncari, E.; Greenwood, R.; Piancastelli, A. [CNR, Faenza (Italy). Research Inst. for Ceramics Technology

    1997-12-31

    Using the acoustophoresis technique three different dispersants were selected to investigate the effect of the volume fraction of the suspension on the minimum amount of dispersant required to give the maximum zeta potential. No effect was detected over a volume fraction range 0.11 to 0.35. The acoustosizer was used to screen many dispersants for alumina in a relatively short time. From the viewpoint that the most stable suspensions are those with the greatest zeta potentials, then the following dispersants can be recommended: Reotan LA (0.25 mg/m{sup 2}) Dolapix CA (0.20 mg/m{sup 2}) and Dolapix PC33 (0.30 mg/m{sup 2}). Vanisperse and Borresperse are poor. Polyacrylic acid and polymethacrylic acid were better than some commercially available products. (orig.) 2 refs.

  3. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  4. Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.

  5. The aqueous homogeneous suspension reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The power of the KSTR reactor has been increased up to 200 kW in the fourth quarter of 1974. A description is given of the behaviour of the reactor at increased power level, safety aspects concerned with this new level, the operation of the reactor, instrumental behavior and mechanical behavior. Irradiation investigation of two types of fuels are reported and results are presented. Progress made on the conceptual design of a 250 MWe suspension reactor is described

  6. A Model of Active Roll Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Čech

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes active suspension with active roll for four-wheel vehicle (bus by means of an in-series pump actuator with doubled hydropneumatic springs. It also gives full control law with no sky-craping. Lateral stiffness and solid axle geometry in the mechanical model are not neglected. Responses to lateral input as well as responses to statistical unevennesses show considerable improvement of passengers comfort and safety when cornering.

  7. Magnetic suspension - Today's marvel, tomorrow's tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, Pierce L.

    1989-01-01

    NASA's Langley facility has through constant advocacy of magnetic suspension systems (MSSs) for wind-tunnel model positioning obtained a technology-development status for the requisite large magnets, computers, automatic control techniques, and apparatus configurations, to contemplate the construction of MSSs for large wind tunnels. Attention is presently given to the prospects for MSSs in wind tunnels employing superfluid helium atmospheres to obtain very high Reynolds numbers, where the MSS can yield substantial enhancements of wind tunnel productivity.

  8. Torsional asymmetry in suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 6 (2015), s. 677-701 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * Hamilton principle * vertical and torsional oscillation * uniqueness * existence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.507, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10492-015-0117-3

  9. Compounded Apixaban Suspensions for Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Maria L; Donmez, Seda; Nathan, Kobi; Zhao, Fang

    2017-07-01

    Objective: There is limited information on compounded apixaban formulations for administration via enteral feeding tubes. This study was designed to identify a suitable apixaban suspension formulation that is easy to prepare in a pharmacy setting, is compatible with commonly used feeding tubes, and has a beyond-use date of 7 days. Methods: Apixaban suspensions were prepared from commercially available 5-mg Eliquis tablets. Several vehicles and compounding methods were screened for ease of preparation, dosage accuracy, and tube compatibility. Two tubing types, polyurethane and polyvinyl chloride, with varying lengths and diameters, were included in the study. They were mounted on a peg board during evaluation to mimic the patient body position. A 7-day stability study of the selected formulation was also conducted. Results: Vehicles containing 40% to 60% Ora-Plus in water all exhibited satisfactory flowability through the tubes. The mortar/pestle compounding method was found to produce more accurate and consistent apixaban suspensions than the pill crusher or crushing syringe method. The selected formulation, 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water, was compatible with both tubing types, retaining >98% drug in posttube samples. The stability study also confirmed that this formulation was stable physically and chemically over 7 days of storage at room temperature. Conclusions: A suitable apixaban suspension formulation was identified for administration via enteral feeding tubes. The formulation consisted of 0.25 mg/mL apixaban in 50:50 Ora-Plus:water. The stability study results supported a beyond-use date of 7 days at room temperature.

  10. Spectral analysis connected with suspension bridge systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malík, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-75 ISSN 0272-4960 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : suspension bridge * vertical and torsional oscillation * eigenvalue * eigenvector * flutter Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.945, year: 2016 http://imamat.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/09/16/imamat.hxv027.short?rss=1

  11. Design of a suspension system and determining suspension parameters of a medium downforce small Formula type car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Sadjyot

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on designing a suspension system for a medium downforce small Formula type race car. The paper not only focusses on step by step design for a double wishbone type suspension but will also show the use and role of kinematics software in determining the optimized suspension of the car. The paper will also focus on the use of tire data in determining suspension parameters and the design of the double wishbone suspension. Various parameters, their design importance and the process to optimize them according to suspension design goals will be covered. The easiest and best ways to change the suspension parameters to get the best results will also be covered.

  12. Assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Josef; Skočilas, Jan; Skočilasová, Blanka

    2017-05-01

    The article deals with assessment of railway wagon suspension characteristics. The essential characteristics of a suspension are represented by the stiffness constants of the equivalent springs and the eigen frequencies of the oscillating movements in reference to the main central inertia axes of a vehicle. The premise of the experimental determination of these characteristic is the knowledge of the gravity center position and the knowledge of the main central inertia moments of the vehicle frame. The vehicle frame performs the general spatial movement when the vehicle moves. An analysis of the frame movement generally arises from Euler's equations which are commonly used for the description of the spherical movement. This solution is difficult and it can be simplified by applying the specific assumptions. The eigen frequencies solutions and solutions of the suspension stiffness are presented in the article. The solutions are applied on the railway and road vehicles with the simplifying conditions. A new method which assessed the characteristics is described in the article.

  13. Asystole following Reintubation during Suspension Laryngoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl H. Glassman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient increase in heart rate and mean arterial pressure commonly occur during manipulation of the airway via direct laryngoscopy. This phenomenon is understood to be due to a sympathetic nervous system reflex causing an increase in plasma catecholamines. Rarely, severe bradycardia and possible asystole can occur following laryngoscopy. One previous report described asystole during suspension laryngoscopy after uneventful direct laryngoscopy. Here we report a case of asystole occurring at the time of reinsertion and cuff inflation of an endotracheal tube in a patient who had been hemodynamically stable during initial direct laryngoscopy and the ensuing suspension laryngoscopy. The asystole was immediately recognized and successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed with the patient returning to baseline sinus rhythm. Cardiac arrest following laryngoscopy is rare. This case highlights the importance of continued vigilance even after the initial manipulations of the airway by both direct laryngoscopy and suspension laryngoscopy are to be performed. Identifying patients who may benefit from premedication with a vagolytic drug may prevent adversity. Preoperative heart rate analysis can identify patients with strong vagal tone.

  14. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  15. Physical gelation of a microfiber suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Antonio; Nunes, Janine K.; Guido, Stefano; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Hydrogels are among the most exploited materials in tissue engineering and there is growing interest in injectable hydrogels, especially as applied to surgical adhesives and bioprinting materials. Here we report a method to produce a hydrogel in a desired location by simply extruding a suspension of high aspect ratio and flexible microfibers from a syringe. The mechanism of gel formation is purely physical and based on irreversible entanglements formed by the microfibers under the action of flow. The single microfibers have been produced and finely tailored by microfluidic methods. Shear rheology has been performed in order to get insights on the entanglements, and results show that the formation of entanglements is related to a shear thickening behavior of the suspension, which in turn depends on shear rate and concentration of fibers. When shearing the suspension, highly non-linear viscoelastic behavior is observed and probed by a highly positive first normal stress difference. We also report the hydrogel swelling behavior and its linear viscoelastic properties as obtained by imposing small oscillatory stress to the material.

  16. Armoring confined bubbles in concentrated colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yingxian; Khodaparast, Sepideh; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Encapsulation of a bubble with microparticles is known to significantly improve the stability of the bubble. This phenomenon has recently gained increasing attention due to its application in a variety of technologies such as foam stabilization, drug encapsulation and colloidosomes. Nevertheless, the production of such colloidal armored bubble with controlled size and particle coverage ratio is still a great challenge industrially. We study the coating process of a long air bubble by microparticles in a circular tube filled with a concentrated microparticles colloidal suspension. As the bubble proceeds in the suspension of particles, a monolayer of micro-particles forms on the interface of the bubble, which eventually results in a fully armored bubble. We investigate the phenomenon that triggers and controls the evolution of the particle accumulation on the bubble interface. Moreover, we examine the effects of the mean flow velocity, the size of the colloids and concentration of the suspension on the dynamics of the armored bubble. The results of this study can potentially be applied to production of particle-encapsulated bubbles, surface-cleaning techniques, and gas-assisted injection molding.

  17. A universal suspension test rig for electrohydraulic active and passive automotive suspension system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Omar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A fully active electro-hydraulic and passive automotive quarter car suspensions with their experimental test-rigs are designed and implemented. Investigation of the active performance compared against the passive is performed experimentally and numerically utilizing SIMULINK's Simscape library. Both systems are modeled as single-degree-of-freedom in order to simplify the validation process. Economic considerations were considered during the rig's implementation. The rig consists of two identical platforms fixed side by side allowing testing two independent suspensions simultaneously. Position sensors for sprung and unsprung masses on both platforms are installed. The road input is introduced by a cam and a roller follower mechanism driven by 1.12 kW single phase induction motor with speed reduction assembly. The active hydraulic cylinder was the most viable choice due to its high power-to-weight ratio. The active control is of the proportional-integral-differential (PID type. Though this technique is quite simple and not new, yet the emphasis of this paper is the engineering, design and implementation of the experimental setup and controller. A successful validation process is performed. Ride comfort significantly improved with active suspension, as shown by the results; 24.8% sprung mass vibration attenuation is achieved. The details of the developed system with the analytical and experimental results are presented. Keywords: Active suspension, Passive suspension, Servo, Hydraulic, Control, PID

  18. Microfluidics and microscale transport processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Suman

    2012-01-01

    With an intense focus on micro- and nanotechnology from a fluidic perspective, this book details the research activities in key directions on both the theoretical and experimental fronts. As part of the IIT Kharagpur Research Monograph series, the text discusses topics such as capillary transport in microchannels, fluid friction and heat transfer in microchannels, electrokinetics, and interfacial transport in nanochannels. It also covers nanoparticle transport in colloidal suspensions, bubble generation in microfluidic channels, micro-heat pipe, the lattice Boltzmann method for phase changing

  19. Formulation and Validation of an Efficient Computational Model for a Dilute, Settling Suspension Undergoing Rotational Mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprague, Michael A.; Stickel, Jonathan J.; Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Crawford, Nathan C.; Fischer, Paul F.

    2017-04-11

    Designing processing equipment for the mixing of settling suspensions is a challenging problem. Achieving low-cost mixing is especially difficult for the application of slowly reacting suspended solids because the cost of impeller power consumption becomes quite high due to the long reaction times (batch mode) or due to large-volume reactors (continuous mode). Further, the usual scale-up metrics for mixing, e.g., constant tip speed and constant power per volume, do not apply well for mixing of suspensions. As an alternative, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be useful for analyzing mixing at multiple scales and determining appropriate mixer designs and operating parameters. We developed a mixture model to describe the hydrodynamics of a settling cellulose suspension. The suspension motion is represented as a single velocity field in a computationally efficient Eulerian framework. The solids are represented by a scalar volume-fraction field that undergoes transport due to particle diffusion, settling, fluid advection, and shear stress. A settling model and a viscosity model, both functions of volume fraction, were selected to fit experimental settling and viscosity data, respectively. Simulations were performed with the open-source Nek5000 CFD program, which is based on the high-order spectral-finite-element method. Simulations were performed for the cellulose suspension undergoing mixing in a laboratory-scale vane mixer. The settled-bed heights predicted by the simulations were in semi-quantitative agreement with experimental observations. Further, the simulation results were in quantitative agreement with experimentally obtained torque and mixing-rate data, including a characteristic torque bifurcation. In future work, we plan to couple this CFD model with a reaction-kinetics model for the enzymatic digestion of cellulose, allowing us to predict enzymatic digestion performance for various mixing intensities and novel reactor designs.

  20. Numerical homogenization on approach for stokesian suspensions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, B. M.; Berlyand, L. V.; Karpeev, D. A. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Department of Mathematics, Pennsylvania State Univ.)

    2012-01-20

    In this technical report we investigate efficient methods for numerical simulation of active suspensions. The prototypical system is a suspension of swimming bacteria in a Newtonian fluid. Rheological and other macroscopic properties of such suspensions can differ dramatically from the same properties of the suspending fluid alone or of suspensions of similar but inactive particles. Elongated bacteria, such as E. coli or B. subtilis, swim along their principal axis, propelling themselves with the help of flagella, attached at the anterior of the organism and pushing it forward in the manner of a propeller. They interact hydrodynamically with the surrounding fluid and, because of their asymmetrical shape, have the propensity to align with the local flow. This, along with the dipolar nature of bacteria (the two forces a bacterium exerts on a fluid - one due to self-propulsion and the other opposing drag - have equal magnitude and point in opposite directions), causes nearby bacteria to tend to align, resulting in a intermittent local ordering on the mesoscopic scale, which is between the microscopic scale of an individual bacterium and the macroscopic scale of the suspension (e.g., its container). The local ordering is sometimes called a collective mode or collective swimming. Thanks to self-propulsion, collective modes inject momentum into the fluid in a coherent way. This enhances the local strain rate without changing the macroscopic stress applied at the boundary of the container. The macroscopic effective viscosity of the suspension is defined roughly as the ratio of the applied stress to the bulk strain rate. If local alignment and therefore local strain-rate enhancement, are significant, the effective viscosity can be appreciably lower than that of the corresponding passive suspension or even of the surrounding fluid alone. Indeed, a sevenfold decrease in the effective viscosity was observed in experiments with B. subtilis. More generally, local collective

  1. Toward a general psychological model of tension and suspense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehne, Moritz; Koelsch, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Tension and suspense are powerful emotional experiences that occur in a wide variety of contexts (e.g., in music, film, literature, and everyday life). The omnipresence of tension and suspense suggests that they build on very basic cognitive and affective mechanisms. However, the psychological underpinnings of tension experiences remain largely unexplained, and tension and suspense are rarely discussed from a general, domain-independent perspective. In this paper, we argue that tension experiences in different contexts (e.g., musical tension or suspense in a movie) build on the same underlying psychological processes. We discuss key components of tension experiences and propose a domain-independent model of tension and suspense. According to this model, tension experiences originate from states of conflict, instability, dissonance, or uncertainty that trigger predictive processes directed at future events of emotional significance. We also discuss possible neural mechanisms underlying tension and suspense. The model provides a theoretical framework that can inform future empirical research on tension phenomena.

  2. Effective viscous flow properties for fiber suspensions under concentrated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effective longitudinal and transverse shear viscosities are derived for an aligned fiber suspension. The solutions are valid under very concentrated conditions for a hexagonal arrangement of the single size fibers. The results compliment the classical dilute suspension forms at the other extreme of concentration. Empirical forms are constructed to cover the full range of volume fraction of the fiber phase. Also, single size spherical particle suspensions are given a similar treatment to that of the fiber case

  3. Neural control of magnetic suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, W. Steven

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to design, build and test (in cooperation with NASA personnel from the NASA Langley Research Center) neural controllers for two different small air-gap magnetic suspension systems. The general objective of the program is to study neural network architectures for the purpose of control in an experimental setting and to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The specific objectives of the research program are: (1) to demonstrate through simulation and experimentation the feasibility of using neural controllers to stabilize a nonlinear magnetic suspension system; (2) to investigate through simulation and experimentation the performance of neural controllers designs under various types of parametric and nonparametric uncertainty; (3) to investigate through simulation and experimentation various types of neural architectures for real-time control with respect to performance and complexity; and (4) to benchmark in an experimental setting the performance of neural controllers against other types of existing linear and nonlinear compensator designs. To date, the first one-dimensional, small air-gap magnetic suspension system has been built, tested and delivered to the NASA Langley Research Center. The device is currently being stabilized with a digital linear phase-lead controller. The neural controller hardware is under construction. Two different neural network paradigms are under consideration, one based on hidden layer feedforward networks trained via back propagation and one based on using Gaussian radial basis functions trained by analytical methods related to stability conditions. Some advanced nonlinear control algorithms using feedback linearization and sliding mode control are in simulation studies.

  4. Stability of an extemporaneously prepared thalidomide suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shawna; Johnson, Cary E; Tyler, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    The short-term physical and chemical stability of an oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was studied. An oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was prepared by emptying the contents of 12 100-mg thalidomide capsules into a glass mortar; 30 mL of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of Ora-Sweet were mixed and added to the thalidomide powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored under refrigeration (3-5 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three samples with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 μg/mL with acetonitrile-methanol and then dilution with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point; stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of thalidomide. At least 92% of the initial thalidomide concentration remained throughout the 35-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. An extemporaneously prepared suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 35 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles under refrigeration.

  5. Stability of an extemporaneously prepared tadalafil suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettit, Rebecca S; Johnson, Cary E; Caruthers, Regine L

    2012-04-01

    The stability of an extemporaneously prepared tadalafil oral suspension was studied. An oral suspension of tadalafil 5 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding 15 20-mg tadalafil tablets in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of Ora-Sweet were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored at room temperature (23-25 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 57, and 91 days. After double dilution (1:10 and 0.1:5 v/v) to an expected concentration of 10 μg/mL with methanol and mobile phase, respectively, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and evaluated for pH changes on each day of analysis. Taste evaluation was performed at the beginning and end of the study. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 99% of the initial tadalafil concentration remained throughout the 91-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH, and no visible microbial growth was observed in any sample. An extemporaneously prepared suspension of tadalafil 5 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 91 days when stored in amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  6. Stability of extemporaneously prepared moxifloxacin oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Johnson, Cary E; Klein, Kristin C

    2009-04-01

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared moxifloxacin oral suspensions was studied. An oral suspension of moxifloxacin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding three 400-mg tablets of moxifloxacin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 60, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 8 microg/ mL with sample diluent, the samples were assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 99% of the initial moxifloxacin remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of moxifloxacin 20 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  7. Stability of extemporaneously prepared glycopyrrolate oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Mary Petrea; Johnson, Cary E; Sudekum, David; Penprase, Kimberly

    2011-05-01

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared glycopyrrolate 0.5-mg/mL suspensions was evaluated. An oral suspension of glycopyrrolate 0.5 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding 30 1-mg tablets of glycopyrrolate in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored at room temperature (23-25 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days afterward. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 50 μg/mL with sample diluent, the samples were assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and evaluated for pH on each day of analysis. Taste evaluations were performed at the beginning and end of the study. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 95% of the initial glycopyrrolate remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH, and no visible microbial growth was observed in any sample. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of glycopyrrolate 0.5 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet or Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  8. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cober, Mary Petrea; Johnson, Cary E; Lee, Jordan; Currie, Kenne

    2010-02-15

    The stability of extemporaneously prepared rifaximin oral suspensions was studied. An oral suspension of rifaximin 20 mg/mL was prepared by thoroughly grinding six 200-mg tablets of rifaximin in a glass mortar. Thirty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the six bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, and 60 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 microg/mL with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were visually examined for any color change and pH was tested on each day of analysis. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point and defined as retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of rifaximin. At least 99% of the initial rifaximin remained throughout the 60-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Extemporaneously prepared suspensions of rifaximin 20 mg/mL in 1:1 mixtures of Ora-Plus with either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 60 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles at room temperature.

  9. Active Electromechanical Suspension System for Planetary Rovers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Balcones Technologies, LLC proposes to adapt actively controlled suspension technology developed by The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics...

  10. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  11. Stability of extemporaneously prepared rufinamide oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, David J; Liou, Yayin; Best, Robert; Zhao, Fang

    2010-03-01

    Rufinamide is an oral antiepileptic drug indicated for adjunctive therapy in treating generalized seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Currently, rufinamide is available as 200-mg and 400-mg tablets. A liquid dosage form does not exist at the present time. Lack of a suspension formulation may present an administration problem for many children and adults who are unable to swallow tablets. The availability of a liquid dosage form will provide an easy and accurate way to measure and administer the medication. To determine the stability of both sugar-containing and sugar-free rufinamide suspensions over a 90-day period. A suspension of rufinamide 40 mg/mL was prepared by grinding twelve 400-mg tablets of rufinamide tablets in a glass mortar. Sixty milliliters of Ora-Plus and 60 mL of either Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF (sugar free) were mixed and added to the powder to make a final volume of 120 mL. Three identical samples of each formulation were prepared and placed in 60-mL amber plastic bottles and were stored at room temperature. A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 6 bottles with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 0.4 mg/mL, the samples were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration. At least 90% of the initial rufinamide concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period in both preparations. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, taste, and pH and no visible microbial growth. Extemporaneously compounded suspensions of rufinamide 40 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF were stable for at least 90 days when stored in 59-mL amber polypropylene plastic bottles at room temperature.

  12. Simulations of magnetorheological suspensions in Poiseuille flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappas, Yannis; Klingenberg, Daniel J. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Particle-level simulations are conducted to study magnetorheological fluids in plane Poiseuille flow. The importance of the boundary conditions for the particles at the channel walls is examined by considering two extreme cases: no friction and infinite coefficient of friction. The inclusion of friction produces Bingham fluid behavior, as commonly observed experimentally for MR suspensions. Lamellar structures, similar to those reported for electrorheological fluids in shear flow, are observed in the post-yield region for both particle boundary conditions. The formation of these lamellae is accompanied by an increase in the bulk fluid velocity. The slip boundary condition produces higher fluid velocities and thicker lamellar structures. (orig.)

  13. Thermocouple pressure bushing in suspension rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasek, J.; Ondreicka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The seal is described of jacket thermocouples located in the pressure reducer in the fuel element suspension rod. The thermocouples are sealed in the pressure reducer with a silicon sealing compound. The sealing compound is compressed between the two reducers with a Bellevile spring and a pressure washer secured in position with a spring. The axial pressure of the inner parts of the reducer on the compound is adjustable by means of a thrust screw. The tightness and alignment of the thermocouples in the pressure reducer is achieved by tightening the thrust screw to the stop of the top reducer and the subsequent setting of the sealing compound. (J.B.)

  14. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  15. Effect of suspension characteristics on in-flight particle properties and coating microstructures achieved by suspension plasma spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubignat, E.; Planche, M. P.; Allimant, A.; Billières, D.; Girardot, L.; Bailly, Y.; Montavon, G.

    2014-11-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of suspension properties on the manufacturing of coatings by suspension plasma spraying (SPS). For this purpose, alumina suspensions were formulated with two different liquid phases: water and ethanol. Suspensions were atomized with a twin-fluid nozzle and injected in an atmospheric plasma jet. Suspension injection was optimized thanks to shadowgraphy observations and drop size distribution measurements performed by laser diffraction. In-flight particle velocities were evaluated by particle image velocimetry. In addition, splats were collected on glass substrates, with the same conditions as the ones used during the spray process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry analyses were then performed to observe the splat morphology and thus to get information on plasma / suspension interactions, such as particle agglomeration. Finally, coatings were manufactured, characterized by SEM and compared to each other.

  16. Drug release from non-aqueous suspensions. II. The release of methylxanthines from paraffin suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Fokkens, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The release of 3 methylxanthines, i.e. caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, from suspensions in liquid paraffin to an aqueous phase was determined in an in vitro apparatus. The release rates were determined as a function of the pH of the aqueous phase. It was proved that the release process was

  17. Boundary Effects and Shear Thickening of Colloidal Suspensions: A study based on measurement of Suspension Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, M. Tharanga D.

    Microstructure is key to understanding rheological behaviors of flowing particulate suspensions. During the past decade, Stokesian Dynamics simulations have been the dominant method of determining suspension microstructure. Structure results obtained numerically reveal that an anisotropic structure is formed under high Peclet (Pe) number conditions. Researchers have used various experimental techniques such as small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and light scattering methods to validate microstructure. This work outlines an experimental technique based on confocal microscopy to study microstructure of a colloidal suspension in an index-matched fluid flowing in a microchannel. High resolution scans determining individual particle locations in suspensions 30-50 vol % yield quantitative results of the local microstructure in the form of the pair distribution function, g(r). From these experimentally determined g(r), the effect of shear rate, quantified by the Peclet number as a ratio of shear and Brownian stress, on the suspension viscosity and normal stress follow that seen in macroscopic rheological measurements and simulations. It is generally believed that shear thickening behavior of colloidal suspensions is driven by the formation of hydroclusters. From measurements of particle locations, hydroclusters are identified. The number of hydroclusters grows exponentially with increasing Pe, and the onset of shear thickening is driven by the increase in formation of clusters having 5-8 particles. At higher Pe, we notice the emergence of 12 or more particle clusters. The internal structure of these hydroclusters has been investigated, and there is some evidence that particles internal to hydroclusters preferentially align along the 45° and 135° axis. Beyond observations of bulk suspension behavior, the influence of boundaries on suspension microstructure is also investigated. Experiments were performed for suspensions flowing over smooth walls, made of glass

  18. Adaptive suspension strategy for a double wishbone suspension through camber and toe optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kavitha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A suspension system is responsible for the safety of vehicle during its manoeuvre. It serves the dual purpose of providing stability to the vehicle while providing a comfortable ride quality to the occupants. Recent trends in suspension system have focused on improving comfort and handling of vehicles while keeping the cost, space and feasibility of manufacturing in the constraint. This paper proposes a method for improving handling characteristics of a vehicle by controlling camber and toe angle using variable length arms in an adaptive manner. In order to study the effect of dynamic characteristics of the suspension system, a simulation study has been done in this work. A quarter car physical model with double wishbone suspension geometry is modelled in SolidWorks. It is then imported and simulated using SimMechanics platform in MATLAB. The output characteristics of the passive system (without variable length arms were validated on MSC ADAMS software. The adaptive system intends to improve vehicle handling characteristics by controlling the camber and toe angles. This is accomplished by two telescopic arms with an actuator which changes the camber and toe angle of the wheel dynamically to deliver best possible traction and manoeuvrability. Two PID controllers are employed to trigger the actuators based on the camber and toe angle from the sensors for reducing the error existing between the actual and desired value. The arms are driven by actuators in a closed loop feedback manner with help of a separate control system. Comparison between active and passive systems is carried out by analysing graphs of various parameters obtained from MATLAB simulation. From the results, it is observed that there is a reduction of 58% in the camber and 96% in toe gain. Hence, the system provides the scope of considerable adaptive strategy in controlling dynamic characteristics of the suspension system.

  19. Manipulation of nano-entities in suspension by electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Donglei

    Nanoscale entities, including nanospheres, nanodisks, nanorings, nanowires and nanotubes are potential building blocks for nanoscale devices. Among them, nanowires is an important type of nanoparticles, due to the potential application in microelectronics and bio-diagnosis. Manipulation of nanowires in suspension has been a formidable problem. As described in this thesis, using AC electric fields applied to strategically designed microelectrodes, nanowires in suspension can be driven to align, to chain, to accelerate in directions parallel and perpendicular to its orientation, to concentrate onto designated places, and to disperse in a controlled manner with high efficiency despite an extremely low Reynolds number at the level of 10-5. Randomly oriented nanowires in suspension can be rapidly assembled into extended nonlinear structures within seconds. We show that both the electric field and its gradient play the essential roles of aligning and transporting the nanowires into scaffolds according to the electric field distributions inherent to the geometry of the microelectrodes. The assembling efficiency depends strongly on the frequency of the applied AC voltages and varies as square of the voltage. Furthermore, nanowires have been rotated by AC electric fields applied to strategically designed electrodes. The rotation of the nanowires can be instantly switched on or off with precisely controlled rotation speed (to at least 25000 rpm), definite chirality, and total angle of rotation. This new method has been used to controllably rotate magnetic and non-magnetic nanowires as well as multi-wall carbon nanotubes. We have also produced a micromotor using a rotating nanowire that can drive particles into circular motion. This has application to microfluidic devices, micro-stirrers, and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). To move and place nanowires onto designated locations with high precision, electrophoretic force has been combined with dielectrophoretic force to

  20. Magnetic separation from superparamagnetic particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Ashok; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the magnetophoretic separation of magnetic microparticles from a non-dilute flow in a microfluidic channel and their subsequent field-induced aggregation under the influence of an externally applied magnetic force. This force induces dipolar interactions between the particles that aid in their separation from the flow. Existing analytical models for dilute suspensions cannot be extended to non-dilute suspensions in which interparticle magnetic interactions play an important role. We therefore conduct a parametric investigation of the mechanics of this problem in a microcapillary flow through simulations and experimental visualization. When a magnetic field is applied, the magnetic microparticles form an aggregate on the channel wall that is influenced by the competition between the holding magnetic force and the aggregate-depleting flow shear force. Microparticle collection in the aggregate increases linearly with increasing magnetic field strength and is characterized by distinct buildup and washaway phases. The collected microparticle volume fraction in an aggregate is found to depend on a single dimensional group that depends upon characteristic system parameters.

  1. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K.; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-09-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way.

  2. Energy-harvesting potential of automobile suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múčka, Peter

    2016-12-01

    This study is aimed quantify dissipated power in a damper of automobile suspension to predict energy harvesting potential of a passenger car more accurately. Field measurements of power dissipation in a regenerative damper are still rare. The novelty is in using the broad database of real road profiles, a 9 degrees-of-freedom full-car model with real parameters, and a tyre-enveloping contact model. Results were presented as a function of road surface type, velocity and road roughness characterised by International Roughness Index. Results were calculated for 1600 test sections of a total length about 253.5 km. Root mean square of a dissipated power was calculated from 19 to 46 W for all four suspension dampers and velocity 60 km/h and from 24 to 58 W for velocity 90 km/h. Results were compared for a full-car model with a tyre-enveloping road contact, full-car and quarter-car models with a tyre-road point contact. Mean difference among three models in calculated power was a few per cent.

  3. Quadruple suspension design for Advanced LIGO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, N A; Cagnoli, G; Crooks, D R M; Elliffe, E; Faller, J E; Fritschel, P; Gossler, S; Grant, A; Heptonstall, A; Hough, J; Lueck, H; Mittleman, R; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Plissi, M V; Rowan, S; Shoemaker, D H; Sneddon, P H; Strain, K A; Torrie, C I; Ward, H; Willems, P

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the conceptual design for the suspension system for the test masses for Advanced LIGO, the planned upgrade to LIGO, the US laser interferometric gravitational-wave observatory. The design is based on the triple pendulum design developed for GEO 600 - the German/UK interferometric gravitational wave detector. The GEO design incorporates fused silica fibres of circular cross-section attached to the fused silica mirror (test mass) in the lowest pendulum stage, in order to minimize the thermal noise from the pendulum modes. The damping of the low-frequency modes of the triple pendulum is achieved by using co-located sensors and actuators at the highest mass of the triple pendulum. Another feature of the design is that global control forces acting on the mirrors, used to maintain the output of the interferometer on a dark fringe, are applied via a triple reaction pendulum, so that these forces can be implemented via a seismically isolated platform. These techniques have been extended to meet the more stringent noise levels planned for in Advanced LIGO. In particular, the Advanced LIGO baseline design requires a quadruple pendulum with a final stage consisting of a 40 kg sapphire mirror, suspended on fused silica ribbons or fibres. The design is chosen to aim to reach a target noise contribution from the suspension corresponding to a displacement sensitivity of 10 -19 m Hz -1/2 at 10 Hz at each of the test masses

  4. Standardisation of magnetic nanoparticles in liquid suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, James; Kazakova, Olga; Posth, Oliver; Steinhoff, Uwe; Petronis, Sarunas; Bogart, Lara K; Southern, Paul; Pankhurst, Quentin; Johansson, Christer

    2017-01-01

    Suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles offer diverse opportunities for technology innovation, spanning a large number of industry sectors from imaging and actuation based applications in biomedicine and biotechnology, through large-scale environmental remediation uses such as water purification, to engineering-based applications such as position-controlled lubricants and soaps. Continuous advances in their manufacture have produced an ever-growing range of products, each with their own unique properties. At the same time, the characterisation of magnetic nanoparticles is often complex, and expert knowledge is needed to correctly interpret the measurement data. In many cases, the stringent requirements of the end-user technologies dictate that magnetic nanoparticle products should be clearly defined, well characterised, consistent and safe; or to put it another way—standardised. The aims of this document are to outline the concepts and terminology necessary for discussion of magnetic nanoparticles, to examine the current state-of-the-art in characterisation methods necessary for the most prominent applications of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions, to suggest a possible structure for the future development of standardisation within the field, and to identify areas and topics which deserve to be the focus of future work items. We discuss potential roadmaps for the future standardisation of this developing industry, and the likely challenges to be encountered along the way. (topical review)

  5. Hydrodynamic dispersion of microswimmers in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthieu; Rafaï, Salima; Peyla, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    In our laboratory, we study hydrodynamics of suspensions of micro-swimmers. These micro-organisms are unicellular algae Chlamydomonas Rheinhardii which are able to swim by using their flagella. The swimming dynamics of these micro-swimmers can be seen as a random walk, in absence of any kind of interaction. In addition, these algae have the property of being phototactic, i.e. they swim towards the light. Combining this property with a hydrodynamic flow, we were able to reversibly separate algae from the rest of the fluid. But for sufficiently high volume fraction, these active particles interact with each other. We are now interested in how the coupling of hydrodynamic interactions between swimmers and phototaxis can modify the swimming dynamics at the scale of the suspension. To this aim, we conduct experiments in microfluidic devices to study the dispersion of the micro-organisms in a the liquid phase as a function of the volume fraction. We show that the dispersion of an assembly of puller type microswimmers is quantitatively affected by hydrodynamics interactions. Phd student.

  6. Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay

    2016-12-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.

  7. Fast Evaporation of Spreading Droplets of Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kara; Kumar, Satish

    2011-11-01

    When a coffee droplet dries on a countertop, a dark ring of coffee solute is left behind, a phenomenon often referred to as ``the coffee-ring effect.'' A closely related yet less-well-explored phenomenon is the formation of a layer of particles, or skin, at the surface of the droplet. In this work, we explore the behavior of a mathematical model that can qualitatively describe both phenomena. We consider a thin axisymmetric droplet of a colloidal suspension on a horizontal substrate undergoing spreading and rapid evaporation. The lubrication approximation is applied to simplify the mass and momentum conservation equations, and the colloidal particles are allowed to influence droplet rheology through their effect on the viscosity. By describing the transport of the colloidal particles with the full convection-diffusion equation, we are able to capture depthwise gradients in particle concentration and thus describe skin formation, a feature neglected in prior models of droplet evaporation. Whereas capillarity creates a flow that drives particles to the contact line to produce a coffee-ring, Marangoni flows can compete with this and promote skin formation. Increases in viscosity due to particle concentration slow down droplet dynamics, and can lead to a significant reduction in the spreading rate.

  8. Uptake, accumulation, and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles by a marine suspension-feeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Milka O.; Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Keller, Arturo A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Suspension-feeding by mussels can greatly alter mobility and fate of metal oxide nanoparticles. ► Bioprocessing of metal oxide nanoparticles by mussels removes large fraction from water column. ► Mussels repackage metal oxide nanoparticles in highly concentrated pseudofeces. ► Novel biological pathway between major compartments in marine systems. ► Very different outcome for ZnO and CeO 2 nanoparticles based on their solubility. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that some engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are toxic to organisms that perform important ecosystem services in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, toxicity can be influenced by the biotransformation of contaminants, including ENPs, as it may alter the fate and transport of these substances. In turn, fate and transport can influence their bioavailability. To understand how biotransformation influences the fate and transport of ENPs in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to two common nano-metal oxides, CeO 2 and ZnO, over a range of concentrations from 1 mg L −1 to 10 mg L −1 , in a laboratory experiment. Mussels exposed to 10 mg L −1 accumulated 62 μg g −1 of Ce and 880 μg g −1 of Zn on a dry tissue basis but rejected 21,000 μg g −1 for Ce and 63,000 μg g −1 for Zn in pseudofeces. Scanning electron microscope evidence indicates CeO 2 remained as ENPs but ZnO did not after being rejected by the mussels. Mussels filtered most of the CeO 2 from the aqueous media, while a significant fraction of Zn remained in solution. Differences in ENP solubility affect ENP uptake, excretion, and accumulation in mussels. Our study highlights the potential role of marine suspension feeders in biotransformation of ENPs.

  9. Mixed-μ magnetic levitation for advanced ground transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, F.M.

    1977-12-01

    The possibility of applying the mixed-μ principle for magnetic levitation to ground transport systems is examined. The system is developed specifically for suspension and useful lift to passive weight ratios exceeding 8:1 have been calculated. Application to a hybrid system where conventional wheel drive is used in conjunction with magnetic levitation is explained for urban transport. (author)

  10. 17 CFR 32.11 - Suspension of commodity option transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of commodity option... REGULATION OF COMMODITY OPTION TRANSACTIONS § 32.11 Suspension of commodity option transactions. (a... accept money, securities or property in connection with, the purchase or sale of any commodity option, or...

  11. 15 CFR 14.13 - Debarment and suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debarment and suspension. 14.13 Section 14.13 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... shall comply with the nonprocurement debarment and suspension common rule implementing E.O.s 12549 and...

  12. 12 CFR 19.244 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. 19.244 Section 19.244 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES... Services § 19.244 Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. (a) An independent public accountant or...

  13. 12 CFR 19.243 - Removal, suspension, or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal, suspension, or debarment. 19.243 Section 19.243 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Removal, Suspension, and Debarment of Accountants From Performing Audit Services § 19...

  14. The Evolution of Discipline: Alternative to Suspension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streva, Michael A.

    Historically, the chosen method of discipline in United States schools has gone from corporal punishment to an emphasis on suspension. Recently, as principals have become less certain about the extent of their authority to suspend students, many inschool programs have been developed as alternatives to suspension. Among the advantages of such…

  15. In-School Suspension Practices and the Prison Hospital Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, David K.; Rockoff, Edward

    1977-01-01

    Explores the legal implications of in-school suspension practices through consideration of individual versus institutional rights within a special punitive-rehabilitative setting. Argues that the prison hospital model is applicable to in-school suspension programs and discusses a number of legal questions raised by the prison hospital model.…

  16. 12 CFR 513.4 - Suspension and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension and debarment. 513.4 Section 513.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRACTICE BEFORE THE OFFICE § 513.4 Suspension and debarment. (a) The Office may censure any person practicing before it or may deny...

  17. Magnetic suspension of a rotating system. Application to inertial flywheels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemarquand, Guy

    1984-01-01

    The various possible magnetic suspension configurations compatible with rotating mechanical systems are defined from studies of the characteristics of different types of magnetic bearings. The results obtained are used in the design and realization of a magnetic suspension for an inertial flywheel. (author) [fr

  18. 45 CFR 99.4 - Suspension of rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension of rules. 99.4 Section 99.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND General § 99.4 Suspension of rules. With notice to all parties, the...

  19. 2 CFR 180.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 180.740 Section 180.740 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS... suspension decision. (b) You as a respondent or your representative must submit any documentary evidence you...

  20. 78 FR 15402 - Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [ File No. 500-1] Xytos, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... financial conditions and business operations, and because of potentially manipulative conduct in the trading... investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed company. Therefore, it is...

  1. 75 FR 68636 - 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] 8000, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of 8000, Inc. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in...

  2. 77 FR 16113 - Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Asiamart, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed... trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the period from 9:30 a.m. EDT on...

  3. 78 FR 44185 - RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] RVPlus, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading... and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of the above-listed... trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the period from 9:30 a.m. EDT, on...

  4. 15 CFR 2011.110 - Suspension of certificate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., SYRUPS AND MOLASSES Certificate of Quota Eligibility § 2011.110 Suspension of certificate system. (a... of such suspension and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (b... such reinstatement and the effective date thereof shall be published in the Federal Register. (c...

  5. 19 CFR 210.23 - Suspension of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of investigation. 210.23 Section 210.23 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Motions § 210.23 Suspension of investigation. Any party may move to...

  6. 3 CFR - Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem... June 5, 2009 Suspension of Limitations Under the Jerusalem Embassy Act Memorandum for the Secretary of... States, including section 7(a) of the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995 (Public Law 104-45) (the “Act”), I...

  7. Non-homogeneous flow profiles in sheared bacterial suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Devranjan; Cheng, Xiang

    Bacterial suspensions under shear exhibit interesting rheological behaviors including the remarkable ``superfluidic'' state with vanishing viscosity at low shear rates. Theoretical studies have shown that such ``superfluidic'' state is linked with non-homogeneous shear flows, which are induced by coupling between nematic order of active fluids and hydrodynamics of shear flows. However, although bulk rheology of bacterial suspensions has been experimentally studied, shear profiles within bacterial suspensions have not been explored so far. Here, we experimentally investigate the flow behaviors of E. coli suspensions under planar oscillatory shear. Using confocal microscopy and PIV, we measure velocity profiles across gap between two shear plates. We find that with increasing shear rates, high-concentration bacterial suspensions exhibit an array of non-homogeneous flow behaviors like yield-stress flows and shear banding. We show that these non-homogeneous flows are due to collective motion of bacterial suspensions. The phase diagram of sheared bacterial suspensions is systematically mapped as functions of shear rates an bacterial concentrations. Our experiments provide new insights into rheology of bacterial suspensions and shed light on shear induced dynamics of active fluids. Chemical Engineering and Material Science department.

  8. Both Suspension and Alternatives Work, Depending on One's Aim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.

    2012-01-01

    In this commentary on the special series, I argue that whereas a zero-tolerance approach to school discipline is "something stupid" (Kauffman & Brigham, 2000) the use of suspension might not be. Despite its limitations, suspension and other forms of punishment serve as effective deterrents of behavior problems for most children, especially when…

  9. Network synthesis and parameter optimization for vehicle suspension with inerter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a comfortable-oriented vehicle suspension structure, the network synthesis method was utilized to transfer the problem into solving a timing robust control problem and determine the structure of “inerter–spring–damper” suspension. Bilinear Matrix Inequality was utilized to obtain the timing transfer function. Then, the transfer function of suspension system can be physically implemented by passive elements such as spring, damper, and inerter. By analyzing the sensitivity and quantum genetic algorithm, the optimized parameters of inerter–spring–damper suspension were determined. A quarter-car model was established. The performance of the inerter–spring–damper suspension was verified under random input. The simulation results manifested that the dynamic performance of the proposed suspension was enhanced in contrast with traditional suspension. The root mean square of vehicle body acceleration decreases by 18.9%. The inerter–spring–damper suspension can inhibit the vertical vibration within the frequency of 1–3 Hz effectively and enhance the performance of ride comfort significantly.

  10. Tuning a Le Mans Car Suspension in ADAMS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Berman, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An ADAMS model of South Africa’s first ever Le Mans car was developed and used to tune the suspension parameters. Validation of the model is to be done by comparing simulation results to those obtained in track testing. The suspension parameters...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations provided...

  12. 21 CFR 1314.155 - Suspension pending final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending final order. 1314.155 Section 1314.155 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Order to Show Cause § 1314.155 Suspension pending final order. (a) The...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1182 - Iron dextran suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron dextran suspension. 520.1182 Section 520.1182... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1182 Iron dextran suspension... hydroxide in complex with a low molecular weight dextran. (b) Sponsor. See No. 051311 in § 510.600(c) of...

  14. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Bak, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C(60) (nC(60)) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC(60) were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months. ATR-FTIR analyses confirmed the presence of C(60)-...

  15. Radiation resistivity of frozen insulin solutions and suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soboleva, N N; Ivanova, A I; Talrose, V L; Trofimov, V I; Fedotov, V P [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii; Research Institute for Biological Testing of Chemicals, Moscow (USSR); Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and Hormon Chemistry, Moscow (USSR))

    1981-10-01

    The effect of great increase in radiation resistance of insulin solutions and suspensions after irradiation at low temperatures in the frozen state was observed by absorption spectrophotometry, paper chromatography and biological analysis. The data obtained suggest irradiation of frozen insulin solutions and suspensions as a method for its sterilization.

  16. 38 CFR 21.3043 - Suspension of program; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension of program; child. 21.3043 Section 21.3043 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... 38 U.S.C. Chapter 35 Eligibility and Entitlement § 21.3043 Suspension of program; child. For an...

  17. Research on Dynamic Optimization for Road-friendly Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yongjie

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heavy vehicle brings large dynamic loads to the road surface, which would reduce vehicle ride comfort and shorten road service life. The structure characteristic of heavy vehicle suspension has a significant impact on vehicle performance. Based on the D'Alembert principle, the dynamics models of independent and integral balanced suspension are proposed considering mass and inertia of balancing rod. The sprung mass acceleration and the tire dynamic force for two kinds of balanced suspension and the traditional quarter vehicle model are compared in frequency-domain and time-domain respectively. It is concluded that a quarter vehicle model simplified for balanced suspension could be used to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle well, but it has some limitations in assessing the vehicle road-friendliness. Then, the sprung mass acceleration and the road damage coefficients are also analyzed under different vehicle design and running parameters at detail. Some conclusions are obtained: low suspension stiffness, high suspension damping and low tire stiffness are all favorable to improve vehicle performance; there is a saturation range of suspension damping enhancing vehicle performance; improving the road surface roughness and avoiding the no-load running are two effective methods to accomplish the better ride comfort and road-friendliness. The suspension stiffness and damping parameters are chosen for optimal parameters matching of road friendliness based on the approximation optimization method.

  18. Advances in the measurement of mud flocs within turbulent suspensions in both the laboratory and field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, K.; Tran, D. A.; Dillon, B.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting the size and settling velocity of mud suspensions under the influence of flocculation is crucial for the accurate prediction of mud movement and deposition in sediment transport modeling of environments such as agricultural streams, large coastal rivers, estuaries, river plumes, boundary currents, and turbidity currents. Yet, collecting accurate and high resolution data on mud flocs is difficult. For example, measurement of flocs with camera systems generally provide the best avenue for preserving floc structure and obtaining accurate information about true floc sizes. However, capturing images of flocs in swirling turbulent flows can be difficult and often limited to suspensions where concentrations are low (automated image processing. The combination of these elements allows for high-resolution times series of floc size populations to be measured in turbulent suspensions over a much broader range of suspended sediment concentration than has previously been possible — all without the need to transfer samples to a separate imaging container. We show applications and results from these developments in laboratory experiments and highlight their use in a newly-developed, low-cost, and field-deployable floc camera system.

  19. Vaginal vault suspension during hysterectomy for benign indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lisbeth; Noer, Mette Calundann; Møller, Lars Alling

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis: Several suspension methods are used to try to prevent pelvic organ prolapse (POP) after hysterectomy. We aimed to evaluate agreement on terminology and surgical procedure of these methods. Methods: We randomly chose 532 medical records of women with a history......: Regarding medical records, agreement on terminology was good among patients undergoing pooled suspension in cases of hysterectomy via the abdominal and vaginal route (agreement 78.7, 92.3%). Regarding videos, agreement on surgical procedure was good among pooled suspension patients in cases of hysterectomy...... via the abdominal, laparoscopic, and vaginal routes (agreement 88.9, 97.8, 100%). Agreement on individual suspension methods differed regarding both medical records (agreement 0–90.1%) and videos (agreement 0–100%). Conclusions: Agreement on terminology and surgical procedure regarding suspension...

  20. Preparation of conjugated polymer suspensions by using ultrasonic atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Kazuya, E-mail: tada@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Onoda, Mitsuyoshi

    2010-11-30

    The electrophoretic deposition is a method useful to prepare conjugated polymer films for electronic devices. This method provides high material recovery rate on the substrate from the suspension, in contrast to the conventional spin-coating in which most of the material placed on the substrate is blown away. Although manual reprecipitation technique successfully yields suspensions of various conjugated polymers including polyfluorene derivatives, it is favorable to control the preparation process of suspensions. In this context, this paper reports preliminary results on the preparation of suspension of conjugated polymer by using an ultrasonic atomizer. While the resultant films do not show particular difference due to the preparation methods of the suspension, the electric current profiles during the electrophoretic deposition suggests that the ultrasonic atomization of polymer solution prior to be mixed with poor solvent results in smaller and less uniform colloidal particles than the conventional manual pouring method.

  1. The analysis of silica suspensions atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochowiak, M., E-mail: Marek.Ochowiak@put.poznan.pl [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan (Poland); Broniarz-Press, L.; Woziwodzki, S. [Poznan University of Technology, Faculty of Chemical Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Equipment, Poznan (Poland)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The correlation equation for discharge coefficient has been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spray angle increases with increase in GLR until a maximum value is attained at GLR value of 0.07. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The equation for SMD has been proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The C{sub D} and SMD are decreasing rapidly as GLR is increased to around 0.07 and thereafter decreasing at a slower rate. - Abstract: The paper contains the results of experimental investigation of air-water and air-silica suspension atomization process in effervescent nozzles with internal mixing obtained by the use of the digital microphotography method. In experiments the different aqueous solutions of silica Aerosil 300 of different concentration have been used. The suspensions containing up to 0.04 (kg solid particles/kg solution) have Newtonian rheological properties. The observations were carried out at liquid flow rates changed from 0.0014 to 0.011 (kg/s) and gas flow rates from 0.00015 to 0.0065 (kg/s). It corresponded to gas to liquid mass ratios (GLR) values from 0.014 to 0.46. The analysis of photos shows that the droplets which have been formed during the liquid atomization have very different sizes. The differences between characteristics of effervescent atomization for water and suspensions used have not been observed. The present study confirmed the previous reports which suggested that the small particles added to solution do not change spray characteristics. The experimental results show that C{sub D} and SMD are non-linear functions of GLR. Their values are decreasing rapidly as GLR is increased from zero to around 0.07 and thereafter decreasing at a slower rate with further increase in GLR. In the same point (GLR = 0.07) the value of {alpha} is maximal. The first regime is characteristic for bubbly flow. The second is typical of annular flow regime. Boundary between bubbly and annular flow regime is observed

  2. Adaptive magnetorheological seat suspension for shock mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder Jit

    This research focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of an adaptive seat suspension employing magnetorheological energy absorber with the objective of minimizing injury potential to seated occupant of different weights subjected to broader crash intensities. The research was segmented into three tasks: (1) development of magnetorheological energy absorber, (2) biodynamic modeling of a seated occupant, and (3) control schemes for shock mitigation. A linear stroking semi-active magnetorheological energy absorber (MREA) was designed, fabricated and tested for intense impact conditions with piston velocities up to 8 m/s. MREA design was optimized on the basis of Bingham-plastic model (BPM model) in order to maximize the energy absorption capabilities at high impact velocities. Computational fluid dynamics and magnetic FE analysis were conducted to validate MREA performance. Subsequently, low-speed cyclic testing (0-2 Hz subjected to 0-5.5 A) and high-speed drop testing (0-4.5 m/s at 0 A) were conducted for quantitative comparison with the numerical simulations. Later, a nonlinear four degrees-of-freedom biodynamic model representing a seated 50th percentile male occupant was developed on the basis of experiments conducted on Hybrid II 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device. The response of proposed biodynamic model was compared quantitatively against two different biodynamic models from the literature that are heavily implemented for obtaining biodynamic response under impact conditions. The proposed biodynamic model accurately predicts peak magnitude, overall shape and the duration of the biodynamic transient response, with minimal phase shift. The biodynamic model was further validated against 16 impact tests conducted on horizontal accelerator facility at NAVAIR for two different shock intensities. Compliance effects of human body were also investigated on the performance of adaptive seat suspension by comparing the proposed biodynamic model

  3. Applicability of CHSST Maglev technology for U.S. urban transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    This report discusses the Chubu HSST technology applicability to U.S. urban transportation. This low speed system based on the principle of electromagnetic levitation by attractive suspension and propulsion by vehicle mounted linear induction motors ...

  4. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation

  5. Development of the Nissan hydraulic active suspension. Nissan yuatsu active suspension no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawarasaki, y.; Fukunaga, Y.; Hasegawa, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Omura, I.; Takahashi, K.; Abe, S.; Tsuruta, E. (Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-12-25

    A hydraulic active suspension system, Nissan original product, was developed and mass produced for the first time in the world. The system incorporates a sufficient power source, a high accuracy sensor and a high response device for continuous and intended vehicle control and at the same time delivers high levels of ride comfort and driving performance. The suspension system has four innovative features: skyhook damping, active roll and pitching control, a frequency-dependent damping mechanism, and active steering characteristics control. Under all road and operating conditions, the system actively suppresses vehicle attitude changes and unnecessary movement, and also gently absorbs inputs from the road. This epoch-making system provides a dramatic improvement in vehicle performance, and has been adopted in the Infiniti Q45 luxury sedan. 2 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Defect Proliferation in Active Nematic Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant; Bowick, Mark J.; Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina

    2014-03-01

    The rich structure of equilibrium nematic suspensions, with their characteristic disclination defects, is modified when active forces come into play. The uniform nematic state is known to be unstable to splay (extensile) or bend (contractile) deformations above a critical activity. At even higher activity the flow becomes oscillatory and eventually turbulent. Using hydrodynamics, we classify the active flow regimes as functions of activity and order parameter friction for both contractile and extensile systems. The turbulent regime is marked by a non-zero steady state density of mobile defect pairs. The defect density itself scales with an ``active Ericksen number,'' defined as the ratio of the rate at which activity is injected into the system to the relaxation rate of orientational deformations. The work at Syracuse University was supported by the NSF on grant DMR-1004789 and by the Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  7. Flight suspension for the relativity gyro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patten, R.A. van

    1983-01-01

    A suspension system for levitation and precision positioning of the niobium coated spherical quartz gyro rotor during orbital flight has been simulated. The system employs multiple controllers and estimators with microprocessor (Z80) controlled range switching. The resulting system handles external accelerations up to 1 g in the highest range yet in the lowest range, below 10 -6 g the sensor noise power spectral density produces only 10 -10 g rms in the rotor. The system is capable of automatic emergency switch up within 100 μsec. Switch down is automatic to expected flight levels of ± 5 x 10 -8 g. Positioning accuracy in all ranges including emergency switch up is ± 5 μin. static, and ± 50 μin. dynamic. The average acceleration during the mission should be 10 -10 g to attain the science data accuracy goal. (Auth.)

  8. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    CERN Document Server

    Takamori, A; Bertolini, A; Cella, G; DeSalvo, R; Fukushima, M; Iida, Y; Jacquier, F; Kawamura, S; Marka, S; Nishi, Y; Numata, K; Sannibale, V; Somiya, K; Takahashi, R; Tariq, H; Tsubono, K; Ugas, J; Viboud, N; Yamamoto, H; Yoda, T; Wang Chen Yang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SU...

  9. Aeroelastic Stability of Suspension Bridges using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stærdahl, Jesper Winther; Sørensen, Niels; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2007-01-01

    using CFD models and the aeroelastic stability boundary has been successfully determined when comparing two-dimensional flow situations using wind tunnel test data and CFD methods for the flow solution and two-degrees-of-freedom structural models in translation perpendicular to the flow direction......In recent years large span suspension bridges with very thin and slender profiles have been built without proportional increasing torsional and bending stiffness. As a consequence large deformations at the mid-span can occur with risk of aeroelastic instability and structural failure. Analysis...... of aeroelastic stability also named flutter stability is mostly based on semi-empirical engineering models, where model specific parameters, the so-called flutter derivatives, need calibration from wind tunnel tests or numerical methods. Several papers have been written about calibration of flutter derivatives...

  10. Assessment of drug salt release from solutions, suspensions and in situ suspensions using a rotating dialysis cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parshad, Henrik; Frydenvang, Karla; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-01-01

    buffer is used as release media. Generally, the initial release of the drug salt from in situ suspensions occurred faster as compared to conventional suspensions, probably due to incomplete precipitation of the drug salt, and hence formation of supersaturated solutions where the rate of release......A rotating dialysis cell consisting of a small (10 ml) and a large compartment (1000 ml) was used to study the release of drug salt (bupivacaine 9-anthracene carboxylate) from (i). solutions, (ii). suspensions and (iii). in situ formed suspensions. Initial release experiments from suspensions...... indicated that the release of drug salt in deionized water was predominantly limited by the diffusion across the membrane whereas it is essentially dissolution rate controlled in 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.40). Thus, the in vitro model appears to have a potential in formulation screening when phosphate...

  11. Development of Maglev and linear drive technology for transportation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masada, Eisuke [Tokyo Univ. (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    In order to realise guided ground transportation systems with superspeed, better riding comforts and environmental effects two types of maglev transports, JR-Maglev and HSST have been developed since 20 years in Japan. JR-Maglev is bases on a electro-dynamic suspension system and driven by long-stator linear synchronous motors. HSST is an electromagnetic suspension system with short-stator linear induction motor. Both systems are presented. (HW)

  12. Study on Dynamic Behaviour of Wishbone Suspension System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M; Rahman, M M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the characteristic model of the wishbone suspension system using the quarter car model approach. Suspension system in an automobile provides vehicle control and passenger comfort by providing isolation from road disturbances. This makes it essential that the detailed behavior of suspension should be known to optimize the performance. A kinetic study is performed using multi body system (MBS) analysis. The dirt road profile is considered as an applied loading. The spring constant, damping coefficient and sprung mass are studied on the performance of the suspension system. It can be observed that the spring constant is inversely related with time required to return to initial position and the amount of deformations. The damping ratio affects the suppression of spring oscillations, beyond a certain limit damping ration has the negligible effect. Sprung mass effected the equilibrium position of the suspension system with a small effect on its oscillation behavior. It is shown that the spring constant, damping ratio and sprung mass are significant parameters to design the suspension system. This study is essential for complete understanding of working of the suspension system and a future study with real geometries.

  13. Enhancement of stability of various nZVI suspensions used in groundwater remediation with environmentally friendly organic stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Doris; Wagner, Stephan; Velimirović, Milica; Laumann, Susanne; Micić, Vesna; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    characterization. Suspensions were characterized in terms of particle size distribution (Eyetech, Ambivalue; Malvern Mastersizer 2000), surface charge (Malvern ZetaSizer Nano), pH, EC, zero-valent iron content (H2 production after acid digestion), total iron content (ICP-OES), and sedimentation rate (TurbiScan LAB EXPERT). The results of the first set of experiments carried out with a pristine suspension of milled iron flakes (1 g L-1 total iron) show that the sedimentation rate of the suspension decreased by a factor two when stabilized by a 20 wt.% solution of carboxymethyl cellulose. This indicates that carboxymethyl cellulose was able to increase the stability of the suspension of milled iron flakes. Moreover, the surface charge of milled iron particles became more negatively charged once carboxymethyl cellulose was applied as a stabilizer, confirming an increased potential for milled iron flakes repulsion in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose. Nevertheless, the size of these particles in the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose did not change for more than 5% compared to the particle size of pristine suspension of milled iron flakes. On the basis of the preliminary results from the sedimentation tests column reactors will be designed in order to compare the transport distances of milled iron flakes and other selected nZVI particles. This research receives funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n°309517. [1] O'Carroll et al. (2013): Advances in Water Resources 51(0): 104-122. [2] Laumann et al. (2013): Environmental Pollutant 179: 53-60. [3] Phenrat et al. (2007): ES&T 41(1): 284-290. [4] Phenrat et al. (2008): Journal of Nanoparticle Research 10(5): 795-814.

  14. Bidisperse and polydisperse suspension rheology at large solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pednekar, Sidhant [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352; Morris, Jeffrey F. [Benjamin Levich Institute and Department of Chemical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, New York 10031

    2018-03-01

    At the same solid volume fraction, bidisperse and polydisperse suspensions display lower viscosities, and weaker normal stress response, compared to monodisperse suspensions. The reduction of viscosity associated with size distribution can be explained by an increase of the maximum flowable, or jamming, solid fraction. In this work, concentrated or "dense" suspensions are simulated under strong shearing, where thermal motion and repulsive forces are negligible, but we allow for particle contact with a mild frictional interaction with interparticle friction coefficient of 0.2. Aspects of bidisperse suspension rheology are first revisited to establish that the approach reproduces established trends; the study of bidisperse suspensions at size ratios of large to small particle radii (2 to 4) shows that a minimum in the viscosity occurs for zeta slightly above 0.5, where zeta=phi_{large}/phi is the fraction of the total solid volume occupied by the large particles. The simple shear flows of polydisperse suspensions with truncated normal and log normal size distributions, and bidisperse suspensions which are statistically equivalent with these polydisperse cases up to third moment of the size distribution, are simulated and the rheologies are extracted. Prior work shows that such distributions with equivalent low-order moments have similar phi_{m}, and the rheological behaviors of normal, log normal and bidisperse cases are shown to be in close agreement for a wide range of standard deviation in particle size, with standard correlations which are functionally dependent on phi/phi_{m} providing excellent agreement with the rheology found in simulation. The close agreement of both viscosity and normal stress response between bi- and polydisperse suspensions demonstrates the controlling in influence of the maximum packing fraction in noncolloidal suspensions. Microstructural investigations and the stress distribution according to particle size are also presented.

  15. A novel magnetic lead screw active suspension system for vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Nick Ilsø; Holm, Rasmus Koldborg; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2014-01-01

    This paper encompasses a detailed study of the redesign of a novel Magnetic Lead Screw (MLS) active suspension system for possible regeneration of the energy dispatched in the suspension system and active control of vehicle body movement. The MLS converts a low speed high force linear motion...... of a translator into a high speed low torque rotational motion of a rotor through helically shaped magnets. The paper describes the drawback of the first MLS prototype v1.0 developed for active suspension system, which lead to a new design of the MLS prototype named v1.5. Furthermore the paper introduces detailed...

  16. Modelling nonlinear viscoelastic behaviours of loudspeaker suspensions-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillou, Balbine; Lotton, Pierrick; Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical properties of an electrodynamic loudspeaker are mainly determined by its suspensions (surround and spider) that behave nonlinearly and typically exhibit frequency dependent viscoelastic properties such as creep effect. The paper aims at characterizing the mechanical behaviour of electrodynamic loudspeaker suspensions at low frequencies using nonlinear identification techniques developed in recent years. A Generalized Hammerstein based model can take into account both frequency dependency and nonlinear properties. As shown in the paper, the model generalizes existing nonlinear or viscoelastic models commonly used for loudspeaker modelling. It is further experimentally shown that a possible input-dependent law may play a key role in suspension characterization.

  17. Correlated particle dynamics in concentrated quasi-two-dimensional suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamant, H; Cui, B; Lin, B; Rice, S A

    2005-01-01

    We investigate theoretically and experimentally how the hydrodynamically correlated lateral motion of particles in a suspension confined between two surfaces is affected by the suspension concentration. Despite the long range of the correlations (decaying as 1/r 2 with the inter-particle distance r), the concentration effect is present only at short inter-particle distances for which the static pair correlation is nonuniform. This is in sharp contrast with the effect of hydrodynamic screening in unconfined suspensions, where increasing the concentration changes the prefactor of the large-distance correlation

  18. A Kinematic, Kevlar(registered) Suspension System for an ADR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael L.; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-01-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their bolometer detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar@ suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists or two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill. The resulting assembly constrains each degree of freedom only once, yielding a kinematic, tensile structure.

  19. On reactive suspension plasma spraying of calcium titanate

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlan, J. (Jiří); Pala, Z. (Zdeněk); Mušálek, R. (Radek); Ctibor, P. (Pavel)

    2016-01-01

    This study shows possibility of preparation of calcium titanate powder and coatings by reactive suspension plasma spraying. Suspension of mixture of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in ethanol was fed into hybrid plasma torch with a DC-arc stabilized by a water–argon mixture (WSP-H 500). Various feeding distances and angles were used in order to optimize suspension feeding conditions. In the next step, the coatings were deposited on stainless steel substrates and ...

  20. FORGING DEFECTS ANALYSIS IN SUSPENSION ARMAND FLASH CONTROL

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Jadhav Vijay B. , Prof. Mundhe V.L. , Dr. Narve N.G.

    2018-01-01

    The suspension arms in the process of fogging are made by different material and in that processes get various problems are found. In that paper list out that problem and solving flash wastage problem.

  1. Study of shear thickening behavior in colloidal suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Maleki Jirsaraee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the shear thickening behavior of the nano silica suspension (silica nanoparticles 12 nm in size suspended in ethylene glycol under steady shear. The critical shear rate for transition into shear thickening phase was determined at different concentrations and temperatures. The effect of temperature and concentration was studied on the shear thickening behavior. In silica suspension, it was observed that all the samples had a transition into shear thickening phase and also by increasing the temperature, critical shear rate increased and viscosity decreased. Our observations showed that movement in silica suspension was Brownian and temperature could cause a delay in transition into shear thickening phase. Yet, we observed that increasing the concentration would decrease critical shear rate and increase viscosity. Increasing temperature increased Brownian forces and increasing concentration increased hydrodynamic forces, confirming the contrast between these two forces for transition into shear thickening phase for the suspensions containing nano particles

  2. Degradability of aged aquatic suspensions of C60 nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B.; Buendia, Inmaculada M.; Baun, Anders

    2011-01-01

    While studies of the potential human and environmental effects of C60 and its derivatives are emerging in the scientific literature, the environmental fate of C60 is still largely unknown. In this study, aged aqueous suspensions of C60 (nC60) were investigated in the respirometric OECD test...... for ready biodegradability. Two suspensions of nC60 were prepared by stirring and aged under indirect exposure to sunlight for 36 months, which resulted in relatively stable suspensions with a dark-brown colour. The suspended nC60 could not be extracted into toluene and indicating that the particles were...... no longer present as underivatised nC60 but had undergone a transformation. TEM images and particle tracking analysis showed that the suspension consisted of particle aggregates with a size of 156 nm (SD=54nm) and 139nm (Sd=49), respectively, but also contained smaller aggregates. Samples of the nC60...

  3. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Agrawal, Akanksha; Kim, Sung A; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains

  4. Influence of crystal habit on trimethoprim suspension formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A K; Panpalia, G M

    1999-02-01

    The role of crystal habit in influencing the physical stability and pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim suspensions was examined. Different habits for trimethoprim (TMP) were obtained by recrystallizing the commercial sample (PD) utilizing solvent-change precipitation method. Four distinct habits (microscopic observation) belonging to the same polymorphic state (DSC studies) were selected for studies. Preformulation and formulation studies were carried out on suspension dosage forms containing these crystals. The freshly prepared suspensions were also evaluated for their pharmacokinetic behaviour on healthy human volunteers using a cross over study. Variation of crystallization conditions produces different habits of TMP. Among the different crystal habits exhibiting same polymorphic state, the most anisometric crystal showed best physical stability in terms of sedimentation volume and redispersibility. However, habit did not significantly affect the extent of TMP excreted in urine. Modification of surface morphology without significantly altering the polymorphic state can be utilized for improving physical stability of TMP suspensions. However, the pharmacokinetic profile remains unaltered.

  5. Improved production of chlorogenic acid from cell suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chlorogenic acid is a free radical scavenger, antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, antiviral, hypoglycemic, and in addition to ... experiments, the effect of various strengths of B5 medium (1/4 .... Growth kinetics of L. macranthoides cell suspension ...

  6. Solution or suspension - Does it matter for lipid based systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A T; Holm, R; Müllertz, A

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the potential of co-administering an aqueous suspension with a placebo lipid vehicle, i.e. chase dosing, was investigated in rats relative to the aqueous suspension alone or a solution of the drug in the lipid vehicle. The lipid investigated in the present study was Labrafil M2125CS...... and three evaluated poorly soluble model compounds, danazol, cinnarizine and halofantrine. For cinnarizine and danazol the oral bioavailability in rats after chase dosing or dosing the compound dissolved in Labrafil M21515CS was similar and significantly higher than for the aqueous suspension....... For halofantrine the chase dosed group had a tendency towards a low bioavailability relative to the Labrafil M2125CS solution, but still a significant higher bioavailability relative to the aqueous suspension. This could be due to factors such as a slower dissolution rate in the intestinal phase of halofantrine...

  7. In vitro production of azadirachtin from cell suspension cultures of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH KUMAR G

    proven effective in the control of agricultural pests in an environmentally ..... Prakash G and Srivastava A K 2005 Statistical media optimization for cell growth and ... Juss. suspension cultures; Process Biochemistry 40 3795–3800. Prakash G ...

  8. Weakly sheared active suspensions: hydrodynamics, stability, and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhenlu

    2011-03-01

    We present a kinetic model for flowing active suspensions and analyze the behavior of a suspension subjected to a weak steady shear. Asymptotic solutions are sought in Deborah number expansions. At the leading order, we explore the steady states and perform their stability analysis. We predict the rheology of active systems including an activity thickening or thinning behavior of the apparent viscosity and a negative apparent viscosity depending on the particle type, flow alignment, and the anchoring conditions, which can be tested on bacterial suspensions. We find remarkable dualities that show that flow-aligning rodlike contractile (extensile) particles are dynamically and rheologically equivalent to flow-aligning discoid extensile (contractile) particles for both tangential and homeotropic anchoring conditions. Another key prediction of this work is the role of the concentration of active suspensions in controlling the rheological behavior: the apparent viscosity may decrease with the increase of the concentration.

  9. Large Scale Brownian Dynamics of Confined Suspensions of Rigid Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Aleksandar; Sprinkle, Brennan; Balboa, Florencio; Patankar, Neelesh

    2017-11-01

    We introduce new numerical methods for simulating the dynamics of passive and active Brownian colloidal suspensions of particles of arbitrary shape sedimented near a bottom wall. The methods also apply for periodic (bulk) suspensions. Our methods scale linearly in the number of particles, and enable previously unprecedented simulations of tens to hundreds of thousands of particles. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our methods on a suspension of boomerang-shaped colloids. We also model recent experiments on active dynamics of uniform suspensions of spherical microrollers. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under award DMS-1418706, and by the U.S. Department of Energy under award DE-SC0008271.

  10. Optimal Vibration Control for Tracked Vehicle Suspension Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Liang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique of optimal vibration control with exponential decay rate and simulation for vehicle active suspension systems is developed. Mechanical model and dynamic system for a class of tracked vehicle suspension vibration control is established and the corresponding system of state space form is described. In order to prolong the working life of suspension system and improve ride comfort, based on the active suspension vibration control devices and using optimal control approach, an optimal vibration controller with exponential decay rate is designed. Numerical simulations are carried out, and the control effects of the ordinary optimal controller and the proposed controller are compared. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  11. Establishment of the callus and cell suspension culture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Full Length Research Paper. Establishment of the callus ... study provided an efficient way for E. angustifolia cell suspension culture to produce secondary metabolite. .... was also observed that in these treatments the stem.

  12. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyla, Philippe; Priem, Stephane; Vincent, Doyeux; Farutin, Alexander; Ismail, Mourad

    2014-11-01

    We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. For instance, we examine the role of particle-wall and particle-particle interactions in determining the rheology of confined sheared suspensions. In addition we evaluate the intrinsic viscosity as well as the contribution of hydrodynamic interactions to the dissipation as a function of a wide range of confinements. Thanks to the direct visualisation of the whole 2D Stokes flow, we are able to give a clear interpretation about the rheology of semi-dilute confined suspensions.

  13. Effect of the crone suspension control system on braking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, X.; Oustaloup, A. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique; Nouillant, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Talence (France). Lab. d' Automatique et de Productique]|[DRIA-PSA Peugeot Citroen, Velizy - Villacoublay (France)

    2001-07-01

    Semi-active or active suspensions not only increase driving comfort, but also permit the control system to be switched over if required in order to improve the transmission of forces at the points of contact between tire and road surface by minimizing the dynamic wheel loads. It may also be possible to use these systems to control wheel load distribution and, thus, influence braking or steering performance by changing the distribution of normal forces between the front and rear axles. This article examines the effect of the CRONE suspension control system on braking. The central idea is to use continuously variable dampers and fast load levelling devices to distribute the normal forces of tire between the front and rear axles. The basis principle is explained using known dynamic properties of active suspension, vehicles and tires. The effect of active suspension on vehicle response during braking is then evaluated using computer simulations from a two-wheel vehicle model. (orig.)

  14. Establishment of sorghum cell suspension culture system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Additionally, sorghum cell suspension cultures have been initiated from the friable ... proteomics technologies. The field of proteomics is .... air dried at room temperature and resuspended in 2 ml of urea buffer [9 M urea, 2 M ...

  15. Structure and rheology of nanoparticle–polymer suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Srivastava, Samanvaya; Shin, Jung Hwan; Archer, Lynden A.

    2012-01-01

    separation and aggregation than expected from theory for interacting brushes. SAXS and rheology measurements also reveal that at high particle loadings, the stabilizing oligomer brush is significantly compressed and produces jamming in the suspensions

  16. Rheological studies of aqueous stabilised nano-zirconia particle suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Ullah Khan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation aqueous suspensions of nano- and colloidal range particles are stabilised by changing the ambient pH. Rheology is used to establish the stability of the suspensions and it is found that the rheology of the suspensions is strongly dependent on the pH values. The viscosity is highest close to the iso-electric point of the powders. At the iso-electric point the net surface charge on the powder particles is zero and is the cause of the high viscosity. Away from the iso-electric point, the particles are charged, giving rise to a double layer phenomenon and causing the reduction in viscosity. It is also found that increasing the solid contents of the suspensions reduces the pH region of low viscosity.

  17. Well-dispersed gold nanowire suspension for assembly application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cailing; Zhang Li; Zhang Haoli; Li Hulin

    2005-01-01

    A method for fabricating well-dispersed nanowire suspension has been demonstrated in the paper. Thin gold nanowires were prepared by template synthesis, and then functionalized with sulphonate group-terminated thiols before suspended in different solvents. The degree of aggregation of the obtained suspension was evaluated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the degree of aggregation was predominated by the solvents, and the best degree of dispersion was obtained when isopropyl alcohol (IPA) was used as the solvent. The gold nanowires from the suspension can be selectively assembled onto chemically patterned substrates. This well-dispersed nanowire suspension is potentially useful for fabricating novel nanodevices

  18. Acoustic manipulation of bacteria cells suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    GutiéRrez-Ramos, Salomé; Hoyos, Mauricio; Aider, Jean Luc; Ruiz, Carlos; Acoustofluidics Team Team; Soft; Bio Group Collaboration

    An acoustic contacless manipulation gives advantages in the exploration of the complex dynamics enviroment that active matter exhibits. Our works reports the control confinement and dispersion of Escherichia coliRP437-pZA3R-YFP suspensions (M9Glu-Ca) via acoustic levitation.The manipulation of the bacteria bath in a parallel plate resonator is achieved using the acoustic radiation force and the secondary radiation force. The primary radiation force generates levitation of the bacteria cells at the nodal plane of the ultrasonic standing wave generated inside the resonator. On the other side, secondary forces leads to the consolidation of stable aggregates. All the experiments were performed in the acoustic trap described, where we excite the emission plate with a continuous sinusoidal signal at a frequency in the order of MHz and a quartz slide as the reflector plate. In a typical experiment we observed that, before the input of the signal, the bacteria cells exhibit their typical run and tumble behavior and after the sound is turned on all of them displace towards the nodal plane, and instantaneously the aggregation begins in this region. CNRS French National Space Studies, CONACYT Mexico.

  19. Survey of potential applications of superconducting suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.K.; Bupara, S.S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to survey the recent developments in applying the bulk superconductors to mechanical applications. These applications, called superconducting suspensions, can be broadly divided into three groups - Passive Magnetic Bearings, Passive Superconducting Dampers and Active Superconducting Bearings. Basically, passive magnetic bearings utilize bulk superconductors to support a rotating shaft without contact while active superconducting bearings employ superconducting wires. Passive superconducting dampers, on the other hand, dissipate energy from a vibrating component. Over the past one year, dramatic improvements have been made in processing large-size specimens made of high grade bulk superconductors. As a result, they can meet the size requirements and load capacity requirements of many applications. With this size-scale up, one can utilize them in a wider number of applications than what was possible a few years back. At present several organizations have demonstrated the capability of passive magnetic bearings. The targeted applications include miniature cryoturboexpanders, cryoturbopumps, energy storage wheels and turbomolecular pumps. These demonstrations indicate that the passive magnetic bearings are closer to technology maturity. (orig.)

  20. Mirror suspension system for the TAMA SAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamori, Akiteru; Ando, Masaki; Bertolini, Alessandro; Cella, Giancarlo; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Jacquier, Florian; Kawamura, Seiji; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Numata, Kenji; Sannibale, Virginio; Somiya, Kentaro; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tariq, Hareem; Tsubono, Kimio; Ugas, Jose; Viboud, Nicolas; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Yoda, Tatsuo; Wang Chenyang

    2002-01-01

    Several R and D programmes are ongoing to develop the next generation of interferometric gravitational wave detectors providing the superior sensitivity desired for refined astronomical observations. In order to obtain a wide observation band at low frequencies, the optics need to be isolated from the seismic noise. The TAMA SAS (seismic attenuation system) has been developed within an international collaboration between TAMA, LIGO, and some European institutes, with the main objective of achieving sufficient low-frequency seismic attenuation (-180 dB at 10 HZ). The system suppresses seismic noise well below the other noise levels starting at very low frequencies above 10 Hz. It also includes an active inertial damping system to decrease the residual motion of the optics enough to allow a stable operation of the interferometer. The TAMA SAS also comprises a sophisticated mirror suspension subsystem (SUS). The SUS provides support for the optics and vibration isolation complementing the SAS performance. The SUS is equipped with a totally passive magnetic damper to suppress internal resonances without degrading the thermal noise performance. In this paper we discuss the SUS details and present prototype results

  1. Magnetic suspension characteristics of electromagnetic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Dantam K.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1993-01-01

    Electromagnetic actuators that use a current-carrying coil (which is placed in a magnetic field) to generate mechanical force are conceptually attractive components for active control of rotating shafts. In one concept that is being tested in the laboratory, the control forces from such actuators are applied on the flexibly supported bearing housings of the rotor. Development of this concept into a practical reality requires a clear and thorough understanding of the role of electromechanical parameters of these actuators in delivering the right amount of control force at the right phase into the rotor. The electromechanical parameters of the actuators investigated are the mass of the armature, stiffness of its suspension, electrical resistance, and inductance of the coils. Improper selection of these parameters can result in degradation in their performance, leading to mistuning between the actuator and the rotor. Through a simple analysis, it is shown that use of such mistuned actuators could result in sharp fluctuations in the phase of the control force delivered into the rotor around the critical speeds. These sharp fluctuations in phase, called 'Phase Glitches', are undesirable. Hence, future designs of controllers should take into account the undesirable mistuning effects between the actuator and the rotor caused by the phase glitches.

  2. Equation of state of charged latex suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reus, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    We measured the osmotic pressure of charged bromo-polystyrene particles suspensions in the dilute System (0,01-10% in volume fraction). The typical range of differences in water heights varies from one millimeter to a few centimeters. When particles are polydisperse, samples remain always sols but if particles are monodisperse, they can form supramolecular crystals stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. These crystals exist only when the ionic force is very low, about one μmole/l. We determined the structure of these assemblies by light and X-ray scattering as function of the volume fraction. At low volume fractions, crystals adopt a body centered cubic structure; when the concentration increases, they become more compact and we observe face centered cubic structures. After shearing, defects may appear and two dimensional hexagonal structures can be found. This type of study of the osmotic pressure versus distance (in the range 300 nm) is equivalent to a highly precise atomic force measurement, since it allows detection of forces as small as 10 -11 -10 -12 N. (author) [fr

  3. Sedimentation of athermal particles in clay suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotet, Xavier; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2015-03-01

    We discuss sedimentation of athermal particles in dense clay suspensions which appear liquid-like to glass-like. These studies are motivated by the physics important to a diverse range of problems including remediation of oil sands after the extraction of hydrocarbons, and formation of filter cakes in bore wells. We approach this problem by first considering collective sedimentation of athermal spherical particles in a viscous liquid in quasi-two dimensional and three dimensional containers. We examine the system using optical and x-ray tomography techniques which gives particle level information besides global information on the evolution of the volume fraction. Unlike sediments in the dilute limit - which can be modeled as isolated particles that sediment with a constant velocity and slow down exponentially as they approach the bottom of the container - we find interaction between the particles through the viscous fluids leads to qualitatively differences. We find significant avalanching behavior and cooperative motion as the grains collectively settle, and non-exponential increase in settling time. We discuss the effect of stirring caused by the sedimenting particles on their viscosity and consequently the sedimentation rates as a function of particle concentration. Supported by Petroleum Research Fund Grant PRF # 54045-ND9.

  4. On reactive suspension plasma spraying of calcium titanate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotlan, Jiří; Pala, Zdeněk; Mušálek, Radek; Ctibor, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2016), s. 4607-4615 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-12145S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Suspensions * X-raymethods * Perovskites * Substrates * Suspension plasma spraying Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 2.986, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272884215022646

  5. Theory of superconducting magnet suspension: main results survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voevodskii, K.E.; Kochetkov, V.M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey is given of theoretical achievements on electro-dynamic suspension of high speed ground vehicles with superconducting magnets. The problems discussed, are calculation of lift and drag forces acting on a superconducting magnet, the latter moving above a guideway structure which may be of two different types (either conducting sheet or a series of discrete loops); influence of irregularities of the guideway structure; vertical and longitudinal stability of suspension. (author)

  6. Stability Prediction of Polymeric Suspensions of some Fluoroquinolones

    OpenAIRE

    Subhashree Sahoo; Chandra Kanti Chakraborti; Pradipta Kumar Behera

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of physical stability, zeta potential values, percentage volume of sedimentation and redispersibility of polymeric suspensions of some fluoroquinolones like Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and Ofloxacin (Oflox) were measured. These formulations were prepared using two grades of Carbopol polymer such as C934 and C940; and Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Above mentioned values of each suspension was determined by following standard methods. The results of those experiment...

  7. Viscosity, thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number of nanoparticle suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Buxuan; ZHOU Leping; PENG Xiaofeng

    2004-01-01

    Using our reported experimental data of effective thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity and viscosity for CuO nanoparticle suspensions, the corresponding thermal diffusivity and Prandtl number are calculated. With the hard sphere model and considering effects of particle clustering and surface adsorption, the increase of viscosity for nanoparticle suspension observed is explained. It is shown that the effective thermal conductivity will be strongly affected by the formation and correlated spatial distribution of nanoparticle clusters when compared to viscosity in hosting liquid.

  8. Stability of allopurinol and of five antineoplastics in suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressman, J B; Poust, R I

    1983-04-01

    The stability of allopurinol, azathioprine, chlorambucil, melphalan, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine each in an extemporaneously prepared suspension was studied. Tablets of each drug were crushed, mixed with a suspending agent, and brought to a final volume of 10, 15, or 20 ml with a 2:1 mixture of simple syrup and wild cherry syrup. Suspensions were prepared in the following concentrations: allopurinol (20 mg/ml), azathioprine (50 mg/ml), chlorambucil (2 mg/ml), melphalan (2 mg/ml), mercaptopurine (50 mg/ml), and thioguanine (40 mg/ml). Using high-performance liquid chromatography or ultraviolet scans, duplicate assays were performed on each suspension periodically during storage for up to 84 days at ambient room temperature or 5 degrees C. The time required for the suspensions to drop below 90% of labeled strength was used as an indicator of drug stability. Allopurinol and azathioprine were stable for at least 56 days at room temperature and at 5 degrees C. Chlorambucil decomposed rapidly at room temperature but was stable for seven days when stored at 5 degrees C. Melphalan suspensions did not meet the stated criteria for stability even at the time of initial assay. Mercaptopurine and thioguanine were stable for 14 and 84 days, respectively, at room temperature; at 5 degrees C, assay values dropped below those obtained at room temperature. In the suspension formulation tested, allopurinol, azathioprine, mercaptopurine, and thioguanine are stable for at least 14 days at room temperature; chlorambucil suspensions should be refrigerated and discarded after seven days. Melphalan decomposes too rapidly to make this suspension formulation feasible for extemporaneous compounding.

  9. A magneto rheological hybrid damper for railway vehicles suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe GHITA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available High speed railway vehicles features a specific lateral oscillation resulting from the coupled lateral displacement and yaw of the wheelset which leads to a sinusoid movement of the wheelset along the track, transferred to the entire vehicle. The amplitude of this oscillation is strongly dependant on vehicle’s velocity. Over a certain value, namely the critical speed, the instability phenomenon so-called hunting occurs. To raise the vehicle’s critical speed different designs of the suspension all leading to a much stiffer vehicle can be envisaged. Different simulations prove that a stiffer central suspension will decrease the passenger’s comfort in terms of lateral accelerations of the carboy. The authors propose a semi-active magneto rheological suspension to improve the vehicle’s comfort at high speeds. The suspension has as executive elements hybrid magneto rheological dampers operating under sequential control strategy type balance logic. Using an original mathematical model for the lateral dynamics of the vehicle the responses of the system with passive and semi-active suspensions are simulated. It is shown that the semi-active suspension can improve the vehicle performances.

  10. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) Measurements of Suspension-Feeding Velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, K.; Jones, I. T.; Carrier, T. J.; Jumars, P. A.

    2016-02-01

    Active suspension feeders, such as bivalves and tunicates, connect benthic and pelagic ecosystems by packaging suspended matter into larger fecal and pseudofecal particles, greatly enhancing the flux of carbon and nutrients from the water column to the benthos. The volume of water processed by a population of suspension feeders is commonly estimated by scaling up results from experiments that measure the clearance rate (the volume of water cleared of particles per time) of one or a few individual suspension feeders. Clearance rates vary, however, between species, within a species, and over time for a single individual; and the velocity fields produced by suspension feeders are likely to interact in complex ways. We measured the water velocity fields produced by two species of bivalve, Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, using particle image velocimetry (PIV). We used these measurements to calculate flow rates and Reynolds numbers of inhalant and exhalant siphons. We also observed strong entrainment of water by M. arenaria's exhalant siphon jet that may help to explain how the clam avoids depleting the water around it of particles and oxygen as it feeds. We are using these measurements to inform computational fluid mechanics (CFD) models of suspension feeding, allowing us to examine the interactions of flow fields produced by multiple suspension feeders and other effects not quantified by clearance-rate measurements.

  11. Effect of suspension kinematic on 14 DOF vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpattananukul, T.; Chantharasenawong, C.

    2017-12-01

    Computer simulations play a major role in shaping modern science and engineering. They reduce time and resource consumption in new studies and designs. Vehicle simulations have been studied extensively to achieve a vehicle model used in minimum lap time solution. Simulation result accuracy depends on the abilities of these models to represent real phenomenon. Vehicles models with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF), 10 DOF and 14 DOF are normally used in optimal control to solve for minimum lap time. However, suspension kinematics are always neglected on these models. Suspension kinematics are defined as wheel movements with respect to the vehicle body. Tire forces are expressed as a function of wheel slip and wheel position. Therefore, the suspension kinematic relation is appended to the 14 DOF vehicle model to investigate its effects on the accuracy of simulate trajectory. Classical 14 DOF vehicle model is chosen as baseline model. Experiment data is collected from formula student style car test runs as baseline data for simulation and comparison between baseline model and model with suspension kinematic. Results show that in a single long turn there is an accumulated trajectory error in baseline model compared to model with suspension kinematic. While in short alternate turns, the trajectory error is much smaller. These results show that suspension kinematic had an effect on the trajectory simulation of vehicle. Which optimal control that use baseline model will result in inaccuracy control scheme.

  12. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Robustness analysis of bogie suspension components Pareto optimised values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi Bideleh, Seyed Milad

    2017-08-01

    Bogie suspension system of high speed trains can significantly affect vehicle performance. Multiobjective optimisation problems are often formulated and solved to find the Pareto optimised values of the suspension components and improve cost efficiency in railway operations from different perspectives. Uncertainties in the design parameters of suspension system can negatively influence the dynamics behaviour of railway vehicles. In this regard, robustness analysis of a bogie dynamics response with respect to uncertainties in the suspension design parameters is considered. A one-car railway vehicle model with 50 degrees of freedom and wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension components is chosen for the analysis. Longitudinal and lateral primary stiffnesses, longitudinal and vertical secondary stiffnesses, as well as yaw damping are considered as five design parameters. The effects of parameter uncertainties on wear, ride comfort, track shift force, stability, and risk of derailment are studied by varying the design parameters around their respective Pareto optimised values according to a lognormal distribution with different coefficient of variations (COVs). The robustness analysis is carried out based on the maximum entropy concept. The multiplicative dimensional reduction method is utilised to simplify the calculation of fractional moments and improve the computational efficiency. The results showed that the dynamics response of the vehicle with wear/comfort Pareto optimised values of bogie suspension is robust against uncertainties in the design parameters and the probability of failure is small for parameter uncertainties with COV up to 0.1.

  14. Development of A New Automotive Active Suspension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef Abdulhammed, Eng.; Eng. Hisham Elsherif, Dr, Prof.

    2017-12-01

    The main objective was to develop a smart new vehicle suspension system that minimizes the road irregularities impact on the driver, also to increase performance and stability of the vehicle at high speeds. The central idea is based on modifying the normal passive suspension system into a computer controller hydraulic actuated active suspension system simply by adding a new component such as a hydraulic cylinder on a normal passive system. The new suspension system is economical to be wildly used in consumer’s cars with low prices. The new added components was analytically tested and modeled according to different parameters. A new test rig was implemented to simulate a real quarter suspension system. The new suspension model was controlled by feedback controller according to the road conditions; the controller output controls the cylinder actuator to compensate the road oscillations and increases the vehicle stability for the passenger. Finally, to maximize the aerodynamics coefficients of the vehicle during high speeds by controlling the vehicle clearance level from the ground to achieve full stability, steering and fuel economy.

  15. Analysis of Train Suspension System Using MR dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaSastry, DVA; Ramana, K. V.; Mohan Rao, N.; Siva Kumar, SVR; Priyanka, T. G. L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with introducing MR dampers to the Train Suspension System for improving the ride comfort of the passengers. This type of suspension system comes under Semi-active suspension system which utilizes the properties of MR fluid to damp the vibrations. In case of high speed trains, the coach body is subjected to vibrations due to vertical displacement, yaw and pitch movements. When the body receives these disturbances from the ground,the transmission of vibrations to the passenger increases which affect the ride comfort. In this work, the equations of motion of suspension system are developed for both conventional passive system and semi-active system and are modelled in Matlab/Simulink and analysis has been carried out. The passive suspension system analysis shows that it is taking more time to damp the vibrations and at the same time the transmissibility of vibrations is more.Introducing MR dampers,vertical and angular displacements of the body are computed and compared. The results show that the introduction of MR dampers into the train suspension system improves ride comfort.

  16. Clay-cement suspensions - rheological and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, L.; Izak, P.; Mastalska-Poplawska, J.; Gajek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The piping erosion in soil is highly unexpected in civil engineering. Elimination of such damages is difficult, expensive and time-consuming. One of the possibility is the grouting method. This method is still developed into direction of process automation as well as other useful properties of suspensions. Main way of modernization of the grouting method is connected it with rheology of injection and eventuality of fitting them to specific problems conditions. Very popular and useful became binders based on modified clays (clay-cement suspensions). Important principle of efficiency of the grouting method is using of time-dependent pseudothixotropic properties of the clay-cement suspensions. The pseudo-rheounstability aspect of the suspensions properties should be dedicated and fitted to dynamic changes of soil conditions destructions. Whole process of the modification of the suspension rheology is stimulated by the specific agents. This article contains a description of practical aspects of the rheological parameters managing of the clay-cement suspensions, dedicated to the building damages, hydrotechnic constructions etc.

  17. Ensemble-average versus suspension-scale Cauchy continuum-mechanical definitions of stress in polarized suspensions: Global homogenization of a dilute suspension of dipolar spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almog, Y.; Brenner, H.

    1999-01-01

    The macroscale rheological properties of a dilute suspension exposed to a uniform external field and composed of identical, rigid, inhomogeneous, dipolar, spherical particles dispersed in an incompressible Newtonian fluid and possessing the same mean density as the latter fluid are derived from knowledge of its microscale properties by applying a global ensemble-averaging technique. Each dipole, which is permanently embedded in the particle, is assumed to be generated by the presence of an inhomogeneous external body-force field in the particle interior resulting from the action of the uniform external field on an inhomogeneous distribution of interior matter. It is shown that although the ensemble-average stress tensor is symmetric, the suspension nevertheless behaves macroscopically as if it possessed an asymmetric stress tensor. This seeming contradiction can be traced to the fact that the average body force acting on the contents of any arbitrarily drawn volume lying in the interior of the suspension does not vanish despite the fact that each particle is 'neutrally buoyant'. That this force is not zero stems from the fact that some particles necessarily straddle the closed surface bounding that volume, and that the distribution of external body forces over the interiors of these particles is nonuniform. As such, that portion of the spherical particle lying outside of the surface enclosing the domain exerts a force on the remaining portion of the sphere lying within that domain. We then demonstrate that the natural macroscopic model, which is derived by equating the divergence of the suspension-scale stress appearing in that model to the ensemble-average external body-force field, and which predicts a symmetric stress tensor, is macroscopically deficient with respect to the more intuitive asymmetric stress model usually proposed by continuum mechanicians for such a suspension. It is shown that the latter, continuum-mechanical model recovers all the physically

  18. 3D modeling design and engineering analysis of automotive suspension beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Zhi Lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automotive suspension is an important device for transmission and torque. The main parameters and dimensions of 40 tons of heavy duty truck spring suspension system are designed in the paper. According to the data, the 3D modeling and virtual assembly of the leaf spring suspension are carried out by using parametric design. Structural stress of spring suspension is analyzed which can provide a guide and basis for the design of the leaf spring suspension.

  19. Channel Bank Cohesion and the Maintenance of Suspension Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, K. B. J.; Jerolmack, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Gravel-bedded rivers organize their channel geometry and grain size such that transport is close to the threshold of motion at bankfull. Sand-bedded rivers, however, typically maintain bankfull fluid shear (or Shields) stresses far in excess of threshold; there is no widely accepted explanation for these "suspension rivers". We propose that all alluvial rivers are at the threshold of motion for their erosion-limiting material, i.e., the structural component of the river cross-section that is most difficult to mobilize. The entrainment threshold of gravel is large enough that bank cohesion has little influence on gravel-bed rivers. Sand, however, is the most easily entrained material; silt and clay can raise the entrainment threshold of sand by orders of magnitude. We examine a global dataset of river channel geometry and show that the shear stress range for sand-bedded channels is entirely within the range of entrainment thresholds for sand-mud mixtures - suggesting that rivers that suspend their sandy bed material are still threshold rivers in terms of bank material. We then present new findings from a New Jersey coastal-plain river examining if and how river-bank toe composition controls hydraulic geometry. We consider the toe because it is the foundation of the river bank, and its erosion leads to channel widening. Along a 20-km profile of the river we measure cross-section geometry, bed slope, and bed and bank composition, and we explore multiple methods of measuring the threshold shear stress of the the river-bank toe in-situ. As the composition of the river bed transitions from gravel to sand, we see preliminary evidence of a shift from bed-threshold to bank-threshold control on hydraulic geometry. We also observe that sub-bankfull flows are insufficient to erode (cohesive) bank materials, even though transport of sand is active at nearly all flows. Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on river-bank toe material, which in the studied stream is

  20. Long-term assessment of airborne radiocesium after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Re-suspension from bare soil and forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, Mizuo [Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Ibaraki (Japan). Meteorological Research Inst. (MRI); RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (AICS), Hyogo (Japan); Ishizuka, Masahide [Kagawa Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Igarashi, Yasuhito [Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Ibaraki (Japan). Meteorological Research Inst. (MRI); Kita, Kazuyuki [Ibaraki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Yoshikawa, Chisato [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC), Kanagawa (Japan); Inatsu, Masaru [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    2016-07-01

    The long-term effect of {sup 137}Cs re-suspension from contaminated soil and forests due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has been quantitatively assessed by numerical simulation, a field experiment on dust emission flux in a contaminated area (town of Namie, Fukushima prefecture), and air concentration measurements inside (Namie) and outside (city of Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture) the contaminated area. In order to assess the long-term effect, the full year of 2013 was selected to study just after the start of the field experiments. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations at Namie and Tsukuba were approximately 10{sup -1}-1 and 10{sup -2}-10{sup -1} mBq m{sup -3}, respectively. The observed monthly median concentration at Namie was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than that at Tsukuba. This observed difference between the two sites was consistent with the simulated difference, indicating successful modeling of {sup 137}Cs re-suspension and atmospheric transport. The estimated re-suspension rate was approximately 10{sup -6} day{sup -1}, which was significantly lower than the decreasing rate of the ambient gamma dose rate in Fukushima prefecture (10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} day{sup -1}) as a result of radioactive decay, migration in the soil and biota, and decontamination. Consequently, re-suspension contributed negligibly in reducing ground radioactivity. The dust emission model could reproduce the air concentration of {sup 137}Cs in winter, whereas the summer air concentration was underestimated by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Re-suspension from forests at a constant rate of 10{sup -7} h{sup -1}, multiplied by the green area fraction, could explain the air concentration of {sup 137}Cs at Namie and its seasonal variation. The simulated contribution of dust re-suspension to the air concentration was 0.7-0.9 in the cold season and 0.2-0.4 in the warm season at both sites; the remainder of the contribution was re-suspension from forest. The re-suspension mechanisms, especially

  1. Long-term assessment of airborne radiocesium after the Fukushima nuclear accident: re-suspension from bare soil and forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Mizuo; Ishizuka, Masahide; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kita, Kazuyuki; Yoshikawa, Chisato; Inatsu, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    The long-term effect of 137Cs re-suspension from contaminated soil and forests due to the Fukushima nuclear accident has been quantitatively assessed by numerical simulation, a field experiment on dust emission flux in a contaminated area (town of Namie, Fukushima prefecture), and air concentration measurements inside (Namie) and outside (city of Tsukuba, Ibaraki prefecture) the contaminated area. In order to assess the long-term effect, the full year of 2013 was selected to study just after the start of the field experiments. The 137Cs concentrations at Namie and Tsukuba were approximately 10-1-1 and 10-2-10-1 mBq m-3, respectively. The observed monthly median concentration at Namie was 1 to 2 orders of magnitude larger than that at Tsukuba. This observed difference between the two sites was consistent with the simulated difference, indicating successful modeling of 137Cs re-suspension and atmospheric transport. The estimated re-suspension rate was approximately 10-6 day-1, which was significantly lower than the decreasing rate of the ambient gamma dose rate in Fukushima prefecture (10-4-10-3 day-1) as a result of radioactive decay, migration in the soil and biota, and decontamination. Consequently, re-suspension contributed negligibly in reducing ground radioactivity. The dust emission model could reproduce the air concentration of 137Cs in winter, whereas the summer air concentration was underestimated by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Re-suspension from forests at a constant rate of 10-7 h-1, multiplied by the green area fraction, could explain the air concentration of 137Cs at Namie and its seasonal variation. The simulated contribution of dust re-suspension to the air concentration was 0.7-0.9 in the cold season and 0.2-0.4 in the warm season at both sites; the remainder of the contribution was re-suspension from forest. The re-suspension mechanisms, especially through the forest ecosystems, remain unknown. This is the first study that provides a crude

  2. The effect of a concentration-dependent viscosity on particle transport in a channel flow with porous walls

    KAUST Repository

    Herterich, James G.; Griffiths, Ian M.; Vella, Dominic; Field, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The transport of a dilute suspension of particles through a channel with porous walls, accounting for the concentration dependence of the viscosity, is analyzed. In particular, we study two cases of fluid permeation through the porous channel walls

  3. Possibilities of transport with monorails; Moeglichkeiten des Transports mit Einschienenhaengebahnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolz, P. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2001-08-02

    The safety limits of transport by monorails were determined within the framework of a test project. The safety-related components of the system, in particular the rail system with its suspensions and the drive and braking system, were investigated for normal and heavy load transport. In addition to operational measurements for actual stressing of the components tests were conducted on test benches to determine the dynamic strength. The concept of a new forward-looking monorail system with greater safety was subsequently developed with the aid of the results obtained. The compatibility with the previous components was ensured. Compared to the determined load capacity limits a development requirement for monorail suspension anchor bolts, diesel- and battery-operated trolleys as well as braking trolleys for ropeways were derived. The other components are already adequately dimensioned. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen eines Untersuchungsvorhabens wurden die sicherheitlichen Grenzen des Transports mit EHB ermittelt. Die sicherheitsrelevanten Bauteile des Systems, insbesondere das Schienensystem mit seinen Aufhaengungen sowie das Antriebs- und Bremssystem, wurden fuer den Normal- und den Schwerlasttransport untersucht. Neben Betriebsmessungen zur tatsaechlichen Beanspruchung der Bauteile erfolgten Pruefstandsuntersuchungen zur dynamischen Festigkeit. Mit Hilfe der gewonnenen Ergebnisse wurde anschliessend das Konzept fuer ein neues, zukunftsorientiertes EHB-System mit erhoehter Sicherheit erarbeitet. Die Kompatibilitaet zu den bisherigen Bauteilen wurde dabei gewaehrleistet. Im Vergleich zu den ermittelten Belastbarkeitsgrenzen wurde daraus ein Entwicklungsbedarf bei EHB-Aufhaengeankern, Diesel- und Batteriekatzen sowie Bremskatzen fuer Seilbahnen abgeleitet. Die uebrigen Bauteile sind bereits jetzt ausreichend bemessen. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Magnetic Nanoparticles on Tobacco BY-2 Cell Suspension Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystofova, Olga; Sochor, Jiri; Zitka, Ondrej; Babula, Petr; Kudrle, Vit; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2012-01-01

    Nanomaterials are structures whose exceptionality is based on their large surface, which is closely connected with reactivity and modification possibilities. Due to these properties nanomaterials are used in textile industry (antibacterial textiles with silver nanoparticles), electronics (high-resolution imaging, logical circuits on the molecular level) and medicine. Medicine represents one of the most important fields of application of nanomaterials. They are investigated in connection with targeted therapy (infectious diseases, malignant diseases) or imaging (contrast agents). Nanomaterials including nanoparticles have a great application potential in the targeted transport of pharmaceuticals. However, there are some negative properties of nanoparticles, which must be carefully solved, as hydrophobic properties leading to instability in aqueous environment, and especially their possible toxicity. Data about toxicity of nanomaterials are still scarce. Due to this fact, in this work we focused on studying of the effect of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) and modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on tobacco BY-2 plant cell suspension culture. We aimed at examining the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth, proteosynthesis—total protein content, thiols—reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, phytochelatins PC2-5, glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and antioxidant activity of BY-2 cells. Whereas the effect of NPs and MNPs on growth of cell suspension culture was only moderate, significant changes were detected in all other biochemical parameters. Significant changes in protein content, phytochelatins levels and GST activity were observed in BY-2 cells treated with MNPs nanoparticles treatment. Changes were also clearly evident in the case of application of NPs. Our results demonstrate the ability of MNPs to negatively affect metabolism and induce biosynthesis of protective compounds in a plant cell model represented by BY-2 cell suspension culture. The

  5. Development and evaluation of suspension plasma sprayed yttria stabilized zirconia coatings as thermal barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Every, Kent J.

    The insulating effects from thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) in gas turbine engines allow for increased operational efficiencies and longer service lifetimes. Consequently, improving TBCs can lead to enhanced gas turbine engine performance. This study was conducted to investigate if yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coatings, the standard industrial choice for TBCs, produced from nano-sized powder could provide better thermal insulation than current commericial YSZ coatings generated using micron-sized powders. The coatings for this research were made via the recently developed suspension plasma spraying (SPS) process. With SPS, powders are suspended in a solvent containing dispersing agents; the suspension is then injected directly into a plasma flow that evaporates the solvent and melts the powder while transporting it to the substrate. Although related to the industrial TBC production method of air plasma spraying (APS), SPS has two important differences---the ability to spray sub-micron diameter ceramic particles, and the ability to alloy the particles with chemicals dissolved in the solvent. These aspects of SPS were employed to generate a series of coatings from suspensions containing ˜100 nm diameter YSZ powder particles, some of which were alloyed with neodymium and ytterbium ions from the solvent. The SPS coatings contained columnar structures not observed in APS TBCs; thus, a theory was developed to explain the formation of these features. The thermal conductivity of the coatings was tested to evaluate the effects of these unique microstructures and the effects of the alloying process. The results for samples in the as-sprayed and heat-treated conditions were compared to conventional YSZ TBCs. This comparison showed that, relative to APS YSZ coatings, the unalloyed SPS samples typically exhibited higher as-sprayed and lower heat-treated thermal conductivities. All thermal conductivity values for the alloyed samples were lower than conventional YSZ TBCs

  6. Sedimentation in Particulate Aqueous Suspensions as studied by means of Dielectric Time Domain Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Bjoernar Hauknes

    1997-12-31

    Many problems in offshore oil production and multiphase transport are related to surface and colloid chemistry. This thesis applies dielectric spectroscopy as an experimental technique to study the behaviour of particle suspensions in polar media. The thesis opens with an introduction to suspensions and time domain dielectric spectroscopy. It then investigates the dielectric properties of silica and alumina dispersed in polar solvents. It is found that theoretical models can be used to calculate the volume fraction disperse phase in the suspension and that the particle sedimentation depends on the wetting of the particles, charge on the particle surface and viscosity of the solvent, and that this dependency can be measured by time domain dielectric spectroscopy. When the surface properties of silica and alumina particles were modified by coating them with a non-ionic polymer and a non-ionic surfactant, then different degrees of packing in the sedimented phase at the bottom of the sedimentation vessel occurred. Chemometrical methods on the synthesis of monodisperse silica particles were used to investigate what factors influence the particle size. It turned out that it is insufficient to consider only main variables when discussing the results of the synthesis. By introducing interaction terms, the author could explain the variation in the size of particles synthesized. The difference in the sedimentation rate of monodisperse silica particles upon variation of volume fraction particles, pH, salinity, amount of silanol groups at the particle surface and temperature was studied. The cross interactions play an important role and a model explaining the variation in sedimentation is introduced. Finally, magnetic particles dispersed in water and in an external magnetic field were used to study the impact on the sedimentation due to the induced flocculation. 209 refs., 90 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Tribology of swollen starch granule suspensions from maize and potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Selway, Nichola; Shelat, Kinnari J; Dhital, Sushil; Stokes, Jason R; Gidley, Michael J

    2017-01-02

    The tribological properties of suspensions of cooked swollen starch granules are characterised for systems based on maize starch and potato starch. These systems are known as granule 'ghosts' due to the release (and removal) of polymer from their structure during cooking. Maize starch ghosts are less swollen than potato starch ghosts, resulting in a higher packing concentration and greater mechanical stability. In a soft-tribological contact, maize ghost suspensions reduce friction compared to the solvent (water), generate bell-shaped tribological profiles characteristic of particle entrainment and show a marked concentration dependence, whereas potato ghost suspensions exhibit lubrication behaviour similar to water. Microscopy analysis of the samples following tribological testing suggests that this is due to the rapid break-up of potato ghosts under the shear and rolling conditions within the tribological contact. A reduction in the small deformation moduli (associated with a weak gel structure) is also observed when the potato ghost suspensions are subjected to steady shear using parallel plate rheometry; both microscopy and particle size analysis show that this is accompanied by the partial shear-induced breakage of ghost particles. This interplay between particle microstructure and the resultant rheological and lubrication dynamics of starch ghost suspensions contributes to an enhanced mechanistic understanding of textural and other functional properties of cooked starches in food and other applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Qualification criteria verification for aisi-4340 steel suspension lug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, M.A.; Alam, M.

    2005-01-01

    All external loads carried underneath an aircraft are mounted onto it through mechanism generally known as suspension system. The externally mounted attachments like bombs, missiles and fuel tanks etc. experience enormous aerodynamic and inertial forces in the flights. These forces are transferred to the interface point of suspension system, known as 'Suspension Lug'. Thus lugs are considered critical component and have extremely stringent qualification criteria standards used in the aviation industry in USA, Europe, Russia, etc. Different standards prevail in different parts of the world about qualification and testing of these lugs. As Pakistan is entering into aviation industry, therefore there is a need to fulfill the requirements of these standards, to suit Pakistani environment. The suspension lug under study is 2000 Ibs. load class made from AISI-4340 Steel having good mechanical properties as per required standard. The manufacturing processes included forging, machining and vacuum heat treatment. The prototypes of suspension lugs were manufactured in the local industry and subjected to the required mechanical tests such as tensile testing at 5 to 35 degree angles. Impact testing at cryogenic temperatures of -50 to -70 degree C, and breaking load testing were performed. The acceptable results were obtained and mechanical testing for qualification of lugs was finalized and standardized. The options were compared with practical viability, utilization of product and cost effectiveness. (author)

  9. Shear-induced changes of electrical conductivity in suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, John; Meeten, Gerald [Schlumberger Cambridge Research, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The effect of shear on electrical conductivity (rheo-conduction) is studied to give information about particle behaviour in suspensions. Past work is reviewed, and expressions are derived for the rheo-conduction of a suspension of nonconducting spheroids in a conducting matrix for current flow, parallel and normal to the suspension flow direction. A simple apparatus to study rheo-conduction in pipe flow is described, and measurements of steady and time-dependent effects are reported for various suspensions of colloidal particles. Suspensions of anisometric rod- and platelike particles at low concentrations showed rheo-conductive changes of sign, magnitude and relaxation that were consistent with the particle shape, concentration and interactions. The rheo-conductive response decreased with increasing volume fraction for platelike kaolinite particles, attributed to orientational jamming. Spherical latex particles gave unexpected rheo-conductive changes consistent with shear disruption of a conductive network of particles. It is concluded that rheo-conduction measurements are a useful adjunct to conventional rheometry. (orig.)

  10. Development of an Air Pneumatic Suspension System for Transtibial Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Pirouzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suspension system and socket fitting of artificial limbs have major roles and vital effects on the comfort, mobility, and satisfaction of amputees. This paper introduces a new pneumatic suspension system that overcomes the drawbacks of current suspension systems in donning and doffing, change in volume during daily activities, and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface. An air pneumatic suspension system (APSS for total-contact sockets was designed and developed. Pistoning and pressure distribution in the socket-stump interface were tested for the new APSS. More than 95% of the area between each prosthetic socket and liner was measured using a Tekscan F-Scan pressure measurement which has developed matrix-based pressure sensing systems. The variance in pressure around the stump was 8.76 kPa. APSS exhibits less pressure concentration around the stump, improved pressure distribution, easy donning and doffing, adjustability to remain fitted to the socket during daily activities, and more adaptability to the changes in stump volume. The volume changes were adjusted by utility of air pressure sensor. The vertical displacement point and reliability of suspension were assessed using a photographic method. The optimum pressure in every level of loading weight was 55 kPa, and the maximum displacement was 6 mm when 90 N of weight was loaded.

  11. Multiphase modeling of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Liang; Ma, Jingwei; Frear, Craig; Zhao, Quanbao; Dillon, Robert; Li, Xiujin; Chen, Shulin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop biowaste fluid dynamics for collision, aggregation and breakup of clusters. • Explore the mechanisms of settling and suspension in anaerobic digester. • Biowaste particles tended to have fluid properties. • Aided with CFD simulation, the scale-up effect was reduced. - Abstract: Effective suspension and settling are critical for controlling biomass retention in a bioreactor. In this paper, a multi-fluid model with kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF) was established to describe these phenomena in the biowaste particles flow in anaerobic digesters. Solid retention time (SRT) was added as a parameter into anaerobic digestion No.1 (ADM1) model to evaluate its effect on the biogas productivity. The model was experimentally validated in a liquid–gas–solid column reactor with gas and solid volume fraction and granular temperature as the major variables. The wastewater residence time distribution was also determined through modeling and measurement to evaluate the mixing pattern in the pilot column reactor. The effect of restitution coefficient on flow behavior of biowaste particles, particles settling and suspension were predicted. Settling and suspension processes of anaerobic digesters were simulated for lab and pilot-scale reactors with comparisons made for reactor configuration and geometry model, respectively. This study demonstrated that the multi-fluid model with KTGF could provide better understanding of impact of suspension and settling upon retaining biomass particles in the anaerobic digesters

  12. Shear-induced particle migration in suspensions of rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondy, L.A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)); Brenner, H. (Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Altobelli, S.A. (The Lovelace Institutes, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, S. E., Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)); Abbott, J.R.; Graham, A.L. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Shear-induced migration of particles occurs in suspensions of neutrally buoyant spheres in Newtonian fluids undergoing shear in the annular space between two rotating, coaxial cylinders (a wide-gap Couette), even when the suspension is in creeping flow. Previous studies have shown that the rate of migration of spherical particles from the high-shear-rate region near the inner (rotating) cylinder to the low-shear-rate region near the outer (stationary) cylinder increases rapidly with increasing sphere size. To determine the effect of particle shape, the migration of rods suspended in Newtonian fluids was recently measured. The behavior of several suspensions was studied. Each suspension contained well-characterized, uniform rods with aspect ratios ranging from 2 to 18 at either 0.30 or 0.40 volume fraction. At the same volume fraction of solids, the steady-state, radial concentration profiles for rods were independent of aspect ratio and were indistinguishable from those obtained from suspended spheres. Only minor differences near the walls (attributable to the finite size of the rods relative to the curvature of the walls) appeared to differentiate the profiles. Data taken during the transition from a well-mixed suspension to the final steady state show that the rate of migration increased as the volume of the individual rods increased.

  13. Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawler, Katherine [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may

  14. Uniform Suspension of the Clustered Triamcinolone Acetonide Particle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Sugimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. MaQaid (MaQ is a new triamcinolone acetonide commercialised in Japan to visualize the vitreous. Because MaQ is preservative-free, it has a lower risk of ocular toxicities. However, since MaQ is only available as a powder, it needs suspenssion. Suspension does not always result uniformally, which causes poor visibility. This study reports a new MaQ suspension for better visibility. Methods. After medium addition to a MaQ vial, various methods were used. These included the use of (1 vortex mixer, (2 two syringes and a three-way stopcock, and (3 ultrasonic washer. We calculated suspended MaQ concentration (. To evaluate the reproducibility, we estimated the coefficient of variance (CV, . We used this MaQ for pig eyes, and vitreous visualization was simulated. Subsequently, we used this MaQ suspension for humans. Results. MaQ suspensions were sucessfull, and the concentrations of single particles increased significantly (. The CV was 36.1% for the routine method and 9.03% ffor the new method. Administration of a suspended MaQ made it possible to clearly visualize the vitreous in both pig and human eyes. Conclusions. We devised new techniques for uniformal MaQ suspension. These new methods can compensate for the MaQ disadvantages and ensure a safety surgery.

  15. Multivectored Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Suspension for Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Garrison; Kurnik, Nicole; Joganic, Jessica; Joganic, Edward

    2017-06-01

    Facial paralysis is a devastating condition that may cause severe cosmetic and functional deformities. In this study we describe our technique for superficial muscular aponeurotic system (SMAS) suspension using barbed suture and compare the vectors of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature. This study also quantifies the improvements in postoperative symmetry using traditional anthropologic landmarks. The efficacy of this procedure for improving facial paralysis was determined by comparing anthropometric indices and using Procrustes distance between 4 groupings of homologous landmarks plotted on each patient's preoperative and postoperative photos. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate change in facial shape and improvement in symmetry postoperatively.To analyze the vector of suspension in relation to the underlying musculature, specific anthropologic landmarks were used to calculate the vector of the musculature in 3 facial hemispheres from cadaveric controls against the vector of repair in our patients. Ten patients were included in our study. Subjectively, great improvement in functional status was achieved. Geometric morphometric analysis demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in facial symmetry. Cadaveric dissection demonstrated that the suture should be placed in the SMAS in vectors parallel to the underlying musculature to achieve these results. There were no complications in our study to date. In conclusion, multivectored SMAS suture suspension is an effective method for restoring static suspension of the face after facial paralysis. This method has the benefit of producing quick, reliable results with improved function, low cost, and low morbidity.

  16. Uptake, accumulation, and biotransformation of metal oxide nanoparticles by a marine suspension-feeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Milka O. [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); University of Texas of the Permian Basin, 4901 E. University, Odessa, TX 79762 (United States); Hanna, Shannon K.; Lenihan, Hunter S. [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Keller, Arturo A., E-mail: keller@bren.ucsb.edu [University of California Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2012-07-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suspension-feeding by mussels can greatly alter mobility and fate of metal oxide nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioprocessing of metal oxide nanoparticles by mussels removes large fraction from water column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mussels repackage metal oxide nanoparticles in highly concentrated pseudofeces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel biological pathway between major compartments in marine systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very different outcome for ZnO and CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles based on their solubility. - Abstract: A growing body of evidence indicates that some engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are toxic to organisms that perform important ecosystem services in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, toxicity can be influenced by the biotransformation of contaminants, including ENPs, as it may alter the fate and transport of these substances. In turn, fate and transport can influence their bioavailability. To understand how biotransformation influences the fate and transport of ENPs in marine ecosystems, we exposed suspension-feeding mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to two common nano-metal oxides, CeO{sub 2} and ZnO, over a range of concentrations from 1 mg L{sup -1} to 10 mg L{sup -1}, in a laboratory experiment. Mussels exposed to 10 mg L{sup -1} accumulated 62 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Ce and 880 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Zn on a dry tissue basis but rejected 21,000 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Ce and 63,000 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Zn in pseudofeces. Scanning electron microscope evidence indicates CeO{sub 2} remained as ENPs but ZnO did not after being rejected by the mussels. Mussels filtered most of the CeO{sub 2} from the aqueous media, while a significant fraction of Zn remained in solution. Differences in ENP solubility affect ENP uptake, excretion, and accumulation in mussels. Our study highlights the potential role of marine suspension feeders in biotransformation of ENPs.

  17. Ammonium and methylammonium transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordts, M.L.; Gibson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Rhodobacter spheroides maintained intracellular ammonium pools of 1.1 to 2.6 mM during growth in several fixed nitrogen sources as well as during diazotrophic growth. Addition of 0.15 mM NH 4 + to washed, nitrogen-free cell suspensions was followed by linear uptake of NH 4 + from the medium and transient formation of intracellular pools of 0.9 to 1.5 mM NH 4 + . Transport of NH 4 + was shown to be independent of assimilation by glutamine synthetase because intracellular pools of over 1 mM represented NH 4 + concentration gradients of at least 100-fold across the cytoplasmic membrane. Ammonium pools of over 1 mM were also found in non-growing cell suspensions in nitrogen-free medium after glutamine synthetase was inhibited with methionine sulfoximine. In NH 4 + -free cell suspensions, methylammonium ( 14 CH 3 NH 3 + ) was taken up rapidly, and intracellular concentrations of 0.4 to 0.5 mM were maintained. The 14 CN 3 NH 3 + pool was not affected by methionine sulfoximine. Unlike NH 4 + uptake, 14 CH 3 NH 3 + uptake in nitrogen-free cell suspensions was repressed by growth in NH 4 + . These results suggest that R. sphaeroides may produce an NH 4 + -specific transport system in addition to the NH 4 + / 14 CH 3 NH 3 + transporter. This second transporter is able to produce normal-size NH 4 + pools but has very little affinity for 14 CH 3 NH 3 + and is not repressed by growth in high concentrations of NH 4 +

  18. Particle-wall tribology of slippery hydrogel particle suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewan, Heather M; Stokes, Jason R; Cloitre, Michel

    2017-03-08

    Slip is an important phenomenon that occurs during the flow of yield stress fluids like soft materials and pastes. Densely packed suspensions of hydrogel microparticles are used to show that slip is governed by the tribological interactions occurring between the samples and shearing surfaces. Both attractive/repulsive interactions between the dispersed particles and surface, as well as the viscoelasticity of the suspension, are found to play key roles in slip occurring within rheometric flows. We specifically discover that for two completely different sets of microgels, the sliding stress at which slip occurs scales with both the modulus of the particles and the bulk suspension modulus. This suggests that hysteresis losses within the viscoelastic particles contribute to friction forces and thus slip at the particle-surface tribo-contact. It is also found that slip during large amplitude oscillatory shear and steady shear flows share the same generic features.

  19. A new variable stiffness suspension system: passive case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Anubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, and experimental validation of the passive case of a variable stiffness suspension system. The central concept is based on a recently designed variable stiffness mechanism. It consists of a horizontal control strut and a vertical strut. The main idea is to vary the load transfer ratio by moving the location of the point of attachment of the vertical strut to the car body. This movement is controlled passively using the horizontal strut. The system is analyzed using an L2-gain analysis based on the concept of energy dissipation. The analyses, simulation, and experimental results show that the variable stiffness suspension achieves better performance than the constant stiffness counterpart. The performance criteria used are; ride comfort, characterized by the car body acceleration, suspension deflection, and road holding, characterized by tire deflection.

  20. Characterization and stabilization of suspension of bovine bone ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carus, L.A.; Bento, L.; Takimi, A.S.; Braganca, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The bovine bone powder is the main component in the production of bone china, which is known to be one of the finest and most expensive tableware. This special type of porcelain has unique aesthetic characteristics, among which stands out the whiteness, translucency and brightness. The properties of this porcelain, as well as its manufacture, depend on the characteristics of the bone ash. In this study the rheological properties of the suspensions using exclusively bovine bone ash were evaluated by testing the influence of the concentration of solids in suspension, the calcination temperature and the use of dispersing agents. It was found that the powder calcination temperature affects the rheology of the suspension by lowering the viscosity. (author)

  1. Mathematical models for suspension bridges nonlinear structural instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gazzola, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a detailed and up-to-the-minute survey of the various stability problems that can affect suspension bridges. In order to deduce some experimental data and rules on the behavior of suspension bridges, a number of historical events are first described, in the course of which several questions concerning their stability naturally arise. The book then surveys conventional mathematical models for suspension bridges and suggests new nonlinear alternatives, which can potentially supply answers to some stability questions. New explanations are also provided, based on the nonlinear structural behavior of bridges. All the models and responses presented in the book employ the theory of differential equations and dynamical systems in the broader sense, demonstrating that methods from nonlinear analysis can allow us to determine the thresholds of instability.

  2. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  3. Temperature effects in an optical limiter using carbon nanotube suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyojung; Kim, Sokwon

    2005-01-01

    An optical limiter is an optical component that reduces the laser beam intensity for the protection of eyes and light sensors, and a carbon nanotube is known to be a highly efficient optical limiting material. However, the effects of heat generated by continuous use have not been studied yet. Therefore, in this work, the variation of optical limiting effect of multi-walled carbon-nanotube suspensions in several kinds of solvents such as distilled water, chloroform, ethanol and ethylene glycol, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to the boiling point of each solvent. A pulsed Nd : YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and a pulse duration of 6 ns was used as the light source. The experimental result shows that the limiting efficiencies of all the suspensions were reduced as the temperature was increased and that a suspension with a solvent of lower boiling point, viscosity, and surface tension showed a higher efficiency.

  4. Relation between rheological and structural properties of suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcal, M; Sebor, G; Volsicky, Z

    1982-01-01

    The paper discusses results of investigations into separation processes for coal and kaolin suspensions. Effects of potassium chlorides and methanol additives on electrostatic potential of solid particles and on sedimentation rate are analyzed. Investigation results are shown in 5 diagrams. The relation between rheological and structural properties of coal and clay suspensions is investigated. Investigations show that the non-Newtonian behavior of suspensions cannot be attributed exclusively to the electrostatic and mechanical action of the solid phase particles. It is also caused by structure of the liquid phase, particularly on the surface of the solid particles, which depends mostly on hydrogen bonds. The internal structure of the liquid phase influences differential viscosity much more than the electrical surface properties of the solid phase. Bonds between the molecules of water and methanol are much stronger than bonds between water molecules alone. (9 refs.)

  5. Stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yunmei; Chin, Zen Whey; Ellis, David; Lwin, Ei Mon Phyo; Turner, Sean; Williams, Desmond; Garg, Sanjay

    2018-03-01

    Results of a study to determine the stability of an extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension under various temperature and stress conditions are reported. Commercially available minoxidil tablets (10 mg) were crushed to a fine powder, and predetermined amounts of 2 suspending vehicles were added to produce a 1-mg/mL suspension, which was stored in glass bottles at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) or in a refrigerator (4 ± 2 °C). To simulate daily patient use, 5 days weekly 1 bottle of the suspension was removed from refrigerated storage and shaken and 0.5 mL of the contents discarded. At each specified time point, samples were analyzed in duplicate ( n = 6 for each test condition) using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Samples were visually observed and their pH measured at each time point. Microbiological studies were performed on day 0 and at week 24. The mean percentage of initial minoxidil concentration remaining in all refrigerated samples exceeded 90% throughout the 24-week study, with no change in appearance, pH, microbial activity, odor, or redispersibility. During storage at room temperature, the suspension exhibited a color change at week 4, with slight sedimentation after 6 weeks, although minoxidil recovery exceeded 90% for 10 weeks. An extemporaneously compounded minoxidil oral suspension was stable for 24 weeks when stored in a refrigerator. This suspension can be used for up to 3 weeks when stored at room temperature. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction and rheology of vesicle suspensions in confined shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zaiyi; Farutin, Alexander; Thiébaud, Marine; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2017-10-01

    Dynamics and rheology of a confined suspension of vesicles (a model for red blood cells) are studied numerically in two dimensions by using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method. We pay particular attention to the link between the spatiotemporal organization and the rheology of the suspension. Besides confinement, we analyze the effect of concentration of the suspension, ϕ (defined as the area fraction occupied by the vesicles in the simulation domain), as well as the viscosity contrast λ (defined as the ratio between the viscosity of the fluid inside the vesicles, ηint, and that of the suspending fluid, ηext). The hydrodynamic interaction between two vesicles is shown to play a key role in determining the spatial organization. For λ =1 , the pair of vesicles settles into an equilibrium state with constant interdistance, which is regulated by the confinement. The equilibrium interdistance increases with the gap between walls, following a linear relationship. However, no stable equilibrium interdistance between two tumbling vesicles is observed for λ =10 . A quite ordered suspension is observed concomitant with the existence of an equilibrium interdistance between a vesicle pair. However, a disordered suspension prevails when no pair equilibrium interdistance exists, as occurs for tumbling vesicles. We then analyze the rheology, focusing on the effective viscosity, denoted as η , as well as on normalized viscosity, defined as [η ] =(η -ηext) /(ηextϕ ) . Ordering of the suspension is accompanied by a nonmonotonic behavior of [η ] with ϕ , while η exhibits plateaus. The nonmonotonic behavior of [η ] is suppressed when a disordered pattern prevails.

  7. Discontinuous Shear Thickening and Dilatancy: Frictional Effects in Viscous Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Shear thickening in concentrated suspensions has been well-known for quite a long time, yet a firm consensus on the basis for very abrupt or ``discontinuous'' shear thickening (DST) seen in suspensions of large solid fraction, ϕ, has not been reached. This work addresses the DST phenomenon, and proposes a simulation method based in the Stokesian Dynamics algorithm to explore the role of various forces between the particles, including hydrodynamic, conservative potential, and frictional interactions. This work shows that allowance for friction between spherical particles suspended in a viscous liquid causes a significant reduction in the jamming solid fraction of the mixture, ϕmax, taken as the maximum fraction at which the suspension will flow. A consequence of this is a shifting of the singularity in the effective viscosity, η, to smaller ϕmax, and the frictional suspension has a larger viscosity than does the frictionless suspension of the same solid fraction, as is clear from the standard empirical modeling of η (ϕ) =(1 - ϕ /ϕmax) - α , α ~ 2 . When a counterbalancing repulsive force between the particles, representative for example of charge-induced repulsion, is incorporated in the dynamics, the mixture undergoes a transition from frictionless to frictional interactions, and from low to high effective viscosity, at a critical shear rate. Comparison with experimental data shows remarkable agreement in the features of DST captured by the method. The basic algorithm and results of both rate-controlled and stress-controlled simulations will be presented. Like the shear stress, the magnitude of the normal stress exerted by the suspended particles also increases abruptly at the critical shear rate, consistent with the long-standing notion that dilatancy and shear-thickening are synonymous. We will show that considering all shear thickening materials as dilatant is a misconception, but demonstrate the validity of the connection of dilatancy with DST in

  8. Model-assisted measurements of suspension-feeding flow velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Clos, Kevin T; Jones, Ian T; Carrier, Tyler J; Brady, Damian C; Jumars, Peter A

    2017-06-01

    Benthic marine suspension feeders provide an important link between benthic and pelagic ecosystems. The strength of this link is determined by suspension-feeding rates. Many studies have measured suspension-feeding rates using indirect clearance-rate methods, which are based on the depletion of suspended particles. Direct methods that measure the flow of water itself are less common, but they can be more broadly applied because, unlike indirect methods, direct methods are not affected by properties of the cleared particles. We present pumping rates for three species of suspension feeders, the clams Mya arenaria and Mercenaria mercenaria and the tunicate Ciona intestinalis , measured using a direct method based on particle image velocimetry (PIV). Past uses of PIV in suspension-feeding studies have been limited by strong laser reflections that interfere with velocity measurements proximate to the siphon. We used a new approach based on fitting PIV-based velocity profile measurements to theoretical profiles from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which allowed us to calculate inhalant siphon Reynolds numbers ( Re ). We used these inhalant Re and measurements of siphon diameters to calculate exhalant Re , pumping rates, and mean inlet and outlet velocities. For the three species studied, inhalant Re ranged from 8 to 520, and exhalant Re ranged from 15 to 1073. Volumetric pumping rates ranged from 1.7 to 7.4 l h -1 for M . arenaria , 0.3 to 3.6 l h -1 for M . m ercenaria and 0.07 to 0.97 l h -1 for C . intestinalis We also used CFD models based on measured pumping rates to calculate capture regions, which reveal the spatial extent of pumped water. Combining PIV data with CFD models may be a valuable approach for future suspension-feeding studies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Suspension Bridge Flutter for Girder with Separate Control Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, T.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    Active vibration control of long span suspension bridge flutter using separated control flaps (SFSC) has shown to increase effectively the critical wind speed of bridges. In this paper, an SFSC calculation based on modal equations of the vertical and torsional motions of the bridge girder including...... the flaps is presented. The length of the flaps attached to the girder, the flap configuration and the flap rotational angles are parameters used to increase the critical wind speed of the bridge. To illustrate the theory a numerical example is shown for a suspension bridge of 1000m+2500m+1000m span based...... on the Great Belt Bridge streamlined girder....

  10. Optimization of Front Axle Suspension System of Articulated Dump Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard; Christensen, Brian B.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2010-01-01

    that has been subjected to comfort improvement is a two axle articulated dump truck. The comfort has been in terms of whole body vibration exposure and the overall improvement has been made possible by adding front axle suspension. However, a hydraulic stabilizing system between the tractor and trailer...... to evaluate the whole body vibrations. By use of a multibody simulation model of the dump truck the whole body vibration exposure has been computed using the predefined work cycle as model input. The design parameters comprise the components of the hydraulic subsystem of the suspension, i.e., the size...

  11. Honig v. Doe: the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, M L

    1989-09-01

    Public Law 94-142 provides for a free appropriate public education for all handicapped children, but does not address the issue of disciplining handicapped students. The result has been confusion and uncertainty, particularly concerning expulsion and suspension. The courts have been forced into this vacuum, acting as arbiters. The Supreme Court's ruling in Honig v. Doe will help to delineate the proper role of educators in the suspension and expulsion of handicapped students. This article examines that role and offers recommendations for school policies regarding the discipline of handicapped students.

  12. A magnetic suspension system for measuring liquid density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Centeno González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density is a derived quantity of mass and length; it is defined as mass per volume unit and its SI unit is kg/m3. National metrology institutes have been designing and building their own magnetic suspension systems during the last 5 decades for making fluid density measurements; this has allowed them to carry out research into liquids and gases’ physical characteristics. This paper was aimed at designing and developing a magnetic suspension system for a magnetic balance used in determining liquid density to be used in CENAM’s metrology density laboratories.

  13. Evaluating damping elements for two-stage suspension vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald M. Martinod R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical state of the damping elements for a vehicle having two-stage suspension was evaluated by using numerical models based on the multi-body system theory; a set of virtual tests used the eigenproblem mathematical method. A test was developed based on experimental modal analysis (EMA applied to a physical system as the basis for validating the numerical models. The study focused on evaluating vehicle dynamics to determine the influence of the dampers’ technical state in each suspension state.

  14. Hydrodynamic suppression of phase separation in active suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matas-Navarro, Ricard; Golestanian, Ramin; Liverpool, Tanniemola B; Fielding, Suzanne M

    2014-09-01

    We simulate with hydrodynamics a suspension of active disks squirming through a Newtonian fluid. We explore numerically the full range of squirmer area fractions from dilute to close packed and show that "motility induced phase separation," which was recently proposed to arise generically in active matter, and which has been seen in simulations of active Brownian disks, is strongly suppressed by hydrodynamic interactions. We give an argument for why this should be the case and support it with counterpart simulations of active Brownian disks in a parameter regime that provides a closer counterpart to hydrodynamic suspensions than in previous studies.

  15. Effective viscosity of 2D suspensions - Confinement effects

    OpenAIRE

    Doyeux , Vincent; Priem , Stephane; Jibuti , Levan; Farutin , Alexander; Ismail , Mourad; Peyla , Philippe

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We study the rheology of a sheared 2D suspension of non-Brownian disks in presence of walls. Although, it is of course possible today with modern computers and powerful algorithms to perform direct numerical simulations that fully account for multiparticle 3D interactions in the presence of walls, the analysis of the simple case of a 2D suspension, provides valuable insights and helps to understand 3D results. Thanks to the direct visualization of the whole 2D flow (th...

  16. Chlorogenic acid in a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet; Mesnard; Fliniaux; Monti; Fliniaux

    1999-11-01

    A phenylpropanoid compound has been characterized in a Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cell suspension. This compound has been isolated and purified by semi-preparative reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography. Its structure has been identified by NMR spectroscopy as 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, which is chlorogenic acid (CA). The influence of culture conditions on the accumulation of this metabolite by N. plumbaginifolia cell suspensions has been studied. Darkness strongly inhibits the CA accumulation. Moreover, it has been shown that feeding experiments with caffeic acid had a deleterious effect upon the CA content. This one was not influenced by a supplementation with quinic acid.

  17. Mesoscopic Length Scale Controls the Rheology of Dense Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoit, Claire; Lanuza, Jose; Lindner, Anke; Clement, Eric

    2010-09-01

    From the flow properties of dense granular suspensions on an inclined plane, we identify a mesoscopic length scale strongly increasing with volume fraction. When the flowing layer height is larger than this length scale, a diverging Newtonian viscosity is determined. However, when the flowing layer height drops below this scale, we evidence a nonlocal effective viscosity, decreasing as a power law of the flow height. We establish a scaling relation between this mesoscopic length scale and the suspension viscosity. These results support recent theoretical and numerical results implying collective and clustered granular motion when the jamming point is approached from below.

  18. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  19. Mixing and solid suspension in a stirred precipitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.P.

    1986-04-01

    Full-scale mixing and solid suspension studies have been conducted to determine the optimum agitator design for precipitators used in plutonium processing. Design considerations include the geometry of precipitator vessels, feed locations, flow patterns, and product requirements. Evaluations of various agitator designs are based on their capabilities: (1) to achieve uniform mixing of reactants in minimum time, (2) to suspend slurry uniformly throughout the vessel, and (3) to minimize power consumption without inducing air entrainment. Tests of full-scale agitator designs showed that significant improvements in mixing, solid suspension, and energy consumption were achieved

  20. A Study of the Creep Effect in Loudspeaker Suspension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Thorborg, Knud; Tinggaard, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the creep effect, the visco elastic behaviour of loudspeaker suspension parts, which can be observed as an increase in displacement far below the resonance frequency. The creep effect means that the suspension cannot be modelled as a simple spring. The need for an accurate...... creep model is even larger as the validity of loudspeaker models are now sought extended far into the nonlinear domain of the loudspeaker. Different creep models are investigated and implemented both in simple lumped parameter models as well as time domain non-linear models, the simulation results...

  1. Programa de coordinación motriz fina en el aprendizaje de la escritura en niños de cinco años de la I.E.P. “Santa María Reina” del distrito de Comas 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Carhuanina, Elizabeth Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación, tuvo como problema general: ¿Cuál será el efecto después de aplicar el Programa de Coordinación motriz fina en el aprendizaje de la escritura en niños de cinco años de la I.E.P. Santa María Reina- Comas- 2016? .Y cuyo objetivo general fue Demostrar que efecto produce al aplicar el Programa de Coordinación motriz en el aprendizaje de la escritura en niños de cinco años de la I.E.P. Santa María Reina- Comas- 2016. El tipo de investigaci...

  2. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  3. Vibrations control of light rail transportation vehicle via PID type fuzzy controller using parameters adaptive method

    OpenAIRE

    METİN, Muzaffer; GÜÇLÜ, Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a conventional PID type fuzzy controller and parameter adaptive fuzzy controller are designed to control vibrations actively of a light rail transport vehicle which modeled as 6 degree-of-freedom system and compared performances of these two controllers. Rail vehicle model consists of a passenger seat and its suspension system, vehicle body, bogie, primary and secondary suspensions and wheels. The similarity between mathematical model and real system is shown by compar...

  4. Modelling the evaporation of thin films of colloidal suspensions using dynamical density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, M J; Archer, A J; Thiele, U [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-19

    Recent experiments have shown that various structures may be formed during the evaporative dewetting of thin films of colloidal suspensions. Nanoparticle deposits of strongly branched 'flower-like', labyrinthine and network structures are observed. They are caused by the different transport processes and the rich phase behaviour of the system. We develop a model for the system, based on a dynamical density functional theory, which reproduces these structures. The model is employed to determine the influences of the solvent evaporation and of the diffusion of the colloidal particles and of the liquid over the surface. Finally, we investigate the conditions needed for 'liquid-particle' phase separation to occur and discuss its effect on the self-organized nanostructures. (paper)

  5. Graphite suspension in carbon dioxide; Suspension de graphite dans le gaz carbonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Moussez, C; Rouvillois, X; Brevet, R [Societe Nationale d' Etude et de Construction de Moteurs d' Aviation (SNECMA), 75 - Paris (France)

    1965-07-01

    Since 1963 the Atomic Division of SNECMA has been conducting, under a contract with the CEA, an experimental work with a two-component fluid comprised of carbon dioxide and small graphite particles. The primary purpose was the determination of basic engineering information pertaining to the stability and the flowability of the suspension. The final form of the experimental loop consists mainly of the following items: a light-phase compressor, a heavy-phase pump, an electrical-resistance type heater section, a cooling heat exchanger, a hairpin loop, a transparent test section and a separator. During the course of the testing, it was observed that the fluid could be circulated quite easily in a broad range of variation of the suspension density and velocity - density from 30 to 170 kg/m{sup 3} and velocity from 2 to 24 m/s. The system could be restarted and circulation maintained without any difficulty, even with the heavy-phase pump alone. The graphite did not have a tendency to pack or agglomerate during operation. No graphite deposition was observed on the wall of the tubing. A long period run (250 hours) has shown the evolution of the particle dimensions. Starting with graphite of surface area around 20 m{sup 2}/g (graphite particles about 1 {mu}), the powder surface area reaches an asymptotic value of 300 m{sup 2}/g (all the particles less than 0.3 {mu}). Moisture effect on flow stability, flow distribution between two parallel channels, pressure drop in straight tubes, recompression ratio in diffusers were also investigated. (author) [French] Depuis 1963 la Division Atomique de la SNECMA conduit, dans le cadre d'un contrat avec le Commissariat A l'Energie Atomique, l'etude experimentale d'une suspension de fines particules de graphite dans le gaz carbonique. L'objectif principal est d'obtenir des informations d'ordre mecanique et technologique sur la mise en oeuvre de l'ecoulement de ce fluide diphase. Le circuit experimental comprend principalement: un

  6. Acceleration and support post deformation measurements during surface and tunnel transport of a LHC Short Straight Section

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    This technical note is a complement to the technical note [1]. The former technical note dealt with the experimental modal analysis and the road transport with transport restraints and special suspension. The present note describes the measured accelerations and support post deformations during road transport at reduced speed without end restraints or special suspension. This note also reports the accelerations and support post deformations during handling and tunnel transport with the dedicated tunnel vehicle. The measured accelerations are compared with the specified acceleration limits.

  7. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  8. Suspension of the NAB Code and Its Effect on Regulation of Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Lynda M.; Zanot, Eric J.

    1984-01-01

    Traces events leading to the suspension of the Television Code of the National Association of Broadcasters in 1982 and looks at changes that have occurred in the informal and formal regulation of advertising as a result of that suspension. (FL)

  9. 5 CFR 919.610 - What procedures does the OPM use in suspension and debarment actions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handle the actions as informally as practicable, consistent with principles of fundamental fairness. (a... MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 919.610 What procedures does...

  10. 17 CFR 201.550 - Summary suspensions pursuant to Exchange Act Section 12(k)(1)(A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... termination of suspension. Any person adversely affected by a suspension pursuant to Section 12(k)(1)(A) of... the public interest or for the protection of investors may file a sworn petition with the Secretary...

  11. Design and analysis of an intelligent controller for active geometry suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Avesta; Oloomi, Ehsan; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2011-02-01

    An active geometry suspension (AGS) system is a device to optimise suspension-related factors such as toe angle and roll centre height by controlling vehicle's suspension geometry. The suspension geometry could be changed through control of suspension mounting point's position. In this paper, analysis and control of an AGS system is addressed. First, the effects of suspension geometry change on roll centre height and toe angle are studied. Then, based on an analytical approach, the improvement of the vehicle's stability and handling due to the control of suspension geometry is investigated. In the next section, an eight-degree-of-freedom handling model of a sport utility vehicle equipped with an AGS system is introduced. Finally, a self-tuning proportional-integral controller has been designed, using the fuzzy control theory, to control the actuator that changes the geometry of the suspension system. The simulation results show that an AGS system can improve the handling and stability of the vehicle.

  12. Simultaneous determination of Albendazol and Triclabendazol in Triclazol 22 suspension for veterinary purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Penna, Caridad M.; Gafas Leyva, Maite; Rosales Bosch, Karina

    2013-01-01

    Triclazol 22 suspension containing triclabendazol and albendazol is used as parasiticide for veterinary purposes. to validate the analytical method for simultaneous determination of triclabendazol and albendazol in triclazol 22 suspension for quality control

  13. System concept definition of the Grumman superconducting Electromagnetic Suspension (EMS) Maglev design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proise, M.

    1994-01-01

    Grumman, under contract to the Army Corps of Engineers, completed a System Concept Definition (SCD) study to design a high-speed 134 m/s (300 m.p.h.) magnetically levitated (Maglev) transportation system. The primary development goals were to design a Maglev that is safe, reliable, environmentally acceptable, and low-cost. The cost issue was a predominant one, since previous studies have shown that an economically viable Maglev system (one that is attractive to investors for future models of passenger and/or freight transportation) requires a cost that is about $12.4 M/km ($20 Million per mile). The design is based on the electromagnetic suspension (EMS) system using superconducting iron-core magnets mounted along both sides of the vehicle. The EMS system has several advantages compared to the electrodynamic suspension (EDS) Maglev systems such as low stray magnetic fields in the passenger cabin and the surrounding areas, uniform load distribution along the full length of the vehicle, and small pole pitch for smoother propulsion and ride comfort. It is also levitated at all speeds and incorporates a wrap-around design of safer operation. The Grumman design has all the advantages of an EMS system identified above, while eliminating (or significantly improving) drawbacks associated with normal magnet powered EMS systems. Improvements include larger gap clearance, lighter weight, lower number of control servos, and higher off line switching speeds. The design also incorporates vehicle tilt (plus or minus 9 deg) for higher coordinated turn and turn out speed capability.

  14. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  15. Microfluidic device for the assembly and transport of microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Conrad D [Albuquerque, NM; Kumar, Anil [Framingham, MA; Khusid, Boris [New Providence, NJ; Acrivos, Andreas [Stanford, CA

    2010-06-29

    A microfluidic device comprising independently addressable arrays of interdigitated electrodes can be used to assembly and transport large-scale microparticle structures. The device and method uses collective phenomena in a negatively polarized suspension exposed to a high-gradient strong ac electric field to assemble the particles into predetermined locations and then transport them collectively to a work area for final assembly by sequentially energizing the electrode arrays.

  16. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said; Sharaf, Abdel Hameed; Serry, Mohamed Yousef; Sedky, Sherif Salah

    2014-01-01

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  17. MEMS mass-spring-damper systems using an out-of-plane suspension scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Aziz, Ahmed Kamal Said

    2014-02-04

    MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) using an out-of-plane (or vertical) suspension scheme, wherein the suspensions are normal to the proof mass, are disclosed. Such out-of-plane suspension scheme helps such MEMS mass-spring-damper systems achieve inertial grade performance. Methods of fabricating out-of-plane suspensions in MEMS mass-spring-damper systems (including MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers) are also disclosed.

  18. Equivalent Air Spring Suspension Model for Quarter-Passive Model of Passenger Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Haider J.; Chen, Jie; Nassar, Ameen A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the GENSIS air spring suspension system equivalence to a passive suspension system. The SIMULINK simulation together with the OptiY optimization is used to obtain the air spring suspension model equivalent to passive suspension system, where the car body response difference from both systems with the same road profile inputs is used as the objective function for optimization (OptiY program). The parameters of air spring system such as initial pressure, volume of bag, l...

  19. Effect of vibration versus suspension therapy on balance in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most cerebral palsy children have deficits in balance, co-ordination, and gait throughout childhood and adulthood. So, it is essential to seek an ideal physical therapy program to help in solving such widespread problem. The present study was conducted to compare between the effect of vibration training and suspension ...

  20. 12 CFR 263.403 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... independent public accountant or accounting firm may not perform audit services for banking organizations if... permission to such accountant or firm to perform audit services for banking organizations. The request shall... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment...

  1. 12 CFR 308.603 - Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... audit services for insured depository institutions for which the FDIC is the appropriate Federal banking... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic removal, suspension, and debarment. 308.603 Section 308.603 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF...

  2. 12 CFR 263.402 - Removal, suspension, or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accountant from performing audit services for banking organizations that are subject to section 36 of the..., immediately suspend such accountant or firm from performing audit services for banking organizations, if the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal, suspension, or debarment. 263.402...

  3. 12 CFR 308.602 - Removal, suspension, or debarment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for which the FDIC is the appropriate Federal banking agency if, after service of a notice of... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal, suspension, or debarment. 308.602 Section 308.602 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE...

  4. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  5. 20 CFR 404.525 - Suspension of offset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of offset. 404.525 Section 404.525 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950....521, the overpaid individual notifies us that he or she is exercising a right described in § 404.522(a...

  6. 19 CFR 122.187 - Revocation or suspension of access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... believe that an approved Customs access seal was obtained through fraud, a material omission, or the misstatement of a material fact; (ii) The employee is or has been convicted of, or found not guilty of by... demonstrate that there is a genuine issue of fact that is material to the revocation or suspension action. (2...

  7. Electrohydrodynamics of suspension of liquid drops in AC fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Halim, Md.; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2012-11-01

    Manipulation of liquid drops by an externally applied electric field is currently the focus of increased attention because of its relevance in a broad range of industrial processes. The effect of a uniform DC electric field on a solitary drop is well studied; however, less is know about the impact of electric field on suspension of liquid drops, and very little information is available on the impact of AC field on a single or a suspension of drops. Here we report the results of Direct Numerical Simulations of electrohydrodynamics of suspension of liquid drops. The governing equations are solved using a front tracking/finite difference technique, in conjunction with Taylor's leaky dielectric model. The imposed electric potential comprises of two parts, a time-independent base and a time-dependent part. The goal is to explore the relative importance of these two components in setting the statistically steady state behavior of the suspension. To this end, we report the results of three sets of simulations, where (i) the time-dependent part act as a perturbation on the base potential, (ii) the two components are of the same order, and (iii) the time-dependent part is much larger than the base potential. The problem is studied as a function of the governing nondimensional parameters.

  8. Electrorheology of aniline-oligomer suspensions under oscillatory shear

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mrlík, M.; Pavlínek, V.; Almajdalawi, S.; Saha, P.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 412, č. 1 (2013), 012007_1-012007_6 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electrorheological Fluids and Magnetorheological Suspensions /13./ - ERMR2012. Ankara, 02.07.2012-06.07.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1626 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : electrorheology * polyaniline * conducting polymer Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  9. Observation of antioxidant activity of leaves, callus and suspension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... Antioxidant activity and phenolic compound was found in Justicia gendarussa via total phenolic content (TPC) and α,α-diphenyl-β-pycrilhydrazil hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. The assays were applied on aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves, callus culture and cell suspension culture.

  10. Voltammetry of metallic powder suspensions on mercury electrodes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 4 (2006), s. 423-426 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA MPO 1H-PK/42 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : metallic particles * oxide layers * suspensions * mercury electrodes * particulate electrolysis Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  11. Pattern formation by dewetting and evaporating sedimenting suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Moller, P.; Fall, A.; Rafaï, S.; Bonn, D.

    2012-01-01

    Pattern formation from drying droplets containing sedimenting particles and dewetting of thin films of such suspensions was studied. The dewetting causes the formation of finger-like patterns near the contact line which leave behind a deposit of branches. We find that the strikingly low speed of

  12. Mechanics of dense suspensions in turbulent channel flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picano, F.; Costa, P.; Breugem, W.P.; Brandt, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dense suspensions are usually investigated in the laminar limit where inertial effects are insignificant. When the flow rate is high enough, i.e. at high Reynolds number, the flow may become turbulent and the interaction between solid and liquid phases modifies the turbulence we know in single-phase

  13. Average stress in a Stokes suspension of disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    The ensemble-average velocity and pressure in an unbounded quasi-random suspension of disks (or aligned cylinders) are calculated in terms of average multipoles allowing for the possibility of spatial nonuniformities in the system. An expression for the stress due to the suspended particles is

  14. 78 FR 12127 - Vitaminspice Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... periodic financial filings and in internet promotions concerning, among other things, the company's... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Vitaminspice Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading February 19, 2013. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of...

  15. Particle-capture mechanisms in suspension-feeding invertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2010-01-01

    A large number of suspension-feeding animals (e.g. bivalves, polychaetes, ascidians, bryozoans, crustaceans, sponges, echinoderms, cnidarians) have specialized in grazing on not only the 2 to 200 µm phytoplankton but frequently also the 0.5 to 2 µm free-living bacteria in the aquatic environment,...

  16. 5 CFR 919.740 - Are suspension proceedings formal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are suspension proceedings formal? 919.740 Section 919.740 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... your representative must submit any documentary evidence you want the suspending official to consider. ...

  17. 76 FR 33803 - Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Order of Suspension of Trading June 7, 2011... trading in the securities of the above-listed companies. Therefore, it is ordered, pursuant to Section 12(k) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed...

  18. Viscosity of diluted suspensions of vegetal particles in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szydłowska Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and rheological behaviour of sewage as well as sludge are essential while designing apparatuses and operations employed in the sewage treatment process and its processing. With reference to these substances, the bio-suspensions samples of three size fractions ((i 150÷212 μm, (ii 106÷150 μm and (iii below106 μm of dry grass in water with solid volume fraction 8%, 10% and 11% were prepared. After twenty four hours prior to their preparation time, the suspension samples underwent rheometeric measurements with the use of a rotational rheometer with coaxial cylinders. On the basis of the obtained results, flow curves were plotted and described with both the power model and Herschel-Bulkley model. Moreover, the viscosity of the studied substances was determined that allowed to conclude that the studied bio-suspensions display features of viscoelastic fluids. The experimentally established viscosity was compared to the calculated one according to Manley and Manson equation, recommended in the literature. It occurred that the measured viscosity values substantially exceed the calculation viscosity values, even by 105 times. The observations suggest that it stems from water imbibition of fibrous vegetal particles, which causes their swelling and decreases the amount of liquid phase in the suspension.

  19. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.C.; Frank, J.A.; Liska, D.J.; Potter, R.C.; Schamaun, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder

  20. Long time diffusion in suspensions of interacting charged colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepper, I.M. de; Cohen, E.G.D.; Pusey, P.N.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new expression is given for the long time diffusion coefficient DL(k) of charged interacting colloidal spheres in suspension, as a function of the wavenumber k, near k = km, where the static structure factor has a maximum. The expression is based on a physical analogy between a mode description