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Sample records for ieee london uk

  1. AVSS 2007: IEEE International Conference onAdvanced Video and Signal based Surveillance, London, UK, September 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    This technical report will cover the participation in the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Video and Signal based Surveillance in September 2007. The report will give a concise description of the most relevant topics presented at the conference, focusing on the work related to the HERMES...... project and human motion and action recognition. Our contribution to the conference will also be described....

  2. Dark London: Dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Iankova, Katia

    2016-01-01

    This paper will investigate the characteristics of the supply of dark tourism in London, UK through an examination of the identified main dark sites in London, UK. Our methodology is based on web analysis of the presence of marketed and non-marketed dark tourist sites in London, their web visitation, the level of their commercialisation and the characteristics which place them in the various scales as categorised in current literature, notably Stone (2006). We identified that London offers a ...

  3. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  4. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  5. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  6. Betel nut use among first and second generation Bangladeshi women in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of socio-economic variables and migration history on the prevalence of betel nut and smokeless tobacco use in both UK- and Bangladeshi born migrant women resident in London. No significant difference in betel nut use prevalence was found among women of different generations. However, in all groups betel nut users were significantly older and less educated than non-users. Among first generation women there was no effect of either length of time living in the UK or age at migration on use of betel nut, even after controlling for current age. No significant differences in prevalence use due to language spoken, occupation, marital status or borough of residence in London were found. We conclude that, although there are some indications of a change in behavior among younger individuals, betel nut chewing is a practice very much present among Bangladeshi women born and brought up in a bicultural context.

  7. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, J.D.; Cave, M.R.; Wragg, J.

    2012-01-01

    Predictive linear regression (LR) modelling between bioaccessible Pb and a range of total elemental compositions and soil properties was executed for the Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea urban areas in order to assess the potential for developing a national urban bioaccessible Pb dataset for the UK. LR indicates that total Pb is the only highly significant independent variable for estimating the bioaccessibility of Pb. Bootstrap resampling shows that the relationship between total Pb and bioaccessible Pb is broadly the same in the four urban areas. The median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38% in Northampton to 68% in London and Swansea. Results of this study can be used as part of a lines of evidence approach to localised risk assessment but should not be used to replace bioaccessibility testing at individual sites where local conditions may vary considerably from the broad overview presented in this study. - Highlights: ► Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in UK urban topsoils. ► Bootstrap resampling confirms relationship similar in four urban areas. ► Median bioaccessible fraction ranges from 38 to 68%. ► Results can be used for initial risk assessment in UK urban areas. - Total Pb is the only significant predictor for bioaccessible Pb in topsoils from four urban areas in the UK.

  8. Estimation of the gender pay gap in London and the UK - an econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Margarethe Theseira; Leticia Veruete-McKay

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the gender pay gap in London and the UK based on Labour Force Survey data 2002/03. Our approach decomposes the mean average wages of men and women into two parts (a) Differences in individual and job characteristics between men and women (such as age, number of children, qualification, ethnicity, region of residence, working in the public or private sector, working part-time or full-time, industry, occupation and size of company) (b) Unequal treatment and/or unexplained factors. S...

  9. Fluxes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds above central London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations and fluxes of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured during October 2006 from a high telecom tower above central London, as part of the CityFlux contribution to the REPARTEE I campaign. A continuous flow disjunct eddy covariance technique with analysis by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was used. Daily averaged VOC mixing ratios were within the range 1–19 ppb for the oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone and 0.2–1.3 ppb for the aromatics (benzene, toluene and C2-benzenes. Typical VOC fluxes were in the range 0.1–1.0 mg m−2 h−1. There was a non-linear relationship between VOC fluxes and traffic density for most of the measured compounds. Traffic activity was estimated to account for approximately 70% of the aromatic compound fluxes, whereas non-traffic related sources were found to be more important for methanol and isoprene fluxes. The measured fluxes were comparable to the estimates of the UK national atmospheric emission inventory for the aromatic VOCs and CO. In contrast, fluxes of the oxygenated compounds were about three times larger than inventory estimates. For isoprene and acetonitrile this difference was many times larger. At temperatures over 25° C it is estimated that more than half the isoprene observed in central London is of biogenic origin.

  10. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  11. Assessing the representativeness of monitoring data from an urban intersection site in Central London, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaperdas, A.; Colvile, R.N. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1999-02-01

    The wind flow field around urban street-building configurations has an important influence on the microscale pollutant dispersion from road traffic, affecting overall dilution and creating localised spatial variations of pollutant concentration. As a result, the ``representatives`` of air quality measurements made at different urban monitoring sites can be strongly dependent on the interaction of the local wind flow field with the street-building geometry surrounding the monitor. The present study is an initial attempt to develop a method for appraising the significance of air quality measurements from urban monitoring sites, using a general application computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate small-scale flow and dispersion patterns around real urban building configurations. The main focus of the work was to evaluate routine CO monitoring data collected by Westminster City Council at an intersection of street canyons at Marylebone Road, Central London. Many monitors in the UK are purposely situated at urban canyon intersections, which are thought to be local ``hot spots`` of pollutant emissions, however very limited information exists in the literature on the flow and dispersion patterns associated with them. With the use of simple CFD simulations and the analysis of available monitoring data, it was possible to gain insights into the effect of wind direction on the small-scale dispersion patterns at the chosen intersection, and how that can influence the data captured by a monitor. It was found that a change in wind direction could result in an increase or decrease of monitored CO concentration of up to 80%, for a given level of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions. Understanding and de-coupling the local effect of wind direction from monitoring data using the methods presented in this work could prove a useful new tool for urban monitoring data interpretation. (author)

  12. Sources of greenhouse gases and carbon monoxide in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Tremper, Anja; Zazzeri, Giulia; Barlow, Janet F.; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been on the scientific agenda for several decades and new technology now also allows for high-precision, continuous monitoring of fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Compared to the natural environment, flux measurements in the urban environment, which is home to over 50% of the population globally, are still rare despite high densities of anthropogenic sources of pollutants. We report on over three years of measurements atop a 192 m tower in central London (UK), Europe's largest city, which started in October 2011. Fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide are measured by eddy-covariance (EC) at the British Telecom tower (51° 31' 17.4' N 0° 8' 20.04' W). In addition to the long-term measurements, EC fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured in February 2014. All four trace gases exhibit diurnal trends consistent with anthropogenic activities with minimum emissions at night and early afternoon maxima. Segregating emissions by wind direction reveals heterogeneous source distributions with temporal patterns and source strengths that differ between compounds. The lowest emissions for CO, CO2 and CH4 were recorded for NW winds. The highest emissions of methane were in the SE sector, in the NE for CO2 and in the W for CO. Fluxes of all 3 gases exhibited marked seasonal trends characterised by a decrease in emissions in summer (63% reduction for CO, 36% for CO2 and 22% for CH4). Monthly fluxes of CO and CO2 were linearly correlated to air temperature (R2 = 0.7 and 0.59 respectively); a weaker dependence upon temperature was also observed for CH4 (R2 = 0.31). Diurnal and seasonal emissions of CO and CO2 are mainly controlled by local fossil fuel combustion and vehicle cold starts are thought to account for 20-30% of additional emissions of CO during the winter. Fugitive emissions of CH4 from the natural gas distribution network are thought to be substantial, which is consistent

  13. Effects of the urban heat island on the phenology of Odonata in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos-Jiménez, Giovanna; Hassall, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Urbanisation is one of the major drivers of ecosystem change and includes increased temperatures in cities leading to an urban heat island (UHI). This study quantified the phenological response of odonates across London, UK, from 1990 to 2012, using a database of 1,031,277 historical sightings. The ordinal flight dates of each species were used to calculate the leading edge, middle and trailing edge of the flight period (P5, P50 and P95, respectively). The results suggest that the phenology of odonates is affected by the UHI only at a community level: no significant changes in the P5 or P50 of the flight period were found, although the P95 shows a mean advance of 4.13 days compared to rural areas, thus suggesting a contraction of the flight period in urban areas. However, only one individual species ( Sympetrum striolatum) exhibited an advance in the P95 of the flight period in urban areas compared to rural areas. On the other hand, climate change (minimum temperature) had a much stronger impact on the phenology of odonates at the community level with a significant advance of 6.9 days °C-1 in the P5 of the flight period, 3.1 days °C-1 in the P50 and 3.3 days °C-1 in the P95 flight date. Similarly, a significant advance in P5 was found in 7 of the 15 species tested in response to minimum temperature, and 2 species showed a significant advance in P50 in response to minimum temperature, but no species showed a shift in the P95 flight date due to minimum temperature. As shown in previous studies, life history influences the phenological response of odonates, with spring species and those species lacking an egg diapause being the most responsive to increased temperatures, although summer species and species with obligate egg diapause also respond to the UHI by advancing the P95 by 3.8 and 4.5 days, respectively, compared to rural areas, thus contracting the flight period. The present study shows that the UHI has negligible impacts on emergence patterns of odonates

  14. Sex-related dietary changes of Portuguese university students after migration to London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Vilela, S.; Padrão, P.; Caraher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in eating habits and food choice motives of Portuguese university students after migration to London, according to sex.\\ud \\ud Methods: Fifty-five Portuguese university students (52.7% female) from 12 randomly selected London universities underwent a face-to-face interview. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire comprising questions on socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of consumption of selected food and beverage items, and the m...

  15. Bilingual Behaviour, Attitudes, Identity and Vitality: Some Data from Japanese Speakers in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Sachdev, Itesh

    2009-01-01

    Although the Japanese community in London is relatively small, its composition is stable and reflects several aspects of Japan's relationship with the international community. Yet there appears to have been no systematic research exploring patterns of bilingual behaviour in relation to social psychological processes amongst Japanese nationals in…

  16. A high HIV-1 strain variability in London, UK, revealed by full-genome analysis: Results from the ICONIC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Dan; Gallo Cassarino, Tiziano; Raffle, Jade; Hubb, Jonathan; Ferns, R. Bridget; Waters, Laura; Tong, C. Y. William; Kozlakidis, Zisis; Hayward, Andrew; Kellam, Paul; Pillay, Deenan; Clark, Duncan; Nastouli, Eleni; Leigh Brown, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Background & methods The ICONIC project has developed an automated high-throughput pipeline to generate HIV nearly full-length genomes (NFLG, i.e. from gag to nef) from next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. The pipeline was applied to 420 HIV samples collected at University College London Hospitals NHS Trust and Barts Health NHS Trust (London) and sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (Cambridge). Consensus genomes were generated and subtyped using COMET, and unique recombinants were studied with jpHMM and SimPlot. Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed using RAxML to identify transmission networks using the Cluster Picker. Results The pipeline generated sequences of at least 1Kb of length (median = 7.46Kb, IQR = 4.01Kb) for 375 out of the 420 samples (89%), with 174 (46.4%) being NFLG. A total of 365 sequences (169 of them NFLG) corresponded to unique subjects and were included in the down-stream analyses. The most frequent HIV subtypes were B (n = 149, 40.8%) and C (n = 77, 21.1%) and the circulating recombinant form CRF02_AG (n = 32, 8.8%). We found 14 different CRFs (n = 66, 18.1%) and multiple URFs (n = 32, 8.8%) that involved recombination between 12 different subtypes/CRFs. The most frequent URFs were B/CRF01_AE (4 cases) and A1/D, B/C, and B/CRF02_AG (3 cases each). Most URFs (19/26, 73%) lacked breakpoints in the PR+RT pol region, rendering them undetectable if only that was sequenced. Twelve (37.5%) of the URFs could have emerged within the UK, whereas the rest were probably imported from sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia and South America. For 2 URFs we found highly similar pol sequences circulating in the UK. We detected 31 phylogenetic clusters using the full dataset: 25 pairs (mostly subtypes B and C), 4 triplets and 2 quadruplets. Some of these were not consistent across different genes due to inter- and intra-subtype recombination. Clusters involved 70 sequences, 19.2% of the dataset. Conclusions

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Helfter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012–2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km−2 yr−1 and CO (89 ± 16 tons km−2 yr−1 were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km−2 yr−1 were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter, and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in

  18. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  19. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  20. An evaluation of commissioning arrangements for intrauterine and subdermal contraception services from general practitioners in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Brown, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) in the UK may be commissioned to provide long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), which may have a role in reducing rates of abortion and unintended pregnancies. Primary care trusts (PCTs) in England had commissioning arrangements with GPs to provide LARC but little is known about such contractual arrangements. We studied the commissioning arrangements in some London PCTs to evaluate the cost and clinical governance of these contracts. We requested commissioning contract specifications and activities for intrauterine contraception (IUC) and subdermal implants (SDI) from responsible officers in each PCT in London relating to activities in three financial years, namely 2009/2010 to 2011/2012. We evaluated each contract using a structure, process and outcome approach. Half (15/31) the PCTs responded and submitted 20 contracts used to commission their GPs to provide IUC, SDI or a combination of these with testing for sexually transmitted infections. The information regarding service activity was inadequate and inconsistent so had to be abandoned. Information from 20 contracts suggested there was a variation in clinical governance and quality assurance mechanisms; there was also a range in the reimbursement for IUC insertion (£77.50 to £105.00), SDI insertion (£25.00 to £81.31) and SDI removal (£30.00 to £100.00) at 2011 prices. It was not clear from non-responders if these PCTs had a service in place. Of those that did commission IUC and SDI services, some specifications were lacking in detail regarding aspects of clinical governance. New commissioners should make explicit references to quality and safety criteria as poor-quality specifications can give rise to serious untoward incidents and litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Maternal BMI and diabetes in pregnancy: Investigating variations between ethnic groups using routine maternity data from London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Erin; Oakley, Laura; Seed, Paul T; Doyle, Pat; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the ethnicity-specific association between body mass index (BMI) and diabetes in pregnancy, with a focus on the appropriateness of using BMI cut-offs to identify pregnant women at risk of diabetes. Analysis of routinely-collected data from a maternity unit in London, UK. Data were available on 53 264 women delivering between 2004 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between diabetes in pregnancy and BMI among women of different ethnicities, and adjusted probability estimates were used to derive risk equivalent cut-offs. ROC curve analysis was used to assess the performance of BMI as a predictor of diabetes in pregnancy. The prevalence of diabetes in pregnancy was 2.3% overall; highest in South and East Asian women (4.6% and 3.7%). In adjusted analysis, BMI category was strongly associated with diabetes in all ethnic groups. Modelled as a continuous variable with a quadratic term, BMI was an acceptable predictor of diabetes according to ROC curve analysis. Applying a BMI cut-off of 30 kg/m2 would identify just over half of Black women with diabetes in pregnancy, a third of White (32%) and South Asian (35%) women, but only 13% of East Asian women. The 'risk equivalent' (comparable to 30 kg/m2 in White women) threshold for South Asian and East Asian women was approximately 21 kg/m2, and 27.5 kg/m2 for Black women. This study suggests that current BMI thresholds are likely to be ineffective for diabetes screening in South and East Asian women, as many cases of diabetes will occur at low BMI levels. Our results suggest that East Asian women appear to face a similarly high risk of diabetes to South Asian women. Current UK guidelines recommend diabetes screening should be offered to all pregnant South Asian women; extending this recommendation to include women of East Asian ethnicity may be appropriate.

  2. Early risk assessment for viral haemorrhagic fever: experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Charles J; Eziefula, Alice C; Agranoff, Dan; Scott, Geoffrey M; Watson, Julie; Chiodini, Peter L; Lockwood, Diana N J; Grant, Alison D

    2007-01-01

    To implement a policy of systematic screening for viral haemorrhagic fever (VHF) among travellers returning from African countries with fever, commencing at initial clinical contact. A protocol based on UK Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens guidance was developed collaboratively by medical, nursing and laboratory staff. Audit was carried out to quantify resource demands and effects on time to diagnose malaria, the main differential diagnosis. A protocol is now implemented for all patients presenting to HTD with fever, with clear guidelines for interaction with clinical and laboratory staff at each stage. The protocol required moderate amounts of clinical and laboratory staff time and resulted in some additional hospital admissions. The time to a diagnosis of malaria increased from a median of 90 (range 50-125) min in patients without VHF risk to a median of 140 (range 101-225) min (p=0.0025) in those assessed as at risk. Although all acute medical services need to have robust procedures for early detection of patients with serious transmissible conditions, few implement such a policy. Our protocol requires increased human and other resources but has no important impact on the rapidity of diagnosis of malaria, and is now embedded in local practice.

  3. How and Why Do Smokers Start Using E-Cigarettes? Qualitative Study of Vapers in London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elle Wadsworth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study were to (1 describe how and why smokers start to vape and what products they use; (2 relate findings to the COM-B theory of behaviour change (three conditions are necessary for behaviour change (B: capability (C, opportunity (O, and motivation (M; and (3 to consider implications for e-cigarette policy research. Semi-structured interviews (n = 30 were conducted in London, UK, with smokers or ex-smokers who were currently using or had used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette initiation (behaviour was facilitated by: capability (physical capability to use an e-cigarette and psychological capability to understand that using e-cigarettes was less harmful than smoking; opportunity (physical opportunity to access e-cigarettes in shops, at a lower cost than cigarettes, and to vape in “smoke-free” environments, as well as social opportunity to vape with friends and family; and motivation (automatic motivation including curiosity, and reflective motivation, including self-conscious decision-making processes related to perceived health benefits. The application of the COM-B model identified multiple factors that may lead to e-cigarette initiation, including those that could be influenced by policy, such as price relative to cigarettes and use in smoke-free environments. The effects of these policies on initiation should be further investigated along with the possible moderating/mediating effects of social support.

  4. Observations of the Morning Development of the Urban Boundary Layer Over London, UK, Taken During the ACTUAL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halios, Christos H.; Barlow, Janet F.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the boundary layer can be most difficult when it is in transition and forced by a complex surface, such as an urban area. Here, a novel combination of ground-based remote sensing and in situ instrumentation in central London, UK, is deployed, aiming to capture the full evolution of the urban boundary layer (UBL) from night-time until the fully-developed convective phase. In contrast with the night-time stable boundary layer observed over rural areas, the night-time UBL is weakly convective. Therefore, a new approach for the detection of the morning-transition and rapid-growth phases is introduced, based on the sharp, quasi-linear increase of the mixing height. The urban morning-transition phase varied in duration between 0.5 and 4 h and the growth rate of the mixing layer during the rapid-growth phase had a strong positive relationship with the convective velocity scale, and a weaker, negative relationship with wind speed. Wind shear was found to be higher during the night-time and morning-transition phases than the rapid-growth phase and the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy near the mixing-layer top was around six times larger than surface shear production in summer, and around 1.5 times larger in winter. In summer under low winds, low-level jets dominated the UBL, and shear production was greater than buoyant production during the night-time and the morning-transition phase near the mixing-layer top. Within the rapid-growth phase, buoyant production dominated at the surface, but shear production dominated in the upper half of the UBL. These results imply that regional flows such as low-level jets play an important role alongside surface forcing in determining UBL structure and growth.

  5. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Community-Based Glaucoma Check Service in Hackney, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Datta, Jessica; Marks, Dalya; Kuper, Hannah; Lee, Helen; Leamon, Shaun; Lindfield, Robert; Wormald, Richard; Clarke, Jonathan; Elkarmouty, Ahmed; Macdowall, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the uptake, feasibility and acceptability of a general practice-based optometrist-led glaucoma check service. The service targeted people of black Caribbean and black African descent aged 40-65 years, resident in Hackney, London, United Kingdom. The study used a mixed-method design, including analysis of service data, prospective audit of secondary care referrals patient survey, cost-consequence analysis, and interviews with staff involved in developing and implementing the service. A total of 3040 patients were invited to undergo the free check; 595 (19.6%) booked an appointment and 461 (15.2%) attended. Overall, 31 patients (6.8%) were referred to secondary care, of whom 22 attended and were assessed for glaucoma. Four were diagnosed with glaucoma and eight with suspected glaucoma, i.e. 2.6% of patients who underwent the check. The cost per patient identified with suspected or confirmed glaucoma was £9,013. Staff who were interviewed suggested that patients who attended might be those who routinely attended optometrist appointments, however only 62.4% of survey respondents reported having had an eye examination in the previous two years, and 11.4% of women and 16.0% of men reported never having had an eye examination. This study represents one possible configuration for a glaucoma case-finding service, and it contributes to a wider debate about whether screening, targeted or otherwise, should be offered in the UK. Our findings suggest that general practice is an acceptable setting and that such a service may reach some people not previously engaged with primary eye care services.

  6. Antibiotic resistance and mecA characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from three hotels in London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non–healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci belonging to 11 different species were isolated from 3 large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S.cohnii and S. epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9% staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility towards penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin and cefepime. 21 (29.5% of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 mg/L to 256 mg/L. 15 of the 21 mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these 7 were type V, 1 type I, 1 type II and 1 type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining 6 of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for 5 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. 4 out of these 5 isolates had MICs between 0.06 to 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.

  7. Antibiotic resistance and mecA characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from three hotels in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Mkrtchyan, Hermine V; Cutler, Ronald R

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria isolated from non-healthcare environments, is a potential problem to public health. In our survey a total of 71 coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) belonging to 11 different species were isolated from three large hotels in London, UK. The most prevalent species was Staphylococcus haemolyticus, with S. hominis, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and Staphylococcus epidermidis commonly detected. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and carriage of the mecA gene were determined for all of these isolates. Most (85.9%) staphylococci were resistant to multiple antibiotics with all displaying increased susceptibility toward penicillin, fusidic acid, erythromycin, and cefepime. Twenty-one (29.5%) of the isolates were mecA positive, however MIC values to oxacillin, normally associated with the carriage of mecA, varied widely in this group (from 0.06 to 256 mg/L). Fifteen of the twenty-one mecA positive isolates carried SCCmec of these seven were type V, one type I, one type II, and one type IV. Additionally, five of these 15 isolates carried a previously unreported type, 1A, which involves an association between class A mec complex and ccr type 1. The remaining six of the 21 isolates were non-typeable and carried a combination of class A mec complex and ccrC. In addition to this, we also report on new MLST types which were assigned for five S. epidermidis isolates. Four out of these five isolates had MICs between 0.06 and 256 mg/L to oxacillin and would be regarded as clinically susceptible but one isolate had a high oxacillin MIC of 256 mg/L. We demonstrated widespread multiple drug resistance among different staphylococcal species isolated from non-healthcare environments highlighting the potential for these species to act as a reservoir for methicillin and other forms of drug resistance.

  8. Entitlement to concessionary public transport and wellbeing: a qualitative study of young people and older citizens in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alasdair; Goodman, Anna; Roberts, Helen; Steinbach, Rebecca; Green, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Access to transport is an important determinant of health, and concessionary fares for public transport are one way to reduce the 'transport exclusion' that can limit access. This paper draws on qualitative data from two groups typically at risk of transport exclusion: young people (12-18 years of age, n = 118) and older citizens (60+ years of age, n = 46). The data were collected in London, UK, where young people and older citizens are currently entitled to concessionary bus travel. We focus on how this entitlement is understood and enacted, and how different sources of entitlement mediate the relationship between transport and wellbeing. Both groups felt that their formal entitlement to travel for free reflected their social worth and was, particularly for older citizens, relatively unproblematic. The provision of a concessionary transport entitlement also helped to combat feelings of social exclusion by enhancing recipients' sense of belonging to the city and to a 'community'. However, informal entitlements to particular spaces on the bus reflected less valued social attributes such as need or frailty. Thus in the course of travelling by bus the enactment of entitlements to space and seats entailed the negotiation of social differences and personal vulnerabilities, and this carried with it potential threats to wellbeing. We conclude that the process, as well as the substance, of entitlement can mediate wellbeing; and that where the basis for providing a given entitlement is widely understood and accepted, the risks to wellbeing associated with enacting that entitlement will be reduced. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults with inhaled corticosteroid-treated asthma in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Kilpin, Kate; MacLaughlin, Beverley D; Greiller, Claire L; Hooper, Richard L; Barnes, Neil C; Timms, Peter M; Rajakulasingam, Raj K; Bhowmik, Angshu; Choudhury, Aklak B; Simcock, David E; Hyppönen, Elina; Corrigan, Christopher J; Walton, Robert T; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in children with asthma, and it associates with poor asthma control, reduced forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1 ) and increased requirement for inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Cross-sectional studies investigating the prevalence, determinants and clinical correlates of vitamin D deficiency in adults with asthma are lacking. We conducted a multi-centre cross-sectional study in 297 adults with a medical record diagnosis of ICS-treated asthma living in London, UK. Details of potential environmental determinants of vitamin D status, asthma control and medication use were collected by questionnaire; blood samples were taken for analysis of serum 25(OH)D concentration and DNA extraction, and participants underwent measurement of weight, height and fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentration (FeNO), spirometry and sputum induction for determination of lower airway eosinophil counts (n=35 sub-group). Thirty-five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 11 vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4 CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN, VDR) were typed using Taqman allelic discrimination assays. Linear regression was used to identify environmental and genetic factors independently associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration, and to determine whether vitamin D status was independently associated with Asthma Control Test (ACT) score, ICS dose, FeNO, forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV 1 or lower airway eosinophilia. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 50.6nmol/L (SD 24.9); 162/297 (54.5%) participants were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D concentration asthma control investigated. Vitamin D deficiency is common among UK adults with ICS-treated asthma, and classical environmental determinants of serum 25(OH)D operate in this population. However, in contrast to studies conducted in children, we found no association between vitamin D status and markers of asthma severity or control. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by

  10. Characteristics and practices of Traditional Chinese Medicine retail shops in London, UK: A cross-sectional study using an observational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Lida; Shaw, Debbie; Barnes, Joanne

    2015-09-15

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a popular form of ethnomedicine in the UK, and is accessed by Western, Chinese and other ethnic groups. The current regulatory regime does not effectively protect the public against poor-quality and unsafe TCMs. Understanding ethnopharmacological information on how TCM is promoted and practiced may help to inform initiatives aimed at ensuring the safe use of TCMs in the UK, and put laboratory-based ethnopharmacological investigations of TCMs in a broader context. This study aimed to examine the characteristics and practices of TCM retail outlets in London, UK, and to identify factors relevant to the safe use of TCM in the UK. TCM retail outlets ('shops') in London, UK, were identified using a systematic approach. A structured questionnaire including questions on shop business type was used to recruit participant shops. Shops consenting to participate were visited within six weeks of providing consent. A piloted semi-structured questionnaire on shop characteristics was used for data collection following observation. The British National Formulary 53 was used to classify medical conditions/uses for TCMs promoted in the shops. Data were stored and analysed using MS Access 2003, MS Excel 2003 and SPSS 13. In total, 54 TCM shops in London were identified, of which 94% offered TCM consultations with a TCM practitioner. Detailed characteristics were described within 35/50 shops that gave consent to observing their premises. Most shops labelled and displayed over 150 Chinese Materia Medica (CMMs; crude materials, particularly herbs) for dispensing after consultations with a TCM practitioner. Medical conditions/uses and Patent Chinese Medicines (PCMs) were commonly promoted. In total, 794 occurrences of 205 different medical conditions/uses (median=32, QL=19, QU=48) were identified. These conditions/uses most commonly related to the following therapeutic systems: central nervous system (160/794, 20.2%); musculoskeletal and joint disease

  11. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XX. Data digest for Central London Laboratory, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of six gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Central London Laboratory. The data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between July 1972 and December 1984 are also included.

  12. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  13. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  14. Trust, autonomy and relationships: the help-seeking preferences of young people in secondary level schools in London (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-08-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences for a range of mental health problems among adolescents attending schools in an inner-city area of London. In particular we sought to examine the relationship between such adolescents and their family doctor. Using a mixed methods approach we explored help-seeking attitudes of young people. Emotional and mental health problems are not seen by young people as the domain of General practitioners. Moreover, there is a worrying lack of confidence and trust placed in family doctor and other professionals by young people. Young people do not tend easily to trust adults to help them with emotional difficulties. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  15. Sexual behaviours, HIV testing, and the proportion of men at risk of transmitting and acquiring HIV in London, UK, 2000-13: a serial cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaizu, Adamma; Wayal, Sonali; Nardone, Anthony; Parsons, Victoria; Copas, Andrew; Mercey, Danielle; Hart, Graham; Gilson, Richard; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-09-01

    HIV incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) in the UK has remained unchanged over the past decade despite increases in HIV testing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage. In this study, we examine trends in sexual behaviours and HIV testing in MSM and explore the risk of transmitting and acquiring HIV. In this serial cross-sectional study, we obtained data from ten cross-sectional surveys done between 2000 and 2013, consisting of anonymous self-administered questionnaires and oral HIV antibody testing in MSM recruited in gay social venues in London, UK. Data were collected between October and January for all survey years up to 2008 and between February and August thereafter. All men older than 16 years were eligible to take part and fieldworkers attempted to approach all MSM in each venue and recorded refusal rates. Data were collected on demographic and sexual behavioural characteristics. We analysed trends over time using linear, logistic, and quantile regression. Of 13 861 questionnaires collected between 2000 and 2013, we excluded 1985 (124 had completed the survey previously or were heterosexual reporting no anal intercourse in the past year, and 1861 did not provide samples for antibody testing). Of the 11 876 eligible MSM recruited, 1512 (13%) were HIV positive, with no significant trend in HIV positivity over time. 35% (531 of 1505) of HIV-positive MSM had undiagnosed infection, which decreased non-linearly over time from 34% (45 of 131) to 24% (25 of 106; p=0·01), while recent HIV testing (ie, in the past year) increased from 26% (263 of 997) to 60% (467 of 777; pmove towards eradication of HIV. Public Health England. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Before the ban--an exploratory study of a local khat market in East London, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Dalsania, Asha; Nordgren, Johan; Klein, Axel; Hulbert, Josh

    2015-06-12

    Khat is a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects. It is primarily used among people in Africa, the Middle East and in the diaspora communities from these countries. Prior to the prohibition of khat in the UK on 24 June 2014, there was almost no information available on key aspects of the local khat market. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using snowball sampling, Privileged Access Interviewing and area mapping in order to identify khat sale establishments. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using mixed methods for data collection. This included information about the establishments selling khat, khat pricing and its use among different ethnic minority groups, in addition to the potential sale of khat to children and risk assessment (e.g., use of pesticides on khat). Five out of seven sellers identified agreed to participate. Sellers described their khat sale establishments as 'community centres' which included, for example, a restaurant basement. The sellers' history of selling khat ranged between 1-15 years and khat's sale took place between 2pm-10pm. Miraa (e.g., Lara) from Kenya was the most popularly used khat variety, sold in pre-wrapped bundles of approximately 250 g costing £3 each and delivered four days a week. Harari (e.g., Owdi) from Ethiopia was sold in 200 g, 400 g and 1 kg bundles, priced between £5 and £20 and delivered two days a week. The primary benefit of khat use was reported to be social interaction. The customers were predominantly adult males of Somali origin. Most sellers claimed a self-imposed ban on sales to children under 18 years old. Khat bundles had no labelling describing variety or weight and sellers had no knowledge of the use of pesticides on khat and did not advertise the risks associated with khat use. Khat selling establishments were businesses that did not adhere to trade standards regulations (e.g., labelling khat bundles). They claimed to provide a community service (facilitating social

  17. Patterns of long bone growth in a mid-19th century documented sample of the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Rachel; Humphrey, Louise

    2017-05-01

    Studies of male and female long bone growth in past populations are limited and usually constrained by the lack of personal identification. This article aimed to evaluate long bone growth in a series of mid-19 th century documented burials associated with the urban poor from Bethnal Green, London, UK. Maximum diaphyseal lengths from 74 males and 70 females (2 months to 12 years) were compared to modern reference data from North America. Diaphyseal lengths were expressed as a percentage of expected length and an average percentage value was calculated across all available long bones. An index of growth progression was introduced to explore differences in the progress of males and females towards their projected adult size. Deviation from the expected growth attainment was evident in both sexes in the archaeological series by 2-4 months of age. Only 19.4% (28/144) of the children had attained an average long bone length >90% of the predicted mean in the reference series. The percentage of expected growth attainment decreased steadily in both sexes during infancy and early childhood. Overall, females deviated further from their expected growth progression than males. Growth faltering in both males and females was established during infancy (<1 year) with no evidence for recovery in older age groups. Early weaning and inadequate artificial feeding, together with impoverished living conditions and limited sanitary provision, most likely impacted on childhood growth. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Energy exchanges in a Central Business District - Interpretation of Eddy Covariance and radiation flux measurements (London UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotthaus, S.; Grimmond, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global urbanisation brings increasingly dense and complex urban structures. To manage cities sustainably and smartly, currently and into the future under changing climates, urban climate research needs to advance in areas such as Central Business Districts (CBD) where human interactions with the environment are particularly concentrated. Measurement and modelling approaches may be pushed to their limits in dense urban settings, but if urban climate research is to contribute to the challenges of real cities those limits have to be addressed. The climate of cities is strongly governed by surface-atmosphere exchanges of energy, moisture and momentum. Observations of the relevant fluxes provide important information for improvement and evaluation of modelling approaches. Due to the CBD's heterogeneity, a very careful analysis of observations is required to understand the relevant processes. Current approaches used to interpret observations and set them in a wider context may need to be adapted for use in these more complex areas. Here, we present long-term observations of the radiation balance components and turbulent fluxes of latent heat, sensible heat and momentum in the city centre of London. This is one of the first measurement studies in a CBD covering multiple years with analysis at temporal scales from days to seasons. Data gathered at two sites in close vicinity, but with different measurement heights, are analysed to investigate the influence of source area characteristics on long-term radiation and turbulent fluxes. Challenges of source area modelling and the critical aspect of siting in such a complex environment are considered. Outgoing long- and short-wave radiation are impacted by the anisotropic nature of the urban surface and the high reflectance materials increasingly being used as building materials. Results highlight the need to consider the source area of radiometers in terms of diffuse and direct irradiance. Sensible heat fluxes (QH) are positive

  19. A population-based audit of ethnicity and breast cancer risk in one general practice catchment area in North London, UK: implications for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferris Michelle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To conduct a pilot population-based study within a general practice catchment area to determine whether the incidence of breast cancer was increased in the Ashkenazi population. Design Population-based cohort study. Setting A single general practice catchment area in North London. Participants 1947 women over the age of 16 who responded to a questionnaire about ethnicity and breast cancer. Main outcome measures Incidence of breast cancer, ethnicity. Results This study showed a 1.5-fold (95% CI 0.93–2.39 increase in breast cancer risk in the Ashkenazim compared with the non-Ashkenazi white population. The increased incidence was for both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer (expected incidence pre:post is 1:4 whereas in the Ashkenazim it was 1:1; 51 and 52% of cases respectively. This increase was not shown in the Sephardim. Asians had a reduction in incidence (OR = 0.44; 95% CI 0.10–1.89. Results were adjusted for other risk factors for breast cancer. Conclusion This study showed a 1.5-fold increase in breast cancer rates in Ashkenazim compared with the non-Jewish white population when adjusted for age (i.e. corrections were made to allow comparison of age groups and this is not observed in the Sephardic population. The proportion of premenopausal breast cancer was just over double that of the general population. This is the first general practice population-based study in the UK to address this issue and has implications for general practitioners who care for patients from the Ashkenazi community.

  20. Fritz London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  1. Nutrition Labeling and Portion Size Information on Children's Menus in Fast-Food and Table-Service Chain Restaurants in London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Sue; Wake, Yvonne; Zick, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate meals, price, nutritional content, and nutrition and portion size information available on children's menus in fast-food and table-service chain restaurants in London, since the United Kingdom does not currently require such information but may be initiating a voluntary guideline. Methods: Children's menus were assessed…

  2. Partnerships in Pharma--An Economist Intelligence Unit Seminar--Building Innovation into Alliances and Business Models. 1 October 2010, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Alexandra

    2010-12-01

    The Partnerships in Pharma seminar, held in London, included topics related to building innovation into alliances and business models within the pharmaceutical industry. This conference report highlights selected presentations on strategies for successful partnering, partnering alongside an evolving CRO industry, considering the pharma value chain, and partnerships between industry and academia. Approaches used by Ipsen, Merck Serono, Pfizer and ViiV Healthcare are also described.

  3. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  4. IEEE Smart Grid Series of Standards IEEE 2030 (Interoperability) and IEEE 1547 (Interconnection) Status: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2012-04-01

    The IEEE American National Standards smart grid publications and standards development projects IEEE 2030, which addresses smart grid interoperability, and IEEE 1547TM, which addresses distributed resources interconnection with the grid, have made substantial progress since 2009. The IEEE 2030TM and 1547 standards series focus on systems-level aspects and cover many of the technical integration issues involved in a mature smart grid. The status and highlights of these two IEEE series of standards, which are sponsored by IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21), are provided in this paper.

  5. What is the impact of research champions on integrating research in mental health clinical practice? A quasiexperimental study in South London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduola, Sherifat; Wykes, Til; Robotham, Dan; Craig, Tom K J

    2017-09-11

    Key challenges for mental health healthcare professionals to implement research alongside clinical activity have been highlighted, such as insufficient time to apply research skills and lack of support and resources. We examined the impact of employing dedicated staff to promote research in community mental health clinical settings. Quasiexperiment before and after study. South London and Maudsley National Health Service Foundation Trust. 4455 patients receiving care from 15 community mental health teams between 1 December 2013 and 31 December 2014. The proportion of patients approached for research participation in clinical services where research champions were present (intervention group), and where research champions were not present (comparison group). Patients in the intervention group were nearly six times more likely to be approached for research participation (Adj. OR=5.98; 95% CI 4.96 to 7.22). Investing in staff that promote and drive research in clinical services increases opportunities for patients to hear about and engage in clinical research studies. However, investment needs to move beyond employing short-term staff. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Rail environmental impact: energy consumption and noise pollution assessment of different transport modes connecting Big Ben (London, UK and Eiffel Tower (Paris, FR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto PALACIN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is set within the framework of the RailNewcastle Summer School program 2014 run by Newcastle University. It attempts to explore the sustainability credentials of railways when compared with other transport modes connecting central London with central Paris, two of Europe’s largest metropolis. Specifically, the study compares the energy consumption and noise pollution of a rail-only travel option with two other alternatives using a combination of public transport modes. The analysis includes defining the regulatory framework, sourcing and aggregating energy consumption from a number of references as well as creating noise maps for key nodes using validated tools available. The results suggest that the rail-only option has the best performance of the three options in terms of energy consumption while a bus-coach-metro combination seems to have lower noise levels than the rest. Assumptions due to lack of meaningful data made in the calculation of underground rail services are thought to have influence on the lower than expected performance of rails systems in terms of noise. The authors conclude that considering the combined outcomes of both assessments, the rail-only option is the preferred choice from a sustainability credentials perspective.

  7. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  8. IEEE Prize for Lucio Rossi

    CERN Multimedia

    IEEE Council on Superconductivity

    2007-01-01

    Lucio Rossi receives his prize from John Spargo, Chairman of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity (left), and Martin Nisenoff, Chairman of the Council on Superconductivity's Awards Committee (right).

  9. Special issue of selected papers from the second UK-Japan bilateral Workshop and First ERCOFTAC Workshop on Turbulent Flows Generated/Designed in Multiscale/Fractal Ways, London, March 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Sakai, Yasuhiko; Christos Vassilicos, J.

    2013-12-01

    This special issue of Fluid Dynamics Research includes nine papers which are based on nine of the presentations at the Second UK-Japan bilateral Workshop and First ERCOFTAC Workshop on 'Turbulent flows generated/designed in multiscale/fractal ways: fundamentals and applications' held from 26 to 27 March 2012 at Imperial College London, UK. The research area of fractal-generated turbulent flows started with a chapter published in 2001 in one of the conference proceedings which came out of the 1999 Isaac Newton Institute 6 month Programme on Turbulence in Cambridge (UK). However, the first results which formed the basis of much of the work reported in this special issue started appearing from 2007 onwards and progress since then could perhaps be described as not insignificant. Research in this area has resulted in the following six notable advances: (a) the definition of two new length-scales characterizing grid-generated turbulence; (b) enhanced and energy-efficient stirring and scalar transfer by fractal grid and fractal openings/flanges with applications, in particular, to improved turbulence generation for combustion; (c) the non-equilibrium turbulent dissipation law; (d) non-equilibrium axisymmetric wake laws; (e) insights into the dependence of drag forces and vortex shedding on the fractal geometry of fractal objects and simulation methods for the calculation of drag of fractal trees; and (f) the invention and successful proof of concept of fractal spoilers and fractal fences. The present special issue contains papers directly related to these advances and can be seen as a reflection of the current research in the field of fractal-generated turbulent flows and their differences and commonalities with other turbulent flows. The financial support from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science has been decisive for the organization and success of this workshop. We are also grateful to ERCOFTAC who put in place the EU-wide Special Interest Group on multiscale

  10. Access to IEEE Electronic Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From 2007, the CERN Library now offers readers online access to the complete IEEE Electronic Library (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). This new licence gives unlimited online access to all IEEE and IET (previously IEE) journals and proceedings as well as all current IEEE standards and selected archived ones. Some of the titles offer volumes back to 1913. This service currently represents more than 1,400,000 full-text articles! This leading engineering information resource replaces the previous service, a sub-product of the IEEE database called 'IEEE Enterprise', which offered online access to the complete collection of IEEE journals and proceedings, but with limited features. The service had become so popular that the CERN Working Group for Acquisitions recommended that the Library subscribe to the complete IEEE Electronic Library for 2007. Usage statistics for recent months showed there was a demand for the service from a large community of CERN users and we were aware that many users h...

  11. Analysis of the potential of near-ground measurements of CO2 and CH4 in London, UK, for the monitoring of city-scale emissions using an atmospheric transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Alex; Broquet, Grégoire; Clifford, Deborah J.; Chevallier, Frédéric; Butterfield, David M.; Pison, Isabelle; Ramonet, Michel; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ciais, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) mole fractions were measured at four near-ground sites located in and around London during the summer of 2012 with a view to investigating the potential of assimilating such measurements in an atmospheric inversion system for the monitoring of the CO2 and CH4 emissions in the London area. These data were analysed and compared with simulations using a modelling framework suited to building an inversion system: a 2 km horizontal resolution south of England configuration of the transport model CHIMERE driven by European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) meteorological forcing, coupled to a 1 km horizontal resolution emission inventory (the UK National Atmospheric Emission Inventory). First comparisons reveal that local sources, which cannot be represented in the model at a 2 km resolution, have a large impact on measurements. We evaluate methods to filter out the impact of some of the other critical sources of discrepancies between the measurements and the model simulation except that of the errors in the emission inventory, which we attempt to isolate. Such a separation of the impact of errors in the emission inventory should make it easier to identify the corrections that should be applied to the inventory. Analysis is supported by observations from meteorological sites around the city and a 3-week period of atmospheric mixing layer height estimations from lidar measurements. The difficulties of modelling the mixing layer depth and thus CO2 and CH4 concentrations during the night, morning and late afternoon lead to focusing on the afternoon period for all further analyses. The discrepancies between observations and model simulations are high for both CO2 and CH4 (i.e. their root mean square (RMS) is between 8 and 12 parts per million (ppm) for CO2 and between 30 and 55 parts per billion (ppb) for CH4 at a given site). By analysing the gradients between the urban sites and a suburban or rural reference site, we

  12. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  13. 14 April 2014 - UK University College London Hospitals and National Health Service Foundation Trust Chairman R. Murley in the ATLAS cavern with CERN Head of Medical Applications S. Myers and Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton.

    CERN Multimedia

    Gadmer, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Mr Richard Murley Chairman Sir Robert Naylor Chief Executive University College London Hospitals (UCLH) – National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  14. IEEE Conference Publications in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions of surveys (63 libraries, OCLC database, University of Rhode Island users) assessing handling of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) conference publications indicate that most libraries fully catalog these publications using LC cataloging, and library patrons frequently require series access to publications. Eight…

  15. Researching the roots of IEEE Region 8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary steps towards the foundation and the early history of IRE Region 9 / IEEE Region 8. The information has been gathered mainly from the archives of the IEEE Benelux Section.

  16. 2012 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, Onur; Chen, Wai; Heijenk, Geert; Oh, Hyun Seo; Chung, Jong-Moon; Dressler, Falko; Kargl, Frank; Pau, Giovanni; Schoch, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    On behalf of the Organizing Committee, we would like to welcome you to the fourth edition of the IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference in Seoul, Korea. IEEE VNC is a unique conference sponsored by both IEEE Communications Society and Intelligent Transportation Systems Society. It brings together

  17. IEEE Prize for Lucio Rossi

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Lucio Rossi receives his prize from John Spargo, Chairman of the IEEE Council on Superconductivity (left), and Martin Nisenoff, Chairman of the Council on Superconductivity’s Awards Committee (right). (Photo: IEEE Council on Superconductivity)With the magnets installed in the tunnel and work on the interconnections almost completed, Lucio Rossi has reaped the rewards of fifteen years of work. And yet, when the physicist from Milan arrived to take charge of the group responsible for the superconducting magnets in 2001, success seemed far from assured. Endowed with surprising levels of energy, Lucio Rossi, together with his team, ensured that production of these highly complex magnets got underway. Today, that achievement earns them the recognition not only of CERN but also of the international superconducting community. It is for this achievement that Lucio Rossi was awarded the prize by the IEEE’s (Institute of Electrical an...

  18. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  19. The IEEE Milestone event at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On the initiative of its French and Swiss Sections, the IEEE has honoured CERN with an 'IEEE Milestone in the history of electricity and electronics' for the invention of the multi-wire proportional chamber in 1968. The IEEE established the Electrical Engineering Milestones programe in 1983 to honour significant achievements in the history of electrical and electronics engineering. To be designated, an achievement must be at least 25 years old, must have involved a unique solution to an engineering problem, and must have had at least regional impact. Currently there are more than  50 IEEE Milestones around the world. http://www.ieee.org/organizations/history_center/cern.html The installation and unveiling of this IEEE Milestone will provide the opportunity to emphasize the close relationship between science, technology, industry and well-being in society.  A ceremony, organised with the support of a group of IEEE members working at CERN, will be held at the CERN Globe of Science and Inn...

  20. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton......, Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Gianni Vattimo og Judith Balso. Her følger en rapport fra begivenheden....

  1. CERN receives prestigious Milestone recognition from IEEE

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    At a ceremony at CERN, Mr W. Cleon Anderson, President of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formally a Milestone plaque in recognition of the invention of electronic particle detectors at CERN

  2. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  3. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  4. Language Shift and Vitality Perceptions amongst London's Second-Generation Bangladeshis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinger, Sebastian M.

    2013-01-01

    With more than 64,500 members, the Bangladeshi community in London is one of the largest in the UK. Originating from a wave of immigration during the 1970s, a considerable part of the community now consists of a second, UK-born generation. This explorative study seeks to address, first, the extent of the intergenerational language shift from…

  5. A pilot randomised controlled trial of personalised care for depressed patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease in South London general practices: the UPBEAT-UK RCT protocol and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tylee André

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community studies reveal people with coronary heart disease (CHD are twice as likely to be depressed as the general population and that this co-morbidity negatively affects the course and outcome of both conditions. There is evidence for the efficacy of collaborative care and case management for depression treatment, and whilst NICE guidelines recommend these approaches only where depression has not responded to psychological, pharmacological, or combined treatments, these care approaches may be particularly relevant to the needs of people with CHD and depression in the earlier stages of stepped care in primary care settings. Methods This pilot randomised controlled trial will evaluate whether a simple intervention involving a personalised care plan, elements of case management and regular telephone review is a feasible and acceptable intervention that leads to better mental and physical health outcomes for these patients. The comparator group will be usual general practitioner (GP care. 81 participants have been recruited from CHD registers of 15 South London general practices. Eligible participants have probable major depression identified by a score of ≥8 on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression subscale (HADS-D together with symptomatic CHD identified using the Modified Rose Angina Questionnaire. Consenting participants are randomly allocated to usual care or the personalised care intervention which involves a comprehensive assessment of each participant’s physical and mental health needs which are documented in a care plan, followed by regular telephone reviews by the case manager over a 6-month period. At each review, the intervention participant’s mood, function and identified problems are reviewed and the case manager uses evidence based behaviour change techniques to facilitate achievement of goals specified by the patient with the aim of increasing the patient’s self efficacy to solve their

  6. IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) is a scientific conference dedicated to mathematical, algorithmic, and computational aspects of biological and biomedical imaging, across all scales of observation. It fosters knowledge transfer among different imaging communities and contributes to an integrative approach to biomedical imaging. ISBI is a joint initiative from the IEEE Signal Processing Society (SPS) and the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS). The 2018 meeting will include tutorials, and a scientific program composed of plenary talks, invited special sessions, challenges, as well as oral and poster presentations of peer-reviewed papers. High-quality papers are requested containing original contributions to the topics of interest including image formation and reconstruction, computational and statistical image processing and analysis, dynamic imaging, visualization, image quality assessment, and physical, biological, and statistical modeling. Accepted 4-page regular papers will be published in the symposium proceedings published by IEEE and included in IEEE Xplore. To encourage attendance by a broader audience of imaging scientists and offer additional presentation opportunities, ISBI 2018 will continue to have a second track featuring posters selected from 1-page abstract submissions without subsequent archival publication.

  7. CERN receives prestigious Milestone recognition from IEEE

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Nobel prize winner Georges Charpak and W. Cleon Anderson, IEEE President, unveil the Milestone bronze plaques. At a ceremony on 26 September at the Globe of Science and Innovation, Mr W. Cleon Anderson, President of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) formally dedicated Milestone plaques recognising the invention of electronic particle detectors at CERN. The plaque were unveiled by Mr Anderson and Georges Charpak, the Nobel-prize winning inventor of wire chamber technology at CERN in 1968. The IEEE is the world's largest professional association dedicated to the advancement of technology with 365,000 individual members in over 150 countries. Established in 1983, there are currently over 60 Milestones around the world. They honour momentous achievements in the history of electrical and electronics engineering, such as the landing of the first transatlantic cable, code breaking at Bletchley Park during World War II, and the development of the Japanese Bullet train, the Tokaido Shin...

  8. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the scalable coherent interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960--1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics

  9. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  10. The Making of London Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...

  11. London International Youth Science Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  12. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  13. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    Our IEEE transactions on power electronics has had some very positive progress these past years under the leadership of Dr. Daan van Wyk. Papers have been processed efficiently both in review time and publication time. This success has spread throughout the whole power electronics community which...

  14. The IEEE 802.11a standards

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The IEEE 802.11a standards. Provides higher data rate and system capacities and uses OFDM in Physical Layer to mitigate the multi path effects;. Supports multiple 20Mhz channel. Each channel being an OFDM Modulated;; 52 Carriers. 48 data carrier; 4 Carry pilot ...

  15. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R

    2002-01-01

    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  16. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period April 1975 to March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayther, D.B.

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report describes the activities of the UK Nuclear Data Committee, lists the UK data in a CINDA type index, and reports briefly on each UK activity under the organization concerned (AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith, NPL, AWRE Aldermaston, University of Aston in Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of London Reactor Centre). (U.K.)

  17. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  18. Novel Approaches to the Treatment of Cancer in London UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Black

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An intensive and in-depth two-day conference providing an advanced level updateKEY TOPICS TO BE COVERED:New paradigms for targeted therapiesNew anti-cancer agents ~ industry viewpointNovel approaches to the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and pancreatic cancerDrug development and precision radiotherapyEuropean drug development initiativesMarket access to novel cancer drugsRegulatory issues in marketing authorisation of anti-cancer productsGene and cell therapies and trial endpointsDeveloping cancer vaccinesCLICK HERE for more information 

  19. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    microg/m3) and of PM with an aerodynamic diameter content of ambient PM10 and PM2.5. The resulting baseline PM data set was the first to describe, in detail, the oxidative potential and metal content of the PM10 and PM2.5 of a major city's airshed. PM in London has considerable oxidative potential; clear differences in this measure were found from site to site, with evidence that the oxidative potential of both PM10 and PM2.5 at roadside monitoring sites was higher than at urban background locations. In the PM10 samples this increased oxidative activity appeared to be associated with increased concentrations of copper (Cu), barium (Ba), and bathophenanthroline disulfonate-mobilized iron (BPS Fe) in the roadside samples. In the PM2.5 samples, no simple association could be seen, suggesting that other unmeasured components were driving the increased oxidative potential in this fraction of the roadside samples. These data suggest that two components were contributing to the oxidative potential of roadside PM, namely Cu and BPS Fe in the coarse fraction of PM (PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm to 10 microm; PM(2.5-10)) and an unidentified redox catalyst in PM2.5. The data derived for this baseline study confirmed key observations from a more limited spatial mapping exercise published in our earlier HEI report on the introduction of the London's Congestion Charging Scheme (CCS) in 2003 (Kelly et al. 2011a,b). In addition, the data set in the current report provided robust baseline information on the oxidative potential and metal content of PM found in the London airshed in the period before implementation of the LEZ; the finding that a proportion of the oxidative potential appears in the PM coarse mode and is apparently related to brake wear raises important issues regarding the nature of traffic management schemes. The final goal of this baseline study was to establish the feasibility, in ethical and operational terms, of using the U.K.'s electronic primary

  20. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  1. Further observations on London fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R E; Lawther, P J

    1957-01-01

    The degree of illness in a group of people with bonchitis or emphysema residing in London during the winter of 1955--56 was monitored by personal diary methods. Concentration of smoke was related to degree of illness, with rapid response at onset and slow recovery. Wet fogs were no worse than dry ones.

  2. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  3. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  4. Classification guide: Paralympic Games London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  5. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  6. Geographically varying associations between personality and life satisfaction in the London metropolitan area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, M.; Bleidorn, W.; Lamb, M.E.; Gosling, S.D.; Rentfrow, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Residential location is thought to influence people’s well-being, but different individuals may value residential areas differently. We examined how life satisfaction and personality traits are geographically distributed within the UK London metropolitan area, and how the strength of associations

  7. 7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Atanassov, KT; Doukovska, L; Hadjiski, M; Jotsov, V; Kacprzyk, J; Kasabov, N; Sotirov, S; Szmidt, E; Zadrożny, S; Filev, D; Jabłkowski, J; Kacprzyk, J; Krawczak, M; Popchev, I; Rutkowski, L; Sgurev, V; Sotirova, E; Szynkarczyk, P

    2015-01-01

    This two volume set of books constitutes the proceedings of the 2014  7th IEEE International Conference Intelligent Systems (IS), or IEEE IS’2014 for short, held on September 24‐26, 2014 in Warsaw, Poland. Moreover, it contains some selected papers from the collocated IWIFSGN'2014-Thirteenth International Workshop on Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Generalized Nets.The conference was organized by the Systems Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Department IV of Engineering Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, and Industrial Institute of Automation and Measurements - PIAP.The papers included in the two proceedings volumes have been subject to a thorough review process by three highly qualified peer reviewers.Comments and suggestions from them have considerable helped improve the quality of the papers but also the division of the volumes into parts, and assignment of the papers to the best suited parts.  

  8. IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejero-Calado, Juan; Lopez-Casado, Carmen; Bernal-Martin, Antonio; Lopez-Gomez, Miguel; Romero-Romero, Marco; Quesada, Guillermo; Lorca, Julio; Rivas, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. This kind of devices favours at-home hospitalization, reducing the affluence to sanitary assistance centers to make routine controls. This fact causes a really favourable social impact, especially for elder people, rural-zone inhabitant, chronic patients and handicapped people. Furthermore, it offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the sanitary cost. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (screen, PDA, PC...) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size multi-channel electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the TCP/IP Hospital network.

  9. IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing: Preface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Jianhua

    The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing will be held in Beijing, China, on September 18–21, 2011. The workshop series is the major annual technical event of the IEEE Signal Processing Society's Technical Committee on Machine Learning for Signal Processing...

  10. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the Fifteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP’2005), held in Mystic, Connecticut, USA, September 28-30, 2005. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP) organized...... by the NNSP Technical Committee of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized...... by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee with sponsorship of the IEEE Signal Processing Society. Following the practice started two years ago, the bound volume of the proceedings is going to be published by IEEE following the Workshop, and we are pleased to offer to conference attendees...

  11. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  12. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  13. Performance comparison of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n in the presence of interference from 802.15.4 networks

    OpenAIRE

    Masood, Syed Haani

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we compare the packet error rate (PER) and maximum throughput of IEEE 802.11n and IEEE 802.11g under interference from IEEE 802.15.4 by using MATLAB to simulate the IEEE PHY for 802.11n and 802.11g networks.

  14. A coexistence model of IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.1 lbIg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Wei; Wang, Xiangyu; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    IEEE 802.15.4 was developed to meet the needs for low-rate wireless communication. However, due to its low power, IEEE 802.15.4 is potentially vulnerable to interference by other wireless technologies having much higher power and working in the same industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band

  15. Active Channel Reservation for Coexistence Mechanism (ACROS) for IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo Young; Woo, Dong Hyuk; Lee, Jong Wook; Park, Hong Seong; Kwon, Wook Hyun

    In this paper, a coexistence mechanism between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11b, Active Channel Reservation for cOexiStence (ACROS), is proposed. The key idea underlining ACROS is to reserve the channel for IEEE 802.15.4 transmission, where IEEE 802.11 transmissions are forbidden. The request-to-send (RTS)/clear-to send (CTS) mechanism within IEEE 802.11 is used to reserve a channel. The proposed ACROS mechanism is implemented into a PC based prototype. The embedded version of ACROS is also developed to mitigate the timing drift problem in the PC-based ACROS. The efficiency of ACROS is shown using the throughput and packet error rate achieved in actual experiments.

  16. HIV in East London: ethnicity, gender and risk. Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukutu Cecilia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing epidemiological pattern is particularly pronounced in East London because of its ethnically diverse population. Design and methods The objective of the study was to examine the social, economic and behavioural characteristics of patients with HIV infection currently receiving treatment and care in hospitals in East London. The research focused on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, education, employment, housing, HIV treatment, stigma, discrimination, religion, migration and sexual risk behaviour. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending outpatient treatment clinics at St Bartholomew's, the Royal London, Whipp's Cross, Homerton, Newham and Barking hospitals (all in East London over a 4–6 month period were invited to participate in the study in 2004–2005. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. During the study period, 2680 patients with HIV attended the outpatient clinics in the six participating hospitals, of whom 2299 were eligible for the study and 1687 completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 73% of eligible patients and 63% of all patients attending the clinics during the survey period. Discussion A clinic-based study has allowed us to survey nearly 1700 patients with HIV from diverse backgrounds receiving treatment and care in East London. The data collected in this study will provide valuable information for the planning and delivery of appropriate clinical care, social support and health promotion for people living with HIV not only in East London but in other parts of the capital as well as elsewhere in the UK.

  17. Guest editors' introduction : Highlights from IEEE Pacific Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; North, S.; Shen, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    This article looks briefly at four articles based on papers from the 2010 IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium. These articles, which strongly focus on visual design and applications, cover a range of applications in scientific visualization, information visualization, and graph visualization,

  18. Embodied Protest in Occupy London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Reinecke, Juliane

    In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates...... with the general public and media. Particularly, tensions became manifest as the homines sacri of the homeless people joined the camp. We discuss the implications of Agamben’s biopolitical insights for the relation of resistance, public space and community building in protest movements....... sacri – “bare life” challenging sovereign power. Yet, we also show how protesters struggled to navigate tensions between representing such “bare life” of the homo sacer and the biopolitical body. This lead not only to various difficulties in building protest community but also in the interactions...

  19. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts. 1997 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science, 19 - 22 May 1997 San Diego, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyman, Julius

    1997-01-01

    This 360 page softbound publication includes the following major sections. An invitation to ICOPS'97, Catamaran Resort Hotel Floor Pinas, Officers of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, Conference Information...

  20. DEVELOPMENT PROSPECTS OF LONDON AS THE WORLD’S FINANCIAL CENTER IN THE CONDITIONS OF BREXIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Sydorova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the role of London as the global financial center in the modern international financial system under the conditions of Britain's withdrawal from the European Union. Methodology. During the study, the comparative method, methods of statistics and economic-mathematical modeling were used. The methodological and theoretical basis of the study is the fundamental provisions of international economic relations, the study of economists in the field of international monetary and financial relations. Information basis is analytical reports of international financial centers and statistical databases of international organizations. Results. Nowadays, London has all the necessary factors for success: open economy, developed financial infrastructure, stability of taxation system, geographical location, long-term government support, transparent policy, investor diversity and multi-culture. It is revealed that a growing variety of financial instruments is a characteristic feature of London as a modern global financial center. As a result, London is gradually winning the battle for the title of the world's leading financial center. The Government of the United Kingdom constantly develops growth strategies of the City of London, creates favorable conditions for the work of international companies, and attracts highly qualified specialists from other countries in the field of finance and law. The competent policy of the state and the wide range of services provided for the successful transactions on stock exchanges and commodity markets help London to maintain undisputed leadership in the global financial market and minimize losses associated with Brexit. At the same time, the decision of the UK to withdraw from the EU had a negative impact on the stability of the country's banking system, it had provoked a decline in the country's credit ratings, a drop in the pound sterling against the dollar and the euro. Another problem

  1. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišić, Jelena; (Sherman) Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients. PMID:19107184

  2. Delay Analysis of GTS Bridging between IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.11 Networks for Healthcare Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Jelena; Sherman Shen, Xuemin

    2009-01-01

    We consider interconnection of IEEE 802.15.4 beacon-enabled network cluster with IEEE 802.11b network. This scenario is important in healthcare applications where IEEE 802.15.4 nodes comprise patient's body area network (BAN) and are involved in sensing some health-related data. BAN nodes have very short communication range in order to avoid harming patient's health and save energy. Sensed data needs to be transmitted to an access point in the ward room using wireless technology with higher transmission range and rate such as IEEE 802.11b. We model the interconnected network where IEEE 802.15.4-based BAN operates in guaranteed time slot (GTS) mode, and IEEE 802.11b part of the bridge conveys GTS superframe to the 802.11b access point. We then analyze the network delays. Performance analysis is performed using EKG traffic from continuous telemetry, and we discuss the delays of communication due the increasing number of patients.

  3. Simulasi Kinerja Jaringan Nirkabel IEEE-802.11a dan IEEE-802.11g Menggunakan NS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helm Fitriawan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless network uses transmission media based on radio waves. This type of networks is mainly useddue to its efficiency and mobility in data exchanging. This paper reports the modeling and simulation of wirelessnetworks based on Cisco Aironet 1130ag access point devices with IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11g standards. Themodeling and simulation are performed using network simulator version 2 (NS-2 that is installed on operationsystem Linux Ubuntu v.10.10. The NS-2 is commonly used and works well in numerous types of network simulation. From simulation, we obtain quality of service parameters by employing several simulation scenarios in terms ofnumber of nodes, distances, and packet data sizes. It can be concluded from simulation results that the IEEE 802.11gnetworks transfer data with better quality than those of IEEE 802.11a networks.  Furthermore, the IEEE 802.11gnetworks provide a higher throughput, with smaller amount of delay and packet loss percentage compared to thoseof IEEE 802.11a networks.

  4. The politicisation of UK immigration policy

    OpenAIRE

    Onslow-Cole, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Article by Julia Onslow-Cole (A senior partner and head of CMS Cameron McKenna's global immigration business practice) examining the development of UK business immigration law from 2003-4. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  5. IEEE Std 101-1987: IEEE guide for the statistical analysis of thermal life test data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This revision of IEEE Std 101-1972 describes statistical analyses for data from thermally accelerated aging tests. It explains the basis and use of statistical calculations for an engineer or scientist. Accelerated test procedures usually call for a number of specimens to be aged at each of several temperatures appreciably above normal operating temperatures. High temperatures are chosen to produce specimen failures (according to specified failure criteria) in typically one week to one year. The test objective is to determine the dependence of median life on temperature from the data, and to estimate, by extrapolation, the median life to be expected at service temperature. This guide presents methods for analyzing such data and for comparing test data on different materials

  6. Fiber optics backbone for IEEE 802.3 networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shani, Ron

    1990-01-01

    In the last few years the IEEE 802.3 committee has developed fiber optics inter-repeater link standard called FOIRL. This standard defines the "Fiber Optics Media Access Unit" (FOMAU) which is used to connect two IEEE 802.3 repeaters that are up to 1Km apart. The IEEE 802.3 lOBaseF task force is currently standardizing a full F/O system in two directions: passive and active. The active approach is a compromise between the FOIRL (Asynchronous) approach and the Synchronous approach. As a result of this activity the IEEE 802.3 standard will define three different F/O interfaces and several devices that will not inter-operate. Such a standard will lower the credibility among the IEEE 802.3 user community, as customers will be confused amidst the many chapters and devices with no clear choice. This paper describes a method that can reduce the number of standards to two (passive and active), while proposing a solution for all the requirements of 802.3 F/O LAN. (The question of passive vs active approach will be discussed in this paper).

  7. Safety and security in acute admission psychiatric wards in Ireland and London: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Bowers, Len

    2009-05-01

    The comparative element of this study is to describe safety and security measures in psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London; to describe differences and similarities in terms of safety and security patterns in the Republic of Ireland and London; and to make recommendations on safety and security to mental health services management and psychiatric nurses. Violence is a serious problem in psychiatric services and staff experience significant psychological reactions to being assaulted. Health and Safety Authorities in the UK and Ireland have expressed concern about violence and assault in healthcare, however, there remains a lack of clarity on matters of procedure and policy pertaining to safety and security in psychiatric hospitals. A descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were circulated to all acute wards in London and in Ireland and the resulting data compared. A total of 124 psychiatric wards from London and 43 wards from Ireland were included in this study and response rates of 70% (London) and 86% (Ireland) were obtained. Differences and similarities in safety and security practices were identified between London and Ireland, with Irish wards having generally higher and more intensive levels of security. There is a lack of coherent policy and procedure in safety and security measures across psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London. Given the trends in European Union (EU) regulation, there is a strong argument for the publication of acceptable minimum guidelines for safety and security in mental health services across the EU. There must be a concerted effort to ensure that all policy and procedure in safety and security is founded on evidence and best practice. Mental health managers must establish a review of work safety and security procedures and practices. Risk assessment and environmental audits of all mental health clinical environments should be mandatory.

  8. Management of response to the polonium-210 incident in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, John; Bailey, Michael; Tattersall, Phil; Morrey, Mary; McColl, Neil; Prosser, Lesley; Maguire, Helen; Fraser, Graham; Gross, Roger

    2008-01-01

    On the 23 November 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London allegedly from poisoning by 210 Po, an alpha particle emitter. The spread of radioactive contamination, arising from the poisoning and the events leading up to it, involved many locations in London. The potential for intakes of 210 Po arising from the contamination posed a public health risk and generated significant public concern. The scale of the event required a multi-agency response, including top level UK Government emergency response management arrangements. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) had a leading role in co-ordinating and managing the public health response. This paper reviews the management of the incident response and the issues involved. The fatal poisoning of Mr Litvinenko with 210 Po, and the associated public health hazard from the spread of contamination to many locations across London, was an unprecedented event. Fortunately, no one else is known to have suffered any acute effects. Results from the programme of individual monitoring showed that whilst more than 100 people had measurable intakes of 210 Po, only 17 had assessed doses in excess of 6 mSv. The highest dose of about 100 mSv gives rise to an increased risk of fatal cancer of about 0.5%, compared with the natural incidence of about 25%. The incident required a co-ordinated and sustained multi-agency emergency response. The Health Protection Agency, as the lead on public health matters played a significant role in this. Whilst inevitably some lessons have been identified, the response is considered to have been very effective and to have benefited from the wide spectrum of experience and expertise developed through normal work, together with the effort put into emergency preparedness and the various emergency response. (author)

  9. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  10. Implicit Block ACK Scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthapit, Pranesh; Pyun, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    The throughput of IEEE 802.11 standard is significantly bounded by the associated Medium Access Control (MAC) overhead. Because of the overhead, an upper limit exists for throughput, which is bounded, including situations where data rates are extremely high. Therefore, an overhead reduction is necessary to achieve higher throughput. The IEEE 802.11e amendment introduced the block ACK mechanism, to reduce the number of control messages in MAC. Although the block ACK scheme greatly reduces overhead, further improvements are possible. In this letter, we propose an implicit block ACK method that further reduces the overhead associated with IEEE 802.11e’s block ACK scheme. The mathematical analysis results are presented for both the original protocol and the proposed scheme. A performance improvement of greater than 10% was achieved with the proposed implementation.

  11. IEEE guide for the analysis of human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) working group 7.4 of the Human Factors and Control Facilities Subcommittee of the Nuclear Power Engineering Committee (NPEC) has released its fifth draft of a Guide for General Principles of Human Action Reliability Analysis for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, for approval of NPEC. A guide is the least mandating in the IEEE hierarchy of standards. The purpose is to enhance the performance of an human reliability analysis (HRA) as a part of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), to assure reproducible results, and to standardize documentation. The guide does not recommend or even discuss specific techniques, which are too rapidly evolving today. Considerable maturation in the analysis of human reliability in a PRA context has taken place in recent years. The IEEE guide on this subject is an initial step toward bringing HRA out of the research and development arena into the toolbox of standard engineering practices

  12. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Knowledge Construction and Personal Relationship: Insights about a UK University Mentoring and Coaching Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Eleanore

    2010-01-01

    This article examines interview data from 12 mentors/coaches and eight of their clients in order to explore a mentoring and coaching service among UK university staff. Both mentors/coaches and clients were administrative or academic employees of the Institute of Education or affiliated colleges at London University, UK. Their roles related to the…

  14. Patterns in Payout Policy and Payout Channel Choice of UK Firms in the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Trojanowski, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines the payout policy of UK firms listed on the London Stock Exchange during the 1990s.We complement the existing payout literature studies by analyzing jointly the trends in dividends and share repurchases.Unlike in the US, we find that, in the UK, firms do not demonstrate a

  15. Case studies of transport for London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project was motivated by the election of Ken Livingston as Mayor of London in : 2000. Mayor Livingston campaigned on a platform of improving transportation service through : such innovative means as congestion pricing. Mayor Livingston relied on...

  16. IEEE prize awarded to CERN PhD student

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Rafael Ballabriga Suñe is the recipient of the 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS)'s Student Paper Award. Ballabriga's winning paper reported on a prototype chip, which belongs to a new generation of single photon counting hybrid pixel detector readout chips - Medipix3. The award was presented by the deputy programme chair Vince Cianciolo (left) at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium held in San Diego on 29 October to 4 November.

  17. CITY OF LONDON: THE SECRETS OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Belyaev

    2010-01-01

    Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by...

  18. The theatrical portrait in eighteenth century London

    OpenAIRE

    West, Shearer

    1986-01-01

    A theatrical portrait is an image of an actor or actors in character. This genre was widespread in eighteenth century London and was practised by a large number of painters and engravers of all levels of ability. The sources of the genre lay in a number of diverse styles of art, including the court portraits of Lely and Kneller and the fetes galantes of Watteau and Mercier. Three types of media for theatrical portraits were particularly prevalent in London, between c.1745...

  19. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  20. Construct Validity of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition with a Referred Irish Sample: Wechsler and Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model Comparisons with 15 Subtests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.; Good, Rebecca; James, Kate; James, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Background: Irish educational psychologists frequently use the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]; Wechsler, 2004, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition, London, UK, Harcourt Assessment) in clinical assessments of children with learning difficulties. Unfortunately, reliability…

  1. IEEE C37.98-1987: IEEE standard seismic testing of relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in IEEE Std 344-1987. To define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general, they are (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay that constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new application, then proof testing must be performed for that new case

  2. IEEE C37.98-1978: IEEE standard seismic testing of relays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard specifies the procedures to be used in the seismic testing of relays used in power system facilities. The standard is concerned with the determination of the seismic fragility level of relays and also gives recommendations for proof testing. The purpose of this standard is to establish procedures for determining the seismic capabilities of protective and auxiliary relays. These procedures employ what has been called fragility testing in ANSI/IEEE Std 344-1975, Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. In order to define the conditions for fragility testing of relays, parameters in three separate areas must be specified. In general they are: (1) the electrical settings and inputs to the relay, and other information to define its conditions during the test; (2) the change in state, deviation in operating characteristics or tolerances, or other change of performance of the relay which constitutes failure; (3) the seismic vibration environment to be imposed during the test. Since it is not possible to define the conditions for every conceivable application for all relays, those parameters, which in practice encompass the majority of applications, have been specified in this standard. When the application of the relay is other than as specified under any of (1), (2), and (3), or if it is not practical to apply existing results of fragility tests to that new case

  3. Editorial for the IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    I am entering the fourth year as the Editor in Chief of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS. A position like this becomes more and more important for the technical field as publishing in a peer-reviewed highly ranked journal has influence on the industrial and academic career. It is a way...

  4. ARC Researchers at IEEE 2015 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contacts Researchers News & Events Event Calendar Annual Program Review Research Seminars Press Room Event Archives ARC Researchers at the IEEE 2015 Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference (October 19-22 Ballroom B P-SS4-2 Comparison of SOFC and PEM Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Management Strategies for Mobile

  5. Eleanor McElwee and the Formation of IEEE PCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the historical professional project that created the Institute of Radio Engineers' Professional Group on Engineering Writing an Speech (IRE PGEWS)--now called the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' Professional Communication Society (IEEE PCS)--and recounts the group's early history in detail. It also traces…

  6. 2011 IEEE Vehicular Networking Conference (VNC): Demo Summaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altintas, O.; Chen, W.; Heijenk, Geert; Dressler, F.; Ekici, E.; Kargl, Frank; Shigeno, H.; Dietzel, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Foreword For the first time in its history, IEEE VNC has included this year’s demonstrations in its program. Demonstrations play an important role to expose the research community to practical aspects of research and to foster cross-fertilization among researchers both in academia and in industry.

  7. 0011-0030.Data Representation amp Computer Arithmetic6 IEEE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.Data Representation amp Computer Arithmetic6 IEEE Standard Double Precision FormatIn.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News.

  8. Central and East European migrant men who have sex with men in London: a comparison of recruitment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Christopher J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following the expansion of the European Union, there has been a large influx of Central and East European (CEE migrants to the UK. CEE men who have sex with men (MSM represent a small minority within this population that are none-the-less important to capture in sexual health research among the CEE migrant community. This paper examines the feasibility of recruiting CEE MSM for a survey of sexual behaviour in London using respondent driven sampling (RDS, via gay websites and in GUM clinics. Methods We sought CEE MSM to start RDS chain referral among GUM clinic attendees, our personal contacts and at gay events and venues in central London. We recruited CEE MSM (n = 485 via two popular websites for gay men in Britain (March-May 2009 and at two central London GUM clinics (n = 51 (July 2008-March 2009. Results We found seventeen men who knew other CEE MSM in London and agreed to recruit contacts into the study. These men recruited only three men into the study, none of whom recruited any further respondents, and RDS was abandoned after 7 months (July 2008-January 2009. Half of the men that we approached to participate in RDS did not know any other CEE MSM in London. Men who agreed to recruit contacts for RDS were rather more likely to have been in the UK for more than one year (94.1% vs 70.0%, p = 0.052. Men recruited through gay websites and from GUM clinics were similar. Conclusions The Internet was the most successful method for collecting data on sexual risk behaviour among CEE MSM in London. CEE MSM in London were not well networked. RDS may also have failed because they did not fully understand the procedure and/or the financial incentive was not sufficient motivation to take part.

  9. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  10. A Migrant Culture on Display: The French Migrant and French Gastronomy in London (19th – 21st centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, D.

    2016-01-01

    The large contemporary French migrant population – estimated by the French Consulate at around 300,000–400,000 in the UK, the majority living in London and the South-East – remains ‘absent’ from studies on migration, and, in a study of migrant food history in Britain, is considered not to have left traces as a migrant community. Over the centuries, the presence of various French communities in London has varied significantly as far as numbers are concerned, but what does not change is their s...

  11. Uses of the Twins UK genetic database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Tim D

    2007-11-01

    Tim Spector is a Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King's College London and Director of the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Professor Spector graduated from St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School, London, in 1982. After working in General Medicine, he completed a MSc in Epidemiology, and his MD degree at the University of London in 1989. He founded the UK Twins Registry of 10,000 twins in 1993, which is one of the largest collections of genotype and phenotype information on twins worldwide, whose breadth of research has expanded to cover a wide range of common complex traits many of which were previously thought to be mainly due to aging and the environment. He has published over 350 research articles on common diseases. He has written several original articles on the genetics of a wide range of diseases and traits including back pain, acne, inflammation, obesity, memory, musical ability and sexuality. He is the principal investigator of the EU Euroclot and Treat OA study, and a partner in five others. He has written several books, focusing on osteoporosis and genetics and, in 2003, he published a popular book on genetics: Your Genes Unzipped.

  12. Qualification test of Class 1E equipment based on IEEE323 Std 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Jung, S. C.; Kim, T. R.

    2004-01-01

    IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment has been updated to 2003 edition since the issue of IEEE Std 323-1971, 1974, 1983. NRC approved the IEEE Std 323-1974 as Qualification standard of Class 1E Equipment in domestic nuclear power plant. IEEE Std 323-2003 was issued in September of 2003 and utility is waiting the approval of NRC. IEEE Std 323-2003 suggest a new qualification technique which adopts the condition monitoring. Performance of two transient during DBA test is no longer recommended in IEEE Std 323-2003. IEEE323 Std 2003 included a chapter of ''extension of Qualified life'' to make available the life extension of components during plant life extension. For the efficient control of preserving EQ in domestic nuclear power plant, IEEE323 Std 2003 is strongly recommended

  13. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  14. Mind the gap: financial London and the regional class pay gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sam; Laurison, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    The hidden barriers, or 'gender pay gap', preventing women from earning equivalent incomes to men is well documented. Yet recent research has uncovered that, in Britain, there is also a comparable class-origin pay gap in higher professional and managerial occupations. So far this analysis has only been conducted at the national level and it is not known whether there are regional differences within the UK. This paper uses pooled data from the 2014 and 2015 Labour Force Survey (N = 7,534) to stage a more spatially sensitive analysis that examines regional variation in the class pay gap. We find that this 'class ceiling' is not evenly spatially distributed. Instead it is particularly marked in Central London, where those in high-status occupations who are from working-class backgrounds earn, on average, £10,660 less per year than those whose parents were in higher professional and managerial employment. Finally, we inspect the Capital further to reveal that the class pay gap is largest within Central London's banking and finance sector. Challenging policy conceptions of London as the 'engine room' of social mobility, these findings suggest that class disadvantage within high-status occupations is particularly acute in the Capital. The findings also underline the value of investigating regional differences in social mobility, and demonstrate how such analysis can unravel important and previously unrecognized spatial dimensions of class inequality. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  15. Introduction to IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2 Annex D -- ''Qualification of existing commercial computers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstrom, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    On September 15th of 1993 the IEEE standards board approved IEEE Std. 7-4.3.2-1993, IEEE Standard for Digital Computers in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Generating Stations. This paper is an introduction to Annex D of this document which concerns the commercial grade dedication of existing computers or new non-1E computers

  16. IEEE C37.82-1987: IEEE standard for the qualification of switchgear assemblies for Class 1E applications in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the methods and requirements for qualifying switchgear assemblies for indoor areas outside of the containment in nuclear power generating stations. These assemblies include (1) metal-enclosed low-voltage power circuit breaker switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.1-1987, (2) metal-clad switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.2-1987, (3) metal-enclosed bus, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.23-1987, and (4) metal-enclosed interrupter switchgear assemblies, as defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.20.3-1987. The purpose of this document is to provide amplification of the general requirements of ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983 as they apply to the specific features of Class 1E switchgear assemblies. Where differences exist between this document and ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983, this document takes precedence insofar as switchgear assemblies are concerned

  17. Proceedings of IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing Workshop XVI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    These proceedings contains refereed papers presented at the sixteenth IEEE Workshop on Machine Learning for Signal Processing (MLSP'2006), held in Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland, September 6-8, 2006. This is a continuation of the IEEE Workshops on Neural Networks for Signal Processing (NNSP......). The name of the Technical Committee, hence of the Workshop, was changed to Machine Learning for Signal Processing in September 2003 to better reflect the areas represented by the Technical Committee. The conference is organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee...... the same standard as the printed version and facilitates the reading and searching of the papers. The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected...

  18. IEEE prize awarded to CERN PhD student

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Rafael Ballabriga Suñe (right) receives the Student Paper Award. Rafael Ballabriga Suñe is the recipient of the 2006 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS)'s Student Paper Award. Ballabriga's winning paper reported on a prototype chip, which belongs to a new generation of single photon counting hybrid pixel detector readout chips - Medipix3. The NPSS established this award in 2005 to encourage outstanding student contributions and greater student participation as principle or sole authors of papers. The prizes were presented at the IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium held in San Diego on 29 October to 4 November. The prototype chip was designed by Ballabriga based on ideas generated within the CERN Medipix team - part of the PH Microelectronics group. It could be used in various fields in the future, including medical imaging, neutron imaging, electron microscopy, radiation monitoring and other applications in high-energy physics. The novel aspe...

  19. IEEE 802.3 Fiber Optic Inter-Repeater Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a fiber optic inter-repeater link (FOIRL), used for connecting two remote copper segments of an IEEE 802.3 local area network. The rationale for the design, the signalling used and the collision detection mechanism is discussed. The evolution of the draft international standard for the FOIRL and the concurrence amongst various manufacturers is also presented. Finally some examples of typical applications, highlighting the ease of installation, are given.

  20. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmiento, Oscar P.; Guerrero, Fabio G.; Rey Argote, David

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnerabilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educat...

  1. 17th IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference – RT-2010

    CERN Multimedia

    Carlos Varandas

    2010-01-01

    Congress Centre of “Instituto Superior Técnico”, Lisboa, Portugal, 24-28 May, 2010 ABSTRACT SUBMISSION OPEN Abstract Submission Deadline: March 1st, 2010 Dear Sir/Madam, We are pleased to announce that abstract submission for the 17th IEEE NPSS Real Time Conference is now open on our web site. The deadline for submitting an abstract is 1st March 2010. Full conference details General Chairman

  2. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  3. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  4. Staging the orient in Aladdin: London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellige...

  5. Reading Samuel Selvon's The Lonely Londoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is represented when he says to Moses in confidence: 'Don't worry, I will get fix up as .... of the immigrants in London, these are the things they strive .... cultures could be done, a task one can argue he sets out to do and reconcile in his novel.

  6. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  7. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  8. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  9. Reframing sociologies of ethnicity and migration in encounters with Chinese London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Caroline

    2017-09-01

    In this paper I argue that the intersecting sociologies of ethnicity and migration work from a series of interconnected blind spots hindering effective analysis of the current UK situation. Both operate analytically within the limitations of an 'immigrant problem' framework; are overinvested in state agendas; privilege a nation state analysis; are narrowly focused on distributions of migrant bodies, and on receiving, at the expense of sending, contexts. Exploring these limitations with data derived from a modest small-scale qualitative study of young Chinese migrants in London, I argue for a reframing along four dimensions. Firstly, in an era of elite migration, sociology could reach beyond its immigrant problem framework and open up to a broader range of UK migrant ethnicities and circumstances. Secondly, a stronger focus on cities as the scale on which lives are lived, and through which diverse streams of translocal activity are routed, would open new avenues of sociological exploration. Thirdly, including translocal activities connected with distributions of ethnic migrant bodies, such as capital transfers, would broaden its focus, taking migration and ethnicity more centrally into the analysis of globalization as one of its constituting practices. Finally, paying attention to sending, as well as arrival cities, reveals migrants' thinking and shapes the ways in which they live, as my data shows. The Chinese are both one of the UK's neglected minorities, and one of its fastest growing populations. They are a good example of new UK migrants and they bring globalization's realignment with the rising significance of China to the UK. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  10. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM) (7th, London, United Kingdom, July 4-7, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, John, Ed.; Pardos, Zachary, Ed.; Mavrikis, Manolis, Ed.; McLaren, Bruce M., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The 7th International Conference on Education Data Mining held on July 4th-7th, 2014, at the Institute of Education, London, UK is the leading international forum for high-quality research that mines large data sets in order to answer educational research questions that shed light on the learning process. These data sets may come from the traces…

  11. The Dutch and British public debate on Islam: responses to the killing of Theo van Gogh and the London bombings compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellenga, S.

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, Islam has become the subject of an intensive debate within Europe. Major triggers of this debate were, in the Netherlands, the assassination of the filmmaker Theo van Gogh on 2 November 2004 and, in the UK, the London bombings on 7 July 2005. Both violent actions

  12. Proceedings IEEE Visualization Conference and IEEE Information Visualization Conference (VIS'07 and INFOVIS'07, Sacramento CA, USA, October 28-November 1, 2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, M.; Hansen, C.; North, C.; Pang, A.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2007-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the IEEE Visualization Conference 2007 (Vis 2007) and the IEEE Information Visualization Conference 2007 (InfoVis 2007) held during October 28 to November 1, 2007 in Sacramento, California. The power of using computing technology to create useful, effective imagery for

  13. Coexistence of IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and IEEE 802.15.4 WSNs : Modeling and Protocol Enhancements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, W.

    2011-01-01

    As an emerging short-range wireless technology, IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in the fields of home control, industrial control, consumer electronics, energy management, building automation, telecom services, personal healthcare, etc. IEEE

  14. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Lovell, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK) compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years) and older (28-35 years) adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement). Participants’ number of children was also noted...

  15. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week ...

  16. Comparison and assessment of the participation of Polish swimmers at the Olympic and Paralympic Games in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Seidel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to assess and analyze the results of the Polish national team swimmers (Olympic and Paralympic at the XIV Summer Games 2012 in London (UK . Material : Score Polish swimmers start in London was carried out on the basis of medals won, participation in the finals. London also comparing the results with respect to the personal life record. The studies used the method of improving the outcome of the relative percentages - RPG% (relative performance gain %. It is based on the equation of RPG% = start time - end time / start time x 100. Material was to analyze and develop the results obtained by the Polish swimmers at the XIV Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 in London. Results : the basic criterion for evaluating the training and participation of Polish swimmers at the games in London was the number of medals won. By this criterion, the Poles showed a rather weak result. Healthy athletes do not receive medals. Thus, they confirmed their poor showing four years ago. Athletes with disabilities unable to get on the podium three times. In relation to the previous games (they won 10 medals the result was rather weak. Conclusions : in terms of participation in the Olympic finals and improve individual life records, the results were slightly better swimmers with disabilities.

  17. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika–East London Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-01-01

    The International Health Partnership (‘the Link’) between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK. PMID:29093835

  18. Diaspora and peer support working: benefits of and challenges for the Butabika-East London Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Dave; Aligawesa, Mariam; Birabwa-Oketcho, Harriet; Hall, Cerdic; Kyaligonza, David; Mpango, Richard; Mulimira, Moses; Boardman, Jed

    2015-02-01

    The International Health Partnership ('the Link') between the East London NHS Foundation Trust and Butabika Hospital in Uganda was set up in 2005. It has facilitated staff exchanges and set up many workstreams (e.g. in child and adolescent psychiatry, nursing and psychology) and projects (e.g. a peer support worker project and a violence reduction programme). The Link has been collaborative and mutually beneficial. The authors describe benefits and challenges at individual and organisational levels. Notably, the Link has achieved a commitment to service user involvement and an increasingly central involvement of the Ugandan diaspora working in mental health in the UK.

  19. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  20. Listening to those on the frontline: service users' experiences of London tuberculosis services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudioni M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Markella Boudioni, Susan McLaren, Ruth Belling, Leslie WoodsInstitute for Leadership and Service Improvement, Faculty of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, UKAim: To explore tuberculosis (TB service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision.Background: Thirty-nine percent of all new UK TB cases occur in London. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs. Overall, research suggests inadequate control of London's TB transmission; TB has become a health care priority for all London Primary Care Trusts. Service users' experiences and satisfaction with care provision have not been explored adequately previously.Methods: A qualitative research design, using semi-structured face-to-face interviews was used. Ten service users, purposively selected in key risk groups across London, were interviewed. All interviews were digitally recorded with users' permission, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically.Results: Participants were treated in local hospitals for 6–12 months. Treatment was administered by TB nurses to inpatients and outpatients receiving directly observed therapy in consultation with medical staff and home visits for complex cases. Two participants did not realize the importance of compliance. Overall, they were satisfied with many TB services' aspects, communication, and service organization. Early access, low suspicion index amongst some GPs, and restricted referral routes were identified as service barriers. Other improvement areas were information provision on drug side effects, diet, nutritional status, and a few health professionals' attitudes. The effects on people varied enormously from minimal impact to psychological shock; TB also affected social and personal aspects of their life. With regard to further support facilities, some positive views on managed accommodation by TB-aware professionals for those with accommodation problems were identified.Conclusion: This

  1. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  2. 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Živčák, Jozef; Aspects of Computational Intelligence Theory and Applications

    2013-01-01

    This volume covers the state-of-the art of the research and development in various aspects of computational intelligence and gives some perspective directions of development. Except the traditional engineering areas that contain theoretical knowledge, applications, designs and projects, the book includes the area of use of computational intelligence in biomedical engineering. „Aspects of Computational Intelligence: Theory and Applications” is a compilation of carefully selected extended papers written on the basis of original contributions presented at the 15th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Engineering Systems 2011, INES 2011 held at June 23.-26. 2011 in AquaCity Poprad, Slovakia.    

  3. Status of the IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1983-10-01

    The IEEE P896 Future Backplane Bus project has been influenced by and has influenced FASTBUS and several other contemporary bus designs. This paper summarizes the current status of that project, which is directed toward the needs of modern 32-bit microprocessor systems with multiple processors. Some of the technology developed for P896 will be important for future non-ECL implementations of FASTBUS and other buses. In particular, new bus drivers and receivers should greatly improve the performance and reliability of backplane buses and cable buses. The current status of the P896 serial bus is also summarized

  4. Kingsnorth-London dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-11

    The hvdc transmission link between one of the 500 MW generators at Kingsnorth Power Station and two receiving stations in London will use a three-wire dc cable system rated to carry 1200 A at +- 266 kV. This 51-mile system will be the first dc link in the world to be used as an integral part of a complex interconnected ac network.

  5. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  6. Digital reporting by small private companies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Esraa

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Abstract This thesis investigates the factors that affect the take-up of statutory digital reporting of statutory accounts and returns to the tax authority (HM Revenue and Customs) and voluntary digital reporting to the company registry (Companies House) by small private companies in the UK. In doing so, it identifies the costs and benefits of this innovation from the perspective...

  7. Extending Service Area of IEEE 802.11 Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    According to the current IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standards, IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks have the limitation that all STAs (Stations) are in the one-hop transmission range of each other. In this paper, to alleviate the limitation of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks we propose the efficient method for selecting the most appropriate pseudo AP (Access Point) from among the set of ad hoc STAs and extending the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks by the pseudo AP's relaying the internal traffic of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. Numerical examples show that the proposed method significantly extends the service area of IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks.

  8. IEEE Std 649-1991: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for both harsh and mild environment applications in nuclear power generating stations are described. In addition to defining specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers and their components in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, this standard is intended to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  9. IEEE Standard for qualification of Class 1E lead storage batteries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 279-1979 and IEEE Std 308-1978, can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this Standard in accordance with IEEE Std 323-1974. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment and consideration of other types batteries are beyond the scope of this Standard

  10. IEEE standard for qualification of class 1E lead storage batteries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, was developed to provide guidance for demonstrating and documenting the adequacy of electrical equipment used in all Class 1E and interface systems. This standard, IEEE Std 535-1979, was developed to provide specific methods and type test procedures for lead storage batteries in reference to IEEE Std 323-1974

  11. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  12. Radiation poisoning with Po-210 in London: The medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The death of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 has elevated the prospect of a deliberate radiation poisoning from a theoretical possibility to a reality. This was an unprecedented event in the UK. Poison that was certainly not the work of an amateur assassin was found, and it is possible that there have been previous killings of this nature outside the UK. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a half-life of 138 days that decays, giving off 5.3MeV alpha particles having a range of 40-50mm in tissue. The poison was probably administered in a small volume of liquid or as a solid powder added to food or drink. Dispersal of the material resulted in widespread contamination that was detected across London and on British Airways' flights to the east. Following the event, the main task of the UK Health Protection Agency was of contamination monitoring and reassurance of the general public. With many researchers now investigating the use of targeted alpha therapy, this incident has highlighted the possible effects from the uptake of alpha emitters into the sensitive normal tissues. On reaching the bloodstream, Po- 210 is rapidly deposited in major organs and tissues including the liver, kidneys and bone marrow. The intense alpha radiation within these tissues would result in massive destruction of cells, leading to a rapid decline in health. It has been concluded that ingestion of 1-3 GBq or greater of Po-210 is likely to result in death within a few weeks, assuming there is 10% absorption to blood. Anyone receiving such doses would show symptoms of acute radiation sickness syndrome, with death resulting from multiple organ failure. Remedial medical treatment strategies would be unsuccessful within a few hours of ingestion, once significant amounts of Po-210 had entered the blood stream and deposited in tissues. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known until the

  13. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  14. London limit for lattice model of superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktitorov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to the strong-bond superconductor, which is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation in the London limit, is considered. The effect of the crystalline lattice discreteness on the superconductors electromagnetic properties is studied. The classic problems on the critical current and magnetic field penetration are studied within the frames of the lattice model for thin superconducting films. The dependence of the superconducting current on the thin film order parameter is obtained. The critical current dependence on the degree of deviation from the continual approximation is calculated [ru

  15. Proceedings of the IEEE Machine Learning for Signal Processing XVII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The seventeenth of a series of workshops sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society and organized by the Machine Learning for Signal Processing Technical Committee (MLSP-TC). The field of machine learning has matured considerably in both methodology and real-world application domains and has...... become particularly important for solution of problems in signal processing. As reflected in this collection, machine learning for signal processing combines many ideas from adaptive signal/image processing, learning theory and models, and statistics in order to solve complex real-world signal processing......, and two papers from the winners of the Data Analysis Competition. The program included papers in the following areas: genomic signal processing, pattern recognition and classification, image and video processing, blind signal processing, models, learning algorithms, and applications of machine learning...

  16. Editorial for IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, January 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Lehman, Brad

    2013-01-01

    should increase the impact factor of the IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS (TPEL). In 2007, TPEL published 2600 pages, and it has gradually been increased to 4000 pages in 2011, 5000 pages in 2012, and 5500 pages are projected for 2013. We have decided to publish 12 printed issues so every month...... a new issue will be printed. A graph is provided showing the number of regular papers received in the past years as well as the number of published pages in the TPEL. Finally they note that in 2008, TPEL obtained a record high value for the impact factor (as shown in a figure) but in 2009 it was reduced...... the papers to be read over a longer time span; 2) Web of Science (ISI Thomsen Reuter) began to register new power electronics conferences in their database, and citations from conferences counts and contributes to a higher impact factor....

  17. Report of the 2017 IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbing Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern digitized world has led to the emergence of a new paradigm on global information networks and infrastructures known as Cyberspace and the studies of Cybernetics, which bring seamless integration of physical, social and mental spaces. Cyberspace is becoming an integral part of our daily life from learning and entertainment to business and cultural activities. As expected, this whole concept of Cybernetics brings new challenges that need to be tackled. The 2017 IEEE Cyber Science and Technology Congress (CyberSciTech 2017 provided a forum for researchers to report their research findings and exchange ideas. The congress took place in Orlando, Florida, USA during 6–10 November 2017. Not counting poster papers, the congress accepted over fifty papers that are divided into nine sessions. In this report, we provide an overview of the research contributions of the papers in CyberSciTech 2017.

  18. WIH-based IEEE 802.11 ECG monitoring implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, A; Pouladian, M

    2007-01-01

    New wireless technologies make possible the implementation of high level integration wireless devices which allow the replacement of traditional large wired monitoring devices. It offers new functionalities to physicians and will reduce the costs. Among these functionalities, biomedical signals can be sent to other devices (PDA, PC . . . ) or processing centers, without restricting the patients' mobility. This article discusses the WIH (Ward-In-Hand) structure and the software required for its implementation before an operational example is presented with its results. The aim of this project is the development and implementation of a reduced size electrocardiograph based on IEEE 802.11 with high speed and more accuracy, which allows wireless monitoring of patients, and the insertion of the information into the Wi-Fi hospital networks.

  19. Basic security measures for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar P. Sarmiento

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a tutorial/discussion of three commonly-used IEEE 802.11 wireless network security standards: WEP, WPA and WPA2. A detailed analysis of the RC4 algorithm supporting WEP is presented, including its vulnera-bilities. The WPA and WPA2 encryption protocols’ most relevant aspects and technical characteristics are reviewed for a comparative analysis of the three standards in terms of the security they provide. Special attention has been paid to WEP encryption by using an educational simulation tool written in C++ Builder for facilitating the unders-tanding of this protocol at academic level. Two practical cases of wireless security configurations using Cisco net-working equipment are also presented: configuring and enabling WPA-Personal and WPA2-Personal (these being security options used by TKIP and AES, respectively.

  20. IEEE Std 535-1979: IEEE standard for qualification of Class 1E lead storage batteries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 279-1971 and IEE Std 308-1978, can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this standard in accordance with IEEE Std 323-1974. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment and consideration of other type batteries are beyond the scope of this standard

  1. IEEE Std 535-1986: IEEE standard for qualification of Class 1E lead storage batteries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes qualification methods for Class 1E lead storage batteries and racks to be used in nuclear power generating stations outside of primary containment. Qualification required in ANSI/IEEE Std 308-1980 can be demonstrated by using the procedures provided in this standard in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983. Battery sizing, maintenance, capacity testing, installation, charging equipment, and consideration of other type batteries are beyond the scope of this standard

  2. IEEE Std 650-1990: IEEE standard for qualification of Class 1E static battery chargers and inverters for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Methods for qualifying static battery chargers and inverters for Class 1E installations in a mild environment outside containment in nuclear power generating stations are described. The qualification methods set forth employ a combination of type testing and analysis, the latter including a justification of methods, theories, and assumptions used. These procedures meet the requirements of IEEE Std 323-1983, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations

  3. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  4. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  5. A formal analysis of ISO/IEEE P11073-20601 standard of medical device communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goga, Nicolae; Costache, Stefania; Moldoveanu, Florica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the formal work done for the ISO/IEEE P11073-20601 Draft Standard for Health informatics - Personal health device communication - Application profile Optimized exchange protocol. ISO/IEEE 11073 family defines standards for device communication between agents (e.g. blood

  6. Comparison Of Several Methods Of Implementing A Fiber Optic IEEE 802.3 Ethernet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoffrey O.

    1987-01-01

    Several different methods of implementing a fiber optic version of IEEE 802.3 10BASE LANs have been proposed as a candidate for standardization by IEEE. There have been extensive discussions as to the relative merits and features of the several systems. This paper will discuss the merits of each for this particular application on a comparative basis.

  7. 0011-0030.How to make an abstract in IEEE Format for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.How to make an abstract in IEEE Format for AvishkarMulticultural Night in IEEE R10 Student Congress 2009Performances.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook ...

  8. 0011-0030.What is IEEE 754 StandardHow to convert real number ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.What is IEEE 754 StandardHow to convert real number in binary format using IEEE 754 StandardAn.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News.

  9. IEEE Std 323-1983: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic requirements for qualifying Class 1E equipment with interfaces that are to be used in nuclear power generating stations. The requirements presented include the principles, procedures, and methods of qualification. These qualification requirements, when met, will confirm the adequacy of the equipment design under normal, abnormal, design basis event, post design basis event, and in-service test conditions for the performance of safety function(s). The purpose of this standard is to identify requirements for the qualification of Class 1E equipment, including those interfaces whose failure could adversely affect the performance of Class 1E equipment and systems. The methods described shall be used for qualifying equipment, extending qualification, and updating qualification if the equipment is modified. Other issued IEEE standards which present qualification methods for specific equipment or components, or both, and those that deal with parts of the qualification program, may be used to supplement this standard, as applicable

  10. IEEE Std 649-1980: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E motor control centers for outside containment applications in nuclear power generating stations. Qualification of motor control centers located inside containment in a nuclear power generating station is beyond the scope of this standard. The purpose of this standard is (1) to define specific qualification requirements for Class 1E motor control centers in accordance with the more general qualification requirements of IEEE Std 323-1974, IEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations; (2) to provide guidance in establishing a qualification program for demonstrating the design adequacy of Class 1E motor control centers in nuclear power generating station applications

  11. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF and IEEE 802.11e EDCA in Non-saturation Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Ok; Kim, Kyung Jae; Choi, Bong Dae

    We analyze the MAC performance of the IEEE 802.11 DCF and 802.11e EDCA in non-saturation condition where device does not have packets to transmit sometimes. We assume that a flow is not generated while the previous flow is in service and the number of packets in a flow is geometrically distributed. In this paper, we take into account the feature of non-saturation condition in standards: possibility of transmission performed without preceding backoff procedure for the first packet arriving at the idle station. Our approach is to model a stochastic behavior of one station as a discrete time Markov chain. We obtain four performance measures: normalized channel throughput, average packet HoL (head of line) delay, expected time to complete transmission of a flow and packet loss probability. Our results can be used for admission control to find the optimal number of stations with some constraints on these measures.

  12. Attacks on IEEE 802.11 wireless networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milan Tepšić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Security of wireless computer networks was initially secured with the WEP security protocol, which relies on the RC4 encryption algorithm and the CRC algorithm to check the integrity. The basic problems of the WEP are a short initialization vector, unsafe data integrity checking, using a common key, the lack of mechanisms for management and exchange of keys, the lack of protection from the endless insertion of the same package into the network, the lack of authentication of access points and the like. The consequences of these failures are easy attacks against the WEP network, namely their complete insecurity. Therefore, the work began on the IEEE 802.11i protocol, which should radically improve the security of wireless networks. Since the development of a protocol lasted, the WPA standard was released to offset the security gap caused by the WEP. The WPA also relies on RC4 and CRC algorithms, but brings temporary keys and the MIC algorithm for data integrity. The 802.1X authentication was introduced and common keys are no longer needed, since it is possible to use an authentication server. The length of the initialization vector was increased and the vector is obtained based on the packet serial number, in order to prevent the insertion of the same packet into the network. The weakness of the WPA security mechanism is the use of a common key. WPA2 (802.11i later appeared. Unlike the WPA mechanism that worked on old devices with the replacement of software, WPA2 requires new network devices that can perform AES encryption. AES replaces the RC4 algorithm and delivers much greater security. Data integrity is protected by encryption. Despite progress, there are still weaknesses in wireless networks. Attacks for denial of service are possible as well as spoofing package headers attacks. For now, it is not advisable to use wireless networks in environments where unreliability and unavailability are not tolerated. Introduction In the entire history of

  13. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  14. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  15. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  16. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  17. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  18. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  19. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  20. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  1. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R

    2011-06-01

    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  2. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  3. IEEE Std 730 Software Quality Assurance: Supporting CMMI-DEV v1.3, Product and Process Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    frameworks 4 CMMI-DEV IEEE / ISO / IEC 15288 / 12207 Quality Assurance ©2011 Walz IEEE Life Cycle Processes & Artifacts • Systems Life Cycle Processes...TAG to ISO TC 176 Quality Management • Quality: ASQ, work experience • Software: three books, consulting, work experience • Systems: Telecom & DoD...and IEEE 730 SQA need to align. The P730 IEEE standards working group has expanded the scope of the SQA process standard to align with IS 12207

  4. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  5. IEEE 802.11ah: A Technology to Face the IoT Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baños-Gonzalez, Victor; Afaqui, M Shahwaiz; Lopez-Aguilera, Elena; Garcia-Villegas, Eduard

    2016-11-22

    Since the conception of the Internet of things (IoT), a large number of promising applications and technologies have been developed, which will change different aspects in our daily life. This paper explores the key characteristics of the forthcoming IEEE 802.11ah specification. This future IEEE 802.11 standard aims to amend the IEEE 802.11 legacy specification to support IoT requirements. We present a thorough evaluation of the foregoing amendment in comparison to the most notable IEEE 802.11 standards. In addition, we expose the capabilities of future IEEE 802.11ah in supporting different IoT applications. Also, we provide a brief overview of the technology contenders that are competing to cover the IoT communications framework. Numerical results are presented showing how the future IEEE 802.11ah specification offers the features required by IoT communications, thus putting forward IEEE 802.11ah as a technology to cater the needs of the Internet of Things paradigm.

  6. 48 CFR 52.223-16 - IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IEEE 1680 Standard for the... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.223-16 IEEE 1680 Standard for the Environmental Assessment of Personal Computer Products. As prescribed in 23.706(b)(1), insert the following clause: IEEE...

  7. An Asynchronous IEEE Floating-Point Arithmetic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel R. Noche

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available An asynchronous floating-point arithmetic unit is designed and tested at the transistor level usingCadence software. It uses CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor and DCVS (differentialcascode voltage switch logic in a 0.35 µm process using a 3.3 V supply voltage, with dual-rail data andsingle-rail control signals using four-phase handshaking.Using 17,085 transistors, the unit handles single-precision (32-bit addition/subtraction, multiplication,division, and remainder using the IEEE 754-1985 Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic, withrounding and other operations to be handled by separate hardware or software. Division and remainderare done using a restoring subtractive algorithm; multiplication uses an additive algorithm. Exceptionsare noted by flags (and not trap handlers and the output is in single-precision.Previous work on asynchronous floating-point arithmetic units have mostly focused on single operationssuch as division. This is the first work to the authors' knowledge that can perform floating-point addition,multiplication, division, and remainder using a common datapath.

  8. The Financing of the London Olympics 2012 and its economic effects on the U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Mohak

    2010-01-01

    The Olympics are being seen as an event that can turn an ordinary city into a world city. The past has shown that hosting the games can make a country have enormous profits or, on the other hand, go into deep losses, and the enormous amounts of money invested in them are evidence of this. This paper aims to examine The United Kingdom’s preparations for the 2012 Olympic Games by focussing on the various costs that are incurred, in particular on the plans for a positive economic legacy, and fin...

  9. World pharmaceuticals--Financial Times tenth annual conference. 22-23 April 1999, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin, M

    1999-07-01

    This two-day conference was organized by The Financial Times, in association with PriceWaterhouseCoopers LLP. The general theme of the event was the state of the healthcare industry, past, present and future. The main areas covered included addressing the challenges of the 1990s, anticipating the challenges of the next decade, the changing shape of global marketing, IT in healthcare, consolidation challenges, shareholder expectations, and new strategies and technologies for growth sustenance within the industry. Key speakers within the industry addressed these issues to an audience of approximately 200 healthcare business executives. The first day was chaired by Mr Robert Cawthorn (Chairman Emeritus, Rhone-Poulenc Rorer Inc) and the second by Professor Trevor Jones (Director General, Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry).

  10. Augmenting the Energy-Saving Impact of IEEE 802.3az via the Control Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Thaenchaikun , Chakadkit; Jakllari , Gentian; Paillassa , Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    International audience; IEEE 802.3az, the recent standard for Energy Efficient Ethernet, is one of the main contributions of the ICT industry to the global quest for energy efficiency. Energy consumption reduction is accomplished by essentially replacing the continuous IDLE of legacy IEEE 802.3 cards with a Low Power Idle. While this is an important step in the right direction, studies have shown that the energy saving with IEEE 802.3az highly depends on the traffic load and stops for link ut...

  11. Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks for Indoors Applications Using IEEE 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon; Sørensen, Thomas; Madsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates the feasibility of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting low-power sensing applications. The investigation is based on a prototype carbon dioxide sensor node that is powered by artificial indoors light. The wireless communication module of the sensor node is based on the RTX......4100 module. RTX4100 incorporates a wireless protocol that duty-cycles the radio while being compatible with IEEE 802.11 access points. The presented experiments demonstrate sustainable operation but indicate a trade-off between the benefits of using IEEE 802.11 in energy harvesting applications...

  12. UK medical students’ perceptions, attitudes, and interest toward medical leadership and clinician managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhani MJ

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Maral J Rouhani,1 Eleanor J Burleigh,2 Chloe Hobbis,2 Charlotte Dunford,1 Nadir I Osman,3 Christine Gan,1 Norma B Gibbons,1 Hashim U Ahmed,1,4 Saiful Miah1,5 1Department of Urology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 3Department of Urology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 4Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK; 5Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK Background: We aimed to determine UK medical students’ perceptions and attitudes and interest toward medical leadership and clinician managers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the academic year 2015–2016. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2,349 final-year students from 10 UK medical schools. Participants were asked to complete a 5-point Likert scale on their current perceptions, attitudes, and interest toward medical leadership and clinician managers. They were also asked to self-rate their leadership competences set by the Medical Leadership Competency Framework and to rate the quality of management and leadership training they received from their medical school. Results: In total, we received 114 complete responses. Only 7.9% of respondents were in agreement (strongly agree or agree when asked whether they felt they were well informed about what a managerial position in medicine entails. When asked whether clinicians should influence managerial decisions within a clinical setting, 94.7% of respondents were in agreement with the statement. About 85% of respondents were in agreement that it is important for clinicians to have managerial or leadership responsibilities, with 63.2% of students in agreement that they would have liked more management or leadership training during medical school. Over half the respondents rated their management and leadership

  13. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesshire, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  14. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11e (EDCF) and IEEE 802.11(DCF) WLAN Incorporating Different Physical Layer Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Singh, H.; Malhotra, J.

    2012-12-01

    Medium access coordination function basically implements the distributed coordination function (DCF) which provides support to best effort services but limited to QoS services. Subsequently, a new standard, namely enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is reported. The IEEE 802.11e (EDCA) defines MAC procedures to support QoS requirements which specifies distributed contention based access scheme to access the shared wireless media. This paper evaluates the performance of EDCA based IEEE 802.11 WLAN for various access categories (ACs) using OPNET™ Modeller 14.5. Further, the computed results are compared with DCF protocols in terms of QoS parameters. Furthermore, the simulative observation is reported at data rate of 54 Mbps using different physical layer protocols such as IEEE 802.11a/b/g to stumble on the best one to be implemented with EDCF to achieve improved QoS.

  15. Analysis of Adaptive Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Hui-Cheng

    In order to achieve the prioritized quality of service (QoS) guarantee, the IEEE 802.11e EDCAF (the enhanced distributed channel access function) provides the distinguished services by configuring the different QoS parameters to different access categories (ACs). An admission control scheme is needed to maximize the utilization of wireless channel. Most of papers study throughput improvement by solving the complicated multidimensional Markov-chain model. In this paper, we introduce a back-off model to study the transmission probability of the different arbitration interframe space number (AIFSN) and the minimum contention window size (CWmin). We propose an adaptive control scheme (ACS) to dynamically update AIFSN and CWmin based on the periodical monitoring of current channel status and QoS requirements to achieve the specific service differentiation at access points (AP). This paper provides an effective tuning mechanism for improving QoS in WLAN. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the basic EDCAF in terms of throughput and service differentiation especially at high collision rate.

  16. ‘Liminal learners’ in a global city: the aspirations of young British Bangladeshi women at an east London secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Katharine

    2013-01-01

    Young British Bangladeshi women are often perceived as a marginalised, vulnerable group unlikely to succeed within the UK education system. Although achievement at GCSE level has improved significantly in recent years, female British Bangladeshis continue to be identified as an under-performing group at A-level and in higher education (Dale, 2002; Hussain, 2005). This article examines the educational experiences of a group of young British Bangladeshi women at one east London secondary school...

  17. IEEE 1588 Time Synchronization Board in MTCA.4 Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, G.; Makowski, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Orlikowski, M.; Perek, P.; Napieralski, A.; Makijarvi, P.; Simrock, S.

    2015-06-01

    Distributed data acquisition and control systems in large-scale scientific experiments, like e.g. ITER, require time synchronization with nanosecond precision. A protocol commonly used for that purpose is the Precise Timing Protocol (PTP), also known as IEEE 1588 standard. It uses the standard Ethernet signalling and protocols and allows obtaining timing accuracy of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The MTCA.4 is gradually becoming the platform of choice for building such systems. Currently there is no commercially available implementation of the PTP receiver on that platform. In this paper, we present a module in the MTCA.4 form factor supporting this standard. The module may be used as a timing receiver providing reference clocks in an MTCA.4 chassis, generating a Pulse Per Second (PPS) signal and allowing generation of triggers and timestamping of events on 8 configurable backplane lines and two front panel connectors. The module is based on the Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA and thermally stabilized Voltage Controlled Oscillator controlled by the digital-to-analog converter. The board supports standalone operation, without the support from the host operating system, as the entire control algorithm is run on a Microblaze CPU implemented in the FPGA. The software support for the card includes the low-level API in the form of Linux driver, user-mode library, high-level API: ITER Nominal Device Support and EPICS IOC. The device has been tested in the ITER timing distribution network (TCN) with three cascaded PTP-enabled Hirschmann switches and a GPS reference clock source. An RMS synchronization accuracy, measured by direct comparison of the PPS signals, better than 20 ns has been obtained.

  18. International society of blood transfusion working party on red cell immunogenetics and terminology: report of the Seoul and London meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J. R.; Castilho, L.; Chen, Q.; Daniels, G.; Denomme, G.; Flegel, W. A.; Gassner, C.; de Haas, M.; Hyland, C.; Keller, M.; Lomas-Francis, C.; Moulds, J. M.; Nogues, N.; Olsson, M. L.; Peyrard, T.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Tani, Y.; Thornton, N.; Wagner, F.; Wendel, S.; Westhoff, C.; Yahalom, V.

    2017-01-01

    The Working Party has met twice since the last report: in Seoul, South Korea 2014, and in London, UK 2015, both in association with the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress. As in previous meetings, matters pertaining to blood group antigen nomenclature were discussed. Eleven new blood group antigens were added to seven blood group systems. This brings the current total of blood group antigens recognized by the ISBT to 346, of which 308 are clustered within 36 blood groups systems. The remaining 38 antigens are currently unassigned to a known blood group system. PMID:29093749

  19. Wallis, Neil (Energy Saving Trust, London (GB))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UK tax policies to control carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles - early impacts and lessons for other European countries

    2003-07-01

    Road transport emissions of carbon dioxide represent 22% of total UK emissions and are thus an important focus for policies designed to help meet the UK's climate change commitments. Vehicle CO{sub 2} emissions are determined by the carbon content of the fuel, vehicle efficiency and miles travelled. Both Europe (through the European association of car manufacturers, ACEA) and Japan have made voluntary commitments to reduce new car fuel consumption by around 25%, and the US government has announced a programme with car makers to develop new technologies to help curb carbon emissions. In Europe, the UK was the first country to introduce an explicit CO{sub 2} basis for taxation on vehicle ownership. Vehicle excise duty (VED), which is paid by car owners on an annual basis, is now graduated according to vehicles' CO{sub 2} emissions. A revised company car tax (CCT), introduced in 2002, also levies tax based on vehicles' CO{sub 2} emissions (with an adjustment for other pollutants). The introduction of this new basis for taxation, and the expectation that tax rates between low and high carbon vehicles will get steeper in the future, has led to a spate of advertising - in both the trade and consumer press - focusing on vehicles' carbon dioxide output in preference to speed, comfort or other factors. This paper is intended to describe how these new taxes work, place them within their national and European contexts and provide early evidence of any observed impacts since their introduction.

  20. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall

  1. Harmonization of IEEE323 and IEC60780 standards For Environmental Qualificaiton of Electric Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seog

    2009-01-01

    IEEE323 standard has been widely used for the qualification of electric equipment in Asian pacific area while IEC6070 has been mostly used in European area. Since each plant use different standard for environmental qualification, manufacturer has to perform the qualification test twice in accordance with each standard. Problem also can be happened in the plant site when they are going to purchase equipment qualified by different qualification standard which are not used in his plant. The need of harmonization of each standard has been raised several years and it is known that some studies are in progress by IEEE committee. KEPRI has a plan of comparing EQ relative standards of IEEE, IEC and RCC in 2009. In this paper, brief comparing result between IEEE323 and IEC60780 and the proper harmonization method is introduced

  2. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    The convenience of IEEE 8O2.11-based wireless access networks has led to widespread deployment in the consumer, industrial and military sectors However, this use is predicated on an implicit assumption of confidentiality...

  3. Corrections to "Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.

  4. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  5. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  6. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2013-01-01

    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  7. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  8. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-07-20

    The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born). 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%). 58 (52.2%) were born in the UK; 53 (47.7%) of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049-0.235]; p = 0.002): overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6%) of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4%) were new migrants to the UK (arrival and once settled through primary care services. A more organised and holistic approach to migrant health care is required.

  9. Return of IEEE Std 627 and its Value to Equipment Qualification Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    IEEE Std 627 ''Design Qualification of Safety Systems Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' was issued to more generically establish qualification requirements in the form of a high level umbrella document. Efforts on this standard began in late 1975 at the request of the IEEE Nuclear Standards Management Board. In 1977 a joint ASME/IEEE agreement established responsibility for qualification and quality assurance standards preparation. ASME accepted responsibility for Quality Assurance and IEEE for qualification. In accordance with that agreement, IEEE completed the generic qualification standard in 1980. This document provided high level approaches, criteria, guidance, and principles for qualification of both electrical and mechanical equipment that at that time appeared in no other industry standard. IEEE Std 627-1980 was later reaffirmed in 1996. In 1986, ASME's Board on Nuclear Codes and Standards directed its Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment (QME) to develop a standard for qualifying mechanical equipment. This task was completed in several parts during the time frame from 1992 to 1994. Partly in response to this activity, IEEE Std 627 was withdrawn in 2002. Later although withdrawn, it was found that IEEE Std 627 was continuing to be used and referenced by many entities both in the US and other countries including in ASME's QME-1-2002 ''Qualification of Active Mechanical Equipment Used in Nuclear Power Plants'', US NRC's NUREG-0800 Standard Review Plan Section 3.11, at least one reactor vendor's Design Certification Document (DCD), several international licensing documents, and elsewhere. As a result, in 2007, the IEEE Standards Board authorized Working Group 2.10 of Subcommittee 2 (Qualification) of the Power and Energy Society's Nuclear Power Engineering Committee to resurrect and update IEEE Std 627-1980 (Reaff 1996). The result was the culmination IEEE Std 627 in 2010. This paper will report on the eight improvements made

  10. Defending IEEE 802.11-Based Networks Against Denial Of Service Attacks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tan, Boon

    2003-01-01

    ...) attacks targeting its management and media access protocols Computer simulation models have proven to be effective tools in the study of cause and effect in numerous fields This thesis involved the design and implementation of a IEEE 8O2.11-based simulation model using OMNeT++, to investigate the effects of different types of DoS attacks on a IEEE 8O2.11 network, and the effectiveness of corresponding countermeasures.

  11. Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Supplement - 2012: IEEE 2011 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS), providing a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies, and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security. The instructors, participants, alumni, and partners of CHDS represent the leading subject matter experts and practitioners in the field of homeland security. IEEE Supplement 2012. Supplement: IEEE 2011 Conference on Te...

  12. Performance of the IEEE 802.3 EPON registration scheme under high load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Swapnil P.; Bartos, Radim

    2004-09-01

    The proposed standard for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Passive Optical Network includes a random delayed transmission scheme for registration of new nodes. Although the scheme performs well on low loads, our simulation demonstrates the degraded and undesirable performance of the scheme at higher loads. We propose a simple modification to the current scheme that increases its range of operation and is compatible with the IEEE draft standard. We demonstrate the improvement in performance gained without any significant increase in registration delay.

  13. Isolan - A Fibre Optic Network Conforming To IEEE 802.3 Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roworth, D. A. A.; Howe, N.

    1986-10-01

    The progress of the IEEE 802.3 standard for fibre optic LANs is indicated with reference to both mixed media networks and full fibre networks. For a fibre optic network the most suitable layout is a "snowflake" topology composed of multiport repeaters and active fibre hubs. A range of components is described which enables the realisation of such a topology in conformance with the IEEE 802.3 standard.

  14. Validation of IEEE P1547.1 Interconnection Test Procedures: ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, B.; Englebretson, S.; Pink, C.; Daley, J.; Siciliano, R.; Hinton, D.

    2003-09-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of testing the ASCO 7000 Soft Load Transfer System according to IEEE P1547.1 procedures. The ASCO system interconnects synchronous generators with the electric power system and provides monitoring and control for the generator and grid connection through extensive protective functions. The purpose of this testing is to evaluate and give feedback on the contents of IEEE Draft Standard P1547.1 Conformance Tests Procedures for Equipment Interconnecting Distributed Resources With Electric Power Systems.

  15. Real-time-service-based Distributed Scheduling Scheme for IEEE 802.16j Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Feng Huang; Shih-Jung Wu

    2013-01-01

    Supporting Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees for diverse multimedia services is the primary concern for IEEE802.16j networks. A scheduling scheme that satisfies the QoS requirements has become more important for wireless communications. We proposed an adaptive nontransparent-based distributed scheduling scheme (ANDS) for IEEE 802.16j networks. ANDS comprises three major components: Priority Assignment, Resource Allocation, Preserved Bandwidth Adjustment. Different service-type connections p...

  16. Enhancing MAC performance of DCF protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The DCF (Distributed Coordination Function) is the basic MAC (Medium Access Control) protocol of IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs and compatible with various IEEE 802.11 PHY extensions. The performance of the DCF degrades exponentially as the number of nodes participating in the DCF transmission procedure increases. To deal with this problem, we propose a simple, however efficient modification of the DCF by which the performance of the DCF is greatly enhanced.

  17. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    4.2.1 Wald–Wolfowitz Runs Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.2.2 Wald–Wolfowitz Application to SXS System . . . . . . . . . . . . 42...Station SXS Signals eXploitation System USB Universal Serial Bus xiv Acronym Definition USRP Universal Software Radio Peripheral WLAN Wireless Local...Electronics Engineers (IEEE) defines standards applicable to the IEEE 802.11 protocol, however the standard does not reach the level of specificity to dictate

  18. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Van Bortel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany, the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK, the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium, and Club Phase-I (France. The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA. Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  19. EUFEMED London Conference 2017: Exploratory Medicines Development: Innovation and Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bortel, Luc; Sourgens, Hildegard; Breithaupt-Grögler, Kerstin; Caplain, Henri; Donazzolo, Yves; Klingmann, Ingrid; Hammond, Michael; Hardman, Timothy C; Stringer, Steffan; de Hoon, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The first formal conference of the EUropean Federation for Exploratory MEdicines Development (EUFEMED) held in London was the result of a collaborative effort of its founding associations: the Association for Applied Human Pharmacology (AGAH; Germany), the Association for Human Pharmacology in the Pharmaceutical Industry (AHPPI; UK), the Belgian Association of Phase-I Units (BAPU; Belgium), and Club Phase-I (France). The conference focused on innovation and risk management in early clinical drug development. Among other innovations, immunotherapy in oncology and inflammatory diseases were discussed as well as the importance of adaptive trial designs in early clinical drug development. Consideration was given to assessing and mitigating risk in early clinical drug development, and included a preconference workshop. Different measures to minimize risks in healthy volunteers and patients in first-in-human trials were discussed in addition to the importance of non-clinical data, the need for reliable biomarkers, improved communication on adverse events (AEs) and well-trained study sites with ready access to intensive care units and clinical specialists. The need for a European-wide system for prevention of over-volunteering was also discussed. The conference provided opportunity to discuss these developments and concerns and the changing regulatory environment with stakeholders from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies including the European Medicines Agency (EMA). Presentations given by invited speakers are published on http://www.eufemed.eu/london-conference-2017/.

  20. Storageless and caching Tier-2 models in the UK context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Dewhurst, Alastair; Crooks, David; MacMahon, Ewan; Roy, Gareth; Smith, Oliver; Mohammed, Kashif; Brew, Chris; Britton, David

    2017-10-01

    Operational and other pressures have lead to WLCG experiments moving increasingly to a stratified model for Tier-2 resources, where “fat” Tier-2s (“T2Ds”) and “thin” Tier-2s (“T2Cs”) provide different levels of service. In the UK, this distinction is also encouraged by the terms of the current GridPP5 funding model. In anticipation of this, testing has been performed on the implications, and potential implementation, of such a distinction in our resources. In particular, this presentation presents the results of testing of storage T2Cs, where the “thin” nature is expressed by the site having either no local data storage, or only a thin caching layer; data is streamed or copied from a “nearby” T2D when needed by jobs. In OSG, this model has been adopted successfully for CMS AAA sites; but the network topology and capacity in the USA is significantly different to that in the UK (and much of Europe). We present the result of several operational tests: the in-production University College London (UCL) site, which runs ATLAS workloads using storage at the Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) site; the Oxford site, which has had scaling tests performed against T2Ds in various locations in the UK (to test network effects); and the Durham site, which has been testing the specific ATLAS caching solution of “Rucio Cache” integration with ARC’s caching layer.

  1. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  2. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self denigration, exploitation and discrimination meted on them by the British as well as their feeling of alienation, cultural dislocation and their struggle for self ... adaptation through which these immigrants will make the best out of London ...

  4. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels. Andy Heyes ... strategy now looks to target middle-market consumers with reasonable ...... celebrities and high profiles from politics to corporate…whom are well ...

  6. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  7. UK Secondary Schools under Surveillance: What Are the Implications for Race? A Critical Race and Butlerian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Since September 11th 2001, and the London bombings of July 2005, the "war on terror" has led to the subjection of populations to new regimes of control and reinforced state sovereignty. This involves, in countries such as the UK and the US, the limiting of personal freedoms, increased regulation of immigration and constant surveillance,…

  8. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  9. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  10. Tackling Air Pollution in China—What do We Learn from the Great Smog of 1950s in LONDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyong Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the prolonged, severe smog that blanketed many Chinese cities in first months of 2013, living in smog has become “normal” to most people living in mainland China. This has not only caused serious harm to public health, but also resulted in massive economic losses in many other ways. Tackling the current air pollution has become crucial to China’s long-term economic and social sustainable development. This paper aims to find the causes of the current severe air quality and explore the possible solutions by reviewing the current literature, and by comparing China’s air pollution regulations to that of the post London Killer Smog of 1952, in the United Kingdom (UK. It is hoped that China will learn the lesson from the UK, and decouple its economic growth from the detrimental impact of environment. Policy suggestions are made.

  11. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  12. The Secret Garden? Elite Metropolitan Geographies in the Contemporary UK

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Niall; Savage, Mike

    2015-01-01

    There is an enduring, indeed increasing awareness of the role of spatial location in defining and reinforcing inequality in this country and beyond. In the UK, much of the debate around these issues has focussed on the established trope of a long-standing ‘north-south divide’, a divide which appears to have deepened in recent decades with the inexorable de-industrialisation of northern Britain presented in stark counterpoint to the burgeoning concentration of wealth in London and the south-ea...

  13. UK academics share their thoughts on Hinkley Point C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, David

    2016-01-01

    The proposed Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant project has experienced controversy in the public since its inception. However the proposed Hinkley plant has many benefits. It will be the biggest construction site in Europe, providing 25,000 jobs. It will generate low carbon energy, providing enough power for six million homes, and supplying seven per cent of the UK's electricity needs over its 60 year lifetime. Six experts from Imperial College London, one of Europe's top science-based universities, give their opinions on Hinkley Point C.

  14. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  15. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  16. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  17. UK nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  18. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  19. A tale of two cities: Comparison of impacts on CO2 emissions, the indoor environment and health of home energy efficiency strategies in London and Milton Keynes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrubsole, C.; Das, P.; Milner, J.; Hamilton, I. G.; Spadaro, J. V.; Oikonomou, E.; Davies, M.; Wilkinson, P.

    2015-11-01

    Dwellings are a substantial source of global CO2 emissions. The energy used in homes for heating, cooking and running electrical appliances is responsible for a quarter of current total UK emissions and is a key target of government policies for greenhouse gas abatement. Policymakers need to understand the potential impact that such decarbonization policies have on the indoor environment and health for a full assessment of costs and benefits. We investigated these impacts in two contrasting settings of the UK: London, a predominantly older city and Milton Keynes, a growing new town. We employed SCRIBE, a building physics-based health impact model of the UK housing stock linked to the English Housing Survey, to examine changes, 2010-2050, in end-use energy demand, CO2 emissions, winter indoor temperatures, airborne pollutant concentrations and associated health impacts. For each location we modelled the existing (2010) housing stock and three future scenarios with different levels of energy efficiency interventions combined with either a business-as-usual, or accelerated decarbonization of the electricity grid approach. The potential for CO2 savings was appreciably greater in London than Milton Keynes except when substantial decarbonization of the electricity grid was assumed, largely because of the lower level of current energy efficiency in London and differences in the type and form of the housing stock. The average net impact on health per thousand population was greater in magnitude under all scenarios in London compared to Milton Keynes and more beneficial when it was assumed that purpose-provided ventilation (PPV) would be part of energy efficiency interventions, but more detrimental when interventions were assumed not to include PPV. These findings illustrate the importance of considering ventilation measures for health protection and the potential variation in the impact of home energy efficiency strategies, suggesting the need for tailored policy

  20. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  1. The moral economy of austerity: analysing UK welfare reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lydia

    2016-03-01

    This paper notes the contemporary emergence of 'morality' in both sociological argument and political rhetoric, and analyses its significance in relation to ongoing UK welfare reforms. It revisits the idea of 'moral economy' and identifies two strands in its contemporary application; that all economies depend on an internal moral schema, and that some external moral evaluation is desirable. UK welfare reform is analysed as an example of the former, with reference to three distinct orientations advanced in the work of Freeden (1996), Laclau (2014), and Lockwood (1996). In this light, the paper then considers challenges to the reform agenda, drawn from third sector and other public sources. It outlines the forms of argument present in these challenges, based respectively on rationality, legality, and morality, which together provide a basis for evaluation of the welfare reforms and for an alternative 'moral economy'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  2. Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present high-resolution (5 km  ×  5 km atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average  ∼  30 % of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8 µg m−3, constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  3. Non-London electrodynamics in a multiband London model: Anisotropy-induced nonlocalities and multiple magnetic field penetration lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, Mihail; Winyard, Thomas; Babaev, Egor

    2018-05-01

    The London model describes strongly type-2 superconductors as massive vector field theories, where the magnetic field decays exponentially at the length scale of the London penetration length. This also holds for isotropic multiband extensions, where the presence of multiple bands merely renormalizes the London penetration length. We show that, by contrast, the magnetic properties of anisotropic multiband London models are not this simple, and the anisotropy leads to the interband phase differences becoming coupled to the magnetic field. This results in the magnetic field in such systems having N +1 penetration lengths, where N is the number of field components or bands. That is, in a given direction, the magnetic field decay is described by N +1 modes with different amplitudes and different decay length scales. For certain anisotropies we obtain magnetic modes with complex masses. That means that magnetic field decay is not described by a monotonic exponential increment set by a real penetration length but instead is oscillating. Some of the penetration lengths are shown to diverge away from the superconducting phase transition when the mass of the phase-difference mode vanishes. Finally the anisotropy-driven hybridization of the London mode with the Leggett modes can provide an effectively nonlocal magnetic response in the nominally local London model. Focusing on the two-component model, we discuss the magnetic field inversion that results from the effective nonlocality, both near the surface of the superconductor and around vortices. In the regime where the magnetic field decay becomes nonmonotonic, the multiband London superconductor is shown to form weakly-bound states of vortices.

  4. IEEE C37.105-1987: IEEE standard for qualifying Class 1E protective relays and auxiliaries for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard describes the basic principles, requirements, and methods for qualifying Class 1E protective relays and auxiliaries such as test and control switches, terminal blocks, and indicating lamps for applications in nuclear power generating stations. When properly employed it can be used to demonstrate the design adequacy of such equipment under normal, abnormal, design basis event and post design basis event conditions in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std 323-1983. When protective relays and auxiliaries are located in areas not subject to harsh environments, environmental qualification is not required. Protective relays and auxiliaries located inside primary containment in a nuclear power generating station present special conditions beyond the scope of this document. The qualification procedure presented is generic in nature. Other methods may be used at the discretion of the qualifier, provided the basic precepts of ANSI/IEEE Std 32301983 are satisfied

  5. IEEE No. 323, IEEE trial-use standard: General guide for qualifying Class I electric equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the basic requirements for the qualification of Class I electric equipment. This is equipment which is essential to the safe shutdown and isolation of the reactor or whose failure or damage could result in significant release of radioactive material. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for demonstrating the qualifications of electrical equipment as required in the IEEE Std 279 -- Criteria for Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection Systems, and IEEE Std 308 -- Criteria for Class 1E Electric Systems for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. The qualification methods described may be used in conjunction with the Guides for qualifying specific types of equipment, (see Foreword), for updating qualification following modifications or for qualifying equipment for which no applicable Guide exists

  6. Design of handoff procedures for broadband wireless access IEEE 802.16 based networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rangel–Licea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.16 is a protocol for fixed broad band wire less access that is currently trying to add mobility among mobile users in the standard. However, mobility adds some technical barriers that should be solved first, this is the case of HO "handoff" (change of connection between two base stations "BS" by a mobile user. In this paper, the problem of HO in IEEE 802.16 is approached try ing to maintain the quality of service (QoS of mobile users. A mechanism for changing connection during HO is pre sented. A simulation model based on OPNET MODELER1 was developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed HO mechanism. Finally, this paper demonstrates that it is possible to implement a seam less HO mech a nism over IEEE 802.16 even for users with de manding applications such as voice over IP.

  7. An Extended IEEE 118-Bus Test System With High Renewable Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Ivonne; Martinez-Anido, Carlo Brancucci; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a new publicly available version of the IEEE 118-bus test system, named NREL-118. The database is based on the transmission representation (buses and lines) of the IEEE 118-bus test system, with a reconfigured generation representation using three regions of the US Western Interconnection from the latest Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) 2024 Common Case [1]. Time-synchronous hourly load, wind, and solar time series are provided for over one year (8784 hours). The public database presented and described in this manuscript will allow researchers to model a test power system using detailed transmission, generation, load, wind, and solar data. This database includes key additional features that add to the current IEEE 118-bus test model, such as: the inclusion of 10 generation technologies with different heat rate functions, minimum stable levels and ramping rates, GHG emissions rates, regulation and contingency reserves, and hourly time series data for one full year for load, wind and solar generation.

  8. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF DISTRIBUTED COORDINATION FUNCTION OVER IEEE 802.11A PHYSICAL LAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. SELVAKENEDDY

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11a is one of the latest standards to be released by the IEEE Project 802 for wireless LANs. It has specified an additional physical layer (PHY to support higher data rates, and is termed as the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. In order to exploit its benefits, one of the medium access control (MAC protocols specified in the IEEE 802.11 specification is called distributed coordination function (DCF. DCF is a carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA scheme with slotted binary exponential backoff. The frames can be transmitted using the basic access scheme or the RTS/CTS scheme in DCF. It was demonstrated previously that the RTS/CTS mechanism works well in most scenarios for the previously specified PHYs. In this work, a simple simulator is developed to verify the scalability of the RTS/CTS mechanism over OFDM PHY, which supports much higher data rates.

  9. IEEE 1451.2 based Smart sensor system using ADuc847

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejithlal, A.; Ajith, Jose

    IEEE 1451 standard defines a standard interface for connecting transducers to microprocessor based data acquisition systems, instrumentation systems, control and field networks. Smart transducer interface module (STIM) acts as a unit which provides signal conditioning, digitization and data packet generation functions to the transducers connected to it. This paper describes the implementation of a microcontroller based smart transducer interface module based on IEEE 1451.2 standard. The module, implemented using ADuc847 microcontroller has 2 transducer channels and is programmed using Embedded C language. The Sensor system consists of a Network Controlled Application Processor (NCAP) module which controls the Smart transducer interface module (STIM) over an IEEE1451.2-RS232 bus. The NCAP module is implemented as a software module in C# language. The hardware details, control principles involved and the software implementation for the STIM are described in detail.

  10. The scalable coherent interface, IEEE P1596, status and possible applications to data acquisition and physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained while developing Fastbus (ANSI/IEEE 960-1986, IEC 935), Futurebus (IEEE P896.x) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor in multiprocessor systems with thousands of processors; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of distributed shared memory; support for repeaters which interface to existing or future buses; and support for inexpensive small rings as well as for general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or crossbar networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, reports the status of the work in progress, and suggests some applications in data acquisition and physics. 7 refs

  11. Application of IEEE 1588 to the real-time control system of accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Mingchao; Chen Jianfeng; Shen Liren; Jiang Geyang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Time synchronization is one of the core technology of realizing the real-time control of accelerator under the distributed control system architecture. The ordinary crystal frequency deviation of IEEE 1588 causes low synchronous accuracy, which doesn't meet the needs of high precision synchronization. Purpose: This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the synchronization precision caused by the crystal frequency deviation. Methods: According to the basic principle of IEEE 1588 time synchronization, a dynamic frequency compensation (DFC) algorithm module was designed and a test platform was built to verify the feasibility and practicability of the algorithm. The influence of the synchronous cycle and delay jitter of the switch on the synchronization accuracy were analyzed. Results: Experimental results showed the great precision improvement of synchronization after using DFC algorithm. Conclusion: Low synchronous accuracy caused by the crystal frequency deviation can be improved by using DFC algorithm implemented for precision time protocol (PTP) of IEEE 1588. (authors)

  12. An analytical model for the performance analysis of concurrent transmission in IEEE 802.15.4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, Cengiz; Zanella, Alberto; Verdone, Roberto

    2014-03-20

    Interference is a serious cause of performance degradation for IEEE802.15.4 devices. The effect of concurrent transmissions in IEEE 802.15.4 has been generally investigated by means of simulation or experimental activities. In this paper, a mathematical framework for the derivation of chip, symbol and packet error probability of a typical IEEE 802.15.4 receiver in the presence of interference is proposed. Both non-coherent and coherent demodulation schemes are considered by our model under the assumption of the absence of thermal noise. Simulation results are also added to assess the validity of the mathematical framework when the effect of thermal noise cannot be neglected. Numerical results show that the proposed analysis is in agreement with the measurement results on the literature under realistic working conditions.

  13. Throughput and delay analysis of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Chen, Min; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-12-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 is a new communication standard on Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) that focuses on a variety of medical, Consumer Electronics (CE) and entertainment applications. In this paper, the throughput and delay performance of the IEEE 802.15.6 is presented. Numerical formulas are derived to determine the maximum throughput and minimum delay limits of the IEEE 802.15.6 for an ideal channel with no transmission errors. These limits are derived for different frequency bands and data rates. Our analysis is validated by extensive simulations using a custom C+ + simulator. Based on analytical and simulation results, useful conclusions are derived for network provisioning and packet size optimization for different applications.

  14. Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Robin; Chozos, Nick; Salako, Kizito

    The UK government recently commissioned a research study to identify the state-of-the-art in Critical Infrastructure modelling and analysis, and the government/industry requirements for such tools and services. This study (Cetifs) concluded with a strategy aiming to bridge the gaps between the capabilities and requirements, which would establish interdependency analysis as a commercially viable service in the near future. This paper presents the findings of this study that was carried out by CSR, City University London, Adelard LLP, a safety/security consultancy and Cranfield University, defense academy of the UK.

  15. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  16. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  17. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  18. An IEEE 802.11 EDCA Model with Support for Analysing Networks with Misbehaving Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szott Szymon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel model of IEEE 802.11 EDCA with support for analysing networks with misbehaving nodes. In particular, we consider backoff misbehaviour. Firstly, we verify the model by extensive simulation analysis and by comparing it to three other IEEE 802.11 models. The results show that our model behaves satisfactorily and outperforms other widely acknowledged models. Secondly, a comparison with simulation results in several scenarios with misbehaving nodes proves that our model performs correctly for these scenarios. The proposed model can, therefore, be considered as an original contribution to the area of EDCA models and backoff misbehaviour.

  19. Reactive GTS Allocation Protocol for Sporadic Events Using the IEEE 802.15.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Azeem

    2014-01-01

    by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.

  20. Analysis Of Impact Of Various Parameters On BER Performance For IEEE 802.11b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh B. Kalani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

  1. Spectrum Hole Identification in IEEE 802.22 WRAN using Unsupervised Learning

    OpenAIRE

    V. Balaji; S. Anand; C.R. Hota; G. Raghurama

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS) algorithm for Cognitive Radios (CR) based on IEEE 802.22Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) standard. The core objective is to improve cooperative sensing efficiency which specifies how fast a decision can be reached in each round of cooperation (iteration) to sense an appropriate number of channels/bands (i.e. 86 channels of 7MHz bandwidth as per IEEE 802.22) within a time constraint (channel sensing time). To meet this objectiv...

  2. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Sayef Azad Sakin; Md. Abdur Razzaque; Mohammad Mehedi Hassan; Atif Alamri; Nguyen H. Tran; Giancarlo Fortino

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a s...

  3. International Conference on Grey Systems and intelligent Services (IEEE GSIS 2009)

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Sifeng; Advances in Grey Systems Research

    2010-01-01

    This book contains contributions by some of the leading researchers in the area of grey systems theory and applications. All the papers included in this volume are selected from the contributions physically presented at the 2009 IEEE International Conference on Grey Systems and Intelligent Services, November 11 – 12, 2009, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China. This event was jointly sponsored by IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, Natural Science Foundation of China, and Grey Systems Society of China. Additionally, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics also invested heavily in this event with its direct and indirect financial and administrative supports.

  4. IEEE 802.11e (EDCA analysis in the presence of hidden stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijie Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The key contribution of this paper is the combined analytical analysis of both saturated and non-saturated throughput of IEEE 802.11e networks in the presence of hidden stations. This approach is an extension to earlier works by other authors which provided Markov chain analysis to the IEEE 802.11 family under various assumptions. Our approach also modifies earlier expressions for the probability that a station transmits a packet in a vulnerable period. The numerical results provide the impact of the access categories on the channel throughput. Various throughput results under different mechanisms are presented.

  5. On the dynamic London-van der Waals interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.

    2003-08-01

    We present a theory of atomic reflection by evanescent waves in the quantized electromagnetic field vacuum that yields an analytical expression for the radiation pressure resulting from the combined effect of the evanescent field and spontaneous emission. The dynamic London-van der Waals potential between atoms and a dielectric wall is introduced as the effective interaction between the induced oscillating atomic dipole and its dipole image. Dissipative effects due to the imaginary part of the London-van der Waals potential are predicted. (author)

  6. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  7. Strategy to reduce E. coli bacteraemia based on cohort data from a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Desmond; Melzer, Mark

    2018-04-01

    In 2017, National Health Service Improvement set a 10% reduction target for Escherichia coli bacteraemia by 2018, followed by a 50% reduction in healthcare-associated Gram-negative bacteraemias by 2022. We analysed consecutive cases of E. coli bacteraemia and devised a strategy to achieve these targets. From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were prospectively collected on all patients with bacteraemia at the Royal London Hospital in East London, UK. There were 594 significant bacteraemic episodes and 207 (34.8%) were E. coli . Twenty-four (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers, 22 (10.6%) gentamicin resistant and 2 (1.0%) amikacin resistant. The three most common sites of infection were pyelonephritis 105 (56.7%), catheter-associated urinary tract infection 22 (10.6%), and other medical devices and procedures that cause bacteraemia 32 (15.5%). In the pyelonephritis group, trimethoprim resistance in urinary isolates was 16/47 (34.0%) compared with 3/47 (6.4%) for nitrofurantoin. Twelve months postbacteraemia, recurrent bacteraemia rates were 10/105 (9.5%). There were 44 medical device-associated E. coli bacteraemias, and 22 (50%) were urinary catheter associated. There were 10 patients with E. coli bacteraemia caused by procedures, seven genitourinary or biliary tract instrumentation and three postgastrointestinal surgery. E. coli bacteraemias related to urosepsis could have been prevented by better empirical treatment and targeted prophylaxis. Urinary catheter quality improvement programmes should contribute to a further reduction. For patients undergoing high-risk urinary or biliary tract procedures or device manipulation, we advocate single-dose amikacin prophylaxis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Ethnic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life among Adults in London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahim, R; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Gallagher, J E; Bernabé, E

    2017-06-01

    To explore ethnic disparities in oral health related quality of life (OHQoL) among adults, and the role that socioeconomic factors play in that association. Data from 705 adults from a socially deprived, ethnically diverse metropolitan area of London (England) were analysed for this study. Ethnicity was self-assigned based on the 2001 UK Census categories. OHQoL was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), which provides information on the prevalence, extent and intensity of oral impacts on quality of life in the previous 12 months. Ethnic disparities were assessed in logistic regression models for prevalence of oral impacts and negative binomial regression models for extent and intensity of oral impacts. The prevalence of oral impacts was 12.7% (95% CI: 10.2-15.1) and the mean OHIP-14 extent and severity scores were 0.27 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34) and 4.19 (95% CI: 3.74-4.64), respectively. Black adults showed greater and Asian adults lower prevalence, extent and severity of oral impacts than White adults. However, significant differences were only found for the extent of oral impacts; Black adults reporting more and Asian adults fewer OHIP-14 items affected than their White counterparts. After adjustments for socioeconomic factors, Asian adults had significantly fewer OHIP-14 items affected than White adults (rate ratio: 0.28; 95%CI: 0.08-0.94). This study found disparities in OHQoL between the three main ethnic groups in South East London. Asian adults had better and Black adults had similar OHQoL than White adults after accounting for demographic and social factors. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  9. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Anthony C; Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  10. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony C Constantinou

    Full Text Available In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor's perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events.

  11. The future of the London Buy-To-Let property market: Simulation with temporal Bayesian Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Norman

    2017-01-01

    In 2015 the British government announced a number of major tax reforms for individual landlords. To give landlords time to adjust, some of these tax measures are being introduced gradually from April 2017, with full effect in tax year 2020/21. The changes in taxation have received much media attention since there has been widespread belief that the new measures were sufficiently skewed against landlords that they could signal the end of the Buy-To-Let (BTL) investment era in the UK. This paper assesses the prospective performance of BTL investments in London from the investor’s perspective, and examines the impact of incoming tax reforms using a novel Temporal Bayesian Network model. The model captures uncertainties of interest by simulating the impact of changing circumstances and the interventions available to an investor at various time-steps of a BTL investment portfolio. The simulation results suggest that the new tax reforms are likely to have a detrimental effect on net profits from rental income, and this hits risk-seeking investors who favour leverage much harder than risk-averse investors who do not seek to expand their property portfolio. The impact on net profits also poses substantial risks for lossmaking returns excluding capital gains, especially in the case of rising interest rates. While this makes it less desirable or even non-viable for some to continue being a landlord, based on the current status of all factors taken into consideration for simulation, investment prospects are still likely to remain good within a reasonable range of interest rate and capital growth rate variations. The results also suggest that the recent trend of property prices in London increasing faster than rents will not continue for much longer; either capital growth rates will have to decrease, rental growth rates will have to increase, or we shall observe a combination of the two events. PMID:28654698

  12. The use of AEDs by police officers in the City of London. Automated external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, P; Nolan, J; Hill, E; Dawson, J; Whimster, F; Skinner, D

    2001-08-01

    The Guidelines 2000 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation recommend shock delivery to victims in ventricular fibrillation within 5 min of call receipt by the Emergency Medical Services. In an effort to achieve this goal, in some parts of the United States, police officers have been trained to use automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We undertook a 3-year pilot evaluation of the use of AEDs by City of London police (CPOL) officers. Over a period of 3 years, 147 CPOL officers were trained in the use of an AED. Four AEDs were placed on rapid response vehicles covering the City of London. An overall call-response interval target was set at 8 min. The CPOL attended 1103 (90%) of the total of 1232 calls to which they were summoned. The mean interval between the first call received and arrival of the CPOL on scene was 8.9+/-4.0 min. The CPOL applied AEDs to 25 victims, 13 of whom were initially in ventricular fibrillation; at least one shock was delivered to all 13. The interval between call reception and delivery of the first shock was 5.5+/-2.5 min. The mean interval between switching on the AED and delivery of the first shock was 24+/-12 s. Two (15%) of these victims survived to hospital discharge. This study has confirmed the feasibility of training police officers in the UK to use AEDs as first responders. The call received to arrival on scene interval should be reduced by improvements in communication between LAS and CPOL.

  13. The tree identify protocol of IEEE 1394 in uCRL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Shankland; M.B. van der Zwaag

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe specify the tree identify protocol of the IEEE 1394 high performance serial multimedia bus at three different levels of detail using $mu$CRL. We use the cones and foci verification technique of Groote and Springintveld to show that the descriptions are equivalent under branching

  14. A 1-GHz charge pump PLL frequency synthesizer for IEEE 1394b PHY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, J.; Liu, H.; Li, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an implementation of multi-rate SerDes transceiver for IEEE 1394b applications. Simple and effective pre-emphasis and equalizer circuits are used at transmitter and receiver, respectively. A phase interpolator based clock and data recovery circuit with optimized linearity is a...

  15. Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...

  16. Energy-aware path selection metric for IEEE 802.11s wireless mesh networking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, MM

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11s working group has commenced activities, which would lead to the development of a standard for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). The draft of 802.11s introduces a new path selection metric called airtime link metric. However...

  17. IEEE 8023 ethernet, current status and future prospects at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobinson, Robert W; Haas, S; Martin, B; Le Vine, M J; Saka, F

    2000-01-01

    The status of the IEEE 802.3 standard is reviewed and prospects for the future, including the new 10 Gigabit version of Ethernet, are discussed. The relevance of Ethernet for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is considered, with emphasis on on-line applications and areas which are technically challenging. 8 Refs.

  18. IEEE 802.3 Ethernet, Current Status and Future Prospects at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Dobinson, Robert W; Haas, S W; Martin, B; Le Vine, M J; Saka, F

    2000-01-01

    The status of the IEEE 802.3 standard is reviewed and prospects for the future, including the new 10 Gigabit version of Ethernet, are discussed. The relevance of Ethernet for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is considered, with emphasis on on-line applications and areas which are technically challenging.

  19. Performance Evaluations for IEEE 802.15.4-based IoT Smart Home Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nga Dinh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is going to be a market-changing force for a variety of real-time applications such as e-healthcare, home automation, environmental monitoring, and industrial automation. Low power wireless communication protocols offering long lifetime and high reliability such as the IEEE 802.15.4 standard have been a key enabling technology for IoT deployments and are deployed for home automation recently. The issues of the IEEE 802.15.4 networks have moved from theory to real world deployments. The work presented herein intends to demonstrate the use of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard in recent IoT commercial products for smart home applications: the Smart Home Starter Kit. The contributions of the paper are twofold. First, the paper presents how the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is employed in Smart Home Starter Kit. In particular, network topology, network operations, and data transfer mode are investigated. Second, network performance metrics such as end-to-end (E2E delay and frame reception ratio (FRR are evaluated by experiments. In addition, the paper discusses several directions for future improvements of home automation commercial products.

  20. The IEEE-SA patent policy update under the lens of EU competition law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanevskaia, Olia; Zingales, Nicolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Standardization Association made some controversial changes to its patent policy. The changes include a recommended method of calculation of FRAND royalty rates, and a request to members holding a standard essential patent (SEP)

  1. 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf | 01 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; public; Volumes; reso; 021; 01; 0011-0030.IEEE 754: 64 Bit Double Precision FloatsThis.pdf. 404! error. The page your are looking for can not be found! Please check the link or use the navigation bar at the top. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 ...

  2. Evaluation of the Effects of Hidden Node Problems in IEEE 802.15.7 Uplink Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley-Bosch, Carlos; Alonso-González, Itziar; Sánchez-Rodríguez, David; Ramírez-Casañas, Carlos

    2016-02-06

    In the last few years, the increasing use of LEDs in illumination systems has been conducted due to the emergence of Visible Light Communication (VLC) technologies, in which data communication is performed by transmitting through the visible band of the electromagnetic spectrum. In 2011, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published the IEEE 802.15.7 standard for Wireless Personal Area Networks based on VLC. Due to limitations in the coverage of the transmitted signal, wireless networks can suffer from the hidden node problems, when there are nodes in the network whose transmissions are not detected by other nodes. This problem can cause an important degradation in communications when they are made by means of the Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) access control method, which is used in IEEE 802.15.7 This research work evaluates the effects of the hidden node problem in the performance of the IEEE 802.15.7 standard We implement a simulator and analyze VLC performance in terms of parameters like end-to-end goodput and message loss rate. As part of this research work, a solution to the hidden node problem is proposed, based on the use of idle patterns defined in the standard. Idle patterns are sent by the network coordinator node to communicate to the other nodes that there is an ongoing transmission. The validity of the proposed solution is demonstrated with simulation results.

  3. Adaptive Radio Resource Allocation in Hierarchical QoS Scheduling for IEEE 802.16 Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Hua; Dittmann, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Future mobile communication systems such as IEEE 802.16 are expected to deliver a variety of multimedia services with diverse QoS requirements. To guarantee the QoS provision, appropriate scheduler architecture and scheduling algorithms have to be carefully designed. In this paper, we propose...

  4. Evaluation of H.264/AVC over IEEE 802.11p vehicular networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas-Ramallal, Ismael; Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Dapena, Adriana; García-Naya, José Antonio

    2013-12-01

    The capacity of vehicular networks to offer non-safety services, like infotainment applications or the exchange of multimedia information between vehicles, have attracted a great deal of attention to the field of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In particular, in this article we focus our attention on IEEE 802.11p which defines enhancements to IEEE 802.11 required to support ITS applications. We present an FPGA-based testbed developed to evaluate H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) video transmission over vehicular networks. The testbed covers some of the most common situations in vehicle-to-vehicle and roadside-to-vehicle communications and it is highly flexible, allowing the performance evaluation of different vehicular standard configurations. We also show several experimental results to illustrate the quality obtained when H.264/AVC encoded video is transmitted over IEEE 802.11p networks. The quality is measured considering two important parameters: the percentage of recovered group of pictures and the frame quality. In order to improve performance, we propose to substitute the convolutional channel encoder used in IEEE 802.11p for a low-density parity-check code encoder. In addition, we suggest a simple strategy to decide the optimum number of iterations needed to decode each packet received.

  5. IEEE Conference Record of 1980 Fourteenth Pulse Power Modulator Symposium, 3-5 June 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Capacitor Discharges, Proc IEEE 113, p. able operation on Nova we are examing alter- 1549 (1966). nate switch gas (Ar:N 2 :SF 6 ) and electrode material...VOLTTA-KILOVOLTS PLATE VO LTAM --LOVLTS Figure 8. Constant Current Curve for the X2097U Figure 11. Constant Current Curve for the X2097V at 2000 Volt

  6. Oldest Packet Drop (OPD): a Buffering Mechanism for Beaconing in IEEE 802.11p VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eenennaam, Martijn; Hendriks, Luuk; Karagiannis, Georgios; Heijenk, Geert

    2011-01-01

    The IEEE 802.11p MAC technology can be used to provide connectivity for real-time vehicle control known as Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control. Due to the real-time nature of this system, it is paramount the delay of the received information is as small as possible. This paper researches the Oldest

  7. A Comprehensive Taxonomy and Analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin M. Amin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.4 standard has been established as the dominant enabling technology for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. With the proliferation of security-sensitive applications involving WSNs, WSN security has become a topic of great significance. In comparison with traditional wired and wireless networks, WSNs possess additional vulnerabilities which present opportunities for attackers to launch novel and more complicated attacks against such networks. For this reason, a thorough investigation of attacks against WSNs is required. This paper provides a single unified survey that dissects all IEEE 802.15.4 PHY and MAC layer attacks known to date. While the majority of existing references investigate the motive and behavior of each attack separately, this survey classifies the attacks according to clear metrics within the paper and addresses the interrelationships and differences between the attacks following their classification. The authors’ opinions and comments regarding the placement of the attacks within the defined classifications are also provided. A comparative analysis between the classified attacks is then performed with respect to a set of defined evaluation criteria. The first half of this paper addresses attacks on the IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer, whereas the second half of the paper addresses IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer attacks.

  8. Interference Measurements in IEEE 802.11 Communication Links Due to Different Types of Interference Sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bloem, J.W.H.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Kluwer, Taco; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    The number of wireless devices (smartphones, laptops, sensors) that use the 2.4 GHz ISM band is rapidly increasing. The most common communication system in this band is Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11b/g/n). For that reason coexistence between Wi-Fi and other systems becomes more and more important. In this

  9. Proceedings of the 1988 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings compile the papers presented at the international conference (1988) sponsored by IEEE Council on ''Robotics and Automation''. The subjects discussed were: automation and robots of nuclear power stations; algorithms of multiprocessors; parallel processing and computer architecture; and U.S. DOE research programs on nuclear power plants

  10. Performance Analysis of Non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Linbo; Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Gang

    This letter presents a model with queueing theory to analyze the performance of non-saturated IEEE 802.11 DCF networks. We use the closed queueing network model and derive an approximate representation of throughput which can reveal the relationship between the throughput and the total offered load under finite traffic load conditions. The accuracy of the model is verified by extensive simulations.

  11. IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs: Performance Analysis and Protocol Refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimisios P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.11 protocol is emerging as a widely used standard and has become the most mature technology for wireless local area networks (WLANs. In this paper, we focus on the tuning of the IEEE 802.11 protocol parameters taking into consideration, in addition to throughput efficiency, performance metrics such as the average packet delay, the probability of a packet being discarded when it reaches the maximum retransmission limit, the average time to drop a packet, and the packet interarrival time. We present an analysis, which has been validated by simulation that is based on a Markov chain model commonly used in the literature. We further study the improvement on these performance metrics by employing suitable protocol parameters according to the specific communication needs of the IEEE 802.11 protocol for both basic access and RTS/CTS access schemes. We show that the use of a higher initial contention window size does not considerably degrade performance in small networks and performs significantly better in any other scenario. Moreover, we conclude that the combination of a lower maximum contention window size and a higher retry limit considerably improves performance. Results indicate that the appropriate adjustment of the protocol parameters enhances performance and improves the services that the IEEE 802.11 protocol provides to various communication applications.

  12. Performance characterization of the IEEE 802.11 signal transmission over a multimode fiber PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Siuzdak, J.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper there are presented measurements concerning performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 signal distribution over multimode fiber based passive optical network. In the paper there are addressed three main sources of impairments: modal noise, frequency response fluctuation of the multimode fiber and non-linear distortion of the signal in the receiver.

  13. Multitemporal Very High Resolution From Space: Outcome of the 2016 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mou, L.; Zhu, X.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Karantzalos, K.; Paragios, N.; Saux, Le B.; Moser, G.; Tuia, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the scientific outcomes of the 2016 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society are discussed. The 2016 Contest was an open topic competition based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset,

  14. Outdoor Long-Range WLANs : A Lesson for IEEE 802.11ah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, Stefan; Venkatesha Prasad, R.; Niemegeers, Ignas G M M

    2015-01-01

    Several service applications have been reported by many who proposed the use of wireless LANs (WLANs) over a wide variety of outdoor deployments. In particular, the upcoming IEEE 802.11ah WLAN protocol will enable a longer transmission range between WLAN access points (APs) and stations (STAs) up to

  15. Incorporating antenna beamswitching technique into drivers for IEEE802.11 WLAN devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, M

    2015-11-23

    Full Text Available the beamswitching technique for switched parasitic array (SPA) and electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas in the drivers for IEEE802.11 WLAN devices. The modifications of the open source drivers (ath5k and ath9k) to enable real...

  16. Chemical composition and sources of organic aerosols over London from the ClearfLo 2012 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finessi, Emanuela; Holmes, Rachel; Hopkins, James; Lee, James; Harrison, Roy; Hamilton, Jacqueline

    2014-05-01

    Air quality in urban areas represents a major public health issue with around one third of the European population concentrated in cities and numbers expected to increase at global scale, particularly in developing countries. Particulate matter (PM) represents a primary threat for human health as numerous studies have confirmed the association between increased levels of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases with the exposure to PM. Despite considerable efforts made in improving air quality and progressively stricter emissions regulations, the PM concentrations have not changed much over the past decades for reasons that remain unclear, and highlight that studies on PM source apportionment are required for the formulation of effective policy. We investigated the chemical composition of organic aerosol (OA) collected during two intensive field campaigns held in winter and summer 2012 in the frame of the project Clean air for London (http://www.clearflo.ac.uk/). PM samples were collected both at a city background site (North Kensington) and at a rural site 50 km southeast of London (Detling) with 8 to 24 hours sampling schedule and analysed using off-line methods. Thermal-optical analysis was used to quantify OC-EC components while a suite of soft ionization mass spectrometric techniques was deployed for detailed chemical characterization. Liquid chromatography mass Spectrometry (LC-MSn) was mostly used for the simultaneous detection and quantification of various tracers for both primary and secondary OA sources. Well-established markers for wood burning primary OA like levoglucosan and azelaic acid were quantified together with various classes of nitroaromatics including methyl-nitrocatechols that are potential tracers for wood burning secondary OA. In addition, oxidation products of biogenic VOCs such as isoprene and monoterpenes were also quantified for both seasons and sites. A non-negligible contribution from biogenic SOA to urban OA was found in summertime

  17. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  18. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  19. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  20. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  1. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  2. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  3. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  4. Wealth, health and frailty in industrial-era London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Hughes-Morey, Gail; Bekvalac, Jelena; Karsten, Jordan

    2016-05-01

    Socioeconomic status is a powerful predictor of mortality in living populations, as status affects exposure or access to a variety of factors that impact health and survival, such as diet, healthcare, infectious disease and pollution. This study examines the effect of socioeconomic status on mortality and survival in London during a period spanning the early 18th through mid-19th centuries. During this period, London experienced rapid industrialization and heightened class distinctions. This study examines whether low-socioeconomic status was associated with reduced survival at a time when the distinctions between social strata were peaking. The samples for this study are drawn from three skeletal assemblages in London that represent lower and higher social strata. The upper socioeconomic status sample (n = 394) is from Chelsea Old Church and St Bride's Fleet Street (crypt assemblage). The low socioeconomic status sample (n = 474) is from St. Bride's Lower Churchyard (also known as St Bride's Farringdon Street). The effect of status on mortality and survival is assessed using hazard analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results reveal elevated mortality and reduced survival for lower socioeconomic status children, but no strong effect of status on adult mortality or survival. These results might indicate strong selective mortality operating during childhood or the effects of migration in the industrial-era population of London.

  5. Iain Sinclair: Noise, Neoliberalism and the Matter of London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.

    2015-01-01

    For much of the 20th century the modernist city was articulated in terms of narratives of progress and development. Today the neoliberal city confronts us with all the cultural 'noise' of disorder and excess meaning. As this book demonstrates, for more than 40 years London-based writer, film-maker

  6. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  7. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  8. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  9. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny

    1971-01-01

    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  10. A versatile trigger and synchronization module with IEEE1588 capabilities and EPICS support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, J.M.; Ruiz, M.; Borrego, J.; Arcas, G. de; Barrera, E.; Vega, J.

    2010-01-01

    Event timing and synchronization are two key aspects to improve in the implementation of distributed data acquisition (dDAQ) systems such as the ones used in fusion experiments. It is also of great importance the integration of dDAQ in control and measurement networks. This paper analyzes the applicability of the IEEE1588 and EPICS standards to solve these problems, and presents a hardware module implementation based in both of them that allow adding these functionalities to any DAQ. The IEEE1588 standard facilitates the integration of event timing and synchronization mechanisms in distributed data acquisition systems based on IEEE 803.3 (Ethernet). An optimal implementation of such system requires the use of network interface devices which include specific hardware resources devoted to the IEE1588 functionalities. Unfortunately, this is not the approach followed in most of the large number of applications available nowadays. Therefore, most solutions are based in software and use standard hardware network interfaces. This paper presents the development of a hardware module (GI2E) with IEEE1588 capabilities which includes USB, RS232, RS485 and CAN interfaces. This permits to integrate any DAQ element that uses these interfaces in dDAQ systems in an efficient and simple way. The module has been developed with Motorola's Coldfire MCF5234 processor and National Semiconductors's PHY DP83640T, providing it with the possibility to implement the PTP protocol of IEEE1588 by hardware, and therefore increasing its performance over other implementations based in software. To facilitate the integration of the dDAQ system in control and measurement networks the module includes a basic Input/Output Controller (IOC) functionality of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) architecture. The paper discusses the implementation details of this module and presents its applications in advanced dDAQ applications in the fusion community.

  11. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  12. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  13. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  14. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  15. Royal london hospital set P28 plans 30th anniversary reunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Fran

    2013-04-03

    Members of Set P28 at the Royal London Hospital who began their training in February 1980 are planning a reunion on July 27 in London. The venue will be announced later. Email fran-joy@hotmail.com for details.

  16. La riforma della Borsa di Londra. I problemi prudenziali. (Reform of the London Stock Exchange: the prudential issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.B. HALL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nel mese di ottobre 1986, la Borsa di Londra ha subito quello che è stato chiamato il Big Bang . Questo consisteva nella rimozione delle commissioni fisse in UK transazioni in titoli , l'abolizione del sistema di capacità di singolo , e l'eliminazione delle barriere all'ingresso nei mercati mobiliari del Regno Unito . L'autore prende in considerazione cinque questioni prudenziali sollevate da questo evento : potenza monopolio e dominio straniero , di armonizzazione internazionale della vigilanza , di adeguatezza patrimoniale e di competenza gestionale , la gestione di ' cadere ' (uscita dal settore , e conflitti di interesse . Tre ulteriori fattori sono considerati in dettaglio ; l'approccio del regolatore di conflitti di interesse, la regolamentazione dei conglomerati finanziari , e le implicazioni del Testo Unico della Finanza .In October 1986 the London Stock Exchange underwent what was termed the Big Bang. This consisted of the removal of fixed commissions on UK securities transactions, the abolition of the single capacity system, and the removal of barriers to entry to UK securities markets. The author considers five prudential issues raised by this event: monopoly power and foreign dominance, international supervisory harmonisation, capital adequacy and managerial competence, the management of 'fall out' (exit from the industry, and conflicts of interest. Three further factors are considered in detail; the regulator's approach to conflicts of interest, the regulation of financial conglomerates, and the implications of the Financial Services Act.JEL: G10, G18

  17. The district nursing and community matron services workforce: A scoping review in South London for the South London Nursing Network

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari

    2014-01-01

    This report presents both an overview of the issues influencing district nursing and community matron \\ud workforces and also a scoping of key issues in respect of workforce development in district nursing and\\ud community matron services in South London

  18. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  19. IEEE Std 383-1974: IEEE standard for type test of Class IE electric cables, field splices, and connections for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard provides direction for establishing type tests which may be used in qualifying Class 1E electric cables, field splices, and other connections for service in nuclear power generating stations. General guidelines for qualifications are given in IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class IE Electric Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. Categories of cables covered are those used for power control and instrumentation services. Though intended primarily to pertain to cable for field installation, this guide may also be used for the qualification of internal wiring of manufactured devices. This guide does not cover cables for service within the reactor vessel

  20. The Royal Entries of Henry VI in a London Civic Manuscript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourassa, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author of the descrip...

  1. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  2. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  3. Performance Analysis of the IEEE 802.11p Multichannel MAC Protocol in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caixia

    2017-12-12

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) employ multichannel to provide a variety of safety and non-safety applications, based on the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The safety applications require timely and reliable transmissions, while the non-safety applications require efficient and high throughput. In the IEEE 1609.4 protocol, operating interval is divided into alternating Control Channel (CCH) interval and Service Channel (SCH) interval with an identical length. During the CCH interval, nodes transmit safety-related messages and control messages, and Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) mechanism is employed to allow four Access Categories (ACs) within a station with different priorities according to their criticality for the vehicle's safety. During the SCH interval, the non-safety massages are transmitted. An analytical model is proposed in this paper to evaluate performance, reliability and efficiency of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols. The proposed model improves the existing work by taking serval aspects and the character of multichannel switching into design consideration. Extensive performance evaluations based on analysis and simulation help to validate the accuracy of the proposed model and analyze the capabilities and limitations of the IEEE 802.11p and IEEE 1609.4 protocols, and enhancement suggestions are given.

  4. An Open Access Source for the Study of Religion and the Law: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey: London's Central Criminal Court 1674-1913

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Guyette

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work of theological librarians is in a state of rapid flux as collections of digitized texts become more widely available, and as theological education continues to shift from paper to a more electronic research environment. /The Proceedings of the/ /Old Bailey, London 1674-1913 /is a rich collection of court records, now freely available on the World Wide Web (http://www.oldbaileyonline.org.uk/ . The study of a small, but meaningful selection of texts from the /OBP/ shows how theological librarians can use this resource to advance the conversation between religion and law. Five examples are offered to indicate how this might be done.

  5. Dose reduction in diagnostic radiology. Proceedings of the Hospital Physicists' Association meeting on 8th December 1983 at Birbeck College, London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennen, S.E.; Putney, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Nine chapters review the Proceedings of the Hospital Physicists' Association Meeting held in London in 1983 on 'Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology'. Among the topics discussed were the balance between dose reduction and image quality, various procedures and techniques for keeping the dose to the patient to a minimum including the use of K-edge filtration and rare-earth intensifying screens, equipment for assessing the area exposure product in patients and the balance between radiation risk and benefit from radiographic examinations. All nine chapters are indexed separately. (U.K.)

  6. IEEE Std 381-1977: IEEE standard criteria for type tests of Class 1E modules used in nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the basic requirements of a type test program with the objective of verifying that a module used as Class 1E equipment in a nuclear power generating station meets or exceeds its design specifications. This document is limited to class 1E modules from and including the sensor through the logic circuitry of the final actuation devices. Except for those that are part of a module, switchgear, cables, connections, motors, valve actuators, station batteries, and penetrations are not included and are covered by other IEEE documents. The purpose of this document is to supplement the procedures and requirements given in IEEE Std 323-1974 [24] for type testing Class 1E modules, thereby providing directions for establishment of a type test program which will obtain the required test data and yield the required documentation of test methods and results. This standard is structured to present to the user the principal performance characteristics and environmental parameters which must be considered in designing a type test program for any give Class 1E module. These modules range from tiny sensors to complete racks or cabinets full of equipment that may be located inside or outside containment. The Class 1E modules are required to perform their function before, during, or after, or all, any design basis event specified for the module. The vast variety of modules covered by this document precludes the listing here of specific requirements for each type test

  7. Breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation among women from different ethnic groups in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Thurnham, A; Layburn, J; Haste, F; Ramirez, A J

    2011-01-01

    Background: During 2001 to 2005, 1-year breast cancer survival was low in ethnically diverse East London. We hypothesised that this was due to low breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation, leading to late stage at diagnosis in women from ethnic minorities. We examined ethnic differences in breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation in East London. Methods: We carried out a population-based survey of 1515 women aged 30+ using the Cancer Research UK Breast Cancer Awareness Measure. We analysed the data using logistic regression adjusting for age group and level of deprivation. Results: South Asian and black women had lower breast cancer awareness than white women. South Asian women, but not black women, reported more emotional barriers to seeking medical help than white women. White women were more likely than non-white women to report worry about wasting the doctor's time as a barrier to symptomatic presentation. Conclusion: Interventions to promote early presentation of breast cancer for South Asian and black women should promote knowledge of symptoms and skills to detect changes, and tackle emotional barriers to symptomatic presentation and for white women tackle the idea that going to the doctor to discuss a breast symptom will waste the doctor's time. PMID:21989188

  8. Business operations and decommissioning strategy for imperial college London research reactor 'Consort' - A financial risk management approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, S.J.; Gardner, D.; Mumford, J.; Lea, R.; Knight, J.

    2005-01-01

    Imperial College London (IC) operates commercially a 100 kW research reactor, and as site licensee is responsible for funding both operations and eventual decommissioning. With long lead times ahead urgent decisions on the future business options have had to be made in 2004/5 including choices on whether to move to early decommissioning, recognising the high costs entailed, or to pursue continuing operations involving life extension measures such as refuelling. To develop a coherent overall approach strategy a financial risk driven programme was initiated to help define a robust transparent business and termination case for the reactor. This study was carried out in collaboration with a UK firm of financial risk experts, PURE Risk Management Ltd (PURE), working within a dedicated IC London reactor project team. This work evaluated immediate closure options due to financial constraints or life limiting failures, and options for continuing operation extending to 2028. Decommissioning and clean up were reviewed. Bespoke financial models created single value cost outputs and ranges of probabilistic net present values (NPV) for decommissioning costs and financial provisions to meet those costs at various levels of risk acceptance and regulatory compliance. (author)

  9. Levels and patterns of physical activity and sedentary time among superdiverse adolescents in East London: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Whitney B; Dagkas, Symeon; Wilson, Marcia

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) habits of adolescents from superdiverse communities in the UK. The objectives of this study are to examine and report the patterns of PA/ST among adolescents in East London living in superdiverse communities, to identify opportunities/barriers to PA and inform policy/practice. A total of 1260 young people (aged 11-13 years) from seven secondary schools in East London completed a questionnaire on PA/ST over the past seven days as part of the Newham's Every Child a Sports Person (NECaSP) intervention. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data were obtained. Significance tests were conducted to determine differences between socio-demographic and anthropometric predictors and PA/ST. Multinomial logit regression was used to explore the effects of ethnicity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on PA levels. Males were significantly more likely to engage in PA at least five times during school in the past week (U = 5.07, z = -11.76, p times in the past week (U = 4.11, z =-1.17, p times after school in the last week than boys (b = .11, Wald X 2 (1) = 9.81, p current work presented and provide substantial evidence of the ways young people from minority ethnic groups process and act on the public health policy and the ways they understand and enact PA.

  10. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  11. Origins and properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy W; Bothamley, Graham H; Drobniewski, Francis; Gillespie, Stephen H; McHugh, Timothy D; Pitman, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Using similarities of IS6110 banding patterns, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a population-based study in London were assigned to 12 large groups termed 'superfamilies' (sfams). Analysis of patient data showed a marked geographical association in the distribution of these sfams. In particular, isolates from patients born in Europe were from different sfams than those born elsewhere, indicating that there had been relatively little transmission of tuberculosis in London from immigrant communities into the endogenous population. Multivariate analysis showed that certain sfams were significantly associated with pulmonary rather than extrapulmonary disease, or with sputum smear negativity, independently of country of birth or ethnicity, suggesting that the properties of the infecting organism play a role in the nature of the disease process.

  12. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Graham; Hargreaves, Sally; Natkunarajah, Jana; Sandhu, Gurjinder; Dhasmana, Devesh; Eliahoo, Joseph; Holmes, Alison; Friedland, Jon S

    2007-01-01

    Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born). Results 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%). 58 (52.2%) were born in the UK; 53 (47.7%) of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049–0.235]; p = 0.002): overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6%) of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4%) were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years), mostly refugees/asylum seekers. Overseas-born patients presented with a broad range and more severe spectrum of infections, differing from the UK-born population, resulting in two deaths in this group only. Presentation with a primary infection was associated with refugee/asylum status (n = 8; OR 6.35 [95% CI 1.28–31.50]; p = 0.023), being a new migrant (12; 10.62 [2.24–50.23]; p = 0.003), and being overseas born (31; 3.69 [1.67–8.18]; p = 0.001). Not having registered with a primary-care physician was associated with being overseas born, being a refugee/asylum seeker, being a new migrant, not having English as a first language, and being in the UK for ≤5 years. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of duration of illness prior to presentation or duration of hospitalisation (mean

  13. Impact on and use of an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department by international migrants: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Alison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK has witnessed a considerable increase in immigration in the past decade. Migrant may face barriers to accessing appropriate health care on arrival and the current focus on screening certain migrants for tuberculosis on arrival is considered inadequate. We assessed the implications for an inner-city London Infectious Diseases Department in a high migrant area. Methods We administered an anonymous 20-point questionnaire survey to all admitted patients during a 6 week period. Questions related to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. Analysis was by migration status (UK born vs overseas born. Results 111 of 133 patients completed the survey (response rate 83.4%. 58 (52.2% were born in the UK; 53 (47.7% of the cohort were overseas born. Overseas-born were over-represented in comparison to Census data for this survey site (47.7% vs 33.6%; proportional difference 0.142 [95% CI 0.049–0.235]; p = 0.002: overseas born reported 33 different countries of birth, most (73.6% of whom arrived in the UK pre-1975 and self-reported their nationality as British. A smaller number (26.4% were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years, mostly refugees/asylum seekers. Overseas-born patients presented with a broad range and more severe spectrum of infections, differing from the UK-born population, resulting in two deaths in this group only. Presentation with a primary infection was associated with refugee/asylum status (n = 8; OR 6.35 [95% CI 1.28–31.50]; p = 0.023, being a new migrant (12; 10.62 [2.24–50.23]; p = 0.003, and being overseas born (31; 3.69 [1.67–8.18]; p = 0.001. Not having registered with a primary-care physician was associated with being overseas born, being a refugee/asylum seeker, being a new migrant, not having English as a first language, and being in the UK for ≤5 years. No significant differences were found between groups in terms of duration of illness prior to presentation or duration of

  14. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  15. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Mathias

    2012-09-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall that impede the pump\\'s effectiveness. The winning entry split analysis of the pump into three parts based on the pump\\'s functional behavior. It then applied local and integration-based methods to communicate the unsteady flow behavior in different regions of the dataset. This research formed the basis for a comparison of common vortex extractors and more recent methods. In particular, integration-based methods (separation measures, accumulated scalar fields, particle path lines, and advection textures) are well suited to capture the complex time-dependent flow behavior. This video (http://youtu.be/ oD7QuabY0oU) shows simulations of unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. The Exploration of Network Coding in IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deze Zeng

    2011-01-01

    communication protocol should be energy efficient. The IEEE 802.15.4 is designed as a standard protocol for low power, low data rate, low complexity, and short range connections in WPANs. The standard supports allocating several numbers of collision-free guarantee time slots (GTSs within a superframe for some time-critical transmissions. Recently, COPE was proposed as a promising network coding architecture to essentially improve the throughput of wireless networks. In this paper, we exploit the network coding technique at coordinators to improve energy efficiency of the WPAN. Some related practical issues, such as GTS allocation and multicast, are also discussed in order to exploit the network coding opportunities efficiently. Since the coding opportunities are mostly exploited, our proposal achieves both higher energy efficiency and throughput performance than the original IEEE 802.15.4.

  17. The IEEE 1355 Standard. Developments, performance and application in high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, S.

    1998-12-01

    The data acquisition systems of the next generation High Energy Physics experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will rely on high-speed point-to-point links and switching networks for their higher level trigger and event building systems. This thesis provides a detailed evaluation of the DS-Link and switch technology, which is based on the IEEE 1355 standard for Heterogeneous Interconnect (HIC). The DS-Link is a bidirectional point-to-point serial interconnect, operating at speeds up to 200 MBaud. The objective of this thesis was to study the performance of the IEEE 1355 link and switch technology and to demonstrate that switching networks using this technology would scale to meet the requirements of the High Energy Physics applications

  18. VARNOST BREZŽIČNIH OMREŽIJ PO STANDARDU IEEE 802.11

    OpenAIRE

    Štumberger, Matej

    2013-01-01

    Diplomska naloga se osredotoča na problem varovanja brezžičnih omrežij, zasnovanih po standardu IEEE 802.11. Opisano je združenje IEEE in njihova specifikacija standardov z oznako 802, prav tako pa so opisani tudi standardi, protokoli in tehnike varovanja in zaščite omrežij, ki delujejo po tej specifikaciji. Predstavljeno je tudi trenutno stanje varnosti brezžičnih omrežij na področju mesta Ptuj, opisani in prikazani pa so tudi različni pristopi za zlorabo brezžičnih omrežij, skupaj s program...

  19. Design Optimization of Cyber-Physical Distributed Systems using IEEE Time-sensitive Networks (TSN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Lander Raagaard, Michael; Craciunas, Silviu S.

    2016-01-01

    to the optimization of distributed cyber-physical systems using real-time Ethernet for communication. Then, we formulate two novel optimization problems related to the scheduling and routing of TT and AVB traffic in TSN. Thus, we consider that we know the topology of the network as well as the set of TT and AVB flows......In this paper we are interested in safety-critical real-time applications implemented on distributed architectures supporting the Time-SensitiveNetworking (TSN) standard. The ongoing standardization of TSN is an IEEE effort to bring deterministic real-time capabilities into the IEEE 802.1 Ethernet...... standard supporting safety-critical systems and guaranteed Quality-of-Service. TSN will support Time-Triggered (TT) communication based on schedule tables, Audio-Video-Bridging (AVB) flows with bounded end-to-end latency as well as Best-Effort messages. We first present a survey of research related...

  20. Transient Stability Improvement of IEEE 9 Bus System Using Power World Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Ramandeep

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of transient stability of power system was one of the most challenging research areas in power engineer.The main aim of this paper was transient stability analysis and improvement of IEEE 9 bus system. These studies were computed using POWER WORLD SIMULATOR. The IEEE 9 bus system was modelled in power world simulator and load flow studies were performed to determine pre-fault conditions in the system using Newton-Raphson method. The transient stability analysis was carried out using Runga method during three-phase balanced fault. For the improvement transient stability, the general methods adopted were fast acting exciters, FACT devices and addition of parallel transmission line. These techniques play an important role in improving the transient stability, increasing transmission capacity and damping low frequency oscillations.

  1. Integration of IEEE 1451 and HL7 exchanging information for patients' sensor data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooshik; Lim, Suyoung; Ahn, Jinsoo; Nah, Jiyoung; Kim, Namhyun

    2010-12-01

    HL7 (Health Level 7) is a standard developed for exchanging incompatible healthcare information generated from programs or devices among heterogenous medical information systems. At present, HL7 is growing as a global standard. However, the HL7 standard does not support effective methods for treating data from various medical sensors, especially from mobile sensors. As ubiquitous systems are growing, HL7 must communicate with various medical transducers. In the area of sensor fields, IEEE 1451 is a group of standards for controlling transducers and for communicating data from/to various transducers. In this paper, we present the possibility of interoperability between the two standards, i.e., HL7 and IEEE 1451. After we present a method to integrate them and show the preliminary results of this approach.

  2. A note on bound constraints handling for the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tianjun; Molina, Daniel; de Oca, Marco A Montes; Stützle, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The benchmark functions and some of the algorithms proposed for the special session on real parameter optimization of the 2005 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC'05) have played and still play an important role in the assessment of the state of the art in continuous optimization. In this article, we show that if bound constraints are not enforced for the final reported solutions, state-of-the-art algorithms produce infeasible best candidate solutions for the majority of functions of the IEEE CEC'05 benchmark function suite. This occurs even though the optima of the CEC'05 functions are within the specified bounds. This phenomenon has important implications on algorithm comparisons, and therefore on algorithm designs. This article's goal is to draw the attention of the community to the fact that some authors might have drawn wrong conclusions from experiments using the CEC'05 problems.

  3. Qualification of cables to IEEE standards 323-1974 and 383-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, C.; Kingsbury, E.R.; Bruhin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Wire and Cable manufacturers generally qualify products for class IE application by envelope type testing to user specifications and environmental conditions recommended by IEEE Standards 323-1974 and 383-1974. The General Electric Wire and Cable Business Department recently completed two such qualification programs. Cable constructions tested were 600V control cables and 600 V, 2kV, and 15kV power cables insulated with flame resistant mineral filled crosslinked polyethylene. The 15kV samples included taped field splices. In the second test program, the steam pressure-temperature profile included a simulated main steam line break. Test specimens were wrapped on grounded mandrels and were electrically loaded throughout the simulated LOCA tests. After completion of environmental testing, samples were subjected to the IEEE 383 simulated post-LOCA test. 6 refs

  4. Qualification of cables to IEEE standards 323-1974 and 383-1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, C.; Kingsbury, E.R.; Bruhin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Wire and Cable manufacturers generally qualify products for class IE application by envelope type testing to user specifications and environmental conditions recommended by IEEE Standards 323-1974 and 383-1974. The General Electric Wire and Cable Business Department recently completed two such qualification programs. Cable constructions tested were 600V control cables and 600 V, 2KV, and 15KV power cables insulated with flame resistant mineral filled crosslinked polyethylene. The 15KV samples included taped field splices. In the second test program, the steam pressure-temperature profile included a simulated main steam line break. Test specimens were wrapped on grounded mandrels and were electrically loaded throughout the simulated LOCA tests. After completion of environmental testing, samples were subjected to the IEEE 383 simulated post-LOCA test. 6 refs

  5. A Novel IEEE 802.15.4e DSME MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Pattanaik, Sudhir Ranjan; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2017-01-16

    IEEE 802.15.4e standard proposes Deterministic and Synchronous Multichannel Extension (DSME) mode for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) to support industrial, commercial and health care applications. In this paper, a new channel access scheme and beacon scheduling schemes are designed for the IEEE 802.15.4e enabled WSNs in star topology to reduce the network discovery time and energy consumption. In addition, a new dynamic guaranteed retransmission slot allocation scheme is designed for devices with the failure Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) transmission to reduce the retransmission delay. To evaluate our schemes, analytical models are designed to analyze the performance of WSNs in terms of reliability, delay, throughput and energy consumption. Our schemes are validated with simulation and analytical results and are observed that simulation results well match with the analytical one. The evaluated results of our designed schemes can improve the reliability, throughput, delay, and energy consumptions significantly.

  6. A Fast MAC-Layer Handover for an IEEE 802.16e-Based WMAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sayan K.; Pawlikowski, Krzysztof; Sirisena, Harsha

    We propose a modification of the IEEE 802.16e hard handover (HHO) procedure, which significantly reduces the handover latency constraint of the original HHO procedure in IEEE 802.16e networks. It allows a better handling of the delay-sensitive traffic by avoiding unnecessary time-consuming scanning and synchronization activity as well as simplifies the network re-entry procedure. With the help of the backhaul network, it reduces the number of control messages in the original handover policy, making the handover latency acceptable also for real-time streaming traffic. Preliminary performance evaluation studies show that the modified handover procedure is able to reduce the total handover latency by about 50%.

  7. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  8. Capacity Evaluation for IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakchai So-In

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple analytical method for capacity evaluation of IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX networks. Various overheads that impact the capacity are explained and methods to reduce these overheads are also presented. The advantage of a simple model is that the effect of each decision and sensitivity to various parameters can be seen easily. We illustrate the model by estimating the capacity for three sample applications—Mobile TV, VoIP, and data. The analysis process helps explain various features of IEEE 802.16e Mobile WiMAX. It is shown that proper use of overhead reducing mechanisms and proper scheduling can make an order of magnitude difference in performance. This capacity evaluation method can also be used for validation of simulation models.

  9. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  10. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Surface water flood risk and management strategies for London: An Agent-Based Model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Katie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is recognised as one of the most common and costliest natural disasters in England. Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall is known as ‘surface water flooding’, considered to be the most likely cause of flood events and one of the greatest short-term climate risks for London. In this paper we present results from a novel Agent-Based Model designed to assess the interplay between different adaptation options, different agents, and the role of flood insurance and the flood insurance pool, Flood Re, in the context of climate change. The model illustrates how investment in adaptation options could reduce London’s surface water flood risk, today and in the future. However, benefits can be outweighed by continued development in high risk areas and the effects of climate change. Flood Re is beneficial in its function to provide affordable insurance, even under climate change. However, it offers no additional benefits in terms of overall risk reduction, and will face increasing pressure due to rising surface water flood risk in the future. The modelling approach and findings are highly relevant for reviewing the proposed Flood Re scheme, as well as for wider discussions on the potential of insurance schemes, and broader multi-sectoral partnerships, to incentivise flood risk management in the UK and internationally.

  12. In-Street Wind Direction Variability in the Vicinity of a Busy Intersection in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Tomlin, Alison S.; Wood, Curtis R.; Barlow, Janet F.; Belcher, Stephen E.; Smalley, Robert J.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Arnold, Sam J.; Dobre, Adrian; Robins, Alan G.; Martin, Damien; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from fast-response wind measurements within and above a busy intersection between two street canyons (Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place) in Westminster, London taken as part of the DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment; www.dapple.org.uk ) 2007 field campaign. The data reported here were collected using ultrasonic anemometers on the roof-top of a building adjacent to the intersection and at two heights on a pair of lamp-posts on opposite sides of the intersection. Site characteristics, data analysis and the variation of intersection flow with the above-roof wind direction ( θ ref ) are discussed. Evidence of both flow channelling and recirculation was identified within the canyon, only a few metres from the intersection for along-street and across-street roof-top winds respectively. Results also indicate that for oblique roof-top flows, the intersection flow is a complex combination of bifurcated channelled flows, recirculation and corner vortices. Asymmetries in local building geometry around the intersection and small changes in the background wind direction (changes in 15- min mean θ ref of 5°-10°) were also observed to have profound influences on the behaviour of intersection flow patterns. Consequently, short time-scale variability in the background flow direction can lead to highly scattered in-street mean flow angles masking the true multi-modal features of the flow and thus further complicating modelling challenges.

  13. Greening London's black cabs: a study of driver's preferences for fuel cell taxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourato, Susana; Saynor, Bob; Hart, David

    2004-01-01

    Road transport accounts for about a quarter of all carbon emissions in the UK, highlighting the need for low carbon alternatives to current fuels and vehicles. Running on hydrogen and virtually emissions-free, fuel cell vehicles are considered to be one of the most promising ways of reducing transport-related emissions. Understanding the user benefits of fuel cell vehicles and the determinants of demand is essential for their successful penetration. This contingent valuation study investigates the preferences of London taxi drivers for driving emissions-free hydrogen fuel cell taxis, both in the short term as part of a pilot project, and in the longer term if production line fuel cell taxis become available. The results show that willingness to pay to participate in a pilot project seems to be driven mostly by drivers' expectation of personal financial gains. In contrast, however, environmental considerations are found to affect taxi drivers' longer-term vehicle purchasing decisions. The results also reveal that driving hydrogen-fuelled vehicles does not seem to raise safety concerns amongst taxi drivers

  14. Backyard chicken keeping in the Greater London Urban Area: welfare status, biosecurity and disease control issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabozhilova, I; Wieland, B; Alonso, S; Salonen, L; Häsler, B

    2012-01-01

    1. The aim of the study was to collect baseline data on welfare, biosecurity and diseases of backyard chickens kept in the Greater London Urban Area (GLUA), United Kingdom (UK). 2. A total of 65 backyard chicken flock-keepers were recruited from May to July 2010 through adverts on websites, at City farms, veterinary practices and pet feed stores and surveyed by means of a questionnaire. A total of 30 responses were suitable for analysis. 3. Information on keepers' and flocks' characteristics, housing and husbandry practices and owners' knowledge of health problems in chickens and zoonotic diseases was collected. A welfare assessment protocol was developed and the flocks assessed accordingly. 4. Results showed that chickens were generally provided with living conditions that allowed them to perform their natural behaviours. 5. Most of the flock owners did not comply with the regulations of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) on the feeding of catering waste. 6. Disease prevention measures such as vaccination and biosecurity, including limiting the access of human visitors, wild birds and rodents to the flocks were rare. 7. A lack of avian and zoonotic disease knowledge and awareness among the owners has implications for disease control and highlights the need for improved communication between owners, authorities and veterinarians.

  15. How fair is access to more prestigious UK universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliver, Vikki

    2013-06-01

    Now that most UK universities have increased their tuition fees to £9,000 a year and are implementing new Access Agreements as required by the Office for Fair Access, it has never been more important to examine the extent of fair access to UK higher education and to more prestigious UK universities in particular. This paper uses Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) data for the period 1996 to 2006 to explore the extent of fair access to prestigious Russell Group universities, where 'fair' is taken to mean equal rates of making applications to and receiving offers of admission from these universities on the part of those who are equally qualified to enter them. The empirical findings show that access to Russell Group universities is far from fair in this sense and that little changed following the introduction of tuition fees in 1998 and their initial increase to £3,000 a year in 2006. Throughout this period, UCAS applicants from lower class backgrounds and from state schools remained much less likely to apply to Russell Group universities than their comparably qualified counterparts from higher class backgrounds and private schools, while Russell Group applicants from state schools and from Black and Asian ethnic backgrounds remained much less likely to receive offers of admission from Russell Group universities in comparison with their equivalently qualified peers from private schools and the White ethnic group. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  16. Graduates of different UK medical schools show substantial differences in performance on MRCP(UK Part 1, Part 2 and PACES examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollon Jennifer

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK General Medical Council has emphasized the lack of evidence on whether graduates from different UK medical schools perform differently in their clinical careers. Here we assess the performance of UK graduates who have taken MRCP(UK Part 1 and Part 2, which are multiple-choice assessments, and PACES, an assessment using real and simulated patients of clinical examination skills and communication skills, and we explore the reasons for the differences between medical schools. Method We perform a retrospective analysis of the performance of 5827 doctors graduating in UK medical schools taking the Part 1, Part 2 or PACES for the first time between 2003/2 and 2005/3, and 22453 candidates taking Part 1 from 1989/1 to 2005/3. Results Graduates of UK medical schools performed differently in the MRCP(UK examination between 2003/2 and 2005/3. Part 1 and 2 performance of Oxford, Cambridge and Newcastle-upon-Tyne graduates was significantly better than average, and the performance of Liverpool, Dundee, Belfast and Aberdeen graduates was significantly worse than average. In the PACES (clinical examination, Oxford graduates performed significantly above average, and Dundee, Liverpool and London graduates significantly below average. About 60% of medical school variance was explained by differences in pre-admission qualifications, although the remaining variance was still significant, with graduates from Leicester, Oxford, Birmingham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London overperforming at Part 1, and graduates from Southampton, Dundee, Aberdeen, Liverpool and Belfast underperforming relative to pre-admission qualifications. The ranking of schools at Part 1 in 2003/2 to 2005/3 correlated 0.723, 0.654, 0.618 and 0.493 with performance in 1999–2001, 1996–1998, 1993–1995 and 1989–1992, respectively. Conclusion Candidates from different UK medical schools perform differently in all three parts of the MRCP(UK examination, with the

  17. The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, University of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, London has arisen from need and from opportunity. The need is due to the relative neglect nationally and internationally of the most common serious brain disorder with important physical, psychological, and social complications. The relative neglect is reflected in services, research, charitable donations, public profile, and stigma and in a serious lack of professional education. The opportunity arose because of the existence in several medical institutions at Denmark Hill, London, of a group of medical and related colleagues with a special interest covering almost every aspect of this multidisciplinary disorder who agreed to combine their expertise in this initiative. The idea was born and developed in 1991-1992 and was supported by all the parent institutions: The Maudsley and King's College Hospitals, St. Piers Lingfield, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the School of Life, Basic Medical and Health Sciences, all under the umbrella of King's College, University of London. Further stimulus and help came from a group of dedicated supporters in private and public life. There are three strands to this initiative: (a) a charity, The Fund for Epilepsy; (b) the clinical Centre for Epilepsy, which was formally opened at the Maudsley Hospital in July 1994; and (c) the academic Institute of Epileptology for research and teaching, which was launched on November 15, 1994.

  18. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  19. Contributions to the 14th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on fusion engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.P.; Almoguera, L.; Alonso Gozalo, J.; Alonso Candenas, J.; Blaumoser, M.

    1992-01-01

    Three communications about the TJ-II device, under construction at CIEMAT with preferential support from EURATOM, were presented to the 14th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering and are collected in this report. The first one describes in detail the device and its present status of design and construction. The remaining two deal with the two most critical components of the project: the vacuum vessel and the central hard conductor. (author) 16 fig. 16 ref

  20. Utilizing reliability concepts in the development of IEEE recommended good practices for nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradin, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents information describing the concern for nuclear power plant electrical equipment maintenance and the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee's method to address that concern. That method includes the creation of Working Group 3.3, ''Maintenance Good Practices'' which is developing specific maintenance good practice documents, supporting technical information exchange, and providing a vehicle to promote practices which can reduce cost and enhance plant safety. The foundation for that effort is the utilization of Reliability concepts

  1. Practical support for Lean Six Sigma software process definition using IEEE software engineering standards

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Susan K; Walz, John W

    2012-01-01

    Practical Support for Lean Six Sigma Software Process Definition: Using IEEE Software Engineering Standards addresses the task of meeting the specific documentation requirements in support of Lean Six Sigma. This book provides a set of templates supporting the documentation required for basic software project control and management and covers the integration of these templates for their entire product development life cycle. Find detailed documentation guidance in the form of organizational policy descriptions, integrated set of deployable document templates, artifacts required in suppo

  2. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  3. IEEE guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems. The document has been prepared to provide the basic principles needed to conduct a reliability analysis of protection systems. Included is information on qualitative and quantitative analysis, guides for failure data acquisition and use, and guide for establishment of intervals

  4. IEEE standard for qualifying class IE equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electrical Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) standards for electrical equipment (Class IE) for nuclear power generating stations are given. The standards are to provide guidance for demonstrating and documenting the adequacy of electric equipment used in all Class IE and interface systems. Representative in containment design basis event conditions for the principal reactor types are included in the appendixes for guidance in enviromental simulation

  5. An improved IEEE 802.11 protocol for reliable data transmission in power distribution fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoccia, F.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Sanseverino, E.R.; Zizzo, G. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    In power systems, on-line transmission between local units and the central unit can be done by means of power line communications or wireless technology. During an electrical fault, the reliability of the distribution system depends on the security of the timely protective and restorative actions on the network. This paper focused on the WiFi system because of its economy and ease of installation. However, WiFi systems are typically managed by the IEEE 802.11 protocol, which is not reliable in terms of security in data communication. In WiFi networks, data is divided into packets and sent in succession to reduce errors within the radio channel. The IEEE 802.11 protocol has high probability for loss of packets or delay in their transmission. In order to ensure the reliability of data transmission times between two terminal units connected by WiFi stations, a new protocol was derived by modifying the IEEE 802.11. The improvements of the new protocol were highlighted and its capability for the diagnostic service was verified. The modified protocol eliminates the danger of collisions between packets and optimizes the transmission time for sending information. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, N.; Selimis, G.; Koufopavlou, O.

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Beacon-Enabled Mode for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Udin Harun Al Rasyid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.15.5 standard support structure of star and peer-to-peer network formation. Strating from these, the cluster tree network can be built as a special case of peer-to-peer network to increse coverage area. In this paper, we provide an performance evaluation of beacon- enabled mode for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network on star and cluster topology in order to get the maximum result to apply the appropriate topology model as needed. We conduct analysis on each topology model by using the numbers of nodes from 10 nodes to 100 nodes to analyze throughput, delay, energy consumption, and probability success packet by using NS2 simulator. The simulation results show that the throughput and the probability of success packet of cluster topology are higher than that of star topology, and the energy consumption of cluster topology is lesser than that of star topology. However, cluster topology increases the delay more than star topology. Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4, wireless sensor network, beacon-enabled mode, topology, csma/ca

  8. Interoperability in digital electrocardiography: harmonization of ISO/IEEE x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Jesús D; Chiarugi, Franco; Alesanco, Alvaro; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Serrano, Luis; Chronaki, Catherine E; Escayola, Javier; Martínez, Ignacio; García, José

    2010-11-01

    The ISO/IEEE 11073 (x73) family of standards is a reference frame for medical device interoperability. A draft for an ECG device specialization (ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02) has already been presented to the Personal Health Device (PHD) Working Group, and the Standard Communications Protocol for Computer-Assisted ElectroCardioGraphy (SCP-ECG) Standard for short-term diagnostic ECGs (EN1064:2005+A1:2007) has recently been approved as part of the x73 family (ISO 11073-91064:2009). These factors suggest the coordinated use of these two standards in foreseeable telecardiology environments, and hence the need to harmonize them. Such harmonization is the subject of this paper. Thus, a mapping of the mandatory attributes defined in the second draft of the ISO/IEEE 11073-10406-d02 and the minimum SCP-ECG fields is presented, and various other capabilities of the SCP-ECG Standard (such as the messaging part) are also analyzed from an x73-PHD point of view. As a result, this paper addresses and analyzes the implications of some inconsistencies in the coordinated use of these two standards. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the draft x73-PHD ECG device specialization is presented, along with the conversion from x73-PHD to SCP-ECG. This paper, therefore, provides recommendations for future implementations of telecardiology systems that are compliant with both x73-PHD and SCP-ECG.

  9. IEEE recommended practices for seismic qualification of Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The IEEE has developed this document to provide direction for developing programs to seismically qualify Class 1E equipment for nuclear power generating stations. It supplements IEEE Std 323-1974, IEEE Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations, which describes the basic requirements for equipment qualification. The Class 1E equipment to be qualified by produres or standards established by this document are of many forms, characteristics, and materials; therefore, the document presents many acceptable methods with the intent of permitting the user to make a judicious selection from among the various options. In making such a selection, the user should choose those that best meet a particular equipment's requirements. Further, in using this document as a specification for the purchase of equipment, the many options should also be recognized and the document invoked accordingly. It is recommended that the need for specific standards for the seismic qualifiction of particular kinds of equipment be evaluated by those responsible for such documents and that consideration be given to the application of particular methods from these documents which are most suitable

  10. IEEE P1596, a scalable coherent interface for GigaByte/sec multiprocessor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, D.B.

    1988-11-01

    IEEE P1596, the Scalable Coherent Interface (formerly known as SuperBus) is based on experience gained during the development of Fastbus (IEEE 960), Futurebus (IEEE 896.1) and other modern 32-bit buses. SCI goals include a minimum bandwidth of 1 GByte/sec per processor; efficient support of a coherent distributed-cache image of shared memory; and support for segmentation, bus repeaters and general switched interconnections like Banyan, Omega, or full crossbar networks. To achieve these ambitious goals, SCI must sacrifice the immediate handshake characteristic of the present generation of buses in favor of a packet-like split-cycle protocol. Wire-ORs, broadcasts, and even ordinary passive bus structures are to be avoided. However, a lower performance (1 GByte/sec per backplane instead of per processor) implementation using a register insertion ring architecture on a passive ''backplane'' appears to be possible using the same interface as for the more costly switch networks. This paper presents a summary of current directions, and reports the status of the work in progress

  11. Study on Additional Carrier Sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bih-Hwang Lee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs. The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  12. FPGA implementation cost and performance evaluation of IEEE 802.11 protocol encryption security schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklavos, N; Selimis, G; Koufopavlou, O

    2005-01-01

    The explosive growth of internet and consumer demand for mobility has fuelled the exponential growth of wireless communications and networks. Mobile users want access to services and information, from both internet and personal devices, from a range of locations without the use of a cable medium. IEEE 802.11 is one of the most widely used wireless standards of our days. The amount of access and mobility into wireless networks requires a security infrastructure that protects communication within that network. The security of this protocol is based on the wired equivalent privacy (WEP) scheme. Currently, all the IEEE 802.11 market products support WEP. But recently, the 802.11i working group introduced the advanced encryption standard (AES), as the security scheme for the future IEEE 802.11 applications. In this paper, the hardware integrations of WEP and AES are studied. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) device has been used as the hardware implementation platform, for a fair comparison between the two security schemes. Measurements for the FPGA implementation cost, operating frequency, power consumption and performance are given

  13. Strategies for Optimal MAC Parameters Tuning in IEEE 802.15.6 Wearable Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2015-09-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) has penetrated immensely in revolutionizing the classical heath-care system. Recently, number of WBAN applications has emerged which introduce potential limits to existing solutions. In particular, IEEE 802.15.6 standard has provided great flexibility, provisions and capabilities to deal emerging applications. In this paper, we investigate the application-specific throughput analysis by fine-tuning the physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) parameters of the IEEE 802.15.6 standard. Based on PHY characterizations in narrow band, at the MAC layer, carrier sense multiple access collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) and scheduled access protocols are extensively analyzed. It is concluded that, IEEE 802.15.6 standard can satisfy most of the WBANs applications throughput requirements by maximum achieving 680 Kbps. However, those emerging applications which require high quality audio or video transmissions, standard is not able to meet their constraints. Moreover, delay, energy efficiency and successful packet reception are considered as key performance metrics for comparing the MAC protocols. CSMA/CA protocol provides the best results to meet the delay constraints of medical and non-medical WBAN applications. Whereas, the scheduled access approach, performs very well both in energy efficiency and packet reception ratio.

  14. Study on additional carrier sensing for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bih-Hwang; Lai, Ruei-Lung; Wu, Huai-Kuei; Wong, Chi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard are able to achieve low-power transmissions in the guise of low-rate and short-distance wireless personal area networks (WPANs). The slotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) is used for contention mechanism. Sensor nodes perform a backoff process as soon as the clear channel assessment (CCA) detects a busy channel. In doing so they may neglect the implicit information of the failed CCA detection and further cause the redundant sensing. The blind backoff process in the slotted CSMA/CA will cause lower channel utilization. This paper proposes an additional carrier sensing (ACS) algorithm based on IEEE 802.15.4 to enhance the carrier sensing mechanism for the original slotted CSMA/CA. An analytical Markov chain model is developed to evaluate the performance of the ACS algorithm. Both analytical and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than IEEE 802.15.4, which in turn significantly improves throughput, average medium access control (MAC) delay and power consumption of CCA detection.

  15. On IEEE 802.15.6 IR-UWB receivers - simulations for DBPSK modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Ville; Hämäläinen, Matti; Iinatti, Jari

    2013-01-01

    In 2002, Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was the first in defining regulations for ultra wideband (UWB) communications followed by Europe and Japan some years later. Focusing on impulse radio (IR) UWB, in 2007 was the time for the first published standard targeting in personal area networks, released by the IEEE. The second IEEE released standard including UWB definitions is targeted for wireless body area networks (WBAN) and was published in 2012. As the wireless communications has been and will be passing through almost any levels in society, the natural step with WBAN is using it in different medical, healthcare and wellbeing applications. The arguments for these are related to the modern lifestyle, in which people have increasingly more free time and are more interested in taking care of their health and wellbeing. Another challenge is the population composition, i.e., aging in developed countries which call for new solutions and procedures, particularly from cost wise. In this paper, we are evaluating UWB receivers based on the IEEE 802.15.6 physical layer definitions and capable of detecting differentially encoded modulation. The evaluation is performed using two different WBAN channel models.

  16. A versatile electrical penetration design qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankenau, W.; Wetherill, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Although worldwide demand for new construction of nuclear power stations has been on a decline, the available opportunities for the design and construction of qualified electrical penetrations continues to offer challenges, requiring a highly versatile design. Versatility is necessary in order to meet unique customer requirements within the constraints of a design basis qualified to IEEE Std. 317-1983. This paper summarizes such a versatile electrical penetration designed, built and tested to IEEE Std. 317-1983. The principal features are described including major materials of construction. Some of the design constraints such as sealing requirements, and conductor density (including numerical example) are discussed. The requirements for qualification testing of the penetration assembly to IEEE Std. 317-1983 are delineated in a general sense, and some typical test ranges for preconditioning, radiation exposure, and LOCA are provided. The paper concludes by describing ways in which this versatile design has been adapted to meet unique customer requirements in a variety of nuclear power plants

  17. Segmentized Clear Channel Assessment for IEEE 802.15.4 Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyou Jung; Hong, Sung Hyeuck; Moon, Seong-Pil; Chang, Tae Gyu; Cho, Hanjin

    2016-06-03

    This paper proposed segmentized clear channel assessment (CCA) which increases the performance of IEEE 802.15.4 networks by improving carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA). Improving CSMA/CA is important because the low-power consumption feature and throughput performance of IEEE 802.15.4 are greatly affected by CSMA/CA behavior. To improve the performance of CSMA/CA, this paper focused on increasing the chance to transmit a packet by assessing precise channel status. The previous method used in CCA, which is employed by CSMA/CA, assesses the channel by measuring the energy level of the channel. However, this method shows limited channel assessing behavior, which comes from simple threshold dependent channel busy evaluation. The proposed method solves this limited channel decision problem by dividing CCA into two groups. Two groups of CCA compare their energy levels to get precise channel status. To evaluate the performance of the segmentized CCA method, a Markov chain model has been developed. The validation of analytic results is confirmed by comparing them with simulation results. Additionally, simulation results show the proposed method is improving a maximum 8.76% of throughput and decreasing a maximum 3.9% of the average number of CCAs per packet transmission than the IEEE 802.15.4 CCA method.

  18. Spectrum Hole Identification in IEEE 802.22 WRAN using Unsupervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a Cooperative Spectrum Sensing (CSS algorithm for Cognitive Radios (CR based on IEEE 802.22Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN standard. The core objective is to improve cooperative sensing efficiency which specifies how fast a decision can be reached in each round of cooperation (iteration to sense an appropriate number of channels/bands (i.e. 86 channels of 7MHz bandwidth as per IEEE 802.22 within a time constraint (channel sensing time. To meet this objective, we have developed CSS algorithm using unsupervised K-means clustering classification approach. The received energy level of each Secondary User (SU is considered as the parameter for determining channel availability. The performance of proposed algorithm is quantified in terms of detection accuracy, training and classification delay time. Further, the detection accuracy of our proposed scheme meets the requirement of IEEE 802.22 WRAN with the target probability of falsealrm as 0.1. All the simulations are carried out using Matlab tool.

  19. Analysis and Enhancement of IEEE 802.15.4e DSME Beacon Scheduling Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-il Hwang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to construct a successful Internet of things (IoT, reliable network construction and maintenance in a sensor domain should be supported. However, IEEE 802.15.4, which is the most representative wireless standard for IoT, still has problems in constructing a large-scale sensor network, such as beacon collision. To overcome some problems in IEEE 802.15.4, the 15.4e task group proposed various different modes of operation. Particularly, the IEEE 802.15.4e deterministic and synchronous multichannel extension (DSME mode presents a novel scheduling model to solve beacon collision problems. However, the DSME model specified in the 15.4e draft does not present a concrete design model but a conceptual abstract model. Therefore, in this paper we introduce a DSME beacon scheduling model and present a concrete design model. Furthermore, validity and performance of DSME are evaluated through experiments. Based on experiment results, we analyze the problems and limitations of DSME, present solutions step by step, and finally propose an enhanced DSME beacon scheduling model. Through additional experiments, we prove the performance superiority of enhanced DSME.

  20. A Novel Prioritization Scheme to Improve QoS in IEEE 802.11e Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Tadayon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available IEEE 802.11 WLAN utilizes a distributed function at its MAC layer, namely, DCF to access the wireless medium. Due to its distributed nature, DCF is able to guarantee working stability in a wireless medium while maintaining the assembling and maintenance cost in a low level. However, DCF is inefficient in dealing with real-time traffics due to its incapability on providing QoS. IEEE 802.11e was introduced as a supplementary standard to cope with this problem. This standard introduces an Enhanced Distributed Coordination Function (EDCF that works based on diff-Serve model and can serve multiple classes of traffics (by using different prioritizations schemes. With the emergence of new time-sensitive applications, EDCF has proved to be yet inefficient in dealing with these kinds of traffics because it could not provide network with well-differentiated QoS. In this study, we propose a novel prioritization scheme to improve QoS level in IEEE 802.11e network. In this scheme, we replace Uniform PDF with Gamma PDF, which has salient differentiating properties. We investigate the suitability and superiority of this scheme on furnishing network with well-differentiated QoS using probabilistic analysis. We strengthen our claims by extensive simulation runs.

  1. IEEE 693 seismic qualification of composites for substation high-voltage equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiff, A.J. [Precision Measurement Instruments, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States); Kempner, L.Jr. [Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Standard 693-1997 of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) is the recommended practice for seismic design of substations. It represents a significant improvement in the way the power industry seismically qualifies substation high-voltage equipment. This paper described the use of IEEE Standard 693 for hollow-core composite insulators that are used on high-voltage transformers and demonstrated that changes are warranted. The following four failure modes associated with the composite insulator were discussed: bond degradation, bond failure, tube degradation and tube layer delamination. The authors evaluated the IEEE 693 qualification procedure of time history shake-table and static-pull tests and were concerned about acceptance criteria. It was shown that acceptance criteria are not valid for qualifying hollow-core composites and that static-pull tests are needed after the vibration qualification tests are completed. It was suggested that more research is warranted to determine if bonding at the top part of the flange can be eliminated, thereby eliminating bond degradation. The resulting increase in system damping would improve the dynamic response of the unit. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  2. Impact on and use of health services by international migrants: questionnaire survey of inner city London A&E attenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliahoo Joseph

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changing immigration trends pose new challenges for the UK's open access health service and there is considerable speculation that migrants from resource-poor countries place a disproportionate burden on services. Data are needed to inform provision of services to migrant groups and to ensure their access to appropriate health care. We compared sociodemographic characteristics and impact of migrant groups and UK-born patients presenting to a hospital A&E/Walk-In Centre and prior use of community-based General Practitioner (GP services. Methods We administered an anonymous questionnaire survey of all presenting patients at an A&E/Walk-In Centre at an inner-city London hospital during a 1 month period. Questions related to nationality, immigration status, time in the UK, registration and use of GP services. We compared differences between groups using two-way tables by Chi-Square and Fisher's exact test. We used logistic regression modelling to quantify associations of explanatory variables and outcomes. Results 1611 of 3262 patients completed the survey (response rate 49.4%. 720 (44.7% were overseas born, representing 87 nationalities, of whom 532 (73.9% were new migrants to the UK (≤10 years. Overseas born were over-represented in comparison to local estimates (44.7% vs 33.6%; p Conclusion Recently arrived migrants are a diverse and substantial group, of whom migrants from refugee-generating countries and asylum seekers comprise only a minority group. Service reorganisation to ensure improved access to community-based GPs and delivery of more appropriate care may lessen their impact on acute services.

  3. Audit of the job satisfaction levels of the UK radiography and physics workforce in UK radiotherapy centres 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, D; Beardmore, C; Patel, I; Massey, J; Wong, H; Probst, H

    2014-07-01

    Workforce planning reports identify a staff shortfall that jeopardizes the ability of UK radiotherapy centres to meet future demands. Obtaining an understanding of the work experiences of radiotherapy professionals will support the development of strategies to increase job satisfaction, productivity and effectiveness. A quantitative survey assessed job satisfaction, attitudes to incident reporting, stress and burnout, opportunities for professional development, workload, retention and turnover. Clinical oncologists were not included, as the Royal College of Radiologists, London, UK, had recently assessed their members' satisfaction. All questions were taken from validated instruments or adapted from the "UK National Health Service Staff Survey". The survey yielded 658 completed responses (approximately 16% response rate), from public and private sectors. Over a third (36%) of respondents were classified as satisfied for job satisfaction with 11% dissatisfied and the remaining 53% ambivalent. A significant proportion of clinical staff (37.5%) report high emotional exhaustion. Presenteeism was an issue with 42.4% attending work despite feeling unable to fulfil their role. Radiotherapy professionals are prone to the effects of compassion fatigue and burnout. Attention must be paid to workload and its impact on practitioners' job satisfaction. Professional development that is supported and informed by a performance development review is a simple and effective means of enhancing satisfaction. Individuals have a responsibility to themselves and their colleagues as their behaviours and attitudes influence job satisfaction. This work identifies areas for future research to enhance the professional resilience of practitioners, in order to provide high-quality treatments.

  4. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  5. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-10-28

    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  6. Conference Proceedings for 1997 IEEE 24th International Conference on Plasma Sciences, 19 - 22 May 1997, San Diego, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyman, Julius

    1997-01-01

    This 360 page softbound publication includes the following major sections, An invitation to ICOPS'97, Catamaran Resort Hotel Floor Pinas, Officers of the IEEE Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society, Conference Information...

  7. NIH-IEEE 2015 Strategic Conference on Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies for Prec

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIH and the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE/EMBS) hosted the third iteration of the Healthcare Innovations and Point-of-Care Technologies Conference last week.

  8. Study of Allocation Guaranteed Time Slot Wireless Body Area Networks Based on IEEE 802.15.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption

  9. Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.11g TCM Waveforms Transmitted over a Channel with Pulse-Noise Interference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drivas, Athanasios

    2007-01-01

    .... The application of TCM combines FEC coding and M-ary modulation in one operation. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the performance of an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) based IEEE...

  10. Implementation of DoS attack and mitigation strategies in IEEE 802.11b/g WLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Julia; Meng, Ke; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Roger

    2010-04-01

    IEEE 802.11 wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) becomes very prevalent nowadays. Either as a simple range extender for a home wired Ethernet interface, or as a wireless deployment throughout an enterprise, WLAN provides mobility, convenience, and low cost. However, an IEEE 802.11b/g wireless network uses the frequency of unlicensed 2.4GHz, which makes the network unsafe and more vulnerable than traditional Ethernet networks. As a result, anyone who is familiar with wireless network may initiate a Denial of Service (DoS) attack to influence the common communication of the network or even make it crash. In this paper, we present our studies on the DoS attacks and mitigation strategies for IEEE 802.11b/g WLANs and describe some initial implementations using IEEE 802.11b/g wireless devices.

  11. Implementation of IEEE-1588 timing and synchronization for ATCA control and data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Miguel; Sousa, Jorge; Combo, Álvaro; Rodrigues, António P.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Batista, António J.N.; Gonçalves, Bruno; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Varandas, Carlos A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IEEE-1588 over Ethernet protocol is implemented for the synchronization of all clock signals of an ATCA AMC carrier module. ► The ATCA hardware consists of an AMC quad-carrier main-board with PCI Express switching. ► IEEE-1588 is to be implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. ► Timing signals on the ATX-AMC4-PTP are managed and routed by a crosspoint-switch implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. ► Each clock signal source may be independently located (on each of the AMC cards, RTM or ATCA backplane). - Abstract: Control and data acquisition (C and DA) systems for Fusion experiments are required to provide accurate timing and synchronization (T and S) signals to all of its components. IPFN adopted PICMG's Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry standard to develop C and DA instrumentation. ATCA was chosen not only for its high throughput characteristics but also for its high availability (HA) features which become of greater importance in steady-state operation scenarios. However, the specified ATCA clock and synchronization interface may be too limited for the timing and synchronization needs in advanced Physics experiments. Upcoming specification extensions, developed by the “xTCA for Physics” workgroups, will contemplate, among others, a complementary timing specification, developed by the PICMG xTCA for Physics IO, Timing and Synchronization Technical Committee. The IEEE-1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) over Ethernet is one of the protocols, proposed by the Committee, aiming for precise synchronization of clocks in measurement and control systems, based on low jitter and slave-to-slave skew criteria. The paper presents an implementation of IEEE-1588 over Ethernet, in an ATCA hardware platform. The ATCA hardware consists of an Advanced Mezzanine Card (AMC) quad-carrier front board with PCI Express switching. IEEE-1588 is to be implemented on a Virtex-6 FPGA. Ethernet connectivity with the remote master clock is located on

  12. Attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and their understanding of and justification for domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Harjinder

    2015-01-01

    To date nothing is known about the attitudes of South Asian men in the UK toward women and domestic violence. Issues related to South Asian men and communities have remained largely under the surface due to religious and cultural sensitivity. The aim of the research is to examine the attitudes of South Asian men in London and the South East of England toward women and their understanding and justification of domestic violence. More specifically, the research explores a range of cultural and r...

  13. The sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans (SALLEE Project: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Rebecca S

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since May 2004, ten Central and Eastern European (CEE countries have joined the European Union, leading to a large influx of CEE migrants to the United Kingdom (UK. The SALLEE project (sexual attitudes and lifestyles of London's Eastern Europeans set out to establish an understanding of the sexual lifestyles and reproductive health risks of CEE migrants. CEE nationals make up a small minority of the population resident in the UK with no sampling frame from which to select a probability sample. There is also difficulty estimating the socio-demographic and geographical distribution of the population. In addition, measuring self-reported sexual behaviour which is generally found to be problematic, may be compounded among people from a range of different cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This paper will describe the methods adopted by the SALLEE project to address these challenges. Methods The research was undertaken using quantitative and qualitative methods: a cross-sectional survey of CEE migrants based on three convenience samples (recruited from community venues, sexual health clinics and from the Internet and semi-structured in-depth interviews with a purposively selected sample of CEE migrants. A detailed social mapping exercise of the CEE community was conducted prior to commencement of the survey to identify places where CEE migrants could be recruited. A total of 3,005 respondents took part in the cross-sectional survey, including 2,276 respondents in the community sample, 357 in the clinic sample and 372 in the Internet sample. 40 in-depth qualitative interviews were undertaken with a range of individuals, as determined by the interview quota matrix. Discussion The SALLEE project has benefited from using quantitative research to provide generalisable data on a range of variables and qualitative research to add in-depth understanding and interpretation. The social mapping exercise successfully located a large number

  14. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  15. The secret garden? Elite metropolitan geographies in the contemporary UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Niall; Savage, Mike

    2015-05-01

    There is an enduring, indeed increasing awareness of the role of spatial location in defining and reinforcing inequality in this country and beyond. In the UK, much of the debate around these issues has focussed on the established trope of a long-standing 'north-south divide', a divide which appears to have deepened in recent decades with the inexorable de-industrialisation of northern Britain presented in stark counterpoint to the burgeoning concentration of wealth in London and the south-east, driven by the financial and ancillary services sectors. Due to a lack of available data, such debates have tended to focus solely on economic inequalities between places, and until now there was little understanding of how these disparities played out in the social and cultural domains. This paper significantly advances our understanding of the true meaning of spatial inequality in the UK by broadening that definition to encompass not only the economic, but also the social and cultural arenas, using data available from the BBC's Great British Class Survey experiment. We argue that these data shine a light not only on the economic inequalities between different parts of the country which existing debates have already uncovered but to understand how these are both reinforced and mediated across the social and cultural dimensions. Fundamentally, we concur with a great many others in seeing London and the south-east as a vortex for economic accumulation but it is also much more than that; it is a space where the coming together of intense economic, social and cultural resources enables the crystallisation of particular and nuanced forms of elite social class formations, formations in which place is not incidental but integral to their very existence.

  16. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  17. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  18. Conference Scene: Summary report from EAACI: London 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, Matthias; Bufe, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Immunotherapy is, to date, the only effective curative method for the treatment of allergic disorders. Great efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, safety and patient compliance with this method. The growing understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying immunotherapy has led to new approaches for immunotherapy involving the routes of administration and the kinds of molecules used. In addition, new vaccines are being created that combine the advantageous immunological charasteristics of different substances, such as virus-like particles linked to allergens. Many new results from ongoing research into these topics were presented at the 29th congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in London.

  19. Mothering through Islam: narratives of religious identity in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Louise; Vacchelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgrounds in London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations of Islamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particular the paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of and give meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest that the women use Islam in four key ways: (i) as a framework for teaching their children right and wrong, (ii) as a...

  20. Testing Efficiency of the London Metal Exchange: New Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwan Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the market efficiency of the six base metals traded on the LME (London Metal Exchange using daily data from January 2000 to June 2016. The hypothesis that futures prices 3M (3-month are unbiased predictors of spot prices (cash in the LME is rejected based on the false premise that the financialization of commodities has been growing. For the robustness check, monthly data is analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS and GARCH (1,1 models. We reject the null hypothesis for all metals except for zinc.

  1. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  2. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  3. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soryal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  4. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm.

  5. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  6. A Novel Energy Saving Algorithm with Frame Response Delay Constraint in IEEE 802.16e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Dinh Thi Thuy; Kim, Mingon; Kang, Minho

    Sleep-mode operation of a Mobile Subscriber Station (MSS) in IEEE 802.16e effectively saves energy consumption; however, it induces frame response delay. In this letter, we propose an algorithm to quickly find the optimal value of the final sleep interval in sleep-mode in order to minimize energy consumption with respect to a given frame response delay constraint. The validations of our proposed algorithm through analytical results and simulation results suggest that our algorithm provide a potential guidance to energy saving.

  7. A Secure Simplification of the PKMv2 Protocol in IEEE 802.16e-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde

    2007-01-01

    Static analysis is successfully used for automatically validating security properties of classical cryptographic protocols. In this paper, we shall employ the same technique to a modern security protocol for wireless networks, namely the latest version of the Privacy and Key Management protocol...... for IEEE 802.16e, PKMv2. This protocol seems to have an exaggerated mixture of security features. Thus, we iteratively investigate which components are necessary for upholding the security properties and which can be omitted safely. This approach is based on the LySa process calculus and employs...

  8. An IEEE 802.3 Compatible Real Time Medium Access Control with Length-based Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new medium access control method is proposed over the predominant Ethernet broadcast channel. Taking advantages of intrinsic variable length characteristic of standard Ethernet frame, message-oriented dynamic priority mechanism is established. Prioritized medium access control operates under a so-called block mode in event of collisions.High priority messages have a chance to preempt block status incurred by low priority ones. By this means, the new MAC provides a conditional deterministic real time performance beyond a statistical one. Experiments demonstrate effectiveness and attractiveness of the proposed scheme. Moreover, this new MAC is completely compatible with IEEE802.3.

  9. 2012 Special NSREC Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Jim; Brown, Dennis; Girard, Sylvain; Gouker, Pascale; Gerardin, Simone; Quinn, Heather; Barnaby, Hugh

    2012-12-01

    The December 2012 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 49th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held July 16-20, 2012, in Miami, Florida USA. 95 papers presented at the 2012 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year’s special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas. The peer review process for a typical technical journal generally takes six months to one year to complete. To publish this special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science (in December), the review process, from initial submission to final form, must be completed in about 10 weeks. Because of the short schedule, both the authors and reviewers are required to respond very quickly. The reviewers listed on the following pages contributed vitally to this quick-turn review process.We would like to express our sincere appreciation to each of them for accepting this difficult, but critical role in the process. To provide consistent reviews of papers throughout the year, the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science relies on a year-round editorial board that manages reviews for submissions throughout the year to the TRANSACTIONS in the area of radiation effects. The review process is managed by a Senior

  10. A time-based admission control mechanism for IEEE 802.11 ad Hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Luís Henrique M. K.; Cerveira, Carlos Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a time-based admission control mechanism (TAC) for IEEE 802.11 ad hoc networks. The proposed mechanism was adapted to the QoS AODV routing protocol, which takes the quality of service requirements of the data flow into account in the route discovery process. TAC-AODV estimates the idle time of the physical medium based on the frames listened. The incoming traffic is admitted according to the offered load as well as the intra-flow interference, calculated based on the numbe...

  11. 4th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 14th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Computer and Information Science (ICIS 2015) which was held on June 28 – July 1, 2015 in Las Vegas, USA. The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.

  12. Impacto de mecanismos de seguridad en sensores IEEE 802.15.4

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp Barba, Carolina; Casademont Serra, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    En la actualidad son muchos los mecanismos de seguridad que el estándar IEEE 802.15.4 permite a las redes inalámbricas de sensores [1] Dicho estándar define las especificaciones de la Capa de Acceso al Medio y la Capa Física de los dispositivos inalámbricos de área personal. La última revisión corresponde al 2006. Dichas revisiones y actualizaciones son hechas por el grupo de trabajo 802.15. Sin embargo estos mecanismos consumen recursos como memoria y batería, que son...

  13. Low-frequency electrical dosimetry: research agenda of the IEEE International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J Patrick; Hirata, Akimasa

    2016-06-21

    This article treats unsettled issues in the use of numerical models of electrical dosimetry as applied to international limits on human exposure to low-frequency (typically  IEEE-ICES (International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety) Technical Committee 95. The paper discusses 25 issues needing attention, fitting into three general categories: induction models; electrostimulation models; and human exposure limits. Of these, 9 were voted as 'high priority' by members of Subcommittee 6. The list is presented as a research agenda for refinements in numerical modeling with applications to human exposure limits. It is likely that such issues are also important in medical and electrical product safety design applications.

  14. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  15. Impact of cell load on 5GHz IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Tair, Mamoun; Bhatti, Saleem Noel

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted an empirical study of the latest 5GHz IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN (WLAN) variants of 802.11n (5GHz) and 802.11ac (Wave 1), under different cell load conditions. We have considered typical configurations of both protocols on a Linux testbed. Under light load,there is no clear difference between 802.11n and 802.11ac in terms of performance and energy consumption. However, in some cases of high cell load, we have found that there may be a small advantage with 802.11ac. Overall, we...

  16. Distributed Fair Access Point Selection for Multi-Rate IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Huazhi; Nahm, Kitae; Kim, Jongwon

    In IEEE 802.11 networks, the access point (AP) selection based on the strongest signal strength often results in the extremely unfair bandwidth allocation among mobile users (MUs). In this paper, we propose a distributed AP selection algorithm to achieve a fair bandwidth allocation for MUs. The proposed algorithm gradually balances the AP loads based on max-min fairness for the available multiple bit rate choices in a distributed manner. We analyze the stability and overhead of the proposed algorithm, and show the improvement of the fairness via computer simulation.

  17. Rate Adaptation Based on Collision Probability for IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taejoon; Lim, Jong-Tae

    Nowadays IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs) support multiple transmission rates. To achieve the best performance, transmitting stations adopt the various forms of automatic rate fallback (ARF). However, ARF suffers from severe performance degradation as the number of transmitting stations increases. In this paper, we propose a new rate adaptation scheme which adjusts the ARF's up/down threshold according to the channel contention level. Simulation result shows that the proposed scheme achieves fairly good performance compared with the existing schemes.

  18. Adaptive rate selection scheme for video transmission to resolve IEEE 802.11 performance anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guijin; Zhu, Xiuchang

    2011-10-01

    Multi-rate transmission may lead to performance anomaly in an IEEE 802.11 network. It will decrease the throughputs of all the higher rate stations. This paper proposes an adaptive rate selection scheme for video service when performance anomaly occurs. Considering that video has the characteristic of tolerance to packet loss, we actively drop several packets so as to select the rates as high as possible for transmitting packets. Experiment shows our algorithm can decrease the delay and jitter of video, and improve the system throughput as well.

  19. A Fair Cooperative MAC Protocol in IEEE 802.11 WLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Davoud Mousavi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative communication techniques have recently enabled wireless technologies to overcome their challenges. The main objective of these techniques is to improve resource allocation. In this paper, we propose a new protocol in medium access control (MAC of the IEEE 802.11 standard. In our new protocol, which is called Fair Cooperative MAC (FC-MAC, every relay node participates in cooperation proportionally to its provided cooperation gain. This technique improves network resource allocation by exploiting the potential capacity of all relay candidates. Simulation results demonstrate that the FC-MAC protocol presents better performance in terms of throughput, fairness, and network lifetime.

  20. Latency and Jitter Analysis for IEEE 802.11e Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkwan Youm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of latency and jitter for IEEE 802.11e wireless local area networks (WLANs in a saturation condition, by using a Markov model. We use this model to explicate how the enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF differentiates classes of service and to characterize the probability distribution of the medium access control (MAC layer packet latency and jitter, on which the quality of the voice over Internet protocol (VoIP calls is dependent. From the proposed analytic model, we can estimate the available number of nodes determining the system performance, in order to satisfy user demands on the latency and jitter.

  1. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  2. Planning of Efficient Wireless Access with IEEE 802.16 for Connecting Home Network to the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Ritthisoonthorn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of IEEE802.16 wireless standard technology (WiMAX has significantly increased the choice to operators for the provisioning of wireless broadband access network. WiMAX is being deployed to compliment with xDSL in underserved or lack of the broadband network area, in both developed and developing countries. Many incumbent operators in developing countries are considering the deployment of WiMAX as part of their broadband access strategy. This paper presents an efficient and simple method for planning of broadband fixed wireless access (BFWA with IEEE802.16 standard to support home connection to Internet. The study formulates the framework for planning both coverage and capacity designs. The relationship between coverage area and access rate from subscriber in each environment area is presented. The study also presents the throughput and channel capacity of IEEE802.16 in different access rates. An extensive analysis is performed and the results are applied to the real case study to demonstrate the practicality of using IEEE 802.16 for connecting home to Internet. Using empirical data and original subscriber traffic from measurement, it is shown that the BFWA with IEEE802.16 standard is a capacity limited system. The capacity of IEEE802.16 is related to different factors including frequency bandwidth, spectrum allocation, estimation of traffic per subscriber, and choice of adaptive modulation from subscriber terminal. The wireless access methods and procedures evolved in this research work and set out in this paper are shown to be well suited for planning BFWA system based on IEEE802.16 which supports broadband home to Internet connections.

  3. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  4. The Competition between London Companies Regarding Their Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a high level of competition between companies and the final result is often measured by their financial performance. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of a sample of companies from London. Statistical analysis is performed of 293 companies randomly selected from the population of firms resident in London, the economic indicators being registered for 2014. The main results indicated that most of the variation in financial performance is explained by the book-to-market ratio and cash-to-assets ratio. On the other hand, financial performance is also explained by cash flow and leverage. Most of the firms that were placed in the same group had a successful financial performance in 2014. Few companies located in the other cluster encountered some difficulties regarding cash flow and sales. This situation could be explained by the difficulties of facing the economic crisis. Thus the financial performance evaluation is useful in improving a firm’s financial indicators in order to achieve a higher profit. The diagnosis will help managers in taking the most suitable decisions to solve the financial problems by selecting the best strategies.

  5. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  6. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  7. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base

  8. Sustaining growth and profitability--The Economist fifth annual pharmaceuticals conference. 12-13 November 1998, London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsin, M

    1999-01-01

    This two-day conference, organized by The Economist, focused on R and D productivity, strategic and innovative methodologies, M and A activities and knowledge management within the pharmaceutical industry. Key speakers within the industry addressed these issues to an audience of approximately 100 healthcare business executives. The first day was chaired by Barrie Haigh (Quintiles Translational Corp) and the second day by Tobias Rooney (Gemini Consulting).

  9. Reflections on nuclear challenges today. 6 December 2005, London, UK, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Allistair Buchan Lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Emerging nuclear challenges are proliferation of nuclear weapons and sensitive nuclear technologies, emergence of nuclear clandestine procurement networks in nuclear materials and equipment and the sluggishment in nuclear disarmament. Practical steps to address them are 1) better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology; 2) supporting effective nuclear verification; 3) strengthening the credibility of enforcement mechanisms; 4) protecting nuclear material and 5) developing an alternative approach to collective security. For better control of access to nuclear fuel cycle technology a group of international experts proposes to a) provide assurance of supply of reactor technology and nuclear fuel; b) accept a time-limited moratorium (of perhaps 5-10 years) on new uranium enrichment and plutonium separation facilities - at the very least for countries that do not currently have such technologies; c) establish a framework for multilateral management and control of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle (i.e. spent fuel reprocessing and waste disposal); and d) create a similar framework for multilateral management and control of the 'front end' of the fuel cycle (i.e. enrichment and fuel production). The effectiveness of nuclear verification depends on the extend of access to information and locations in a given country and inspections can only verify what countries declare. The expanded access provided by the Additional Protocol to safeguards agreements enables the Agency to verify possible undeclared activities however both safeguards agreements are focused on nuclear material and therefore the Agency's authority to investigate possible parallel weaponization activity is limited. In addition only 70 countries have the additional protocol on force. A dditional transparency measures' may be required as well as additional funding to support R and D on new technologies for detecting clandestine nuclear facilities and activity. An important step to address the nuclear challenges is to strengthen the mechanisms that deal with non-compliance. The potential for being reported to the UN Security Council has clearly acted as an incentive for compliance in some situations. However, this may not always be the case. We should recall that the actual reporting of North Korea to the Council, first in 1992 and again in 2003, led to little to no action. For a case in which a country has withdrawn from the NPT, the minimum required action by the Council should be a prompt review of the consequences of that withdrawal, and a serious effort to establish a framework for the settlement of the underlying disputes. Efforts to protect existing nuclear material should be accelerated. Multiple international and regional initiatives are underway to help countries to improve the physical protection of such material. The International Convention on the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism was adopted by the UN General Assembly in April 2005. Many governments have also responded to UN Security Council resolution 1540, adopted in April 2004. Both the Convention and resolution 1540 call on countries to criminalize the illicit possession and use of radioactive material, and aim to enhance efforts to detect and combat illicit trafficking. And in July, parties to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material agreed on major changes. Many countries convert their research reactors from HEU fuel to LEU fuel, and return the HEU to the country of origin. Accelerate disarmament efforts is the responsibility of the nuclear weapons states. The Comprehensive Nuclear test Ban Treaty (CTBT), ten years after its conclusion, is not yet in force. Progress on the Fissile Material (Cut-Off) Treaty has been at a standstill for over a decade. But complete nuclear disarmament will not be achieved before we develop a reliable alternative that eliminates the need for a nuclear deterrence. Civil society must confront the challenge in developing the concepts, approaches and strategies that could support a new global security regime

  10. Nuclear terrorism: Identifying and combating the risks. International conference on nuclear security, 16 March 2005, London, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Security strategies, for many centuries, have been based on boundaries: the strategic placement of cities and borders to take advantage of natural barriers; defences that relied on walls, trenches and armadas; and the use of ethnic, religious or other groupings to distinguish friend from foe. In the 20th Century, the advent of airplanes, submarines and ballistic missiles began to undermine this approach to security by enabling the remote delivery of destruction on a scale previously not envisioned. But the change that has altered the international security landscape the most drastically is, in fact, globalization. The global community has become interdependent, with the constant movement of people, ideas and goods. Many aspects of modern life, communication, the global marketplace and, most recently, the rise in international terrorism - clearly indicate that our understanding of and approaches to national and international security must be adjusted, in keeping with new realities. This statement discusses: Nuclear Security and the Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism, IAEA Nuclear Security Plan of Activities founded on measures to guard against thefts of nuclear and other radioactive material and to protect related facilities against malicious acts; cooperation with other organizations and efforts

  11. Quality of Life and Unmet Need in People with Psychosis in the London Borough of Haringey, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lambri, Maria; Chakraborty, Apu; Leavey, Gerard; King, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Deinstitutionalization of long-term psychiatric patients produced various community-based residential care facilities. However, inner-city areas have many patients with severe mental illness (SMI) as well as deprivation, unemployment, and crime. This makes meeting their community needs complex. We undertook a needs assessment of service provision and consonance between service users’ evaluation of need and by care workers. Design. Cross-sectional study with random sample of SMI s...

  12. European Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement--SMi's 21st Annual Meeting (October 5-6, 2015--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, A; D'Souza, P

    2015-10-01

    Translating perceived market value for pharmaceutical products into a willingness to pay remains the key factor in ensuring market access and return on investment. How price is managed in the context of new market entrants or new approval settings can create complex challenges, and further complexity is added through diverse global reimbursement structures and the myriad of stakeholders involved at every step of value identification. SMi's 21st Annual Meeting on European Pricing and Reimbursement presented a program focused on the measures being taken by European healthcare systems as they seek to facilitate access to the latest treatments while delivering value for payers and patients. Supporting patient access to life-changing medicines is a challenge, and funders are responding in many different ways; however, while the pharma industry continues to focus its efforts on high cost drugs that treat diseases of the few, the disconnect will be not be resolved. The speakers and delegates at the annual meeting believe success is possible by focusing on value for patients, driven by provider experience, scale and learning. Instead of simply lowering costs, companies, providers and payers can more adequately contribute to the goals of funders as well as the treatment needs of patients. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe 2016--Health Network Communications' Tenth Annual Conference (February 23-25, 2016--London, UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, P

    2016-03-01

    Tighter national budgets and escalating drug prices continue to present challenges for pharmaceutical market access strategies and societal cost of care. As pharmaceutical companies and medical governmental advisory organizations enter tougher negotiations, hospital trusts and other dispensary firms face barriers to receiving the best medical treatment, and as a result patient access is limited. The 2016 HealthNetwork Communications' Pharma Pricing & Market Access Europe meeting brought together pharmaceutical, medical governmental advisory and stakeholders and market access/pricing consultants, to encourage discussions and negotiations into how to improve the drug pricing system and consequential market access strategies while achieving the respective reimbursement and affordability objectives. Copyright 2016 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  14. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XXI. Data digest for Cromwell Road, London, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of four gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Cromwell Road kerbside site sponsored by the Department of the Environment. These data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between March 1973 and December 1984 are also included.

  15. Nuclear industry calls on UK to avoid disruption of 'disorderly' withdrawal from Euratom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-07-15

    The UK will need to set priorities for Brexit talks if it is to avoid disruption in the nuclear sector and the possibility of a disorderly withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty affecting ambitious plans to build new nuclear reactors, Tom Greatrex, chief executive of the London-based Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), said. Mr Greatrex, a former Labour MP and shadow energy minister, warned that a lack of prioritisation in Brexit talks could lead to problems related to moving nuclear-purpose components and difficulties collaborating with counties in nuclear R and D projects with significant economic, industrial and scientific impact.

  16. Survey of radioactivity in sediments in the vicinity of naval establishments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, P.

    1989-01-01

    The survey described here was carried out during the summer of 1988 around five UK naval bases involved in the maintenance of nuclear submarines or the handling of nuclear weapons. The survey sought to investigate the levels of radionuclides present in the subtidal sediments around each of the bases and in particular those isotopes discharged as a result of maintenance and servicing of nuclear powered vessels. Possible drawbacks to the MAFF approach are discussed by the Greenpeace Fellow of Queen Mary College, London. (author)

  17. A strategy for implementation of experience based seismic equipment qualification in IEEE and ASME industry standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the past 20 years, extensive data on the performance of mechanical and electric equipment during actual strong motion earthquakes and seismic qualification tests has been accumulated. Recognizing that an experience based approach provides a technically sound and cost effective method for the seismic qualification of some or certain equipment, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment established a Special Working Group to investigate the incorporation of experienced based methods into the industry consensus codes and standards currently used in the seismic qualification of Seismic Category Nuclear Power Plant equipment. This paper presents the strategy (course of action) which was developed by the Special Working Group for meeting this objective of incorporation of experience based seismic qualification standards used in the design and seismic qualification of seismic category nuclear power plant equipment. This strategy was recommended to both chartering organizations, the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee and the ASME Committee on Qualification of Mechanical Equipment for their consideration and implementation. The status of the review and implementation of the Special Working Group's recommended strategy by the sponsoring organization is also discussed

  18. 2008 Special NSREC Issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science Comments by the Editors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, Jim; Buchner, Steve; Marshall, Paul; Duzellier, Sophie; Brown, Dennis; Poivey, Christian; Pease, Ron

    2008-12-01

    The December 2008 special issue of the IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science contains selected papers from the 45th annual IEEE International Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference (NSREC) held in Tucson, Arizona, July 14 - 18, 2008. Over 115 papers presented at the 2008 NSREC were submitted for consideration for this year's special issue. Those papers that appear in this special issue were able to successfully complete the review process before the deadline for the December issue. A few additional papers may appear in subsequent issues of the TRANSACTIONS. This publication is the premier archival journal for research on space and nuclear radiation effects in materials, devices, circuits, and systems. This distinction is the direct result of the conscientious efforts of both the authors, who present and document their work, and the reviewers, who selflessly volunteer their time and talent to help review the manuscripts. Each paper in this journal has been reviewed by experts selected by the editors for their expertise and knowledge of the particular subject areas.

  19. BOB-RED queue management for IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jean-Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multimedia services over resource constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs face a performance bottleneck issue from the gateway node to the sink node. Therefore, the queue management at the gateway node is crucial for diversified messages conveyed from the front nodes to the sink node. In this article, beacon order-based random early detection (BOB-RED queue management is proposed. BOB-RED is a dynamic adaptation scheme based on adjusting beacon interval and superframe duration in the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC superframe accompanied with RED queue management scheme to increase the transmission efficiency of multimedia over WSNs. We focus on the performance improvement upon different traffic loads over WSNs. Evaluation metrics include end-to-end delay, packet delivery ratio, and energy consumption in IEEE 802.15.4 beacon enabled mode. Simulation results show that BOB-RED can effectively decrease end-to-end delay and energy consumption compared to the DropTail scheme.

  20. Throughput analysis of the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard under heavy load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Joseph; Tobagi, Fouad

    1987-01-01

    It has become clear in the last few years that there is a trend towards integrated digital services. Parallel to the development of public Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is service integration in the local area (e.g., a campus, a building, an aircraft). The types of services to be integrated depend very much on the specific local environment. However, applications tend to generate data traffic belonging to one of two classes. According to IEEE 802.4 terminology, the first major class of traffic is termed synchronous, such as packetized voice and data generated from other applications with real-time constraints, and the second class is called asynchronous which includes most computer data traffic such as file transfer or facsimile. The IEEE 802.4 token bus protocol which was designed to support both synchronous and asynchronous traffic is examined. The protocol is basically a timer-controlled token bus access scheme. By a suitable choice of the design parameters, it can be shown that access delay is bounded for synchronous traffic. As well, the bandwidth allocated to asynchronous traffic can be controlled. A throughput analysis of the protocol under heavy load with constant channel occupation of synchronous traffic and constant token-passing times is presented.

  1. Real-Time-Simulation of IEEE-5-Bus Network on OPAL-RT-OP4510 Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atul Bhandakkar, Anjali; Mathew, Lini, Dr.

    2018-03-01

    The Real-Time Simulator tools have high computing technologies, improved performance. They are widely used for design and improvement of electrical systems. The advancement of the software tools like MATLAB/SIMULINK with its Real-Time Workshop (RTW) and Real-Time Windows Target (RTWT), real-time simulators are used extensively in many engineering fields, such as industry, education, and research institutions. OPAL-RT-OP4510 is a Real-Time Simulator which is used in both industry and academia. In this paper, the real-time simulation of IEEE-5-Bus network is carried out by means of OPAL-RT-OP4510 with CRO and other hardware. The performance of the network is observed with the introduction of fault at various locations. The waveforms of voltage, current, active and reactive power are observed in the MATLAB simulation environment and on the CRO. Also, Load Flow Analysis (LFA) of IEEE-5-Bus network is computed using MATLAB/Simulink power-gui load flow tool.

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency in Idle Listening of IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs by effectively dealing with idle listening (IL, which is required for channel sensing and is unavoidable in a contention-based channel access mechanism. Firstly, we show that IL is a dominant source of energy drain in WLANs and it cannot be effectively alleviated by the power saving mechanism proposed in the IEEE 802.11 standard. To solve this problem, we propose an energy-efficient mechanism that combines three schemes in a systematic way: downclocking, frame aggregation, and contention window adjustment. The downclocking scheme lets a station remain in a semisleep state when overhearing frames destined to neighbor stations, whereby the station consumes the minimal energy without impairing channel access capability. As well as decreasing the channel access overhead, the frame aggregation scheme prolongs the period of semisleep time. Moreover, by controlling the size of contention window based on the number of stations, the proposed mechanism decreases unnecessary IL time due to collision and retransmission. By deriving an analysis model and performing extensive simulations, we confirm that the proposed mechanism significantly improves the energy efficiency and throughput, by up to 2.8 and 1.8 times, respectively, compared to the conventional power saving mechanisms.

  3. A Green Media Access Method for IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Anil K; Jacob, Lillykutty

    2017-09-30

    It is of utmost importance to conserve battery energy to the maximum possible extent in WBAN nodes while collecting and transferring medical data. The IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN standard does not specify any method to conserve energy. This paper focuses on a method to conserve energy in IEEE 802.15.6 WBAN nodes when using CSMA/CA, while simultaneously restricting data delivery delay to the required value as specified in medical applications. The technique is to allow the nodes to sleep all the times except for receiving beacons and for transmitting data frames whenever a data frame enters an empty buffer. The energy consumed by the nodes and the average latency of data frame for periodical arrival of data are found out analytically. The analytical results are validated and also the proposed method is compared with other energy conserving schemes, using Castalia simulation studies. The proposed method shows superior performance in both device lifetime and latency of emergency medical data.

  4. Predictable and reliable ECG monitoring over IEEE 802.11 WLANs within a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyoung; Kang, Kyungtae

    2014-09-01

    Telecardiology provides mobility for patients who require constant electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. However, its safety is dependent on the predictability and robustness of data delivery, which must overcome errors in the wireless channel through which the ECG data are transmitted. We report here a framework that can be used to gauge the applicability of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) technology to ECG monitoring systems in terms of delay constraints and transmission reliability. For this purpose, a medical-grade WLAN architecture achieved predictable delay through the combination of a medium access control mechanism based on the point coordination function provided by IEEE 802.11 and an error control scheme based on Reed-Solomon coding and block interleaving. The size of the jitter buffer needed was determined by this architecture to avoid service dropout caused by buffer underrun, through analysis of variations in transmission delay. Finally, we assessed this architecture in terms of service latency and reliability by modeling the transmission of uncompressed two-lead electrocardiogram data from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and highlight the applicability of this wireless technology to telecardiology.

  5. Investigating the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 for medical monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegris, P; Banitsas, K

    2011-01-01

    Recent advancements in wireless communications technologies bring us one step closer to provide reliable Telecare services as an alternative to patients staying in a hospital mainly for monitoring purposes. In this research we investigate the efficiency of IEEE 802.15.4 in a simple scenario where a patient is being monitored using an ECG and a blood analysis module. This approach binds well with assisted living solutions, by sharing the network infrastructure for both monitoring and control while taking advantage of the low power features of the protocol. Such applications are becoming more and more realistic to implement as IEEE 802.15.4 compatible hardware becomes increasingly available. Our aim is to examine the impact of Beacon and Superframe Order in the medium access delay, dropped packets, end to end delay, average retransmission attempts and consumed power focusing on this bandwidth demanding situation where the network load does not allow low duty cycles, in order to draw some conclusions on the effect that this will have to telemonitoring applications.

  6. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Sayef Azad; Razzaque, Md Abdur; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alamri, Atif; Tran, Nguyen H; Fortino, Giancarlo

    2017-12-07

    Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a sub-optimal solution by dividing the optimization problem into downlink channel allocation and power assignment sub-problems. Considering fairness, quality of service and minimum interference for customer-premises-equipment, we also develop a greedy algorithm for channel allocation and a non-cooperative game-theoretic framework for near-optimal power allocation. The base stations of networks are treated as players in a game, where they try to increase spectrum utilization by controlling power and reaching a Nash equilibrium point. We further develop a utility function for the game to increase the data rate by minimizing the transmission power and, subsequently, the interference from neighboring networks. A theoretical proof of the uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium has been presented. Performance improvements in terms of data-rate with a degree of fairness compared to a cooperative branch-and-bound-based algorithm and a non-cooperative greedy approach have been shown through simulation studies.

  7. Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.16e power management for the initiations of awakening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To increase battery life in IEEE 802.16e systems, it is essential to efficiently manage energy in mobile stations. The sleep-mode operation in power management helps to increase the life of a station by saving energy consumption. In power management, there are two important performance metrics: energy consumption and the response delay of awakening medium access control (MAC) service data unit (SDU). While in a base station (BS) initiation of awakening, the two performance metrics should be simultaneously considered, in a mobile subscriber station (MSS) initiation of awakening, the response delay is not considered because it is self-operational. There performance metrics are affected by the minimum sleep interval (Tmin), the maximum sleep interval (Tmax), and the average interarrival time of awakening MAC SDUs (TI) during sleep-mode operation. Therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the two initiations of awakening depending on TI. To reach a fuller understanding of the performance, this paper shows an analytical mode and simulations results for the standard sleep-mode operation in the IEEE 802.16e MAC.

  8. IEEE 1394 CAMERA IMAGING SYSTEM FOR BROOKHAVENS BOOSTER APPLICATION FACILITY BEAM DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, K.A.; FRAK, B.; GASSNER, D.; HOFF, L.; OLSEN, R.H.; SATOGATA, T.; TEPIKIAN, S.

    2002-01-01

    Brookhaven's Booster Applications Facility (BAF) will deliver resonant extracted heavy ion beams from the AGS Booster to short-exposure fixed-target experiments located at the end of the BAF beam line. The facility is designed to deliver a wide range of heavy ion species over a range of intensities from 10 3 to over 10 8 ions/pulse, and over a range of energies from 0.1 to 3.0 GeV/nucleon. With these constraints we have designed instrumentation packages which can deliver the maximum amount of dynamic range at a reasonable cost. Through the use of high quality optics systems and neutral density light filters we will achieve 4 to 5 orders of magnitude in light collection. By using digital IEEE1394 camera systems we are able to eliminate the frame-grabber stage in processing and directly transfer data at maximum rates of 400 Mb/set. In this note we give a detailed description of the system design and discuss the parameters used to develop the system specifications. We will also discuss the IEEE1394 camera software interface and the high-level user interface

  9. An Adaptive Medium Access Parameter Prediction Scheme for IEEE 802.11 Real-Time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Coronado

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communications have experienced an unprecedented growth due mainly to the increase in the content quality and the emergence of smart devices. The demand for these contents is tending towards wireless technologies. However, these transmissions are quite sensitive to network delays. Therefore, ensuring an optimum QoS level becomes of great importance. The IEEE 802.11e amendment was released to address the lack of QoS capabilities in the original IEEE 802.11 standard. Accordingly, the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA function was introduced, allowing it to differentiate traffic streams through a group of Medium Access Control (MAC parameters. Although EDCA recommends a default configuration for these parameters, it has been proved that it is not optimum in many scenarios. In this work a dynamic prediction scheme for these parameters is presented. This approach ensures an appropriate traffic differentiation while maintaining compatibility with the stations without QoS support. As the APs are the only devices that use this algorithm, no changes are required to current network cards. The results show improvements in both voice and video transmissions, as well as in the QoS level of the network that the proposal achieves with regard to EDCA.

  10. Dynamic Contention Window Control Scheme in IEEE 802.11e EDCA-Based Wireless LANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekera, B. A. Hirantha Sithira; Matsuda, Takahiro; Takine, Tetsuya

    In the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol, access points (APs) are given the same priority as wireless terminals in terms of acquiring the wireless link, even though they aggregate several downlink flows. This feature leads to a serious throughput degradation of downlink flows, compared with uplink flows. In this paper, we propose a dynamic contention window control scheme for the IEEE 802.11e EDCA-based wireless LANs, in order to achieve fairness between uplink and downlink TCP flows while guaranteeing QoS requirements for real-time traffic. The proposed scheme first determines the minimum contention window size in the best-effort access category at APs, based on the number of TCP flows. It then determines the minimum and maximum contention window sizes in higher priority access categories, such as voice and video, so as to guarantee QoS requirements for these real-time traffic. Note that the proposed scheme does not require any modification to the MAC protocol at wireless terminals. Through simulation experiments, we show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  11. Adaptive Backoff Algorithm for Contention Window for Dense IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikram Syed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance improvement in IEEE 802.11 WLANs in widely fluctuating network loads is a challenging task. To improve the performance in this saturated state, we develop an adaptive backoff algorithm that maximizes the system throughput, reduces the collision probability, and maintains a high fairness for the IEEE 802.11 DCF under dense network conditions. In this paper, we present two main advantages of the proposed ABA-CW algorithm. First, it estimates the number of active stations and then calculates an optimal contention window based on the active station number. Each station calculates the channel state probabilities by observing the channel for the total backoff period. Based on these channel states probabilities, each station can estimate the number of active stations in the network, after which it calculates the optimal CW utilizing the estimated active number of stations. To evaluate the proposed mechanism, we derive an analytical model to determine the network performance. From our results, the proposed ABA-CW mechanism achieved better system performance compared to fixed-CW (BEB, EIED, LILD, and SETL and adaptive-CW (AMOCW, Idle Sense mechanisms. The simulation results confirmed the outstanding performance of the proposed mechanism in that it led to a lower collision probability, higher throughput, and high fairness.

  12. Self-Coexistence among IEEE 802.22 Networks: Distributed Allocation of Power and Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayef Azad Sakin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring self-coexistence among IEEE 802.22 networks is a challenging problem owing to opportunistic access of incumbent-free radio resources by users in co-located networks. In this study, we propose a fully-distributed non-cooperative approach to ensure self-coexistence in downlink channels of IEEE 802.22 networks. We formulate the self-coexistence problem as a mixed-integer non-linear optimization problem for maximizing the network data rate, which is an NP-hard one. This work explores a sub-optimal solution by dividing the optimization problem into downlink channel allocation and power assignment sub-problems. Considering fairness, quality of service and minimum interference for customer-premises-equipment, we also develop a greedy algorithm for channel allocation and a non-cooperative game-theoretic framework for near-optimal power allocation. The base stations of networks are treated as players in a game, where they try to increase spectrum utilization by controlling power and reaching a Nash equilibrium point. We further develop a utility function for the game to increase the data rate by minimizing the transmission power and, subsequently, the interference from neighboring networks. A theoretical proof of the uniqueness and existence of the Nash equilibrium has been presented. Performance improvements in terms of data-rate with a degree of fairness compared to a cooperative branch-and-bound-based algorithm and a non-cooperative greedy approach have been shown through simulation studies.

  13. Creating the Strategic Learning Environment at City University London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinsee, Susannah; Bullimore, Anise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the creation of a new approach to the implementation of educational technologies at a UK Higher Education Institution. Driven by changes in technology, an evaluation of the virtual learning environment (VLE) provided the opportunity to reassess the application of technology to the curriculum. However, such an…

  14. Fast-food, everyday life and health: A qualitative study of 'chicken shops' in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Claire; Ponsford, Ruth; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven

    2018-05-26

    The higher prevalence of fast food outlets in deprived areas has been associated with the production and maintenance of geographical inequalities in diet. In the UK one type of fast food outlet - the 'chicken shop' - has been the focus of intense public health and media interest. Despite ongoing concerns and initiatives around regulating these establishments, the 'chicken shop' is both a commercially successful and ubiquitous feature of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. However, little is known about how they are perceived by local residents. We report data from a qualitative study of neighbourhood perceptions in a low SES urban setting. Narrative family interviews, go-along interviews and school video focus group workshops with 66 residents of East London were conducted over two waves. The topic of chicken shops was a prolific theme and a narrative analysis of these accounts revealed that local perceptions of chicken shops are complex and contradictory. Chicken shops were depicted as both potentially damaging for the health of local residents and, at the same time, as valued community spaces. This contradiction was discursively addressed in narrative via a series of rhetorical rebuttals that negated their potential to damage health on the grounds of concepts such as trust, choice, balance, food hygiene and compensatory physical activity. In some instances, chicken shops were described as 'healthy' and patronising them constructed as part of a healthy lifestyle. Chicken shops are embedded in the social fabric of neighbourhoods. Successful strategies to improve diet therefore requires context-sensitive environmental interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  16. A cross-sectional study of knife injuries at a London major trauma centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, J R; Sutherland, E; Glucksman, E; Tunnicliff, M; Keep, J W

    2014-01-01

    No national recording systems for knife injuries exist in the UK. Understanding the true size and nature of the problem of knife injuries is the first stage in reducing the burden of this injury. The aim of this study was to survey every knife injury seen in a single inner city emergency department (ED) over a one-year period. A cross-sectional observational study was performed of all patients attending with a knife injury to the ED of a London major trauma centre in 2011. Demographic characteristics, patterns of injury, morbidity and mortality data were collected. A total of 938 knife injuries were identified from 127,191 attendances (0.77% of all visits) with a case fatality rate of 0.53%. A quarter (24%) of the major trauma team's caseload was for knife injuries. Overall, 44% of injuries were selfreported as assaults, 49% as accidents and 8% as deliberate self-harm. The highest age specific incident rate occurred in the 16-24 year age category (263/100,000). Multiple injuries were seen in 19% of cases, of which only 81% were recorded as assaults. The mean length of stay for those admitted to hospital was 3.04 days. Intrathoracic injury was seen in 26% of cases of chest trauma and 24% of abdominal injuries had a second additional chest injury. Violent intentional injuries are a significant contributory factor to the workload of the major trauma team at this centre. This paper contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of these injuries seen in the ED.

  17. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  18. An Authentication and Key Management Mechanism for Resource Constrained Devices in IEEE 802.11-based IoT Access Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ki-Wook; Han, Youn-Hee; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-01-01

    Many Internet of Things (IoT) services utilize an IoT access network to connect small devices with remote servers. They can share an access network with standard communication technology, such as IEEE 802.11ah. However, an authentication and key management (AKM) mechanism for resource constrained IoT devices using IEEE 802.11ah has not been proposed as yet. We therefore propose a new AKM mechanism for an IoT access network, which is based on IEEE 802.11 key management with the IEEE 802.1X aut...

  19. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  20. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  1. Problems and solutions in application of IEEE standards at Savannah River Site, Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Bowers, T.L.; Chopra, B.J.; Thompson, T.T.; Zimmerman, E.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Material Production Facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were designed, constructed, and placed into operation in the early 1950's, based on existing industry codes/standards, design criteria, analytical procedures. Since that time, DOE has developed Orders and Polices for the planning, design and construction of DOE Nuclear Reactor Facilities which invoke or reference commercial nuclear reactor codes and standards. The application of IEEE reactor design requirements such as Equipment Qualification, Seismic Qualification, Single Failure Criteria, and Separation Requirement, to non-reactor facilities has been a problem since the IEEE reactor criteria do not directly confirm to the needs of non-reactor facilities. SRS Systems Engineering is developing a methodology for the application of IEEE Standards to non-reactor facilities at SRS

  2. A distributed scheme to manage the dynamic coexistence of IEEE 802.15.4-based health-monitoring WBANs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deylami, Mohammad N; Jovanov, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The overlap of transmission ranges between wireless networks as a result of mobility is referred to as dynamic coexistence. The interference caused by coexistence may significantly affect the performance of wireless body area networks (WBANs) where reliability is particularly critical for health monitoring applications. In this paper, we analytically study the effects of dynamic coexistence on the operation of IEEE 802.15.4-based health monitoring WBANs. The current IEEE 802.15.4 standard lacks mechanisms for effectively managing the coexistence of mobile WBANs. Considering the specific characteristics and requirements of health monitoring WBANs, we propose the dynamic coexistence management (DCM) mechanism to make IEEE 802.15.4-based WBANs able to detect and mitigate the harmful effects of coexistence. We assess the effectiveness of this scheme using extensive OPNET simulations. Our results indicate that DCM improves the successful transmission rates of dynamically coexisting WBANs by 20%-25% for typical medical monitoring applications.

  3. Simultaneous transmission of the IEEE 802.11 radio signal and optical Gbit Ethernet over the multimode fiber link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymiuk, L.; Podziewski, A.

    2015-09-01

    In the paper we present a successful joint transmission of the IEEE 802.11 signal and an optical Gbit Ethernet over a multimode fiber based link. Most importantly, the multiplexation of both signals was performed in the optical domain. Due to the utilization of the multimode fiber the OBI noise was avoided and both channels were able to operate at the same wavelength. We prove that potential RoF link for IEEE 802.11 signal distribution may be used to additionally transmit other signals as Gbit Ethernet and therefore utilize the fiber infrastructure installed more effectively. The qualities of both the IEEE 802.11 and Ethernet transmissions fulfilled the requirements imposed by appropriate standards.

  4. A Cross-Layer Key Management Scheme for MIPv6 Fast Handover over IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seop Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new key management and security scheme is proposed to integrate Layer Two (L2 and Layer Three (L3 keys for secure and fast Mobile IPv6 handover over IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN. Unlike the original IEEE 802.11-based Mobile IPv6 Fast Handover (FMIPv6 that requires time-consuming IEEE 802.1x-based Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP authentication on each L3 handover, the newly proposed key management and security scheme requires only one 802.1x-EAP regardless of how many L3 handovers occur. Therefore, the proposed scheme reduces the handover latency that results from a lengthy 802.1x-based EAP. The proposed key management and security scheme is extensively analyzed in terms of security and performance, and the proposed security scheme is shown to be more secure than those that were previously proposed.

  5. The London polonium poisoning: Events and medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 was an unprecedented event. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a physical half-life of 138 days. Dispersal of the material by the perpetrators and the victim resulted in widespread contamination that led to a trail across London and abroad. This resulted in a massive operation for health protection staff and the police service. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known for a number of weeks after admission to hospital indicates the difficulty in detecting alpha radiation. In this article, the sequence of events, the nature and uses of this radioactive element and the medical consequences of ingestion are outlined. The illicit use of radioactive materials raises important health and security issues. Medical and scientific staff in nuclear medicine and hospital emergency departments should be aware of these issues. (author)

  6. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  7. International Symposium for Thyroid Eye Disease (June 2016, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y. Sviridenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an International Symposium dedicated to the cutting edge research and achievements in Thyroid Eye Disease (TED diagnosis and treatment was held in London. The symposium was organized by the International Thyroid Eye Disease (ITEDs. It was attended EUGOGO, North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society (NANOS and Orbit Society members. The symposium was attended by leading experts in the field of ophthalmology, orbital surgery and endocrinology: Rebecca S. Bahn, Maarten Mourits, Claudio Marcocci, George Kahaly, Mario Salvi, Antony Weetman, Anja Eckstein, Daniel Rootman, Geoffrey Rose, Robert Goldberg and Susanne Pitz, as well as doctors, specializing in the field of endocrinology, ophthalmology, radiology and other specialties. The symposium program was focused on the discussion of TED pathogenesis, classification and new therapeutic and surgical approaches. TED problems discussed by more than 300 professionals (65% ophthalmologists, 18% ophthalmic surgeons and 17% endocrinologists. North America was represented by 50 delegates. Representation of other continents was not less impressive.

  8. The epidemiology of injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  9. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  10. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... London Harbor, New London, CT. The proposed RNA would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self.... 0170.1. This proposal would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as allow the Coast Guard to...

  11. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  12. 'Care and Prevent': rationale for investigating skin and soft tissue infections and AA amyloidosis among people who inject drugs in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Brathwaite, R; McGowan, Catherine R; Ciccarone, D; Gilchrist, G; McCusker, M; O'Brien, K; Dunn, J; Scott, J; Hope, V

    2018-05-08

    Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people who inject drugs (PWID). International data indicate up to one third of PWID have experienced an SSTI within the past month. Complications include sepsis, endocarditis and amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. AA amyloidosis is a serious sequela of chronic SSTI among PWID. Though there is a paucity of literature reporting on AA amyloidosis among PWID, what has been published suggests there is likely a causal relationship between AA amyloidosis and injecting-related SSTI. If left untreated, AA amyloidosis can lead to renal failure; premature mortality among diagnosed PWID is high. Early intervention may reverse disease. Despite the high societal and individual burden of SSTI among PWID, empirical evidence on the barriers and facilitators to injecting-related SSTI prevention and care or the feasibility and acceptability of AA amyloidosis screening and treatment referral are limited. This study aims to fill these gaps and assess the prevalence of AA amyloidosis among PWID. Care and Prevent is a UK National Institute for Health Research-funded mixed-methods study. In five phases (P1-P5), we aim to assess the evidence for AA amyloidosis among PWID (P1); assess the feasibility of AA amyloidosis screening, diagnostic and treatment referral among PWID in London (P2); investigate the barriers and facilitators to AA amyloidosis care (P3); explore SSTI protection and risk (P4); and co-create harm reduction resources with the affected community (P5). This paper describes the conceptual framework, methodological design and proposed analysis for the mixed-methods multi-phase study. We are implementing the Care and Prevent protocol in London. The systematic review component of the study has been completed and published. Care and Prevent will generate an estimate of AA amyloidosis prevalence among community recruited PWID in London, with implications for the development of screening

  13. Technology status review and carbon abatement potential of renewable transport fuels in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J; Bauen, A

    2003-07-01

    The document reviews the technology for the production of renewable transport fuels (RTFs) and includes a discussion on the costs of the different RTF options and the role they might play in helping reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The motivation for using RTFs in the UK are (1) to reduce transport sector costs; (2) reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (3) improve air quality; (4) improve energy security in the transport sector and (5) assist rural development through domestic production of biomass-based fuels. The RTFs of most interest at present are ethanol produced in the fermentation of sugar and starchy crops, and biodiesel from oil crops. Figures for the UK potential for RTFs are given. It is pointed out however that given the finite availability of renewable sources and the competition for other applications, the use of RTFs will need to be efficient for sustainability. The report was prepared by Imperial College London as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme.

  14. Impact of London's road traffic air and noise pollution on birth weight: retrospective population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel B; Fecht, Daniela; Gulliver, John; Beevers, Sean D; Dajnak, David; Blangiardo, Marta; Ghosh, Rebecca E; Hansell, Anna L; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Toledano, Mireille B

    2017-12-05

    Objective  To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes. Design  Retrospective population based cohort study. Setting  Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km 2 ), UK, from 2006 to 2010. Participants  540 365 singleton term live births. Main outcome measures  Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight. Results  Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 μg/m 3 nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), 73 μg/m 3 nitrogen oxides (NO x ), 14 μg/m 3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , and source specific PM 2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM 2.5 traffic exhaust ) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM 2.5 traffic non-exhaust ) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM 2.5 traffic exhaust and PM 2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM 2.5 >13.8 μg/m 3 during pregnancy. Conclusions  The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. IEEE Xplore® Digital Library - Evolving to Meet YOUR Changing Needs

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Представлена презентация доклада "Использование платформы IEEE Digital Library: уникальные научные публикации в области электроники, радиосвязи, вычислительной техники, информационных технологий, энергетики, машиностроения, физики, химии, геологии, нанотехнологий" Эстер Лукаш, специалиста по обучению IEEE (Германия), на семинаре «Использование платформы IEEE Digital Library», прошедшем 02 октября 2014 года в УрФУ, на английском языке....

  16. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  17. Globalisation and Transnational Teachers: South African Teacher Migration to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhana Manik

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalisation of the world markets has paved the way for the movement of people with scarce skills such as teachers across national boundaries with relative ease. This paper focuses on the migration of teachers from South Africa to the UK using a qualitative, ethnographic approach. It argues that there are socio-cultural complexities in the transnational migration of SA teachers. It begins by identifying the reasons for teachers exiting the SA teaching fraternity to work in schools in London in the UK. Teachers’ experiences in the UK schools are then explored. The study revealed that teachers leaving SA had multiple reasons for going abroad. The migration of teachers from SA to the UK was influenced by the declining economic status of teaching as a profession in SA, and global labour market conditions. The majority of the migrant teachers who were interviewed had an existing social network in the UK, either friends or relatives. However, the gravity of teaching in a foreign country without next of kin took its toll and teachers spoke at length of the loneliness of being apart from immediate family. An overwhelming majority of migrant teachers experienced a culture shock in UK classrooms, especially discipline problems. Migrant teachers felt powerless, as UK policies tend to protect children, even if they misbehaved in the classroom. The paper concludes by highlighting the commodification of teachers; those who are able to trade their skills in a global market in return for socio-economic and career gains. The arrival of this breed of teacher is also facilitated by what D. Harvey terms the “time-space compression” of global society.

  18. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reena Aggarwal,1,2 Tim Swanwick2 1Women's Health, Whittington Health, London, UK; 2Health Education England, North Central and East London, London, UK Abstract: Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an "operating core" of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing "leaders", to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a "heroic" individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are "leader-ful" and not just "well led" and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline. Keywords: National Health Service, junior doctors, quality improvement, management, health care

  19. Can EC and UK national methane emission inventories be verified using high precision stable isotope data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Holmes, C.W.; Nisbet, E.G.; Rata, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The main anthropogenic sources of methane in industrialised countries (landfill/waste treatment, gas storage and distribution, coal) are far easier to reduce than CO 2 sources and the implementation of reduction strategies is potentially profitable. Statistical databases of methane emissions need independent external verification and carbon isotope data provide one way of estimating the expected source mix for each country if the main source types have been characterised isotopically. Using this method each country participating in the CORINAIR 94 database has been assigned an expected isotopic value for its emissions. The averaged δ 13 C of methane emitted from the CORINAIR region of Europe, based on total emissions of each country is -55.4 per mille for 1994. This European source mix can be verified using trajectory analysis for air samples collected at background stations. Methane emissions from the UK, and particularly the London region, have undergone more detailed analysis using data collected at the Royal Holloway site on the western fringe of London. If the latest emissions inventory figures are correct then the modelled isotopic change in the UK source mix is from -48.4 per mille in 1990 to -50.7 per mille in 1997. This represents a reduction in emissions of 25% over a 7-year period, important in meeting proposed UK greenhouse gas reduction targets. These changes can be tested by the isotopic analysis of air samples at carefully selected coastal background and interior sites. Regular sampling and isotopic analysis coupled with back trajectory analysis from a range of sites could provide an important tool for monitoring and verification of EC and UK methane emissions in the run-up to 2010. (author)

  20. Fault-Tolerant Topology and Routing Synthesis for IEEE Time-Sensitive Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavrilut, Voica Maria; Zarrin, Bahram; Pop, Paul

    2017-01-01

    of the applications are satisffied. We propose three approaches to solve this optimization problem: (1) a heuristic solution, (2) a Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP) metaheuristic, and (3) a Constraint Programmingbased model. The approaches are evaluated on several test cases, including a test case......Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of IEEE standards that extend Ethernet for safety-critical and real-time applications. TSN is envisioned to be widely used in several applications areas, from industrial automation to in-vehicle networking. A TSN network is composed of end systems...... interconnected by physical links and bridges (switches). The data in TSN is exchanged via streams. We address safety-critical real-time systems, and we consider that the streams use the Urgency-Based Scheduler (UBS) traffic-type, suitable for hard real-time traffic. We are interested in determining a fault...