WorldWideScience

Sample records for idl dp devil

  1. Idling Reduction for Personal Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-07

    Fact sheet on reducing engine idling in personal vehicles. Idling your vehicle--running your engine when you're not driving it--truly gets you nowhere. Idling reduces your vehicle's fuel economy, costs you money, and creates pollution. Idling for more than 10 seconds uses more fuel and produces more emissions that contribute to smog and climate change than stopping and restarting your engine does.

  2. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  3. Dust devil generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G Onishchenko, O; A Pokhotelov, O; Horton, W; Stenflo, L

    2014-01-01

    The equations describing axi-symmetric nonlinear internal gravity waves in an unstable atmosphere are derived. A hydrodynamic model of a dust devil generation mechanism in such an atmosphere is investigated. It is shown that in an unstably stratified atmosphere the convective plumes with poloidal motion can grow exponentially. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak large scale toroidal motion are unstable with respect to three-dimensional dust devil generation. (papers)

  4. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  5. The devil's gentle bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book, written by a non-specialist and first published as an anti-atom book entitled Tomorrow the devil is coming to get you, tries to supply the reader with difficult topical information and well-grounded scientific statements which are presented in a popular form. (HP) [de

  6. Idling is Not the Way to Go

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    Researchers estimate that idling from heavy-duty and light-duty vehicles combined wastes about 6 billion gallons of fuel annually. Many states have put restrictions on idling, especially in metropolitan areas. Clearly, idling is not the way to go.

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-17 - Idle facilities and idle capacity costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... workload; or (2) Were necessary when acquired and are now idle because of changes in requirements..., or sale, in accordance with sound business, economics, or security practices. Widespread idle...

  8. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  9. Teaching and Avocations: An Idle Mind Is the Devil's Workshop Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that teachers at any career stage can use hobbies to regenerate the soul, ward off stress, and allow one to return to work refreshed. Notes that teachers can use their own hobbies to enhance student learning and encourage students to develop interests in useful and fulfilling avocations. (RS)

  10. Idle minds are the devil's tools? Coping, depressed mood and divergent thinking in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélendez, Juan Carlos; Alfonso-Benlliure, Vicente; Mayordomo, Teresa

    2017-10-20

    The main aim was to test a causal relations model of the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping styles, depressed mood, and divergent thinking (DT) in older adults. It was hypothesized that both forms of coping would have a significant effect on predicting depressed mood, and that problem-focused coping and depressed mood would have a significant effect on DT. Participants were 135 subjects with ages ranging between 55 and 84 years old, who took part in a personal interview and filled out several questionnaires. The statistical analysis included structural equations models (SEM). The initial model led to a final model endorsed by the goodness of fit, composite reliability, and discriminant validity indexes. This model confirms a direct relationship between the two types of coping strategies and depressed mood (with the opposite sign), but not between rational coping and DT. Finally, depressed mood was also confirmed as a mediator variable between coping and DT. The type of coping is a clear predictor of mood in older adults. Advanced age decline is not necessarily translated into inefficacy in everyday problem solving especially in those who, through proble-focused coping, avoid depressed moods and maintain good levels of DT.

  11. Anti-idling campaign : Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-11-01

    The efficient use of transportation fuels and other petroleum products is being promoted by the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute. The Institute was busy during the past year in attempting to gain an understanding of the measures that could be adopted to assist motorists clearly identify the relationship between fuel consumption, personal transportation spending, and environmental impacts. The Institute undertook these efforts with Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Office of Energy Efficiency (which both provided funding) and the Public Policy Forum. A first step proposed was the development of an anti-idling public awareness campaign. It was recognized that idling a vehicle for more than ten seconds costs money and wastes fuel, while simultaneously contributing to air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and climate change. The campaign also involved Esso, Shell, Petro-Canada, Canadian Tire and Sunoco for the development and implementation phases over the last two weeks of August 2002. A pilot campaign was tested in Mississauga, Ontario. Various materials were used for this campaign, such as posters, banners, cling vinyl window decals, air fresheners and information cards. The main successes of the campaign were: testing the methods of communicating the anti-idling message to drivers at gasoline retailing sites, increasing awareness among the driving public concerning the problems resulting from excessive idling, and encouraging the reduction of idling whenever and wherever it takes place. 1 tab.

  12. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".

  13. Devil's staircase in Kondo semimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, K.; Shibata, N.; Science Univ. of Tokyo; Ishii, C.

    1996-01-01

    Complex magnetic phase diagrams of the trivalent cerium monopnictides are widely known as an example of the devil's staircase. We present an effective Hamiltonian for CeX which explains their complex magnetic phase diagrams in a unified way. The effective Hamiltonian consists of semimetallic conduction bands and localized f spins. A new feature is the inter-band transitions with spin exchange which frustrates with the usual intra-band Kondo couplings. (orig.)

  14. The IDA-LIKE peptides IDL6 and IDL7 are negative modulators of stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vie, Ane Kjersti; Najafi, Javad; Winge, Per; Cattan, Ester; Wrzaczek, Michael; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko; Miller, Gad; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2017-06-15

    Small signalling peptides have emerged as important cell to cell messengers in plant development and stress responses. However, only a few of the predicted peptides have been functionally characterized. Here, we present functional characterization of two members of the IDA-LIKE (IDL) peptide family in Arabidopsis thaliana, IDL6 and IDL7. Localization studies suggest that the peptides require a signal peptide and C-terminal processing to be correctly transported out of the cell. Both IDL6 and IDL7 appear to be unstable transcripts under post-transcriptional regulation. Treatment of plants with synthetic IDL6 and IDL7 peptides resulted in down-regulation of a broad range of stress-responsive genes, including early stress-responsive transcripts, dominated by a large group of ZINC FINGER PROTEIN (ZFP) genes, WRKY genes, and genes encoding calcium-dependent proteins. IDL7 expression was rapidly induced by hydrogen peroxide, and idl7 and idl6 idl7 double mutants displayed reduced cell death upon exposure to extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Co-treatment of the bacterial elicitor flg22 with IDL7 peptide attenuated the rapid ROS burst induced by treatment with flg22 alone. Taken together, our results suggest that IDL7, and possibly IDL6, act as negative modulators of stress-induced ROS signalling in Arabidopsis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Coronal Magnetism and Forward Solarsoft Idl Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The FORWARD suite of Solar Soft IDL codes is a community resource for model-data comparison, with a particular emphasis on analyzing coronal magnetic fields. FORWARD may be used both to synthesize a broad range of coronal observables, and to access and compare to existing data. FORWARD works with numerical model datacubes, interfaces with the web-served Predictive Science Inc MAS simulation datacubes and the Solar Soft IDL Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) package, and also includes several analytic models (more can be added). It connects to the Virtual Solar Observatory and other web-served observations to download data in a format directly comparable to model predictions. It utilizes the CHIANTI database in modeling UV/EUV lines, and links to the CLE polarimetry synthesis code for forbidden coronal lines. FORWARD enables "forward-fitting" of specific observations, and helps to build intuition into how the physical properties of coronal magnetic structures translate to observable properties.

  16. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  17. Interactive data language (IDL) for medical image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Md Saion Salikin

    2002-01-01

    Interactive Data Language (IDL) is one of many softwares available in the market for medical image processing and analysis. IDL is a complete, structured language that can be used both interactively and to create sophisticated functions, procedures, and applications. It provides a suitable processing routines and display method which include animation, specification of colour table including 24-bit capability, 3-D visualization and many graphic operation. The important features of IDL for medical imaging are segmentation, visualization, quantification and pattern recognition. In visualization IDL is capable of allowing greater precision and flexibility when visualizing data. For example, IDL eliminates the limits on Number of Contour level. In term of data analysis, IDL is capable of handling complicated functions such as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, Hough and Radon Transform function, Legendre Polynomial function, as well as simple functions such as Histogram function. In pattern recognition, pattern description is defined as points rather than pixels. With this functionality, it is easy to re-use the same pattern on more than one destination device (even if the destinations have varying resolution). In other words it have the ability to specify values in points. However there are a few disadvantages of using IDL. Licensing is by dongkel key and limited licences hence limited access to potential IDL users. A few examples are shown to demonstrate the capabilities of IDL in carrying out its function for medical image processing. (Author)

  18. Remote Data Exploration with the Interactive Data Language (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A difficulty for many NASA researchers is that often the data to analyze is located remotely from the scientist and the data is too large to transfer for local analysis. Researchers have developed the Data Access Protocol (DAP) for accessing remote data. Presently one can use DAP from within IDL, but the IDL-DAP interface is both limited and cumbersome. A more powerful and user-friendly interface to DAP for IDL has been developed. Users are able to browse remote data sets graphically, select partial data to retrieve, import that data and make customized plots, and have an interactive IDL command line session simultaneous with the remote visualization. All of these IDL-DAP tools are usable easily and seamlessly for any IDL user. IDL and DAP are both widely used in science, but were not easily used together. The IDL DAP bindings were incomplete and had numerous bugs that prevented their serious use. For example, the existing bindings did not read DAP Grid data, which is the organization of nearly all NASA datasets currently served via DAP. This project uniquely provides a fully featured, user-friendly interface to DAP from IDL, both from the command line and a GUI application. The DAP Explorer GUI application makes browsing a dataset more user-friendly, while also providing the capability to run user-defined functions on specified data. Methods for running remote functions on the DAP server were investigated, and a technique for accomplishing this task was decided upon.

  19. Idleness, returns to education and child labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raimundo Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although recent trends about child labor are positive, see ILO (2006, there still are important shortcomings which require further investigation. Among them, the exclusion of the category "idle children" (those who neither work nor study from past studies, as well as the lack of reliable information on returns to education are two significant omissions. By using a data base that contains details on idle children and a proxy for the returns to education, we find evidence that confirms traditional findings both with regard to the strong positive effect of parental background and to the positive relationship between the number of children in the household and child labor. On the other hand, our estimates point out new insights, such as the great regional variation of estimates and the fact that the Body Mass Index effect is positive. Finally, we suggest a new perspective on the issue of "street children" through the analysis of the category of "idle children".Apesar das recentes tendências sobre trabalho infantil serem positivas, ver ILO (2006, há importantes deficiências no entendimento do fenômeno. A exclusão da categoria "crianças desocupadas" (não trabalham e nem estudam em estudos passados, como também a ausência de informações fidedignas sobre retornos da educação são importantes omissões. Utilizando uma base de dados mais detalhada, bem como uma proxy para retornos da educação encontramos evidências que confirmam resultados tradicionais como o efeito positivo das características dos pais e a relação positiva entre o número de crianças, no trabalho infantil. Por outro lado, apontamos para novos entendimentos, como o fato da variável Índice de Massa Corporal possuir efeito positivo e a grande variação regional dos efeitos das estimativas. Por fim, sugerimos uma nova perspectiva sobre a questão das "crianças de rua" através da análise da categoria de "crianças desocupadas".

  20. Case Study – Idling Reduction Technologies for Emergency Service Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Owens, Russell J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This case study explores the use of idle reduction technologies (IRTs) on emergency service vehicles in police, fire, and ambulance applications. Various commercially available IRT systems and approaches can decrease, or ultimately eliminate, engine idling. Fleets will thus save money on fuel, and will also decrease their criteria pollutant emissions, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise.

  1. Ecology: 'Devil's gardens' bedevilled by ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E; Greene, Michael J; Gordon, Deborah M

    2005-09-22

    'Devil's gardens' are large stands of trees in the Amazonian rainforest that consist almost entirely of a single species, Duroia hirsuta, and, according to local legend, are cultivated by an evil forest spirit. Here we show that the ant Myrmelachista schumanni, which nests in D. hirsuta stems, creates devil's gardens by poisoning all plants except its host plants with formic acid. By killing these other plants, M. schumanni provides its colonies with abundant nest sites--a long-lasting benefit as colonies can live for 800 years.

  2. Regression of devil facial tumour disease following immunotherapy in immunised Tasmanian devils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovar, Cesar; Pye, Ruth J; Kreiss, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer devastating the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) population. The cancer cell is the 'infectious' agent transmitted as an allograft by biting. Animals usually die within a few months with no evidence of antibody or immune cell...... responses against the DFTD allograft. This lack of anti-tumour immunity is attributed to an absence of cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecule expression. While the endangerment of the devil population precludes experimentation on large experimental groups, those examined in our study...... indicated that immunisation and immunotherapy with DFTD cells expressing surface MHC-I corresponded with effective anti-tumour responses. Tumour engraftment did not occur in one of the five immunised Tasmanian devils, and regression followed therapy of experimentally induced DFTD tumours in three Tasmanian...

  3. Escaping Devil's Island: Confronting Racism, Learning History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Carl A.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that African Americans, especially males living in urban areas, are physically and mentally trapped on a Devil's Island. The penal colony on the coast of French Guiana is a metaphor for the boundaries and constraints that close off opportunities and constrain African American historical knowledge. The article argues that…

  4. Caterpillar MorElectric DOE Idle Reduction Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Bernardi

    2007-09-30

    This project titled 'Demonstration of the New MorElectric{trademark} Technology as an Idle Reduction Solution' is one of four demonstration projects awarded by the US Department of Energy in 2002. The goal of these demonstration and evaluation projects was to gather objective in-use information on the performance of available idle reduction technologies by characterizing the cost; fuel, maintenance, and engine life savings; payback; and user impressions of various systems and techniques. In brief, the Caterpillar Inc. project involved applying electrically driven accessories for cab comfort during engine-off stops and for reducing fuel consumption during on-highway operation. Caterpillar had equipped and operated five new trucks with the technology in conjunction with International Truck and Engine Corporation and COX Transfer. The most significant result of the project was a demonstrated average idle reduction of 13.8% for the 5 truck MEI fleet over the control fleet. It should be noted that the control fleet trucks were also equipped with an idle reduction device that would start and stop the main engine automatically in order to maintain cab temperature. The control fleet idle usage would have been reduced by 3858 hours over the 2 year period with the MEI system installed, or approximately 2315 gallons of fuel less (calculations assume a fuel consumption of 0.6 gallons per hour for the 13 liter engine at idle). The fuel saved will be significantly larger for higher displacement engines without idle reduction equipment such as the engine auto start/stop device used by COX Transfer. It is common for engines to consume 1.0 gallons per hour which would increase the fuel savings to approximately 1260 gallons per truck per year of typical idling (1800 hours idle/yr).

  5. The Electric Environment of Martian Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, E. L.; Farrell, W. M.; Rafkin, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    While Martian dust devils have been monitored through decades of observations, we have yet to study their possible electrical effects from in situ instrumentation. However, evidence for the existence of active electrodynamic processes on Mars is provided by laboratory studies of analog material and field campaigns of dust devils on Earth. We have enabled our Mars regional scale atmospheric model (MRAMS) to estimate an upper limit on electric fields generated through dust devil circulations by including charged particles as defined from the Macroscopic Triboelectric Simulation (MTS) code. MRAMS is used to investigate the complex physics of regional, mesoscale, and microscale atmospheric phenomena on Mars; it is a 3-D, nonhydrostatic model, which permits the simulation of atmospheric flows with large vertical accelerations, such as dust devils. MTS is a 3-D particle code which quantifies charging associated with swirling, mixing dust grains; grains of pre-defined sizes and compositions are placed in a simulation box and allowed to move under the influence of winds and gravity. Our MRAMS grid cell size makes our results most applicable to dust devils of a few hundred meters in diameter. We have run a number of simulations to understand the sensitivity of the electric field strength to the particle size and abundance and the amount of charge on each dust grain. We find that Efields can indeed develop in Martian dust convective features via dust grain filtration effects. The overall value of these E-fields is strongly dependent upon dust grain size, dust load, and lifting efficiency, and field strengths can range from 100s of mV/m to 10s of kV/m.

  6. Bargaining and idle public sector capacity in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Pedro Pita

    2005-01-01

    A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co−existence of a públic and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis−à−vis the private provider, under the assumption of a...

  7. Bargaining and idle public sector capacity in health care

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Martinez-Giralt; Barros Pedro Pita

    2005-01-01

    A feature present in countries with a National Health Service is the co-existence of a public and a private sector. Often, the public payer contracts with private providers while holding idle capacity. This is often seen as inefficiency from the management of public facilities. We present here a different rationale for the existence of such idle capacity: the public sector may opt to have idle capacity as a way to gain bargaining power vis-Ã -vis the private provider, under the assumption of ...

  8. The Tasmanian devil microbiome-implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Hogg, Carolyn; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2015-12-21

    The Tasmanian devil, the world's largest carnivorous marsupial, is at risk of extinction due to devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a fatal contagious cancer. The Save the Tasmanian Devil Program has established an insurance population, which currently holds over 600 devils in captive facilities across Australia. Microbes are known to play a crucial role in the health and well-being of humans and other animals, and increasing evidence suggests that changes in the microbiota can influence various aspects of host physiology and development. To improve our understanding of devils and facilitate management and conservation of the species, we characterised the microbiome of wild devils and investigated differences in the composition of microbial community between captive and wild individuals. A total of 1,223,550 bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences were generated via Roche 454 sequencing from 56 samples, including 17 gut, 15 skin, 18 pouch and 6 oral samples. The devil's gut microbiome was dominated by Firmicutes and showed a high Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, which appears to be a common feature of many carnivorous mammals. Metabolisms of carbohydrates, amino acids, energy, cofactors and vitamins, nucleotides and lipids were predicted as the most prominent metabolic pathways that the devil's gut flora contributed to. The microbiota inside the female's pouch outside lactation was highly similar to that of the skin, both co-dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The oral microbiome had similar proportions of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria. Compositional differences were observed in all four types of microbiota between devils from captive and wild populations. Certain captive devils had significantly lower levels of gut bacterial diversity than wild individuals, and the two groups differed in the proportion of gut bacteria accounting for the metabolism of glycan, amino acids and cofactors and vitamins. Further studies are

  9. The devil is in the details: Transposable element analysis of the Tasmanian devil genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    The third marsupial genome was sequenced from the Tasmanian devil ( Sarcophilus harrisii ), a species that currently is driven to extinction by a rare transmissible cancer. The transposable element (TE) landscape of the Tasmanian devil genome revealed that the main driver of retrotransposition the L ong IN terspersed E lement 1 (LINE1) seem to have become inactivated during the past 12 million years. Strangely, the S hort IN terspersed E lements (SINE), that normally hijacks the LINE1 retrotransposition system, became inactive prior to LINE1 at around 30 million years ago. The SINE inactivation was in vitro verified in several species. Here I discuss that the apparent LINE1 inactivation might be caused by a genome assembly artifact. The repetitive fraction of any genome is highly complex to assemble and the observed problems are not unique to the Tasmanian devil genome.

  10. Sympathy for the devil: a conservation strategy for devil and manta rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Lawson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background International trade for luxury products, medicines, and tonics poses a threat to both terrestrial and marine wildlife. The demand for and consumption of gill plates (known as Peng Yu Sai, “Fish Gill of Mobulid Ray” from devil and manta rays (subfamily Mobulinae, collectively referred to as mobulids poses a significant threat to these marine fishes because of their extremely low productivity. The demand for these gill plates has driven an international trade supplied by largely unmonitored and unregulated catches from target and incidental fisheries around the world. Scientific research, conservation campaigns, and legal protections for devil rays have lagged behind those for manta rays despite similar threats across all mobulids. Methods To investigate the difference in attention given to devil rays and manta rays, we examined trends in the scientific literature and updated species distribution maps for all mobulids. Using available information on target and incidental fisheries, and gathering information on fishing and trade regulations (at international, national, and territorial levels, we examined how threats and protective measures overlap with species distribution. We then used a species conservation planning approach to develop the Global Devil and Manta Ray Conservation Strategy, specifying a vision, goals, objectives, and actions to advance the knowledge and protection of both devil and manta rays. Results and Discussion Our literature review revealed that there had been nearly 2.5-times more “manta”-titled publications, than “mobula” or “devil ray”-titled publications over the past 4.5 years (January 2012–June 2016. The majority of these recent publications were reports on occurrence of mobulid species. These publications contributed to updated Area of Occupancy and Extent of Occurrence maps which showed expanded distributions for most mobulid species and overlap between the two genera. While several

  11. Temporal and spatial characteristics of dust devils and their contribution to the aerosol budget in East Asia-An analysis using a new parameterization scheme for dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yaoguo; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaohuan

    2018-06-01

    Dust aerosols are the main aerosol components of the atmosphere that affect climate change, but the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget is uncertain. In this study, a new parameterization scheme for dust devils was established and coupled with WRF-Chem, and the diurnal and monthly variations and the contribution of dust devils to the atmospheric dust aerosol budget in East Asia was simulated. The results show that 1) both the diurnal and monthly variations in dust devil emissions in East Asia had unimodal distributions, with peaks in the afternoon and the summer that were similar to the observations; 2) the simulated dust devils occurred frequently in deserts, including the Gobi. The distributed area and the intensity center of the dust devil moved from east to west during the day; 3) the ratio between the availability of convective buoyancy relative to the frictional dissipation was the main factor that limited the presence of dust devils. The position of the dust devil formation, the surface temperature, and the boundary layer height determined the dust devil intensity; 4) the contribution of dust devils to atmospheric dust aerosols determined in East Asia was 30.4 ± 13%, thereby suggesting that dust devils contribute significantly to the total amount of atmospheric dust aerosols. Although the new parameterization scheme for dust devils was rough, it was helpful for understanding the distribution of dust devils and their contribution to the dust aerosol budget.

  12. The Gothic Folk Devils Strike Back! Theorizing Folk Devil Reaction in the Post-Columbine Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Folk devils have to date been significantly overlooked in previous studies of moral panics. While several studies have called attention to this problematic (Thornton and McRobbie 1995, De Young 2004, Lumsden 2009), no specific theoretical framework has been proposed for reading this dimension of a moral panic. This paper argues that a moral panic…

  13. Cosmic Ballet or Devil's Mask?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Stars like our Sun are members of galaxies, and most galaxies are themselves members of clusters of galaxies. In these, they move around among each other in a mostly slow and graceful ballet. But every now and then, two or more of the members may get too close for comfort - the movements become hectic, sometimes indeed dramatic, as when galaxies end up colliding. ESO PR Photo 12/04 shows an example of such a cosmic tango. This is the superb triple system NGC 6769-71, located in the southern Pavo constellation (the Peacock) at a distance of 190 million light-years. This composite image was obtained on April 1, 2004, the day of the Fifth Anniversary of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT). It was taken in the imaging mode of the VIsible Multi-Object Spectrograph (VIMOS) on Melipal, one of the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes of the VLT at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). The two upper galaxies, NGC 6769 (upper right) and NGC 6770 (upper left), are of equal brightness and size, while NGC 6771 (below) is about half as bright and slightly smaller. All three galaxies possess a central bulge of similar brightness. They consist of elderly, reddish stars and that of NGC 6771 is remarkable for its "boxy" shape, a rare occurrence among galaxies. Gravitational interaction in a small galaxy group NGC 6769 is a spiral galaxy with very tightly wound spiral arms, while NGC 6770 has two major spiral arms, one of which is rather straight and points towards the outer disc of NGC 6769. NGC 6770 is also peculiar in that it presents two comparatively straight dark lanes and a fainter arc that curves towards the third galaxy, NGC 6771 (below). It is also obvious from this new VLT photo that stars and gas have been stripped off NGC 6769 and NGC 6770, starting to form a common envelope around them, in the shape of a Devil's Mask. There is also a weak hint of a tenuous bridge between NGC 6769 and NGC 6771. All of these features testify to strong gravitational interaction between the three galaxies

  14. Impact of idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions and available idle-reduction technologies for diesel vehicles – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M. Ashrafur; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Abedin, M.J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper we reviewed the impact of diesel vehicles idling on fuel consumption and exhaust emission. • Fuel consumption and emissions during idling are very high compared to driving cycle. • The effects of various operating on fuel consumption and exhaust emission were discussed. • Available idle-reduction technologies impact on idling fuel consumption and emissions were discussed. • Idling reduction technologies reduce fuel consumption and emissions significantly. - Abstract: In order to maintain cab comfort truck drivers have to idle their engine to obtain the required power for accessories, such as the air conditioner, heater, television, refrigerator, and lights. This idling of the engine has a major impact on its fuel consumption and exhaust emission. Idling emissions can be as high as 86.4 g/h, 16,500 g/h, 5130 g/h, 4 g/h, and 375 g/h for HC, CO 2 , CO, PM, and NOx, respectively. Idling fuel consumption rate can be as high as 1.85 gal/h. The accessory loading, truck model, fuel-injection system, ambient temperature, idling speed, etc., also affect significantly the emission levels and fuel consumption rate. An increase in accessory loading and ambient temperature increases the emissions and fuel consumption. During idling, electronic fuel-injection systems reduce HC, PM, and CO emission, but increase NOx emissions compared with a mechanical fuel-injection system. An increase of idling speed increases fuel consumption rate. There are many systems available on the market to reduce engine idling and improve air quality and fuel consumption rate, such as an auxiliary power unit (APU), truck stop electrification, thermal storage systems, fuel cells, and direct fire heaters. A direct fire heater reduces fuel consumption by 94–96% and an APU reduces consumption by 60–87%. Furthermore, these technologies increase air quality significantly by reducing idling emissions, which is the reason why they are considered as key alternatives to

  15. Optimization of Steering System of Forklift Vehicle for Idle Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal design process for the steering system of a forklift vehicle. An efficient procedure for minimizing the engine-induced idle vibration is developed in this study. Reciprocating unbalance and gas pressure torque as two major sources of engine excitation are studied. Using the field vibration tests and FEM analysis, the cause and characteristics of steering system’s idle vibration are recognized. So as to distribute the characteristic modes based on the optimization strategy, global sensitivity analysis of the main parameters is also carried out to achieve the optimal combination of the optimization factors. Based on all analysis above, some structure modifications for optimization are presented to control the idle vibration. The effectiveness and rationality of the improvements are also verified through experimental prototyping testing. This study also makes it possible to provide a design guideline using CAE (computer aided engineering analysis for some other objects.

  16. Idling operation apparatus for multicylinder fuel injection engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanahira, A

    1974-11-20

    A device to cut off the fuel supply to a number of cylinders at idling is described for those engines equipped with multicylinder fuel injection systems. The discontinuation of the fuel gas supply to the cylinders is made by a magnetically operated valve which is related to the accelerator. When the engine is idling, a switch activates the magnetic valve and the tube leading to the cylinder closes while a valve on the tube leading to a dual tank opens, and the pumped gas returns to the tank. This valve is installed on several cylinders, but not on all. Thus, at idling only a certain number of cylinders are firing, which lowers the hydrocarbon levels in the exhaust gas since non-firing cylinders intake and discharge only air.

  17. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the HLA-DP subregion and correlations to HLA-DP phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J.J.; Morling, N.; Oedum, N.; Ryder, L.P.; Platz, P.; Jakobsen, B.; Svejgaard, A.

    1987-01-01

    The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the class II HLA-DP subregion of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of humans has been unraveled by Southern blotting using DP/sub α/ and DP/sub β/ probes in a study of 46 unrelated individuals with known HLA-DP types. Contrary to earlier preliminary findings with a limited number of enzymes, the RFLP appears to be quite extensive both with the DP/sub β/ (14 different DNA markers defined by individual fragments or clusters thereof) and the DP/sub α/ (8 markers) probes, especially when enzyme recognizing only four base pairs were used. A few markers were absolutely or strongly associated with individual DP antigens, whereas most were associated with two or more DP antigens as defined by primed lymphocyte typing. Thus, Southern blotting seems feasible for typing for most DP determinants by specific fragments or subtraction between the various more broadly reactive DNA markers, and the RFLP provides further information on the DP subregion in addition to that provided by primed lymphocyte typing. In two recombinant families, the DP/sub β/ and DP/sub α/ DNA markers segregated with DP antigens, whereas the DR/sub β/, DQ/sub β/, DQ/sub α/, and DX/sub α/ markers followed the DR and DQ antigens

  18. The Economy of God and the Politics of the Devil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    as acts of evil, incorporated by the devil, who by his interventions postpone the future to the future. The modern form of tourism spanning the globe is tested as an example of both the power and the limits of Luhmannian systems theory, as tourism is a synchronous development emerging throughout the world...... of the limit of Gods eternal economy of grace by the actions of the fallen angel Lucifer, the Christian devil. In conclusion, the paper discusses how the ancient distinction between the Christian God and the Devil still shows its presence in the basic concept of Luhmannian systems theory, and how it in turn...

  19. Easy web interfaces to IDL code for NSTX Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Web interfaces to IDL code can be developed quickly. ► Dozens of Web Tools are used effectively on NSTX for Data Analysis. ► Web interfaces are easier to use than X-window applications. - Abstract: Reusing code is a well-known Software Engineering practice to substantially increase the efficiency of code production, as well as to reduce errors and debugging time. A variety of “Web Tools” for the analysis and display of raw and analyzed physics data are in use on NSTX [1], and new ones can be produced quickly from existing IDL [2] code. A Web Tool with only a few inputs, and which calls an IDL routine written in the proper style, can be created in less than an hour; more typical Web Tools with dozens of inputs, and the need for some adaptation of existing IDL code, can be working in a day or so. Efficiency is also increased for users of Web Tools because of the familiar interface of the web browser, and not needing X-windows, or accounts and passwords, when used within our firewall. Web Tools were adapted for use by PPPL physicists accessing EAST data stored in MDSplus with only a few man-weeks of effort; adapting to additional sites should now be even easier. An overview of Web Tools in use on NSTX, and a list of the most useful features, is also presented.

  20. 40 CFR 86.1527 - Idle test procedure; overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... from a single exhaust pipe in which exhaust products are homogeneously mixed. The configuration for... additional “Y” pipe be placed in the exhaust system before dilution. [48 FR 52252, Nov. 16, 1983... determine the raw concentration (in percent) of CO in the exhaust flow at idle. The test procedure begins...

  1. Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, A; Röpke, C; Nielsen, M

    1996-01-01

    T lymphocytes, we examined whether human thymic epithelial cells (TEC) expressed HLA-DP molecules. We present evidence that TEC obtained from short time culture express low but significant levels of HLA-DP molecules. The expression of HLA-DP molecules was comparable to or higher than the expression...... of HLA-DP allospecific primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) CD4 T cell lines. IFN-gamma treatment strongly upregulated the HLA-DP allospecific PLT responses whereas other PLT responses remained largely unchanged. In conclusion, these data indicate that human thymus epithelial cells express significant levels...

  2. Study on the reactions dpdpπ+π- and dp → dnπ+ at 33 GeV/c in the hydrogen bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladashvili, B.S.; Glagolev, V.V.; Gorbunov, A.N.; Khairetdinov, K.U.; Lebedev, R.M.; Nioradze, M.S.; Saitov, I.S.; Streltsov, V.N.

    1975-01-01

    A narrow singularity is observed in the effective mass spectrum in the dpdpπ + π - and dp → dnπ + reactions at the incident deutron momentum of 3.3 GeV/c. The position and width of the singularity are (2,151+0.005) GeV and (13+6) MeV, respectively. The signal in the distribution of dπ + -mass at (2.294+0.005)GeV with the width of (47+13) MeV in reaction dp → dnπ + is identified as a kinematic effect

  3. Profibus DP : implementering av Profibus DP i en AVR-mikrokontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Junell, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Detta examensarbete handlar om att implementera Profibus DP i en Atmega644P mikrokontroller, och på så sätt få en Profibus DP-slav som kan användas i utbildningssyfte vid Yrkeshögskolan Novia. Detta examensarbete har inneburit att tillverka ett tilläggskort till det befintliga mikrokontrollerkortet för att kunna koppla in det till en fältbuss som använder sig av RS485-kommunikation. Det har även tillverkats en programkod för Profibus DP-kommunikation till själva mikrokontrollern för att den s...

  4. Using an Instrumented Drone to Sample Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Lorenz, Ralph; Davis, Karan; Lipple, Brock

    2017-10-01

    Dust devils are low-pressure, small (many to tens of meters) convective vortices powered by surface heating and rendered visible by lofted dust. Dust devils occur in arid climates on Earth, where they degrade air quality and pose a hazard to small aircraft. They also occur ubiquitously on Mars, where they may dominate the supply of atmospheric dust. Since dust contributes significantly to Mars’ atmospheric heat budget, dust devils probably play an important role in its climate. The dust-lifting capacity of a devil likely depends sensitively on its structure, particularly the wind and pressure profiles, but the exact dependencies are poorly constrained. Thus, the exact contribution to Mars’ atmosphere remains unresolved. Moreover, most previous studies of martian dust devils have relied on passive sampling of the profiles via meteorology packages on landed spacecraft, resulting in random encounter geometries which non-trivially skew the retrieved profiles. Analog studies of terrestrial devils have employed more active sampling (instrumented vehicles or manned aircraft) but have been limited to near-surface (few meters) or relatively high altitude (hundreds of meters) sampling. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones, combined with miniature, digital instrumentation, promise a novel and uniquely powerful platform from which to sample dust devils via (relatively) controlled geometries at a wide variety of altitudes. In this presentation, we will describe a pilot study using an instrumented quadcopter on an active field site in southeastern Oregon, which (to our knowledge) has not previously been surveyed for dust devils. We will present preliminary results from the resulting encounters, including stereo image analysis and encounter footage collected onboard the drone.

  5. An investigation of Martian and terrestrial dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringrose, Timothy John

    2004-10-01

    It is the purpose of this work to provide an insight into the theoretical and practical dynamics of dust devils and how they are detected remotely from orbit or in situ on planetary surfaces. There is particular interest in the detection of convective vortices on Mars; this has been driven by involvement in the development of the Beagle 2 Environmental Sensor Suite. This suite of sensors is essentially a martian weather station and will be the first planetary lander experiment specifically looking for the presence of dust devils on Mars. Dust devils are characterised by their visible dusty core and intense rotation. The physics of particle motion, including dust lofting and the rotational dynamics within convective vortices are explained and modelled. This modelling has helped in identifying dust devils in meteorological data from both terrestrial and martian investigations. An automated technique for dust devil detection using meteorological data has been developed. This technique searches data looking for the specific vortex signature as well as detecting other transient events. This method has been tested on both terrestrial and martian data with surprising results. 38 possible convective vortices were detected in the first 60 sols of the Viking Lander 2 meteorological data. Tests were also carried out on data from a terrestrial dust devil campaign, which provided conclusive evidence from visual observations of the reliability of this technique. A considerable amount of this work does focus on terrestrial vortices. This is to aid in the understanding of dust devils, specifically how, why and when they form. Both laboratory and terrestrial fieldwork is investigated, providing useful data on the general structure of dust devils.

  6. Gulf team delivers on DP drillship promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flatern, R von

    2001-06-01

    The technological achievements of the project by Amoco and BP to complete a deepwater subsea well in the Gulf of Mexico from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel are described. In 2000, the dual activity drillship, Discoverer Enterprise (owned by Transocean Sedco Forex), completed the Nile well in the Viosca Knoll area and then the King Well in Mississippi Canyon Block 85. Stringent safety and environmental protection criteria imposed by Amoco and BP drove the design of the Dril-Quip subsea wellhead to ensure that the wellhead profile and connector coped with the worst case scenario. BP also specified a disconnect system that would secure the well in less than a minute. The SenTREE 7 and Commander telemetry systems developed by Schlumberger, the components of the work string and test work with the Nile well to ensure BP conditions were met and that the perforation and surge procedure proceeded successfully are explained. The time reduction achieved by using large DP drillships and future BP plans are outlined.

  7. HLA-DP and bonemarrow transplantation: DP-incompatibility and severe acute graft versus host disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Platz, P; Jakobsen, B K

    1987-01-01

    The presence of activated T cells as judged from the reaction with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against (a) a late stage T cell activation antigen (VLA-1), (b) the interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (CD25), and (c) four different HLA class II molecules (HLA-DR, DRw52, DQ, and DP) was studied in 15...

  8. Characterization of PTO and Idle Behavior for Utility Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Adam W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Konan, Arnaud M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Eric S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-28

    This report presents the results of analyses performed on utility vehicle data composed primarily of aerial lift bucket trucks sampled from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to characterize power takeoff (PTO) and idle operating behavior for utility trucks. Two major data sources were examined in this study: a 75-vehicle sample of Odyne electric PTO (ePTO)-equipped vehicles drawn from multiple fleets spread across the United States and 10 conventional PTO-equipped Pacific Gas and Electric fleet vehicles operating in California. Novel data mining approaches were developed to identify PTO and idle operating states for each of the datasets using telematics and controller area network/onboard diagnostics data channels. These methods were applied to the individual datasets and aggregated to develop utilization curves and distributions describing PTO and idle behavior in both absolute and relative operating terms. This report also includes background information on the source vehicles, development of the analysis methodology, and conclusions regarding the study's findings.

  9. The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil's gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Megan E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2007-01-01

    Devil's gardens’ are nearly pure stands of the myrmecophyte, Duroia hirsuta, that occur in Amazonian rainforests. Devil's gardens are created by Myrmelachista schumanni ants, which nest in D. hirsuta trees and kill other plants using formic acid as an herbicide. Here, we show that this ant–plant mutualism has an associated cost; by making devil's gardens, M. schumanni increases herbivory on D. hirsuta. We measured standing leaf herbivory on D. hirsuta trees and found that they sustain higher herbivory inside than outside devil's gardens. We also measured the rate of herbivory on nursery-grown D. hirsuta saplings planted inside and outside devil's gardens in ant-exclusion and control treatments. We found that when we excluded ants, herbivory on D. hirsuta was higher inside than outside devil's gardens. These results suggest that devil's gardens are a concentrated resource for herbivores. Myrmelachista schumanni workers defend D. hirsuta against herbivores, but do not fully counterbalance the high herbivore pressure in devil's gardens. We suggest that high herbivory may limit the spread of devil's gardens, possibly explaining why devil's gardens do not overrun Amazonian rainforests. PMID:17301016

  10. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wait, Liana F; Fox, Samantha; Peck, Sarah; Power, Michelle L

    2017-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial found only in the wild in Tasmania, Australia. Tasmanian devils are classified as endangered and are currently threatened by devil facial tumour disease, a lethal transmissible cancer that has decimated the wild population in Tasmania. To prevent extinction of Tasmanian devils, conservation management was implemented in 2003 under the Save the Tasmanian Devil Program. This study aimed to assess if conservation management was altering the interactions between Tasmanian devils and their parasites. Molecular tools were used to investigate the prevalence and diversity of two protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, in Tasmanian devils. A comparison of parasite prevalence between wild and captive Tasmanian devils showed that both Cryptosporidium and Giardia were significantly more prevalent in wild devils (p Giardia was identified in 24.1% of wild devils but only 0.82% of captive devils. Molecular analysis identified the presence of novel genotypes of both Cryptosporidium and Giardia. The novel Cryptosporidium genotype was 98.1% similar at the 18S rDNA to Cryptosporidium varanii (syn. C. saurophilum) with additional samples identified as C. fayeri, C. muris, and C. galli. Two novel Giardia genotypes, TD genotype 1 and TD genotype 2, were similar to G. duodenalis from dogs (94.4%) and a Giardia assemblage A isolate from humans (86.9%). Giardia duodenalis BIV, a zoonotic genotype of Giardia, was also identified in a single captive Tasmanian devil. These findings suggest that conservation management may be altering host-parasite interactions in the Tasmanian devil, and the presence of G. duodenalis BIV in a captive devil points to possible human-devil parasite transmission.

  11. Probing η deformed backgrounds with Dp branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibakar Roychowdhury

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Letter, based on the notion of Gauge/Gravity duality we explore the low frequency behaviour associated with the retarded two point correlators in the ground state of the strongly correlated quantum liquid that is dual to η-deformed background in (2+1D. The massless charge carriers in the dual gauge theory are sourced due to some probe Nf flavour Dp brane configurations in the bulk. In our analysis we stick to the NS sector and compute the two point correlators by turning on fluctuations associated with the worldvolume gauge fields in the bulk spacetime. Our analysis reveals the existence of holographic zero sound modes for (1+1D QFTs those are dual to bosonic η deformed AdS3×S3 with vanishing RR fields.

  12. Prostaglandin D2 effects and DP1 /DP2 receptor distribution in guinea pig urinary bladder out-flow region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2017-02-01

    The proximal urethra and urinary bladder trigone play important roles in continence. We have previously shown that PGD 2 is released from guinea pig bladder urothelium/suburothelium and can inhibit detrusor contractile responses. We presently wished to investigate PGD 2 actions in guinea pig out-flow region and the distribution of DP 1 /DP 2 receptors. The effects of PGD 2 on urothelium-intact trigone and proximal urethra contractility were studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of DP 1 /DP 2 receptor proteins was analysed by western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify distribution of DP 1 /DP 2 receptors. PGD 2 in a dose-dependent manner inhibited trigone contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and inhibited spontaneous contractions of the proximal urethra. PGD 2 was equally (trigone) or slightly less potent (urethra) compared with PGE 2 . Expression of DP 1 and DP 2 receptors was found in male guinea pig bladder trigone, neck and proximal urethra. In the trigone and proximal urethra, DP 1 receptors were found on the membrane of smooth muscle cells and weak immunoreactivty was observed in the urothelium. DP 2 receptors were distributed more widespread, weakly and evenly in the urothelium and smooth muscles. Inhibitory effects by PGD 2 on motor activity of guinea pig trigone and proximal urethra are consistent with finding DP 1 and DP 2 receptors located in the urothelium and smooth muscle cells of the trigone and proximal urethra, and PGD 2 may therefore be a modulator of the bladder out-flow region, possibly having a function in regulation of micturition and a role in overactive bladder syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. The devil to pay: a cost of mutualism with Myrmelachista schumanni ants in ‘devil's gardens’ is increased herbivory on Duroia hirsuta trees

    OpenAIRE

    Frederickson, Megan E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2007-01-01

    Devil's gardens’ are nearly pure stands of the myrmecophyte, Duroia hirsuta, that occur in Amazonian rainforests. Devil's gardens are created by Myrmelachista schumanni ants, which nest in D. hirsuta trees and kill other plants using formic acid as an herbicide. Here, we show that this ant–plant mutualism has an associated cost; by making devil's gardens, M. schumanni increases herbivory on D. hirsuta. We measured standing leaf herbivory on D. hirsuta trees and found that they sustain higher...

  14. The Devil's Hole Is In The Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    As the granularity of Quaternary paleoclimatic proxy signatures from continental and oceanic sources continues to resolve, increasingly integrated studies such as Shakun et. al. (2012), and Kohfeld and Ridgewell (2009) have emerged, with far-reaching but sometimes conflicting paleo-global climate interpretations. Accordingly, none of the competing empirical and phenomenological narratives regarding the time series of Quaternary temperature patterns fit with sufficient fidelity to the observational record. Among other examples, the Shakun et al. study reviewed and processed 80 proxy sites worldwide for paleotemperature reconstruction, but left out the premier Devil's Hole poxy site in the continental Southwestern U.S. The Devil's Hole site presents a nominally earlier record of an interglacial warming signal (Landwehr and Winograd 2012). Both cite similar data (NOAA, 2005) as confirmation of their competing interpretations. Clearly both cannot be right. Epistemic origins of this apparent conflict may be rooted on the ongoing controversy concerning the importance of orbital forcings to the 100K year Quaternary glacial oscillations. Orbital forcings had been intrinsically posited as the only possible extraterrestrial driver of global temperature cycles over the Quaternary time frame. Yet other extraterrestrial climate forcing parameters are now conceivable. This paper reexamines past 3He marine core measurements conducted on two oceans and two hemispheres, and alternatives to the associated interpretations of researchers Patterson and Farley (1998). This study includes a new phenomenological and empirical exploration of an alternate extraterrestrial Quaternary global climate forcing model. This new interpretation is possible based on improved mapping of the Local Interstellar Medium (ISM), as documented in recent works such as those by Frisch and Mueller (2011). References: Frisch, P.C., and HR Mueller, 2011, Time-Variability in the Interstellar Boundary Conditions of

  15. Reflections on the different sides of idleness in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Zaczuk Bassinello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last century, idleness experienced a modernization and democratization process especially with the crisis of a society focused on work – the post-Industrial Revolution - and the emergence of new ideas that put the free time, the leisure and recreation in the role of structural elements of the new social context and like tools for the new ways of life. In this work, we we seek to focus on the significant aspects of reality and function of leisure in our time, clarifying their relationship with the processes of personal, social and economic innovation by establishing a balance of our acts in thinking the leisure and work and leisure and life from different angles of approach. In order to analyze this phenomenon, we were based on scientific sources which are representative in the context, and then we elaborated a general overview of the subject from the contributions of the bakhtinian perspectives. We observed that the increase in leisure options in the last decades of the twentieth century, along with the growth of the studies of the idleness phenomenon and its possibilities, allowed an evolution of its concepts, from activities or practices associated to the consumption and to digital entertainment, to its understanding as an experience whose key of the discussion is the subject living these experiences. We believe that this reflection about idleness may open possibilities of a better comprehension of its insertion in the social and human sciences field and, especially, in its contribution to a new attitude of the relational production, centered on the subject, which stimulates a society that creates and innovates goods and services and who deepens the studies of leisure from the dynamic experiential horizon to the right to the otherness and to its time – the own one and the others’ – such as "the right to unfunctionality", from listening to the other word.

  16. HLA-DP antigens in patients with alopecia areata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Morling, N; Georgsen, J

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of HLA-DP antigens were studied in 41 patients with alopecia areata (AA) and 188 ethnically matched controls. An increase of DR4 and possibly DR5 in 24 of these patients has previously been reported. HLA-DP typing for DPw1 through w6 and the local specificity, CDP HEI, was perfor...

  17. Chapter 29: Using an Existing Environment in the VO (IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. J.

    The local environment of a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) can provide insight into the (still not understood) formation process of the BCG itself. BCGs are the most massive galaxies in the Universe, and their formation and evolution are a popular and current research topic (Linden et al. 2006, Bernardi et al. 2006, Lauer et al. 2006). They have been studied for some time (Sandage 1972, Ostriker & Tremaine 1975, White 1976, Thuan & Romanishin 1981, Merritt 1985, Postman and Lauer 1995, among many others). Our goal in this chapter is to study how the local environment can affect the physical and measurable properties of BCGs. We will conduct an exploratory research exercise. In this chapter, we will show how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can be effectively utilized for doing modern scientific research on BCGs. We identify the scientific functionalities we need, the datasets we require, and the service locations in order to discover and access those data. This chapter utilizes IDL's VOlib, which is described in Chapter 24 of this book and is available at http://www.nvo.noao.edu. IDL provides the capability to perform the entire range of astronomical scientific analyses in one environment: from image reduction and analysis to complex catalog manipulations, statistics, and publication quality figures. At the 2005 and 2006 NVO Summer Schools, user statistics show that IDL was the most commonly used programming language by the students (nearly 3-to-1 over languages like IRAF, Perl, and Python). In this chapter we show how the integration of IDL to the VO through VOlib provides even greater capabilities and possibilities for conducting science in the era of the Virtual Observatory. The reader should familiarize themselves with the VOlib libraries before attempting the examples in this tutorial. We first build a research plan. We then discover the service URLs we will need to access the data. We then apply the necessary functions and tools to these data before we can do our

  18. Internet Connection Control based on Idle Time Using User Behavior Pattern Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadilah Fahrul Hardiansyah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase of smartphone ability is rapidly increasing the power consumption. Many methods have been proposed to reduce smartphone power consumption. Most of these methods use the internet connection control based on the availability of the battery power level regardless of when and where a waste of energy occurs. This paper proposes a new approach to control the internet connection based on idle time using user behavior pattern analysis. User behavior patterns are used to predict idle time duration. Internet connection control performed during idle time. During idle time internet connection periodically switched on and off by a certain time interval. This method effectively reduces a waste of energy. Control of the internet connection does not interfere the user because it is implemented on idle time. Keywords: Smartphone, User Behavior, Pattern Recognition, Idle Time, Internet Connection Control

  19. Electron Climbing a 'Devil's Staircase' in Wave-Particle Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macor, Alessandro; Doveil, Fabrice; Elskens, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Numerous nonlinear driven systems display spectacular responses to forcing, including chaos and complex phase-locking plateaus characterized by 'devil's staircase', Arnold tongues, and Farey trees. In the universality class of Hamiltonian systems, a paradigm is the motion of a charged particle in two waves, which inspired a renormalization group method for its description. Here we report the observation of the underlying 'devil's staircase' by recording the beam velocity distribution function at the outlet of a traveling wave tube versus the amplitude of two externally induced waves

  20. Experimental demonstration of multi-pilot aided carrier phase estimation for DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajovic, M.; Millar, D.S.; Koike-Akino, T.; Maher, R.; Lavery, D.; Alvarado, A.; Paskov, M.; Kojima, K.; Parsons, K.; Thomsen, B.C.; Savory, S.J.; Bayvel, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a statistical inference based multi-pilot aided CPE algorithm and analyze its performance via simulations. We experimentally verify LDPC coded back-to-back performance using 10 GBd DP-64QAM and DP-256QAM modulation, with transmitter and receiver linewidths of 100 kHz.

  1. HLA-DP and bone marrow transplantation: DP-incompatibility and severe acute graft versus host disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Platz, P; Jakobsen, B K

    1987-01-01

    Thirteen recipients of HLA-haploidentical, DR compatible bone marrow (BM) and the corresponding BM donors were HLA-DP typed using primed lymphocyte typing (PLT). Severe acute GVHD (greater than or equal to grade 2) developed within 3 months after BM-transplantation in all of eight recipients of DP...... a role as transplantation antigens....

  2. Random complex dynamics and devil's coliseums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the random dynamics of polynomial maps on the Riemann sphere \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} and the dynamics of semigroups of polynomial maps on \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} . In particular, the dynamics of a semigroup G of polynomials whose planar postcritical set is bounded and the associated random dynamics are studied. In general, the Julia set of such a G may be disconnected. We show that if G is such a semigroup, then regarding the associated random dynamics, the chaos of the averaged system disappears in the C0 sense, and the function T∞ of probability of tending to ∞ \\in \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} is Hölder continuous on \\hat{\\Bbb{C}} and varies only on the Julia set of G. Moreover, the function T∞ has a kind of monotonicity. It turns out that T∞ is a complex analogue of the devil's staircase, and we call T∞ a ‘devil’s coliseum'. We investigate the details of T∞ when G is generated by two polynomials. In this case, T∞ varies precisely on the Julia set of G, which is a thin fractal set. Moreover, under this condition, we investigate the pointwise Hölder exponents of T∞.

  3. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work

    OpenAIRE

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M.

    2018-01-01

    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idl...

  4. Experimental and numerical investigation of idling car exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNabola, A; Broderick, B M; Gill, L W [Trinity College, Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This study examined the effect of maintaining a 2 metre distance between vehicles on commuter pollution exposure levels. Air quality samples were recorded inside cars on a busy road in Dublin. A turbulent dispersion model was used to predict the exposure levels from idling cars. Samples were recorded along the route by keeping a distance of approximately 2 metres by sight to the car in front, and then a second time keeping a distance of approximately 1 meter. Traffic numbers were recorded during each sample from local authority loops. Meteorological and idling time data were also recorded for a total of 10 pairs of samples. Experiments were then conducted to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}). A calibrated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was then used to predict car exposure levels under varying conditions. Key parameters included ventilation rates; wind speed; and distance. The calibrated numerical model demonstrated that the pollution concentration decreased rapidly within the first 2 metres of the preceding exhaust. Maintaining a distance of 2 metres to the preceding vehicle showed a reduction in VOCs and particulate matter of approximately 30 to 40 per cent. It was concluded that further research is needed to determine if modified driving behaviours will promote higher levels of traffic congestion. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 11 figs.

  5. TBT recommends : 5'nizza. German Quintet. The Devil's Bride

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Duo "5'nizza" 10. veebr. Tallinnas Café Amigos. Saksa kvintett The G-Strings ja läti jazzlaulja Intars Busulis 14. veebr. Läti Rahvusooperis. Muusikal "Velnio Nuotaka" ("The Devils Bride") 16. veebr. Vilniuses Siemens Arenal

  6. Circle Maps and the Devil's Staircase in a Chemical Oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Gross, P.; Bar-Eli, K.

    1996-01-01

    We explain numerical results on a periodically perturbed Oregonator by Markman and Bar-Eli (J. Phys. Chem. 98 12248 (1994)). If the dynamics of the system is governed by a family of diffeomorphisms of a circle with a Devil's staircase one will expect the observed behavior, i.e. (1) Only periodic...

  7. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH 2 -terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions

  8. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko, E-mail: kxi14@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • Identification of dystrophin (Dp) shortest isoform, Dp40, is a neuron-type Dp. • Dp40 expression is temporally and differentially regulated in comparison to Dp71. • Somatodendritic and nuclear localization of Dp40. • Dp40 is localized to excitatory postsynapses. • Dp40 might play roles in dendritic and synaptic functions. - Abstract: The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH{sub 2}-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions.

  9. Conceptualization of Idle (Laghw) and its relation to medical futility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Aderyani, Mohsen; Javadi, Mohsen; Nazari Tavakkoli, Saeid; Kiani, Mehrzad; Abbasi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    A major debate in medical ethics is the request for futile treatment. The topic of medical futility requires discrete assessment in Iran for at least two reasons. First, the common principles and foundations of medical ethics have taken shape in the context of Western culture and secularism. Accordingly, the implementation of the same guidelines and codes of medical ethics as Western societies in Muslim communities does not seem rational. Second, the challenges arising in health service settings are divergent across different countries. The Quranic concept of idle (laghw) and its derivatives are used in 11 honorable verses of the Holy Quran. Among these verses, the 3rd verse of the blessed Al-Muminūn Surah was selected for its closer connection to the concept under examination. The selected verse was researched in the context of all dictionaries presented in Noor Jami` al-Tafasir 2 (The Noor Collection of Interpretations 2) software. "Idle" is known as any insignificant speech, act, or thing that is not beneficial; an action from which no benefit is gained; any falsehood (that is not stable or realized); an entertaining act; any foul, futile talk and action unworthy of attention; loss of hope; and something that is not derived from method and thought. The word has also been used to refer to anything insignificant. The notes and derived interpretations were placed in the following categories: A) Having no significant benefit (When medical care does not benefit the patient (his body and/or soul and his life in this world and/or the Hereafter), it is wrong to proceed with that medical modality; B) Falsehood (Actions that fail to provide, maintain, and improve health are clearly futile); C) Unworthy of attention (An action that neither improves health nor threatens it is wrong and impermissible).

  10. Left-right entanglement entropy of Dp-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas, Leopoldo A. Pando [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics,Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics,The University of Michigan,450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States); Quiroz, Norma [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Tecnología y Metodología,Centro Universitario del Sur, Universidad de Guadalajara,Enrique Arreola Silva 883, C.P. 49000, Cd. Guzmán, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2016-11-04

    We compute the left-right entanglement entropy for Dp-branes in string theory. We employ the CFT approach to string theory Dp-branes, in particular, its presentation as coherent states of the closed string sector. The entanglement entropy is computed as the von Neumann entropy for a density matrix resulting from integration over the left-moving degrees of freedom. We discuss various crucial ambiguities related to sums over spin structures and argue that different choices capture different physics; however, we advance a themodynamic argument that seems to favor a particular choice of replica. We also consider Dp branes on compact dimensions and verify that the effects of T-duality act covariantly on the Dp brane entanglement entropy. We find that generically the left-right entanglement entropy provides a suitable generalization of boundary entropy and of the D-brane tension.

  11. Extending the Operational Envelope of a Turbofan Engine Simulation into the Sub-Idle Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes Walter; Hamley, Andrew J.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2016-01-01

    In many non-linear gas turbine simulations, operation in the sub-idle region can lead to model instability. This paper lays out a method for extending the operational envelope of a map based gas turbine simulation to include the sub-idle region. This method develops a multi-simulation solution where the baseline component maps are extrapolated below the idle level and an alternate model is developed to serve as a safety net when the baseline model becomes unstable or unreliable. Sub-idle model development takes place in two distinct operational areas, windmilling/shutdown and purge/cranking/startup. These models are based on derived steady state operating points with transient values extrapolated between initial (known) and final (assumed) states. Model transitioning logic is developed to predict baseline model sub-idle instability, and transition smoothly and stably to the backup sub-idle model. Results from the simulation show a realistic approximation of sub-idle behavior as compared to generic sub-idle engine performance that allows the engine to operate continuously and stably from shutdown to full power.

  12. Costly myths. An analysis of idling beliefs and behavior in personal motor vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, Amanda R.; Padgett, Paul; Vandenbergh, Michael P.; Gilligan, Jonathan; Wallston, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the large contribution of individuals and households to climate change, little has been done in the US to reduce the CO 2 emissions attributable to this sector. Motor vehicle idling among individual private citizens is one behavior that may be amenable to large-scale policy interventions. Currently, little data are available to quantify the potential reductions in emissions that could be realized by successful policy interventions. In addition, little is known about the motivations and beliefs that underlie idling. In the fall of 2007, 1300 drivers in the US were surveyed to assess typical idling practices, beliefs and motivations. Results indicate that the average individual idled for over 16 min a day and believed that a vehicle can be idled for at least 3.6 min before it is better to turn it off. Those who held inaccurate beliefs idled, on average, over 1 min longer than the remainder of the sample. These data suggest that idling accounts for over 93 MMt of CO 2 and 10.6 billion gallons (40.1 billion liters) of gasoline a year, equaling 1.6% of all US emissions. Much of this idling is unnecessary and economically disadvantageous to drivers. The policy implications of these findings are discussed. (author)

  13. PROFIBUS-DP AĞ TABANLI BİNA OTOMASYONU TASARIMI

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZ, Cemal; ÜNCÜ, İ. Serkan

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a building automation has been designed by using the Profibus DP (Process Field Bus- Decentralized Periphery) network. In the study; fire alarm, thief alarm, lighting, power, humidity and temperature control have been implemented. The data from building has been transmitted to the Profibus-DP network via control point located on the flats. The data taken from the building has been collected in the main control unit to achieve overall control of the system. The work has provided...

  14. Summary of OEM Idling Recommendations from Vehicle Owner's Manuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel-Blackmon, Kristy [East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition (ETCleanFuels), Knoxville, TN (United States); Curran, Scott [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The project upon which this report is based was conceived in 2012 during discussions between the East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition (ETCleanFuels) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) who both noted that a detailed summary of idling recommendations for a wide variety of engines and vehicles were not available in the literature. The two organizations agreed that ETCleanFuels would develop a first-of-its-kind collection of idling recommendations from the owner’s manuals of modern production vehicles. Vehicle engine idling, a subject that has long been debated, is largely shrouded in misinformation. The justifications for idling seem to be many: driver comfort, waiting in lines, and talking on cell phones to name a few. Assuredly, a great number of people idle because of the myths and misinformation surrounding this issue. This report addresses these myths by turning to statements taken directly from the automobile and engine manufacturers themselves.

  15. Using an Instrumented Drone to Probe Dust Devils on Oregon’s Alvord Desert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Jackson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dust devils are low-pressure, small (many to tens of meters convective vortices powered by surface heating and rendered visible by lofted dust. Dust devils occur ubiquitously on Mars, where they may dominate the supply of atmospheric dust, and since dust contributes significantly to Mars’ atmospheric heat budget, dust devils probably play an important role in its climate. The dust-lifting capacity of a devil likely depends sensitively on its structure, particularly the wind and pressure profiles, but the exact dependencies are poorly constrained. Thus, the exact contribution to Mars’ atmosphere remains unresolved. Analog studies of terrestrial devils have provided some insights into dust devil dynamics and properties but have been limited to near-surface (few meters or relatively high altitude (hundreds of meters sampling. Automated aerial vehicles or drones, combined with miniature, digital instrumentation, promise a novel and uniquely powerful platform from which to sample dust devils at a wide variety of altitudes. In this article, we describe a pilot study using an instrumented quadcopter on an active field site in southeastern Oregon, which (to our knowledge has not previously been surveyed for dust devils. We present preliminary results from the encounters, including stereo image analysis and encounter footage collected onboard the drone. In spite of some technical difficulties, we show that a quadcopter can successfully navigate in an active dust devil, while collecting time-series data about the dust devil’s structure.

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of the endangered marsupial Sarcophilus harrisii (Tasmanian devil)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Webb; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Ratan, Aakrosh

    2011-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is threatened with extinction because of a contagious cancer known as Devil Facial Tumor Disease. The inability to mount an immune response and to reject these tumors might be caused by a lack of genetic diversity within a dwindling population. Here we...... that the observed low genetic diversity in today's population preceded the Devil Facial Tumor Disease disease outbreak by at least 100 y. Using a genetically characterized breeding stock based on the genome sequence will enable preservation of the extant genetic diversity in future Tasmanian devil populations....

  17. PROFIBUS-DP. Fundamentals and hints for users; PROFIBUS-DP. Grundlagen, Tips und Tricks fuer Anwender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, M.

    1998-04-01

    PROFIBUS-DP is one of the most common field buses for industrial communication. The author provides competent help in using this technology. He describes 32 of the most common errors found in certification tests and shows how they can be remedies. Fundamentals and enhancements of PROFIBUS-DP are presented. PROFIBUS-DP telegrams for data interpretation are discussed at length, as are extensive GSD files. Particular emphasis is given to the projecting and commissioning of a system and practical guides for installation. (orig.) [Deutsch] PROFIBUS-DP gehoert zu den am haeufigsten eingesetzten Feldbussen fuer die industrielle Kommunikation. Der Autor bietet in diesem umfassenden Werk kompetente Unterstuetzung bei der Anwendung dieser Feldbustechnik. Es werden 32 der haeufigsten Fehler, die bei Zertifizierungstests festgestellt wurden, beschrieben und Wege zu ihrer Behebung dargestellt. Die Grundlagen von PROFIBUS-DP werden erlaeutert und die PROFIBUS-Erweiterungen vorgestellt. PROFIBUS-DP-Telegramme zur Interpretation des Datenverkehrs werden genauso detailliert erklaert wie eine umfangreiche GSD-Datei. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt ist die Projektierung und Inbetriebnahme einer Anlage und den praxisgerechten Aufbaurichtlinien gewidmet. (orig./GL)

  18. In Situ Sampling of Relative Dust Devil Particle Loads and Their Vertical Grain Size Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Balme, Matthew R; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Ori, Gian Gabriele

    2017-04-19

    During a field campaign in the Sahara Desert in southern Morocco, spring 2012, we sampled the vertical grain size distribution of two active dust devils that exhibited different dimensions and intensities. With these in situ samples of grains in the vortices, it was possible to derive detailed vertical grain size distributions and measurements of the lifted relative particle load. Measurements of the two dust devils show that the majority of all lifted particles were only lifted within the first meter (∼46.5% and ∼61% of all particles; ∼76.5 wt % and ∼89 wt % of the relative particle load). Furthermore, ∼69% and ∼82% of all lifted sand grains occurred in the first meter of the dust devils, indicating the occurrence of "sand skirts." Both sampled dust devils were relatively small (∼15 m and ∼4-5 m in diameter) compared to dust devils in surrounding regions; nevertheless, measurements show that ∼58.5% to 73.5% of all lifted particles were small enough to go into suspension (grain size classification). This relatively high amount represents only ∼0.05 to 0.15 wt % of the lifted particle load. Larger dust devils probably entrain larger amounts of fine-grained material into the atmosphere, which can have an influence on the climate. Furthermore, our results indicate that the composition of the surface, on which the dust devils evolved, also had an influence on the particle load composition of the dust devil vortices. The internal particle load structure of both sampled dust devils was comparable related to their vertical grain size distribution and relative particle load, although both dust devils differed in their dimensions and intensities. A general trend of decreasing grain sizes with height was also detected. Key Words: Mars-Dust devils-Planetary science-Desert soils-Atmosphere-Grain sizes. Astrobiology 17, xxx-xxx.

  19. Somatodendritic and excitatory postsynaptic distribution of neuron-type dystrophin isoform, Dp40, in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Takahiro; Itoh, Kyoko; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji

    2014-09-12

    The Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene produces multiple dystrophin (Dp) products due to the presence of several promoters. We previously reported the existence of a novel short isoform of Dp, Dp40, in adult mouse brain. However, the exact biochemical expression profile and cytological distribution of the Dp40 protein remain unknown. In this study, we generated a polyclonal antibody against the NH2-terminal region of the Dp40 and identified the expression profile of Dp40 in the mouse brain. Through an analysis using embryonic and postnatal mouse cerebrums, we found that Dp40 emerged from the early neonatal stages until adulthood, whereas Dp71, an another Dp short isoform, was highly detected in both prenatal and postnatal cerebrums. Intriguingly, relative expressions of Dp40 and Dp71 were prominent in cultured dissociated neurons and non-neuronal cells derived from mouse hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore, the immunocytological distribution of Dp40 was analyzed in dissociated cultured neurons, revealing that Dp40 is detected in the soma and its dendrites, but not in the axon. It is worthy to note that Dp40 is localized along the subplasmalemmal region of the dendritic shafts, as well as at excitatory postsynaptic sites. Thus, Dp40 was identified as a neuron-type Dp possibly involving dendritic and synaptic functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The downside of downtime: The prevalence and work pacing consequences of idle time at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Andrew; Amabile, Teresa M

    2018-05-01

    Although both media commentary and academic research have focused much attention on the dilemma of employees being too busy, this paper presents evidence of the opposite phenomenon, in which employees do not have enough work to fill their time and are left with hours of meaningless idle time each week. We conducted six studies that examine the prevalence and work pacing consequences of involuntary idle time. In a nationally representative cross-occupational survey (Study 1), we found that idle time occurs frequently across all occupational categories; we estimate that employers in the United States pay roughly $100 billion in wages for time that employees spend idle. Studies 2a-3b experimentally demonstrate that there are also collateral consequences of idle time; when workers expect idle time following a task, their work pace declines and their task completion time increases. This decline reverses the well-documented deadline effect, producing a deadtime effect, whereby workers slow down as a task progresses. Our analyses of work pace patterns provide evidence for a time discounting mechanism: workers discount idle time when it is relatively distant, but act to avoid it increasingly as it becomes more proximate. Finally, Study 4 demonstrates that the expectation of being able to engage in leisure activities during posttask free time (e.g., surfing the Internet) can mitigate the collateral work pace losses due to idle time. Through examination and discussion of the effects of idle time at work, we broaden theory on work pacing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Reconciliation of the Devils Hole climate record with orbital forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Gina E; Edwards, R Lawrence; Wendt, Kathleen A; Cheng, Hai; Dublyansky, Yuri; Lu, Yanbin; Boch, Ronny; Spötl, Christoph

    2016-01-08

    The driving force behind Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and much associated climate change is widely considered to be orbital forcing. However, previous versions of the iconic Devils Hole (Nevada) subaqueous calcite record exhibit shifts to interglacial values ~10,000 years before orbitally forced ice age terminations, and interglacial durations ~10,000 years longer than other estimates. Our measurements from Devils Hole 2 replicate virtually all aspects of the past 204,000 years of earlier records, except for the timing during terminations, and they lower the age of the record near Termination II by ~8000 years, removing both ~10,000-year anomalies. The shift to interglacial values now broadly coincides with the rise in boreal summer insolation, the marine termination, and the rise in atmospheric CO2, which is consistent with mechanisms ultimately tied to orbital forcing. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Development of 1D Liner Compression Code for IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihisa; Slough, John; Pancotti, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    A 1D liner compression code is developed to model liner implosion dynamics in the Inductively Driven Liner Experiment (IDL) where FRC plasmoid is compressed via inductively-driven metal liners. The driver circuit, magnetic field, joule heating, and liner dynamics calculations are performed at each time step in sequence to couple these effects in the code. To obtain more realistic magnetic field results for a given drive coil geometry, 2D and 3D effects are incorporated into the 1D field calculation through use of correction factor table lookup approach. Commercial low-frequency electromagnetic fields solver, ANSYS Maxwell 3D, is used to solve the magnetic field profile for static liner condition at various liner radius in order to derive correction factors for the 1D field calculation in the code. The liner dynamics results from the code is verified to be in good agreement with the results from commercial explicit dynamics solver, ANSYS Explicit Dynamics, and previous liner experiment. The developed code is used to optimize the capacitor bank and driver coil design for better energy transfer and coupling. FRC gain calculations are also performed using the liner compression data from the code for the conceptual design of the reactor sized system for fusion energy gains.

  3. Devil's staircase in a fully frustrated superconducting array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, M.Y.

    1993-01-01

    A two-dimensional fully frustrated superconducting array with a combined direct and alternating applied current is studied both analytically and numerically. At zero temperature equations of motion can be reduced through the use of the translational symmetry present in the system. Remarkably, we find a series of subharmonic steps in addition to standard integer and half-integer giant Shapiro steps, leading to devil's staircase structure. We also present results of detailed numerical simulations, which indeed reveal such subharmonic fine structure. (orig.)

  4. A study experiment of auto idle application in the excavator engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Wawan, E-mail: wawan5527@gmail.com; Maksum, Hasan; Putra, Dwi Sudarno, E-mail: dwisudarnoputra@ft.unp.ac.id; Wahyudi, Retno [State University of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia); Azmi, Meri, E-mail: meriazmi@gmail.com [State Polytechnic of Padang, West Sumatera (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of applying auto idle to excavator engine performance, such as machine unitization and fuel consumption in Excavator. Steps to be done are to modify the system JA 44 and 67 in Vehicle Electronic Control Unit (V-ECU). The modifications will be obtained from the pattern of the engine speed. If the excavator attachment is not operated, the engine speed will return to the idle speed automatically. From the experiment results the auto idle reduces fuel consumption in excavator engine.

  5. The Power of Darkness: the Devil and his Troops in Baroque Festivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Torres

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the images of Devil in the baroque festivals. The Devil is a familiar figure in these festivals and shows strong inclination to assume comic, ridiculous and grotesque forms, becoming target of popular mockery, perhaps with the aim of provide a remedy against the terrifying vision that appears at other occasions and genres.

  6. Johnson - Cook Strength Models for Mild and DP 590 Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantam, K.; Brar, N. S.; Bajaj, D.; Hill, S.

    2006-01-01

    Automotive steels, Mild and Dual Phase590 (DP590) are characterized in tension at room temperature, using the quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar techniques at various strain rates ranging from ∼10-3/s to ∼1800/s. Tension stress-strain data for both the steels are analyzed to determine the Johnson-Cook Strength model constants, J-C strength model constants for mild steel are A=217 MPa, B = 234 MPa, n = 0.643 and C = 0.076 and for DP590 steel are A = 430 MPa, B = 824 MPa, n = 0.510 and C = 0.017. Higher value of strain rate sensitivity constant C for mild steel (0.076) compared to DP 590 (0.017) is also reflected in the stress- strain data at various strain rates

  7. DOE Defense Program (DP) safety programs. Final report, Task 003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of the work on Task 003 of Subcontract 9-X52-W7423-1 was to provide LANL with support to the DOE Defense Program (DP) Safety Programs. The effort included the identification of appropriate safety requirements, the refinement of a DP-specific Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Format and Content Guide (FCG) and Comprehensive Review Plan (CRP), incorporation of graded approach instructions into the guidance, and the development of a safety analysis methodologies document. All tasks which were assigned under this Task Order were completed. Descriptions of the objectives of each task and effort performed to complete each objective is provided here

  8. DESIGN OF BUILDING AUTOMATION BASED ON PROFIBUS-DP NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal YILMAZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a building automation has been designed by using the Profibus DP (Process Field Bus- Decentralized Periphery network. In the study; fire alarm, thief alarm, lighting, power, humidity and temperature control have been implemented. The data from building has been transmitted to the Profibus-DP network via control point located on the flats. The data taken from the building has been collected in the main control unit to achieve overall control of the system. The work has provided an optimum efficiency in energy consumption, control of power, security, temperature and humidity.

  9. A community-based participatory research partnership to reduce vehicle idling near public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H

    2013-05-01

    The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.

  10. Idle reduction assessment for the New York State Department of Transportation region 4 fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Energetics Incorporated conducted a study to evaluate the operational, economic, and environmental impacts of advanced technologies to reduce idling in : the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) Region 4 fleet without compromising fun...

  11. Evolution in a transmissible cancer: a study of the chromosomal changes in devil facial tumor (DFT) as it spreads through the wild Tasmanian devil population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; McCallum, Hamish; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Eldridge, Mark D B; Belov, Katherine

    2012-03-01

    Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) are the largest extant marsupial carnivores. This species, now confined to Tasmania, is endangered from the emergence of a transmissible cancer, devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). In the present study, we use cytogenetic and molecular techniques to examine the stability of devil facial tumor (DFT) cell lines across time and space. This article describes disease progression from February 2004 to June 2011. We demonstrate evolutionary changes in the disease, which affects devils in different sites across Tasmania and over a period of several years, producing several chromosomal variants (strains) that are capable of transmission between devils. We describe the evolution of DFTs in the field and speculate on the possible impacts on the disease, including (1) development of less aggressive forms of the disease; (2) development of more aggressive forms of the disease; (3) development of forms capable of affecting closely related species of dasyurids (e.g., quolls); (4) extinction of the disease as it acquires additional deleterious mutations that affect either cell viability or transmissibility; and (5) co-evolution of the disease and the host. We also speculate about the future of the Tasmanian devil in the wild. We note that although DFTs are regarded as unstable by comparison with another much older transmissible cancer, canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT), the potential for development of less aggressive forms of DFTs or for development of resistance in devils is limited by devils' small numbers, low genetic diversity, and restricted geographical distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Idle emissions from medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A B M S; Clark, Nigel N; Gautam, Mridul; Wayne, W Scott; Thompson, Gregory J; Lyons, Donald W

    2009-03-01

    Idle emissions data from 19 medium heavy-duty diesel and gasoline trucks are presented in this paper. Emissions from these trucks were characterized using full-flow exhaust dilution as part of the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Project E-55/59. Idle emissions data were not available from dedicated measurements, but were extracted from the continuous emissions data on the low-speed transient mode of the medium heavy-duty truck (MHDTLO) cycle. The four gasoline trucks produced very low oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and negligible particulate matter (PM) during idle. However, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HCs) from these four trucks were approximately 285 and 153 g/hr on average, respectively. The gasoline trucks consumed substantially more fuel at an hourly rate (0.84 gal/hr) than their diesel counterparts (0.44 gal/hr) during idling. The diesel trucks, on the other hand, emitted higher NOx (79 g/hr) and comparatively higher PM (4.1 g/hr), on average, than the gasoline trucks (3.8 g/hr of NOx and 0.9 g/hr of PM, on average). Idle NOx emissions from diesel trucks were high for post-1992 model year engines, but no trends were observed for fuel consumption. Idle emissions and fuel consumption from the medium heavy-duty diesel trucks (MHDDTs) were marginally lower than those from the heavy heavy-duty diesel trucks (HHDDTs), previously reported in the literature.

  13. Analysis of Technology Options to Reduce the Fuel Consumption of Idling Trucks; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stodolsky, F.; Gaines, L.; Vyas, A.

    2000-01-01

    Long-haul trucks idling overnight consume more than 838 million gallons (20 million barrels) of fuel annually. Idling also emits pollutants. Truck drivers idle their engines primarily to (1) heat or cool the cab and/or sleeper, (2) keep the fuel warm in winter, and (3) keep the engine warm in the winter so that the engine is easier to start. Alternatives to overnight idling could save much of this fuel, reduce emissions, and cut operating costs. Several fuel-efficient alternatives to idling are available to provide heating and cooling: (1) direct-fired heater for cab/sleeper heating, with or without storage cooling; (2) auxiliary power units; and (3) truck stop electrification. Many of these technologies have drawbacks that limit market acceptance. Options that supply electricity are economically viable for trucks that are idled for 1,000-3,000 or more hours a year, while heater units could be used across the board. Payback times for fleets, which would receive quantity discounts on the prices, would be somewhat shorter

  14. Geophysical investigation of Red Devil mine using direct-current resistivity and electromagnetic induction, Red Devil, Alaska, August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.

    2011-01-01

    Red Devil Mine, located in southwestern Alaska near the Village of Red Devil, was the state's largest producer of mercury and operated from 1933 to 1971. Throughout the lifespan of the mine, various generations of mills and retort buildings existed on both sides of Red Devil Creek, and the tailings and waste rock were deposited across the site. The mine was located on public Bureau of Land Management property, and the Bureau has begun site remediation by addressing mercury, arsenic, and antimony contamination caused by the minerals associated with the ore deposit (cinnabar, stibnite, realgar, and orpiment). In August 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey completed a geophysical survey at the site using direct-current resistivity and electromagnetic induction surface methods. Eight two-dimensional profiles and one three-dimensional grid of direct-current resistivity data as well as about 5.7 kilometers of electromagnetic induction profile data were acquired across the site. On the basis of the geophysical data and few available soil borings, there is not sufficient electrical or electromagnetic contrast to confidently distinguish between tailings, waste rock, and weathered bedrock. A water table is interpreted along the two-dimensional direct-current resistivity profiles based on correlation with monitoring well water levels and a relatively consistent decrease in resistivity typically at 2-6 meters depth. Three settling ponds used in the last few years of mine operation to capture silt and sand from a flotation ore processing technique possessed conductive values above the interpreted water level but more resistive values below the water level. The cause of the increased resistivity below the water table is unknown, but the increased resistivity may indicate that a secondary mechanism is affecting the resistivity structure under these ponds if the depth of the ponds is expected to extend below the water level. The electromagnetic induction data clearly identified the

  15. A Multi-Year Dust Devil Vortex Survey Using an Automated Search of Pressure Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian K.; Lorenz, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Dust devils occur in arid climates on the Earth and ubiquitously on Mars, where they likely dominate the supply of atmospheric dust and influence climate. Martian dust devils have been studied with a combination of orbiting and landed spacecraft, while most studies of terrestrial dust devils have involved manned monitoring of field sites, which can be costly both in time and personnel. As an alternative approach, we describe a multi-year in-situ survey of terrestrial dust devils using pressure loggers deployed at El Dorado Playa in Nevada, USA, a site known for dust devil activity. Analogous to previous surveys for Martian dust devils, we conduct a post-hoc analysis of the barometric data to search for putative dust devil pressure dips using a new automated detection algorithm. We investigate the completeness and false positive rates of our new algorithm and conduct several statistically robust analyses of the resulting population of dips. We also investigate seasonal, annual, and spatial variability of the putative dust devil dips, possible correlations with precipitation, and the influence of sample size on the derived population statistics. Our results suggest that large numbers of dips (> 1,000) collected over multiple seasons are probably required for accurate assessment of the underlying dust devil population. Correlating long-term barometric time-series with other data streams (e.g., solar flux measurements from photovoltaic cells) can uniquely elucidate the natures and origins of dust devils, and accurately assessing their influence requires consideration of the full distribution of dust devil properties, rather than average values. For example, our results suggest the dust flux from the average terrestrial devil is nearly 1,000 times smaller than the (more representative) population-weighted average flux. If applicable to Martian dust devils, such corrections may help resolve purported discrepancies between the dust fluxes estimated from dust devil studies

  16. The HLA-DP polymorphism in Denmark investigated by local and international PLT reagents. Definition of two "new" DP antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hartzman, R; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    Lymphocytes from highly selected donors were primed for 10 days and subsequently bulk-expanded in IL 2 (TCGF) containing cultures. Two well-discriminatory PLT (CDP = Copenhagen DP) reagents against each of the DPw1-w6 specificities and one against each of the two "new" specificities, CDP4s...

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance spot welded dissimilar thickness DP780/DP600 dual-phase steel joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongqiang; Wei, Ajuan; Qiu, Xiaoming; Chen, Jianhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine changes of microstructure of dissimilar thickness DP600/DP780 joints. • The hardness profile of RSW joints can be predicted by the equation. • Failure modes, peak load and energy describes the mechanical properties of joints. • The nugget diameter is the key factor of transition between the failure modes. - Abstract: In this study, resistance spot welding (RSW) experiments were performed in order to evaluate the microstructure and mechanical properties of single-lap joints between DP780 and DP600. The results show that the weld joints consist of three regions including base metal (BM), heat affected zone (HAZ) and fusion zone (FZ). The grain size and martensite volume fractions increase in the order of BM, HAZ and FZ. The hardness in the FZ is significantly higher than hardness of base metals. Tensile properties of the joints were described in terms of the failure modes and static load-carrying capabilities. Two distinct failure modes were observed during the tensile shear test of the joints: interfacial failure (IF) and pullout failure (PF). The FZ size plays a dominate role in failure modes of the joints

  18. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33, these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol® and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of

  19. Immunization Strategies Producing a Humoral IgG Immune Response against Devil Facial Tumor Disease in the Majority of Tasmanian Devils Destined for Wild Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Ruth; Patchett, Amanda; McLennan, Elspeth; Thomson, Russell; Carver, Scott; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Kreiss, Alexandre; Baz Morelli, Adriana; Silva, Anabel; Pearse, Martin J.; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Belov, Katherine; Hogg, Carolyn J.; Woods, Gregory M; Lyons, A. Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is renowned for its successful evasion of the host immune system. Down regulation of the major histocompatabilty complex class I molecule (MHC-I) on the DFTD cells is a primary mechanism of immune escape. Immunization trials on captive Tasmanian devils have previously demonstrated that an immune response against DFTD can be induced, and that immune-mediated tumor regression can occur. However, these trials were limited by their small sample sizes. Here, we describe the results of two DFTD immunization trials on cohorts of devils prior to their wild release as part of the Tasmanian Government’s Wild Devil Recovery project. 95% of the devils developed anti-DFTD antibody responses. Given the relatively large sample sizes of the trials (N = 19 and N = 33), these responses are likely to reflect those of the general devil population. DFTD cells manipulated to express MHC-I were used as the antigenic basis of the immunizations in both trials. Although the adjuvant composition and number of immunizations differed between trials, similar anti-DFTD antibody levels were obtained. The first trial comprised DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination of ISCOMATRIX™, polyIC, and CpG with up to four immunizations given at monthly intervals. This compared to the second trial whereby two immunizations comprising DFTD cells and the adjuvant combination ISCOMATRIX™, polyICLC (Hiltonol®) and imiquimod were given a month apart, providing a shorter and, therefore, more practical protocol. Both trials incorporated a booster immunization given up to 5 months after the primary course. A key finding was that devils in the second trial responded more quickly and maintained their antibody levels for longer compared to devils in the first trial. The different adjuvant combination incorporating the RNAase resistant polyICLC and imiquimod used in the second trial is likely to be responsible. The seroconversion in the majority of devils in these anti

  20. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Sport Utility Vehicles (SUVs) on Mars? Imagine the MOC imaging team's surprise on the morning of April 27, 1998, as the latest images came in from the 'Red Planet.'A picture taken by the camera on Mars Global Surveyor just one day earlier showed several thin, dark lines that--at first glance--looked like pathways blazed by off-road sport utility vehicles. Who's been driving around on Mars?The MOC image in question (#26403), seen here at full resolution of 13.8 meters (45 feet) per pixel, was obtained around 10:22 a.m. PDT on April 26, 1998, during Mars Global Surveyor's 264th orbit. North is approximately up, illumination is from the lower right. Located in eastern Arabia Terra near 16.5o N latitude, 311.4o W longitude, the image showed a number of natural features--small craters formed by meteor impact, several buttes and mesas left by erosion of the surrounding terrain, small dunes and drifts, and a mantle of dust that varies in thickness from place to place. But the new picture also showed two dark lines--each varying in width up to about 15 meters (49 feet)--that extended several kilometers/miles across the image.Lines like these have been seen before on Mars. They are most likely the result of dust devils--columnar vortices of wind that move across the landscape, pick up dust, and look somewhat like miniature tornadoes. Dust devils are a common occurrence in dry and desert landscapes on Earth as well as Mars. They form when the ground heats up during the day, warming the air immediately above the surface. As pockets of warm air rise and interfere with one another, they create horizontal pressure variations that, combined with other meteorological winds, cause the upward moving air to spin (the direction of the spin is controlled by the same Coriolis forces that cause terrestrial hurricanes to spin in specific directions). As the spinning column of air moves across the surface, it occasionally encounters dust on the surface, which it can suck upward. This dust

  1. Devils Lake Climate, Weather, and Water Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsfall, F. M.; Kluck, D. R.; Brewer, M.; Timofeyeva, M. M.; Symonds, J.; Dummer, S.; Frazier, M.; Shulski, M.; Akyuz, A.

    2010-12-01

    North Dakota’s Devils Lake area represents an example of a community struggling with a serious climate-related problem. The Devils Lake water level elevation has been rising since 1993 due to a prolonged wet period, and it is now approaching the spill stage into the Cheyenne River and ultimately into the Red River of the North. The impacts of the rising water have already caused significant disruption to the surrounding communities, and even greater impacts will be seen if the lake reaches the spill elevation. These impacts include flooding, water quality issues, impacts to agriculture and ecosystems, and impacts to local and regional economies. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), through the National Weather Service (NWS), the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), provides the U.S. public with climate, water, and weather services, including meteorological, hydrological and climate data, warnings, and forecasts of weather and climate from near- to longer-term timescales. In support of the people of Devils Lake, the surrounding communities, the people of North Dakota, and the other Federal agencies with responsibilities in the area, NOAA launched the first ever climate-sensitive decision support web site (www.devilslake.noaa.gov) in July 2010. The website is providing integrated weather, water, and climate information for the area, and has links to information from other agencies, such as USGS, to help decision makers as they address this ongoing challenge. This paper will describe the website and other ongoing activities by NOAA in support of this community.

  2. Dust devil dynamics in the internal vortex region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishchenko, O G; Pokhotelov, O A; Horton, W

    2015-01-01

    A hydrodynamic model for dust devil dynamics in the internal vortex region is analyzed. It is shown that the results concerning the growing plumes investigated by Onishchenko et al (2014) for the short time domain can be applied to the study of vortex motion in the internal region for longer times. It is demonstrated that these convective plumes in an atmosphere with weak, large-scale toroidal motion inhomogeneity in the vertical direction can be a subject for further exponential growth over time. (invited comment)

  3. Estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles at a signalized intersection in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha Kumar, S.; Gulati, Himanshu; Arora, Shivam

    2017-11-01

    The vehicles while waiting at signalized intersections are generally found to be in idling condition, i.e., not switching off their vehicles during red times. This phenomenon of idling of vehicles during red times at signalized intersections may lead to huge economic loss as lot of fuel is consumed by vehicles when they are in idling condition. The situation may even be worse in countries like India as different vehicle types consume varying amount of fuel. Only limited studies have been reported on estimation of fuel loss due to idling of vehicles in India. In the present study, one of the busy intersections in Chennai, namely, Tidel Park Junction in Rajiv Gandhi salai was considered. Data collection was carried out in one approach road of the intersection during morning and evening peak hours on a typical working day by manually noting down the red timings of each cycle and the corresponding number of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, passenger cars, light commercial vehicles (LCV) and heavy motorized vehicles (HMV) that were in idling mode. Using the fuel consumption values of various vehicles types suggested by Central Road Research Institute (CRRI), the total fuel loss during the study period was found to be Rs. 4,93,849/-. The installation of red timers, synchronization of signals, use of non-motorized transport for short trips and public awareness are some of the measures which government need to focus to save the fuel wasted at signalized intersections in major cities of India.

  4. xdamp Version 6 : an IDL-based data and image manipulation program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA{trademark} (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sign) Windows{trademark} computers, Macintosh(reg sign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg sign) and Alpha(reg sign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 7 and Windows Vista; Unix platforms; and Macintosh computers. Version 6 is an update that uses the IDL Virtual Machine to resolve the need for licensing IDL.

  5. Multirate control with incomplete information over Profibus-DP network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, J.; Casanova, V.; Cuenca, A.; Pizá, R.

    2014-07-01

    When a process field bus-decentralized peripherals (Profibus-DP) network is used in an industrial environment, a deterministic behaviour is usually claimed. However, due to some concerns such as bandwidth limitations, lack of synchronisation among different clocks and existence of time-varying delays, a more complex problem must be faced. This problem implies the transmission of irregular and, even, random sequences of incomplete information. The main consequence of this issue is the appearance of different sampling periods at different network devices. In this paper, this aspect is checked by means of a detailed Profibus-DP timescale study. In addition, in order to deal with the different periods, a delay-dependent dual-rate proportional-integral-derivative control is introduced. Stability for the proposed control system is analysed in terms of linear matrix inequalities.

  6. PROFIBUS-DP AĞ TABANLI BİNA OTOMASYONU TASARIMI

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal YILMAZ; İ. Serkan ÜNCÜ

    2006-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, Profibus-DP ağı kullanılarak bir Bina Otomasyonu tasarlanmıştır. Tasarımda; yangın algılama, hırsız algılama, aydınlatma, güç, nem ve sıcaklık denetimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Binada veriler katlarda bulunan denetim noktalarında toplanarak arabirimler vasıtasıyla Profibus-DP ağına aktarılmaktadır. Binadan alınan veriler ana denetim biriminde toplanarak binanın tamamı denetim altına alınmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda enerji tasarrufu, güç denetimi, güvenlik, ısı ve nem denetiminde optim...

  7. Peptide binding predictions for HLA DR, DP and DQ molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P.; Sidney, J.; Kim, Y.

    2010-01-01

    a significant gap in knowledge as HLA DP and DQ molecules are presumably equally important, and have only been studied less because they are more difficult to handle experimentally. RESULTS: In this study, we aimed to narrow this gap by providing a large scale dataset of over 17,000 HLA-peptide binding...... affinities for a set of 11 HLA DP and DQ alleles. We also expanded our dataset for HLA DR alleles resulting in a total of 40,000 MHC class II binding affinities covering 26 allelic variants. Utilizing this dataset, we generated prediction tools utilizing several machine learning algorithms and evaluated...... include all training data for maximum performance. 4) The recently developed NN-align prediction method significantly outperformed all other algorithms, including a naïve consensus based on all prediction methods. A new consensus method dropping the comparably weak ARB prediction method could outperform...

  8. BEHAVIOR OF STEEL DP 600 UNDER DYNAMIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Német

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Dynamic tensile testing of sheet steels is becoming more important. Experimental dynamic tensile technique is depending on the strain rate. For experiments was used two testing method servo hydraulic and single bar method. Experiments was realized on steel grade DP 600. Steel were performed and evaluated static and dynamic tests. Was investigated substructure in static and dynamic loading conditions.

  9. The complete experiment for backward elastic dp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Piskunov, N.M.; Sitnik, I.M.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of the complete experiment in backward elastic dp scattering is analyzed. All effects due to polarization of one or two initial and one of secondary particles are considered. It is shown that the minimal set of measurements allowing to reconstruct each of four amplitudes describing this process does not comprise too complicated experiments and is quite realistic nowadays. The geography of realization of the complete experiment is briefly reviewed. 21 refs

  10. Aztec castles and the dP3 quiver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leoni, Megan; Musiker, Gregg; Neel, Seth; Turner, Paxton

    2014-01-01

    Bipartite, periodic, planar graphs known as brane tilings can be associated to a large class of quivers. This paper will explore new algebraic properties of the well-studied del Pezzo 3 (dP3) quiver and geometric properties of its corresponding brane tiling. In particular, a factorization formula for the cluster variables arising from a large class of mutation sequences (called τ-mutation sequences) is proven; this factorization also gives a recursion on the cluster variables produced by such sequences. We can realize these sequences as walks in a triangular lattice using a correspondence between the generators of the affine symmetric group A 2 -tilde and the mutations which generate τ-mutation sequences. Using this bijection, we obtain explicit formulae for the cluster that corresponds to a specific alcove in the lattice. With this lattice visualization in mind, we then express each cluster variable produced in a τ-mutation sequence as the sum of weighted perfect matchings of a new family of subgraphs of the dP3 brane tiling, which we call Aztec castles. Our main result generalizes previous work on a certain mutation sequence on the dP3 quiver in Zhang (2012 Cluster Variables and Perfect Matchings of Subgraphs of the dP3 Lattice http://www.math.umn.edu/~/REU/Zhang2012.pdf), and forms part of the emerging story in combinatorics and theoretical high energy physics relating cluster variables to subgraphs of the associated brane tiling. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras in mathematical physics’. (paper)

  11. 75 FR 10317 - DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...,857B; TA-W-70,857C; TA-W-70,857D] DHL Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting... Global Forwarding, A Subsidiary of DP DHL, Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including Workers Whose... Subsidiary of DP DHL Finance and Accounting Divisions, Including Workers Whose Wages Are Reported to Danzas...

  12. Electrical Characteristics of Simulated Tornadoes and Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Farrell, William M.; Barth, E. L.; Lewellen, W. S.; Perlongo, N. J.; Jackson, T. L.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that tornadoes and dust devils have the ability to accumulate significant, visible clouds of debris. Collisions between sand-like debris species produce different electric charges on different types of grains, which convect along different trajectories around the vortex. Thus, significant charge separations and electric currents are possible, which as the vortex fluctuates over time are thought to produce ULF radiation signatures that have been measured in the field. These electric and magnetic fields may contain valuable information about tornado structure and genesis, and may be critical in driving electrochemical processes within dust devils on Mars. In the present work, existing large eddy simulations of debris-laden tornadoes performed at West Virginia University are coupled with a new debris-charging and advection code developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to investigate the detailed (meter-resolution) fluid-dynamic origins of electromagnetic fields within terrestrial vortices. First results are presented, including simulations of the electric and magnetic fields that would be observed by a near-surface, instrument-laden probe during a direct encounter with a tornado.

  13. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Pearse, Anne-Maree; Swift, Kate; Hodson, Pamela; Hua, Bobby; Pyecroft, Stephen; Taylor, Robyn; Hamede, Rodrigo; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine; Madsen, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    The Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) provides a unique opportunity to elucidate the long-term effects of natural and anthropogenic selection on cancer evolution. Since first observed in 1996, this transmissible cancer has caused local population declines by >90%. So far, four chromosomal DFTD variants (strains) have been described and karyotypic analyses of 253 tumours showed higher levels of tetraploidy in the oldest strain. We propose that increased ploidy in the oldest strain may have evolved in response to effects of genomic decay observed in asexually reproducing organisms. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary response of DFTD to a disease suppression trial. Tumours collected from devils subjected to the removal programme showed accelerated temporal evolution of tetraploidy compared with tumours from other populations where no increase in tetraploid tumours were observed. As ploidy significantly reduces tumour growth rate, we suggest that the disease suppression trial resulted in selection favouring slower growing tumours mediated by an increased level of tetraploidy. Our study reveals that DFTD has the capacity to rapidly respond to novel selective regimes and that disease eradication may result in novel tumour adaptations, which may further imperil the long-term survival of the world's largest carnivorous marsupial.

  14. Devil's Slide: An evolving feature of California's coastal landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M.; Loague, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal landslides in the United States remain a persistent threat to human life and urban development. The focus of this study is a landslide-prone section of the central California coastline, approximately 20 km south of San Francisco, known as Devil's Slide. This investigation employs an extensive aerial image inventory, digital elevation models (DEMs), and a water balance / limit-equilibrium approach to better understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of deep-seated bedrock slides at the site. Photographic surveys of the area reveal nearly three kilometers of headscarp and a complex network of slope failures that respond to hydrologic, seismic, and anthropogenic perturbations. DEM analysis suggests that, for a 145-year period (1866 to 2010), the study area experienced an average coastal retreat rate of 0.14 m yr-1 and an average volumetric loss of 11,216 m3 yr-1. At least 38% of the landscape evolution in the steep coastal terrain has been driven by slope failure events. A loosely coupled water balance / limit-equilibrium analysis quantitatively illustrates the precarious nature of the active landslide zone at the site. The slope is shown to be unstable for a large suite of equally-likely scenarios. The analyses presented herein suggest that future work should include a rigorous characterization of pore-water pressure development, driven by comprehensive simulations of subsurface hydrologic response, to improve our understanding of slope failure initiation at the Devil's Slide site.

  15. Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu M; Botha, A E; Medvedeva, S Yu; Kolahchi, M R; Irie, A

    2014-09-01

    The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D = 0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values.

  16. Devil's carpet of topological entropy and complexity of global dynamical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, K.-F.; Zhang, X.-S.; Zhou Zhong; Peng, S.-L.

    2003-01-01

    For bimodal maps the concept of an equal topological entropy class (ETEC) is established by the dual star products. All the infinitely many ETEC plateaus and single points are harmonically organized in the kneading parameter plane, they construct a multifractal devil's carpet, which possesses a perfect subregion similarity and a dual central symmetry. The entropy devil's carpet reveals the complexity of global dynamical behavior in the whole parameter plane of bimodal systems

  17. Boldness towards novelty and translocation success in captive-raised, orphaned Tasmanian devils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, David L; Cawthen, Lisa; Jones, Susan M; Pukk, Chrissy; Jones, Menna E

    2014-01-01

    Translocation of endangered animals is common, but success is often variable and/or poor. Despite its intuitive appeal, little is known with regards to how individual differences amongst translocated animals influence their post-release survival, growth, and reproduction. We measured consistent pre-release responses to novelty in a familiar environment (boldness; repeatability=0.55) and cortisol response in a group of captive-reared Tasmanian devils, currently listed as "Endangered" by the IUCN. The devils were then released at either a hard- or soft-release site within their mothers' population of origin, and individual growth, movement, reproduction (females only), and survival across 2-8 months post-release was measured. Sex, release method, cohort, behavior, and cortisol response did not affect post-release growth, nor did these factors influence the home range size of orphan devils. Final linear distances moved from the release site were impacted heavily by the release cohort, but translocated devils' movement overall was not different from that in the same-age wild devils. All orphan females of reproductive age were subsequently captured with offspring. Overall survival rates in translocated devils were moderate (∼42%), and were not affected by devil sex, release method, cohort, release weight, or pre-release cortisol response. Devils that survived during the study period were, however, 3.5 times more bold than those that did not (effect size r=0.76). Our results suggest that conservation managers may need to provide developmental conditions in captivity that promote a wide range of behaviors across individuals slated for wild release. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. PROCESSING RED DEVIL SERMO RESERVOIR INTO AMINO ACID AS SOURCE OF DURIAN PLANT NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahilla Apria Fatma1

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sermo Reservoir is a reservoir known Kulonprogro, but behind its beauty tucked a problem that until now no one can control, namely the problem of pest fish Red Devil whose population continues to increase and can not be controlled, Fish Red Devil is a predator fish other fish that have economic value, such as Tilapia, carp and Bawal, so that not a few people who use the fish for a wide range of food products, such as fish and chips fodder. The purpose of this study is utilizing Red Devil Fish pests that are more creative and high economic value. Fish Red Devil has a high protein content is 35 percent so it can be processed into an amino acid which is a substance that is helping plant growth durian is a typical farming village Hargowilis. with a mixture of amino acids obtained from fish processed Red Devil can produce Durian fruit is of good quality. The method used by mixing a solution of EM4 to Red Devil fish batter and then allowed to stand for seven days for the formation of amino acids.

  19. Chemical quality of surface waters in Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Herbert; Colby, Bruce R.

    1955-01-01

    Devils Lake basin, a closed basin in northeastern North Dakota, covers about 3,900 square miles of land, the topography of which is morainal and of glacial origin. In this basin lies a chain of waterways, which begins with the Sweetwater group and extends successively through Mauvais Coulee, Devils Lake, East Bay Devils Lake, and East Devils Lake, to Stump Lake. In former years when lake levels were high, Mauvais Coulee drained the Sweetwater group and discharged considerable water into Devils Lake. Converging coulees also transported excess water to Stump Lake. For at least 70 years prior to 1941, Mauvais Coulee flowed only intermittently, and the levels of major lakes in this region gradually declined. Devils Lake, for example, covered an area of about 90,000 acres in 1867 but had shrunk to approximately 6,500 acres by 1941. Plans to restore the recreational appeal of Devils Lake propose the dilution and eventual displacement of the brackish lake water by fresh water that would be diverted from the Missouri River. Freshening of the lake water would permit restocking Devils Lake with fish. Devils and Stump Lake have irregular outlines and numerous windings and have been described as lying in the valley of a preglacial river, the main stem and tributaries of which are partly filled with drift. Prominent morainal hills along the south shore of Devils Lake contrast sharply with level farmland to the north. The mean annual temperature of Devils Lake basin ranges between 36 ? and 42 ? F. Summer temperatures above 100 ? F and winter temperatures below -30 ? Fare not uncommon. The annual precipitation for 77 years at the city of Devils Lake averaged 17.5 inches. Usually, from 75 to 80 percent of the precipitation in the basin falls during the growing season, April to September. From 1867 to 1941 the net fall of the water surface of Devils Lake was about 38 feet. By 1951 the surface had risen fully 14 feet from its lowest altitude, 1,400.9 feet. Since 1951, the level has

  20. EFFECTS OF ENGINE SPEED AND ACCESSORY LOAD ON IDLING EMISSIONS FROM HEAVY-DUTY DIESEL TRUCK ENGINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nontrivial portion of heavy-duty vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) occurs during idling. Regulators and the environmental community are interested in curtailing truck idling emissions, but current emissions models do not characterize them ac...

  1. HLA-DP antigens in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Georgsen, J; Fugger, L

    1991-01-01

    We studied the distribution of HLA-DP antigens in 74 HIV-infected Danish homosexual men and 188 ethnically matched healthy individuals, using the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique. Forty of the patients developed AIDS within 3 years after diagnosis, whereas the remaining 34 were healthy...... or had only minor symptoms for 3 years or more (median observation time was 42 months). HLA-DPwl seemed to be decreased (relative risk = 0.3) in AIDS patients (5.0 per cent) when compared to patients with minor symptoms (14.7 per cent) and healthy controls (14.9 per cent). These differences were, however...

  2. Rotating and orbiting strings in Dp-brane background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Sagar; Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur,721302, Kharagpur (India)

    2015-03-04

    We probe the open fundamental strings in Dp-brane (p=1, 3, 5) backgrounds and find new classes of rotating and orbiting string solutions. We show that for various worldsheet embedding ansatz we get solutions of the string equations of motion that correspond to the well known giant magnon and single spikes, in addition to few new solutions corresponding to the orbiting strings. We make a systematic study of both rigidly rotating and orbiting strings in D1, D3 and D5-brane backgrounds.

  3. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation

  4. 75 FR 63110 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... conflict of interest exemption for a particular type of transaction. This change is expected to reduce the...--Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... rules, unless it first obtains a conflict of interest exemption from SBA. The revision would eliminate...

  5. 77 FR 20292 - Small Business Investment Companies-Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... conflict of interest, unless the SBIC obtains a prior written exemption from SBA. The most common type of...--Conflicts of Interest and Investment of Idle Funds AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Final..., unless it first obtains a conflict of interest exemption from SBA. The revision eliminates the...

  6. Social Media and the Idle No More Movement: Citizenship, Activism and Dissent in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupper, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper, informed by a critique of traditional understandings of citizenship and civic education, explores the use of social media as a means of fostering activism and dissent. Specifically, the paper explores the ways in which the Idle No More Movement, which began in Canada in 2012 marshalled social media to educate about and protest Bill…

  7. 41 CFR 101-25.109-1 - Identification of idle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... comprised of senior program management, property management, and scientific personnel who are familiar with... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Identification of idle equipment. 101-25.109-1 Section 101-25.109-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property...

  8. 40 CFR 85.2218 - Preconditioned idle test-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model year Honda Preludes must be shut off for not more than ten...-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other vehicles. (ii) The mode timer...

  9. Lake-level frequency analysis for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    1996-01-01

    Two approaches were used to estimate future lake-level probabilities for Devils Lake. The first approach is based on an annual lake-volume model, and the second approach is based on a statistical water mass-balance model that generates seasonal lake volumes on the basis of seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow. Autoregressive moving average models were used to model the annual mean lake volume and the difference between the annual maximum lake volume and the annual mean lake volume. Residuals from both models were determined to be uncorrelated with zero mean and constant variance. However, a nonlinear relation between the residuals of the two models was included in the final annual lakevolume model.Because of high autocorrelation in the annual lake levels of Devils Lake, the annual lake-volume model was verified using annual lake-level changes. The annual lake-volume model closely reproduced the statistics of the recorded lake-level changes for 1901-93 except for the skewness coefficient. However, the model output is less skewed than the data indicate because of some unrealistically large lake-level declines. The statistical water mass-balance model requires as inputs seasonal precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for Devils Lake. Analysis of annual precipitation, evaporation, and inflow data for 1950-93 revealed no significant trends or long-range dependence so the input time series were assumed to be stationary and short-range dependent.Normality transformations were used to approximately maintain the marginal probability distributions; and a multivariate, periodic autoregressive model was used to reproduce the correlation structure. Each of the coefficients in the model is significantly different from zero at the 5-percent significance level. Coefficients relating spring inflow from one year to spring and fall inflows from the previous year had the largest effect on the lake-level frequency analysis.Inclusion of parameter uncertainty in the model

  10. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  11. Sibling deidentification in the clinic: devil vs. angel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, F F

    1985-09-01

    A four-member family structure consisting of two siblings contrasting in personality (sibling deidentification) and each identified with a different parent (split-parent identification) was recently reported (15). In well-functioning families, this tetrad or quadrangle is wide-spread in the first pair of siblings in the family and tends to be more common in same-sex pairs, suggesting that sibling deidentification is designed to mitigate the relatively intense sibling rivalry characteristic of these pairs and hence to maintain family harmony. In this collated case report, deidentification is found to follow the same pattern in 39 clinic first pairs. However, contrasting attributes are varied and nonevaluative in nonclinic pairs but mainly "good-bad" in clinic pairs, with polarization extreme. Results suggest that nonclinic siblings negotiate their identity (being) much as they negotiate about possessions (having) and that negotiations are blocked in clinic pairs, freezing mythic devil or angel identity. Intervention is directed at dislodging this block.

  12. Devil declines and catastrophic cascades: is mesopredator release of feral cats inhibiting recovery of the eastern quoll?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Bronwyn A; Hawkins, Clare E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Jones, Menna E; Nicol, Stewart C

    2015-01-01

    The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus) is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus) from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll's range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their former abundance

  13. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  14. A review on idling reduction strategies to improve fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions of transport vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shancita, I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.; Rashed, M.M.; Rashedul, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduce various idling reduction technologies for transport vehicles. • Exhibit their energy use, advantages, disadvantages to understand their capability. • Conduct critical review to improve fuel economy and exhaust emissions. • Suggest better technology according to their performance ability. - Abstract: To achieve reductions in vehicle idling, strategies and actions must be taken to minimize the time spent by drivers idling their engines. A number of benefits can be obtained in limiting the idling time. These benefits include savings in fuel use and maintenance costs, vehicle life extension, and reduction in exhaust emissions. The main objective of idling reduction (IR) devices is to reduce the amount of energy wasted by idling trucks, rail locomotives, and automobiles. During idling, gasoline vehicles emit a minimum amount of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and negligible particulate matter (PM). However, generally a large amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons (HC) are produced from these vehicles. Gasoline vehicles consume far more fuel at an hourly rate than their diesel counterparts during idling. Higher NOx and comparatively larger PM are produced by diesel vehicles than gasoline vehicles on the average during idling. Auxiliary power unit (APU), direct-fired heaters, fuel cells, thermal storage system, truck stop electrification, battery-based systems, engine idle management (shutdown) systems, electrical (shore power) solutions, cab comfort system, and hybridization are some of the available IR technologies whose performances for reducing fuel consumption and exhaust emissions have been compared. This paper analyzes the availability and capability of most efficient technologies to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions from diesel and gasoline vehicles by comparing the findings of previous studies. The analysis reveals that among all the options direct fired heaters, APUs and electrified parking spaces exhibit better

  15. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  16. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  17. The DP-1 transcription factor is required for keratinocyte growth and epidermal stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wing Y; Bryce, Dawn M; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina

    2004-12-03

    The epidermis is a stratified epithelium constantly replenished through the ability of keratinocytes in its basal layer to proliferate and self-renew. The epidermis arises from a single-cell layer ectoderm during embryogenesis. Large proliferative capacity is central to ectodermal cell and basal keratinocyte function. DP-1, a heterodimeric partner of E2F transcription factors, is highly expressed in the ectoderm and all epidermal layers during embryogenesis. To investigate the role of DP-1 in epidermal morphogenesis, we inhibited DP-1 activity through exogenous expression of a dominant-negative mutant (dnDP-1). Expression of the dnDP-1 mutant interferes with binding of E2F/DP-1 heterodimers to DNA and inhibits DNA replication, as well as cyclin A mRNA and protein expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that the cyclin A promoter is predominantly bound in proliferating keratinocytes by complexes containing E2F-3 and E2F-4. Thus, the mechanisms of decreased expression of cyclin A in the presence of dnDP-1 seem to involve inactivation of DP-1 complexes containing E2F-3 and E2F-4. To assess the consequences on epidermal morphogenesis of inhibiting DP-1 activity, we expressed dnDP-1 in rat epithelial keratinocytes in organotypic culture and observed that DP-1 inhibition negatively affected stratification of these cells. Likewise, expression of dnDP-1 in embryonic ectoderm explants produced extensive disorganization of subsequently formed epidermal basal and suprabasal layers, interfering with normal epidermal formation. We conclude that DP-1 activity is required for normal epidermal morphogenesis and ectoderm-to-epidermis transition.

  18. PROFIBUS-DP AĞ TABANLI BİNA OTOMASYONU TASARIMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal YILMAZ

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Profibus-DP ağı kullanılarak bir Bina Otomasyonu tasarlanmıştır. Tasarımda; yangın algılama, hırsız algılama, aydınlatma, güç, nem ve sıcaklık denetimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Binada veriler katlarda bulunan denetim noktalarında toplanarak arabirimler vasıtasıyla Profibus-DP ağına aktarılmaktadır. Binadan alınan veriler ana denetim biriminde toplanarak binanın tamamı denetim altına alınmıştır. Çalışma sonucunda enerji tasarrufu, güç denetimi, güvenlik, ısı ve nem denetiminde optimum verim sağlanmıştır.

  19. Visualizing molecular profiles of glioblastoma with GBM-BioDP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orieta Celiku

    Full Text Available Validation of clinical biomarkers and response to therapy is a challenging topic in cancer research. An important source of information for virtual validation is the datasets generated from multi-center cancer research projects such as The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA. These data enable investigation of genetic and epigenetic changes responsible for cancer onset and progression, response to cancer therapies, and discovery of the molecular profiles of various cancers. However, these analyses often require bulk download of data and substantial bioinformatics expertise, which can be intimidating for investigators. Here, we report on the development of a new resource available to scientists: a data base called Glioblastoma Bio Discovery Portal (GBM-BioDP. GBM-BioDP is a free web-accessible resource that hosts a subset of the glioblastoma TCGA data and enables an intuitive query and interactive display of the resultant data. This resource provides visualization tools for the exploration of gene, miRNA, and protein expression, differential expression within the subtypes of GBM, and potential associations with clinical outcome, which are useful for virtual biological validation. The tool may also enable generation of hypotheses on how therapies impact GBM molecular profiles, which can help in personalization of treatment for optimal outcome. The resource can be accessed freely at http://gbm-biodp.nci.nih.gov (a tutorial is included.

  20. Climatology and potential effects of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Osborne, Leon; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    The Devils Lake Basin is a 3,810-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin.  At an elevation of about 1,447 feet above sea level, Devils Lake begins to spill into Stump Lake; and at an elevation of about 1,459 feet above sea level, the combined lakes begin to spill through Tolna Coulee into the Sheyenne River. Since the end of glaciation about 10,000 years ago, Devils Lake has fluctuated between spilling and being dry.  Research by the North Dakota Geological Survey indicates Devils Lake has overflowed into the Sheyenne River at least twice during the past 4,000 years and has spilled into the Stump Lakes several times (Bluemle, 1991; Murphy and others, 1997).  John Bluemle, North Dakota State Geologist, concluded the natural condition for Devils Lake is either rising or falling, and the lake should not be expected to remain at any elevation for a long period of time. Recent conditions indicate the lake is in a rising phase.  The lake rose 24.7 feet from February 1993 to August 1999, and flood damages in the Devils Lake Basin have exceeded $300 million.  These damages, and the potential for additional damages, have led to an effort to develop an outlet to help control lake levels.  Therefore, current and accurate climatologic and hydrologic data are needed to assess the viability of the various options to reduce flood damages at Devils Lake.

  1. Monitoring, imperfect detection, and risk optimization of a Tasmanian devil insurance population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Tracy M; Baker, Christopher M; Huxtable, Stewart; Wintle, Brendan A

    2018-04-01

    Most species are imperfectly detected during biological surveys, which creates uncertainty around their abundance or presence at a given location. Decision makers managing threatened or pest species are regularly faced with this uncertainty. Wildlife diseases can drive species to extinction; thus, managing species with disease is an important part of conservation. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such disease that led to the listing of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) as endangered. Managers aim to maintain devils in the wild by establishing disease-free insurance populations at isolated sites. Often a resident DFTD-affected population must first be removed. In a successful collaboration between decision scientists and wildlife managers, we used an accessible population model to inform monitoring decisions and facilitate the establishment of an insurance population of devils on Forestier Peninsula. We used a Bayesian catch-effort model to estimate population size of a diseased population from removal and camera trap data. We also analyzed the costs and benefits of declaring the area disease-free prior to reintroduction and establishment of a healthy insurance population. After the monitoring session in May-June 2015, the probability that all devils had been successfully removed was close to 1, even when we accounted for a possible introduction of a devil to the site. Given this high probability and the baseline cost of declaring population absence prematurely, we found it was not cost-effective to carry out any additional monitoring before introducing the insurance population. Considering these results within the broader context of Tasmanian devil management, managers ultimately decided to implement an additional monitoring session before the introduction. This was a conservative decision that accounted for uncertainty in model estimates and for the broader nonmonetary costs of mistakenly declaring the area disease-free. © 2017 Society for

  2. Magnetization curves for thin films of layered type-II superconductors, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theory, and the devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkov, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetization curves for a thin-layered superconducting film in parallel magnetic field have been shown to become devil's staircases provided the superconducting layers are perpendicular to the film plane. The transition from an incomplete to a complete devil's staircase with decreasing temperature is predicted. A chain of vortices is described by the generalized Frenkel-Kontorova model

  3. Neuronal differentiation modulates the dystrophin Dp71d binding to the nuclear matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Munoz, Rafael; Villarreal-Silva, Marcela; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Garcia-Sierra, Francisco; Mondragon, Monica; Mondragon, Ricardo; Cerna, Joel; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2008-01-01

    The function of dystrophin Dp71 in neuronal cells remains unknown. To approach this issue, we have selected the PC12 neuronal cell line. These cells express both a Dp71f cytoplasmic variant and a Dp71d nuclear isoform. In this study, we demonstrated by electron and confocal microscopy analyses of in situ nuclear matrices and Western blotting evaluation of cell extracts that Dp71d associates with the nuclear matrix. Interestingly, this binding is modulated during NGF-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells with a twofold increment in the differentiated cells, compared to control cells. Also, distribution of Dp71d along the periphery of the nuclear matrix observed in the undifferentiated cells is replaced by intense fluorescent foci localized in Center of the nucleoskeletal structure. In summary, we revealed that Dp71d is a dynamic component of nuclear matrix that might participate in the nuclear modeling occurring during neuronal differentiation

  4. Field measurements of horizontal forward motion velocities of terrestrial dust devils: Towards a proxy for ambient winds on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balme, M. R.; Pathare, A.; Metzger, S. M.; Towner, M. C.; Lewis, S. R.; Spiga, A.; Fenton, L. K.; Renno, N. O.; Elliott, H. M.; Saca, F. A.; Michaels, T. I.; Russell, P.; Verdasca, J.

    2012-11-01

    Dust devils - convective vortices made visible by the dust and debris they entrain - are common in arid environments and have been observed on Earth and Mars. Martian dust devils have been identified both in images taken at the surface and in remote sensing observations from orbiting spacecraft. Observations from landing craft and orbiting instruments have allowed the dust devil translational forward motion (ground velocity) to be calculated, but it is unclear how these velocities relate to the local ambient wind conditions, for (i) only model wind speeds are generally available for Mars, and (ii) on Earth only anecdotal evidence exists that compares dust devil ground velocity with ambient wind velocity. If dust devil ground velocity can be reliably correlated to the ambient wind regime, observations of dust devils could provide a proxy for wind speed and direction measurements on Mars. Hence, dust devil ground velocities could be used to probe the circulation of the martian boundary layer and help constrain climate models or assess the safety of future landing sites. We present results from a field study of terrestrial dust devils performed in the southwest USA in which we measured dust devil horizontal velocity as a function of ambient wind velocity. We acquired stereo images of more than a 100 active dust devils and recorded multiple size and position measurements for each dust devil. We used these data to calculate dust devil translational velocity. The dust devils were within a study area bounded by 10 m high meteorology towers such that dust devil speed and direction could be correlated with the local ambient wind speed and direction measurements. Daily (10:00-16:00 local time) and 2-h averaged dust devil ground speeds correlate well with ambient wind speeds averaged over the same period. Unsurprisingly, individual measurements of dust devil ground speed match instantaneous measurements of ambient wind speed more poorly; a 20-min smoothing window applied to

  5. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  6. Idle emissions from heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, R L; Graboski, M S; Alleman, T L; Yanowitz, J

    2000-11-01

    Idle emissions of total hydrocarbon (THC), CO, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) were measured from 24 heavy-duty diesel-fueled (12 trucks and 12 buses) and 4 heavy-duty compressed natural gas (CNG)-fueled vehicles. The volatile organic fraction (VOF) of PM and aldehyde emissions were also measured for many of the diesel vehicles. Experiments were conducted at 1609 m above sea level using a full exhaust flow dilution tunnel method identical to that used for heavy-duty engine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing. Diesel trucks averaged 0.170 g/min THC, 1.183 g/min CO, 1.416 g/min NOx, and 0.030 g/min PM. Diesel buses averaged 0.137 g/min THC, 1.326 g/min CO, 2.015 g/min NOx, and 0.048 g/min PM. Results are compared to idle emission factors from the MOBILE5 and PART5 inventory models. The models significantly (45-75%) overestimate emissions of THC and CO in comparison with results measured from the fleet of vehicles examined in this study. Measured NOx emissions were significantly higher (30-100%) than model predictions. For the pre-1999 (pre-consent decree) truck engines examined in this study, idle NOx emissions increased with model year with a linear fit (r2 = 0.6). PART5 nationwide fleet average emissions are within 1 order of magnitude of emissions for the group of vehicles tested in this study. Aldehyde emissions for bus idling averaged 6 mg/min. The VOF averaged 19% of total PM for buses and 49% for trucks. CNG vehicle idle emissions averaged 1.435 g/min for THC, 1.119 g/min for CO, 0.267 g/min for NOx, and 0.003 g/min for PM. The g/min PM emissions are only a small fraction of g/min PM emissions during vehicle driving. However, idle emissions of NOx, CO, and THC are significant in comparison with driving emissions.

  7. Extensive computation of albedo contrast between martian dust devil tracks and their neighboring regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statella, Thiago; Pina, Pedro; da Silva, Erivaldo Antônio

    2015-04-01

    We have developed a method to compute the albedo contrast between dust devil tracks and their surrounding regions on Mars. It is mainly based on Mathematical Morphology operators and uses all the points of the edges of the tracks to compute the values of the albedo contrast. It permits the extraction of more accurate and complete information, when compared to traditional point sampling, not only providing better statistics but also permitting the analysis of local variations along the entirety of the tracks. This measure of contrast, based on relative quantities, is much more adequate to establish comparisons at regional scales and in multi-temporal basis using imagery acquired in rather different environmental and operational conditions. Also, the substantial increase in the details extracted may permit quantifying differential depositions of dust by computing local temporal fading of the tracks with consequences on a better estimation of the thickness of the top most layer of dust and the minimum value needed to create dust devils tracks. The developed tool is tested on 110 HiRISE images depicting regions in the Aeolis, Argyre, Eridania, Noachis and Hellas quadrangles. As a complementary evaluation, we also performed a temporal analysis of the albedo in a region of Russell crater, where high seasonal dust devil activity was already observed before, comprising the years 2007-2012. The mean albedo of the Russell crater is in this case indicative of dust devil tracks presence and, therefore, can be used to quantify dust devil activity.

  8. Restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) of a "new" HLA-DP specificity, CDP-HEI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels

    1988-01-01

    Southern blotting with a DP beta cDNA probe of MspI digested DNA from 83 healthy unrelated individuals revealed a 1.8 kb fragment present in all four individuals (and no others) possessing the newly determined DP specificity, CDP-HEI.......Southern blotting with a DP beta cDNA probe of MspI digested DNA from 83 healthy unrelated individuals revealed a 1.8 kb fragment present in all four individuals (and no others) possessing the newly determined DP specificity, CDP-HEI....

  9. DP 71 AND BETA DYSTROGLYCAN INTERACTION: A MOLECULAR MODELING APPROACH TO UNDERSTAND DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanti Bhattacharya,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dp 71 is the most prevalent and widely expressed non muscle isoform of dystrophin (Dp and its mutations are associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a severe form of muscular disorder. Dp 71 deviates from the canonical Dp by means of its truncated N terminal which also has abolished certain amino acids that comprise WW domain in the canonical form. This WW domain is very crucial for Dp’s interaction with partner proteins to establish a bridge between extra cellular matrices and cellular cytoskeleton. In our current study we have employed molecular modeling technique to understand the structural architecture of the N terminal region of Dp 71 and its deviation from the canonical form. We have further extended our studies to analyze the interaction probabilities between Dp 71 and β-DG applying molecular docking. Our studies for the first time have revealed that in spite of the underlying differences in terms of amino acids and structural organization, Dp 71 can interact with β-DG with its N terminal region which shares the similar molecular surface with the canonical form of Dp. These findings have opened up a platform to investigate the molecular interactions, spatio temporal orientations of the amino acids of Dp 71 and β-DG to understand the onset of DMD in much more greater detail

  10. PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 configurable interface

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Rochez, J; Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2001-01-01

    Since many years, the SL/BT group has developed specific G-64 hardware modules for the control of the fast pulsed magnets. Up to now, the integration of these modules into the accelerator control system has been done using a MIL1553 fieldbus in command/response mode connected to a LynxOS front-end. In 1996 and 1998, recommendations for the use of industrial fieldbuses and programmable logic controllers were issued at CERN. In order to integrate the existing G-64 hardware into this environment based on industrial components, an interface between the G-64 bus and the PROFIBUS-DP fieldbus has been developed. This interface is based on a modular and open hardware architecture with on one side an off-the-shelf industrial, fieldbus independent, interface and on the other side a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). Required functionality has been implemented within the FPGA with VHDL (Very high-speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language).

  11. Characterization of high level nuclear waste glass samples following extended melter idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Kevin M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, David K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kruger, Albert A. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter was recently idled with glass remaining in the melt pool and riser for approximately three months. This situation presented a unique opportunity to collect and analyze glass samples since outages of this duration are uncommon. The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the potential for crystal formation in the glass resulting from an extended idling period. The results will be used to support development of a crystal-tolerant approach for operation of the high-level waste melter at the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Two glass pour stream samples were collected from DWPF when the melter was restarted after idling for three months. The samples did not contain crystallization that was detectible by X-ray diffraction. Electron microscopy identified occasional spinel and noble metal crystals of no practical significance. Occasional platinum particles were observed by microscopy as an artifact of the sample collection method. Reduction/oxidation measurements showed that the pour stream glasses were fully oxidized, which was expected after the extended idling period. Chemical analysis of the pour stream glasses revealed slight differences in the concentrations of some oxides relative to analyses of the melter feed composition prior to the idling period. While these differences may be within the analytical error of the laboratories, the trends indicate that there may have been some amount of volatility associated with some of the glass components, and that there may have been interaction of the glass with the refractory components of the melter. These changes in composition, although small, can be attributed to the idling of the melter for an extended period. The changes in glass composition resulted in a 70-100 °C increase in the predicted spinel liquidus temperature (TL) for the pour stream glass samples relative to the analysis of the melter feed prior to

  12. Lean hydrous and anhydrous bioethanol combustion in spark ignition engine at idle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuepeng, Sathaporn; Srisuwan, Sudecha; Tongroon, Manida

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Anhydrous ethanol burns fastest in uncalibrated engine at equal equivalence ratio. • The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the COV in imep. • Hydrous ethanol consumption was 10% greater than anhydrous ethanol at ϕ = 0.67 limit. • Optimizing alternative fuel engine at idle for stability and emission is suggested. - Abstract: The applications of anhydrous bioethanol to substitute or replace gasoline fuel have shown to attain benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency, power output and exhaust emissions from spark ignition engines. A hydrous bioethanol has also been gained more attention due to its energy and cost effectiveness. The main aim of this work is to minimize fuel quantity injected to the intake ports of a four-cylinder engine under idle condition. The engine running with hydrous ethanol undergoes within lean-burn condition as its combustion stability is analyzed using an engine indicating system. Coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure is an indicator for combustion stability with hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission monitoring as a supplement. Anhydrous ethanol burns faster than hydrous ethanol and gasoline in the uncalibrated engine at the same fuel-to-air equivalence ratio under idle condition. The leaner hydrous ethanol combustion tends to elevate the coefficient of variation in indicated mean effective pressure. The experimental results have found that the engine consumes greater hydrous ethanol by 10% on mass basis compared with those of anhydrous ethanol at the lean limit of fuel-to-air equivalence ratio of 0.67. The results of exhaust gas analysis were compared with those predicted by chemical equilibrium analysis of the fuel-air combustion; the resemble trends were found. Calibrating the alternative fueled engine for fuel injection quantity should be accomplished at idle with combustion stability and emissions optimization.

  13. Dimetrodon: Processor-level Preventive Thermal Management via Idle Cycle Injection

    OpenAIRE

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa; Gandhi, Sanjay; Brooks, David M.; Seltzer, Margo I.; Bailis, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Processor-level dynamic thermal management techniques have long targeted worst-case thermal margins. We examine the thermal-performance trade-offs in average-case, preventive thermal management by actively degrading application performance to achieve long-term thermal control. We propose Dimetrodon, the use of idle cycle injection, a flexible, per-thread technique, as a preventive thermal management mechanism and demonstrate its efficiency compared to hardware techniques in a commodity operatin...

  14. 40 CFR 85.2219 - Idle test with loaded preconditioning-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (5.1-6.3). 7 or more 32-35 (52-56) 8.4-10.8 (6.3-8.1). (2) Idle mode—(i) Ford Motor Company and Honda vehicles. (Optional.) The engines of 1981-1987 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles and 1984-1985 model... also be used for 1988-1989 model year Ford Motor Company vehicles but may not be used for other...

  15. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  16. Occurrence of Pasteurellaceae bacteria in the oral cavity of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lena; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Kelly, Androo

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae in the oral cavity of captive Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) was investigated using phenotypic and subsequent genotypic characterization and phylogenetic analyses. A total of 62 bacterial isolates obtained from Tasmanian...... devils, tentatively classified with the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by phylogenetic analysis of rpoB gene sequence similarity, which showed that the isolates investigated formed five distinct groups. A total of 15 strains formed a novel genus-like group within Pasteurellaceae...... with a 100% rpoB similarity with Pasteurella dagmatis. Finally, a single strain showed 97.1% resemblance to Haemophilus haemoglobinophilus. The results demonstrate that Tasmanian devils are hosting a variety of bacterial taxa affiliated with the family of Pasteurellaceae as part of their oral microflora....

  17. xdamp Version 3: An IDL reg-sign-based data and image manipulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, W.P.

    1998-05-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA trademark (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix reg-sign-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL reg-sign software, available from Research Systems Incorporated in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM reg-sign workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN reg-sign workstations, Microsoft reg-sign Windows trademark computers, Macintosh reg-sign computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS reg-sign and Alpha reg-sign systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. The author has verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM Unix platforms; and DEC alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC trademark versions. Version 3 adds the capability to manipulate images to the original xdamp capabilities

  18. Application of Finite Element Based Simulation and Modal Testing Methods to Improve Vehicle Powertrain Idle Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Sendur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current practice of analytical and test methods related to the analysis, testing and improvement of vehicle vibrations is overviewed. The methods are illustrated on the determination and improvement of powertrain induced steering wheel vibration of a heavy commercial truck. More specifically, the transmissibility of powertrain idle vibration to cabin is investigated with respect to powertrain rigid body modes and modal alignment of the steering column/wheel system is considered. It is found out that roll mode of the powertrain is not separated from idle excitation for effective vibration isolation as well as steering wheel column mode is close to the 3rd engine excitation frequency order, which results in high vibration levels. Powertrain roll mode is optimized by tuning the powertrain mount stiffness to improve the performance. Steering column mode is also separated from the 3rd engine excitation frequency by the application of a mass absorber. It is concluded that the use of analytical and test methods to address the complex relation between design parameters and powertrain idle response is effective to optimize the system performance and evaluate the trade-offs in the vehicle design such as vibration performance and weight. Reference Number: www.asrongo.org/doi:4.2017.2.1.10

  19. A Heuristic Scheduling Algorithm for Minimizing Makespan and Idle Time in a Nagare Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muthukumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting a focused factory is a powerful approach for today manufacturing enterprise. This paper introduces the basic manufacturing concept for a struggling manufacturer with limited conventional resources, providing an alternative solution to cell scheduling by implementing the technique of Nagare cell. Nagare cell is a Japanese concept with more objectives than cellular manufacturing system. It is a combination of manual and semiautomatic machine layout as cells, which gives maximum output flexibility for all kind of low-to-medium- and medium-to-high- volume productions. The solution adopted is to create a dedicated group of conventional machines, all but one of which are already available on the shop floor. This paper focuses on the development of heuristic scheduling algorithm in step-by-step method. The algorithm states that the summation of processing time of all products on each machine is calculated first and then the sum of processing time is sorted by the shortest processing time rule to get the assignment schedule. Based on the assignment schedule Nagare cell layout is arranged for processing the product. In addition, this algorithm provides steps to determine the product ready time, machine idle time, and product idle time. And also the Gantt chart, the experimental analysis, and the comparative results are illustrated with five (1×8 to 5×8 scheduling problems. Finally, the objective of minimizing makespan and idle time with greater customer satisfaction is studied through.

  20. Effect of Alcohol on Diesel Engine Combustion Operating with Biodiesel-Diesel Blend at Idling Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, Ftwi. Y.; A, M. Mukhtar N.; Mamat, Rizalman; Abdullah, A. Adam

    2018-03-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine. However, its blends have not been properly investigated during idling as it is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additives such as butanol and ethanol on combustion parameters under idling conditions when a single cylinder diesel engine operates with diesel, diesel-biodiesel blends, and diesel biodiesel-alcohol blends. The engine combustion parameters such as peak pressure, heat release rate and ignition delay were computed. This investigation has revealed that alcohol blends with diesel and biodiesel, BU20 blend yield higher maximum peak cylinder pressure than diesel. B5 blend was found with the lowest energy release among all. B20 was slightly lower than diesel. BU20 blend was seen with the highest peak energy release where E20 blend was found advance than diesel. Among all, the blends alcohol component revealed shorter ignition delay. B5 and B20 blends were influenced by biodiesel interference and the burning fraction were found slightly slower than conventional diesel where BU20 and E20 blends was found slightly faster than diesel So, based on the result, it can be said that among the alcohol blends butanol and ethanol can be promising alternative at idling conditions and can be used without any engine modifications.

  1. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Ning, Zemin; Hallström, Björn M

    2012-05-06

    The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species' survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  2. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Maria A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia, was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  3. Vertical transport of desert particulates by dust devils and clear thermals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, P.C.

    1974-01-01

    While the vertical and horizontal transport of natural surface material by dust devils is not in itself a critical environmental problem, the transport and downwind fallout of toxic or hazardous materials from dust devil activity may be a contributing factor in the development of future ecological-biological problems. Direct quantitative measurements of the dust particle size distribution near and within the visible dust devil vortex and analyses of the upper level clear thermal plume have been made to provide estimates of the vertical and horizontal transport of long half-life radioactive substances such as plutonium. Preliminary measurements and calculations of dust concentrations within dust devils indicate that over 7 x 10 3 tons of desert dust and sand may be transported downwind from an area 285 km 2 during an average dust devil season (May to August). Near the ground these dust concentrations contain particles in the size range from approximately 1 μm to 250 μm diameter. Since the vertical velocity distribution greatly exceeds the particle(s) fall velocities, the detrainment of particles within the vortex is controlled primarily by the spatial distribution of the radial (v/sub r/) and tangential (v/sub theta/) velocity fields. Above the visible dust devil vortex, a clear thermal plume may extend upward to 15,000 to 18,000 ft MSL. A new airborne sampling and air data system has been developed to provide direct measurements of the dust concentration and air motion near and within the upper thermal plume. The air sampler has been designed to operate isokinetically over a considerable portion of the low-speed flight regime of a light aircraft. A strapped down, gyro-reference platform and a boom-vane system is used to determine the vertical air motions as well as the temperature and turbulence structure within the thermal plume. (U.S.)

  4. A valoração de traços de concordância dentro do DP Concord features valuing within DP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma M.V. Magalhães

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho argumenta em favor da valoração dos traços de concordância dentro do DP em termos da operação Agree (Chomsky, 1999 sem a necessidade de estipular nenhum outro mecanismo para tanto. Mostro que Agree dá conta da valoração de traços tanto no nível da sentença quanto no nível do DP, contra a sugestão de Chomsky (1999 de que concordância no DP envolveria algum outro mecanismo de checagem.This paper argues in favor of a concord features valuing within the DP in terms of the Agree operation (Chomsky, 1999, with no recourse to any other mechanism. I show that Agree accounts for feature valuing both in the sentence level as well as in the DP, contrary to Chomsky's (1999 suggestion that concord in DP should involve some other checking mechanism.

  5. Effect of oxygenate additive on diesel engine fuel consumption and emissions operating with biodiesel-diesel blend at idling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudul, H. M.; Hagos, F. Y.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Yusri, I. M.

    2017-10-01

    Biodiesel is promising alternative fuel to run the automotive engine but idling is the main problem to run the vehicles in a big city. Vehicles running with idling condition cause higher fuel supply and higher emission level due to being having fuel residues in the exhaust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of alcohol additive on fuel consumption and emissions parameters under idling conditions when a multicylinder diesel engine operates with the diesel-biodiesel blend. The study found that using 5% butanol as an additive with B5 (5% Palm biodiesel + 95% diesel) blends fuel lowers brake specific fuel consumption and CO emissions by 38% and 20% respectively. But the addition of butanol increases NOx and CO2 emissions. Based on the result it can be said that 5% butanol can be used in a diesel engine with B5 without any engine modifications to tackle the idling problem.

  6. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  7. Human TFDP3, a novel DP protein, inhibits DNA binding and transactivation by E2F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Huan; Di Stefano, Luisa; Tian, Chan

    2006-01-01

    The two known DP proteins, TFDP1 and -2, bind E2Fs to form heterodimers essential for high affinity DNA binding and efficient transcriptional activation/repression. Here we report the identification of a new member of the DP family, human TFDP3. Despite the high degree of sequence similarity, TFD...

  8. HLA-DP antigens are involved in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Morling, N

    1988-01-01

    Forty-five unrelated patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) from Sweden and 166 Danish controls were typed for HLA-DP using Primed Lymphocyte Typing. Thirty-nine MS-patients and 63 controls were also DNA-typed with the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique for HLA-DP and -DR ge...... susceptibility to MS....

  9. HLA-DP related suppression of mixed lymphocyte reaction with alloactivated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the influence of HLA class I and class II antigens on the suppression of the MLR induced by primed lymphocytes (PLs) alloactivated in vitro. The suppression of 14 different PLs of 83 MLRs was analyzed. The PLs were primed against (i) HLA-DP (SB) (ii) HLA-DR/DQ or (iii) both HLA-DP and ...

  10. Restriction fragment polymorphism (RFLP) of a "new" HLA-DP specificity, CDP-HEI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig-Nielsen, J J; Ødum, Niels; Morling, Niels

    1988-01-01

    Southern blotting with a DP beta cDNA probe of MspI digested DNA from 83 healthy unrelated individuals revealed a 1.8 kb fragment present in all four individuals (and no others) possessing the newly determined DP specificity, CDP-HEI....

  11. On key factors influencing ductile fractures of dual phase (DP) steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, X.; Choi, K.S.; Soulami, A.; Liu, W.N.; Khaleel, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the key factors influencing ductile failure of various grades of dual phase (DP) steels using the microstructure-based modeling approach. Various microstructure-based finite element models are generated based on the actual microstructures of DP steels with different martensite volume fractions. These models are, then, used to investigate the influence of ductility of the constituent ferrite phase and also the influence of voids introduced in the ferrite phase on the overall ductility of DP steels. It is found that with volume fraction of martensite in the microstructure less than 15%, the overall ductility of the DP steels strongly depends on the ductility of the ferrite matrix, hence pre-existing micro-voids in the microstructure significantly reduce the overall ductility of the steel. When the volume fraction of martensite is above 15%, the pre-existing voids in the ferrite matrix does not significantly reduce the overall ductility of the DP steels, and the overall ductility is more influenced by the mechanical property disparity between the two phases. The applicability of the phase inhomogeneity driven ductile failure of DP steels is then discussed based on the obtained computational results for various grades of DP steels, and the experimentally obtained scanning electron microscopy (SEM) pictures of the corresponding grades of DP steels near fracture surface are used as evidence for result validations.

  12. HLA-DP related suppression of mixed lymphocyte reaction with alloactivated lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Hofmann, B; Jakobsen, B K

    1986-01-01

    We studied the influence of HLA class I and class II antigens on the suppression of the MLR induced by primed lymphocytes (PLs) alloactivated in vitro. The suppression of 14 different PLs of 83 MLRs was analyzed. The PLs were primed against (i) HLA-DP (SB) (ii) HLA-DR/DQ or (iii) both HLA-DP and DR...

  13. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Reduction of atmospheric fine particle level by restricting the idling vehicles around a sensitive area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yen-Yi; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Lin, Ming-Yeng; Chen, Kang-Shin

    2018-07-01

    Atmospheric particles are a major problem that could lead to harmful effects on human health, especially in densely populated urban areas. Chiayi is a typical city with very high population and traffic density, as well as being located at the downwind side of several pollution sources. Multiple contributors for PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≥2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles cause complicated air quality problems. This study focused on the inhibition of local emission sources by restricting the idling vehicles around a school area and evaluating the changes in surrounding atmospheric PM conditions. Two stationary sites were monitored, including a background site on the upwind side of the school and a campus site inside the school, to monitor the exposure level, before and after the idling prohibition. In the base condition, the PM 2.5  mass concentrations were found to increase 15% from the background, whereas the nitrate (NO 3 - ) content had a significant increase at the campus site. The anthropogenic metal contents in PM 2.5 were higher at the campus site than the background site. Mobile emissions were found to be the most likely contributor to the school hot spot area by chemical mass balance modeling (CMB8.2). On the other hand, the PM 2.5 in the school campus fell to only 2% after idling vehicle control, when the mobile source contribution reduced from 42.8% to 36.7%. The mobile monitoring also showed significant reductions in atmospheric PM 2.5 , PM 0.1 , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and black carbon (BC) levels by 16.5%, 33.3%, 48.0%, and 11.5%, respectively. Consequently, the restriction of local idling emission was proven to significantly reduce PM and harmful pollutants in the hot spots around the school environment. The emission of idling vehicles strongly affects the levels of particles and relative pollutants in near-ground air around a school area. The PM 2.5 mass concentration at a campus site increased from

  15. Creativity in context; the courage in Therivel's GAM/DP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Craig W

    2013-03-01

    The desire to quantify and categorize creativity so that we can easily identify the individual characteristics which serve as its precursors is one which authors have been attempting to successfully complete for some time. In this light, William Therivel's High Creativity Unmasked, discusses how his GAM/DP theory accounts for highly creative people from history as well as a rationale for the rise and fall of creativity in selected cultures throughout history. By examining the latest published work on how Genetic Endowment, Assistances, Misfortunes and Divisions of Power, and how they relate to creativity, Therivel proposes unique rationales for the rises and declines of cultures. This paper examines how creativity and courage work together and in some cases side by side, to explain more fully the role of creativity in culture. This article examines some of Therivel's examples and provides alternate explanations for the phenomena he ascribes to the decline of creativity. In addition, the complexity of both creativity and courage are discussed, both in the current context, and in the next steps for research and theoretical discussion.

  16. Identification of dendritic cells, B cell and T cell subsets in Tasmanian devil lymphoid tissue; evidence for poor immune cell infiltration into devil facial tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howson, Lauren J; Morris, Katrina M; Kobayashi, Takumi; Tovar, Cesar; Kreiss, Alexandre; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Corcoran, Lynn; Belov, Katherine; Woods, Gregory M

    2014-05-01

    The Tasmanian devil is under threat of extinction due to the transmissible devil facial tumor disease (DFTD). This fatal tumor is an allograft that does not induce an immune response, raising questions about the activity of Tasmanian devil immune cells. T and B cell analysis has been limited by a lack of antibodies, hence the need to produce such reagents. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG were closely related to other marsupials. Monoclonal antibodies were produced against CD4, CD8, IgM, and IgG by generating bacterial fusion proteins. These, and commercial antibodies against CD1a and CD83, identified T cells, B cells and dendritic cells by immunohistochemistry. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were identified in pouch young thymus, adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus- and gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Their anatomical distribution was characteristic of mammalian lymphoid tissues with more CD4(+) than CD8(+) cells in lymph nodes and splenic white pulp. IgM(+) and IgG(+) B cells were identified in adult lymph nodes, spleen, bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, with more IgM(+) than IgG(+) cells. Dendritic cells were identified in lymph node, spleen and skin. This distribution is consistent with eutherian mammals and other marsupials, indicating they have the immune cell subsets for an anti-tumor immunity. Devil facial tumor disease tumors contained more CD8(+) than CD4(+) cells, but in low numbers. There were also low numbers of CD1a(+) and MHC class II(+) cells, but no CD83(+) IgM(+) or IgG(+) B cells, consistent with poor immune cell infiltration. © 2014 The Authors. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A dated molecular phylogeny of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) based on mitogenome and nuclear sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Olsen, Jeanine; Croll, Donald A.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Newton, Kelly; Kollias, Spyros; O'Sullivan, John; Fernando, Daniel; Stevens, Guy; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Seret, Bernard; Wintner, Sabine; Hoarau, Galice

    Manta and devil rays are an iconic group of globally distributed pelagic filter feeders, yet their evolutionary history remains enigmatic. We employed next generation sequencing of mitogenomes for nine of the 11 recognized species and two outgroups; as well as additional Sanger sequencing of two

  18. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  19. The Devil and his Dramatic Function in Calderon’s Autos Sacramentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iglesias Feijoo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In some Calderón’s autos sacramentales the character of the Devil draws the plot and establishes the dramatic action as a demiurge. He elaborates plans and strategies to confuse the Man, but he always fails. This function approaches the autos to the metatheater. Finally certain parallels with Shakespeare are suggested.

  20. The Immunomodulatory Small Molecule Imiquimod Induces Apoptosis in Devil Facial Tumour Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Patchett

    Full Text Available The survival of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii is threatened by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD. This transmissible cancer is usually fatal, and no successful treatments have been developed. In human studies, the small immunomodulatory molecule imiquimod is a successful immunotherapy, activating anti-tumour immunity via stimulation of toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7 signaling pathways. In addition, imiquimod is a potent inducer of apoptosis in human tumour cell lines via TLR7 independent mechanisms. Here we investigate the potential of imiquimod as a DFTD therapy through analysis of treated DFTD cell lines and Tasmanian devil fibroblasts. WST-8 proliferation assays and annexin V apoptosis assays were performed to monitor apoptosis, and changes to the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes were analysed using qRT-PCR. Our results show that DFTD cell lines, but not Tasmanian devil fibroblasts, are sensitive to imiquimod-induced apoptosis in a time and concentration dependent manner. Induction of apoptosis was accompanied by down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic BCL2 and BCLXL genes, and up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic BIM gene. Continuous imiquimod treatment was required for these effects to occur. These results demonstrate that imiquimod can deregulate DFTD cell growth and survival in direct and targeted manner. In vivo, this may increase DFTD vulnerability to imiquimod-induced TLR7-mediated immune responses. Our findings have improved the current knowledge of imiquimod action in tumour cells for application to both DFTD and human cancer therapy.

  1. Air Quality at Devils Postpile National Monument, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. Burley; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Monica Buhler; Barbara Zielinska; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Susan Schilling; Jennifer Chapman Varela; Mark McDaniel; Michelle Horn; Deanna Dulen

    2016-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NH3, NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2 and VOCs were measured at Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO) during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The measurements were impacted by the Aspen and Rim Fires in...

  2. Food preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariasari, A.; Helmiati, S.; Setyobudi, E.

    2018-03-01

    Food preference is one of the important information that can be used to know the food chain in order to manage fisheries resources. This study aims to determine the food habits and preference of red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) in the Sermo Reservoir, Kulon Progo Regency. Samples were collected randomly each month from September 2013 to February 2014. Each sample collected was measured its total length, body weight, and determined sex, then dissected to measure the gut length and to observe gut contents. Results showed that red devil is omnivorous (relative gut length = 3.83) with food composition consisted of fish, crustaceans, detritus, phytoplankton, zooplankton, plants, insects, insect’s larvae, Chironomus sp., and annelids. A change occurred in the food preference of red devil, i.e. the young fish prefers to feed Chironomus sp. larvae (86.02 %) whereas the adult fish prefers fish/fish chunk (81.82 %). Trophic level status of red devil showed as carnivorous and niche overlapping between male and female of the adult.

  3. The identification of immune genes in the milk transcriptome of the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana V. Hewavisenti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii pouch young, like other marsupials, are born underdeveloped and immunologically naïve, and are unable to mount an adaptive immune response. The mother’s milk provides nutrients for growth and development as well as providing passive immunity. To better understand immune response in this endangered species, we set out to characterise the genes involved in passive immunity by sequencing and annotating the transcriptome of a devil milk sample collected during mid-lactation. At mid-lactation we expect the young to have heightened immune responses, as they have emerged from the pouch, encountering new pathogens. A total of 233,660 transcripts were identified, including approximately 17,827 unique protein-coding genes and 846 immune genes. The most highly expressed transcripts were dominated by milk protein genes such as those encoding early lactation protein, late lactation proteins, α-lactalbumin, α-casein and β-casein. There were numerous highly expressed immune genes including lysozyme, whey acidic protein, ferritin and major histocompatibility complex I and II. Genes encoding immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides, chemokines and immune cell receptors were also identified. The array of immune genes identified in this study reflects the importance of the milk in providing immune protection to Tasmanian devil young and provides the first insight into Tasmanian devil milk.

  4. Vulnerabilities and fisheries impacts : The uncertain future of manta and devil rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croll, Donald A.; Dewar, Heidi; Dulvy, Nicholas K.; Fernando, Daniel; Francis, Malcolm P.; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Hall, Martin; Heinrichs, Shawn; Marshall, Andrea; Mccauley, Douglas; Newton, Kelly M.; Notarbartolo-Di-Sciara, Giuseppe; O'Malley, Mary; O'Sullivan, John; Poortvliet, Marloes; Roman, Marlon; Stevens, Guy; Tershy, Bernie R.; White, William T.

    2016-01-01

    Manta and devil rays of the subfamily Mobulinae (mobulids) are rarely studied, large, pelagic elasmobranchs, with all eight of well-evaluated species listed on the IUCN Red List as threatened or near threatened. Mobulids have life history characteristics (matrotrophic reproduction, extremely low

  5. Branch structures at the steps of the devil's staircase of the sine circle map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.C.; Duong-van, M.

    1992-01-01

    We have discovered substructures consisting of branches at each step of the devil's staircase of the sine circle map. These substructures are found to follow the hierarchy of the Farey tree. We develop a formalism to relate the rational winding number W=p/q to the number of branches in these substructures

  6. Devil's Staircase in the Magnetoresistance of a Periodic Array of Scatterers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersig, Jan; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2001-01-01

    The nonlinear response to an external electric field is studied for classical noninteracting charged particles under the influence of a uniform magnetic field, a periodic potential, and an effective friction force. We find numerical and analytical evidence that the ratio of transverse to longitudinal resistance forms a Devil's staircase. The staircase is attributed to the dynamical phenomenon of mode-locking

  7. Signal-adapted tomography as a tool for dust devil detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, C.; Franzese, G.; Esposito, F.; Vázquez, Luis; Caro-Carretero, Raquel; Vilela-Mendes, Rui; Ramírez-Nicolás, María; Cozzolino, F.; Popa, C. I.

    2017-12-01

    Dust devils are important phenomena to take into account to understand the global dust circulation of a planet. On Earth, their contribution to the injection of dust into the atmosphere seems to be secondary. Elsewhere, there are many indications that the dust devil's role on other planets, in particular on Mars, could be fundamental, impacting the global climate. The ability to identify and study these vortices from the acquired meteorological measurements assumes a great importance for planetary science. Here we present a new methodology to identify dust devils from the pressure time series testing the method on the data acquired during a 2013 field campaign performed in the Tafilalt region (Morocco) of the North-Western Sahara Desert. Although the analysis of pressure is usually studied in the time domain, we prefer here to follow a different approach and perform the analysis in a time signal-adapted domain, the relation between the two being a bilinear transformation, i.e. a tomogram. The tomographic technique has already been successfully applied in other research fields like those of plasma reflectometry or the neuronal signatures. Here we show its effectiveness also in the dust devils detection. To test our results, we compare the tomography with a phase picker time domain analysis. We show the level of agreement between the two methodologies and the advantages and disadvantages of the tomographic approach.

  8. Speak Truth and Shame the Devil: An Ethnodrama in Response to Racism in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Randolph, Adah; Weems, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnodrama examines how two African American women experience racism in the academe. Both scholars examine the social/political context of racism in higher education and its manifestation in institutional practices. Both authors seek to "speak truth and shame the devil" by examining institutional responses to the racism they encounter in…

  9. xdamp Version 4: An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William P. Ballard

    2002-01-01

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg s ign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg s ign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg s ign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg s ign) workstations, Microsoft(reg s ign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macintosh(reg s ign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg s ign) and Alpha(reg s ign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 95 and Windows NT; IBM Unix platforms; DEC Alpha and VMS systems; HP 9000/700 series workstations; and Macintosh computers, both regular and PowerPC(trademark) versions. Version 4 is an update that removes some obsolete features and better supports very large arrays and Excel formatted data import

  10. Novel 3D Approach to Flare Modeling via Interactive IDL Widget Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, G. M.; Fleishman, G. D.; Gary, D. E.; Kuznetsov, A.; Kontar, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, and soon-to-be, available sophisticated 3D models of particle acceleration and transport in solar flares require a new level of user-friendly visualization and analysis tools allowing quick and easy adjustment of the model parameters and computation of realistic radiation patterns (images, spectra, polarization, etc). We report the current state of the art of these tools in development, already proved to be highly efficient for the direct flare modeling. We present an interactive IDL widget application intended to provide a flexible tool that allows the user to generate spatially resolved radio and X-ray spectra. The object-based architecture of this application provides full interaction with imported 3D magnetic field models (e.g., from an extrapolation) that may be embedded in a global coronal model. Various tools provided allow users to explore the magnetic connectivity of the model by generating magnetic field lines originating in user-specified volume positions. Such lines may serve as reference lines for creating magnetic flux tubes, which are further populated with user-defined analytical thermal/non thermal particle distribution models. By default, the application integrates IDL callable DLL and Shared libraries containing fast GS emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++ and soft and hard X-ray codes developed in IDL. However, the interactive interface allows interchanging these default libraries with any user-defined IDL or external callable codes designed to solve the radiation transfer equation in the same or other wavelength ranges of interest. To illustrate the tool capacity and generality, we present a step-by-step real-time computation of microwave and X-ray images from realistic magnetic structures obtained from a magnetic field extrapolation preceding a real event, and compare them with the actual imaging data obtained by NORH and RHESSI instruments. We discuss further anticipated developments of the tools needed to accommodate

  11. Research on Turbofan Engine Model above Idle State Based on NARX Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Shu, Wenjun

    2017-03-01

    The nonlinear model for turbofan engine above idle state based on NARX is studied. Above all, the data sets for the JT9D engine from existing model are obtained via simulation. Then, a nonlinear modeling scheme based on NARX is proposed and several models with different parameters are built according to the former data sets. Finally, the simulations have been taken to verify the precise and dynamic performance the models, the results show that the NARX model can well reflect the dynamics characteristic of the turbofan engine with high accuracy.

  12. GNU Data Language (GDL) - a free and open-source implementation of IDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabas, Sylwester; Schellens, Marc; Coulais, Alain; Gales, Joel; Messmer, Peter

    2010-05-01

    GNU Data Language (GDL) is developed with the aim of providing an open-source drop-in replacement for the ITTVIS's Interactive Data Language (IDL). It is free software developed by an international team of volunteers led by Marc Schellens - the project's founder (a list of contributors is available on the project's website). The development is hosted on SourceForge where GDL continuously ranks in the 99th percentile of most active projects. GDL with its library routines is designed as a tool for numerical data analysis and visualisation. As its proprietary counterparts (IDL and PV-WAVE), GDL is used particularly in geosciences and astronomy. GDL is dynamically-typed, vectorized and has object-oriented programming capabilities. The library routines handle numerical calculations, data visualisation, signal/image processing, interaction with host OS and data input/output. GDL supports several data formats such as netCDF, HDF4, HDF5, GRIB, PNG, TIFF, DICOM, etc. Graphical output is handled by X11, PostScript, SVG or z-buffer terminals, the last one allowing output to be saved in a variety of raster graphics formats. GDL is an incremental compiler with integrated debugging facilities. It is written in C++ using the ANTLR language-recognition framework. Most of the library routines are implemented as interfaces to open-source packages such as GNU Scientific Library, PLPlot, FFTW, ImageMagick, and others. GDL features a Python bridge (Python code can be called from GDL; GDL can be compiled as a Python module). Extensions to GDL can be written in C++, GDL, and Python. A number of open software libraries written in IDL, such as the NASA Astronomy Library, MPFIT, CMSVLIB and TeXtoIDL are fully or partially functional under GDL. Packaged versions of GDL are available for several Linux distributions and Mac OS X. The source code compiles on some other UNIX systems, including BSD and OpenSolaris. The presentation will cover the current status of the project, the key

  13. The role of the prostaglandin D2 receptor, DP, in eosinophil trafficking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schratl, Petra; Royer, Julia F; Kostenis, Evi

    2007-01-01

    of DP has remained unclear. We report in this study that, in addition to CRTH2, the DP receptor plays an important role in eosinophil trafficking. First, we investigated the release of eosinophils from bone marrow using the in situ perfused guinea pig hind limb preparation. PGD2 induced the rapid......Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is a major mast cell product that acts via two receptors, the D-type prostanoid (DP) and the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) receptors. Whereas CRTH2 mediates the chemotaxis of eosinophils, basophils, and Th2 lymphocytes, the role...

  14. Dust devil track survey at Elysium Planitia, Mars: Implications for the InSight landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Dennis; Lorenz, Ralph D.

    2016-03-01

    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) robotic lander is scheduled to land in Elysium Planitia on Mars in September 2016. InSight will perform the first comprehensive surface-based geophysical investigation including seismic measurements. Knowledge about encounter rates of dust devils with the InSight lander are important for two main reasons: (1) dust devils will affect the scientific measurements, i.e., wind-induced seismic noise, and (2) the power-supply of the InSight lander and instruments is provided by solar arrays and previous landers and rovers on Mars were affected by a steady decline in electrical power output due to atmospheric dust deposition on the solar panels. Long term science operations were only made possible by dust clearing events of the solar arrays caused by wind gusts and dust devils. In this study we analyzed dust devil tracks (DDTs) at the final InSight landing site region in Elysium Planitia. Formation of DDTs is caused by the removal of a layer of dust by passing dust devils, hence in principle the same process as clearing of dust from solar panels. We mapped the number, size (width and length), and orientation of DDTs in repeat observations using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images covering the exact same surface area acquired within a relatively short time span (solar panel clearing recurrence interval estimate of ∼11 Mars years using the mean annual DDT formation rate, and the mean DDT width and length from all measured DDTs. Due to several uncertainties this solar panel clearing recurrence interval for the InSight landing should be seen as an upper limit estimate.

  15. Typing for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    assignments, which does not agree with other studies. The DP-antigen frequencies among the controls were calculated and the estimated sum of gene frequency corresponding to definable DP-antigens was 0.94 indicating that about 12% of random individuals possess as yet undefined DP-antigens....

  16. Reversible epigenetic down-regulation of MHC molecules by devil facial tumour disease illustrates immune escape by a contagious cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kreiss, Alexandre; Tovar, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Contagious cancers that pass between individuals as an infectious cell line are highly unusual pathogens. Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is one such contagious cancer that emerged 16 y ago and is driving the Tasmanian devil to extinction. As both a pathogen and an allograft, DFTD cells should...... be rejected by the host-immune response, yet DFTD causes 100% mortality among infected devils with no apparent rejection of tumor cells. Why DFTD cells are not rejected has been a question of considerable confusion. Here, we show that DFTD cells do not express cell surface MHC molecules in vitro or in vivo......, MHC class I molecules can be restored to the surface of DFTD cells in vitro by using recombinant devil IFN-γ, which is associated with up-regulation of the MHC class II transactivator, a key transcription factor with deacetylase activity. Further, expression of MHC class I molecules by DFTD cells can...

  17. "Dust Devils": Gardening Agents on the Surface of Mars, and Hidden Hazards to Human Exploration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Smith, P.; White, B.; Farrell, W.

    1999-09-01

    Dust devils are familiar sites in the and regions of the world: they can produce quite spectacular displays of dust lofting when the vortices scavenge very loose dust from a dry lake bed or from recently disturbed agricultural fields. If one were to arrive at the center of an arid region, take one photograph, or even a series of photographs over a period of several days, then return the images for laboratory analysis, it would be most likely concluded that the region was inactive from an aeolian perspective. No images of general dust movement were obtained, nor were any dust devils "caught on camera" owing to their ephemeral and unpredictable appearance, and the fact that there was deceptively little residue of their actions. If, however, a camera were to take a 360 degree continuous recording over a period of a year, and the film were then to be shown at high speed over a period a several minutes, the impression might be that of a region ravaged by air vorticity and dust movement. Extrapolate this over geological time, and it is possible to visualize dust devils as prime aeolian agents, rather than insignificant vagaries of nature, On Mars, the thin atmosphere permits the surface of the planet to be heated but it does not itself retain heat with the capacity of the earth's atmosphere. This gives rise to greater thermal instability near the surface of Mars as "warm" air pockets diapiritically inject themselves into higher atmospheric layers. Resulting boundary-layer vorticity on Mars might therefore be expected to produce dust devils in abundance, if only seasonally. The spectacular images of dust devils obtained by Pathfinder within its brief functional period on the planet testify to the probability of highly frequent surface vorticity in light of the above reasoning about observational probability. Notably, the Pathfinder devils appeared to be at least a kilometer in height. There are several consequences for the geology of Mars, and for human exploration, if

  18. Devil declines and catastrophic cascades: is mesopredator release of feral cats inhibiting recovery of the eastern quoll?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn A Fancourt

    Full Text Available The eastern quoll (Dasyurus viverrinus is a medium-sized Australian marsupial carnivore that has recently undergone a rapid and severe population decline over the 10 years to 2009, with no sign of recovery. This decline has been linked to a period of unfavourable weather, but subsequent improved weather conditions have not been matched by quoll recovery. A recent study suggested another mechanism: that declines in Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii populations, due to the spread of the fatal Devil Facial Tumour Disease, have released feral cats (Felis catus from competitive suppression, with eastern quoll declines linked to a subsequent increase in cat sightings. Yet current evidence of intraguild suppression among devils, cats and quolls is scant and equivocal. We therefore assessed the influences of top-down effects on abundance and activity patterns among devils, feral cats and eastern quolls. Between 2011 and 2013, we monitored four carnivore populations using longitudinal trapping and camera surveys, and performed camera surveys at 12 additional sites throughout the eastern quoll's range. We did not find evidence of a negative relationship between devil and cat abundance, nor of higher cat abundance in areas where devil populations had declined the longest. Cats did not appear to avoid devils spatially; however, there was evidence of temporal separation of cat and devil activity, with reduced separation and increasing nocturnal activity observed in areas where devils had declined the longest. Cats and quolls used the same areas, and there was no evidence that cat and quoll abundances were negatively related. Temporal overlap in observed cat and quoll activity was higher in summer than in winter, but this seasonal difference was unrelated to devil declines. We suggest that cats did not cause the recent quoll decline, but that predation of juvenile quolls by cats could be inhibiting low density quoll populations from recovering their

  19. An Analysis on the Images of the Devils in the Works of Geothe, Bulgakov and Thomas Mann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie CHANG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the analysis on the devils in the Bible stories, the writer of this article makes an analysis on Mephistopheles in Faust by JohannEolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832 Woland in The Master and Margarita by Mikhaíl Afanasyevich Bulgakov (1891-1940, and a Mephistopheles figure in Doctor Faustus by Thomas Mann (1875-1955. The origin, characteristics and changes of the images of these devils shall be discussed in this article.

  20. xdamp Version 6.100: An IDL(reg sign)-based data and image manipulation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-01-01

    The original DAMP (DAta Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macintosh(reg sign) computers and Digital Equipment Corporation VMS(reg sign) and Alpha(reg sign) systems. Thus, xdamp is portable across many platforms. We have verified operation, albeit with some minor IDL bugs, on personal computers using Windows 7 and Windows Vista; Unix platforms; and Macintosh computers. Version 6 is an update that uses the IDL Virtual Machine to resolve the need for licensing IDL.

  1. Dechlorane Plus (DP) in air and plants at an electronic waste (e-waste) site in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tian Mi; Wang Jing; Shi Tian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Yong [Guangdong Forestry Survey and Planning Institute, Guangzhou 510520 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Air and foliage samples (Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus massoniana Lamb.) were collected from e-waste and reference sites in South China and analyzed for Dechlorane Plus (DP) and two dechlorinated DPs. DP concentrations in the air were 13.1-1794 pg/m{sup 3} for the e-waste site and 0.47-35.7 pg/m{sup 3} for the reference site, suggesting the recycling of e-waste is an important source of DP to the environment. Plant DP, with concentrations of 0.45-51.9 ng/g dry weight at the e-waste site and 0.09-2.46 ng/g at the reference site, exhibited temporal patterns similar to the air DP except for pine needle at the reference site. The air-plant exchange of DP could be described with the two-compartment model. Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. The ratios of anti-Cl{sub 11} DP to anti-DP in the air and plants may indicate the preferential uptake of dechlorinated DP by plant compared with DP. - Highlights: > Dechlorane Plus was widely present in the air and plants in South China. > Temporal patterns of the plant DP could be described with the two-compartment model. > Plant uptake can efficiently reduce air DP concentration at the reference site. > Anti-Cl{sub 11} DP was measured in most air and plant samples from the e-waste site. - E-waste recycling in South China results in wide occurrence of DP in the air and plant.

  2. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity framework: joint dynamics of the Active and Idle Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Longjas, Anthony; Zaliapin, Ilya; Ambroj, Samuel; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2017-08-17

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. But current definition of robustness is only accounting for half of the story: the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack. Here we propose a new framework to assess network robustness, wherein the connectivity of the affected nodes is also taken into consideration, acknowledging that it plays a crucial role in properly evaluating the overall network robustness in terms of its future recovery from the attack. Specifically, we propose a dual perspective approach wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and that of building-up the IN. We show, via analysis of well-known prototype networks and real world data, that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle Network dynamics give rise to surprising robustness crossovers and re-rankings, which can have significant implications for decision making.

  3. xdamp Version 4 An IDL Based Data and Image Manipulation Program

    CERN Document Server

    William-Ballar, P

    2002-01-01

    The original DAMP (W t a Manipulation Program) was written by Mark Hedemann of Sandia National Laboratories and used the CA-DISSPLA(trademark) (available from Computer Associates International, Inc., Garden City, NY) graphics package as its engine. It was used to plot, modify, and otherwise manipulate the one-dimensional data waveforms (data vs. time) from a wide variety of accelerators. With the waning of CA-DISSPLA and the increasing popularity of Unix(reg sub s ign)-based workstations, a replacement was needed. This package uses the IDL(reg sub s ign) software, available from Research Systems Incorporated, a Xerox company, in Boulder, Colorado, as the engine, and creates a set of widgets to manipulate the data in a manner similar to the original DAMP and earlier versions of xdamp. IDL is currently supported on a wide variety of Unix platforms such as IBM(reg sub s ign) workstations, Hewlett Packard workstations, SUN(reg sub s ign) workstations, Microsoft(reg sub s ign) Windows(trademark) computers, Macinto...

  4. Flight Management System Execution of Idle-Thrust Descents in Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Laurel L.

    2011-01-01

    To enable arriving aircraft to fly optimized descents computed by the flight management system (FMS) in congested airspace, ground automation must accurately predict descent trajectories. To support development of the trajectory predictor and its error models, commercial flights executed idle-thrust descents, and the recorded data includes the target speed profile and FMS intent trajectories. The FMS computes the intended descent path assuming idle thrust after top of descent (TOD), and any intervention by the controllers that alters the FMS execution of the descent is recorded so that such flights are discarded from the analysis. The horizontal flight path, cruise and meter fix altitudes, and actual TOD location are extracted from the radar data. Using more than 60 descents in Boeing 777 aircraft, the actual speeds are compared to the intended descent speed profile. In addition, three aspects of the accuracy of the FMS intent trajectory are analyzed: the meter fix crossing time, the TOD location, and the altitude at the meter fix. The actual TOD location is within 5 nmi of the intent location for over 95% of the descents. Roughly 90% of the time, the airspeed is within 0.01 of the target Mach number and within 10 KCAS of the target descent CAS, but the meter fix crossing time is only within 50 sec of the time computed by the FMS. Overall, the aircraft seem to be executing the descents as intended by the designers of the onboard automation.

  5. Image enhancement by using IDL for a mammographic x-ray image in Medical Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmaliza Hashim; Md Saion Salikin; Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Norriza Mohd Isa; Azuhar Ripin

    2004-01-01

    Digital image enhancement technique can have a significant impact on the diagnostic quality of a radiographic image. The main aim of image enhancement is to process the image so that the enhanced image is clearer and more useful for specific application. There are three types of image enhancement namely noise reduction, edge enhancement and contrast enhancement. The objective of this project is to enhance the mammographic image by using Interactive Data Language (IDL) software in spatial and frequency domain by using various methods. In spatial domain method, direct manipulation of pixel in an image is used whereas, in frequency domain method, modifying the spectral component or Fourier Transform of an image is used In order to obtain the good quality mammographic image, breast phantom Model 12A with 4.0 cm compressed thickness and Bennett Model DMF- 150 Mammography Machine with various kV and mA are employed. The results of enhanced image with selected technique by using IDL are presented in this paper. (Author)

  6. Low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction levels in serum of ALS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaye, J B; Patin, F; Piver, E; Bruno, C; Vasse, M; Vourc'h, P; Andres, C R; Corcia, P; Blasco, H

    2017-09-15

    Converging evidence highlights that lipid metabolism plays a key role in ALS pathophysiology. Dyslipidemia has been described in ALS patients and may be protective but peripheral lipoprotein subclasses have never been studied. We collected sera from 30 ALS patients and 30 gender and age-matched controls. We analyzed 11 distinct lipoprotein subclasses by linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint, Quantimetrix Corporation, USA). We also measured lipoprotein (a), apolipoprotein B, and apolipoprotein E levels. ALS patients had significant higher total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol levels than controls (pALS patients than controls. Our preliminary work confirmed the association between ALS and dyslipidemia. The low IDL-B levels may explain the hepatic steatosis frequently reported in ALS. The high levels of the cholesterol-rich LDL-1 subfraction is consistent with previously reported hypercholesterolemia. This study describes, for the first time, the distribution of serum lipoproteins in ALS patients, with low IDL-B and high LDL-1 subfraction level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methods of Thrust Allocation in a DP Simulation System of Maritime University of Szczecin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zalewski Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vessels conducting dynamic positioning (DP operations are usually equipped with thruster configurations that enable generation of resultant force and moment in any direction. These configurations are deliberately redundant in order to reduce the consequences of thruster failures and increase the safety. On such vessels a thrust allocation system must be used to distribute the control actions determined by the DP controller among the thrusters. The optimal allocation of thrusters′ settings in DP systems is a problem that can be solved by several convex optimization methods depending on criteria and constraints used. The paper presents linear programming (LP and quadratic programming (QP methods adopted in DP control model which is being developed in Maritime University of Szczecin for ship simulation purposes.

  8. Coherent production features in dp interactions at 11.9 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, H.; Brick, D.; Fridman, A.; Gerber, J.P.; Juillot, P.; Maurer, G.; Alexander, G.; Dagan, S.; Grunhaus, J.; Levy, A.; Lissauer, D.; Oren, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The two pion production in coherent dp reactions is studied. The resonance production as well as the d* effect and the fragmentation processes are discussed. The present reults are compared with available coherent anti-p d data [fr

  9. An IDL-based analysis package for COBE and other skycube-formatted astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, J. A.; Isaacman, Richard B.; Gales, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    UIMAGE is a data analysis package written in IDL for the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) project. COBE has extraordinarily stringent accuracy requirements: 1 percent mid-infrared absolute photometry, 0.01 percent submillimeter absolute spectrometry, and 0.0001 percent submillimeter relative photometry. Thus, many of the transformations and image enhancements common to analysis of large data sets must be done with special care. UIMAGE is unusual in this sense in that it performs as many of its operations as possible on the data in its native format and projection, which in the case of COBE is the quadrilateralized sphereical cube ('skycube'). That is, after reprojecting the data, e.g., onto an Aitoff map, the user who performs an operation such as taking a crosscut or extracting data from a pixel is transparently acting upon the skycube data from which the projection was made, thereby preserving the accuracy of the result. Current plans call for formatting external data bases such as CO maps into the skycube format with a high-accuracy transformation, thereby allowing Guest Investigators to use UIMAGE for direct comparison of the COBE maps with those at other wavelengths from other instruments. It is completely menu-driven so that its use requires no knowledge of IDL. Its functionality includes I/O from the COBE archives, FITS files, and IDL save sets as well as standard analysis operations such as smoothing, reprojection, zooming, statistics of areas, spectral analysis, etc. One of UIMAGE's more advanced and attractive features is its terminal independence. Most of the operations (e.g., menu-item selection or pixel selection) that are driven by the mouse on an X-windows terminal are also available using arrow keys and keyboard entry (e.g., pixel coordinates) on VT200 and Tektronix-class terminals. Even limited grey scales of images are available this way. Obviously, image processing is very limited on this type of terminal, but it is nonetheless surprising how

  10. Climate simulation and flood risk analysis for 2008-40 for Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2008-01-01

    Devils Lake and Stump Lake in northeastern North Dakota receive surface runoff from a 3,810-square-mile drainage basin, and evaporation provides the only major water loss unless the lakes are above their natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River. In September 2007, flow from Devils Lake to Stump Lake had filled Stump Lake and the two lakes consisted of essentially one water body with an elevation of 1,447.1 feet, about 3 feet below the existing base flood elevation (1,450 feet) and about 12 feet below the natural outlet elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,459 feet).Devils Lake could continue to rise, causing extensive additional flood damages in the basin and, in the event of an uncontrolled natural spill, downstream in the Red River of the North Basin. This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, to evaluate future flood risk for Devils Lake and provide information for developing updated flood-insurance rate maps and planning flood-mitigation activities such as raising levees or roads.In about 1980, a large, abrupt, and highly significant increase in precipitation occurred in the Devils Lake Basin and elsewhere in the Northern Great Plains, and wetter-than-normal conditions have persisted through the present (2007). Although future precipitation is impossible to predict, paleoclimatic evidence and recent research on climate dynamics indicate the current wet conditions are not likely to end anytime soon. For example, there is about a 72-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 10 more years and about a 37-percent chance wet conditions will last at least 30 more years.A stochastic simulation model for Devils Lake and Stump Lake developed in a previous study was updated and used to generate 10,000 potential future realizations, or traces, of precipitation, evaporation, inflow, and lake levels given existing conditions on September 30, 2007, and randomly

  11. Elaboration d’Indice composite de Développement du secteur bovin Laitier (IDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. KESSAB BELKHAYAT

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plusieurs travaux de recherche ont été publiés sur la mesure du niveau de développement du secteur bovin laitier. Toutefois, aucun de ces travaux ne traite du secteur dans sa globalité. L’objectif du travail est de construire un tableau de bord du secteur bovin laitier à travers le développement d’un indice composite.Pour la construction de l’indice composite, 39 indicateurs du secteur bovin laitier sont identifiés dans le cadre conceptuel couvrant 8 dimensions. La collecte des données a concerné 41 variables composant les indicateurs, 37 pays et sur une période de 11 années (2000-2010. Après le traitement des données manquantes, la base de données complète est constituée de 21 indicateurs, de 23 pays sur 9 années. Un modèle a été développé pour la normalisation, la pondération des indicateurs puis pour le calcul de l’indice composite. Le test de robustesse est déroulé par le calcul du coefficient de corrélation de Pearson. Ce test a montré que de l’indice composite calculé selon 3 méthodes différentes de normalisation et de pondération est robuste. Les pays ont été classés selon leur l’IDL. Plusieurs axes d’analyse sont possibles à travers l’IDL notamment son évolution dans le temps, les points forts et les points faibles pour chaque pays et les leviers de développement du secteur.

  12. Building a Snow Data Management System using Open Source Software (and IDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Hart, A. F.; Painter, T.; Zimdars, P. A.; Bryant, A.; Brodzik, M.; Skiles, M.; Seidel, F. C.; Rittger, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory free and open source software is used everyday to support a wide range of projects, from planetary to climate to research and development. In this abstract I will discuss the key role that open source software has played in building a robust science data processing pipeline for snow hydrology research, and how the system is also able to leverage programs written in IDL, making JPL's Snow Data System a hybrid of open source and proprietary software. Main Points: - The Design of the Snow Data System (illustrate how the collection of sub-systems are combined to create a complete data processing pipeline) - Discuss the Challenges of moving from a single algorithm on a laptop, to running 100's of parallel algorithms on a cluster of servers (lesson's learned) - Code changes - Software license related challenges - Storage Requirements - System Evolution (from data archiving, to data processing, to data on a map, to near-real-time products and maps) - Road map for the next 6 months (including how easily we re-used the snowDS code base to support the Airborne Snow Observatory Mission) Software in Use and their Software Licenses: IDL - Used for pre and post processing of data. Licensed under a proprietary software license held by Excelis. Apache OODT - Used for data management and workflow processing. Licensed under the Apache License Version 2. GDAL - Geospatial Data processing library used for data re-projection currently. Licensed under the X/MIT license. GeoServer - WMS Server. Licensed under the General Public License Version 2.0 Leaflet.js - Javascript web mapping library. Licensed under the Berkeley Software Distribution License. Python - Glue code and miscellaneous data processing support. Licensed under the Python Software Foundation License. Perl - Script wrapper for running the SCAG algorithm. Licensed under the General Public License Version 3. PHP - Front-end web application programming. Licensed under the PHP License Version

  13. Devils Hole, Nevada—A photographic story of a restricted subaqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    2017-07-24

    This report presents selected photographic images taken by the author during U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) research into paleoclimatology and geochemistry in Devils Hole cavern during 1984 to 1993 in cooperation with the National Park Service. The unaltered suite of photographs was prepared by the USGS dive team as an aid to assist nondiving scientists with a visual perspective of the environment where earth-science samples were collected and subsequently analyzed for chemical and isotopic composition.

  14. Climatology, hydrology, and simulation of an emergency outlet, Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Gregg J.; Vecchia, A.V.; Osborne, Leon; Wood, Carrie M.; Fay, James T.

    2000-01-01

    Devils Lake is a natural lake in northeastern North Dakota that is the terminus of a nearly 4,000-square-mile subbasin in the Red River of the North Basin. The lake has not reached its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (a tributary of the Red River of the North) in recorded history. However, geologic evidence indicates a spill occurred sometime within the last 1,800 years. From 1993 to 1999, Devils Lake rose 24.5 feet and, at the present (August 2000), is about 13 feet below the natural spill elevation. The recent lake-level rise has caused flood damages exceeding $300 million and triggered development of future flood-control options to prevent further infrastructure damage and reduce the risk of a potentially catastrophic uncontrolled spill. Construction of an emergency outlet from the west end of Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River is one flood-control option being considered. This report describes the climatologic and hydrologic causes of the recent lake level rise, provides information on the potential for continued lake-level rises during the next 15 years, and describes the potential effectiveness of an emergency outlet in reducing future lake levels and in reducing the risk of an uncontrolled spill. The potential effects of an outlet on downstream water quantity and quality in the upper Sheyenne River also are described.

  15. Structuring Knowledge of Subcultural Folk Devils through News Coverage: Social Cognition, Semiotics, and Political Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Patrick Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The folk devil concept has been well used in subcultural studies, yet its importance might be better served by distinguishing among multiple conceptual frames through which it is articulated. In this article, I clarify how folk devils are made possible through the interaction of three concepts used by sociologists to study everyday life. The first is the process of social cognition, where producers and consumers of news construct and propagate a shared definition of who subcultural youths are and why they should be the object of fear. The second are the semiotic structures of genre and narrative, which narrow the interpretive process of producers and receivers alike and sustain discourses that limit how subcultural youths can be understood in the news. The third has to do with political economy, where the ideological features of mass mediated news-making keep the news industry in relative control of meaning making. Social cognition, semiotics, and the political economy dialectically produce the phenomenon of the subcultural folk devil and support its objective effects. I review several studies of market and state-controlled media societies and note that, in both types, the objective effects on youths are similar and significant. In studying how subcultural youths are framed in the media output of transitional states and societies, the conceptual value of social cognition, semiotics, and political economy should be recognised.

  16. Adsorption and movement of water by skin of the Australian thorny devil (Agamidae: Moloch horridus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comanns, Philipp; Esser, Falk J.; Kappel, Peter H.; Baumgartner, Werner; Shaw, Jeremy; Withers, Philip C.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture-harvesting lizards, such as the Australian thorny devil Moloch horridus, have remarkable adaptations for inhabiting arid regions. Their microstructured skin surface, with channels in between overlapping scales, enables them to collect water by capillarity and passively transport it to the mouth for ingestion. We characterized this capillary water transport for live thorny devils using high-speed video analyses. Comparison with preserved specimens showed that live lizards are required for detailed studies of skin water transport. For thorny devils, there was no directionality in cutaneous water transport (unlike Phrynosoma) as 7 µl water droplets applied to the skin were transported radially over more than 9.2 mm. We calculated the total capillary volume as 5.76 µl cm-2 (dorsal) and 4.45 µl cm-2 (ventral), which is reduced to 50% filling by the time transportation ceases. Using micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy of shed skin to investigate capillary morphology, we found that the channels are hierarchically structured as a large channel between the scales that is sub-divided by protrusions into smaller sub-capillaries. The large channel quickly absorbs water whereas the sub-capillary structure extends the transport distance by about 39% and potentially reduces the water volume required for drinking. An adapted dynamics function, which closely reflects the channel morphology, includes that ecological role.

  17. 78 FR 11751 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Kansas; Idle Reduction of Heavy-Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ...; mechanical work; armored vehicles; bus idling for passenger comfort (no greater than fifteen minutes in any...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Carbon monoxide, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental relations, Motor carriers, Motor vehicles, Motor vehicle pollution...

  18. Pasteurellaceae bacteria from the oral cavity of Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus Harrisii) show high minimum inhibitory concentration values towards aminoglycosides and clindamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutman, N.; Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    of the oral microbiota. In medical management of such bite wounds, antimicrobial susceptibility profiles are crucial. Prior to this investigation, no available data on minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values existed. A total of 26 isolates obtained from the oral cavity of 26 healthy Tasmanian devils...... for antimicrobial therapy against bite wound infections caused by Pasteurellaceae originating from the oral cavity of Tasmanian devils....

  19. Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviour of DP Steels: Micromechanical Modelling vs. Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazal Moeini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to simulate the stabilised stress-strain hysteresis loop of dual phase (DP steel using micromechanical modelling. For this purpose, the investigation was conducted both experimentally and numerically. In the experimental part, the microstructure characterisation, monotonic tensile tests and low cycle fatigue tests were performed. In the numerical part, the representative volume element (RVE was employed to study the effect of the DP steel microstructure of the low cycle fatigue behavior of DP steel. A dislocation-density based model was utilised to identify the tensile behavior of ferrite and martensite. Then, by establishing a correlation between the monotonic and cyclic behavior of ferrite and martensite phases, the cyclic deformation properties of single phases were estimated. Accordingly, Chaboche kinematic hardening parameters were identified from the predicted cyclic curve of individual phases in DP steel. Finally, the predicted hysteresis loop from low cycle fatigue modelling was in very good agreement with the experimental one. The stabilised hysteresis loop of DP steel can be successfully predicted using the developed approach.

  20. Microstructural investigations of the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Green, D. E.; Sohmshetty, R.; Alpas, A. T.

    2017-10-01

    In order to reduce vehicle weight while maintaining crashworthiness, advanced high strength steels (AHSSs), such as DP980, are extensively used for manufacturing automotive body components. During trimming operations, the high tensile strength of DP980 sheets tends to cause damage of the trim edge of D2 die inserts, which result in deterioration of the edge quality. The objective of this work is to study the damage microstructures at the trimmed edge of DP980 steel sheets as a function of the number of trimming cycles. A mechanical press equipped with AISI D2 tool steel inserts was used to continuously trim 1.4 mm thick sheets of DP980 at a rate of 30 strokes/min. Cross-sectional SEM images of the trimmed edges revealed that the sheared edge quality of the DP980 sheets decreased, indicated by an increase in the burr width, with an increase in the number of trims from 40,000 to 70,000. Plastic strains were estimated using the displacements of the martensite plates within plastic flow fields of ferrite. Site-specific cross-sectional TEM samples, excised from the trimmed edge using the in-situ `lift-out' technique by focused ion-beam (FIB)-milling, revealed cracking at the ferrite/martensite interfaces after 70,000 cycles indicating an increase in the depth of deformation zone possibly due to trimming with a chipped and blunted die edge.

  1. Can the identification of an idle line facilitate its removal? A comparison between a proposed guideline and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Areeba; Johnson, Cynthia S; Murray, Michelle; Dillon, Jill; Hui, Siu L

    2016-07-01

    There are 250,000 cases of central line-associated blood stream infections in the United States annually, some of which may be prevented by the removal of lines that are no longer needed. To test the performance of criteria to identify an idle line as a guideline to facilitate its removal. Patients with central lines on the wards were identified. Criteria for justified use were defined. If none were met, the line was considered "idle." We proposed the guideline that a line may be removed the day following the first idle day and compared actual practice with our proposed guideline. One hundred twenty-six lines in 126 patients were observed. Eighty-three (65.9%) were peripherally inserted central catheters. Twenty-seven percent (n= 34) were placed for antibiotics. Seventy-six patients had lines removed prior to discharge. In these patients, the line was in place for 522 days, of which 32.7% were idle. The most common reasons to justify the line included parenteral antibiotics and meeting systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) criteria. In 11 (14.5%) patients, the line was removed prior to the proposed guideline. Most (n = 36, 47.4%) line removals were observed to be in accordance with our guideline. In another 29 (38.2%), line removal was delayed compared to our guideline. Idle days are common. Central line days may be reduced by the consistent daily reevaluation of a line's justification using defined criteria. The practice of routine central line placement for prolonged antibiotics and the inclusion of SIRS criteria to justify the line may need to be reevaluated. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:489-493. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  2. DAMPAK INVASIF IKAN RED DEVIL (Amphilophus citrinellus TERHADAP KEANEKARAGAMAN IKAN DI PERAIRAN UMUM DARATAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairulwan Umar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Keanekaragaman ikan air tawar di Indonesia sekarang menghadapi ancaman dari berbagai aktivitas manusia yang bisa menyebabkan punahnya ikan-ikan endemik, dan diperkirakan sekitar 87 jenis ikan Indonesia terancam punah. Beberapa faktor yang menjadi ancaman terhadap keanekaragaman ikan dan menimbulkan kepunahan diantaranya introduksi spesies. Perkembangan beberapa spesies ikan menjadi tak terkendali sehingga menjadi hama dan merugikan manusia. Salah satu di antaranya adalah masuknya ikan ‘Red Devil’ ke beberapa perairan umum daratan di Indonesia. Beberapa perairan yang terdapat ikan red devil, mengalami penurunan sumber daya ikan baik jenis maupun jumlah, bahkan beberapa jenis ikan asli banyak yang hilang. Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dampak keberadaan ikan ini terhadap keanekaragaman sumberdaya ikan di perairan. Kajian ini bersifat desk study dan pengamatan langsung di lapangan. Verifikasi lapang dilakukan pada tahun 2011 dan 2012. Hasil tangkapan ikan red devil di beberapa perairan waduk dan danau di Indonesia sangat dominan bisa mencapai 40 – 60 %. Dampak dari invasi ikan ini antara lain adalah terjadinya perubahan ekosistem, yaitu penurunan keanekaragaman hayati, dan dampak terhadap kerugian ekonomi seperti biaya untuk mengendalikan jenis ikan asing dan penurunan produksi ikan ekonomis.   Freshwater fish diversity in Indonesia is now facing threats from human activities that could lead to the extinction of endemic fish, and an estimated 87 Indonesian fish species threatened with extinction. Some factors that caused a threat to the diversity and extinction of fish is the introduction of new species. The development of some species of fish become uncontrollable and those being predators and caused a damage for humans life. One of them is the inclusion of Red devil fish to some inland waters in Indonesia. Some inland water that contains of red devil fish caused declining of fish resources in type or amount and

  3. Proper acceleration, the geometric tachyon and the dynamics of a fundamental string near Dp branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Ashok; Panda, Sudhakar; Roy, Shibaji

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of our recent observation that the origin of the geometric tachyon, which arises when a Dp brane propagates in the vicinity of a stack of coincident NS5 branes, is due to the proper acceleration generated by the background dilaton field. We show that when a fundamental string (F-string), described by the Nambu-Goto action, is moving in the background of a stack of coincident Dp branes, the geometric tachyon mode can also appear since the overall conformal mode of the induced metric for the string can act as a source for proper acceleration. We also studied the detailed dynamics of the F-string as well as the instability by mapping the Nambu-Goto action of the F-string to the tachyon effective action of the non-BPS D-string. We qualitatively argue that the condensation of the geometric tachyon is responsible for the (F,Dp) bound state formation.

  4. Using the DP-190 glue for adhesive attachment of a large space mirror and its rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasenko, Oleg; Zverev, Alexey; Sachkov, Mikhail

    2014-07-01

    The glue DP-190 is widely used for adhesive attachment of astrositall (zerodur) lightweight large-size space astronomical mirrors (diameter of 1.7 m and more) with elements of their frames of invar. Peculiarities of physicalmechanical behavior of the glue DP-190 when exposed to the environment during the ground operation and in orbit cause instability of the reflective surface quality of mirrors. In this report we show that even a small (around 1%-5%) volumetric deformation of a cylindrical adhesive layer with a thickness of 0.8 mm between the mirror and the rim element causes significant mirrors deformation. We propose to use adhesive layer of special form that allows to reduce volumetric deformations of the glue DP-190 up to three times. Here we present results based on primary mirror tests of the WSO-UV project.

  5. Dietary partitioning of Australia's two marsupial hypercarnivores, the Tasmanian devil and the spotted-tailed quoll, across their shared distributional range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Andersen

    Full Text Available Australia's native marsupial fauna has just two primarily flesh-eating 'hypercarnivores', the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii and the spotted-tailed quoll (Dasyurus maculatus which coexist only on the island of Tasmania. Devil populations are currently declining due to a fatal transmissible cancer. Our aim was to analyse the diet of both species across their range in Tasmania, as a basis for understanding how devil decline might affect the abundance and distribution of quolls through release from competition. We used faecal analysis to describe diets of one or both species at 13 sites across Tasmania. We compared diet composition and breadth between the two species, and tested for geographic patterns in diets related to rainfall and devil population decline. Dietary items were classified into 6 broad categories: large mammals (≥ 7.0kg, medium-sized mammals (0.5-6.9kg, small mammals (< 0.5kg, birds, reptiles and invertebrates. Diet overlap based on prey-size category was high. Quoll diets were broader than devils at all but one site. Devils consumed more large and medium-sized mammals and quolls more small mammals, reptiles and invertebrates. Medium-sized mammals (mainly Tasmanian pademelon Thylogale billardierii, followed by large mammals (mainly Bennett's wallaby Macropus rufogriseus and birds, were the most important prey groups for both species. Diet composition varied across sites, suggesting that both species are flexible and opportunistic foragers, but was not related to rainfall for devils. Quolls included more large mammals but fewer small mammals and invertebrates in their diet in the eastern drier parts of Tasmania where devils have declined. This suggests that a competitive release of quolls may have occurred and the substantial decline of devils has provided more food in the large-mammal category for quolls, perhaps as increased scavenging opportunities. The high diet overlap suggests that if resources become limited in areas

  6. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with approx......In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  7. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  8. Simulation of a proposed emergency outlet from Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2002-01-01

    From 1993 to 2001, Devils Lake rose more than 25 feet, flooding farmland, roads, and structures around the lake and causing more than $400 million in damages in the Devils Lake Basin. In July 2001, the level of Devils Lake was at 1,448.0 feet above sea level1, which was the highest lake level in more than 160 years. The lake could continue to rise to several feet above its natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,459 feet above sea level) in future years, causing extensive additional flooding in the basin and, in the event of an uncontrolled natural spill, downstream in the Red River of the North Basin as well. The outlet simulation model described in this report was developed to determine the potential effects of various outlet alternatives on the future lake levels and water quality of Devils Lake.Lake levels of Devils Lake are controlled largely by precipitation on the lake surface, evaporation from the lake surface, and surface inflow. For this study, a monthly water-balance model was developed to compute the change in total volume of Devils Lake, and a regression model was used to estimate monthly water-balance data on the basis of limited recorded data. Estimated coefficients for the regression model indicated fitted precipitation on the lake surface was greater than measured precipitation in most months, fitted evaporation from the lake surface was less than estimated evaporation in most months, and ungaged inflow was about 2 percent of gaged inflow in most months. Dissolved sulfate was considered to be the key water-quality constituent for evaluating the effects of a proposed outlet on downstream water quality. Because large differences in sulfate concentrations existed among the various bays of Devils Lake, monthly water-balance data were used to develop detailed water and sulfate mass-balance models to compute changes in sulfate load for each of six major storage compartments in response to precipitation, evaporation, inflow, and outflow from

  9. Improving Energy Efficiency in Idle Listening of IEEE 802.11 WLANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to improve energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks (WLANs by effectively dealing with idle listening (IL, which is required for channel sensing and is unavoidable in a contention-based channel access mechanism. Firstly, we show that IL is a dominant source of energy drain in WLANs and it cannot be effectively alleviated by the power saving mechanism proposed in the IEEE 802.11 standard. To solve this problem, we propose an energy-efficient mechanism that combines three schemes in a systematic way: downclocking, frame aggregation, and contention window adjustment. The downclocking scheme lets a station remain in a semisleep state when overhearing frames destined to neighbor stations, whereby the station consumes the minimal energy without impairing channel access capability. As well as decreasing the channel access overhead, the frame aggregation scheme prolongs the period of semisleep time. Moreover, by controlling the size of contention window based on the number of stations, the proposed mechanism decreases unnecessary IL time due to collision and retransmission. By deriving an analysis model and performing extensive simulations, we confirm that the proposed mechanism significantly improves the energy efficiency and throughput, by up to 2.8 and 1.8 times, respectively, compared to the conventional power saving mechanisms.

  10. Edge detection using IDL for mammographic image in Medical Physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Md Saion Salikin; Asmaliza Hashim; Norriza Mohd Isa; Azuhar Ripin

    2004-01-01

    Over the decade, doctors, physicists and scientists have been using radiographic images to diagnosis patient illness as well as to study the anatomy of human body without having to cut them. Now days, in the advancement of technologies these images are available in digital form. The image data can be manipulated to determine exactly the information doctors, physicists and scientists want, which can help them in decision making when diagnosis as well as help them in understanding of the human body better. In this paper, the edge detection technique is discussed in brief which is extensive used in image y segmentation where the method is performed by finding the boundaries between objects, thus indirectly defining the object. Bennet Model DMF- 150 Mammography Machine and breast phantom model l2A with 4. 0 cm compressed thickness are employed in this study. A Vidar film digitizer is used to digitize the images. The digitized images are then manipulated by using Interactive Data language (IDL) software. Results of this study are presented in brief in this presentation. (Author)

  11. Statistical Evaluation of the Identified Structural Parameters of an idling Offshore Wind Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramers, Hendrik C.; Van der Valk, Paul L.C.; Van Wingerden, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    With the increased need for renewable energy, new offshore wind farms are being developed at an unprecedented scale. However, as the costs of offshore wind energy are still too high, design optimization and new innovations are required for lowering its cost. The design of modern day offshore wind turbines relies on numerical models for estimating ultimate and fatigue loads of the turbines. The dynamic behavior and the resulting structural loading of the turbines is determined for a large part by its structural properties, such as the natural frequencies and damping ratios. Hence, it is important to obtain accurate estimates of these modal properties. For this purpose stochastic subspace identification (SSI), in combination with clustering and statistical evaluation methods, is used to obtain the variance of the identified modal properties of an installed 3.6MW offshore wind turbine in idling conditions. It is found that one is able to obtain confidence intervals for the means of eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the fore-aft and side-side modes of the wind turbine. (paper)

  12. Application of the singularity subtraction method for (d,p) reactions on light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the method of subtraction the nearest singularity can be used successfully for data processing of (d,p) reactions. The data on the nuclear structure, thus obtained, can then be used for a more efficient study of the reaction mechanism with the use of traditional methods

  13. Engineering Task Plan for Hepa Filter Differential Pressure (DP) Fan Interlock Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMONS, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a plan for installation of Differential Pressure (DP) fan interlocks on the primary ventilation systems in selected Tank Farm facilities. This plan contains the engineering tasks required for installation and is summarized by the Acceptance for Beneficial Use list. Individuals responsible for each task are identified and scheduled accordingly

  14. Ckmeans.1d.dp: Optimal k-means Clustering in One Dimension by Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhou; Song, Mingzhou

    2011-12-01

    The heuristic k -means algorithm, widely used for cluster analysis, does not guarantee optimality. We developed a dynamic programming algorithm for optimal one-dimensional clustering. The algorithm is implemented as an R package called Ckmeans.1d.dp . We demonstrate its advantage in optimality and runtime over the standard iterative k -means algorithm.

  15. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-05-26

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.

  16. Year 2000 compliance concerns with the ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saviz, K.

    1998-01-01

    The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues

  17. Synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptide DP7 combined with antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu X

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Xiaozhe Wu,1 Zhan Li,1 Xiaolu Li,2,3 Yaomei Tian,1 Yingzi Fan,1 Chaoheng Yu,1 Bailing Zhou,1 Yi Liu,4 Rong Xiang,5 Li Yang1 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy/Collaborative Innovation Center of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 2International Center for Translational Chinese Medicine, Sichuan Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, Chengdu, 3Department of Plastic and Burn Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 4Department of Microbial Examination, Sichuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chengdu, 5Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001 and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli. The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L. When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus

  18. Characterizing the binding motifs of 11 common human HLA‐DP and HLA‐DQ molecules using NNAlign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreatta, Massimo; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    ‐based method NNAlign, we characterized the binding specificities of five HLA‐DP and six HLA‐DQ among the most frequent in the human population. The identified binding motifs showed an overall concurrence with earlier studies but revealed subtle differences. The DP molecules revealed a large overlap...

  19. The molecular origin of the thiamin diphosphate-induced spectral bands of ThDP-dependent enzymes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovina, M.V.; Kok, A.; Sevostyanova, I.A.; Khailova, L.S.; Belkina, N.V.; Kochetov, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    New and previously published data on a variety of ThDP-dependent enzymes such as baker's yeast transketolase, yeast pyruvate decarboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase from pigeon breast muscle, bovine heart, bovine kidney, Neisseria meningitidis and E. coli show their spectral sensitivity to ThDP

  20. Microstructure and dynamic tensile behavior of DP600 dual phase steel joint by laser welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yang, Yuling, E-mail: yulingyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Jinfeng, E-mail: lijinfengboda@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Ma, Min, E-mail: sharon6789@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jiang, Tao, E-mail: tao.jiang906@yahoo.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, No. 11, Lane 3, WenHua Road, HePing District, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-01-31

    Dual phase (DP) steels have been widely used in the automotive industry to reduce vehicle weight and improve car safety. In such applications welding and joining have to be involved, which would lead to a localized change of the microstructure and property, and create potential safety and reliable issues under dynamic loading. The aim of the present study is to examine the rate-dependent mechanical properties, deformation and fracture behavior of DP600 steel and its welded joint (WJ) produced by Nd:YAG laser welding over a wide range of strain rates (0.001–1133 s{sup −1}). Laser welding results in not only significant microhardness increase in the fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), but also the formation of a softened zone in the outer HAZ. The yield strength (YS) of the DP600 steel increases and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) remains almost unchanged, but the ductility decreases after welding. The DP600 base metal (BM) and WJ are of positive strain rate sensitivity and show similar stress–strain response at all studied strain rates. The enhanced ductility at strain rates ranging from 1 to 100 s{sup −1} is attributed to the retardation of the propagation of plastic strain localization due to the positive strain rate sensitivity and the thermal softening caused by deformation induced adiabatic temperature rise during dynamic tensile deformation. The tensile failure occurs in the inner HAZ of the joint and the distance of failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The mechanism for the changing failure location can be related to the different strain rate dependence of the plastic deformation behavior of the microstructures in various regions across the joint. The DP600 WJ absorbs more energy over the whole measured strain rates than that of the BM due to the higher strength at the same strain when the deformation only up to 10% is considered.

  1. [Quantitative analysis of Cu in water by collinear DP-LIBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mei-Lan; Yao, Ming-Yin; Chen, Tian-Bing; Lin, Yong-Zeng; Li, Wen-Bing; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) on the sensitivity of Cu in water. The water solution of Cu was tested by collinear DP-LIBS in this article. The results show that spectral intensity of Cu can be enhanced obviously by DP-LIBS, compared with single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (SP-LIBS). Besides, the experimental results were significantly impacted by delay time between laser pulse and spectrometer acquisition, delay time of double laser pulse and energy of laser pulse and so on. The paper determined the best conditions for DP-LIBS detecting Cu in water. The optimal acquisition delay time was 1 380 ns. The best laser pulse delay time was 25 ns. The most appropriate energy of double laser pulse was 100 mJ. Characteristic analysis of spectra of Cu at 324.7 and 327.4 nm was done for quantitative analysis. The detection limit was 3.5 microg x mL(-1) at 324.7 nm, and the detection limit was 4.84 microg x mL(-1) at 327.4 nm. The relative standard deviation of the two characteristic spectral lines was within 10%. The calibration curve of characteristic spectral line, established by 327.4 nm, was verified with 500 microg x mL(-1) sample. Concentration of the sample was 446 microg x mL(-1) calculated by the calibration curve. This research shows that the detection sensitivity of Cu in water can be improved by DP-LIBS. At the same time, it had high stability.

  2. Higher capacity, lower carbon dioxide emissions. Idle power compensation in HV lines; Mehr Kapazitaet, weniger Kohlendioxid. Blindleistungskompensation bei Hochspannungsleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, Jan-Hendrik von [Alstom Grid GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Team Leistungselektronik und Kompensationsanlagen

    2012-07-01

    Even today, many HP lines have reached their limits. It is therefore highly urgent to find measures for optimum utilization of the available overhead transmssion capacities, e.g. by idle power compensation. Together with a filter for harmonics reduction, this will ensure higher grid stability and enhance transport capacities while reducing transport losses, thus saving money and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig./AKB)

  3. Studi Implementasi Lean Six Sigma dengan Pendekatan Value Stream Mapping untuk Mereduksi Idle Time Material pada Gudang Pelat dan Profil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Widiatmoko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan volume kegiatan industri maritim di Indonesia menuntut industri perkapalan di daerah Surabaya untuk lebih meningkatkan pelayanan baik berupa bangunan baru maupun reparasi kapal. Berdasarkan hal tersebut galangan harus mampu mengelola proses produksi dengan baik sehingga menghasilkan keuntungan yang maksimum. Salah satunya adalah proses inventory dan transport of materials yang efektif. Tugas akhir bertujuan untuk mengetahui sistem inventori yang diterapkan oleh perusahaan yang dijadikan sampel serta idle time material pelat dan profil yang ada di gudang bahan baku dengan menggunakan metode lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping. Dari hasil perhitungan menggunakan diperoleh nilai sigma perhitungan idle time sebesar 0.1976 sehingga perlu dilakukan upaya peningkatan nilai sigma pengadaan material itu sendiri. Berdasarkan hasil analisa penyebab adanya idle time dengan menggunakan RCA diperoleh beberapa faktor yaitu : rendahnya nilai sigma penggunaan material, tidak tercapainya target pengerjaan pada proses fabrikasi, proses pengadaan material yang tidak mempertimbangkan strategi proses pembangunan kapal. Dengan penerapan lean six sigma dengan pendekatan value stream mapping dihasilkan usulan perbaikan proses inventori di perusahaan antara lain : meningkatkan nilai sigma penggunaan material, melakukan strategi pembelian material sesuai strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona, memperbaiki kerjasama dengan supplier material pelat dan profil. Pembuatan future state mapping mendapatkan usulan perbaikan dengan pembuatan perencanaan pengadaan material dengan mempertimbangkan strategi pembangunan kapal berdasarkan zona pembangunannya. Diperoleh strategi pengadaan material yang dilakukan sebanyak 4 kali order.

  4. The source of groundwater and solutes to Many Devils Wash at a former uranium mill site in Shiprock, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew J.; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Austin, Stephen A.; Lawlis, Bryan R.

    2016-04-21

    The Shiprock Disposal Site is the location of the former Navajo Mill (Mill), a uranium ore-processing facility, located on a terrace overlooking the San Juan River in the town of Shiprock, New Mexico. Following the closure of the Mill, all tailings and associated materials were encapsulated in a disposal cell built on top of the former Mill and tailings piles. The milling operations, conducted at the site from 1954 to 1968, created radioactive tailings and process-related wastes that are now found in the groundwater. Elevated concentrations of constituents of concern—ammonium, manganese, nitrate, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and uranium—have also been measured in groundwater seeps in the nearby Many Devils Wash arroyo, leading to the inference that these constituents originated from the Mill. These constituents have also been reported in groundwater that is associated with Mancos Shale, the bedrock that underlies the site. The objective of this report is to increase understanding of the source of water and solutes to the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash and to establish the background concentrations for groundwater that is in contact with the Mancos Shale at the site. This report presents evidence on three working hypotheses: (1) the water and solutes in Many Devils Wash originated from the operations at the former Mill, (2) groundwater in deep aquifers is upwelling under artesian pressure to recharge the shallow groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash, and (3) the groundwater beneath Many Devils Wash originates as precipitation that infiltrates into the shallow aquifer system and discharges to Many Devils Wash in a series of springs on the east side of the wash. The solute concentrations in the shallow groundwater of Many Devils Wash would result from the interaction of the water and the Mancos Shale if the source of water was upwelling from deep aquifers or precipitation.In order to compare the groundwater from various wells to groundwater that has been

  5. Levels, profile and distribution of Dechloran Plus (DP) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the environment of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    No scientific data is available on emerging contaminants including Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Dechloran Plus (DP) levels in the environment in Pakistan. Levels of PBDEs and DP were determined in the soil, sediment and atmospheric samples along the stretch of River Ravi in Punjab Province. Average concentrations of ΣPBDEs in atmosphere, soils and sediments were 36 pg m(-3), 40 ng g(-1) and 640 ng g(-1). BDE-209 was the most abundant PBDE congener, showing that deca-BDE accounts for most of the total PBDE emitted in the environment of Pakistan. Total DP levels were calculated as 88 pg m(-3), 0.8 ng g(-1) and 1.9 ng g(-1) in air, soil and sediment samples, respectively. The lower average fractions of anti-DP showed significant differences to those of the technical mixtures, indicating the lack of DP production source in Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lupines, manganese, and devil-sickness: an Anglo-Saxon medical response to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, P

    2001-01-01

    The most frequently prescribed herb for "devil-sickness" in the vernacular medical books from Anglo-Saxon England, the lupine, is exceptionally high in manganese. Since manganese depletion has been linked with recurring seizures in both clinical and experimental studies, it is possible that lupine administration responded to the particular pathophysiology of epilepsy. Lupine is not prescribed for seizures in classical Mediterranean medical sources, implying that the Northern European peoples (if not the Anglo-Saxons themselves) discovered whatever anticonvulsive properties the herb may exhibit.

  7. [[The Devil in the Details: Women's Right to Abortion and Health Organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, Alessandra

    Often a woman's right to terminate a pregnancy for health reasons is considered as achieved by simply performing the intervention. But today isn't in doubt that the effective protection of health requires that health organizations carrying out performance which also affect other aspects: taking charge of women, information on services, respect for the dignity and autonomy of women, etc ... You could say that these are details, compared to the final performance. But, as we know, often the devil is in the details.

  8. 'Devil's Staircase'-Type Phase Transition in NaV2O5 under High Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwada, K.; Fujii, Y.; Takesue, N.; Isobe, M.; Ueda, Y.; Nakao, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Ito, K.; Amemiya, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The 'devil's staircase'-type phase transition in the quarter-filled spin-ladder compound NaV 2 O 5 has been discovered at low temperature and high pressure by synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction. A large number of transitions are found to successively take place among higher-order commensurate phases with 2a x 2b x zc type superstructures. The observed temperature and pressure dependence of modulation wave number q c , defined by 1/z, is well reproduced by the axial next nearest neighbor Ising model. The q c is suggested to reflect atomic displacements presumably coupled with charge ordering in this system

  9. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Devils Lake quadrangle, North Dakota. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-05-01

    During the months of June through October, 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles located in the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin and seven (7) 2 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles in North and South Dakota. This report discusses the results obtained over the Devil's Lake map area of North Dakota. The final data are presented in four different forms: on magnetic tape; on microfiche; in graphic form as profiles and histograms; and in map form as anomaly maps, flight path maps, and computer printer maps

  10. Evidence for a devil's staircase in holmium produced by an applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, R.A.; Jehan, D.A.; McMorrow, D.F.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The magnetic structure of holmium has been studied using neutron diffraction when a magnetic field is applied along the c axis. The field has the effect of suppressing the onset of the commensurate cone phase found at low temperatures in zero field, and instead produces a series of spin-slip structures. In contrast to the zero-field diffraction experiments, where a continuous variation of the magnetic wave vector q was observed, we find that below ∼15 K the wave vector q is always commensurate and forms a devil's staircase with increasing field

  11. Associations of PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations with traffic, idling, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Saganich, C; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R

    2009-05-01

    An air quality study was performed outside a cluster of schools in the East Harlem neighborhood of New York City. PM(2.5) and black carbon concentrations were monitored using real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval. Monitoring was performed at 1:45-3:30 PM during school days over the period October 31-November 17, 2006. The designated time period was chosen to capture vehicle emissions during end-of-day dismissals from the schools. During the monitoring period, minute-by-minute volume counts of idling and passing school buses, diesel trucks, and automobiles were obtained. These data were transcribed into time series of number of diesel vehicles idling, number of gasoline automobiles idling, number of diesel vehicles passing, and number of automobiles passing along the block adjacent to the school cluster. Multivariate regression models of the log-transform of PM(2.5) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in the East Harlem street canyon were developed using the observation data and data from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation on meteorology and background PM(2.5). Analysis of variance was used to test the contribution of each covariate to variability in the log-transformed concentrations as a means to judge the relative contribution of each covariate. The models demonstrated that variability in background PM(2.5) contributes 80.9% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)] and 81.5% of the variability in log[BC]. Local traffic sources were demonstrated to contribute 5.8% of the variability in log[BC] and only 0.43% of the variability in log[PM(2.5)]. Diesel idling and passing were both significant contributors to variability in log[BC], while diesel passing was a significant contributor to log[PM(2.5)]. Automobile idling and passing did not contribute significant levels of variability to either concentration. The remainder of variability in each model was explained by temperature, along-canyon wind, and cross-canyon wind, which were

  12. Mouse Model of Devil Facial Tumour Disease establishes that an effective immune response can be generated against the cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L Pinfold

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The largest carnivorous marsupial in Australia, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii is facing extinction in the wild due to a transmissible cancer known as Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD. DFTD is a clonal cell line transmitted from host to host with 100% mortality and no known immunity. While it was first considered that low genetic diversity of the population of devils enabled the allograft transmission of DFTD recent evidence reveals that genetically diverse animals succumb to the disease. The lack of an immune response against the DFTD tumor cells may be due to a lack of immunogenicity of the tumor cells. This could facilitate transmission between devils. To test immunogenicity, mice were injected with viable DFTD cells and anti-DFTD immune responses analyzed. A range of antibody isotypes against DFTD cells was detected, indicating that as DFTD cells can induce an immune response they are immunogenic. This was supported by cytokine production, when splenocytes from mice injected with DFTD cells were cultured in vitro with DFTD cells and the supernatant analyzed. There was a significant production of IFN-γ and TNF-α following the first injection with DFTD cells and a significant production of IL-6 and IL-10 following the second injection. Splenocytes from naïve or immunized mice killed DFTD cells in in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Thus they are also targets for immunological destruction. We conclude that as an immune response can be generated against DFTD cells they would be suitable targets for a vaccine.

  13. Ostracods and facies of the Early and Middle Frasnian at Devils Gate in Nevada: Relationship to the Alamo Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Berra, I.; Olempska, Ewa; Sandberg, C.; Preat, A.

    2006-01-01

    In order to document the Alamo Event and to investigate its influence on shallow-marine environments, we undertook a study of ostracods, conodonts, and analysis of the sedimentology of the lower member of the type Devils Gate Limestone, Six major carbonate microfacies (MF1-MF6) ranging from open-marine environments below storm wave base to pre-evaporitic supratidal lagoons were recognized. The sedimentological study detected no important sedimentological changes during the Alamo Event; only an influx of detrital material and lithoclasts indicate that an unusual event had occurred. Ostracods are generally rare or absent in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone, and only 2,000 carapaces, valves and fragments were extracted; from these some 26 taxa were identified. Two new species, Voronina? eureka and Serenida dorsoplicata are proposed. The ostracods belong to the Eifelian Mega-Assemblage and their distribution was influenced by strong salinity variations. Because of the rarity and low diversity of ostracods and conodonts in samples collected from the lower part of the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone it is not adequate to demonstrate conclusively an extinction event close to the Alamo Event Bed. Nevertheless the greater abundance and diversity of ostracods above this bed seems to indicate that the Alamo Event did not result in significant extinction of ostracod taxa in this shallow water setting. The ostracod fauna present in the lower member of the Devils Gate Limestone suggests faunal exchanges between Nevada and the Russian Platform via the Western Canadian platform.

  14. Diffusive Insights: On the Disagreement of Christian Bohr and August Krogh at the Centennial of the Seven Little Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjedde, Albert

    2010-01-01

    The year 2010 is the centennial of the publication of the "Seven Little Devils" in the predecessor of "Acta Physiologica". In these seven papers, August and Marie Krogh sought to refute Christian Bohr's theory that oxygen diffusion from the lungs to the circulation is not entirely passive but rather facilitated by a specific cellular activity…

  15. Evaluating Capability of Devils Lake Emergency Outlets in Lowering Lake Water Levels While Controlling flooding Damage to Downstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Devils Lake is an endorheic lake locate in the Red River of the North Basin with a natural outlet at a level of 444.7 meters above the sea level flowing into the Sheyenne River. Historical accumulation of salts has dramatically increased the concentration of salts in the lake, particularly of the sulfates, that are much greater than the surrounding water bodies. Since 1993, the lake water level has risen by nearly 10 meters and caused extensive flooding in the surrounding area, and greatly increased the chance of natural spillage to the Sheyenne River. To mitigate Devils Lake flooding and to prevent its natural spillage, two outlets were constructed at the west and east sides of the lake to drain the water to the Sheyenne River in a controlled fashion. However, pumping water from Devils Lake has degraded water quality of the Sheyenne River. In an earlier study, we coupled Soil and Water Assessment Tools (SWAT) and CE-QUAL-W2 models to investigate the changes of sulfate distribution as the lake water level rises. We found that, while operating the two outlets has lowered Devils Lake water level by 0.7 meter, it has also significantly impaired the Sheyenne River water quality, increasing the Sheyenne River average sulfate concentration from 105 to 585 mg l-1 from 2012 to 2014 In this study, we investigate the impact of the outlets on the Sheyenne River floodplain by coupling SWAT and HEC-RAS model. The SWAT model performed well in simulating daily streamflow in the Sheyenne River with R2>0.56 and ENS > 0.52. The simulated water depths and floodplain by HEC-RAS model for the Sheyenne River agreed well with observations. Operating the outlets from April to October can draw down the Devil Lake water level by 0.45 m, but the drained water would almost double the extension of the Sheyenne River floodplain and elevate the sulfate concentration in the Sheyenne River above the 450 mg l-1 North Dakota sulfate concentration standard for stream class I. Operating the outlets is

  16. A mechanism for overcoming P-glycoprotein-mediated drug resistance: novel combination therapy that releases stored doxorubicin from lysosomes via lysosomal permeabilization using Dp44mT or DpC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebacher, Nicole A; Richardson, Des R; Jansson, Patric J

    2016-12-01

    The intracellular distribution of a drug can cause significant variability in both activity and selectivity. Herein, we investigate the mechanism by which the anti-cancer agents, di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) and the clinically trialed, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC), re-instate the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX), in drug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-expressing cells. Both Dp44mT and DpC potently target and kill Pgp-expressing tumors, while DOX effectively kills non-Pgp-expressing cancers. Thus, the combination of these agents should be considered as an effective rationalized therapy for potently treating advanced and resistant tumors that are often heterogeneous in terms of Pgp-expression. These studies demonstrate that both Dp44mT and DpC are transported into lysosomes via Pgp transport activity, where they induce lysosomal-membrane permeabilization to release DOX trapped within lysosomes. This novel strategy of loading lysosomes with DOX, followed by permeabilization with Dp44mT or DpC, results in the relocalization of stored DOX from its lysosomal 'safe house' to its nuclear targets, markedly enhancing cellular toxicity against resistant tumor cells. Notably, the combination of Dp44mT or DpC with DOX showed a very high level of synergism in multiple Pgp-expressing cell types, for example, cervical, breast and colorectal cancer cells. These studies revealed that the level of drug synergy was proportional to Pgp activity. Interestingly, synergism was ablated by inhibiting Pgp using the pharmacological inhibitor, Elacridar, or by inhibiting Pgp-expression using Pgp-silencing, demonstrating the importance of Pgp in the synergistic interaction. Furthermore, lysosomal-membrane stabilization inhibited the relocalization of DOX from lysosomes to the nucleus upon combination with Dp44mT or DpC, preventing synergism. This latter observation demonstrated the importance of lysosomal

  17. Design and testing of a mesocosm-scale habitat for culturing the endangered Devils Hole Pupfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbacher, Olin; Bonar, Scott A.; Barrett, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    aptive propagation of desert spring fishes, whether for conservation or research, is often difficult, given the unique and often challenging environments these fish utilize in nature. High temperatures, low dissolved oxygen, minimal water flow, and highly variable lighting are some conditions a researcher might need to recreate to simulate their natural environments. Here we describe a mesocosm-scale habitat created to maintain hybrid Devils Hole × Ash Meadows Amargosa Pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis × C. nevadensis mionectes) under conditions similar to those found in Devils Hole, Nevada. This 13,000-L system utilized flow control and natural processes to maintain these conditions rather than utilizing complex and expensive automation. We designed a rotating solar collector to control natural sunlight, a biological reactor to consume oxygen while buffering water quality, and a reverse-daylight photosynthesis sump system to stabilize nighttime pH and swings in dissolved oxygen levels. This system successfully controlled many desired parameters and helped inform development of a larger, more permanent desert fish conservation facility at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada. For others who need to raise fish from unique habitats, many components of the scalable and modular design of this system can be adapted at reasonable cost.

  18. Oxidant enhancement in martian dust devils and storms: storm electric fields and electron dissociative attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, Gregory T; Farrell, William M; Atreya, Sushil K; Renno, Nilton O; Wong, Ah-San; Cummer, Steven A; Sentman, Davis D; Marshall, John R; Rafkin, Scot C R; Catling, David C

    2006-06-01

    Laboratory studies, numerical simulations, and desert field tests indicate that aeolian dust transport can generate atmospheric electricity via contact electrification or "triboelectricity." In convective structures such as dust devils and dust storms, grain stratification leads to macroscopic charge separations and gives rise to an overall electric dipole moment in the aeolian feature, similar in nature to the dipolar electric field generated in terrestrial thunderstorms. Previous numerical simulations indicate that these storm electric fields on Mars can approach the ambient breakdown field strength of approximately 25 kV/m. In terrestrial dust phenomena, potentials ranging from approximately 20 to 160 kV/m have been directly measured. The large electrostatic fields predicted in martian dust devils and storms can energize electrons in the low pressure martian atmosphere to values exceeding the electron dissociative attachment energy of both CO2 and H2O, which results in the formation of the new chemical products CO/O- and OH/H-, respectively. Using a collisional plasma physics model, we present calculations of the CO/O- and OH/H- reaction and production rates. We demonstrate that these rates vary geometrically with the ambient electric field, with substantial production of dissociative products when fields approach the breakdown value of approximately 25 kV/m. The dissociation of H2O into OH/H- provides a key ingredient for the generation of oxidants; thus electrically charged dust may significantly impact the habitability of Mars.

  19. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS): Motivation, Design and Target Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L. J. M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Lagos, C. P.; Cortese, L.; Mannering, E.; Foster, C.; Lidman, C.; Hashemizadeh, A.; Koushan, S.; O'Toole, S.; Baldry, I. K.; Bilicki, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Bremer, M. N.; Brown, M. J. I.; Bryant, J. J.; Catinella, B.; Croom, S. M.; Grootes, M. W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Jarvis, M. J.; Maddox, N.; Meyer, M.; Moffett, A. J.; Phillipps, S.; Taylor, E. N.; Windhorst, R. A.; Wolf, C.

    2018-06-01

    The Deep Extragalactic VIsible Legacy Survey (DEVILS) is a large spectroscopic campaign at the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) aimed at bridging the near and distant Universe by producing the highest completeness survey of galaxies and groups at intermediate redshifts (0.3 < z < 1.0). Our sample consists of ˜60,000 galaxies to Y<21.2 mag, over ˜6 deg2 in three well-studied deep extragalactic fields (Cosmic Origins Survey field, COSMOS, Extended Chandra Deep Field South, ECDFS and the X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission Large-Scale Structure region, XMM-LSS - all Large Synoptic Survey Telescope deep-drill fields). This paper presents the broad experimental design of DEVILS. Our target sample has been selected from deep Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Y-band imaging (VISTA Deep Extragalactic Observations, VIDEO and UltraVISTA), with photometry measured by PROFOUND. Photometric star/galaxy separation is done on the basis of NIR colours, and has been validated by visual inspection. To maximise our observing efficiency for faint targets we employ a redshift feedback strategy, which continually updates our target lists, feeding back the results from the previous night's observations. We also present an overview of the initial spectroscopic observations undertaken in late 2017 and early 2018.

  1. Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Botha, A. E.; Medvedeva, S. Yu.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Irie, A.

    2014-01-01

    The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D = 0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values

  2. Direct observation of a 'devil's staircase' in wave-particle interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doveil, Fabrice; Macor, Alessandro; Elskens, Yves

    2006-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of a 'devil's staircase' in a time-dependent system considered as a paradigm for the transition to large-scale chaos in the universality class of Hamiltonian systems. A test electron beam is used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s) in a traveling wave tube (TWT). A trochoidal energy analyzer records the beam energy distribution at the output of the interaction line. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The resonant velocity domain associated to a single wave is observed, as well as the transition to large-scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a 'devil's staircase' behavior for increasing excitation amplitude, due to the nonlinear forcing by the second wave on the pendulum-like motion of a charged particle in one electrostatic wave

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance-spot-welded joints for A5052 aluminum alloy and DP 600 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jianbin [College of Automotive Collaborative Innovation Center, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China); Yuan, Xinjian, E-mail: xinjianyuan@yahoo.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu, Zhan; Sun, Changzheng; Zhang, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuxuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, No. 174, Shazheng Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-10-15

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of resistance-spot-welded A5052 aluminum alloy and DP 600 dual-phase steel joint were studied. The fusion zone (FZ) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of DP 600 exhibited lath martensite and ferrite-martensite structures, respectively. The microstructure of FZ and HAZ in the A5052 side was composed of cellular crystals and the boundary region of FZ exhibited a columnar crystal morphology. A Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with 3.3 μm thickness was found adjacent to the DP 600 side, whereas a needle-shaped Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} IMC layer with length of 0.67 μm to 15.8 μm was found adjacent to the aluminum alloy side. The maximum tensile shear load of the A5052/DP 600 joint was 5.5 KN, with a corresponding molten nugget diameter of 6.3 mm. The fracture morphology of the optimized A5052/DP 600 joint was mainly an elongated dimple fracture accompanied by cleavage fracture. - Highlights: •A5052 and DP 600 with large gaps in properties were investigated by RSW. •The microstructures of RSW joints in DP 600/A5052 were examined detailedly. •The micro/macro-characteristics and strength relations of joints were analyzed.

  4. Characterization of gas metal arc welded hot rolled DP600 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.; Ramazani, A.; Yang, L.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W. [RWTH Aachen University, Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy (IEHK) (Germany); Reisgen, U.; Schleser, M.; Abdurakhmanov, A. [RWTH Aachen University, Welding and Joining Institute (ISF) (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Dual-phase (DP) steels are suitable candidates for automotive applications due to their high strength and ductility. These advanced mechanical properties result from the special microstructure of the DP steel with 5{proportional_to}20% martensite phase in a soft ferrite matrix. However, during welding, which is an important process in automotive industry, this special microstructure is destroyed. In this research the characterization of Gas Metal Arc (GMA) welded joining zones was performed by optical microscopy and hardness mapping. Tensile tests were also performed keeping the welded portion in the gauge length. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used for the fracture investigation. From the characterization and tensile tests, the soften zones were found, which are caused by the tempered martensite and larger ferrite grain size than that in base metal. Furthermore, GMA welding make a large Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Architecture, Voltage, and Components for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Electric Grid (AVC-TeDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemin, Paul; Kupiszewski, Tom; Radun, Arthur; Pan, Yan; Lai, Rixin; Zhang, Di; Wang, Ruxi; Wu, Xinhui; Jiang, Yan; Galioto, Steve; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to advance the selection, characterization, and modeling of a propulsion electric grid for a Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion (TeDP) system for transport aircraft. The TeDP aircraft would constitute a miniature electric grid with 50 MW or more of total power, two or more generators, redundant transmission lines, and multiple electric motors driving propulsion fans. The study proposed power system architectures, investigated electromechanical and solid state circuit breakers, estimated the impact of the system voltage on system mass, and recommended DC bus voltage range. The study assumed an all cryogenic power system. Detailed assumptions within the study include hybrid circuit breakers, a two cryogen system, and supercritical cyrogens. A dynamic model was developed to investigate control and parameter selection.

  6. Investigation of Droplet Deposition for Suspensions Usable for Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Johne, Robert; Weingarten, Steven; Schwarzer, Eric; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology, which can be used for the production of dense single- and especially multi-material components. This becomes possible because of the combination of the precise deposition of small droplets of molten thermoplastic suspensions containing ceramic or metal particles, and a curing mechanism caused on cool down increasing the viscosity. In this paper, the droplet formation behavior of zirconia suspensions for T3DP (82 and 84 wt.%) was investigated. The droplet fusion factor (dff) is introduced to calculate the necessary distance between two droplets to form filament-like structures by fusion of adjacent droplets. Filament-like structures with a smooth surface and a nearly homogeneous cross section were manufactured for both suspensions with a dff of 44% or higher.

  7. Polarization Observables for the Collinear dp → 3 Heπ0 Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladygin, V.P.; Ladygina, N.B.

    1994-01-01

    Effects due to polarizations of both colliding particles have been analyzed in terms of two independent amplitudes which in the general case define the spin structure of the amplitude of the dp → 3 Heπ 0 reaction in collinear geometry. The energy dependence of spin-correlation C L , L , O , O due to longitudinal polarization of colliding particles is predicted using the moduli of amplitudes extracted from experimental data. The limit of possible deviations is obtained for spin-correlation C N , N , O , O due to transverse polarization of both particles. The value of these polarization observables at threshold are predicted. The behaviour of these polarization observables for the dp → 3 Heη 0 reaction, having the same spin structure, is discussed. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. A DOE/DP multisite approach to safeguards integration with facility operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenak, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Accountability Technology Exchange (ATEX) Working Group was established in October 1986 by the plutonium processing technology exchange steering committee under the US Department of Energy/Department of Defense program's materials management executive committee (DOE/DP MMEC). The ATEX Working Group provides a multisite, multidisciplinary forum for discussing, evaluating, and recommending both existing and emerging nuclear materials accountability measurement technologies for implementation into DOE/DP plutonium processing facilities. This forum assists technologists in understanding state-of-the-art plutonium processing and accountability measurement practices throughout the complex, as well as current and projected technical needs. As a result, the ATEX Working Group will contribute to the improvement of plutonium processing technologies by helping to assure that the best possible nuclear materials accountability measurement techniques are made available to all sites to process plutonium safely, securely, and cost-effectively

  9. Effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters on deposition of dechlorane plus (DP) in marine sediments from the Southern Yellow Sea, China: Evidence from multiple biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Hao, Ting; Feng, Lijuan; Liu, Qiaoling; Li, Xianguo

    2017-01-01

    As an emerging halogenated organic contaminant, Dechlorane Plus (DP) was scarcely reported in marine environments, especially in China. In this work, 35 surface sediments and a sediment core were collected across the Southern Yellow Sea (SYS) to comprehensively explore the spatio-temporal distribution and possible migration pathway of DP. DP concentrations ranged from 14.3 to 245.5 pg/g dry weight in the surface sediments, displaying a seaward increasing trend with the high levels in the central mud zone. This spatial distribution pattern was ascribed to that fine particles with the elevated DP levels were preferentially transported to the central mud zone under hydrodynamic forcing and/or via long-range atmospheric transportation and deposition. DP concentrations in sediment core gradually increased from the mid-1950s to present, which corresponded well with the historical production and usage of DP, as well as the economic development in China. Significantly positive correlation between DP and total organic carbon (TOC) in both surface sediments and sediment core indicated TOC-dependent natural deposition of DP in the SYS. We used multiple biomarkers, for the first time, to explore the potential effects of terrestrial and marine organic matters (TOM and MOM) on DP deposition. The results showed that competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption, and MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition in the marine sediments from the SYS. - Highlights: • Effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition were first explored by multi-biomarkers. • Hydrodynamic forcing and atmospheric deposition were responsible for DP in the SYS. • MOM was the predominant contributor in controlling DP deposition to sediments in the SYS. • Competition may occur between TOM and MOM for DP adsorption. - This study was the first attempt to comprehensively explore the effects of TOM and MOM on DP deposition in marine sediments from the SYS.

  10. Comparison of the carboxy-terminal DP-repeat region in the co-chaperones Hop and Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F

    2003-01-01

    Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.

  11. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  12. Multi-master profibus dp modelling and worst case analysis-based evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Monforte; Eduardo Tovar; Francisco Vasques; Salvatore Cavalieri

    2002-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the real-time behaviour of the multi-master Profibus DP network. The analysis is based on the evaluation of the worst-case message response time and the results obtained are compared with those present in literature, pointing out its capability to perform a more accurate evaluation of the performance of the Profibus network. Copyright © 2002 IFAC.

  13. Investigation of the network delay on Profibus-DP based network

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, C.; Gürdal, O.; Sayan, H.H.

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model of the network-induced delay control systems (NDCS) is given. Also the role of the NDCS’s components such as controller, sensor and network environment on the network-induced delay are included in the mathematical model of the system. The network delay is investigated on Profibus-DP based network application and experimental results obtained are presented graphically. The experimental results obtained show that the network induced delay is randomly changed according to ...

  14. Designing real-time systems based on mono-master Profibus-DP networks

    OpenAIRE

    Monforte, Salvatore; Alves, Mário; Vasques, Francisco; Tovar, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    Profibus networks are widely used as the communication infrastructure for supporting distributed computer-controlled applications. Most of the times, these applications impose strict real-time requirements. Profibus-DP has gradually become the preferred Profibus application profile. It is usually implemented as a mono-master Profibus network, and is optimised for speed and efficiency. The aim of this paper is to analyse the real-time behaviour of this class of Profibus networks...

  15. EnzDP: improved enzyme annotation for metabolic network reconstruction based on domain composition profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nam-Ninh; Srihari, Sriganesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Chong, Ket-Fah

    2015-10-01

    Determining the entire complement of enzymes and their enzymatic functions is a fundamental step for reconstructing the metabolic network of cells. High quality enzyme annotation helps in enhancing metabolic networks reconstructed from the genome, especially by reducing gaps and increasing the enzyme coverage. Currently, structure-based and network-based approaches can only cover a limited number of enzyme families, and the accuracy of homology-based approaches can be further improved. Bottom-up homology-based approach improves the coverage by rebuilding Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles for all known enzymes. However, its clustering procedure relies firmly on BLAST similarity score, ignoring protein domains/patterns, and is sensitive to changes in cut-off thresholds. Here, we use functional domain architecture to score the association between domain families and enzyme families (Domain-Enzyme Association Scoring, DEAS). The DEAS score is used to calculate the similarity between proteins, which is then used in clustering procedure, instead of using sequence similarity score. We improve the enzyme annotation protocol using a stringent classification procedure, and by choosing optimal threshold settings and checking for active sites. Our analysis shows that our stringent protocol EnzDP can cover up to 90% of enzyme families available in Swiss-Prot. It achieves a high accuracy of 94.5% based on five-fold cross-validation. EnzDP outperforms existing methods across several testing scenarios. Thus, EnzDP serves as a reliable automated tool for enzyme annotation and metabolic network reconstruction. Available at: www.comp.nus.edu.sg/~nguyennn/EnzDP .

  16. Performance monitoring for coherent DP-QPSK systems based on stokes vectors analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchet, Hadrien; Koltchanov, Igor; Richter, André

    2010-12-01

    We show how to estimate accurately the Jones matrix of the transmission line by analyzing the Stokes vectors of DP-QPSK signals. This method can be used to perform in-situ PMD measurement in dual-polarization QPSK systems, and in addition to the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) to mitigate polarization-induced impairments. The applicability of this method to other modulation formats is discussed.

  17. Explorando o DP: a presença da categoria NumP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina R.A. Augusto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on NumP, an independent projection for number,which was proposed in pre-minimalist research (Picallo, 1991; Ritter,1991. Arguments for the relevance of maintaining it as anindependent projection in a minimalist framework, contrary toChomsky (1999, who assumes number is one of the j-featuresassociated to N, are provided. The consequences such presenceimposes for DP internal agreement phenomenon are discussed andsome alternatives to account for it are offered.

  18. Changes in DP systems to match order processing in pipeline engineering and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletschen, W.; Weber, J.

    1987-01-01

    Pipelines hold a pivotal position as the linking element between the mechanical and the electrical engineering components; hence, their production and machining is highly important. Information systems like GRAPLAN, MISTER, PVK, DOPLAS, and PFPD have been used successfully in recent years and are being constantly upgraded to meet the requirements on advanced nuclear pipeline systems which call for DP systems featuring variable dimensioning and suitable interlinkage capacities. (DG) [de

  19. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G.; Zhang, F.; Ruimi, A.; Field, D. P.; Sun, X.

    2016-06-01

    We conduct a series of thermal and mechanical testing on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel in order to quantify the effects of tempering on its individual phase properties. Tempering treatment is conducted at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 minutes each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Multi-scale indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each tempered DP980 sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it only slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite; iii) the elastic modulus of martensite is consistently higher than that of ferrite. As a validation, a simple rule of mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves. The methodology and the corresponding results shown in this study can help guide the selection of tempering parameters in optimizing the mechanical properties of DP steels for their intended applications.

  20. Density-functional study on the equilibria in the ThDP activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Eduardo J; Alderete, Joel B; Jaña, Gonzalo A

    2011-11-01

    The equilibria among the various ionization and tautomeric states involved in the activation of ThDP is addressed using high level density functional theory calculations, X3LYP/6-311++G(d,p)//X3LYP(PB)/6-31++G(d,p). This study provides the first theoretically derived thermodynamic data for the internal equilibria in the activation of ThDP. The role of the medium polarity on the geometry and thermodynamics of the diverse equilibria of ThDP is addressed. The media chosen are cyclohexane and water, as paradigms of apolar and polar media. The results suggest that all ionization and tautomeric states are accessible during the catalytic cycle, even in the absence of substrate, being APH(+) the form required to interconvert the AP and IP tautomers; and the generation of the ylide proceeds via the formation of the IP form. Additionally, the calculated ΔG° values allow to calculate all the equilibrium constants, including the pK(C2) for the thiazolium C2 atom whose ionization is believed to initiate the catalytic cycle.

  1. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Danyang; Wang, Lei; Chu, Xi; Wang, Pengfei; Jin, Mengmeng

    2015-01-01

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s −1 ). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains occurs

  2. Strain rate dependent deformation and failure behavior of laser welded DP780 steel joint under dynamic tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang, E-mail: liuyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Dong, Danyang, E-mail: dongdanyang@mail.neu.edu.cn [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Lei, E-mail: wanglei@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials, Ministry of Education, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Chu, Xi, E-mail: chuxi.ok@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Pengfei, E-mail: wpf1963871400@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Jin, Mengmeng, E-mail: 24401878@163.com [College of Science, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2015-03-11

    Laser welded DP steel joints are used widely in the automotive industry for weight reduction. Understanding the deformation and fracture behavior of the base metal (BM) and its welded joint (WJ), especially at high strain rates, is critical for the design of vehicle structures. This paper is concerned with the effects of strain rate on the tensile properties, deformation and fracture behavior of the laser welded DP780 steel joint. Quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests were performed on the WJ and BM of the DP780 steel using an electromechanical universal testing machine and a high-speed tensile testing machine over a wide range of strain rate (0.0001–1142 s{sup −1}). The microstructure change and microhardness distribution of the DP780 steel after laser welding were examined. Digital image correlation (DIC) and high-speed photography were employed for the strain measurement of the DP780 WJ during dynamic tensile tests. The DP780 WJ is a heterogeneous structure with hardening in fusion zone (FZ) and inner heat-affected zone (HAZ), and softening in outer HAZ. The DP780 BM and WJ exhibit positive strain rate dependence on the YS and UTS, which is smaller at lower strain rates and becomes larger with increasing strain rate, while ductility in terms of total elongation (TE) tends to increase under dynamic loading. Laser welding leads to an overall reduction in the ductility of the DP780 steel. However, the WJ exhibits a similar changing trend of the ductility to that of the BM with respect to the strain rate over the whole strain rate range. As for the DP780 WJ, the distance of tensile failure location from the weld centerline decreases with increasing strain rate. The typical ductile failure characteristics of the DP780 BM and WJ do not change with increasing strain rate. DIC measurements reveal that the strain localization starts even before the maximum load is attained in the DP780 WJ and gradual transition from uniform strains to severely localized strains

  3. An Idle-State Detection Algorithm for SSVEP-Based Brain-Computer Interfaces Using a Maximum Evoked Response Spatial Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Huang, Bisheng; Wu, Wei; Li, Siliang

    2015-11-01

    Although accurate recognition of the idle state is essential for the application of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in real-world situations, it remains a challenging task due to the variability of the idle state. In this study, a novel algorithm was proposed for the idle state detection in a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. The proposed algorithm aims to solve the idle state detection problem by constructing a better model of the control states. For feature extraction, a maximum evoked response (MER) spatial filter was developed to extract neurophysiologically plausible SSVEP responses, by finding the combination of multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) signals that maximized the evoked responses while suppressing the unrelated background EEGs. The extracted SSVEP responses at the frequencies of both the attended and the unattended stimuli were then used to form feature vectors and a series of binary classifiers for recognition of each control state and the idle state were constructed. EEG data from nine subjects in a three-target SSVEP BCI experiment with a variety of idle state conditions were used to evaluate the proposed algorithm. Compared to the most popular canonical correlation analysis-based algorithm and the conventional power spectrum-based algorithm, the proposed algorithm outperformed them by achieving an offline control state classification accuracy of 88.0 ± 11.1% and idle state false positive rates (FPRs) ranging from 7.4 ± 5.6% to 14.2 ± 10.1%, depending on the specific idle state conditions. Moreover, the online simulation reported BCI performance close to practical use: 22.0 ± 2.9 out of the 24 control commands were correctly recognized and the FPRs achieved as low as approximately 0.5 event/min in the idle state conditions with eye open and 0.05 event/min in the idle state condition with eye closed. These results demonstrate the potential of the proposed algorithm for implementing practical SSVEP BCI systems.

  4. 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools': IDL VM Packages for Tomography Data Reconstruction, Processing, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, M. L.; Gualda, G. A.

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges in tomography is the availability of suitable software for image processing and analysis in 3D. We present here 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools', two packages created in IDL that enable reconstruction, processing, and visualization of tomographic data. They complement in many ways the capabilities offered by Blob3D (Ketcham 2005 - Geosphere, 1: 32-41, DOI: 10.1130/GES00001.1) and, in combination, allow users without programming knowledge to perform all steps necessary to obtain qualitative and quantitative information using tomographic data. The package 'tomo_display' was created and is maintained by Mark Rivers. It allows the user to: (1) preprocess and reconstruct parallel beam tomographic data, including removal of anomalous pixels, ring artifact reduction, and automated determination of the rotation center, (2) visualization of both raw and reconstructed data, either as individual frames, or as a series of sequential frames. The package 'vol_tools' consists of a series of small programs created and maintained by Guilherme Gualda to perform specific tasks not included in other packages. Existing modules include simple tools for cropping volumes, generating histograms of intensity, sample volume measurement (useful for porous samples like pumice), and computation of volume differences (for differential absorption tomography). The module 'vol_animate' can be used to generate 3D animations using rendered isosurfaces around objects. Both packages use the same NetCDF format '.volume' files created using code written by Mark Rivers. Currently, only 16-bit integer volumes are created and read by the packages, but floating point and 8-bit data can easily be stored in the NetCDF format as well. A simple GUI to convert sequences of tiffs into '.volume' files is available within 'vol_tools'. Both 'tomo_display' and 'vol_tools' include options to (1) generate onscreen output that allows for dynamic visualization in 3D, (2) save sequences of tiffs to disk

  5. Arquitectura para balancear carga dinámica por demanda adaptativa, utilizando CORBA en JAVA-IDL

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Chávez Esparza; Gerardo Rentería Castillo; Francisco Javier Luna Rosas

    2008-01-01

    En este trabajo desglosaremos la elaboración de una nueva Arquitectura para balancear carga dinámica, por demanda adaptativa, utilizando CORBA en JAVA-IDL. Una arquitectura de balanceo de carga es un sistema que permite distribuir el trabajo computacional entre varias máquinas, con el objetivo de reducir el tiempo de respuesta global del sistema. A través de las pruebas se justifica el uso de la arquitectura y se definen los parámetros a considerar para obtener un óptimo desempeño, refiriéndo...

  6. Fabrication of 4-cylinder transparent engine and measurement of the flame propagation behavior with high speed camera at idle condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, S.H. [Yonsei University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chun, K.M. [Yonse University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    A transparent engine for visualization study is made using a production 4 cylinder engine. Flame propagation results from individual combustion cycles with high-speed cinematography are presented and discussed for idle condition. The flame propagation image and the in-cylinder pressure were obtained simultaneously, and the image processing software which can calculate the flame area and the flame center was developed. The flame propagation behavior of each cycle shows high cyclic variations, and there are linear correlation between flame area and the in-cylinder pressure. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Devil's staircase of odd-number charge order modulations in divalent β -vanadium bronzes under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Touru; Ueda, Hiroaki; Ohwada, Kenji; Nakao, Hironori; Ueda, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    A common characteristic of quasi-one-dimensional (q1D) conductors β -A0.33V2O5 (A = Li, Na, and Ag) is that the charge ordering (CO), the ground state (GS) at ambient pressure, and the superconducting (SC) phases, the GS under high pressure, are competing with each other. We have explored high-pressure properties of divalent β -vanadium bronzes, β -A0.33V2O5 (A = Ca, Sr, and Pb), which are A -cation stoichiometry finely controlled single-crystal/powder samples, and found the absence of the SC phase. In these observations, however, we observed enormous and novel phase transitions, a kind of "devil's staircase"-type phase transitions in the charge ordering (CO) phases. The most surprising discovery in this devil's staircase, which was found mainly in β -Sr0.33V2O5 , is that all the charge modulation vectors of many kinds of CO phases can be represented as a primitive lattice translation vector along the b axis multiplied by several odd numbers. This discovery surely demonstrates interplay between the charge degree freedom and the crystallographic symmetry. We propose two possible mechanisms to explain this phenomenon: "self-charge transfer (carrier redistribution)" between the two subsystems in these compounds and "sequential symmetry reduction" that was discussed in Landau theory of phase transitions. In β -Ca0.33V2O5 we also found a P -T phase diagram similar in outlook but different in detail. The devil's staircase was also observed but it is an incomplete one. Furthermore, the charge modulation vectors in it are shorter than those in β -Sr0.33V2O5 . In β -Pb0.33V2O5 , which has no CO phase at ambient pressure, the pressure-induced antiferromagnetic ordering was observed at around 50 K above 0.5 GPa. Using these two kinds of mechanisms, we also explain the global high-pressure properties in all the stoichiometric divalent β -vanadium bronzes, which were observed as a wide variety of electromagnetic states. In addition, we also discuss a possible key for

  8. Adaptation of D-P flap to the oro-facial fistula induced by radio-osteomyelitis of mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, E.; Genba, R.; Hayatsu, Y.; Sunakawa, H.; Kohama, G. (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1980-06-01

    Intraoral partial resection of the mandible was performed on 3 patients with radiation-induced ostomyelitis and ostonecrosis of the mandible, and inflammation in the mandible disappeared. Residual oro-facial fistula was closed with D-P flap, and a good result was obtained. Treatments of radiation osteopathy, the time of the treatments, and the period from resection of necrotic mandible to the closure of the fistula with D-P flap and reconstructive surgery for the mouth were also considered.

  9. Heterodimerization of the transcription factors E2F-1 and DP-1 leads to cooperative trans-activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K; Wu, C L; Fattaey, A R

    1993-01-01

    the hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRB). The other protein, murine DP-1, was purified from an E2F DNA-affinity column, and it was subsequently shown to bind the consensus E2F DNA-binding site. To study a possible interaction between E2F-1 and DP-1, we have now isolated a cDNA for the human...

  10. Silica-based PLC with heterogeneously-integrated PDs for one-chip DP-QPSK receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yu; Nasu, Yusuke; Tamura, Munehisa; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Aozasa, Shinichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-10

    To realize a DP-QPSK receiver PLC, we heterogeneously integrated eight high-speed PDs on a silica-based PLC platform with a PBS, 90-degree optical hybrids and a VOA. The use of a 2.5%-Δ waveguide reduced the receiver PLC size to 11 mm x 11 mm. We successfully demonstrated 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal demodulation with the receiver PLC.

  11. Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal in a silicon polarization diversity circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schroeder, Jochen; Ding, Yunhong

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal is demonstrated using FWM in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. Error-free performances are achieved with a negligible power penalty.......Wavelength conversion of a 128 Gbit/s DP-QPSK signal is demonstrated using FWM in a polarization diversity circuit with silicon nanowires as nonlinear elements. Error-free performances are achieved with a negligible power penalty....

  12. Comparative Analysis of Immune Checkpoint Molecules and Their Potential Role in the Transmissible Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Flies

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint molecules function as a system of checks and balances that enhance or inhibit immune responses to infectious agents, foreign tissues, and cancerous cells. Immunotherapies that target immune checkpoint molecules, particularly the inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4, have revolutionized human oncology in recent years, yet little is known about these key immune signaling molecules in species other than primates and rodents. The Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease is caused by transmissible cancers that have resulted in a massive decline in the wild Tasmanian devil population. We have recently demonstrated that the inhibitory checkpoint molecule PD-L1 is upregulated on Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii facial tumor cells in response to the interferon-gamma cytokine. As this could play a role in immune evasion by tumor cells, we performed a thorough comparative analysis of checkpoint molecule protein sequences among Tasmanian devils and eight other species. We report that many of the key signaling motifs and ligand-binding sites in the checkpoint molecules are highly conserved across the estimated 162 million years of evolution since the last common ancestor of placental and non-placental mammals. Specifically, we discovered that the CTLA-4 (MYPPPY ligand-binding motif and the CTLA-4 (GVYVKM inhibitory domain are completely conserved across all nine species used in our comparative analysis, suggesting that the function of CTLA-4 is likely conserved in these species. We also found that cysteine residues for intra- and intermolecular disulfide bonds were also highly conserved. For instance, all 20 cysteine residues involved in disulfide bonds in the human 4-1BB molecule were also present in devil 4-1BB. Although many key sequences were conserved, we have also identified immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based switch

  13. Correlation between 2D and 3D flow curve modelling of DP steels using a microstructure-based RVE approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazani, A.; Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W.

    2013-01-01

    A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor σ 3D /σ 2D has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.

  14. Experiments and FE-simulations of stretch flanging of DP-steels with different shear cut edge quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigvant, M.; Falk, J.; Pilthammar, J.

    2017-09-01

    Dual-Phase (DP) steels are today used in the automotive industry due to its large strength to weight ratio. However, the high strength of DP-steel does have a negative impact on the general formability in sheet metal forming. Unfavourable process conditions in the press shop will, on top of this, reduce the formability of DP-steels even more. This paper addresses the problem of edge fracture in stretch flanges in sheet metal parts made of DP-steel. The experimental part involves tests of ten different DP590 and DP780 steel grades with three different shear cut qualities. The influence on the fracture strain of the sample orientation of the shear cut are also studied by facing the burr away or towards the punch and testing samples with the cut edge parallel with the rolling direction and the transverse direction. The strains are measured with an ARAMIS system in each test, together with punch displacement and punch force. All tests are then simulated with AutoFormplus R7 and the results from these simulations are compared with the experimental results in order to find the appropriate failure strain for each combination of supplier, coating, thickness and shear cut quality.

  15. Devil's flower resulting from a successive charge disproportionation of NaV2O5. Understanding of the details of the Ising spin and the competitive interactions which made the devil's flower bloom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohwada, Kenji; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Shobu, Takahisa; Muraoka, Jiro

    2008-01-01

    Devil's flower has been found in a temperature-pressure phase diagram of NaV 2 O 5 , which shows a charge disproportionation (CD) at ambient pressure. By a complementary use of an x-ray structural analysis and a resonant x-ray diffraction, which is sensitive to CD, we have investigated the structural relationship between two ground states appeared in lower and higher pressure regions including the charge arrangements. It has been clarified that two equivalent types of charge arrangement in CD correspond to the Ising variable in NaV 2 O 5 . The atomic shifts are regarded as linearly coupled to the Ising spins. The results lead us to the conclusion that the devil's flower blooms in a charge-disproportionation system. The results also lead us to a hypothesis that the competitive interactions between Ising spins may result from the Ising spin-phonon coupling. (author)

  16. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Natasha Maria; Ng, Tsz Wai; Ma, Kwok Keung; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-03-27

    Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM 0.3 and PM 2.5 ), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO₂), airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM 0.3 , PM 2.5 , TVOCs, CO, and CO₂ during engine idling. In general, during driving PM 2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM 0.3 . For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO) levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO₂ level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  17. In-Cabin Air Quality during Driving and Engine Idling in Air-Conditioned Private Vehicles in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Maria Barnes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many people spend lengthy periods each day in enclosed vehicles in Hong Kong. However, comparably limited data is available about in-cabin air quality in air-conditioned private vehicles, and the car usage that may affect the air quality. Fifty-one vehicles were tested for particulate matter (PM0.3 and PM2.5, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs, carbon monoxide (CO, carbon dioxide (CO2, airborne bacteria, and fungi levels during their routine travel journey. Ten of these vehicles were further examined for PM0.3, PM2.5, TVOCs, CO, and CO2 during engine idling. In general, during driving PM2.5 levels in-cabin reduced overtime, but not PM0.3. For TVOCs, 24% vehicles exceeded the recommended Indoor Air Quality (IAQ level in offices and public places set by the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOC concentration positively correlated with the age of the vehicle. Carbon monoxide (CO levels in all of the vehicles were lower than the IAQ recommendation, while 96% vehicles exceeded the recommended CO2 level of 1000 ppmv; 16% vehicles >5000 ppmv. Microbial counts were relatively low. TVOCs levels at idle engine were higher than that during driving. Although the time we spend in vehicles is short, the potential exposure to high levels of pollutants should not be overlooked.

  18. Energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy design for wireless sensor networks through reduced idle listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongqiang; Núñez, Felipe; Doyle, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is crucial to wireless sensor networks due to their decentralized structure. We propose an energy-efficient pulse-coupled synchronization strategy to achieve this goal. The basic idea is to reduce idle listening by intentionally introducing a large refractory period in the sensors’ cooperation. The large refractory period greatly reduces idle listening in each oscillation period, and is analytically proven to have no influence on the time to synchronization. Hence, it significantly reduces the total energy consumption in a synchronization process. A topology control approach tailored for pulse-coupled synchronization is given to guarantee a k-edge strongly connected interaction topology, which is tolerant to communication-link failures. The topology control approach is totally decentralized and needs no information exchange among sensors, and it is applicable to dynamic network topologies as well. This facilitates a completely decentralized implementation of the synchronization strategy. The strategy is applicable to mobile sensor networks, too. QualNet case studies confirm the effectiveness of the synchronization strategy. PMID:24307831

  19. Graphical user interface for accessing water-quality data for the Devils Lake basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Damschen, William C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of surface waters in the Devils Lake Basin in North Dakota is important for protecting the agricultural resources, fisheries, waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and recreational value of the basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies, has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from streams and lakes in the basin since 1957, and the North Dakota Department of Health has collected and analyzed water-quality samples from lakes in the basin since 2001. Because water-quality data for the basin are important for numerous reasons, a graphical user interface was developed to access, view, and download the historical data for the basin. The interface is a web-based application that is available to the public and includes data through water year 2003. The interface will be updated periodically to include data for subsequent years.

  20. Josephson junction at the onset of chaos: A complete devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstrom, P.; Levinsen, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    By analog computer calculations of the resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction model, I-V characteristics are measured for several choices of the parameters in the Josephson equation. The points, where hysteresis sets in, are related to cubic inflection points in the return map. For different values of the amplitude and the frequency of the imposed ac field the critical line is determined in the (I,G) space, where I is the dc current and G is the damping factor. Furthermore, the subharmonic steps along the critical line form a complete devil's staircase with a fractal dimension Dapprox.0.87 and a decay exponent for the (1/Q)-steps deltaapprox.3. Besides the hysteresis which gives occasion for a chaotic behavior everywhere below a certain critical voltage, hysteresis also turns up locally. It is suggested that the critical points where local hysteresis occurs can be found by use of a local approximation

  1. Mass spectrometric 230Th-234U-238U dating of the Devils Hole calcite vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Szabo, B.J.; Riggs, A.C.; Winograd, I.J.; Landwehr, J.M.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The Devils Hole calcite vein contains a long-term climatic record, but requires accurate chronologic control for its interpretation. Mass-spectrometric U-series ages for samples from core DH-11 yielding 230 Th ages with precisions ranging from less than 1,000 years (2σ) for samples younger than ∼140 ka (thousands of years ago) to less than 50,000 years for the oldest samples (∼566 ka). The 234 U/ 238 U ages could be determined to a precision of ∼20,000 years for all ages. Calcite accumulated continuously from 566 ka until ∼60 ka at an average rate of 0.7 millimeter per 10 3 years. The precise agreement between replicate analyses and the concordance of the 230 Th/ 238 U and 234 U/ 238 U ages for the oldest samples indicate that the DH-11 samples were closed systems and validate the dating technique in general

  2. Analog simulations of josephson junction in a microwave field. Devil's staircase, fractal dimension, and decay constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznik, V.; Odehnal, M.

    1986-01-01

    The RSJ model of the Josephson junction in the presence of a microwave field is studied using an analog computer, with special attention to the behavior of this system near or at the critical line, where the set of substeps forms a complete devil's staircase on the I-V characteristic. A value of fractal dimension D = 0.868 +/- 0.002 is determined from 240 substeps between the winding numbers W = 0 and W = 1. Four values of decay constants are determined. The results agree very well with the prediction obtained from the one-dimensional circle map. A self-similarity graph is shown confirming that the staircase is very near the critical line. Results confirm the universal and global character of D and decay constants on the critical line, as was suggested by Jensen et al

  3. Seismic evidence of conjugate normal faulting: The 1994 Devil Canyon earthquake sequence near Challis, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    In this study, the term ''conjugate'' refers to faults that occur in two intersecting sets and coordinated kinematically, with each set being distinctive in both orientation and sense of shear (Davis, 1984). Contemporaneous activity along the conjugate faults is defined as occurring within the time frame of the mainshock-aftershock sequence (three weeks for this sequence and generally less than one month in other observed cases). Detailed recordings of microearthquakes from a dense array of temporary analog seismic stations are analyzed. The focal mechanisms and hypocenter spatial and temporal characteristics are combined with geological information to assess the style, geometry, timing, kinematics, and mechanics of conjugate normal faulting. The characteristics of conjugate normal faulting observed in the Devil Canyon sequence are compared to other conjugate normal faulting sequences, and strike-slip and thrust conjugate sequences worldwide

  4. Los Alamos DP West Plutonium Facility decontamination project, 1978-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, R.; Cox, E.J.; Valentine, A.M.

    1982-09-01

    The DP West Plutonium Facility operated by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico was decontaminated between April 1978 and April 1981. The facility was constructed in 1944 to 1945 to produce plutonium metal and fabricate parts for nuclear weapons. It was continually used as a plutonium processing and research facility until mid-1978. Decontamination operations included dismantling and removing gloveboxes and conveyor tunnels; removing process systems, utilities, and exhaust ducts; and decontaminating all remaining surfaces. This report describes glovebox and conveyor tunnel separations, decontamination techniques, health and safety considerations, waste management procedures, and costs of the operation

  5. Ductile Tearing Resistance Indexing of Automotive Grade DP 590 Steel Sheets: EWF Testing Using DENT Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Subhadra; Padmapriya, N.; De, Partha Sarathi; Chakraborti, P. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The essential work of fracture (EWF) method has been explored for indexing the ductile tearing resistance of DP 590 automotive grade dual-phase steel sheet both in longitudinal (L-T) and transverse (T-L) orientations. The simplest possible test and analysis procedures have been adopted. The EWF method is found to be eminently suitable for routine quality control and product development purposes for such materials. Areas for further research for improving the experimental strategy are highlighted. For the investigated steel sheet, the estimated tearing resistance is found to be distinctly higher for the L-T orientation compared to the T-L orientation; the reason thereof merits further investigation.

  6. Inhibitory effects of devil's claw (secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens) extract and harpagoside on cytokine production in mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Kazunori; Murata, Kazuya; Naruto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2010-04-01

    Successive oral administration (50 mg/kg) of a 50% ethanolic extract (HP-ext) of devil's claw, the secondary root of Harpagophytum procumbens, showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the rat adjuvant-induced chronic arthritis model. HP-ext dose-dependently suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)] in mouse macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). Harpagoside, a major iridoid glycoside present in devil's claw, was found to be one of the active agents in HP-ext and inhibited the production of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha by RAW 264.7.

  7. Taxonomic revision of the pygmy devils (Tetrigidae: Discotettiginae) with online social media as a new tool for discovering hidden diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Skejo, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrigidae) are family of small grasshoppers inhabiting humid aras, where thy feed on detritus, algae and mosses, that sometimes grow on their body. Pygmy devils (Discotettiginae) are a group of genera characterized by widened subapical antennal segments. Taxonomy and biogeograpy of all the members are reviewed by examination of large series of museum material and additional photo material found in social networks (Flickr, Facebook). In total 887 specimens o...

  8. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  9. Analysis of the Interaction of Dp44mT with Human Serum Albumin and Calf Thymus DNA Using Molecular Docking and Spectroscopic Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Di-2-pyridylketone-4,4,-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT exhibits significant antitumor activity. However, the mechanism of its pharmacological interaction with human serum albumin (HSA and DNA remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to elucidate the interactions of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA using MTT assays, spectroscopic methods, and molecular docking analysis. Our results indicated that addition of HSA at a ratio of 1:1 did not alter the cytotoxicity of Dp44mT, but did affect the cytotoxicity of the Dp44mT-Cu complex. Data from fluorescence quenching and UV-VIS absorbance measurements demonstrated that Dp44mT could bind to HSA with a moderate affinity (Ka = approximately 104 M−1. CD spectra revealed that Dp44mT could slightly disrupt the secondary structure of HSA. Dp44mT could also interact with Ct-DNA, but had a moderate binding constant (KEB = approximately 104 M−1. Docking studies indicated that the IB site of HSA, but not the IIA and IIIA sites, could be favorable for Dp44mT and that binding of Dp44mT to HSA involved hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force, consistent with thermodynamic results from spectral investigations. Thus, the moderate binding affinity of Dp44mT with HSA and DNA partially contributed to its antitumor activity and may be preferable in drug design approaches.

  10. Identification of hip surface arthroplasty failures with TcSC/TcmDP radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.J.; Amstutz, H.C.; Mai, L.L.; Webber, M.M.

    1982-01-01

    The roentgenographic identification of femoral component loosening after hip surface arthroplasty is often impossible because the metallic femoral component obscures the bone-cement interface. The use of combined technetium sulfur colloid and technetium methylene diphosphonate radionuclide imaging has been especially useful in the diagnosis of loosening. In 40 patients, follow-up combined TcSC and TcmDP scans at an average of three, nine, and 27 months postoperation revealed significant differences in the isotope uptakes in patients who had loose prostheses compared with those without complications. Scans were evaluated by first dividing them into eight anatomical regions and then rating the uptake in each region or 'zone' on a five-point scale. Results were compared using the Student's t-test and differences were noted between normal controls and patients who had femoral component loosening. Combining both TcSC and TcmDP studies increased the statistical significance obtained when comparing patients who had complications to those in the control group

  11. Fused-filament 3D printing (3DP) for fabrication of tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyanes, Alvaro; Buanz, Asma B M; Basit, Abdul W; Gaisford, Simon

    2014-12-10

    The use of fused-filament 3D printing (FF 3DP) to fabricate individual tablets is demonstrated. The technology permits the manufacture of tablets containing drug doses tailored to individual patients, or to fabrication of tablets with specific drug-release profiles. Commercially produced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) filament was loaded with a model drug (fluorescein) by swelling of the polymer in ethanolic drug solution. A final drug-loading of 0.29% w/w was achieved. Tablets of PVA/fluorescein (10 mm diameter) were printed using a 3D printer. It was found that changing the degree of infill percentage in the printer software varied the weight and volume of the printed tablets. The tablets were mechanically strong and no significant thermal degradation of the active occurred during printing. Dissolution tests were conducted in modified Hank's buffer. The results showed release profiles were dependent on the infill percentage used to print the tablet. The study indicates that FF 3DP has the potential to offer a new solution for fabricating personalized-dose medicines or unit dosage forms with controlled-release profiles. In addition, the low cost of FDM printers means the paradigm of extemporaneous or point-of-use manufacture of personalized-dose tablets is both feasible and attainable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and reliability analysis of DP-3 dynamic positioning control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wan, Lei; Jiang, Da-Peng; Xu, Yu-Ru

    2011-12-01

    As the exploration and exploitation of oil and gas proliferate throughout deepwater area, the requirements on the reliability of dynamic positioning system become increasingly stringent. The control objective ensuring safety operation at deep water will not be met by a single controller for dynamic positioning. In order to increase the availability and reliability of dynamic positioning control system, the triple redundancy hardware and software control architectures were designed and developed according to the safe specifications of DP-3 classification notation for dynamically positioned ships and rigs. The hardware redundant configuration takes the form of triple-redundant hot standby configuration including three identical operator stations and three real-time control computers which connect each other through dual networks. The function of motion control and redundancy management of control computers were implemented by software on the real-time operating system VxWorks. The software realization of task loose synchronization, majority voting and fault detection were presented in details. A hierarchical software architecture was planed during the development of software, consisting of application layer, real-time layer and physical layer. The behavior of the DP-3 dynamic positioning control system was modeled by a Markov model to analyze its reliability. The effects of variation in parameters on the reliability measures were investigated. The time domain dynamic simulation was carried out on a deepwater drilling rig to prove the feasibility of the proposed control architecture.

  13. Adaptation of the DP 50 dust meter for measuring dust content under isokinetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J.; Novak, L.

    1985-03-01

    The DP 50 dust meter, developed by the Scientific Coal Research Institute Ostrava-Radvanice, is used for measuring dust content in the air in underground coal mines. Two versions of the system are used: a type developed in 1970 which is placed in a vertical position and used to measure the content of respirable coal particles in the air; and a type developed in 1983 for isokinetic measurement of dust content in the air. The latter is equipped with 8 cone-shaped adapters (with differing size and dimensions of the cone inlet adjusted to air flow rates from 0.25 to 8.00 m/s). Specifications of the 8 adapters are given in a table. The 1983 version of the DP 50 is placed in a horizontal position with the dust meter axis parallel to the direction of air flow ventilating a mine working. Recommendations for installation of dust meters in underground workings and effects of installation on measurement accuracy are discussed. 16 references.

  14. Association of HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms with ankylosing spondylitis in Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinle; Yang, Bin; Li, Lixin; Cai, Bei; Liao, Yun; Li, Linhui; Wu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-10-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable complex inflammatory arthritis disease. Genetic factors are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of AS. However, few data are available on the relationship between HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms and AS susceptibility in the Chinese population. Therefore, we examined HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 and rs7574865) in a total of 779 subjects, including 400 AS and 379 age- and sex-matched healthy controls in Chinese. No significant difference was observed between AS patients and healthy controls in the allele frequency of rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865. However, there was a significant association between the HLA-DQ rs7453920 G/A variant and AS patients, with minor allele A correlated with a reduced risk of AS (allelic frequency, adjusted OR=0.66, 95% CI=0.55-0.78, p=4.0E-06; dominant model, adjusted OR=0.75, 95% CI=0.66-0.85, p=1.1E-05). Moreover, the haplotypes block AAA and GGA in the HLA gene significantly correlated with reduced risk of AS. This is the first study demonstrating the significant associations of SNP rs7453920 and the haplotypes in the HLA gene with the risk of AS in Southwest Chinese population. This research sheds new light on the significant relationship between HLA polymorphisms and AS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Values of decentralized systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within the wastewater sector: a theoretical justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    In this work, the values of decentralized (onsite) systems that avoid investments in idle capacity within wastewater plans are quantitatively justified using the specific net present value (SNPV) approach. SNPV is a currently proposed criterion in environmental engineering economics that is defined as the net present value of the cost per unit of service or per population equivalent (PE). The SNPV approach was reintroduced with bugs fixed and then applied to the economic analysis of the capital and operating costs of one-stage completed central plants, stage-expanded central plants, and decentralized treatment facilities. The results show that under a demand growth scenario, the central plant will inevitably reach idle capacity, which can be reduced by a staged expansion. However, the staged expansion plan will lose the economies of scale and, hence, is only viable under projections of a low or moderate price inflation rate or high demand growth rate. Onsite treatment systems can theoretically achieve 100% utilization. Assuming that the capital costs per PE of the onsite and central systems are equal, the former is economically favorable in most cases of price inflation as a result of its cost saving on idle capacity. Onsite treatment systems can be viable even though their capital expenditures per PE are higher than that of a comparable centralized option as to a capital investment. This finding suggests wide opening of onsite technology choices. Use of the SNPV showed that average operating expenses of centralized plants decrease as demand growth rates increase as a benefit of economies of scale, whereas those of onsite treatment systems depend only on price inflation. Semi-decentralized systems feature both the financial advantage of the onsite system (capital investment) and the superiority of centralized systems (operation and maintenance); thus, it is worth consideration. The results of this study illustrate not only the value of decentralized systems but

  16. The molecular origin of the thiamine diphosphate-induced spectral bands of ThDP-dependent enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovina, Marina V; De Kok, Aart; Sevostyanova, Irina A; Khailova, Ludmila S; Belkina, Natalya V; Kochetov, German A

    2004-08-01

    New and previously published data on a variety of ThDP-dependent enzymes such as baker's yeast transketolase, yeast pyruvate decarboxylase and pyruvate dehydrogenase from pigeon breast muscle, bovine heart, bovine kidney, Neisseria meningitidis and E. coli show their spectral sensitivity to ThDP binding. Although ThDP-induced spectral changes are different for different enzymes, their universal origin is suggested as being caused by the intrinsic absorption of the pyrimidine ring of ThDP, bound in different tautomeric forms with different enzymes. Non-enzymatic models with pyrimidine-like compounds indicate that the specific protein environment of the aminopyrimidine ring of ThDP determines its tautomeric form and therefore the changeable features of the inducible effect. A polar environment causes the prevalence of the aminopyrimidine tautomeric form (short wavelength region is affected). For stabilization of the iminopyrimidine tautomeric form (both short- and long-wavelength regions are affected) two factors appear essential: (i) a nonpolar environment and (ii) a conservative carboxyl group of a specific glutamate residue interacting with the N1' atom of the aminopyrimidine ring. The two types of optical effect depend in a different way upon the pH, in full accordance with the hypothesis tested. From these studies it is concluded that the inducible optical rotation results from interaction of the aminopyrimidine ring with its asymmetric environment and is defined by the protonation state of N1' and the 4'-nitrogen. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. PRISM: Processing routines in IDL for spectroscopic measurements (installation manual and user's guide, version 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes procedures for installing and using the U.S. Geological Survey Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM) software. PRISM provides a framework to conduct spectroscopic analysis of measurements made using laboratory, field, airborne, and space-based spectrometers. Using PRISM functions, the user can compare the spectra of materials of unknown composition with reference spectra of known materials. This spectroscopic analysis allows the composition of the material to be identified and characterized. Among its other functions, PRISM contains routines for the storage of spectra in database files, import/export of ENVI spectral libraries, importation of field spectra, correction of spectra to absolute reflectance, arithmetic operations on spectra, interactive continuum removal and comparison of spectral features, correction of imaging spectrometer data to ground-calibrated reflectance, and identification and mapping of materials using spectral feature-based analysis of reflectance data. This report provides step-by-step instructions for installing the PRISM software and running its functions.

  18. Between devils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear energy is undergoing a renaissance, driven by two very loosely-coupled needs: the first for much more energy to support economic growth worldwide; the second to mitigate global warming driven by the emission of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel. With the current mix of fuels, growing the economy increases emissions; increased emissions lead to climate change; climate change will eventually harm the economy. Nuclear energy offers one way out of this cycle. The only fossil fuel in abundant supply is coal. However, it has serious pollution problems and expensive technological fixes are required to control environmental problems that have large- scale economic consequences. Concern about global warming is increasing and even the United States government has finally said that there is a problem. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) forecasts, in the business-as-usual case, an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide to 750 parts per million by the end of the century with a consequent global temperature rise of 2 deg. to 5 deg. C, less at the equator and more at the poles. While nuclear cannot be the entire solution, it can be an important part if the public can be assured that it is safe, that nuclear waste can be disposed of safely, and that the risk of weapons proliferation is not significantly increased by a major expansion

  19. Devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.

    1986-01-01

    When the interaction between an oscillator and its driver is strong enough, the oscillator will resonate at, or ''lock'' onto, an infinity of driving frequencies, giving rise to steps with a fractal dimension between 0 and 1

  20. Systematic characterization of structural, dynamical and electrical properties of dust devils and implications for dust lifting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzese, Gabriele; Esposito, Francesca; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Popa, Ciprian; Silvestro, Simone; Deniskina, Natalia; Cozzolino, Fabio

    2017-04-01

    Dust devils are convective vortices able to lift sand and dust grains from the soil surface, even in conditions of low wind speed environment. They have been observed not only on Earth but also on other planets of the solar system; in particular, they are largely studied on Mars. Indeed, the contribution of the dust devils to the Martian climate is a highly debated question. In order to investigate this topic, it is important to understand the nature of the dust lifting mechanism by the vortex and characterize the induced electric field. As part of the development process of DREAMS, the meteorological station on board the Schiapparelli lander of the ExoMars 2016 mission, and of the Dust complex package of the ExoMars 2020 mission, we performed various field campaigns in the Sahara desert (Tafilalt region, Morocco). We deployed a fully equipped meteorological station and, during the 2014 summer, we observed three months of dust devils activity, collecting almost six hundreds events. For each dust devil, we monitored the horizontal wind speed and direction, the vertical wind speed, the pressure drop due to the vortex core, the temperature, the induced electric field and the concentration of dust lifted. This data set is unique in literature and represents up to now the most comprehensive one available for the dusty convective vortices. Here we will present the analysis of the Moroccan data with particular emphasis on the study of the atmospheric electric field variations due to the passage of the vortices. The distribution of the vortex parameters (wind speed and direction, pressure, E-field and dust lifted) are showed and compared, when possible, to the ones observed by the Martian surveys. The connection between the E-field and the other parameters will be presented. In the terrestrial environment, the development of the convective vortices is restricted by the presence of the vegetation and of the urban areas, hence dust devils can impact the climate only on local

  1. Hybrid opto-digital signal processing in 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission for long-haul large-Aeff pure-silica-core fiber links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ahmad, Ramshah; Basir, Rabeea

    2016-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations, we demonstrated that all-optical signal processing methods (XPM-suppressor module and in-line nonlinear equalization) significantly increase the system performance of digital nonlinear compensation (digital backward propagation) and improve the system performanc...... in five-channel 112 Gbit/s DP-16QAM and DP-QDB transmission over 2400 km large- effective-area pure-silica-core fiber ((Formula presented.)-PSCF). The system performance is quantified with the help of Q-factor (dB) for both dispersion-managed and nondispersion-managed fiber links....

  2. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  3. Evolutionary heuristic for makespan minimization in no-idle flow shop production systems - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i2.12534

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with no-idle flow shop scheduling problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. A new hybrid metaheuristic is proposed for the scheduling problem solution. The proposed method is compared with the best method reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the new method provides better solutions regarding the solution quality to set of problems evaluated.  

  4. Recent Advances in Tsunami Research - the Devil Is in the Detail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Over little more than a decade, tsunami research has gone from a few scientists using a range of over-used black and white and colour photographs to try and convince a largely disinterested audience of the perils of tsunamis, to a highly regarded branch of the natural hazard stable populated by a plethora of researchers and disciplines. What happened? Tsunamis happened, big ones, in 2004, 2009, 2010 and 2011. In many ways we now have more data than we know what to do with. We should therefore be forgiven for appearing just a little rushed off our feet. The past decade has seen a phenomenal increase in the number of publications and, as a result, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the geological and environmental impacts of tsunamis. In the quest to better understand tsunami geology, many of us are eternally searching for the Holy Grail - the one proxy that will tell us that a deposit was laid down by a tsunami and not by a storm. Well, the one thing that recent advances have told us is that it is not that simple - the devil is in the detail, and we have plenty of that. There has been a significantly improvement in our understanding of tsunami sediments, particularly at either end of the size spectrum, greater use of microfossil data, major advances in geochemistry and the introduction of new studies such as magnetic fabric. What has been particularly satisfying for me to see has been the improved incorporation and study of proxies that are often viewed as tangential to geological data such as geomorphology, archaeology, anthropology and contextual environmental changes. The take home message is that this is a truly multi-disciplinary topic and we do ourselves a disservice if we do not embrace all the innovations available to us. Yes, in many cases we can tell the difference between a storm and a tsunami, it is just that the difference is different every time. The devil is in the detail.

  5. Adaptation of D-P flap to the oro-facial fistula induced by radio-osteomyelitis of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Etsuhide; Genba, Ryo-ichi; Hayatsu, Yoshikazu; Sunakawa, Hajime; Kohama, Gen-iku

    1980-01-01

    Intraoral partial resection of the mandible was performed on 3 patients with radiation-induced ostomyelitis and ostonecrosis of the mandible, and inflammation in the mandible disappeared. Residual oro-facial fistula was closed with D-P lap, and a good result was obtained. Treatments of radiation osteopathy, the time of the treatments, and the period from resection of necrotic mandible to the closure of the fistula with D-P lap and reconstructive surgery for the mouth were also considered. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Review of Sandia National Laboratories - Albuquerque New Mexico DOE/DP Critical Skills Development Progrmas FY04.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Anna K; Wilson, Dominique; CLARK, KATHERINE

    2005-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a portfolio of programs to address the critical skills needs of the DP labs, as identified by the 1999 Chiles Commission Report. The goals are to attract and retain the best and the brightest students and transition them into Sandia - and DP Complex - employees. The US Department of Energy/Defense Programs University Partnerships funded ten laboratory critical skills development programs in FY04. This report provides a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of these programs and their status. 3

  7. Experimental evaluation of prefiltering for 56 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal transmission in 75 GHz WDM grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkowski, Robert; de Carvalho, Luis Henrique H.; Silva, Edson Porto da

    2014-01-01

    We investigate optical prefiltering for 56Gbaud (224Gbit/s) electrical time-division multiplexed (ETDM) dual polarization (DP) quaternary phase shift keying (QPSK) transmission. Different transmitter-side optical filter shapes are tested and their bandwidths are varied. Comparison of studied filter...... shapes shows an advantage of a pre-emphasis filter. Subsequently, we perform a fiber transmission of the 56Gbaud DP QPSK signal filtered with the 65GHz pre-emphasis filter to fit the 75GHz transmission grid. Bit error rate (BER) of the signal remains below forward error correction (FEC) limit after 300km...

  8. Characterization and modelling techniques for gas metal arc welding of DP 600 sheet steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, K.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Ferrous Metallurgy (IEHK) (Germany); Reisgen, U.; Schleser, M.; Abdurakhmanov, A. [RWTH Aachen University, Welding and Joining Institute (ISF) (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The objectives of the present work are to characterize the Gas Metal Arc Welding process of DP 600 sheet steel and to summarize the modelling techniques. The time-temperature evolution during the welding cycle was measured experimentally and modelled with the softwaretool SimWeld. To model the phase transformations during the welding cycle dilatometer tests were done to quantify the parameters for phase field modelling by MICRESS {sup registered}. The important input parameters are interface mobility, nucleation density, etc. A contribution was made to include austenite to bainite transformation in MICRESS {sup registered}. This is useful to predict the microstructure in the fast cooling segments. The phase transformation model is capable to predict the microstructure along the heating and cooling cycles of welding. Tensile tests have shown the evidence of failure at the heat affected zone, which has the ferrite-tempered martensite microstructure. (orig.)

  9. Quantifying the effects of tempering on individual phase properties of DP980 steel with nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, G. [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, F. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Ruimi, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, Doha (Qatar); Field, D.P. [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States); Sun, X., E-mail: xin.sun@pnnl.gov [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-14

    Tempering treatment is conducted on a commercial dual phase (DP) 980 steel at 250 °C and 400 °C for 60 min each. Ferrite and martensite grains are distinguished using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and the martensite volume fractions (MVF) are determined based on the image quality (IQ) map. Indentation tests combined with a newly developed inverse method are used to obtain the individual phase flow properties in each sample. The results show that, i) tempering significantly reduces martensite yield strength, while it slightly reduces the ferrite yield strength; ii) tempering temperature has a more significant influence on the work hardening exponent of ferrite than that of martensite. As a validation, a simple rule-of-mixtures is used to verify the above-predicted individual phase flow stresses with the experimentally obtained overall true stress vs. true strain curves.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Impairments in Unrepeatered DP-16QAM Link with Distributed Raman Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodan Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The transmission impairments of a Raman amplified link using dual-polarization 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (DP-16QAM are experimentally characterized. The impact of amplitude and phase noise on the signal due to relative intensity noise (RIN transfer from the pump are compared for two pumping configurations: first-order backward pumping and bi-directional pumping. Experimental results indicate that with increased Raman backward pump power, though the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR is increased, so is the pump-induced amplitude and phase noise. The transmission performance is firstly improved by the enhanced OSNR at a low pump power until an optimum point is reached, and then the impairments due to pump-induced noise start to dominate. However, the introduction of a low pump power in the forward direction can further improve the system’s performance.

  11. Computation On dP Type power System Stabilizer Using Fuzzy Logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, M.A.; Irwan, R.; Husdi; Riza; Mardhana, E.; Triputranto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Power system stabilizers (PSS) are widely applied in power generators to damp power oscillation caused by certain disturbances in order to increase the power supply capacity. PSS design is often suffered from the difficulty on setting periodically its parameters, which are gain and compensators, in order to have an optimal damping characteristic. This paper proposes a methode to determine parameters of dP type PSS by implementing fuzzy logic rules in a computer program,to obtain the appropriate characteristics of synchronous torque and damping torque. PSS with the calculated parameters is investigated on a simulation using a non-linear electric power system of a thermal generator connected to infinite bus system model. Simulation results show that great improvement in damping characteristic and enhancement of stability margin of electric power system are obtained by using the proposed PSS

  12. Numerical-experimental investigation of load paths in DP800 dual phase steel during Nakajima test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergs, Thomas; Nick, Matthias; Feuerhack, Andreas; Trauth, Daniel; Klocke, Fritz

    2018-05-01

    Fuel efficiency requirements demand lightweight construction of vehicle body parts. The usage of advanced high strength steels permits a reduction of sheet thickness while still maintaining the overall strength required for crash safety. However, damage, internal defects (voids, inclusions, micro fractures), microstructural defects (varying grain size distribution, precipitates on grain boundaries, anisotropy) and surface defects (micro fractures, grooves) act as a concentration point for stress and consequently as an initiation point for failure both during deep drawing and in service. Considering damage evolution in the design of car body deep drawing processes allows for a further reduction in material usage and therefore body weight. Preliminary research has shown that a modification of load paths in forming processes can help mitigate the effects of damage on the material. This paper investigates the load paths in Nakajima tests of a DP800 dual phase steel to research damage in deep drawing processes. Investigation is done via a finite element model using experimentally validated material data for a DP800 dual phase steel. Numerical simulation allows for the investigation of load paths with respect to stress states, strain rates and temperature evolution, which cannot be easily observed in physical experiments. Stress triaxiality and the Lode parameter are used to describe the stress states. Their evolution during the Nakajima tests serves as an indicator for damage evolution. The large variety of sheet metal forming specific load paths in Nakajima tests allows a comprehensive evaluation of damage for deep drawing. The results of the numerical simulation conducted in this project and further physical experiments will later be used to calibrate a damage model for simulation of deep drawing processes.

  13. Latitudinal profile of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo magnetic signature: comparison with the DP2 magnetic disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Zaka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During magnetic storms, the auroral electrojets intensification affects the thermospheric circulation on a global scale. This process which leads to electric field and current disturbance at middle and low latitudes, on the quiet day after the end of a storm, has been attributed to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo (Ddyn. The magnetic field disturbance observed as a result of this process is the reduction of the H component amplitude in the equatorial region which constitutes the main characteristic of the ionospheric disturbance dynamo process, associated with a westward electric current flow. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance dynamo magnetic signature exhibits an eastward current at mid latitudes and a westward one at low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Such current flow reveals an "anti-Sq" system established between the mid latitudes and the equatorial region and opposes the normal Sq current vortex. However, the localization of the eastward current and consequently the position and the extent of the "anti-Sq" current vortex changes from one storm to another. Indeed, for a strong magnetic storm, the eastward current is well established at mid latitudes about 45° N and for a weak magnetic storm, the eastward current is established toward the high latitudes (about 60° N, near the Joule heating region, resulting in a large "anti-Sq" current cell. The latitudinal profile of the Ddyn disturbance as well as the magnetic disturbance DP2 generated by the mechanism of prompt penetration of the magnetospheric convection electric field in general, show a weak disturbance at the low latitudes with a substantial amplification at the magnetic equator. Due to the intensity of the storm, the magnitude of the DP2 appears higher than the Ddyn over the American and Asian sector contrary to the African sector.

  14. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  15. Contribution to the study of low-energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei; Contribution a l'etude des reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Van, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-05-15

    This work is carried out with a view to analysing low energy (d,p) reactions on light nuclei measured at Grenoble or Algiers and suggesting a direct mechanism. The distorted wave approximation has been applied; this requires the development of programmes for the IBM 7044 computer at the 'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees' in Grenoble. The (d,p) reactions on {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne and {sup 16}O are dealt with. A calculation of the interference of the direct interaction and of resonating effects has been applied to {sup 16}O. (author) [French] Ce travail a pour but d'analyser les reactions (d,p) a basse energie sur noyaux legers, mesurees a Grenoble ou a Alger et qui suggerent un mecanisme direct. L'approximation des ondes distordues a ete appliquee, necessitant la mise au point de programmes sur l'ordinateur IBM 7044 de l'Institut des Mathematiques Appliquees de Grenoble. Des reactions (d,p) sur {sup 14}N, {sup 9}Be, {sup 22}Ne et {sup 16}O sont traitees. Un calcul de l'interference de l'interaction directe et des effets resonnants a ete applique a {sup 16}O. (auteur)

  16. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR-DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR-DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.

  17. Sequence analyses reveal that a TPR–DP module, surrounded by recombinable flanking introns, could be at the origin of eukaryotic Hop and Hip TPR–DP domains and prokaryotic GerD proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR–DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR–DP domains. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0083-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18987995

  18. KARAKTERISASI MALTODEKSTRIN DP 3-9 SERTA KAJIAN POTENSI PENGGUNAANNYA SEBAGAI SUMBER KARBOHIDRAT PADA MINUMAN OLAHRAGA [Characterization of Maltodextrin DP 3-9 and Assesment of Its Potential Application as Carbohydrate Source in Sport Drink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni Hidayat 1

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at characterization of maltodextrin DP 3-9 (produced by enzymatic hydrolysis and membrane separation process as compared to commercial maltodextrin and glucose and assessment of its potential application as carbohydrate source in sport drink. The research showed that application of maltodextrin DP 3-9 had some advantages as compared to glucose with regard to absorption rate that was 2 times longer (60 minutes instead of 30 minutes, osmolality degree that was 5,6 times lower (178 mOsmol/kg as compared to 1000 mOsmol/kg, and relative sweetness degree that was 10 - 11 times lower (6,15-7,20 as compared to 57,00-61,00. However, thie application of maltodekstrin DP 3-9 had limitation which was shown by its viscosity characteristic that was 5,70 -- 6,20% higher (1,29 cSt and 1,37 cSt as compared to 1,22 cSt and 1,29 cSt. When compared to commercial maltodextrin, maltodextrin DP 3-9 is favorable as carbohydrate source in sport drink based on its absorption rate that was more than 2 times faster (60 minutes as compared to more than 120 minutes and storage stability at refrigeration temperature (which was more than 8 weeks, with or without sterilization; with sterilization.

  19. Oxidant enhancement in martian dust devils and storms: implications for life and habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Sushil K; Wong, Ah-San; Renno, Nilton O; Farrell, William M; Delory, Gregory T; Sentman, Davis D; Cummer, Steven A; Marshall, John R; Rafkin, Scot C R; Catling, David C

    2006-06-01

    We investigate a new mechanism for producing oxidants, especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), on Mars. Large-scale electrostatic fields generated by charged sand and dust in the martian dust devils and storms, as well as during normal saltation, can induce chemical changes near and above the surface of Mars. The most dramatic effect is found in the production of H2O2 whose atmospheric abundance in the "vapor" phase can exceed 200 times that produced by photochemistry alone. With large electric fields, H2O2 abundance gets large enough for condensation to occur, followed by precipitation out of the atmosphere. Large quantities of H2O2 would then be adsorbed into the regolith, either as solid H2O2 "dust" or as re-evaporated vapor if the solid does not survive as it diffuses from its production region close to the surface. We suggest that this H2O2, or another superoxide processed from it in the surface, may be responsible for scavenging organic material from Mars. The presence of H2O2 in the surface could also accelerate the loss of methane from the atmosphere, thus requiring a larger source for maintaining a steady-state abundance of methane on Mars. The surface oxidants, together with storm electric fields and the harmful ultraviolet radiation that readily passes through the thin martian atmosphere, are likely to render the surface of Mars inhospitable to life as we know it.

  20. Pharmacological Treatment of Neonatal Opiate Withdrawal: Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Illicit drug use with opiates in pregnancy is a major global health issue with neonatal withdrawal being a common complication. Morphine is the main pharmacological agent administered for the treatment of neonatal withdrawal. In the past, morphine has been considered by and large inert in terms of its long-term effects on the central nervous system. However, recent animal and clinical studies have demonstrated that opiates exhibit significant effects on the growing brain. This includes direct dose-dependent effects on reduction in brain size and weight, protein, DNA, RNA, and neurotransmitters—possibly as a direct consequence of a number of opiate-mediated systems that influence neural cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. At this stage, we are stuck between the devil and the deep blue sea. There are no real alternatives to pharmacological treatment with opiates and other drugs for neonatal opiate withdrawal and opiate addiction in pregnant women. However, pending further rigorous studies examining the potential harmful effects of opiate exposure in utero and the perinatal period, prolonged use of these agents in the neonatal period should be used judiciously, with caution, and avoided where possible.

  1. Is the Electron Avalanche Process in a Martian Dust Devil Self-Quenching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, William M.; McLain, Jason L.; Collier, M. R.; Keller, J. W.; Jackson, T. J.; Delory, G. T.

    2015-01-01

    Viking era laboratory experiments show that mixing tribocharged grains in a low pressure CO2 gas can form a discharge that glows, indicating the presence of an excited electron population that persists over many seconds. Based on these early experiments, it has been predicted that martian dust devils and storms may also contain a plasma and new plasma chemical species as a result of dust grain tribo-charging. However, recent results from modeling suggest a contrasting result: that a sustained electron discharge may not be easily established since the increase in gas conductivity would act to short-out the local E-fields and quickly dissipate the charged grains driving the process. In essence, the system was thought to be self-quenching (i.e., turn itself off). In this work, we attempt to reconcile the difference between observation and model via new laboratory measurements. We conclude that in a Mars-like low pressure CO2 atmosphere and expected E-fields, the electron current remains (for the most part) below the expected driving tribo-electric dust currents (approx. 10 microA/m(exp. 2)), thereby making quenching unlikely.

  2. Dating of aragonite and dolomite from Devil's cave - SP, by dosimetric thermoluminescent method (DTL) and ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatumi, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated TL (Thermoluminescence) and ESR (electron spin resonance) properties of aragonite and dolomite found at ''Caverna do Diabo (Devil's cave)'' in the state of Sao Paulo to determine the ages of these geological materials. The aragonite, which is not a thermoluminescent material, shows one ESR signal whit g = 2.003. We obtained the age of 1.1 x 10 5 years and the growth rate of 1 μ m/year by the sample calibration with additional Y irradiation. The dolomite gives a TL glow curve with three distinct peaks at 261, 334 and 395 0 C. We found that the fit for the TL glow curve to second-order kinetics can be considerered as very acceptable. Using the second TL peak we obtained the age of 9.4 x 10 5 years and the compatible values of the activation energy (1.90 ± 0,07 eV) by the following methods: Hyperbolic heating, isothermal decay and fractional glow technique. We observed many ESR absorption signals in the dolomite. Three principal signal com g = 2.002, 2.003 and 2.005 were studied. We found that the first and second ESR signals were atributed to the CO 2 - and/or CO 3 3- centers and the last to the CO 3 - centers, and observed that the first ESR signal might related with the second TL peak and the TL sensitivity were associated with the concentration of Mn 2+ [pt

  3. Twist map, the extended Frenkel-Kontorova model and the devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubry, S.

    1982-01-01

    Exact results obtained on the discrete Frenkel Kontorova (FK) model and its extensions during the past few years are reviewed. These models are associated with area preserving twist maps of the cylinder (or a part of it) onto itself. The theorems obtained for the FK model thus yields new theorems for the twist maps. The exact structure of the ground-states which are either commensurate or incommensurate and assert the existence of elementary discommensurations under certain necessary and sufficient conditions is described. Necessary conditions for the trajectories to represent metastable configurations, which can be chaotic, are given. The existence of a finite Peierl Nabarro barrier for elementary discommensurations is connected with a property of non-integrability of the twist map. The existence of KAM tori corresponds to undefectible incommensurate ground-states and a theorem is given which asserts that when the phenon spectrum of an incommensurate ground-state exhibits a finite gap, then the corresponding trajectory is dense on a Cantor set with zero measure length. These theorems, when applied to the initial FK model, allows one to prove the existence of the transition by breaking of analyticity for the incommensurate structures when the parameter which describes the discrepancy of the model to the integrable limit varies. Finally, we describe a theorem proving the existence of a devil's staircase for the variation curve of the atomic mean distance versus a chemical potential, for certain properties of the twist map which are generally satisfied

  4. Continuous 500,000-year climate record from vein calcite in Devils Hole, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winograd, I.J.; Coplen, T.B.; Landwehr, J.M.; Revesz, K.M.; Riggs, A.C.; Ludwig, K.R.; Szabo, B.J.; Kolesar, P.T.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen-18 (δ 18 O) variations in a 36-centimeter-long core (DH-11) of vein calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, yield an uninterrupted 500,000-year paleotemperature record that closely mimics all major features in the Vostok (Antarctica) paleotemperature and marine δ 18 O ice-volume records. The chronology for this continental record is based on 21 replicated mass-spectrometric uranium-series dates. Between the middle and latest Pleistocene, the duration of the last four glacial cycles recorded in the calcite increased from 80,000 to 130,000 years; this variation suggests that major climate changes were aperiodic. The timing of specific climatic events indicates that orbitally controlled variations in solar insolation were not a major factor in trigering deglaciations. Interglacial climates lasted about 20,000 years. Collectively, these observations are inconsistent with the Milankovitch hypothesis for the origin of the Pleistocene glacial cycles but they are consistent with the thesis that these cycles originated from internal nonlinear feedbacks within the atmosphere-ice sheet-ocean system

  5. Ant and Mite Diversity Drives Toxin Variation in the Little Devil Poison Frog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGugan, Jenna R; Byrd, Gary D; Roland, Alexandre B; Caty, Stephanie N; Kabir, Nisha; Tapia, Elicio E; Trauger, Sunia A; Coloma, Luis A; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2016-06-01

    Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified histrionicotoxins, 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines, decahydroquinolines, and lehmizidines as the primary alkaloid toxins in these O. sylvatica populations. Frog skin alkaloid composition varied along a geographical gradient following population distribution in a principal component analysis. We also characterized diversity in arthropods isolated from frog stomach contents and confirmed that O. sylvatica specialize on ants and mites. To test the hypothesis that poison frog toxin variability reflects species and chemical diversity in arthropod prey, we (1) used sequencing of cytochrome oxidase 1 to identify individual prey specimens, and (2) used liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to chemically profile consumed ants and mites. We identified 45 ants and 9 mites in frog stomachs, including several undescribed species. We also showed that chemical profiles of consumed ants and mites cluster by frog population, suggesting different frog populations have access to chemically distinct prey. Finally, by comparing chemical profiles of frog skin and isolated prey items, we traced the arthropod source of four poison frog alkaloids, including 3,5- and 5,8-disubstituted indolizidines and a lehmizidine alkaloid. Together, the data show that toxin variability in O. sylvatica reflects chemical diversity in arthropod prey.

  6. Microstructural evolution and mechanical performance of resistance spot welded DP1000 steel with single and double pulse welding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chabok, Ali; van der Aa, Ellen; De Hosson, Jeff; Pei, Yutao T.

    2017-01-01

    Two welding schemes of single and double pulse were used for the resistance spot welding of DP1000 dual phase steel. The changes in the mechanical performance and variant pairing of martensite under two different welding conditions were scrutinized. It is demonstrated that, although both welds fail

  7. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of a Cyclic DP-240 Amylose Fragment in a Periodic Cell: Glass Transition Temperature and Water Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular dynamics simulations using AMB06C, an in-house carbohydrate force field, (NPT ensembles, 1atm) were carried out on a periodic cell that contained a cyclic-DP-240 amylose fragment and TIP3P water molecules. Molecular conformation and movement of the amylose fragment and water molecules at ...

  8. How Peripheral a Phenomenon Is It?: On the Interaction of DP-Internal Ellipsis, Degree Inversion, and Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manlove, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    In this dissertation I set out to solve a series of puzzles related to the notion of a DP periphery, defined as an area around the edge of a given domain targeted by operations such as movement and agreement. In solving these puzzles, I argue for a peripheral area in the nominal domain. Early arguments for a peripheral boundary in the nominal…

  9. Measurements of T20 in backward elastic dp scattering at deuteron momenta 3.5--6 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirey, L.S.; Borzunov, Y.T.; Chernykh, E.V.; Golovanov, L.B.; Ignatenko, M.A.; Kobushkin, A.P.; Ladygin, V.P.; Manyakov, P.K.; Moroz, N.S.; Nedev, S.; Penchev, L.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Piskunov, N.M.; Punjabi, V.; Rukoyatkin, P.A.; Sitnik, I.M.; Stoletov, G.D.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Svetov, A.L.; Syamtomov, A.I.; Tsvinev, A.P.; Vikhrov, V.V.; Vizireva, L.; Zaporozhets, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Polarization phenomena in backward elastic dp scattering were studied with a view to reconstructing the deuteron wave-function components. Experimental data disagree with predictions based on the impulse approximation which suggests that the wave function may have more than two components. (AIP) copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  10. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Yuichiro; Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. ► DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. ► DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1α. ► DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1α, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  11. DP97, a DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase, is a target gene-selective co-regulator of the constitutive androstane receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Yuichiro, E-mail: ykanno@phar.toho-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Chiba (Japan); Serikawa, Takafumi; Inajima, Jun; Inouye, Yoshio [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 interacts with nuclear receptor CAR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 enhances CAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 synergistically enhances transactivity of CAR by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DP97 is a gene-selective co-activator for hCAR. -- Abstract: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) plays a key role in the expression of xenobiotic/steroid and drug metabolizing enzymes and their transporters. In this study, we demonstrated that DP97, a member of the DEAD box DNA/RNA helicase protein family, is a novel CAR-interacting protein. Using HepG2 cells expressing human CAR in the presence of tetracycline, we showed that knockdown of DP97 with small interfering RNAs suppressed tetracycline-inducible mRNA expression of CYP2B6 and UGT1A1 but not CYP3A4. Thus, DP97 was found to be a gene (or promoter)-selective co-activator for hCAR. DP97-mediated CAR transactivation was synergistically enhanced by the co-expression of SRC-1 or PGC1{alpha}, therefore it might act as mediator between hCAR and appropriate co-activators.

  12. Digging the pupfish out of its hole: risk analyses to guide harvest of Devils Hole pupfish for captive breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Beissinger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Devils Hole pupfish is restricted to one wild population in a single aquifer-fed thermal pool in the Desert National Wildlife Refuge Complex. Since 1995 the pupfish has been in a nearly steady decline, where it was perched on the brink of extinction at 35–68 fish in 2013. A major strategy for conserving the pupfish has been the establishment of additional captive or “refuge” populations, but all ended in failure. In 2013 a new captive propagation facility designed specifically to breed pupfish was opened. I examine how a captive population can be initiated by removing fish from the wild without unduly accelerating extinction risk for the pupfish in Devils Hole. I construct a count-based PVA model, parameterized from estimates of the intrinsic rate of increase and its variance using counts in spring and fall from 1995–2013, to produce the first risk assessment for the pupfish. Median time to extinction was 26 and 27 years from spring and fall counts, respectively, and the probability of extinction in 20 years was 26–33%. Removing individuals in the fall had less risk to the wild population than harvest in spring. For both spring and fall harvest, risk increased rapidly when levels exceeded six adult pupfish per year for three years. Extinction risk was unaffected by the apportionment of total harvest among years. A demographic model was used to examine how removal of different stage classes affects the dynamics of the wild population based on reproductive value (RV and elasticity. Removing eggs had the least impact on the pupfish in Devils Hole; RV of an adult was roughly 25 times that of an egg. To evaluate when it might be prudent to remove all pupfish from Devils Hole for captive breeding, I used the count-based model to examine how extinction risk related to pupfish population size. Risk accelerated when initial populations were less than 30 individuals. Results are discussed in relation to the challenges facing pupfish recovery

  13. Thermal conductivity of the cryoprotective cocktail DP6 in cryogenic temperatures, in the presence and absence of synthetic ice modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Lili E; Malen, Jonathan A; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    The thermal conductivity of the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with synthetic ice modulators (SIMs) is measured in this study, using a transient hot-wire method. DP6 is a mixture of 3 M dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and 3 M propylene glycol, which received significant attention in the cryobiology community in recent years. Tested SIMs include 6% 1,3Cyclohexanediol, 6% 2,3Butanediol, and 12% PEG400 (percentage by volume). This study integrates the scanning cryomacroscope for visual verification of crystallization and vitrification events. It is demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of the vitrifying CPA cocktail decreases monotonically with the decreasing temperature down to -180 °C. By contrast, the thermal conductivity of the crystalline material increases with decreasing temperature in the same temperature range. Results of this study demonstrate that the thermal conductivity may vary by three fold between the amorphous and crystalline phases of DP6 below the glass transition temperature of DP6 (Tg = -119 °C). The selected SIMs demonstrate the ability to inhibit crystallization in DP6, even at subcritical cooling rates. An additional ice suppression capability is observed by the Euro-Collins as a vehicle solution, disproportionate to its volume ratio in the cocktail. The implication of the observed thermal conductivity differences between the amorphous and crystalline phases of the same cocktail on cryopreservation simulations is significant in some cases and must be taken into account in thermal analyses of cryopreservation protocols. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Investigation of Diesel combustion using multiple injection strategies for idling after cold start of passenger-car engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Broatch, A.; Salavert, J.M.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Aptdo. 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to better understand the combustion behaviour in a low compression ratio DI Diesel engine when multiple injection strategies are applied just after the engine cold starts in low temperature conditions (idling). More specifically, the aim of this study was twofold: on one hand, to understand the effect of the multiple injection strategies on the indicated mean effective pressure; on the other hand, to contribute to the understanding of combustion stability characterized by the coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure. The first objective was fulfilled by analyzing the rate of heat release obtained by in-cylinder pressure diagnosis. The results showed that the timing of the pilot injection closest to the main injection was the most influential parameter based on the behaviour of the rate of heat release (regardless of the multiple injection strategy applied). For the second objective, the combustion stability was found to be correlated with the combustion centroid angle. The results showed a trend between them and the existence of a range of centroid angles where the combustion stability is strong enough. In addition, it was also evident that convenient split injection allows shifting the centroid to such a zone and improves combustion stability after start. (author)

  15. PERHITUNGAN IDLE CAPACITY DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN CAM-I CAPACITY MODEL DALAM RANGKA EFISIENSI BIAYA PADA PT X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammar Aditya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim for this research are to analyze capacity cost which incure from company production machines and human resources whose operate the production machine using CAM-I capacity model. CAM-I capacity model is an approach which focus  upon how to manage company resources. This research initiated at PT X which focus to production activity that used small mixer machine, extruder machine, oven drying machine, enrober machine, pan coting machine which consist of hot and cold pan coating machine, and packing machine which consist of vertical packing machine and horizontal packing machine as well as human resources that operates those machine. This research focus on rate capacity, productive capacity, idle capacity, and nonproductive capacity to measure capacity cost. Result of this research shows most of the capacity owned by either by production machine or human resources are not utilized to its maximum potential. There are need to reduce capacity cost owned by production machine and human resoures to increase the product sales but if its unachieveable there will be need to increase efficiency from production machine and human resources by reducing their quantityDOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1961

  16. Calibration data Analysis Package (CAP): An IDL based widget application for analysis of X-ray calibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishali, S.; Narendranath, S.; Sreekumar, P.

    An IDL (interactive data language) based widget application developed for the calibration of C1XS (Narendranath et al., 2010) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 is modified to provide a generic package for the analysis of data from x-ray detectors. The package supports files in ascii as well as FITS format. Data can be fitted with a list of inbuilt functions to derive the spectral redistribution function (SRF). We have incorporated functions such as `HYPERMET' (Philips & Marlow 1976) including non Gaussian components in the SRF such as low energy tail, low energy shelf and escape peak. In addition users can incorporate additional models which may be required to model detector specific features. Spectral fits use a routine `mpfit' which uses Leven-Marquardt least squares fitting method. The SRF derived from this tool can be fed into an accompanying program to generate a redistribution matrix file (RMF) compatible with the X-ray spectral analysis package XSPEC. The tool provides a user friendly interface of help to beginners and also provides transparency and advanced features for experts.

  17. Nephilim: The Children of Lilith : The Place of Man in the Ontological and Cosmological Dualism of the Diablo, Darksiders and Devil May Cry Game Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, M.J.H.M.; Bosman, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Lilith and the Nephilim are not uncommon characters in modern day pop culture at large and in video games culture specifically. In three video games, the Diablo series (three games, between 1996-2012), the Darksiders series (two games, in 2010 and 212) and the Devil May Cry series (2001-2013,

  18. The Last Word: An Interview with Frank Pajares--God, the Devil, William James, the Little Prince, and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Frank Pajares, an internationally recognized scholar in the field of motivation and self-efficacy. During the interview, Pajares talked about William James, what he learned from reading "The Little Prince," his self-efficacy beliefs, and his famous speech wherein he spoke of God, the Devil, and solving the…

  19. Simulation of the effects of Devils Lake outlet alternatives on future lake levels and water quality in the Sheyenne River and Red River of the North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1992, Devils Lake in northeastern North Dakota has risen nearly 30 feet, destroying hundreds of homes, inundating thousands of acres of productive farmland, and costing more than $1 billion for road raises, levee construction, and other flood mitigation measures. In 2011, the lake level is expected to rise at least another 2 feet above the historical record set in 2010 (1,452.0 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929), cresting less than 4 feet from the lake's natural spill elevation to the Sheyenne River (1,458.0 feet). In an effort to slow the rising lake and reduce the chance of an uncontrolled spill, the State of North Dakota is considering options to expand a previously constructed outlet from the west end of Devils Lake or construct a second outlet from East Devils Lake. Future outlet discharges from Devils Lake, when combined with downstream receiving waters, need to be in compliance with applicable Clean Water Act requirements. This study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health Division of Water Quality, to evaluate the various outlet alternatives with respect to their effect on downstream water quality and their ability to control future lake levels.

  20. Effect of process parameters on optimum welding condition of DP590 steel by friction stir welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, In Ju

    2014-01-01

    In the automotive industry, vehicle weight reduction techniques have been actively studied to improve the rate of fuel consumption and to cope with the regulation restricting exhaust gas. For this reason, advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is preferred in the automobile industry as its tensile strength is 590 MPa and over. In this study, to obtain the optimum welding condition, the friction stir welding (FSW) process applied to AHSS was considered. The FSW experiment was performed on a stir plate using a Si 3 N 4 tool and a 1.4-mm thick DP590 steel sheet manufactured by cold rolling. In addition, to investigate the temperature distribution of the advancing and retreating sides in the welding state, the tool rotation speed of 800 rpm, and the welding speed of 180 mm/min, a K-type thermocouple was inserted in the backing plate, and the peak temperature was evaluated at each point. Especially, the correlation between the heat input per unit length and the formation of the FSW zone was minutely analyzed.

  1. Thermal Expansion of Vitrified Blood Vessels Permeated with DP6 and Synthetic Ice Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P.; Taylor, Michael J.; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-01-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. PMID:24769313

  2. Effect of process parameters on optimum welding condition of DP590 steel by friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gon; Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, In Ju [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    In the automotive industry, vehicle weight reduction techniques have been actively studied to improve the rate of fuel consumption and to cope with the regulation restricting exhaust gas. For this reason, advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) is preferred in the automobile industry as its tensile strength is 590 MPa and over. In this study, to obtain the optimum welding condition, the friction stir welding (FSW) process applied to AHSS was considered. The FSW experiment was performed on a stir plate using a Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} tool and a 1.4-mm thick DP590 steel sheet manufactured by cold rolling. In addition, to investigate the temperature distribution of the advancing and retreating sides in the welding state, the tool rotation speed of 800 rpm, and the welding speed of 180 mm/min, a K-type thermocouple was inserted in the backing plate, and the peak temperature was evaluated at each point. Especially, the correlation between the heat input per unit length and the formation of the FSW zone was minutely analyzed.

  3. On-Line High Dose-rate Gamma Irradiation Test of the Profibus/DP module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Koo, In Soo; Hong, Seok Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The field bus data communication is considered for application in nuclear environments. The nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, high radioactivity waste disposals, reprocessing plants and thermonuclear fusion installations can benefit from the unique advantages of the field bus communication network for the smart field instruments and controls. A major problem which arises when dealing with one in these nuclear environments, in special circumstances such as the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, is the presence of high gamma-ray irradiation fields. Radioactive constraints for the DBA(design basis accident) qualification of the RTD transmitter installed in the inside of the RCS pump are typically on the order of 4kGy/h with total doses up to 10kGy. In order to use an industrial field bus communication network as an ad-hoc sensor data link in the vicinity of the RCS area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of these system in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore needs to be verified. We have conducted high dose-rate (up to 4kGy) gamma irradiation experiments on a profibus/DP communication module. In this paper we describe the evolution of its basic characteristics with high dose-rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena.

  4. Development of ultralight, super-elastic, hierarchical metallic meta-structures with i3DP technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxing; Xiao, Junfeng; Moorlag, Carolyn; Guo, Qiuquan; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight and mechanically robust materials show promising applications in thermal insulation, energy absorption, and battery catalyst supports. This study demonstrates an effective method for creation of ultralight metallic structures based on initiator-integrated 3D printing technology (i3DP), which provides a possible platform to design the materials with the best geometric parameters and desired mechanical performance. In this study, ultralight Ni foams with 3D interconnected hollow tubes were fabricated, consisting of hierarchical features spanning three scale orders ranging from submicron to centimeter. The resultant materials can achieve an ultralight density of as low as 5.1 mg cm-3 and nearly recover after significant compression up to 50%. Due to a high compression ratio, the hierarchical structure exhibits superior properties in terms of energy absorption and mechanical efficiency. The relationship of structural parameters and mechanical response was established. The ability of achieving ultralight density printing approach provides metallic structures with substantial benefits from the hierarchical design and fabrication flexibility to ultralight applications.

  5. The therapeutic potential of CRTH2/DP2 beyond allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Katharina; Heinemann, Akos

    2017-11-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) D 2 has been in the focus of research for quite a long time, but its biological effects and its roles in human disease are still not fully characterized. When in 2001 a second major PGD 2 receptor termed chemoattractant receptor homologue expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2; alternative name DP2) was discovered, diverse investigations started to shed more light on the complex and often controversial actions of the prostaglandin. With various immunomodulating effects, such as induction of migration, activation, and cytokine release of leukocytes observed both in vivo and in vitro, CRTH2 has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of allergic diseases. However, with more and more research being performed on CRTH2, it has also become clear that its biological actions are far more diverse than expected at the beginning. In this review, we aim to summarize the roles that PGD 2 - and CRTH2 in particular - might play in diseases of the central nervous system, kidney, intestine, lung, hair and skin, bone and cartilage, and in cancer. Based on current data we propose that blocking CRTH2 might be a potential therapeutic approach to numerous conditions beyond classical allergic diseases and asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [National preparedness for biological mass casualty event: between the devil and the deep blue sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldad, Arieh

    2002-05-01

    Species of plants and animals, as well as nations of human beings were extinguished throughout the prehistory and history of this planet. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is a large scale epidemic of viral, bacterial or fungal infections. One well-documented example was the smallpox epidemic among native Indians of South America following the European invasion. Deliberate dissemination of disease was used as a weapon during the Middle Ages when corpses of plague casualties were thrown over the walls and into the besieged towns. The Book of Kings II, of the Bible, in chapter 19 recalls the story of 185,000 soldiers of Sennacherib that died in one night, near the walls of Jerusalem. The possibility of causing mass casualty by dissemination of infectious disease has driven countries and terrorist organizations to produce and store large quantities of bacteria or viruses. The death of thousands in the USA on September 11, 2001, demonstrated that terror has no moral prohibitions, only technical limitations. Terror organizations will not hesitate to use weapons for mass destruction to kill many, and if only few will die, it will still serve the purpose of these evil organizations: to strew panic, to destroy normal life and to increase fear and instability. Any government that faces decisions about how to be better prepared against biological warfare is pushed between the devil and the deep blue sea. On the one hand: the better we will be prepared, equipped with antibiotics and vaccines--the more lives of casualties we will be able to save. Better public education will help to reduce the damage, but, on the other hand--in order to cause more people to make the effort to equip themselves or to refresh their protective kit--we will have to increase their level of concern. In order to improve the medical education of all members of the medical teams we will have to start a broad and intense campaign, thereby taking the risk of increasing stress in the

  7. A multi-site analysis of the association between black carbon concentrations and vehicular idling, traffic, background pollution, and meteorology during school dismissals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, J; Bukiewicz, L; Kalin, R; Galarraga, C; Mirer, F

    2011-05-01

    A study was performed to assess the relationship between black carbon (BC), passing traffic, and vehicular idling outside New York City (NYC) schools during student dismissal. Monitoring was performed at three school sites in East Harlem, the Bronx, and Brooklyn for 1month per year over a two-year period from November 2006-October 2008. Monitoring at each site was conducted before and after the Asthma Free School Zone (AFSZ) asthma reduction education program was administered. Real-time equipment with a one-minute averaging interval was used to obtain the BC data, while volume counts of idling and passing school busses, trucks, and automobiles were collected each minute by study staff. These data were matched to ambient PM(2.5) and meteorology data obtained from the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. A generalized additive model (GAM) model was run to examine the relationship between BC concentration and each variable while accounting for site-to-site differences. F-tests were employed to assess the significance of each of the predictor variables. The model results suggested that variability in ambient PM(2.5) concentration contributed 24% of the variability in transformed BC concentration, while variability in the number of idling busses and trucks on the street during dismissal contributed 20% of the variability in transformed BC concentration. The results of this study suggest that a combination of urban scale and local traffic control approaches in combination with cessation of school bus idling will produce improved local BC concentration outside schools. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. A dated molecular phylogeny of manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) based on mitogenome and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Marloes; Olsen, Jeanine L; Croll, Donald A; Bernardi, Giacomo; Newton, Kelly; Kollias, Spyros; O'Sullivan, John; Fernando, Daniel; Stevens, Guy; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Seret, Bernard; Wintner, Sabine; Hoarau, Galice

    2015-02-01

    Manta and devil rays are an iconic group of globally distributed pelagic filter feeders, yet their evolutionary history remains enigmatic. We employed next generation sequencing of mitogenomes for nine of the 11 recognized species and two outgroups; as well as additional Sanger sequencing of two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes in an extended taxon sampling set. Analysis of the mitogenome coding regions in a Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian framework provided a well-resolved phylogeny. The deepest divergences distinguished three clades with high support, one containing Manta birostris, Manta alfredi, Mobula tarapacana, Mobula japanica and Mobula mobular; one containing Mobula kuhlii, Mobula eregoodootenkee and Mobula thurstoni; and one containing Mobula munkiana, Mobula hypostoma and Mobula rochebrunei. Mobula remains paraphyletic with the inclusion of Manta, a result that is in agreement with previous studies based on molecular and morphological data. A fossil-calibrated Bayesian random local clock analysis suggests that mobulids diverged from Rhinoptera around 30 Mya. Subsequent divergences are characterized by long internodes followed by short bursts of speciation extending from an initial episode of divergence in the Early and Middle Miocene (19-17 Mya) to a second episode during the Pliocene and Pleistocene (3.6 Mya - recent). Estimates of divergence dates overlap significantly with periods of global warming, during which upwelling intensity - and related high primary productivity in upwelling regions - decreased markedly. These periods are hypothesized to have led to fragmentation and isolation of feeding regions leading to possible regional extinctions, as well as the promotion of allopatric speciation. The closely shared evolutionary history of mobulids in combination with ongoing threats from fisheries and climate change effects on upwelling and food supply, reinforces the case for greater protection of this charismatic family of pelagic filter feeders

  9. The Devil in the Dark: A Fully Self-Consistent Seismic Model for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterborn, C. T.; Schmerr, N. C.; Irving, J. C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The bulk composition and structure of Venus is unknown despite accounting for 40% of the mass of all the terrestrial planets in our Solar System. As we expand the scope of planetary science to include those planets around other stars, the lack of measurements of basic planetary properties such as moment of inertia, core-size and thermal profile for Venus hinders our ability to compare the potential uniqueness of the Earth and our Solar System to other planetary systems. Here we present fully self-consistent, whole-planet density and seismic velocity profiles calculated using the ExoPlex and BurnMan software packages for various potential Venusian compositions. Using these models, we explore the seismological implications of the different thermal and compositional initial conditions, taking into account phase transitions due to changes in pressure, temperature as well as composition. Using mass-radius constraints, we examine both the centre frequencies of normal mode oscillations and the waveforms and travel times of body waves. Seismic phases which interact with the core, phase transitions in the mantle, and shallower parts of Venus are considered. We also consider the detectability and transmission of these seismic waves from within the dense atmosphere of Venus. Our work provides coupled compositional-seismological reference models for the terrestrial planet in our Solar System of which we know the least. Furthermore, these results point to the potential wealth of fundamental scientific insights into Venus and Earth, as well as exoplanets, which could be gained by including a seismometer on future planetary exploration missions to Venus, the devil in the dark.

  10. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  11. Detecção de rastros de dust devils em Thaumasia-Marte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Toledo Almeida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho utiliza um método de processamento digital de imagens para detecção de feições eólicas na superfície de Marte.  Essas feições são rastros de vórtices convectivos recorrentes em Marte, estes, por sua vez, são formados por correntes de ar quente instáveis, próximas à superfície, provocadas por insolação. A área de estudo escolhida foi Thaumasia. O método aplicado baseia-se na teoria da Morfologia Matemática, sendo os rastros obtidos de maneira automática via processamento digital de imagens e binarização automática pelo método de otsu restrito. Os rastros foram detectados automaticamente nas imagens orbitais, o que permitiu calcular características importantes dos vórtices como: largura média e máxima, área de recobrimento, direção preponderante entre outros. Os resultados podem ser usados para auxiliar na compreensão do fenômeno que ocorre no ambiente marciano, contribuindo para o entendimento de como os vórtices de dust devils podem influenciar nas variações locais climáticas do planeta e se faz importante por ser o processo geológico em maior atividade no planeta.

  12. Groundwater resources of the Devils Postpile National Monument—Current conditions and future vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2017-06-15

    This study presents an extensive database on groundwater conditions in and around Devils Postpile National Monument. The database contains chemical analyses of springs and the monument water-supply well, including major-ion chemistry, trace element chemistry, and the first information on a list of organic compounds known as emerging contaminants. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in groundwater discharge and chemistry are evaluated from data collected at five main monitoring sites, where streams carry the aggregate flow from entire groups of springs. These springs drain the Mammoth Mountain area and, during the fall months, contribute a significant fraction of the San Joaquin River flow within the monument. The period of this study, from fall 2012 to fall 2015, includes some of the driest years on record, though the seasonal variability observed in 2013 might have been near normal. The spring-fed streams generally flowed at rates well below those observed during a sequence of wet years in the late 1990s. However, persistence of flow and reasonably stable water chemistry through the recent dry years are indicative of a sizeable groundwater system that should provide a reliable resource during similar droughts in the future. Only a few emerging contaminants were detected at trace levels below 1 microgram per liter (μg/L), suggesting that local human visitation is not degrading groundwater quality. No indication of salt from the ski area on the north side of Mammoth Mountain could be found in any of the groundwaters. Chemical data instead show that natural mineral water, such as that discharged from local soda springs, is the main source of anomalous chloride in the monument supply well and in the San Joaquin River. The results of the study are used to develop a set of recommendations for future monitoring to enable detection of deleterious impacts to groundwater quality and quantity

  13. Nitrogen accumulation and release by sunn hemp, calopo, mucana and devil bean in semi-arid Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fosu, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    Four leguminous cover crops, Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo), Mucuna prupriens (mucuna), Crotalaria juncea (sunn hemp) and Crotalaria retusa (devil bean) were evaluated on the field in Northern Ghana for N 2 fixation capacity and N release. The proportion on N derived from the atmosphere (% Ndfa) by the cover crops ranged from 64.7 to 81% with mucuna giving the highest % Ndfa and calopo the least. The total N 2 fixed ranged from 59 to 109.5 kg ha 4 with devil bean giving the largest and the least from calopo. The dry matter yield of cover crops was positively correlated with the amount of N 2 , fixed but not with the percent of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa). Sunn hemp, which had the best residue quality (least per cent cellulose, lignin, C N ratio and Lignin N ratio), released 50% of its N within the first two weeks while the other cover crops with relatively poor residue quality released 25% of their N within the same period. By the end of the rainy season sunn hemp had released 90% of the residue N while the other cover crops had released 80%. (author)

  14. Discrete sliding mode control for engine idle speed%离散滑模控制在发动机怠速设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴进; 刘珺

    2009-01-01

    A novel discrete sliding mode(DSM)controller is designed. Engine idle speed can be controlled by a nonlinear model for the idle speed control(ISC)system of a 4-cylinder, 4-1itre engine. The experimental results show that DSM control system has superior performance on tracking the desired idle speed and rejecting the system disturbances when compared with the existing controller.%利用一种新的离散滑模控制方法, 设计了发动机怠速的离散滑模(DSM)控制器, 用已开发出的4缸、1.4L的AJR发动机怠速控制系统的非线性模型进行发动机怠速转速的控制. 实验结果表明, 与原机的控制器相比较而言, DSM控制器在跟踪期望怠速转速及抗干扰等方面具有优良的性能.

  15. Development of DP (Dynamic Positioning) to pull-in sub sea pipelines; Utilizacao de barcos de manuseio de ancoras operando com DP (Dynamic Positioning) para arraste de dutos submarinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Manoel H.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Elton C. [Suporte Engenharia, Luziania, GO (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Sub sea pipeline construction at oil and gas fields, with high concentration of on-bottom facilities, becomes more difficult when mooring operations and pipeline approach to a congested platform have to be performed. One method that has often been applied in Brazil is the so-called 'DP (Dynamic Positioning) pull-in', where PETROBRAS owned pipelay Barge, BGL-1, is moored away from the congested area, while a DP anchor handler pulls the rigid pipeline from BGL-1 to a target near the platform. The method was conceived to avoid mooring operations near the congested platforms as well as to minimize risks due to the pipeline initiation process. Inside the congested area the initiation with aid of a 'dead-man' anchor on the sea bottom, which would be a more conventional solution, becomes impossible in most cases. This paper will discuss the engineering work required to perform the 'DP pull-in' as well as show the operational steps, from the start-up to the final abandonment of the pipeline initiation head inside the target area. (author)

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of a medium-carbon bainitic steel by a novel quenching and dynamic partitioning (Q-DP) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiangguo; Huang, Xuefei; Huang, Weigang, E-mail: huangwg56@163.com

    2016-04-26

    A novel Quenching and Dynamic Partitioning (Q-DP) process for a 0.3C-1.4Si-1.8Mn-1.3Cr-0.3Mo (wt%) bainitic steel was developed and the microstructure and mechanical properties were investigated. The results show that the microstructure of the Q-DP treated steel consists of bainite, martensite and retained austenite, and it exhibit a better combination of tensile strength (above 1500 MPa), total elongation (above 17%) and impact toughness (above 90 J). Among the different Q-DP process, the sample treated by 250 °C Q-DP process exhibits the best combination of strength (1519 MPa), ductility (21.3%), the product of strength and elongation (PSE, 32.4 GPa%) and maximum impact toughness (108 J) compared to the quenching and partitioning (Q&P) process and other Q-DP processes. In addition, the work hardening behaviors of the Q&P and Q-DP samples were investigated. The stress-strain curves show that the Q&P and 250 °C Q-DP treated samples exhibit the larger uniform elongation and the value of n calculated for samples is 0.109 and 0.101 respectively.

  17. Some new effects of the deuteron D state observed in (p,d) and (d,p) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Two previously unexplored experiments have revealed the importance of the deuteron D-state effects on (p,d) and (d,p) reactions at moderate energies. Firstly, a clear indication of the deuteron D-state effects on the polarization of the residual nuclear state has been observed in the 58 Ni(p,dγ) angular correlation measurement at E sub(p) = 30 MeV. Secondly, a comparison of the vector analyzing power and vector polarization measured at E sub(d) = 22 MeV for an l = 0 (d,p) transition has shown that the D state has significant effects even on the first-rank polarization quantities. The experimental data and the results of exact-finite-range DWBA calculations with Reid soft-core potential are presented. (author)

  18. Computer-assisted study on the reaction between pyruvate and ylide in the pathway leading to lactyl-ThDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Omar; Jaña, Gonzalo; Delgado, Eduardo J

    2012-08-01

    In this study the formation of the lactyl-thiamin diphosphate intermediate (L-ThDP) is addressed using density functional theory calculations at X3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level of theory. The study includes potential energy surface scans, transition state search, and intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. Reactivity is analyzed in terms of Fukui functions. The results allow to conclude that the reaction leading to the formation of L-ThDP occurs via a concerted mechanism, and during the nucleophilic attack on the pyruvate molecule, the ylide is in its AP form. The calculated activation barrier for the reaction is 19.2 kcal/mol, in agreement with the experimental reported value.

  19. In-situ bending under tension shear fracture analysis and microstructure “earthquake” of DP780 dual phase steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yixi, E-mail: yxzhao@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Huang, Sheng [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Dan, Wenjiao; Zhang, Weigang [Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Li, Shuhui [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-05-17

    Dual phase (DP) steels consist of hard brittle martensite phase and soft ductile ferrite phase. With a novel bending under tension test system, in-situ symmetrical bending under tension experiments were carried out and photomicrographs of bending surface were recorded. The microstructure “earthquake” of DP780 dual phase steels was observed in the bending under tension process. By analyzing the in-situ images serious, the initiation, coalescence of cavities and propagation of micro-cracks until final fracture were analyzed. The micro-cracks form only in the outside surface of bending radius, and mainly appear near the phase boundary of ferrite and martensite. Micro-cracks coalesce and propagate in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction approximately, and at the phase boundary of martensite and ferrite. Furthermore, digital image correlation technology was used in this study to analysis the strain distribution between ferrite and martensite during the bending under tension deformation and fracture.

  20. Augmented ingestion of carbon monoxide and sulfur oxides by occupants of vehicles while idling in drive-up facility lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myronuk, D J

    1977-02-01

    For a line-up of automobiles waiting for a period of time at a drive-up facility, the idling engine emissions are expelled in a rearward direction and tend to envelope the vehicles at the end portion of the queue. Factors that affect these highly localized pollutant accumulation episodes include local meteorological conditions, number, age and tune-up condition of the cars, exhaust pipe location, interior air handling equipment, vehicle separation distances and natural or artificial barriers that form troughs in which vehicular emissions can accumulate or be trapped. In a series of typical vehicle line-ups, local CO concentrations were measured. With Santa Clara Valley background levels of 2 to 5 ppm, the 15 min average driver-area concentration levels ranged from 15 ppm to 95 ppm with short term peaks between 100 and 1000 ppm. The exposure of humans to these concentrations of CO can result in mild headache or nausea, failure to react quickly to stimuli (like oncoming traffic) as well as setting a strain on the heart and lungs. These effects are temporary and reversible. A far more serious local air quality and health problem arises in the growing production of SO/sub x/ and sulfate compounds attributable to the legislated use of oxidizing catalytic mufflers for new car emission control and oxidation of the elemental S found in all gasoline. Using the CO levels as indicators of the accumulation of local automobile produced pollutants, when a majority of cars are equipped with catalytic converters, the anticipated adverse effects of SO/sub x/ concentrations, irritation and inflammation of healthy lung tissue of young and old people alike, as well as aggrevation of preexisting conditions of lung or heart impairment, will be a most undesirable feature of drive-up facility services. Potential reductions in the extent of this developing problem include S removal, SO/sub x/ traps and exhaust system redesign.

  1. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A; Northrop, William F; Bohac, Stanislav V; Assanis, Dennis N

    2012-11-15

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NO x ), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NO x brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM 2.5 , EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM 2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM 2.5 . The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for

  2. Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from Diesel Engines at Idle and under Load: Comparison of Biodiesel Blend and Ultralow Sulfur Diesel Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jo-Yu; Batterman, Stuart A.; Northrop, William F.; Bohac, Stanislav V.; Assanis, Dennis N.

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust emissions have been reported for a number of engine operating strategies, after-treatment technologies, and fuels. However, information is limited regarding emissions of many pollutants during idling and when biodiesel fuels are used. This study investigates regulated and unregulated emissions from both light-duty passenger car (1.7 L) and medium-duty (6.4 L) diesel engines at idle and load and compares a biodiesel blend (B20) to conventional ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. Exhaust aftertreatment devices included a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a diesel particle filter (DPF). For the 1.7 L engine under load without a DOC, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of particulate matter (PM), elemental carbon (EC), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and most volatile organic compounds (VOCs) compared to ULSD; however, formaldehyde brake-specific emissions increased. With a DOC and high load, B20 increased brake-specific emissions of NMHC, nitrogen oxides (NOx), formaldehyde, naphthalene, and several other VOCs. For the 6.4 L engine under load, B20 reduced brake-specific emissions of PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, and most VOCs; however, NOx brake-specific emissions increased. When idling, the effects of fuel type were different: B20 increased NMHC, PM2.5, EC, formaldehyde, benzene, and other VOC emission rates from both engines, and changes were sometimes large, e.g., PM2.5 increased by 60% for the 6.4 L/2004 calibration engine, and benzene by 40% for the 1.7 L engine with the DOC, possibly reflecting incomplete combustion and unburned fuel. Diesel exhaust emissions depended on the fuel type and engine load (idle versus loaded). The higher emissions found when using B20 are especially important given the recent attention to exposures from idling vehicles and the health significance of PM2.5. The emission profiles demonstrate the effects of fuel type, engine calibration, and emission control system, and they can be used as source profiles for apportionment

  3. Study of the possibility to use dp-elastic scattering for the Nuclotron external deuteron beam polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu.; Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Ladygin, V.P.; Reznikov, S.G.; Vasil'ev, T.A.; Janek, M.; Karachuk, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    A selection of dp-elastic scattering events at energies of 1.6 and 2.0 GeV by using scintillation counters has been performed. The procedure of the CH 2 -C subtraction has been established. The dependence of the elastic events yield on the filter thickness has been investigated. This method can be used to develop the efficient high-energy deuteron beam polarimetry

  4. Strain- and stress-based forming limit curves for DP 590 steel sheet using Marciniak-Kuczynski method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Gautam; Maji, Kuntal

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with the prediction of strain-and stress-based forming limit curves for advanced high strength steel DP590 sheet using Marciniak-Kuczynski (M-K) method. Three yield criteria namely Von-Mises, Hill's 48 and Yld2000-2d and two hardening laws i.e., Hollomon power and Swift hardening laws were considered to predict the forming limit curves (FLCs) for DP590 steel sheet. The effects of imperfection factor and initial groove angle on prediction of FLC were also investigated. It was observed that the FLCs shifted upward with the increase of imperfection factor value. The initial groove angle was found to have significant effects on limit strains in the left side of FLC, and insignificant effect for the right side of FLC for certain range of strain paths. The limit strains were calculated at zero groove angle for the right side of FLC, and a critical groove angle was used for the left side of FLC. The numerically predicted FLCs considering the different combinations of yield criteria and hardening laws were compared with the published experimental results of FLCs for DP590 steel sheet. The FLC predicted using the combination of Yld2000-2d yield criterion and swift hardening law was in better coorelation with the experimental data. Stress based forming limit curves (SFLCs) were also calculated from the limiting strain values obtained by M-K model. Theoretically predicted SFLCs were compared with that obtained from the experimental forming limit strains. Stress based forming limit curves were seen to better represent the forming limits of DP590 steel sheet compared to that by strain-based forming limit curves.

  5. Microstructure and Fatigue Properties of Laser Welded DP590 Dual-Phase Steel Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chaojie; Yang, Shanglei; Liu, Haobo; Zhang, Qi; Cao, Yaming; Wang, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, cold-rolled DP590 dual-phase steel sheets with 1.5 mm thickness were butt-welded by a fiber laser, and the evolution and effect on microhardness, tensile property and fatigue property of the welded joint microstructure were studied. The results showed that the base metal is composed of ferrite and martensite, with the martensite dispersed in the ferrite matrix in an island manner. The microstructure of the weld zone was lath-shaped martensite that can be refined further by increasing the welding speed, while the heat-affected zone was composed of ferrite and tempered martensite. The microhardness increased with increasing welding speed, and the hardness reached its highest value—393.8 HV—when the welding speed was 5 m/min. Static tensile fracture of the welded joints always occurred in the base metal, and the elongation at break was more than 16%. The conditional fatigue limits of the base metal and the weld joints were 354.2 and 233.6 MPa, respectively, under tension-tension fatigue tests with a stress rate of 0.1. After observation of the fatigue fracture morphology, it was evident that the fatigue crack of the base metal had sprouted into the surface pits and that its expansion would be accelerated under the action of a secondary crack. The fatigue source of the welded joint was generated in the weld zone and expanded along the martensite, forming a large number of fatigue striations. Transient breaking, which occurred in the heat-affected zone of the joint as a result of the formation of a large number of dimples, reflected the obvious characteristics of ductile fracture.

  6. Destruction of DOE/DP surrogate wastes with supercritical water oxidation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramlette, T.T.; Mills, B.E.; Hencken, K.R.; Brynildson, M.E.; Johnston, S.C.; Hruby, J.M.; Freemster, H.C.; Odegard, B.C.; Modell, M.

    1990-11-01

    Surrogate wastes of specific interest to DOE/DP production facilities (Hanford and Rocky Flats), and the electronics industry have been successfully processed in a laboratory-scale, supercritical water oxidation flow reactor. In all cases, the observed destruction/reduction efficiencies for the organic components were in excess of 99.9%, limited by instrumentation detection capability. Separation of the inorganic components of the Hanford process stream was more difficult to accomplish than destruction of the organic component. Large fractions of all metals contained in this stream were found both in the solids separator effluent and in deposits removed from the reactor. Mass closure was not achieved. Of the process stream's non-metallic, inorganic components, the sulfates and phosphates precipitated, while the nitrates tended to stay in solution. The inorganic material that did precipitate from the simulated Hanford mixed waste accumulated in zones that may be associated with changes in the chemical and physical properties of the supercritical fluid. Corrosion is expected to be a significant problem. Witness wires of Inconel 625, Hastalloy C-276, and titanium placed in the preheater, reactor and cooldown exchanger indicated selective dissolution of chromium, nickel, and molybdenum for some conditions, and non-selective dissolution for others. While these results are very promising, further research is required to evaluate the scalability, reliability, and economics of SCWO reactor components and systems, particularly for mixed wastes. Future research must explore a parameter space (temperature, pressure, pH, residence time, etc.) focused on selecting conditions and materials for specific process streams

  7. Effects of processing parameters on the friction stir spot joining of Al5083-O aluminum alloy to DP590 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Back-Sub; Bang, Hee-Seon; Jeong, Su-Ok; Choi, Woo-Seong; Kwon, Yong-Hyuk; Bang, Han-Sur

    2017-05-01

    Two dissimilar materials, aluminum alloy Al5083-O and advanced high strength steel DP590, were successfully joined by using friction stir spot joining (FSSJ). Satisfactory joint strengths were obtained at a rotational speed of 300 rpm and a plunge depth of 0.7 mm. Resulting joints were welded without a non-welded zone. This may be attributed to the enhanced smooth material flow owing to sufficient stirring effect and tool down force between the upper Al5083-O side and the lower DP590 side. The maximum tensile shear strength was 6.5 kN, which was higher than the joint strength required by the conventional method of resistance spot welding. The main fracture mode was plug fracture in the tensile shear test of joints. An intermetallic compound (IMC) layer with material Al-Fe joints. Thus, the use of FSSJ to weld the dissimilar materials Al5083-O and DP590 resulted in mechanically and metallurgically sound joints.

  8. Development and psychometric properties of a belief-based Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali

    2010-11-09

    This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients-PAQ-DP). An item pool extracted from the Theory of Planned Behavior literature was generated. Then an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing content validity index and content validity ratio. Consequently exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to indicate the scale constructs. In addition reliability analyses including internal consistency and test-retest analysis were carried out. In all a sample of 127 women with diabetes participated in the study. Twenty-two items were initially extracted from the literature. A six-factor solution (containing 19 items) emerged as a result of an exploratory factor analysis namely: instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude, self-identity, and intention explaining 60.30% of the variance observed. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory results for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.54 to 0.8) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.40 to 0.92). The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP) is the first instrument that applies the Theory of Planned Behavior in its constructs. The findings indicated that the PAQ-DP is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical activity perceptions and now is available and can be used in future studies.

  9. Development and psychometric properties of a belief-based Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghofranipour Fazlollah

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study carried out to develop a scale for assessing diabetic patients' perceptions about physical activity and to test its psychometric properties (The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients-PAQ-DP. Methods An item pool extracted from the Theory of Planned Behavior literature was generated. Then an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing content validity index and content validity ratio. Consequently exploratory factor analysis (EFA was performed to indicate the scale constructs. In addition reliability analyses including internal consistency and test-retest analysis were carried out. Results In all a sample of 127 women with diabetes participated in the study. Twenty-two items were initially extracted from the literature. A six-factor solution (containing 19 items emerged as a result of an exploratory factor analysis namely: instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, affective attitude, self-identity, and intention explaining 60.30% of the variance observed. Additional analyses indicated satisfactory results for internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.54 to 0.8 and intraclass correlation coefficients (ranging from 0.40 to 0.92. Conclusions The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Diabetic Patients (PAQ-DP is the first instrument that applies the Theory of Planned Behavior in its constructs. The findings indicated that the PAQ-DP is a reliable and valid measure for assessing physical activity perceptions and now is available and can be used in future studies.

  10. Individual or synchronous biodegradation of di-n-butyl phthalate and phenol by Rhodococcus ruber strain DP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixing; Niu, Chengzhen; Lu, Zhenmei, E-mail: lzhenmei@zju.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal.

  11. Study the bonding mechanism of binders on hydroxyapatite surface and mechanical properties for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qinghua; Wang, Yanen; Li, Xinpei; Yang, Mingming; Chai, Weihong; Wang, Kai; zhang, Yingfeng

    2016-04-01

    In 3DP fabricating artificial bone scaffolds process, the interaction mechanism between binder and bioceramics power determines the microstructure and macro mechanical properties of Hydroxyapatite (HA) bone scaffold. In this study, we applied Molecular Dynamics (MD) methods to investigating the bonding mechanism and essence of binders on the HA crystallographic planes for 3DP fabrication bone scaffolds. The cohesive energy densities of binders and the binding energies, PCFs g(r), mechanical properties of binder/HA interaction models were analyzed through the MD simulation. Additionally, we prepared the HA bone scaffold specimens with different glues by 3DP additive manufacturing, and tested their mechanical properties by the electronic universal testing machine. The simulation results revealed that the relationship of the binding energies between binders and HA surface is consistent with the cohesive energy densities of binders, which is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA. The PCFs g(r) indicated that their interfacial interactions mainly attribute to the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds which formed between the polar atoms, functional groups in binder polymer and the Ca, -OH in HA. The results of mechanical experiments verified the relationship of Young׳s modulus for three interaction models in simulation, which is PVA/HA>PAM/HA>PVP/HA. But the trend of compressive strength is PAM/HA>PVA/HA>PVP/HA, this is consistent with the binding energies of simulation. Therefore, the Young׳s modulus of bone scaffolds are limited by the Young׳s modulus of binders, and the compressive strength is mainly decided by the viscosity of binder. Finally, the major reasons for differences in mechanical properties between simulation and experiment were found, the space among HA pellets and the incomplete infiltration of glue were the main reasons influencing the mechanical properties of 3DP fabrication HA bone scaffolds. These results provide useful information in choosing binder for 3DP fabrication

  12. The novel thiosemicarbazone, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC, inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo via multiple mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu-Ling Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neuroblastoma is a relatively common and highly belligerent childhood tumor with poor prognosis by current therapeutic approaches. A novel anti-cancer agent of the di-2-pyridylketone thiosemicarbazone series, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT, demonstrates promising anti-tumor activity. Recently, a second-generation analogue, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (DpC, has entered multi-center clinical trials for the treatment of advanced and resistant tumors. The current aim was to examine if these novel agents were effective against aggressive neuroblastoma in vitro and in vivo and to assess their mechanism of action. Methods Neuroblastoma cancer cells as well as immortalized normal cells were used to assess the efficacy and selectivity of DpC in vitro. An orthotopic SK-N-LP/Luciferase xenograft model was used in nude mice to assess the efficacy of DpC in vivo. Apoptosis in tumors was confirmed by Annexin V/PI flow cytometry and H&E staining. Results DpC demonstrated more potent cytotoxicity than Dp44mT against neuroblastoma cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. DpC significantly increased levels of phosphorylated JNK, neuroglobin, cytoglobin, and cleaved caspase 3 and 9, while decreasing IkBα levels in vitro. The contribution of JNK, NF-ĸB, and caspase signaling/activity to the anti-tumor activity of DpC was verified by selective inhibitors of these pathways. After 3 weeks of treatment, tumor growth in mice was significantly (p < 0.05 reduced by DpC (4 mg/kg/day given intravenously and the agent was well tolerated. Xenograft tissues showed significantly higher expression of neuroglobin, cytoglobin, caspase 3, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα levels and a slight decrease in interleukin-10 (IL-10. Conclusions DpC was found to be highly potent against neuroblastoma, demonstrating its potential as a novel therapeutic for this disease. The ability

  13. Quantifying the Effects of Idle-Stop Systems on Fuel Economy in Light-Duty Passenger Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Wishart; Matthew Shirk

    2012-12-01

    Vehicles equipped with idle-stop (IS) systems are capable of engine shut down when the vehicle is stopped and rapid engine re-start for the vehicle launch. This capability reduces fuel consumption and emissions during periods when the engine is not being utilized to provide propulsion or to power accessories. IS systems are a low-cost and fast-growing technology in the industry-wide pursuit of increased vehicle efficiency, possibly becoming standard features in European vehicles in the near future. In contrast, currently there are only three non-hybrid vehicle models for sale in North America with IS systems and these models are distinctly low-volume models. As part of the United States Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, ECOtality North America has tested the real-world effect of IS systems on fuel consumption in three vehicle models imported from Europe. These vehicles were chosen to represent three types of systems: (1) spark ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; (2) compression ignition with 12-V belt alternator starter; and (3) direct-injection spark ignition, with 12-V belt alternator starter/combustion restart. The vehicles have undergone both dynamometer and on-road testing; the test results show somewhat conflicting data. The laboratory data and the portion of the on-road data in which driving is conducted on a prescribed route with trained drivers produced significant fuel economy improvement. However, the fleet data do not corroborate improvement, even though the data show significant engine-off time. It is possible that the effects of the varying driving styles and routes in the fleet testing overshadowed the fuel economy improvements. More testing with the same driver over routes that are similar with the IS system-enabled and disabled is recommended. There is anecdotal evidence that current Environmental Protection Agency fuel economy test procedures do not capture the fuel economy gains that IS systems produce in real

  14. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, Honghong; Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading u...

  15. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  16. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Chemistry in Evaluating the Origin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    This report evaluates the chemistry of seep water occurring in three desert drainages near Shiprock, New Mexico: Many Devils Wash, Salt Creek Wash, and Eagle Nest Arroyo. Through the use of geochemical plotting tools and multivariate statistical analysis techniques, analytical results of samples collected from the three drainages are compared with the groundwater chemistry at a former uranium mill in the Shiprock area (the Shiprock site), managed by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management. The objective of this study was to determine, based on the water chemistry of the samples, if statistically significant patterns or groupings are apparent between the sample populations and, if so, whether there are any reasonable explanations for those groupings.

  17. Two-dimensionally modulated magnetic structure of neodymium, commensurate-commensurate transitions in CeSb, and the devil's staircase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic structure of the rare-earth metal neodymium has remained a mystery for more than a decade. Recently, a magnetic structure which fits the experimental results has been reported [1]. Here it will be shown how the model was derived by combining neutron diffraction data with the results of Landau symmetry arguments and renormalization group theory. The spins form a fascinating two-dimensional pattern with hexagonal symmetry, the ''triple q'' structure. The magnetic order is accompanied by a lattice distortion with a similar symmetry. Also, the results of a numerical study of simple model of a one-dimensionally modulated system are reported [2]. The phase diagram includes multiple phase transitions between commensurate phases similar to those observed in CeSb. This model, and CeSb, are possible candidates for ''the devil's staircase'' behavior where the periodicity jumps between an infinity of commensurate values

  18. Demonstration of the serum antibody to Epstein-Barr virus specific DNA polymerased (EBV-DP) from patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, R.S.; Li, J.S.; Grill, S.; Nutter, L.M.; Cheng, Y.C.

    1986-03-05

    Raji cells, an EBV genome carrying and nonproducer cell line, treated with tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and n-butyrate could induce a special DNA polymerase which has properties that are similar to the EBV-DP induced by TPA in P/sub 3/HR-I cells, an EBV producer cell line. Since EBV was found to have a strong association with NPC, and antibodies against EBV proteins or enzymes were found in high levels in sera from these patients, the possible presence of serum antibody against EBV-DP was examined. The serum titer of antibody to EBV-DP was found to have 190 +/- 84 units/ml serum (mean +/- S.D.) in 48 sera from patients with NPC. The titer in 52 healthy donors was 31.4 +/- 28 unit/ml serum (p < 0.01). The antibody was found to be associated with the IgG but not the IgA fraction. The antibody titers against EBV-DP were not correlated with the titer against EBV-DNase or VCA-IgA. Whether the antibody observed is against an EBV-DP core protein or its stimulating protein, as demonstrated by this laboratory previously, is still being investigated. This study demonstrated the high frequency and high titer of antibody against EBV-DP in serum from patients with NPC, and suggested the potential of utilizing this antibody titer to compliment other methods for the early diagnosis or prognosis of NPC.

  19. A Non-Destructive Optical Method for the DP Measurement of Paper Insulation Based on the Free Fibers in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Peng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore a non-destructive method for measuring the polymerization degree (DP of paper insulation in transformer, a new method that based on the optical properties of free fiber particles in transformer oil was studied. The chromatic dispersion images of fibers with different aging degree were obtained by polarizing microscope, and the eigenvalues (r, b, and Mahalanobis distance of the images were extracted by the RGB (red, blue, and green tricolor analysis method. Then, the correlation between the three eigenvalues and DP of paper insulation were simulated respectively. The results showed that the color of images changed from blue-purple to orange-yellow gradually with the increase of aging degree. For the three eigenvalues, the relationship between Mahalanobis distance and DP had the best goodness of fit (R2 = 0.98, higher than that of r (0.94 and b (0.94. The mean square error of the relationship between Mahalanobis distance and DP (52.17 was also significantly lower than that of r and b (97.58, 98.05. Therefore, the DP of unknown paper insulation could be calculated by the simulated relationship of Mahalanobis distance and DP.

  20. Production of palm and Calophyllum inophyllum based biodiesel and investigation of blend performance and exhaust emission in an unmodified diesel engine at high idling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.M. Ashrafur; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Abedin, M.J.; Sanjid, A.; Sajjad, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Biodiesel produced from palm and Calophyllum oil using trans-esterification process. • Produced biodiesels properties were compared with ASTM D6751 standards. • Engine performance and exhaust emissions were evaluated at high idling conditions. • Idling CO and HC emission was reduced using biodiesel–diesel blends. • For low percentages of biodiesel–diesel blends NO X emission increased negligibly. - Abstract: Rapid depletion of fossil fuels, increasing fossil-fuel price, carbon price, and the quest of low carbon fuel for cleaner environment – these are the reason researchers are looking for alternatives of fossil fuels. Renewable, non-flammable, biodegradable, and non-toxic are some reasons that are making biodiesel as a suitable candidate to replace fossil-fuel in near future. In recent years, in many countries of the world production and use of biodiesel has gained popularity. In this research, biodiesel from palm and Calophyllum inophyllum oil has been produced using the trans-esterification process. Properties of the produced biodiesels were compared with the ASTM D6751 standard: biodiesel standard and testing methods. Density, kinematic viscosity, flash point, cloud point, pour point and calorific value, these are the six main physicochemical properties that were investigated. Both palm biodiesel and Calophyllum biodiesel were within the standard limits, so they both can be used as the alternative of diesel fuel. Furthermore, engine performance and emission parameters of a diesel engine run by both palm biodiesel–diesel and Calophyllum biodiesel–diesel blends were evaluated at high idling conditions. Brake specific fuel consumption increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends compared to pure diesel fuel; however, at highest idling condition, this increase was almost negligible. Exhaust gas temperatures decreased as blend percentages increased for both the biodiesel–diesel blends. For low blend percentages increase in NO

  1. A new Nawaz-Enscore-Ham-based heuristic for permutation flow-shop problems with bicriteria of makespan and machine idle time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weibo; Jin, Yan; Price, Mark

    2016-10-01

    A new heuristic based on the Nawaz-Enscore-Ham algorithm is proposed in this article for solving a permutation flow-shop scheduling problem. A new priority rule is proposed by accounting for the average, mean absolute deviation, skewness and kurtosis, in order to fully describe the distribution style of processing times. A new tie-breaking rule is also introduced for achieving effective job insertion with the objective of minimizing both makespan and machine idle time. Statistical tests illustrate better solution quality of the proposed algorithm compared to existing benchmark heuristics.

  2. Thermal expansion of the cryoprotectant cocktail DP6 combined with synthetic ice modulators in presence and absence of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Rabin, Yoed

    2012-10-01

    This study explores physical effects associated with the application of cryopreservation via vitrification using a class of compounds which are defined here as synthetic ice modulators (SIMs). The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. A sub-category of SIMs, referred to in the literature as synthetic ice blockers (SIBs), are compounds that interact directly with ice nuclei or crystals to modify their structure and/or rate of growth. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects during vitrification, with emphasis on measuring the physical property of thermal expansion-the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. Materials under investigation are the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with one of the following SIMs: 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3 cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3 butanediol. Results are presented for the CPA-SIM cocktail in the absence and presence of bovine muscle and goat artery specimens. This study focuses on the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the CPA behaves as a fluid for all practical applications. Results of this study indicate that the addition of SIMs to DP6 allows lower cooling rates to ensure vitrification and extends the range of measurements. It is demonstrated that the combination of SIM with DP6 increases the thermal expansion of the cocktail, with implications for the likelihood of fracture formation-the most dramatic outcome of thermo-mechanical stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Association of HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms with HBV infection outcomes and a mini meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yun; Cai, Bei; Li, Yi; Chen, Jie; Tao, Chuanmin; Huang, Hengjian; Wang, Lanlan

    2014-01-01

    Though HLA-DP/DQ is regarded to associate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is obscure. And the role of STAT4 in HBV susceptibility and clearance as well as HCC development is still contentious. Therefore, we conducted this study, aiming to clarify these obscure relationships. We recruited 1312 Chinese Han subjects including healthy controls, HBV carriers and HCC patients in the experiment stage. The meta-analysis included 3467 HCC patients and 5821 HBV carriers to appraise the association with HCC development. Consistent with previous studies, HLA-DP/DQ associated with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance (prs7574865, we did not find any significant association with HBV susceptibility (OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.66-1.26) or HBV natural clearance (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 0.86-1.49). Moreover, current data failed to acquire positive connection of rs7574865 with HCC development (experiment, OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.62-1.19; meta-analysis, OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.74-1.03), which may be due to the small sample size. HLA-DP/DQ polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920) did not associate with HCC development, but did correlate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance. STAT4 rs7574865 seemed not to correlate with HBV susceptibility or natural clearance. And it seemed rather ambiguous in its role on HCC development at present.

  4. Modeling of Ground Deformation and Shallow Surface Waves Generated by Martian Dust Devils and Perspectives for Near-Surface Structure Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenda, Balthasar; Lognonné, Philippe; Spiga, Aymeric; Kawamura, Taichi; Kedar, Sharon; Banerdt, William Bruce; Lorenz, Ralph; Banfield, Don; Golombek, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    We investigated the possible seismic signatures of dust devils on Mars, both at long and short period, based on the analysis of Earth data and on forward modeling for Mars. Seismic and meteorological data collected in the Mojave Desert, California, recorded the signals generated by dust devils. In the 10-100 s band, the quasi-static surface deformation triggered by pressure fluctuations resulted in detectable ground-tilt effects: these are in good agreement with our modeling based on Sorrells' theory. In addition, high-frequency records also exhibit a significant excitation in correspondence to dust devil episodes. Besides wind noise, this signal includes shallow surface waves due to the atmosphere-surface coupling and is used for a preliminary inversion of the near-surface S-wave profile down to 50 m depth. In the case of Mars, we modeled the long-period signals generated by the pressure field resulting from turbulence-resolving Large-Eddy Simulations. For typical dust-devil-like vortices with pressure drops of a couple Pascals, the corresponding horizontal acceleration is of a few nm/s2 for rocky subsurface models and reaches 10-20 nm/s2 for weak regolith models. In both cases, this signal can be detected by the Very-Broad Band seismometers of the InSight/SEIS experiment up to a distance of a few hundred meters from the vortex, the amplitude of the signal decreasing as the inverse of the distance. Atmospheric vortices are thus expected to be detected at the InSight landing site; the analysis of their seismic and atmospheric signals could lead to additional constraints on the near-surface structure, more precisely on the ground compliance and possibly on the seismic velocities.

  5. Combining Hydrological Modeling and Remote Sensing Observations to Enable Data-Driven Decision Making for Devils Lake Flood Mitigation in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Kirilenko, Andrei; Lim, Howe; Teng, Williams

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews work to combine the hydrological models and remote sensing observations to monitor Devils Lake in North Dakota, to assist in flood damage mitigation. This reports on the use of a distributed rainfall-runoff model, HEC-HMS, to simulate the hydro-dynamics of the lake watershed, and used NASA's remote sensing data, including the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) and AIRS surface air temperature, to drive the model.

  6. A new species of Cotesia Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae reared from the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, and luna moth, Actias luna, in east Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Whitfield

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The braconid wasp parasitoid Cotesia nuellorum Whitfield, new species, is described from specimens reared from a caterpillar of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis (F., and from a caterpillar of the luna moth, Actias luna (L., in eastern Texas. The species is diagnosed with respect to other species of Cotesia recorded from North American Saturniidae, and details of its biology are provided.

  7. A new species of Cotesia Cameron (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) reared from the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis, and luna moth, Actias luna, in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, James B.; Jr., Robert J. Nuelle; III, Robert J. Nuelle

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The braconid wasp parasitoid Cotesia nuellorum Whitfield, new species, is described from specimens reared from a caterpillar of the hickory horned devil, Citheronia regalis (F.), and from a caterpillar of the luna moth, Actias luna (L.), in eastern Texas. The species is diagnosed with respect to other species of Cotesia recorded from North American Saturniidae, and details of its biology are provided. PMID:29674887

  8. Floodplain and Wetland Assessment for the Mortandad Wetland Enhancement and the DP Dissipater Projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathcock, Charles Dean [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-03-31

    This floodplain and wetland assessment was prepared in accordance with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1022 Compliance with Floodplain and Wetland Environmental Review Requirements, which was promulgated to implement the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements under Executive Order 11988 Floodplain Management and Executive Order 11990 Wetlands Protection. According to 10 CFR 1022, a 100-year floodplain is defined as “the lowlands adjoining inland and coastal waters and relatively flat areas and flood prone areas of offshore islands” and a wetland is defined as “an area that is inundated or saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances does support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions, including swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas.” In this action, DOE is proposing two projects to improve wetland and floodplain function at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The proposed work will comply with corrective action requirements under the Settlement Agreement and Stipulated Final Compliance Order (Settlement Agreement)1 Number HWB-14-20. The first project is located in Technical Areas (TA)-03 in upper Mortandad Canyon. The upper Mortandad wetlands have existing stormwater controls that need to be rehabilitated. Head-cut formation is occurring at the downstream portion of the wetland. This project will repair damages to the wetland and reduce the future erosion potential. The second project is located in TA-21 in Delta Prime (DP) Canyon. The intent of the DP Dissipater Project in DP Canyon is to install stormwater control structures in DP Canyon to retain low channel flows and reduce downstream sediment transport as well as peak flows during low and moderate storm events. Due to increased erosion, the stream bank in this area has unstable vertical walls within the stream channel. The DOE prepared this floodplain and wetland

  9. Association of HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms with HBV infection outcomes and a mini meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though HLA-DP/DQ is regarded to associate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance, its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development is obscure. And the role of STAT4 in HBV susceptibility and clearance as well as HCC development is still contentious. Therefore, we conducted this study, aiming to clarify these obscure relationships. METHODS: We recruited 1312 Chinese Han subjects including healthy controls, HBV carriers and HCC patients in the experiment stage. The meta-analysis included 3467 HCC patients and 5821 HBV carriers to appraise the association with HCC development. RESULTS: Consistent with previous studies, HLA-DP/DQ associated with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance (p<0.05. However, the experiment showed that HLA-DP rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7453920 did not associate with HCC development (dominant model, rs3077, OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.62-1.18; rs9277535, OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.68-1.30; rs7453920, OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.44-1.27. Meta-analysis again consolidated this conclusion (allele model, rs3077, OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.87-1.02; rs9277535, OR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.97-1.11; rs7453920, OR = 0.89, 95%CI = 0.76-1.02. As for STAT4 rs7574865, we did not find any significant association with HBV susceptibility (OR = 0.91, 95%CI = 0.66-1.26 or HBV natural clearance (OR = 1.13, 95%CI = 0.86-1.49. Moreover, current data failed to acquire positive connection of rs7574865 with HCC development (experiment, OR = 0.86, 95%CI = 0.62-1.19; meta-analysis, OR = 0.87, 95%CI = 0.74-1.03, which may be due to the small sample size. CONCLUSIONS: HLA-DP/DQ polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 did not associate with HCC development, but did correlate with HBV susceptibility and HBV natural clearance. STAT4 rs7574865 seemed not to correlate with HBV susceptibility or natural clearance. And it seemed rather ambiguous in its role on HCC development at

  10. Characterization of the antimicrobial peptide family defensins in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth A; Cheng, Yuanyuan; O'Meally, Denis; Belov, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Defensins comprise a family of cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides with important roles in innate and adaptive immune defense in vertebrates. We characterized alpha and beta defensin genes in three Australian marsupials: the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), koala (Phascolarctos cinereus), and tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and identified 48, 34, and 39 defensins, respectively. One hundred and twelve have the classical antimicrobial peptides characteristics required for pathogen membrane targeting, including cationic charge (between 1+ and 15+) and a high proportion of hydrophobic residues (>30%). Phylogenetic analysis shows that gene duplication has driven unique and species-specific expansions of devil, koala, and tammar wallaby beta defensins and devil alpha defensins. Defensin genes are arranged in three genomic clusters in marsupials, whereas further duplications and translocations have occurred in eutherians resulting in four and five gene clusters in mice and humans, respectively. Marsupial defensins are generally under purifying selection, particularly residues essential for defensin structural stability. Certain hydrophobic or positively charged sites, predominantly found in the defensin loop, are positively selected, which may have functional significance in defensin-target interaction and membrane insertion.

  11. Wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a prostaglandin DP1 receptor antagonist, in hypocretin/orexin deficient narcoleptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Yohei; Sato, Masatoshi; Sakai, Noriaki; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Chiba, Shintaro; Maruyama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junki; Nishino, Seiji

    2016-11-01

    Prostaglandin (PG)D2 is an endogenous sleep substance, and a series of animal studies reported that PGD2 or PGD2 receptor (DP1) agonists promote sleep, while DP1 antagonists promote wakefulness. This suggests the possibility of use of PG DP1 antagonists as wake-promoting compounds. We therefore evaluated the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na, a DP1 antagonist, in a mouse model of narcolepsy (i.e., orexin/ataxin-3 transgenic mice) and compared those to effects of modafinil. ONO-4127Na perfused in the basal forebrain (BF) area potently promoted wakefulness in both wild type and narcoleptic mice, and the wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na at 2.93 × 10(-4) M roughly corresponded to those of modafinil at 100 mg/kg (p.o.). The wake promoting effects of ONO-4127Na was observed both during light and dark periods, and much larger effects were seen during the light period when mice slept most of the time. ONO-4127Na, when perfused in the hypothalamic area, had no effects on sleep. We further demonstrated that wake-promoting effects of ONO-4127Na were abolished in DP1 KO mice, confirming that the wake-promoting effect of ONO-4127Na is mediated by blockade of the PG DP1 receptors located in the BF area. ONO-4127Na reduced DREM, an EEG/EMG assessment of behavioral cataplexy in narcoleptic mice, suggesting that ONO-4127Na is likely to have anticataplectic effects. DP1 antagonists may be a new class of compounds for the treatment of narcolepsy-cataplexy, and further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment, Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or perceived environmental contamination., Published in 2001, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Environmental Impact Assessment dataset current as of 2001. Brownfield Areas. Brownfields are defined by the Florida DEP as abandoned, idled, or underused industrial...

  14. Micro–macro-characterisation and modelling of mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded (GMAW) DP600 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazani, A., E-mail: ali.ramazani@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Mukherjee, K. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Abdurakhmanov, A. [Welding and Joining Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Prahl, U. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Schleser, M.; Reisgen, U. [Welding and Joining Institute, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-01-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels show combined high strength and adequate formability. However, during welding, their microstructural feature of dispersion of hard martensite islands in the soft ferrite matrix is lost and the properties deteriorate. The current research aims to study the mechanical properties of the welded joint, taking into account the effect of features of all regions, such as microstructure, chemical composition and the area fraction, on the macroscopic mechanical properties of the welded joint. Hot rolled DP 600 steel was gas metal arc welded (GMAW) and tensile specimens were made with a welded joint. In the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the microstructure varied from bainite to coarse grained ferrite and tempered martensite. Chemical composition of every quantified region in the welded specimen was also identified using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Macromechanical FE modelling was employed to simulate the mechanical properties of the welded tensile specimen. 2D representative volume elements (RVE) for different parts of the welded region were constructed from real microstructure. 2D simulated flow curves were corrected to 3Ds using a developed correlation factor. Finally, the tensile test of welded material with inhomogeneous morphology was simulated and good agreement between experimental and predicted flow curve was achieved.

  15. Alterations of in vivo CA1 network activity in Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome model mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveau, Matthieu; Polygalov, Denis; Boehringer, Roman; Amano, Kenji; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro; McHugh, Thomas J

    2018-02-27

    Down syndrome, the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability, results from an extra-copy of chromosome 21. Mice engineered to model this aneuploidy exhibit Down syndrome-like memory deficits in spatial and contextual tasks. While abnormal neuronal function has been identified in these models, most studies have relied on in vitro measures. Here, using in vivo recording in the Dp(16)1Yey model, we find alterations in the organization of spiking of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, including deficits in the generation of complex spikes. These changes lead to poorer spatial coding during exploration and less coordinated activity during sharp-wave ripples, events involved in memory consolidation. Further, the density of CA1 inhibitory neurons expressing neuropeptide Y, a population key for the generation of pyramidal cell bursts, were significantly increased in Dp(16)1Yey mice. Our data refine the 'over-suppression' theory of Down syndrome pathophysiology and suggest specific neuronal subtypes involved in hippocampal dysfunction in these model mice. © 2018, Raveau et al.

  16. Use of computer tomography and 3DP Rapid Prototyping technique in cranioplasty planning - analysis of accuracy of bone defect modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowska, O.; Gardzinska, A.; Miechowicz, S.; Chrzan, R.; Urbanik, A.; Miechowicz, S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The accuracy considerations of alignment of skull bone loss and artificial model of implant are presented. In standard surgical treatment the application of prefabricated alloplastic implants requires complicated procedures during surgery, especially additional geometry processing to provide better adjustment of implant. Rapid Prototyping can be used as an effective tool to generate complex 3D medical models and to improve and simplify surgical treatment planning. The operation time can also be significantly reduced. The aim of the study is adjustment accuracy analysis by measurements of fissure between the bone loss and implant. Material/Methods: The 3D numerical model was obtained from CT imaging with Siemens Sensation 10 CT scanner. The physical models were fabricated with 3DP Rapid Prototyping technology. The measurements were performed in determined points of the bone loss and implant borders. Results: Maximal width of fissure between bone loss and implant was 1.8 mm and minimal 0 mm. Average width was 0.714 mm, standard deviation 0.663 mm. Conclusions: Accuracy of 3DP technique is enough to create medical models in selected field of medicine. Models created using RP methods may be then used to produce implants of biocompatible material, for example by vacuum casting. Using of method suggested may allow shortening of presurgery and surgery time. (authors)

  17. Optimization of welding current waveform for dissimilar material with DP590 and Al5052 by Delta-spot welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Young Gon [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The automotive industry has a target goal to improve fuel consumption due to restricted exhaust gas regulation. For this reason, the applicability of lightweight material, Al alloys, Mg alloys is also being expanded. In this concept, high strength steel, DP590 and light alloy, AL5052 are joined in the right place of the car body. However, it is difficult to join to steel and aluminum by conventional fusion welding. Generally, in respect to dissimilar metal joining by fusion welding, intermetallic compound layer is formed at the joint interface, hot cracking is generated. In this study, the effect of the current waveform on the mechanical characteristics and microstructure in Delta spot welding process of dissimilar metal was investigated. As results, Intermetallic compound (IMC) layer was reduced from 2.355 μm to 1.09 μm by using Delta spot welding process; also the welding current range improved by 50% in the delta spot welding, higher than in the inverter resistance welding. To conclude, the delta spot welding process adopting the process tapes contributes to improving the welding quality for dissimilar metals (Al5052 and DP590) due to a decrease in IMC layer.

  18. Micro–macro-characterisation and modelling of mechanical properties of gas metal arc welded (GMAW) DP600 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramazani, A.; Mukherjee, K.; Abdurakhmanov, A.; Prahl, U.; Schleser, M.; Reisgen, U.; Bleck, W.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-phase (DP) steels show combined high strength and adequate formability. However, during welding, their microstructural feature of dispersion of hard martensite islands in the soft ferrite matrix is lost and the properties deteriorate. The current research aims to study the mechanical properties of the welded joint, taking into account the effect of features of all regions, such as microstructure, chemical composition and the area fraction, on the macroscopic mechanical properties of the welded joint. Hot rolled DP 600 steel was gas metal arc welded (GMAW) and tensile specimens were made with a welded joint. In the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the microstructure varied from bainite to coarse grained ferrite and tempered martensite. Chemical composition of every quantified region in the welded specimen was also identified using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Macromechanical FE modelling was employed to simulate the mechanical properties of the welded tensile specimen. 2D representative volume elements (RVE) for different parts of the welded region were constructed from real microstructure. 2D simulated flow curves were corrected to 3Ds using a developed correlation factor. Finally, the tensile test of welded material with inhomogeneous morphology was simulated and good agreement between experimental and predicted flow curve was achieved

  19. An experimental study on fracture toughness of resistance spot welded galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets used in automotive body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine fracture toughness of Resistance Spot Welded (RSW Dual Phase (DP steels. RSW of galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets was carried out on spot welding machine. Fracture toughness of RSW joints of galvanized and ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets was calculated from tensile-shear tests. New empirical equations were developed using Least Squares Method (LSM between energy release rate, fracture toughness and critical crack size depending on the relationship between hardness and fracture toughness values. Results indicated that fracture toughness of joints welded by using RSW increased exponentially while the hardness decreased. In addition, fracture toughness and energy release rate of RSW galvanized DP 450 steel sheets were lower compared to RSW ungalvanized DP 450 steel sheets which had approximately the same hardness.El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la tenacidad de fractura de los aceros dual (DP soldados por puntos de resistencia (RSW. En la máquina de soldadura por puntos se realizó la soldadura de láminas de acero DP 450 galvanizado y sin galvanizar. A partir de los ensayos de tracción-cizallamiento, se calculó la tenacidad a la fractura de las uniones del acero DP 450 galvanizado y sin galvanizar. Aplicando el método de mínimos cuadrados (LSM se desarrollaron nuevas ecuaciones empíricas entre el porcentaje de energía liberada, la tenacidad de fractura y el tamaño de grieta crítica en función de la relación entre los valores de tenacidad de fractura y de dureza. Los resultados indicaron que la tenacidad de fractura de las uniones soldadas por RSW aumentó exponencialmente, mientras que la dureza disminuyó. Además, el porcentaje de energía liberada de las láminas de acero DP 450 galvanizadas y soldadas fueron menores que en el caso de las láminas sin galvanizar a valores iguales de dureza.

  20. Overlapping trisomies for human chromosome 21 orthologs produce similar effects on skull and brain morphology of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, John M; Dutka, Tara; Ratliff, Tabetha S; Reeves, Roger H; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2014-08-01

    Trisomy 21 results in gene-dosage imbalance during embryogenesis and throughout life, ultimately causing multiple anomalies that contribute to the clinical manifestations of Down syndrome. Down syndrome is associated with manifestations of variable severity (e.g., heart anomalies, reduced growth, dental anomalies, shortened life-span). Craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive dysfunction are consistently observed in all people with Down syndrome. Mouse models are useful for studying the effects of gene-dosage imbalance on development. We investigated quantitative changes in the skull and brain of the Dp(16)1Yey Down syndrome mouse model and compared these mice to Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models. Three-dimensional micro-computed tomography images of Dp(16)1Yey and euploid mouse crania were morphometrically evaluated. Cerebellar cross-sectional area, Purkinje cell linear density, and granule cell density were evaluated relative to euploid littermates. Skulls of Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice displayed similar changes in craniofacial morphology relative to their respective euploid littermates. Trisomy-based differences in brain morphology were also similar in Dp(16)1Yey and Ts65Dn mice. These results validate examination of the genetic basis for craniofacial and brain phenotypes in Dp(16)1Yey mice and suggest that they, like Ts65Dn mice, are valuable tools for modeling the effects of trisomy 21 on development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Iron Chelator, Dp44mT, Effectively Inhibits Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Growth in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehn-Chuan Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is a common malignancy with a growing worldwide incidence and prevalence. The N-myc downstream regulated gene (NDRG family of NDRG1, 2, 3, and mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin gene are well-known modulators in the neoplasia process. Current research has considered iron chelators as new anti-cancer agents; however, the anticancer activities of iron chelators and their target genes in OSCC have not been well investigated. We showed that iron chelators (Dp44mT, desferrioxamine (DFO, and deferasirox all significantly inhibit SAS cell growth. Flow cytometry further indicated that Dp44mT inhibition of SAS cells growth was partly due to induction of G1 cell cycle arrest. Iron chelators enhanced expressions of NDRG1 and NDRG3 while repressing cyclin D1 expression in OSCC cells. The in vivo antitumor effect on OSCC and safety of Dp44mT were further confirmed through a xenograft animal model. The Dp44mT treatment also increased Maspin protein levels in SAS and OECM-1 cells. NDRG3 knockdown enhanced the growth of OECM-1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that NDRG3 is a tumor suppressor gene in OSCC cells, and Dp44mT could be a promising therapeutic agent for OSCC treatment.

  2. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhui; Li, Honghong; Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading up to 99% diuron within 3 days under the optimal degrading condition. The study of degradation spectrum indicated that strain DP8-1 could also degrade and utilize fenuron, monuron, metobromuron, isoproturon, chlorbromuron, linuron, and chlortoluron as substrate for strain growth. On basis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the products of the degradation of diuron, strain DP8-1 metabolized diuron to produce N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methylurea through sequential N-dealkylations. In a soil bioaugmentation experiment, the inoculation of strain DP8-1 into diuron-treated soil effectively enhanced the disappearance rate of diuron.

  3. Biodegradation of diuron by an endophytic fungus Neurospora intermedia DP8-1 isolated from sugarcane and its potential for remediating diuron-contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guojun; Du, Liangwei; Zeng, Dongqiang

    2017-01-01

    A diuron-degrading endophyte DP8-1 was isolated from sugarcane root grown in diuron-treated soil in the present study. The endophyte was identified as Neurospora intermedia based on the morphological characteristics and sequence analysis. The fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, inoculation size, carbon source, and initial diuron concentration were also investigated for the optimization of degradation efficiency. The results indicated that strain DP8-1 was capable of degrading up to 99% diuron within 3 days under the optimal degrading condition. The study of degradation spectrum indicated that strain DP8-1 could also degrade and utilize fenuron, monuron, metobromuron, isoproturon, chlorbromuron, linuron, and chlortoluron as substrate for strain growth. On basis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis for the products of the degradation of diuron, strain DP8-1 metabolized diuron to produce N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-urea and N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-methylurea through sequential N-dealkylations. In a soil bioaugmentation experiment, the inoculation of strain DP8-1 into diuron-treated soil effectively enhanced the disappearance rate of diuron. PMID:28809955

  4. Influence of stress triaxiality and strain rate on the failure behavior of a dual-phase DP780 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.; Winkler, S.; Bardelcik, A.; Worswick, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • DP780 steel sheet sensitive to strain rate and triaxiality. • Specimens failed due to ductile-shear mode. • Extent of transverse cracking due to martensitic islands increased with triaxiality. • Uniaxial stress decreased with strain rate then increased after 0.1 s −1 . • Predicted effective plastic strain, triaxiality at failure increased with strain rate. - Abstract: To better understand the in-service mechanical behavior of advanced high-strength steels, the influence of stress triaxiality and strain rate on the failure behavior of a dual-phase (DP) 780 steel sheet was investigated. Three flat, notched mini-tensile geometries with varying notch severities and initial stress triaxialities of 0.36, 0.45, and 0.74 were considered in the experiments. Miniature specimens were adopted to facilitate high strain rate testing in addition to quasi-static experiments. Tensile tests were conducted at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s −1 for all three notched geometries and compared to mini-tensile uniaxial samples. Additional tests at a strain rate of 1500 s −1 were performed using a tensile split Hopkinson bar apparatus. The results showed that the stress–strain response of the DP780 steel exhibited mainly positive strain rate sensitivity for all geometries, with mild negative strain rate sensitivity up to 0.1 s −1 for the uniaxial specimens. The strain at failure was observed to decrease with strain rate at low strain rates of 0.001–0.1 s −1 ; however, it increased by 26% for an increase in strain rate from 0.1 to 1500 s −1 for the uniaxial condition. Initial triaxiality was found to have a significant negative impact on true failure strain with a decrease of 32% at the highest triaxiality compared to the uniaxial condition at a strain rate of 0.001 s −1 . High resolution scanning electron microscopy images of the failure surfaces revealed a dimpled surface while optical micrographs revealed shearing through the

  5. KIR And HLA Haplotype Analysis in a Family Lacking The KIR 2DL1-2DP1 Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojvodić Svetlana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR gene cluster exhibits extensive allelic and haplotypic diversity that is observed as presence/absence of genes, resulting in expansion and contraction of KIR haplotypes and by allelic variation of individual KIR genes. We report a case of KIR pseudogene 2DP1 and 2DL1 gene absence in members of one family with the children suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML. Killer cell immunoglo-bulin-like receptor low resolution genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR-sequencespecific primers (SSP/sequence-specific oligonucleotide (SSO method and haplotype assignment was done by gene content analysis. Both parents and the maternal grandfather, shared the same Cen-B2 KIR haplotype, containing KIR 3DL3, -2DS2, -2DL2 and -3DP1 genes. The second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the mother and grandfather was Tel-A1 with KIR 2DL4 (normal and deleted variant, -3DL1, -22 bp deletion variant of the 2DS4 gene and -3DL2, while the second haplotype in the KIR genotype of the father was Tel-B1 with 2DL4 (normal variant, -3DS1, -2DL5, -2DS5, -2DS1 and 3DL2 genes. Haplotype analysis in all three offsprings revealed that the children inherited the Cen-B2 haplotype with the same gene content but two of the children inherited a deleted variant of the 2DL4 gene, while the third child inherited a normal one. The second haplotype of all three offspring contained KIR 2DL4, -2DL5, -2DS1, -2DS4 (del 22bp variant, -2DS5, -3DL1 and -3DL2 genes, which was the basis of the assumption that there is a hybrid haplotype and that the present 3DL1 gene is a variant of the 3DS1 gene. Due to consanguinity among the ancestors, the results of KIR segregation analysis showed the existence of a very rare KIR genotype in the offspring. The family who is the subject of this case is even more interesting because the father was 10/10 human leukocyte antigen (HLA-matched to his daughter, all members of the family have

  6. On the use of differential solubility in aqueous ethanol solutions to narrow the DP range of food-grade starch hydrolysis products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balto, Amy S; Lapis, Trina J; Silver, Rachel K; Ferreira, Andrew J; Beaudry, Christopher M; Lim, Juyun; Penner, Michael H

    2016-04-15

    Considerable research is focused on understanding the functionality of starch hydrolysis products (SHP) consisting of glucose, maltose, maltooligosaccharides (MOS), and maltopolysaccharides (MPS). A confounding factor in this research is the high molecular dispersity of commercially available SHP. The study presented herein characterizes a flexible fractionation approach for lowering the dispersity of such products. This was accomplished by fractionating a corn syrup solids (CSS) preparation based on the differential solubility of its component saccharides in aqueous-ethanol solutions. Products obtained from selected fractionations were characterized with respect to degree of polymerization (DP; liquid chromatography), dextrose equivalency (reducing sugar assays), and prevalence of branching (NMR). Glucose and maltose were preferentially removed from CSS using high (⩾90%) ethanol extractants. Preparations with relatively narrow ranges of MOS, lower DP MPS, and higher DP MPS were obtained through repetitive 70%-ethanol extractions. Linear, as opposed to branched, MOS and MPS were preferentially extracted under all conditions tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. dp53 Restrains ectopic neural stem cell formation in the Drosophila brain in a non-apoptotic mechanism involving Archipelago and cyclin E.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingshi Ouyang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that tumor-initiating stem cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs possibly originating from normal stem cells may be the root cause of certain malignancies. How stem cell homeostasis is impaired in tumor tissues is not well understood, although certain tumor suppressors have been implicated. In this study, we use the Drosophila neural stem cells (NSCs called neuroblasts as a model to study this process. Loss-of-function of Numb, a key cell fate determinant with well-conserved mammalian counterparts, leads to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts and a tumor phenotype in the larval brain. Overexpression of the Drosophila tumor suppressor p53 (dp53 was able to suppress ectopic neuroblast formation caused by numb loss-of-function. This occurred in a non-apoptotic manner and was independent of Dacapo, the fly counterpart of the well-characterized mammalian p53 target p21 involved in cellular senescence. The observation that dp53 affected Edu incorporation into neuroblasts led us to test the hypothesis that dp53 acts through regulation of factors involved in cell cycle progression. Our results show that the inhibitory effect of dp53 on ectopic neuroblast formation was mediated largely through its regulation of Cyclin E (Cyc E. Overexpression of Cyc E was able to abrogate dp53's ability to rescue numb loss-of-function phenotypes. Increasing Cyc E levels by attenuating Archipelago (Ago, a recently identified transcriptional target of dp53 and a negative regulator of Cyc E, had similar effects. Conversely, reducing Cyc E activity by overexpressing Ago blocked ectopic neuroblast formation in numb mutant. Our results reveal an intimate connection between cell cycle progression and NSC self-renewal vs. differentiation control, and indicate that p53-mediated regulation of ectopic NSC self-renewal through the Ago/Cyc E axis becomes particularly important when NSC homeostasis is perturbed as in numb loss-of-function condition. This has

  8. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, G.; Pawlak, K.; Pomozi, I.; Tóth, E. A.; Molnár, A.; Matkó, J.; Garab, G.

    2014-03-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316-25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM.

  9. Mapping microscopic order in plant and mammalian cells and tissues: novel differential polarization attachment for new generation confocal microscopes (DP-LSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, G; Pawlak, K; Garab, G; Pomozi, I; Tóth, E A; Molnár, A; Matkó, J

    2014-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular architecture of complex, highly organized molecular macro-assemblies is an important, basic task for biology. Differential polarization (DP) measurements, such as linear (LD) and circular dichroism (CD) or the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), which can be carried out in a dichrograph or spectrofluorimeter, respectively, carry unique, spatially averaged information about the molecular organization of the sample. For inhomogeneous samples—e.g. cells and tissues—measurements on macroscopic scale are not satisfactory, and in some cases not feasible, thus microscopic techniques must be applied. The microscopic DP-imaging technique, when based on confocal laser scanning microscope (LSM), allows the pixel by pixel mapping of anisotropy of a sample in 2D and 3D. The first DP-LSM configuration, which, in fluorescence mode, allowed confocal imaging of different DP quantities in real-time, without interfering with the ‘conventional’ imaging, was built on a Zeiss LSM410. It was demonstrated to be capable of determining non-confocally the linear birefringence (LB) or LD of a sample and, confocally, its FDLD (fluorescence detected LD), the degree of polarization (P) and the anisotropy of the fluorescence emission (r), following polarized and non-polarized excitation, respectively (Steinbach et al 2009 Acta Histochem.111 316–25). This DP-LSM configuration, however, cannot simply be adopted to new generation microscopes with considerably more compact structures. As shown here, for an Olympus FV500, we designed an easy-to-install DP attachment to determine LB, LD, FDLD and r, in new-generation confocal microscopes, which, in principle, can be complemented with a P-imaging unit, but specifically to the brand and type of LSM. (paper)

  10. Proposal on the measurements of d-p elastic scattering analyzing powers at 0.3-2.0 GeV at internal target station of the Nuclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, T.; Ladygin, V.P.; Azhgirej, L.S.

    2005-01-01

    A new high-energy beam polarimeter is proposed for the Nuclotron using Internal Target Station. This polarimeter based on the measurement of the asymmetry for the d-p elastic scattering will allow one to measure both vector and tensor components of the deuteron beam polarization simultaneously. For that purpose the measurement of analyzing powers for the d-p elastic scattering at energies T d = 0.88-2 GeV is proposed. The precise measurements of the deuteron analyzing powers over energy range T d 300-2000 MeV can give an irreplaceable clue on the study of spin-dependence of three-nucleon forces

  11. Thermal effects on the enhanced ductility in non-monotonic uniaxial tension of DP780 steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Omid; Barlat, Frederic; Korkolis, Yannis P.; Fu, Jiawei; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2016-11-01

    To understand the material behavior during non-monotonic loading, uniaxial tension tests were conducted in three modes, namely, the monotonic loading, loading with periodic relaxation and periodic loading-unloadingreloading, at different strain rates (0.001/s to 0.01/s). In this study, the temperature gradient developing during each test and its contribution to increasing the apparent ductility of DP780 steel sheets were considered. In order to assess the influence of temperature, isothermal uniaxial tension tests were also performed at three temperatures (298 K, 313 K and 328 K (25 °C, 40 °C and 55 °C)). A digital image correlation system coupled with an infrared thermography was used in the experiments. The results show that the non-monotonic loading modes increased the apparent ductility of the specimens. It was observed that compared with the monotonic loading, the temperature gradient became more uniform when a non-monotonic loading was applied.

  12. Studies of Neutron-Rich Nuclei with (d,p) Reactions in Inverse Kinematics at the HRIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzywacz-Jones, Kate L.; Baktash, Cyrus; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Catford, Wilton N.; Cizewski, Jolie; Fitzgerald, Ryan; Greife, Uwe; Gross, Carl J.; Johnson, Micah; Kozub, Raymond L.; Liang, J. Felix; Livesay, Jake; Ma, Zhanwen; Moazen, Brian H.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Michael Scott; Thomas, Jeffrey S.; Visser, Dale William

    2005-01-01

    Two N=51 isotones have been measured using (d,p) reactions in inverse kinematics at the Holifield Radioactive Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Additionally, we have performed a test measurement using a stable 124Sn beam in preparation for measurements of the 2H(130,132Sn,p)131,133Sn reactions. Preliminary results for 83Ge and 85Se suggest a 5/2+ ground state and a 1/2+ first excited state for both isotopes, in agreement with systematics for the N=51 isotones. The excitation energy of the first excited state is shown to drop as the proton number is reduced. Proton angular distributions following the 2H(124Sn,p)125Sn reaction show sensitivity to the l-value of the transfered nucleon and spectroscopic factors are in agreement with previous measurements in normal kinematics.

  13. A DP based scheme for real-time reconfiguration of solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing inhomogeneous illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liping; Brehm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The overall energy conversion efficiency of solar cell arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system...... efficiency is drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconfiguration of the solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efficiency due to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations. The optimal array configuration...... with respect to shading patterns can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm which finds the optimal feasible solution to reconfigure the solar panel array for maximum efficiency in real-time with linear time complexity. It is shown...

  14. Typing for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, N; Jakobsen, B K; Platz, P

    1980-01-01

    A total of 74 healthy unrelated random individuals and 36 patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) were typed for HLA-D antigens with the homozygous typing cell technique and typed for HLA-D/DR associated DP-antigens with the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique. All patients and some...... of the controls were also HLA-DR typed with a limited battery of anti-DR sera. Selected PLT-cells, specific for the HLA-D/DR antigens D/DRw1-8 and the local specificity D"H" were used. The results of the PLT-experiments were evaluated with the Normalized Median Response (NMR) method and the further procedure...

  15. Signal Processing for Wireless Communication MIMO System with Nano- Scaled CSDG MOSFET based DP4T RF Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Viranjay M

    2015-01-01

    In the present technological expansion, the radio frequency integrated circuits in the wireless communication technologies became useful because of the replacement of increasing number of functions, traditional hardware components by modern digital signal processing. The carrier frequencies used for communication systems, now a day, shifted toward the microwave regime. The signal processing for the multiple inputs multiple output wireless communication system using the Metal- Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) has been done a lot. In this research the signal processing with help of nano-scaled Cylindrical Surrounding Double Gate (CSDG) MOSFET by means of Double- Pole Four-Throw Radio-Frequency (DP4T RF) switch, in terms of Insertion loss, Isolation, Reverse isolation and Inter modulation have been analyzed. In addition to this a channel model has been presented. Here, we also discussed some patents relevant to the topic.

  16. HLA class II (DR, DQ, DP) in patients with sarcoidosis: evidence of an increased frequency of DRw6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Milman, N; Jakobsen, B K

    1991-01-01

    using primed lymphocyte typing. The frequencies of DRw6 were 41.5% in SA patients and 17.9% in controls (relative risk, RR = 3.2, p = 0.00087, p less than 0.05 when corrected). DR3 was decreased to 14.6% in SA patients compared to 25.9% in controls (RR = 0.49, p = 0.07, i.e., not statistically...... significant). The decreased frequency of DR3 was only seen in patients with severe, long-standing disease. In contrast, the DRw6 increase was most pronounced in patients with severe disease (RR = 6.4; p = 0.003). There were no statistically significant deviations in the frequencies of DQ and DP alleles...

  17. Effects of various intake valve timings and spark timings on combustion, cyclic THC and NOX emissions during cold start phase with idle operation in CVVT engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwan Hee; Lee, Hyung Min; Hwang, In Goo; Myung, Cha Lee; Park, Sim Soo

    2008-01-01

    In a gasoline SI engine, valve events and spark timings put forth a major influence on overall efficiency, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions. Residual gases controlled by the valve overlap can be used to reduce NOx emissions and the spark retardation technique can be used to improve raw THC emissions and catalyst light-off performance during the cold start phase. This paper investigated the behaviors of the engine and its combustion characteristics with various intake valve timings and spark timings during the fast idle condition and cold start. And cyclic THC and NOx emissions were measured at the exhaust port and their formation mechanisms were examined with fast response gas analyzers. As a result, THCs and NOx were reduced by 35% and 23% with optimizing valve overlap and spark advance during the cold transient start phase. Consequently, the valve events and ignition timings were found to significantly affect combustion phenomena and cold-start emissions

  18. Regenerative electronic load for electric power sources tests using capacitive idling converter; Carga eletronica regenerativa para testes de fontes de energia eletrica utilizando conversor com capacitor flutuante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendrusculo, Edson Adriano

    1996-07-01

    The conventional method for testing power supplies, batteries, uninterruptible power supply and other sources of electric power uses resistors as load. This results in wasted heat and increases the equipment production cost. This work presents a Regenerative electronic Load to substitute those resistors. The basic topology is a capacitive idling Cuk converter. This converter allows to control independently the input current and permits to provide a sinusoidal output current. An appropriate gate command allows to have some soft-commutation without the use of any auxiliary circuit. The same converter, with input and output changed, can operate as a Power Supply with Input Power Factor Correction. The characteristics of soft-commutation and high efficiency are maintained. A simple high-efficiency transformer allows output isolation. All theoretical results are experimentally verified. (author)

  19. The Devils Mountain Fault zone: An active Cascadia upper plate zone of deformation, Pacific Northwest of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, J. Vaughn; Greene, H. Gary

    2018-02-01

    The Devils Mountain Fault Zone (DMFZ) extends east to west from Washington State to just south of Victoria, British Columbia, in the northern Strait of Juan de Fuca of Canada and the USA. Recently collected geophysical data were used to map this fault zone in detail, which show the main fault trace, and associated primary and secondary (conjugate) strands, and extensive northeast-southwest oriented folding that occurs within a 6 km wide deformation zone. The fault zone has been active in the Holocene as seen in the offset and disrupted upper Quaternary strata, seafloor displacement, and deformation within sediment cores taken close to the seafloor expression of the faults. Data suggest that the present DMFZ and the re-activated Leech River Fault may be part of the same fault system. Based on the length and previously estimated slip rates of the fault zone in Washington State, the DMFZ appears to have the potential of producing a strong earthquake, perhaps as large as magnitude 7.5 or greater, within 2 km of the city of Victoria.

  20. Devil's staircase and the absence of chaos in the dc- and ac-driven overdamped Frenkel-Kontorova model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolović, I.; Mali, P.; Odavić, J.; Radošević, S.; Medvedeva, S. Yu.; Botha, A. E.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Tekić, J.

    2017-08-01

    The devil's staircase structure arising from the complete mode locking of an entirely nonchaotic system, the overdamped dc+ac driven Frenkel-Kontorova model with deformable substrate potential, was observed. Even though no chaos was found, a hierarchical ordering of the Shapiro steps was made possible through the use of a previously introduced continued fraction formula. The absence of chaos, deduced here from Lyapunov exponent analyses, can be attributed to the overdamped character and the Middleton no-passing rule. A comparative analysis of a one-dimensional stack of Josephson junctions confirmed the disappearance of chaos with increasing dissipation. Other common dynamic features were also identified through this comparison. A detailed analysis of the amplitude dependence of the Shapiro steps revealed that only for the case of a purely sinusoidal substrate potential did the relative sizes of the steps follow a Farey sequence. For nonsinusoidal (deformed) potentials, the symmetry of the Stern-Brocot tree, depicting all members of particular Farey sequence, was seen to be increasingly broken, with certain steps being more prominent and their relative sizes not following the Farey rule.

  1. Complete devil's staircase and crystal-superfluid transitions in a dipolar XXZ spin chain: a trapped ion quantum simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Cucchietti, Fernando M; Lewenstein, Maciej; Mueller-Hermes, Alexander; Banuls, Mari-Carmen; Ignacio Cirac, J

    2010-01-01

    Systems with long-range interactions show a variety of intriguing properties: they typically accommodate many metastable states, they can give rise to spontaneous formation of supersolids, and they can lead to counterintuitive thermodynamic behavior. However, the increased complexity that comes with long-range interactions strongly hinders theoretical studies. This makes a quantum simulator for long-range models highly desirable. Here, we show that a chain of trapped ions can be used to quantum simulate a one-dimensional (1D) model of hard-core bosons with dipolar off-site interaction and tunneling, equivalent to a dipolar XXZ spin-1/2 chain. We explore the rich phase diagram of this model in detail, employing perturbative mean-field theory, exact diagonalization and quasi-exact numerical techniques (density-matrix renormalization group and infinite time-evolving block decimation). We find that the complete devil's staircase-an infinite sequence of crystal states existing at vanishing tunneling-spreads to a succession of lobes similar to the Mott lobes found in Bose-Hubbard models. Investigating the melting of these crystal states at increased tunneling, we do not find (contrary to similar 2D models) clear indications of supersolid behavior in the region around the melting transition. However, we find that inside the insulating lobes there are quasi-long-range (algebraic) correlations, as opposed to models with nearest-neighbor tunneling, that show exponential decay of correlations.

  2. Intrusion of devil weed Chromolaena odorata, an exotic invasive, into Kinnerasani and Eturnagaram wildlife sanctuaries, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sateesh Suthari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The spread of devil weed is alarming in areas of podu cultivation, on the bunds of agricultural lands, wastelands, along roadsides, tracks, forest gaps, protected areas and plantations in the two said wildlife sanctuaries. It is found invading new territories easily along the river banks and steadily destroying the riparian elements. The manual removal of this weed (mechanical method before flowering is the effective means to mitigate the spread of the species in comparison to the biological (Pareuchaetes pseudoinsulata, P. insulata, Actinote thalia-pyrrha and chemical (Glyphosate, Triclopyrester methods attempted. It is not trouble in its native habitat but is weedy in India for want of natural enemies to keep it under control. It is a mandate to prevent the loss of native biodiversity due to biological invasions. Conversely, there is an urgent need to devise action plans by managers of the respective wildlife sanctuaries to control and eradicate it. The local people are to be educated of its potential dangers to their farming on one hand and NTFP extraction from the local forests on the other. The Government of India has to develop a national level policy towards the control of invasive alien weeds in general and implement it at the earliest before we loose our indigenous biodiversity once for all.

  3. Identification of residues within the African swine fever virus DP71L protein required for dephosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2α and inhibiting activation of pro-apoptotic CHOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Claire; Netherton, Chris; Goatley, Lynnette [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom); Moon, Alice; Goodbourn, Steve [Institute for Infection and Immunity, St. George' s, University of London, London SW17 0RE (United Kingdom); Dixon, Linda, E-mail: linda.dixon@pirbright.ac.uk [The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NF (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate the translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) and avoid shut-off of global protein synthesis and downstream activation of the pro-apoptotic factor CHOP. Residues V16 and F18A were critical for binding of DP71L to PP1. Mutation of this PP1 binding motif or deletion of residues between 52 and 66 reduced the ability of DP71L to cause dephosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibit CHOP induction. The residues LSAVL, between 57 and 61, were also required. PP1 was co-precipitated with wild type DP71L and the mutant lacking residues 52- 66 or the LSAVL motif, but not with the PP1 binding motif mutant. The residues in the LSAVL motif play a critical role in DP71L function but do not interfere with binding to PP1. Instead we propose these residues are important for DP71L binding to eIF2α. - Highlights: •The African swine fever virus DP71L protein recruits protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to dephosphorylate translation initiation factor eIF2α (eIF2α). •The residues V{sup 16}, F{sup 18} of DP71L are required for binding to the α, β and γ isoforms of PP1 and for DP71L function. •The sequence LSAVL downstream from the PP1 binding site (residues 57–61) are also important for DP71L function. •DP71L mutants of the LSAVL sequence retain ability to co-precipitate with PP1 showing these sequences have a different role to PP1 binding.

  4. Hormonal Contraceptives Differentially Suppress TFV and TAF Inhibition of HIV Infection and TFV-DP in Blood and Genital Tract CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Patel, Mickey V; Bodwell, Jack; Kashuba, Angela D M; Wira, Charles R

    2017-12-18

    HIV prevention research is focused on combining antiretrovirals (ARV) and progestin contraceptives to prevent HIV infection and pregnancy. The possibility that progestins compromise ARV anti-HIV activity prompted us to evaluate the effects of progestins on tenofovir (TFV) and TFV-alafenamide (TAF) on HIV infection and intracellular TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentrations in blood and genital CD4+ T cells. Following incubation of blood CD4+ T cells with TFV or TAF, Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), but not Levonorgestrel, Norethisterone or progesterone, suppressed the anti-HIV effect of TFV by reducing intracellular TFV-DP, but had no effect on TAF inhibition of infection or TFV-DP. In contrast, with genital CD4+ T cells, MPA suppressed TAF inhibition of HIV infection and lowered of TFV-DP concentrations without affecting TFV protection. These findings demonstrate that MPA selectively compromises TFV and TAF protection in blood and genital CD4+ T cells and suggests that MPA may decrease ARV protection in individuals who use ARV intermittently for prevention.

  5. Grammatical and pragmatic properties of the DP in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and in children with High Functioning Autism (HFA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, A.; Schaeffer, J.C.; Köhnlein, B.; Audring, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether grammar and pragmatics are separate linguistic components or not, and whether children with SLI and children with HFA have overlapping or distinct linguistic profiles. We examine two DP-related phenomena: the mass-count distinction (grammatical) and the choice for a

  6. During Stably Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Integrated HIV-1 DNA Load in Peripheral Blood is Associated with the Frequency of CD8 Cells Expressing HLA-DR/DP/DQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ruggiero

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The observed positive association between integrated HIV-1 DNA load and frequency of CD8+DR/DP/DQ+ cells indicates that a close correlation between HIV persistence and immune activation continues during consistently suppressive therapy. The inducers of the distinct activation profile warrant further investigation.

  7. A BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS FOR FIVE RADIONUCLIDE VADOSE ZONE MODELS (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, AND CHAIN 2D) IN SOIL SCREENING LEVEL CALCULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five radionuclide vadose zone models with different degrees of complexity (CHAIN, MULTIMED_DP, FECTUZ, HYDRUS, and CHAIN 2D) were selected for use in soil screening level (SSL) calculations. A benchmarking analysis between the models was conducted for a radionuclide (99Tc) rele...

  8. DP IV/CD26, APN/CD13 and related enzymes as regulators of T cell immunity: implications for experimental encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, Dirk; Bank, Ute; Täger, Michael; Ansorge, Siegfried; Wrenger, Sabine; Thielitz, Anja; Lendeckel, Uwe; Faust, Jürgen; Neubert, Klaus; Brocke, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Peptidases like dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DP IV, CD26) and aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) play a regulatory role in T cell activation and represent potential targets for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Synthetic inhibitors of DP IV and/or APN enzymatic activity induce production of the immunosuppressive cytokine TGF-beta1 and subsequently suppress DNA synthesis and Th1 cytokine production of activated human T cells. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that IL-17-producing CD4 cells (Th17) are a major contributor to the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation. Here, we report that inhibitors of DP IV-like activity as well as of APN activity inhibit IL-17 production in activated human and mouse T cells. Combining inhibitors of DP IV and APN increases the suppressive effect on T cell specific IL-17 production in vitro compared to a single peptidase inhibitor. In the following, we summarize the evidence for the role of both ectoenzymes in T cell activation in vitro and in vivo and provide a rationale for the use of combined or dual ectopeptidase inhibitors to treat autoimmune diseases like MS.

  9. Experimental Comparison of Gains in Achievable Information Rates from Probabilistic Shaping and Digital Backpropagation for DP-256QAM/1024QAM WDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Gains in achievable information rates from probabilistic shaping and digital backpropagation are compared for WDM transmission of 5 × 10 GBd DP-256QAM/1024QAM up to 1700 km of reach. The combination of both techniques its shown to provide gains of up to ∼0.5 bits/QAM symbol...

  10. TCR Gene Transfer: MAGE-C2/HLA-A2 and MAGE-A3/HLA-DP4 Epitopes as Melanoma-Specific Immune Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trudy Straetemans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive therapy with TCR gene-engineered T cells provides an attractive and feasible treatment option for cancer patients. Further development of TCR gene therapy requires the implementation of T-cell target epitopes that prevent “on-target” reactivity towards healthy tissues and at the same time direct a clinically effective response towards tumor tissues. Candidate epitopes that meet these criteria are MAGE-C2336-344/HLA-A2 (MC2/A2 and MAGE-A3243-258/HLA-DP4 (MA3/DP4. We molecularly characterized TCRαβ genes of an MC2/A2-specific CD8 and MA3/DP4-specific CD4 T-cell clone derived from melanoma patients who responded clinically to MAGE vaccination. We identified MC2/A2 and MA3/DP4-specific TCR-Vα3/Vβ28 and TCR-Vα38/Vβ2 chains and validated these TCRs in vitro upon gene transfer into primary human T cells. The MC2 and MA3 TCR were surface-expressed and mediated CD8 T-cell functions towards melanoma cell lines and CD4 T-cell functions towards dendritic cells, respectively. We intend to start testing these MAGE-specific TCRs in phase I clinical trial.

  11. Breaching the Devil’s Garden- The 6th New Zealand Brigade in Operation Lightfoot. The Second Battle of El Alamein, 23 October 1942. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    in Rommel. A Narrative and Pictorial History, by Richard D. Law and Craig W. H. Luther, ISBN 0-912138-20-3, R. James Bender Publishing, San Jose...1Minem aauetr Gefeclit geaetzt. gez. Andrea . Hw.ipt~mann and Btl. Kdr. ob erleutnt;&rit- BREACHING THE "DEVIL’S GARDEN" Operation Liglqfoot F-49 7...51` Semi-Motorized Mixed Engineer Battalion (battaglione delgenio e di colleganmenti) (CPT Alberti , assigned 12/323 as of 22 Aug) 15"’ Semi

  12. Treatment of tooth fracture by medium-energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: the interaction of enamel and DP-bioactive glass paste during irradiation by CO2 laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C P; Tseng, Y C; Lin, F H; Liao, J D; Lan, W H

    2001-03-01

    Acute trauma or trauma associated with occlusal disturbance can produce tooth crack or fracture. Although several methods are proposed to treat the defect, however, the prognosis is generally poor. If the fusion of a tooth fracture by laser is possible, it will offer an alternative to extraction or at least serve as an adjunctive treatment in the reconstruction. We have tried to use a continuous-wave CO2 laser and a newly developed DP-bioactive glass paste (DPGP) to fuse or bridge tooth crack or fracture lines. Both the DP-bioactive glass paste and tooth enamel have strong absorption bands at the wavelength of 10.6 microm. Therefore, under CO2 laser, DPGP and enamel should have an effective absorption and melt together. The interface between DPGP and enamel could be regarded as a mixture of DPGP and enamel (DPG-E). The study focused on the phase transformation, microstructure, functional group and thermal behavior of DPG-E with or without CO2 laser irradiation, by the analytical techniques of XRD, FTIR, DTA/TGA, and SEM. The results of XRD showed that the main crystal phase in the DPG-E was dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (CaHPO4.2H2O). It changed into CaHPO4, gamma-Ca2P2O7, beta-Ca2P2O7 and finally alpha-Ca2P2O7 with increasing temperature. In the FTIR analysis, the 720 cm(-1) absorption band ascribed to the P-O-P linkage in pyrophosphate rose up and the intensities of the OH- bands reduced after laser irradiation. In regard to the results of DTA/TGA after irradiation, the weight loss decreased due to the removal of part of absorption water and crystallization water by the CO2 laser. SEM micrographs revealed that the melted masses and the plate-like crystals formed a tight chemical bond between the enamel and DPGP. We expect that DPGP with the help of CO2 laser can be an alternative to the treatment of tooth crack or fracture.

  13. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscales, Jose L., E-mail: jlroscales@iqog.csic.es [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain); González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura [Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio) and Department of Animal Biology, Universitat de Barcelona, Av Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ryan, Peter G. [Percy FitzPatrick Institute, DST-NRF Centre of Excellence, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Jiménez, Begoña [Department of Instrumental Analysis and Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Organic Chemistry, CSIC (IQOG-CSIC), Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-07-15

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ{sup 13}C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to

  14. Latitudinal exposure to DDTs, HCB, PCBs, PBDEs and DP in giant petrels (Macronectes spp.) across the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; González-Solís, Jacob; Zango, Laura; Ryan, Peter G.; Jiménez, Begoña

    2016-01-01

    Studies on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Antarctic wildlife are scarce, and usually limited to a single locality. As a result, wildlife exposure to POPs across the Southern Ocean is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential exposure of the major southern ocean scavengers, the giant petrels, to POPs across a wide latitudinal gradient. Selected POPs (PCBs, HCB, DDTs, PBDEs) and related compounds, such as Dechlorane Plus (DP), were analyzed in plasma of southern giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) breeding on Livingston (62°S 61°W, Antarctica), Marion (46°S 37°E, sub-Antarctic), and Gough (40°S 10°W, cool temperate) islands. Northern giant petrels (Macronectes halli) from Marion Island were also studied. Stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were used as dietary tracers of the marine habitat and trophic level, respectively. Breeding locality was a major factor explaining petrel exposure to POPs compared with species and sex. Significant relationships between δ 13 C values and POP burdens, at both inter- and intra-population levels, support latitudinal variations in feeding grounds as a key factor in explaining petrel pollutant burdens. Overall, pollutant levels in giant petrels decreased significantly with latitude, but the relative abundance (%) of the more volatile POPs increased towards Antarctica. DP was found at negligible levels compared with legacy POPs in Antarctic seabirds. Spatial POP patterns found in giant petrels match those predicted by global distribution models, and reinforce the hypothesis of atmospheric long-range transport as the main source of POPs in Antarctica. Our results confirm that wildlife movements out of the polar region markedly increase their exposure to POPs. Therefore, strategies for Antarctic wildlife conservation should consider spatial heterogeneity in exposure to marine pollution. Of particular relevance is the need to clarify the exposure of Antarctic predators to emerging

  15. Spatial assessment of water quality in the vicinity of Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge, Upper Devils Lake Basin, North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandeberg, Gregory S; Dixon, Cami S; Vose, Brian; Fisher, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Runoff from concentrated animal feeding operations and croplands in the Upper Devils Lake Basin (Towner and Ramsey Counties), North Dakota, has the potential to impact the water quality and wildlife of the Lake Alice National Wildlife Refuge. Water samples were collected at eight locations upstream and downstream of the refuge, beginning in June 2007 through March 2011, to identify the spatial distribution of water quality parameters and assess the potential impacts from the upstream land use practices. Geographic Information Systems, statistical analysis, and regulatory standards were used to differentiate between sample locations, and identify potential impacts to water quality for the refuge based on 20 chemical constituents. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences between sample locations based on boron, calcium, Escherichia coli, phosphorus, aluminum, manganese, and nickel. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis of these constituents identified four distinct water quality groupings in the study area. Furthermore, this study found a significant positive correlation between the nutrient measures of nitrate-nitrite and total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and the percentage of concentrated animal feeding operation nutrient management areas using the non-parametric Spearman rho method. Significant correlations were also noted between total organic carbon and nearness to concentrated animal feeding operations. Finally, dissolved oxygen, pH, sulfate, E. coli, total phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and aluminum exceeded state of North Dakota and/or US Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards and/or guidelines. Elevated concentrations of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and E. coli from upstream sources likely have the greatest potential impact on the Lake Alice Refuge.

  16. The Devil and its multiple images in illuminations of the Devorous Monster and the Falling Angel (15th century: some examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Souza Zierer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article conducted an analysis on the multiple images of the Devil, based on three illuminations of the 15th century. It is possible to observe the following elements: 1-the evil one as a head, with a huge open mouth, known as the Hellmouth; 2-as a human being, but with animalistic characteristics, carrying claws, the tail, among other things, still with devouring aspect; 3-represented in beautiful shape, as the rebel angel, Lucifer, expelled from heaven by God. Three images were analyzed; one from the narrative Vision of Tondal, which it is represented as the Beast Acheron, in the form of Hellmouth, and two images of the book Les Très Riches Heures of the Duc de Berry (The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, when figured with animalistic features in the image entitled "Inferno" (fl.108r and with his angelic features in "The fall of the Rebel Angels" (fl. 64v. In the last two illuminations the Devil presents ruler of Hell elements. Moreover, it is clear that this has ambiguous features in Christian imagination.

  17. Assessment of Climate Change and Agricultural Land Use Change on Streamflow Input to Devils Lake: A Case Study of the Mauvais Coulee Sub-basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C.; Todhunter, P. E.

    2017-12-01

    Since 1993, Devils Lake in North Dakota has experienced a prolonged rise in lake level and flooding of the lake's neighboring areas within the closed basin system. Understanding the relative contribution of climate change and land use change is needed to explain the historical rise in lake level, and to evaluate the potential impact of anthropogenic climate change upon future lake conditions and management. Four methodologies were considered to examine the relative contribution of climatic and human landscape drivers to streamflow variations: statistical, ecohydrologic, physically-based modeling, and elasticity of streamflow; for this study, ecohydrologic and climate elasticity were selected. Agricultural statistics determined that Towner and Ramsey counties underwent a crop conversion from small grains to row crops within the last 30 years. Through the Topographic Wetness Index (TWI), a 10 meter resolution DEM confirmed the presence of innumerable wetland depressions within the non-contributing area of the Mauvais Coulee Sub-basin. Although the ecohydrologic and climate elasticity methodologies are the most commonly used in literature, they make assumptions that are not applicable to basin conditions. A modified and more informed approach to the use of these methods was applied to account for these unique sub-basin characteristics. Ultimately, hydroclimatic variability was determined as the largest driver to streamflow variation in Mauvais Coulee and Devils Lake.

  18. POWER AND GENDER OPPRESSION IN LAUREN WEISBERGER’S THE DEVIL WEARS PRADA AND SETH GRAHAM SMITH’S PRIDE AND PREJUDICE AND ZOMBIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erliska Erliska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aims to analyze (1 what power is exercised in The Devil Wears Prada and Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, (2 how power operates gender oppression, and (3 how power plays an important role in gender oppression in the novels. Marxist-Feminist approach is used to analyze the data by applying Engels’s theory of power, Young’s theory of gender oppression, Marx’s, Engels’s and Lenin’s theory of liberation. The result has found out that all the indicators of the exercise of power by the ruling class are present in both novels. In relation to gender oppression, the female character in The Devil Wears Prada suffers from exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, and cultural imperialism in the workplace. Meanwhile, some female characters in Pride and Prejudice and Zombies suffer from all the forms of gender oppression as the impact of the exercise of power in their social life. However, almost all elements of women liberation mostly is revealed in the novels.

  19. Phase structures of the black Dp-D(p+4)-brane system in various ensembles II: electrical and thermodynamic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Zhiguang; Zhou, Da

    2015-01-01

    By incorporating the electrical stability condition into the discussion, we continue the study on the thermodynamic phase structures of the Dp-D(p+4) black brane in GG, GC, CG, CC ensembles defined in our previous paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP07(2015)134. We find that including the electrical stability conditions in addition to the thermal stability conditions does not modify the phase structure of the GG ensemble but puts more constraints on the parameter space where black branes can stably exist in GC, CG, CC ensembles. In particular, the van der Waals-like phase structure which was supposed to be present in these ensembles when only thermal stability condition is considered would no longer be visible, since the phase of the small black brane is unstable under electrical fluctuations. However, the symmetry of the phase structure by interchanging the two kinds of brane charges and potentials is still preserved, which is argued to be the result of T-duality.

  20. Influence of shielding gas on the mechanical and metallurgical properties of DP-GMA-welded 5083-H321 aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushki, Amin Reza; Goodarzi, Massoud; Paidar, Moslem

    2016-12-01

    In the present research, 6-mm-thick 5083-H321 aluminum alloy was joined by the double-pulsed gas metal arc welding (DP-GMAW) process. The objective was to investigate the influence of the shielding gas composition on the microstructure and properties of GMA welds. A macrostructural study indicated that the addition of nitrogen and oxygen to the argon shielding gas resulted in better weld penetration. Furthermore, the tensile strength and bending strength of the welds were improved when oxygen and nitrogen (at concentrations as high as approximately 0.1vol%) were added to the shielding gas; however, these properties were adversely affected when the oxygen and nitrogen contents were increased further. This behavior was attributed to the formation of excessive brown and black oxide films on the bead surface, the formation of intermetallic compounds in the weld metal, and the formation of thicker oxide layers on the bead surface with increasing nitrogen and oxygen contents in the argon-based shielding gas. Analysis by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy revealed that most of these compounds are nitrides or oxides.

  1. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan, E-mail: fan.zhang@wsu.edu [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States); Ruimi, Annie [Department of Mechanical Eng., Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P. [School of Mechanical and Material Eng., Washington State University (United States)

    2016-04-06

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  2. Investigation of 112Cd via the (d,p) Reaction and a Reassessment of the Quadrupole-Octupole Coupled Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, D. S.; Garrett, P. E.; Ball, G. C.; Demand, G. A.; Faestermann, T.; Finlay, P.; Green, K. L.; Hertenberger, R.; Leach, K. G.; Phillips, A. A.; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Wong, J.

    The single-particle neutron states in 112Cd have been probed with the 111Cd(d,p) reaction. Beams of up to 1.2 µA of polarized 22 MeV deuterons bombarded 111Cd targets. The reaction protons were momentum analyzed with a Q3D magnetic spectrograph, with spectra were recorded at 10 angles between 10 and 60° with a resolution of 6-7 keV FWHM. In addition to the (d,p) transfer data, (d,d) elastic-scattering data were also obtained and used to ascertain the proper optical model parameters. Cross sections and analyzing powers for all levels observed to be populated were fit to results of DWBA and ADWA calculations, and spectroscopic factors were determined. The 5- level at 2373 keV, previously assigned as a member on the quadrupole-octupole quintuplet set of states because of its enhanced B(E2;5 - to 31 - ) value, was observed to be one of the strongest peaks in the spectrum, and is reassigned as the s1/2 otimes h11/2 two-quasineutron configuration.

  3. Prediction of fracture initiation in square cup drawing of DP980 using an anisotropic ductile fracture criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N.; Huh, H.; Yoon, J. W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of fracture initiation in square cup drawing of DP980 steel sheet with the thickness of 1.2 mm. In an attempt to consider the influence of material anisotropy on the fracture initiation, an uncoupled anisotropic ductile fracture criterion is developed based on the Lou—Huh ductile fracture criterion. Tensile tests are carried out at different loading directions of 0°, 45°, and 90° to the rolling direction of the sheet using various specimen geometries including pure shear, dog-bone, and flat grooved specimens so as to calibrate the parameters of the proposed fracture criterion. Equivalent plastic strain distribution on the specimen surface is computed using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method until surface crack initiates. The proposed fracture criterion is implemented into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit by developing the Vectorized User-defined MATerial (VUMAT) subroutine which features the non-associated flow rule. Simulation results of the square cup drawing test clearly show that the proposed fracture criterion is capable of predicting the fracture initiation with sufficient accuracy considering the material anisotropy.

  4. Morphology and distribution of martensite in dual phase (DP980) steel and its relation to the multiscale mechanical behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Ruimi, Annie; Wo, Pui Ching; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Among generations of advanced high-strength steel alloys, dual-phase steels exhibit a unique combination of strength and formability making them excellent candidates for use in the automotive industry. In this study, we seek to establish a relation between mechanical properties and microstructure of DP980. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)and nanoindentation are used to identify and characterize martensite and ferrite phases. Spatial distributions of martensite and ferrite phases of subjected to various annealing treatments are found using a 2-point correlation function. Micro- and macro-mechanical properties are measured with nanoindentation, Vickers hardness and tensile tests and the results are used to determine the relation between martensite and ferrite phases and the strength of the metal. During the annealing/recovery process, the strength of the martensite phase decreases, the dislocation structure relaxes in the phase boundary region of the ferrite, and the martensite alignment along the rolling direction decreases resulting in the observed metal strength reduction. It is also shown that the higher the annealing temperature, the more homogeneous and equiaxed the distribution of martensite.

  5. Effect of Annealing Temperature on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hot-Dip Galvanizing DP600 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-yan, Sun; Zhi-li, Liu; Yang, Xu; Jian-qiang, Shi; Lian-xuan, Wang

    Hot-dip galvanizing dual phase steel DP600 steel grade with low Si was produced by steel plant and experiments by simulating galvanizing thermal history. The microstructure was observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of different annealing temperatures on the microstructure and mechanical properties of dual-phase steel was also discussed. The experimental results show that the dual-phase steel possesses excellent strength and elongation that match EN10346 600MPa standards. The microstructure is ferrite and martensite. TEM micrograph shows that white ferrite with black martensite islands inlay with a diameter of around 1um and the content of 14 18%. The volume will expand and phase changing take the form of shear transformation when ferrite converted to martensite. So there are high density dislocations in ferrite crystalline grain near martensite. The martensite content growing will be obvious along with annealing temperature going up. But the tendency will be weak when temperature high.

  6. Analysis of the Lankford coefficient evolution at different strain rates for AA6016-T4, DP800 and DC06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzen, Matthias; Merklein, Marion

    2017-10-01

    In the automotive sector, a major challenge is the deep-drawing of modern lightweight sheet metals with limited formability. Thus, conventional material models lack in accuracy due to the complex material behavior. A current field of research takes into account the evolution of the Lankford coefficient. Today, changes in anisotropy under increasing degree of deformation are not considered. Only a consolidated average value of the Lankford coefficient is included in conventional material models. This leads to an increasing error in prediction of the flow behavior and therefore to an inaccurate prognosis of the forming behavior. To increase the accuracy of the prediction quality, the strain dependent Lankford coefficient should be respected, because the R-value has a direct effect on the contour of the associated flow rule. Further, the investigated materials show a more or less extinct rate dependency of the yield stress. For this reason, the rate dependency of the Lankford coefficient during uniaxial tension is focused within this contribution. To quantify the influence of strain rate on the Lankford coefficient, tensile tests are performed for three commonly used materials, the aluminum alloy AA6016-T4, the advanced high strength steel DP800 and the deep drawing steel DC06 at three different strain rates. The strain measurement is carried out by an optical strain measurement system. An evolution of the Lankford coefficient was observed for all investigated materials. Also, an influence of the deformation velocity on the anisotropy could be detected.

  7. Analysis of d/p ratio in Au+Au collisions from the E866 experiment at the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, Y.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Stanskas, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are a great interest as a means of creating a new state of matter. The transition of nuclear matter to quark matter is expected to result in a strongly interacting region that lives for a long time and expands to a large volume. In order to understand the properties of the collision region, it is important to gather information experimentally on the lifetime and thermodynamic attributes such as temperature, volume, density, and entropy of the collision region. Deuteron production by phase space coalescence is particularly interesting because it can be used as a probe in studying the space-time structure of the heavy ion collisions. In the hot and dense participant region, a proton and a neutron coalesce when their relative momentum is small. The deuteron density in momentum space is proportional to the proton density squared in momentum space at equal momenta per nucleon, assuming proton and neutron density to be identical. The motivation here is to study the properties of the coalesced deuterons formed in the participant region of Au-Au collisions at 11.6 GeV/c. The d/p ratio as a function of centrality is studied in hopes of gaining information about any change in the size of the participant zone which could lead to the effort of searching for the Quark-Gluon-Plasma at the AGS. The results shown here is very preliminary and the work is in progress

  8. Water quality and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers within and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, Texas, 2005-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the water quality and status of fish and macroinvertebrate communities, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Amistad National Recreation Area, completed a reconnaissance-level survey of the water quality and fish and macroinvertebrate communities in the Devils and Pecos Rivers in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area in southwest Texas during 2005–7. Water-quality conditions during the spring and summer months of 2005 in the Devils and Pecos Rivers were assessed at locations just upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area, and the composition of fish and macroinvertebrate communities were assessed during 2006 and 2007 in and upstream from the Amistad National Recreation Area and Amistad Reservoir. Water-quality samples were collected at one site on both the Devils and Pecos Rivers. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at the water-quality sampling site on each river and at three additional sites on each river. The water-quality constituents of primary concern were total dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, phosphorus, selenium, and selected pesticides. During the spring and summer of 2005, the concentrations of total dissolved solids ranged from 208 to 232 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in samples from the Devils River compared to 1,460 to 2,390 mg/L in samples from the Pecos River. Total dissolved solid concentrations measured in samples collected from the Devils River and Pecos River did not exceed the proposed State of Texas water-quality standard applicable for the segments of each river where samples were collected. During the spring and summer of 2005, chloride concentrations measured in samples collected in 2005 from the Devils River ranged from 11.6 to 12.9 mg/L, compared to chloride concentrations measured in samples collected from the Pecos River, which ranged from 519 to 879 mg

  9. Research on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Ti Micro-Alloyed Cold Rolled Hot-Dip Galvanizing DP980 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yun; Kuang, Shuang; Qi, Xiumei; Xie, Chunqian; Liu, Guanghui

    Effects of galvanizing simulation parameters on microstructures and mechanical properties of Ti-microalloyed cold rolled hot-dip galvanizing DP980 steel were investigated in this study by optical microscopy (OM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and tensile test. Moreover, the precipitation behavior of Ti in the experimental steel was also studied. The results show that, as the heating temperature increases, the tensile strength of experimental galvanizing DP980 steel decreases while the yield ratio and elongation of the steel are enhanced. The microstructures of experimental steels exhibit typical dual phase steel character and the volume fractions of MA islands are almost 30%. In addition, lots of nano-sized TiC precipitates can be found in the ferrite grains.

  10. DP-THOT - a calculational tool for bundle-specific decay power based on actual irradiation history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, S.; Morrison, C.A.; Albasha, H.; Arguner, D.

    2005-01-01

    A tool has been created for calculating the decay power of an individual fuel bundle to take account of its actual irradiation history, as tracked by the fuel management code SORO. The DP-THOT tool was developed in two phases: first as a standalone executable code for decay power calculation, which could accept as input an entirely arbitrary irradiation history; then as a module integrated with SORO auxiliary codes, which directly accesses SORO history files to retrieve the operating power history of the bundle since it first entered the core. The methodology implemented in the standalone code is based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1994 formulation, which has been specifically adapted for calculating decay power in irradiated CANDU reactor fuel, by making use of fuel type specific parameters derived from WIMS lattice cell simulations for both 37 element and 28 element CANDU fuel bundle types. The approach also yields estimates of uncertainty in the calculated decay power quantities, based on the evaluated error in the decay heat correlations built-in for each fissile isotope, in combination with the estimated uncertainty in user-supplied inputs. The method was first implemented in the form of a spreadsheet, and following successful testing against decay powers estimated using the code ORIGEN-S, the algorithm was coded in FORTRAN to create an executable program. The resulting standalone code, DP-THOT, accepts an arbitrary irradiation history and provides the calculated decay power and estimated uncertainty over any user-specified range of cooling times, for either 37 element or 28 element fuel bundles. The overall objective was to produce an integrated tool which could be used to find the decay power associated with any identified fuel bundle or channel in the core, taking into account the actual operating history of the bundles involved. The benefit is that the tool would allow a more realistic calculation of bundle and channel decay powers for outage heat sink planning

  11. 73.7 Tb/s (96x3x256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Jung, Y.; Veljanovski, V.; Uden, van R.G.H.; Kuschnerov, M.; Kang, Q.; Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Sun, Y.; Richardson, D.J.; Alam, S.U.; Poletti, F.; Sahu, J.K.; Dhar, A.; Chen, H.; Inan, B.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Corbett, B.; Winfield, R.; Ellis, A.D.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We show transmission of a 73.7 Tb/s (96x3x256-Gb/s) DP-16QAM mode-division- multiplexed signal over 119km of few-mode fiber with inline multi-mode EDFA, using 6x6 MIMO digital signal processing. The total demonstrated net capacity is 57.6 Tb/s (SE 12 bits/s/Hz).

  12. Fevipiprant, an oral prostaglandin DP2 receptor (CRTh2) antagonist, in allergic asthma uncontrolled on low-dose inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Eric D; Guerreros, Alfredo G; Brockhaus, Florian; Holzhauer, Björn; Pethe, Abhijit; Kay, Richard A; Townley, Robert G

    2017-08-01

    Dose-related efficacy and safety of fevipiprant (QAW039), an oral DP 2 (CRTh2) receptor antagonist, was assessed in patients with allergic asthma uncontrolled by low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS).Adult patients were randomised to 12 weeks' treatment with once-daily (1, 3, 10, 30, 50, 75, 150, 300 or 450 mg q.d ) or twice-daily (2, 25, 75 or 150 mg b.i.d ) fevipiprant (n=782), montelukast 10 mg q.d (n=139) or placebo (n=137). All patients received inhaled budesonide 200 μg b.i.d Fevipiprant produced a statistically significant improvement in the primary end-point of change in pre-dose forced expiratory volume in 1 s at week 12 (p=0.0035) with a maximum model-averaged difference to placebo of 0.112 L. The most favourable pairwise comparisons to placebo were for the fevipiprant 150 mg q.d and 75 mg b.i.d groups, with no clinically meaningful differences between q.d and b.i.d Montelukast also demonstrated a significant improvement in this end-point. No impact on other efficacy end-points was observed. Adverse events were generally mild/moderate in severity, and were evenly distributed across doses and treatments.Fevipiprant appears to be efficacious and well-tolerated in this patient population, with an optimum total daily dose of 150 mg. Further investigations into the clinical role of fevipiprant in suitably designed phase III clinical trials are warranted. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  13. An Experiment of Robust Parallel Algorithm for the Eigenvalue problem of a Multigroup Neutron Diffusion based on modified FETI-DP : Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jonghwa

    2014-01-01

    Today, we can use a computer cluster consist of a few hundreds CPUs with reasonable budget. Such computer system enables us to do detailed modeling of reactor core. The detailed modeling will improve the safety and the economics of a nuclear reactor by eliminating un-necessary conservatism or missing consideration. To take advantage of such a cluster computer, efficient parallel algorithms must be developed. Mechanical structure analysis community has studied the domain decomposition method to solve the stress-strain equation using the finite element methods. One of the most successful domain decomposition method in terms of robustness is FETI-DP. We have modified the original FETI-DP to solve the eigenvalue problem for the multi-group diffusion problem in previous study. In this study, we report the result of recent modification to handle the three-dimensional subdomain partitioning, and the sub-domain multi-group problem. Modified FETI-DP algorithm has been successfully applied for the eigenvalue problem of multi-group neutron diffusion equation. The overall CPU time is decreasing as number of sub-domains (partitions) is increasing. However, there may be a limit in decrement due to increment of the number of primal points will increase the CPU time spent by the solution of the global equation. Even distribution of computational load (criterion a) is important to achieve fast computation. The subdomain partition can be effectively performed using suitable graph theory partition package such as MeTIS

  14. An Experiment of Robust Parallel Algorithm for the Eigenvalue problem of a Multigroup Neutron Diffusion based on modified FETI-DP : Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Today, we can use a computer cluster consist of a few hundreds CPUs with reasonable budget. Such computer system enables us to do detailed modeling of reactor core. The detailed modeling will improve the safety and the economics of a nuclear reactor by eliminating un-necessary conservatism or missing consideration. To take advantage of such a cluster computer, efficient parallel algorithms must be developed. Mechanical structure analysis community has studied the domain decomposition method to solve the stress-strain equation using the finite element methods. One of the most successful domain decomposition method in terms of robustness is FETI-DP. We have modified the original FETI-DP to solve the eigenvalue problem for the multi-group diffusion problem in previous study. In this study, we report the result of recent modification to handle the three-dimensional subdomain partitioning, and the sub-domain multi-group problem. Modified FETI-DP algorithm has been successfully applied for the eigenvalue problem of multi-group neutron diffusion equation. The overall CPU time is decreasing as number of sub-domains (partitions) is increasing. However, there may be a limit in decrement due to increment of the number of primal points will increase the CPU time spent by the solution of the global equation. Even distribution of computational load (criterion a) is important to achieve fast computation. The subdomain partition can be effectively performed using suitable graph theory partition package such as MeTIS.

  15. Determination of Flavanols and Procyanidins (DP 1-10) in Cocoa-Based Ingredients and Products by UHPLC: First Action 2013.03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Dowell, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Single-laboratory validation data were reviewed by the Expert Review Panel (ERP) of the Stakeholder Panel on Strategic Food Analytical Methods at the AOAC Mid-Year Meeting, March 12-14, 2013, in Rockville, MD. The ERP determined that the data presented met established standard method performance requirements and adopted a method for determination of flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) in cocoa-based ingredients and products by ultra-HPLC as AOAC Official First Action Method 2013.03 on March 14, 2013. The flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) are eluted using a binary gradient (solvents A and B) consisting of 98 + 2 (v/v) acetonitrile-glacial acetic acid (A) and 95 + 3 + 2 (v/v/v) methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (B). The mobile phase is applied to a diol stationary phase. Detection occurs using fluorescence detection. Recovery of flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) from both high- and low-fat matrixes was 98.4-99.8%. Precision was determined for seven different sample types (cocoa extract, cocoa nib, natural cocoa powder, cocoa liquor, alkalized cocoa powder, dark chocolate, and milk chocolate).

  16. BİNA İÇİ MEKANLARDA PROFIBUS-DP AĞI ÜZERİNDEN DİNAMİK AYDINLATMA DENETİMİ

    OpenAIRE

    Cemal YILMAZ

    2007-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, bina içi mekanlarda Profıbus-DP ağı üzerinden dinamik aydınlatma denetimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aydınlatmanın istenilen aydınlık düzeylerine göre ayarlanabilmesi için dimlenebilir armatürler kullanılmıştır. Bina içerisinde aydınlık düzeyini ölçen algılayıcılardan gelen bilgiler Profibus-DP ağı üzerinden merkezi denetim ünitesine aktarılmaktadır. Burada yapılan değerlendirme sonucuna göre aydınlatma armatürlerine kontrol sinyalleri yine Profibus-DP ağı üzerinden gönderilerek dene...

  17. Ceramic-Based 4D Components: Additive Manufacturing (AM) of Ceramic-Based Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) by Thermoplastic 3D Printing (T3DP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Uwe; Weingarten, Steven; Johne, Robert; Schwarzer, Eric; Abel, Johannes; Richter, Hans-Jürgen; Moritz, Tassilo; Michaelis, Alexander

    2017-11-28

    In our study, we investigated the additive manufacturing (AM) of ceramic-based functionally graded materials (FGM) by the direct AM technology thermoplastic 3D printing (T3DP). Zirconia components with varying microstructures were additively manufactured by using thermoplastic suspensions with different contents of pore-forming agents (PFA), which were co-sintered defect-free. Different materials were investigated concerning their suitability as PFA for the T3DP process. Diverse zirconia-based suspensions were prepared and used for the AM of single- and multi-material test components. All of the samples were sintered defect-free, and in the end, we could realize a brick wall-like component consisting of dense (<1% porosity) and porous (approx. 5% porosity) zirconia areas to combine different properties in one component. T3DP opens the door to the AM of further ceramic-based 4D components, such as multi-color, multi-material, or especially, multi-functional components.

  18. Comparing CMIP-3 and CMIP-5 climate projections on flooding estimation of Devils Lake of North Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehendra Kharel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Water level fluctuations in endorheic lakes are highly susceptible to even slight changes in climate and land use. Devils Lake (DL in North Dakota, USA is an endorheic system that has undergone multi-decade flooding driven by changes in regional climate. Flooding mitigation strategies have centered on the release of lake water to a nearby river system through artificial outlets, resulting in legal challenges and environmental concerns related to water quality, downstream flooding, species migration, stakeholder opposition, and transboundary water conflicts between the US and Canada. Despite these drawbacks, running outlets would result in low overspill risks in the next 30 years. Methods In this study we evaluated the efficacy of this outlet-based mitigation strategy under scenarios based on the latest IPCC future climate projections. We used the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project CMIP-5 weather patterns from 17 general circulation models (GCMs obtained under four representative concentration pathways (RCP scenarios and downscaled to the DL region. Then, we simulated the changes in lake water levels using the soil and water assessment tool based hydrological model of the watershed. We estimated the probability of future flood risks under those scenarios and compared those with previously estimated overspill risks under the CMIP-3 climate. Results The CMIP-5 ensemble projected a mean annual temperature of 5.78 °C and mean daily precipitation of 1.42 mm/day; both are higher than the existing CMIP-3 future estimates of 4.98 °C and 1.40 mm/day, respectively. The increased precipitation and higher temperature resulted in a significant increase of DL’s overspill risks: 24.4–47.1% without release from outlets and 3.5–14.4% even if the outlets are operated at their combined full 17 m3/s capacity. Discussion The modeled increases in overspill risks indicate a greater frequency of water releases through the artificial outlets. Future

  19. Coupling of HEC-HMS and HEC-ResSim in Modeling the Fluctuation of Water Level in Devils Lake Using Heterogeneous Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munna, H. S.; Lim, Y. H.

    2010-12-01

    Devils Lake, located in Ramsey and Benson County in North Dakota is a sub-basin of the Red River of the North. Although it lies entirely within the Red River Basin, it has no natural outlet at current water levels. Since its inception during the glacier period, Devils Lake has been either rising or falling over the last 10,000 years. Geologic evidence shows that the water level in Devils Lake has fluctuated widely from completely dry (about 1400 feet AMSL) to overflowing into the Sheyenne River (about 1459 feet AMSL). The uncontrolled growth of the lake has been an alarming issue for North Dakota for the past few years as it causes continuous flooding in the surrounding areas. A hydro-climatic model that can provide simulations of the water level of this lake for a 20 or 50 year time frame can be a useful decision making tool. In a mission to achieve that, heterogeneous data obtained from various sources were used to model the lake. Runoff from precipitation is one of the major inputs to the lake and to model that, eight major watersheds that feed directly to the lake were identified using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of thirty meter resolution in ArcGIS environment. Hydrology and Arc Hydro tools were used to delineate the watersheds and sub-basins to generate the runoff using the HEC HMS model. The precipitation time series data collected from both NASA and ground stations were used separately to calibrate the runoff model. The generation of time series runoff values for individual basins for four consecutive years (2001-2004) was applied into HEC-ResSim, a reservoir simulation model, to estimate the lake level series considering the elevation-area-storage relationship and evaporation series from previous USGS studies. It is eminent that seepage under the lake played a key role in calibrating the model with observed elevations. The value of seepage flow was varied over increasing elevations as it depends on the height of water column. The model showed an

  20. Exploring the Textual Metafunction in a Biblical-Fictional Parable in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s Devil on the Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yémalo C. Amoussou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the textual metafunctional patterns in two fictional versions of a Biblical Parable in Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o’s novel Devil on the Cross (1982 in order to find the similarities and differences between their compositional features. It critically draws on the theory of systemic functional linguistics expounded by specialists like Halliday (1994, Halliday and Matthiessen (2004 and Eggins (2004 to overview the theoretical background to the study, with focus on the grammar of textual meaning, proposes a new Theme classification and uses it to analyze the Thematic structure and taxis system of the two extracts. The researcher has come to the conclusion that, though they are initially spoken, these texts show such interesting textual-meaning properties as the density of ellipsis, of circumstantial and interpersonal thematization, of taxis and rank shift that they should be qualified to belong to both spoken and written mode of discourse.

  1. A devil in the detail: parameter cross-talk from the solar cycle and estimation of solar p-mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Eff-Darwich, A.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2008-04-01

    Frequencies, powers and damping rates of the solar p modes are all observed to vary over the 11-yr solar activity cycle. Here, we show that simultaneous variations in these parameters give rise to a subtle cross-talk effect, which we call the `devil in the detail', that biases p-mode frequencies estimated from analysis of long power frequency spectra. We also show that the resonant peaks observed in the power frequency spectra show small distortions due to the effect. Most of our paper is devoted to a study of the effect for Sun-as-a-star observations of the low-l p modes. We show that for these data the significance of the effect is marginal. We also touch briefly on the likely l dependence of the effect, and discuss the implications of these results for solar structure inversions.

  2. Analysis of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins (DP 1-10) in cocoa-containing ingredients and products by rapid resolution liquid chromatography: single-laboratory validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machonis, Philip R; Jones, Matthew A; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a multilaboratory validation (MLV) of AOAC Official Method 2012.24 for the determination of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins (CF-CP) in cocoa-based ingredients and products determined that the method was robust, reliable, and transferrable. Due to the complexity of the CF-CP molecules, this method required a run time exceeding 1 h to achieve acceptable separations. To address this issue, a rapid resolution normal phase LC method was developed, and a single-laboratory validation (SLV) study conducted. Flavanols and procyanidins with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to 10 were eluted in 15 min using a binary gradient applied to a diol stationary phase, detected using fluorescence detection, and reported as a total sum of DP 1-10. Quantification was achieved using (-)-epicatechin-based relative response factors for DP 2-10. Spike recovery samples and seven different types of cocoa-based samples were analyzed to evaluate the accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, and linearity of the method. The within-day precision of the reported content for the samples was 1.15-5.08%, and overall precision was 3.97-13.61%. Spike-recovery experiments demonstrated recoveries of over 98%. The results of this SLV were compared to those previously obtained in the MLV and found to be consistent. The translation to rapid resolution LC allowed for an 80% reduction in analysis time and solvent usage, while retaining the accuracy and reliability of the original method. The savings in both cost and time of this rapid method make it well-suited for routine laboratory use.

  3. BİNA İÇİ MEKANLARDA PROFIBUS-DP AĞI ÜZERİNDEN DİNAMİK AYDINLATMA DENETİMİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal YILMAZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, bina içi mekanlarda Profıbus-DP ağı üzerinden dinamik aydınlatma denetimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Aydınlatmanın istenilen aydınlık düzeylerine göre ayarlanabilmesi için dimlenebilir armatürler kullanılmıştır. Bina içerisinde aydınlık düzeyini ölçen algılayıcılardan gelen bilgiler Profibus-DP ağı üzerinden merkezi denetim ünitesine aktarılmaktadır. Burada yapılan değerlendirme sonucuna göre aydınlatma armatürlerine kontrol sinyalleri yine Profibus-DP ağı üzerinden gönderilerek denetim sağlanmıştır. Tasarımda aydınlatma kontrolünün uzaktan denetimi ile enerjinin optimum kullanımı sağlanmıştır. Ayrıca günün değişik saatlerinde meydana gelen ışık değişimine göre aydınlatma seviyesi ayarlanarak sağlıklı bir aydınlatma ortamı elde edilmiştir.

  4. An Evaluation of Global and Local Tensile Properties of Friction-Stir Welded DP980 Dual-Phase Steel Joints Using a Digital Image Correlation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoungwook; Kim, Cheolhee; Song, Jung Han

    2015-12-04

    The effect of the microstructure heterogeneity on the tensile plastic deformation characteristic of friction-stir-welded (FSW) dual-phase (DP) steel was investigated for the potential applications on the lightweight design of vehicles. Friction-stir-welded specimens with a butt joint configuration were prepared, and quasi-static tensile tests were conducted, to evaluate the tensile properties of DP980 dual-phase steels. The friction-stir welding led to the formation of martensite and a significant hardness rise in the stir zone (SZ), but the presence of a soft zone in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) was caused by tempering of the pre-existing martensite. Owing to the appearance of severe soft zone, DP980 FSW joint showed almost 93% joint efficiency with the view-point of ultimate tensile strength and relatively low ductility than the base metal (BM). The local tensile deformation characteristic of the FSW joints was also examined using the digital image correlation (DIC) methodology by mapping the global and local strain distribution, and was subsequently analyzed by mechanics calculation. It is found that the tensile deformation of the FSW joints is highly heterogeneous, leading to a significant decrease in global ductility. The HAZ of the joints is the weakest region where the strain localizes early, and this localization extends until fracture with a strain near 30%, while the strain in the SZ and BM is only 1% and 4%, respectively. Local constitutive properties in different heterogeneous regions through the friction-stir-welded joint was also briefly evaluated by assuming iso-stress conditions. The local stress-strain curves of individual weld zones provide a clear indication of the heterogeneity of the local mechanical properties.

  5. A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaeyoung; Kwon, Jinuk; Im, Chang-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated. Here we propose the use of an hBCI for the classification of three brain activation patterns elicited by mental arithmetic, motor imagery, and idle state, with the aim to elevate the information transfer rate (ITR) of hBCI by increasing the number of classes while minimizing the loss of accuracy. EEG electrodes were placed over the prefrontal cortex and the central cortex, and NIRS optodes were placed only on the forehead. The ternary classification problem was decomposed into three binary classification problems using the "one-versus-one" (OVO) classification strategy to apply the filter-bank common spatial patterns filter to EEG data. A 10 × 10-fold cross validation was performed using shrinkage linear discriminant analysis (sLDA) to evaluate the average classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI when the meta-classification method was adopted to enhance classification accuracy. The ternary classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI were 76.1 ± 12.8, 64.1 ± 9.7, and 82.2 ± 10.2%, respectively. The classification accuracy of the proposed hBCI was thus significantly higher than those of the other BCIs ( p < 0.005). The average ITR for the proposed hBCI was calculated to be 4.70 ± 1.92 bits/minute, which was 34.3% higher than that reported for a previous binary hBCI study.

  6. Analysis of 2H(rvec d,p)3H reaction by the four-body Faddeev-Yakubovsky equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzu, E.; Oryu, S.; Tanifuji, M.

    1995-01-01

    Very low energy 2 H(rvec d,p) 3 H reactions are investigated by using the four-body Fadeev-Yakubovsky integral equations. The adopted potential is the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler's separable expansion of the Paris potential or the PEST potential. The [3+1] and the [2+2] sub-amplitudes are given by the Hilbert-Schmidt rank-2, rank-3 and rank-4 separable expansion. The calculated total cross section, differential cross section, and tensor analyzing powers at 30keV-90keV are in very good agreement with the experimental data. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  7. Exploring Natural Products from the Biodiversity of Pakistan for Computational Drug Discovery Studies: Collection, Optimization, Design and Development of A Chemical Database (ChemDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Shaher Bano; Bokhari, Habib; Fatmi, Muhammad Qaiser

    2015-01-01

    Pakistan possesses a rich and vast source of natural products (NPs). Some of these secondary metabolites have been identified as potent therapeutic agents. However, the medicinal usage of most of these compounds has not yet been fully explored. The discoveries for new scaffolds of NPs as inhibitors of certain enzymes or receptors using advanced computational drug discovery approaches are also limited due to the unavailability of accurate 3D structures of NPs. An organized database incorporating all relevant information, therefore, can facilitate to explore the medicinal importance of the metabolites from Pakistani Biodiversity. The Chemical Database of Pakistan (ChemDP; release 01) is a fully-referenced, evolving, web-based, virtual database which has been designed and developed to introduce natural products (NPs) and their derivatives from the biodiversity of Pakistan to Global scientific communities. The prime aim is to provide quality structures of compounds with relevant information for computer-aided drug discovery studies. For this purpose, over 1000 NPs have been identified from more than 400 published articles, for which 2D and 3D molecular structures have been generated with a special focus on their stereochemistry, where applicable. The PM7 semiempirical quantum chemistry method has been used to energy optimize the 3D structure of NPs. The 2D and 3D structures can be downloaded as .sdf, .mol, .sybyl, .mol2, and .pdb files - readable formats by many chemoinformatics/bioinformatics software packages. Each entry in ChemDP contains over 100 data fields representing various molecular, biological, physico-chemical and pharmacological properties, which have been properly documented in the database for end users. These pieces of information have been either manually extracted from the literatures or computationally calculated using various computational tools. Cross referencing to a major data repository i.e. ChemSpider has been made available for overlapping

  8. Prostaglandin D2 Receptor DP1 Antibodies Predict Vaccine-induced and Spontaneous Narcolepsy Type 1: Large-scale Study of Antibody Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Sadam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropathological findings support an autoimmune etiology as an underlying factor for loss of orexin-producing neurons in spontaneous narcolepsy type 1 (narcolepsy with cataplexy; sNT1 as well as in Pandemrix influenza vaccine-induced narcolepsy type 1 (Pdmx-NT1. The precise molecular target or antigens for the immune response have, however, remained elusive. Methods: Here we have performed a comprehensive antigenic repertoire analysis of sera using the next-generation phage display method - mimotope variation analysis (MVA. Samples from 64 children and adolescents were analyzed: 10 with Pdmx-NT1, 6 with sNT1, 16 Pandemrix-vaccinated, 16 H1N1 infected, and 16 unvaccinated healthy individuals. The diagnosis of NT1 was defined by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine international criteria of sleep disorders v3. Findings: Our data showed that although the immunoprofiles toward vaccination were generally similar in study groups, there were also striking differences in immunoprofiles between sNT1 and Pdmx-NT1 groups as compared with controls. Prominent immune response was observed to a peptide epitope derived from prostaglandin D2 receptor (DP1, as well as peptides homologous to B cell lymphoma 6 protein. Further validation confirmed that these can act as true antigenic targets in discriminating NT1 diseased along with a novel epitope of hemagglutinin of H1N1 to delineate exposure to H1N1. Interpretation: We propose that DP1 is a novel molecular target of autoimmune response and presents a potential diagnostic biomarker for NT1. DP1 is involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep and thus alterations in its functions could contribute to the disturbed sleep regulation in NT1 that warrants further studies. Together our results also show that MVA is a helpful method for finding novel peptide antigens to classify human autoimmune diseases, possibly facilitating the design of better therapies. Keywords: Narcolepsy type 1

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in HLA-DP and STAT4 are associated with IgA nephropathy in a Southwest Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Junlong; Liu, Xinle; Huang, Zhuochun; Su, Zhenzhen; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lanlan

    2018-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerular disease worldwide. Genetic factors are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of IgAN. However, few data are available on the relationship between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) polymorphisms and IgAN susceptibility in the Chinese population. Therefore, we examined HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 and rs7574865) in a total of 630 subjects...

  10. [Results transferability on RXL, ARX, X-Pand, BN2 (Dade Behring) and modular DP (Roche Diagnostics) analysers: application to component assays of fibrotest and Actitest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert-Bismut, F; Messous, D; Raoult, A; Poynard, T; Bertrand, J J; Marie, P A; Louis, V; Audy, C; Thouy, J M; Hainque, B; Piton, A

    2005-01-01

    The follow up of patients with chronic liver diseases and the data from multicentric clinical studies are affected by the variability of assay results for the same parameter between the different laboratories. Today, the main objective in clinical chemistry throughout the world is to harmonise the assay results between the laboratories after the confirmation of their traceability, in relation to defined reference systems. In this context, the purpose of our study was to verify the homogeneity of haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A1, total bilirubin, GGT activity, ALAT activity results, which are combined in Fibrotest and Actitest, between Dimension Analysers RXL, ARX and X-PAND (Dade Behring Society). Moreover, we verified the transferability of Fibrotest and Actitest results between the RXL, and either the BN2 (haptoglobin and apolipoprotein A1) or the Modular DP (total bilirubin, GGT and ALAT activity concentrations). The serum samples from 150 hospitalised patients were analysed on the different analysers. Specific protein assays were calibrated using solutions standardised against reference material on Dimension and BN2 analysers. Total bilirubin assays were performed by a diazoreaction on Dimension and Modular DP analysers. The GGT and ALAT activity measurements on the Dimension analysers were performed in accordance with the reference methods defined by the International Federation of Clinical Chemisty and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC). On the Modular, enzyme activity measurements were performed according to the Szasz method (L-gamma- glutamyl-4-nitroanilide as substrate) modified by Persijn and van der Slik (L-gamma- glutamyl-3-carboxy- 4-nitroanilide as substrat) for GGT and according to the IFCC specifications for ALAT. The methods of enzymatic activity measurement were calibrated on the Modular only. Liver fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity indices were determined using calculation algorithms, after having adjusted each component's result of Fibrotest and

  11. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Notes on quantitative structure-properties relationships (QSPR) (1): A discussion on a QSPR dimensionality paradox (QSPR DP) and its quantum resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó-Dorca, Ramon; Gallegos, Ana; Sánchez, Angel J

    2009-05-01

    Classical quantitative structure-properties relationship (QSPR) statistical techniques unavoidably present an inherent paradoxical computational context. They rely on the definition of a Gram matrix in descriptor spaces, which is used afterwards to reduce the original dimension via several possible kinds of algebraic manipulations. From there, effective models for the computation of unknown properties of known molecular structures are obtained. However, the reduced descriptor dimension causes linear dependence within the set of discrete vector molecular representations, leading to positive semi-definite Gram matrices in molecular spaces. To resolve this QSPR dimensionality paradox (QSPR DP) here is proposed to adopt as starting point the quantum QSPR (QQSPR) computational framework perspective, where density functions act as infinite dimensional descriptors. The fundamental QQSPR equation, deduced from employing quantum expectation value numerical evaluation, can be approximately solved in order to obtain models exempt of the QSPR DP. The substitution of the quantum similarity matrix by an empirical Gram matrix in molecular spaces, build up with the original non manipulated discrete molecular descriptor vectors, permits to obtain classical QSPR models with the same characteristics as in QQSPR, that is: possessing a certain degree of causality and explicitly independent of the descriptor dimension. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Concurrent Label-Free Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dystrophin Isoform Dp427 and the Myofibrosis Marker Collagen in Crude Extracts from mdx-4cv Skeletal Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Zweyer, Margit; Mundegar, Rustam R.; Henry, Michael; Meleady, Paula; Swandulla, Dieter; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2015-01-01

    The full-length dystrophin protein isoform of 427 kDa (Dp427), the absence of which represents the principal abnormality in X-linked muscular dystrophy, is difficult to identify and characterize by routine proteomic screening approaches of crude tissue extracts. This is probably related to its large molecular size, its close association with the sarcolemmal membrane, and its existence within a heterogeneous glycoprotein complex. Here, we used a careful extraction procedure to isolate the total protein repertoire from normal versus dystrophic mdx-4cv skeletal muscles, in conjunction with label-free mass spectrometry, and successfully identified Dp427 by proteomic means. In contrast to a considerable number of previous comparative studies of the total skeletal muscle proteome, using whole tissue proteomics we show here for the first time that the reduced expression of this membrane cytoskeletal protein is the most significant alteration in dystrophinopathy. This agrees with the pathobiochemical concept that the almost complete absence of dystrophin is the main defect in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and that the mdx-4cv mouse model of dystrophinopathy exhibits only very few revertant fibers. Significant increases in collagens and associated fibrotic marker proteins, such as fibronectin, biglycan, asporin, decorin, prolargin, mimecan, and lumican were identified in dystrophin-deficient muscles. The up-regulation of collagen in mdx-4cv muscles was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoblotting. Thus, this is the first mass spectrometric study of crude tissue extracts that puts the proteomic identification of dystrophin in its proper pathophysiological context. PMID:28248273

  14. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

    KAUST Repository

    Shemis, M.A.

    2017-11-23

    The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

  15. Demonstration of L-band DP-QPSK transmission over FSO and fiber channels employing InAs/InP quantum-dash laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemis, M. A.; Khan, M. T. A.; Alkhazraji, E.; Ragheb, A. M.; Esmail, M. A.; Fathallah, H.; Qureshi, K. K.; Alshebeili, S.; Khan, M. Z. M.

    2018-03-01

    The next generation of optical access communication networks that support 100 Gbps and beyond, require advances in modulation schemes, spectrum utilization, new transmission bands, and efficient devices, particularly laser diodes. In this paper, we investigated the viability of new-class of InAs/InP Quantum-dash laser diode (Qdash-LD) exhibiting multiple longitudinal light modes in the L-band to carry high-speed data rate for access network applications. We exploited external and self injection-locking techniques on Qdash-LD to generate large number of stable and tunable locked modes, and compared them. To stem the capability of each locked mode as a potential subcarrier, data transmission is carried out over two mediums; single mode fiber (SMF) and free space optics (FSO) to emulate real deployment scenarios of optical networks. The results showed that with external-injection locking (EIL), an error-free transmission of 100 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) signal is demonstrated over 10 km SMF and 4 m indoor FSO channels, with capability of reaching up to 128 Gbps, demonstrated under back-to-back (BTB) configuration. On the other hand, using self-injection locking (SIL) scheme, a successful data transmission of 64 Gbps and 128 Gbps DP-QPSK signal over 20 km SMF and 10 m indoor FSO links, respectively, is achieved.

  16. Laser, tungsten inert gas, and metal active gas welding of DP780 steel: Comparison of hardness, tensile properties and fatigue resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hun; Park, Sung Hyuk; Kwon, Hyuk Sun; Kim, Gyo Sung; Lee, Chong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We report the mechanical properties of DP780 steel welded by three methods. • The size of the welded zone increases with heat input (MAG > TIG > laser). • The hardness of the welded zone increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). • Tensile and fatigue properties are strongly dependent on welding method. • Crack initiation sites depend on the microstructural features of the welded zone. - Abstract: The microstructural characteristics, tensile properties and low-cycle fatigue properties of a dual-phase steel (DP780) were investigated following its joining by three methods: laser welding, tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding, and metal active gas (MAG) welding. Through this, it was found that the size of the welded zone increases with greater heat input (MAG > TIG > laser), whereas the hardness of the weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) increases with cooling rate (laser > TIG > MAG). Consequently, laser- and TIG-welded steels exhibit higher yield strength than the base metal due to a substantially harder WM. In contrast, the strength of MAG-welded steel is reduced by a broad and soft WM and HAZ. The fatigue life of laser-and TIG-welded steel was similar, with both being greater than that of MAG-welded steel; however, the fatigue resistance of all welds was inferior to that of the non-welded base metal. Finally, crack initiation sites were found to differ depending on the microstructural characteristics of the welded zone, as well as the tensile and cyclic loading

  17. Implication of climate change on urban drainage systems of Chicago and Mainstream and DesPlaines (MS/DP) Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, H.; Schmidt, A.; Garcia, M. H.; Oberg, N.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of changing climate patterns and rainfall extremes on sewer system and river basin has been brought to attention to the researchers worldwide. In 1972, the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) adopted the Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP) to address combined sewer overflow (CSO) pollution and flooding problems in the Chicago land area. The hydrosystem laboratory in University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign developed a series of numerical models accordingly to analyze the complex hydraulic behavior of the as-built TARP system. Due to the interconnected nature of City of Chicago sewer network and MS/DP TARP system, a tightly coupled hydrological and hydraulic model MetroFlow was developed to facilitate such analysis by integrating previous developed models. This study utilized MetroFlow to predict the hydrologic/hydraulic response of the system for a set of pre-determined design and historical storm events. Accordingly, combined sewer overflows (CSO) of Chicago combined sewer system and MS/DP TARP system were evaluated under current and future weather scenarios. The total CSOs from TARP system can be considered as urban point pollution source to the surrounding receiving bodies, hence the potential impact of climate change on CSO fluxes is essential reference to wastewater infrastructure design and operations of the hydraulic regulating structures under storm events to mitigate predicted risks.

  18. Evaluate and Analysis Efficiency of Safaga Port Using DEA-CCR, BCC and SBM Models-Comparison with DP World Sokhna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ayman; Shabaan Khalil, Nabil

    2017-10-01

    The competition among maritime ports is increasing continuously; the main purpose of Safaga port is to become the best option for companies to carry out their trading activities, particularly importing and exporting The main objective of this research is to evaluate and analyze factors that may significantly affect the levels of Safaga port efficiency in Egypt (particularly the infrastructural capacity). The assessment of such efficiency is a task that must play an important role in the management of Safaga port in order to improve the possibility of development and success in commercial activities. Drawing on Data Envelopment Analysis(DEA)models, this paper develops a manner of assessing the comparative efficiency of Safaga port in Egypt during the study period 2004-2013. Previous research for port efficiencies measurement usually using radial DEA models (DEA-CCR), (DEA-BCC), but not using non radial DEA model. The research applying radial - output oriented (DEA-CCR), (DEA-BCC) and non-radial (DEA-SBM) model with ten inputs and four outputs. The results were obtained from the analysis input and output variables based on DEA-CCR, DEA-BCC and SBM models, by software Max DEA Pro 6.3. DP World Sokhna port higher efficiency for all outputs were compared to Safaga port. DP World Sokhna position is below the southern entrance to the Suez Canal, on the Red Sea, Egypt, makes it strategically located to handle cargo transiting through one of the world's busiest commercial waterways.

  19. An Experiment of Robust Parallel Algorithm for the Eigenvalue problem of a Multigroup Neutron Diffusion based on modified FETI-DP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jonghwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Parallelization of Monte Carlo simulation is widely adpoted. There are also several parallel algorithms developed for the SN transport theory using the parallel wave sweeping algorithm and for the CPM using parallel ray tracing. For practical purpose of reactor physics application, the thermal feedback and burnup effects on the multigroup cross section should be considered. In this respect, the domain decomposition method(DDM) is suitable for distributing the expensive cross section calculation work. Parallel transport code and diffusion code based on the Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element method was developed. However most of the developed methods rely on the heuristic convergence of flux and current at the domain interfaces. Convergence was not attained in some cases. Mechanical stress computation community has also work on the DDM to solve the stress-strain equation using the finite element methods. The most successful domain decomposition method in terms of robustness is FETI-DP. We have modified the original FETI-DP to solve the eigenvalue problem for the multigroup diffusion problem in this study.

  20. Genetic polymorphisms in HLA-DP and STAT4 are associated with IgA nephropathy in a Southwest Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Zhang, Junlong; Liu, Xinle; Huang, Zhuochun; Su, Zhenzhen; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lanlan

    2018-01-23

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common chronic glomerular disease worldwide. Genetic factors are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of IgAN. However, few data are available on the relationship between human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) polymorphisms and IgAN susceptibility in the Chinese population. Therefore, we examined HLA-DP/DQ and STAT4 polymorphisms (rs3077, rs9277535, rs7453920 and rs7574865) in a total of 630 subjects including 140 IgAN and 490 healthy controls in Chinese. There were significant associations between IgAN patients and healthy controls in the allele frequency of rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865. In addition, the genotypes of rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865 were also significantly associated with IgAN under recessive models. Moreover, the haplotypes block AAG, AGG, GAG and GGA in the HLA gene significantly correlated with the risk of IgAN. This is the first study demonstrating the significant associations of SNP rs3077, rs9277535 and rs7574865 and the haplotypes in the HLA gene with the risk of IgAN in a Southwest Chinese population. This research provides a new insight into the significant relationship between HLA-DP and STAT4 polymorphisms and the susceptibility to IgAN.