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Sample records for idiotype-anti-t15 idiotype ic

  1. Deposition of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes in renal glomeruli after polyclonal B cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.; Rose, L.M.; Hochmann, A.; Lambert, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    We investigated the possible role of idiotypic interactions in the pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions observed in mice undergoing polyclonal B cell activation. BALB/c mice were studied for the presence of renal deposits of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype-immune complexes (IC) after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The T15 idiotype is the major idiotype of BALB/c mice anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) antibodies, which are cross-reactive with the idiotype of the TEPC-15 myeloma protein. This model was used because T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC have been detected in the circulation of BALB/c mice after polyclonal B cell activation. First, an idiotype-specific immunofluorescence technique allowed us to detect T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins in glomeruli from day 6 to day 28 after LPS injection. Second, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated TEPC-15 myeloma protein was found to localize in the glomeruli after in vivo injection 18 d after LPS administration. This renal localization was shown to be idiotype-specific and could be quantified in a trace-labeling experiment. Third, kidney-deposited immunoglobulins of mice injected with LPS were eluted, radiolabeled, and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Both T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins and anti-T15 idiotype antibodies were detected in the eluates, providing further evidence for a renal deposition of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC. Polyclonal B cell activation is likely to result in a simultaneous triggering of many idiotypic clones and of corresponding anti-idiotypic clones represented in the B cell repertoire. This could lead to the formation of a variety of idiotype-anti-idiotype IC that could participate in the development of glomerular lesions

  2. Idiotypic vaccinations: consideration towards a practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, K; Emmrich, F; Kaufmann, S H

    1987-01-01

    We review the theoretical background as well as the available experimental data in animals and man on the possible use of anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines for the prevention of infectious diseases. In the first part, the basic experiments and concepts that fostered the idea of idiotypic vaccination are discussed. Although many basic aspects are still unknown, we conclude that the immune system can take antibody variable domains as representatives ("semiotypes") of foreign antigens not only in special cases, but also in a general sense. Among the major areas to be studied further are the events that regulate response to antibody in relation to those that regulate responses to antigen. Initial experiments suggest that responses to antibody may be directed intentionally towards a desired outcome. In the second part, we evaluate the actual medical need for idiotypic vaccination. We conclude that most novel vaccination regimes are likely to be developed with the help of protein chemistry and gene technology. Idiotypic vaccines may become applicable only in special, well-defined situations, such as cases of nonresponsiveness to antigen or cases of severe dysregulation of immunity by the antigen. The third part of the article deals with experimental models for idiotypic vaccination. A number of groups have performed protection experiments in various model infections of experimental animals using anti-idiotypic antibodies as vaccines. In a fair number of cases, involving infections with viral, bacterial, and parasitic microorganisms, protection has been successfully induced. In the fourth part, we summarize studies on idiotype expression in human antigen-driven immune responses. The limited data available suggest that human idiotype expression follows similar rules as in experimental animals. In particular, widely cross-relative idiotopes are readily detected using monoclonal anti-idiotopes. Antibodies to such idiotopes reacted with major proportions of the antibodies

  3. Idiotypic network. Assay and use of anti-idiotype antibodies in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revillard, J.P.; Oliva, Ph.

    1988-01-01

    After a brief history of idotypes, the structural basis of antibody and T cell receptor (Ti) diversity, the definition of various types of idiotopes, the idiotypic cascade and the network concept are presented. Some anti-idiotypic antibodies represent the internal image of the antigen and may be used to prepare anti-idiotypic vaccines. Other anti-idiotypic antibodies bind to cellular receptors and can mimick or antagonize the biological effects of the natural ligands (hormones, neurotransmitters etc...). The concept of regulatory idiotopes (Idx) and their use in the manipulation of the network offer new possibilities for the control for auto-antibody production. The main medical applications of idiotypy are briefly considered including cancer, transplantation, allergy and auto-immune diseases. Finally the methodology applicable to the detection and titration of anti-idiotypes is described [fr

  4. Idiotypic networks incorporating T-B cell co-operation. The conditions for percolation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, R.J. de; Hogeweg, P.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work was concerned with symmetric immune networks of idiotypic interactions amongst B cell clones. The behaviour of these networks was contrary to expectations. This was caused by an extensive percolation of idiotypic signals. Idiotypic activation was thus expected to affect almost all

  5. Modulation of immune response to Lol p I by pretreatment with anti-idiotypic antibody is not restricted to the idiotypic expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1994-05-01

    To study the role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune response to Lol p I (the major allergenic component of rye grass pollen), we have recently generated a panel of three MoAbs directed against distinct epitopes of Lolp I and an anti-idiotypic MoAb directed against the idiotype borne by one of the anti-Lol p I MoAbs (290A-167). The effects of pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb in BALB/c mice before immunization with the antigen have been examined. The anti-idiotypic MoAb or unrelated MoAb were given weekly for 8 weeks intraperitoneally. Mice then received the antigen (2 micrograms) adsorbed with alum (2 mg) at weeks 9, 11 and 13. Serum anti-Lol p I antibodies (IgG or IgE) and specific idiotypic responses were measured. Anti-Lol p I IgG antibodies could be detected before immunization with Lol p I only in mice pretreated with anti-idiotypic MoAb. Immunization with Lol p I induced an anti-Lol p I IgG response in both groups, but this response was higher in mice that received anti-idiotypic MoAb. Similar profiles were seen for specific IgE antibodies and idiotypic responses. Surprisingly, idiotypes borne by other anti-Lol p I MoAbs (539A-6 and 348A-6) had also been enhanced after pretreatment with the anti-290A-167 MoAb. These observations suggested that the pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb modulates not only the expression of the respective idiotype, but also affects other idiotype responses.

  6. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab') 2 of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous 125 I-F(ab') 2 (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab') 2 derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab') 2 of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against 125 I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations

  7. Structural basis for the recognition in an idiotype-anti-idiotype antibody complex related to celiac disease

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2014-07-30

    Anti-idiotype antibodies have potential therapeutic applications in many fields, including autoimmune diseases. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of AIM2, an anti-idiotype antibody elicited in a mouse model upon expression of the celiac disease-specific autoantibody MB2.8 (directed against the main disease autoantigen type 2 transglutaminase, TG2). To characterize the interaction between the two antibodies, a 3D model of the MB2.8-AIM2 complex has been obtained by molecular docking. Analysis and selection of the different obtained docking solutions was based on the conservation within them of the inter-residue contacts. The selected model is very well representative of the different solutions found and its stability is confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, the binding mode it adopts is very similar to that observed in most of the experimental structures available for idiotype-anti-idiotype antibody complexes. In the obtained model, AIM2 is directed against the MB2.8 CDR region, especially on its variable light chain. This makes the concurrent formation of the MB2.8-AIM2 complex and of the MB2.8-TG2 complex incompatible, thus explaining the experimentally observed inhibitory effect on the MB2.8 binding to TG2. © 2014 Vangone et al.

  8. Structural basis for the recognition in an idiotype-anti-idiotype antibody complex related to celiac disease

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Caputo, Ivana; Sblattero, Daniele; Di Niro, Roberto; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina

    2014-01-01

    Anti-idiotype antibodies have potential therapeutic applications in many fields, including autoimmune diseases. Herein we report the isolation and characterization of AIM2, an anti-idiotype antibody elicited in a mouse model upon expression of the celiac disease-specific autoantibody MB2.8 (directed against the main disease autoantigen type 2 transglutaminase, TG2). To characterize the interaction between the two antibodies, a 3D model of the MB2.8-AIM2 complex has been obtained by molecular docking. Analysis and selection of the different obtained docking solutions was based on the conservation within them of the inter-residue contacts. The selected model is very well representative of the different solutions found and its stability is confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Furthermore, the binding mode it adopts is very similar to that observed in most of the experimental structures available for idiotype-anti-idiotype antibody complexes. In the obtained model, AIM2 is directed against the MB2.8 CDR region, especially on its variable light chain. This makes the concurrent formation of the MB2.8-AIM2 complex and of the MB2.8-TG2 complex incompatible, thus explaining the experimentally observed inhibitory effect on the MB2.8 binding to TG2. © 2014 Vangone et al.

  9. Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolf, J.M.; Gaudin, H.M.; Tirrell, S.M.; MacDonald, A.B.; Eidels, L.

    1989-01-01

    An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against the combining site (idiotype) of specific anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies was characterized with respect to its interaction with highly diphtheria toxin-sensitive Vero cells. Although the anti-idiotypic serum protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, it did not prevent the binding of 125 I-labeled diphtheria toxin to the cells but did inhibit the internalization and degradation of 125 I-labeled toxin. This anti-idiotypic serum immunoprecipitated a cell-surface protein from radiolabeled Vero cells with an apparent Mr of approximately 15,000. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anti-idiotypic serum contains antibodies that carry an internal image of an internalization site on the toxin and that a cell-surface protein involved in toxin internalization possesses a complementary site recognized by both the toxin and the anti-idiotypic antibodies

  10. Anti-idiotypic antibodies that protect cells against the action of diphtheria toxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolf, J.M.; Gaudin, H.M.; Tirrell, S.M.; MacDonald, A.B.; Eidels, L.

    1989-03-01

    An anti-idiotypic serum prepared against the combining site (idiotype) of specific anti-diphtheria toxoid antibodies was characterized with respect to its interaction with highly diphtheria toxin-sensitive Vero cells. Although the anti-idiotypic serum protected Vero cells against the cytotoxic action of diphtheria toxin, it did not prevent the binding of /sup 125/I-labeled diphtheria toxin to the cells but did inhibit the internalization and degradation of /sup 125/I-labeled toxin. This anti-idiotypic serum immunoprecipitated a cell-surface protein from radiolabeled Vero cells with an apparent Mr of approximately 15,000. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the anti-idiotypic serum contains antibodies that carry an internal image of an internalization site on the toxin and that a cell-surface protein involved in toxin internalization possesses a complementary site recognized by both the toxin and the anti-idiotypic antibodies.

  11. A sensitive radioimmunoassay for the detection of monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morahan, G.

    1983-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay was developed in order to detect anti-idiotypic antibodies in the supernatants of hybrid cells. This assay is both sensitive and specific for anti-idiotypic (but not anti-allotypic) antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies present in test supernatants are bound by an anti-immunoglobulin coated solid phase. Subsequent incubation with a source of mouse immunoglobulin 'blocks' unreacted anti-immunoglobulin antibodies on the solid phase. Anti-idiotypic antibodies are then detected by their ability to bind 125 I-labelled idiotype-bearing antibody. This paper describes the use of this assay to detect monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies in 2 systems; the cross-reactive idiotype of A/J anti-ABA antibodies, and the idiotype expressed by the myeloma protein HOPC 8. Similarly, 125 I-labelled anti-idiotype antibodies may be used in this assay to detect monoclonal idiotype-bearing antibodies. Further modifications are described which would allow the detection of monoclonal anti-allotype antibodies. (Auth.)

  12. [Study of anti-idiotype antibodies to human monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, R; Takahashi, N; Owaki, I; Kannagi, R; Endo, N; Morita, N; Inoue, M

    1992-02-01

    A human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 (IgM, lambda), was generated, which reacted specifically with a major of glycolipid present in LS174T colon cancer cells. The glycolipid antigen which reacted with the ll-50 antibody was expected to four sugar residues from its TLC mobility, and it was ascertained that the glycolipid antigen which reacted with ll-50 antibody might be Lc4 antigen [Gal beta 1----3 GLcNAc beta 1----3 Gal beta 1----4 Glc beta 1----1 Cer] judging from TLC immunostaining and ELISA when the reactivity of ll-50 antibody was tested using various pure glycolipids in 3-5 sugar residues as an antigen. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated ll-50 antibody. The serum of the Lc4 antigen recognized by ll-50 antibody was significantly higher in patients with malignant disorders than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). Three mouse monoclonal anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3 and C5 (all IgG1), were generated by the immunization of BALB/c mice with ll-50 antibody. These anti-idiotype antibodies specifically bound to to human monoclonal antibody, ll-50 and had a significant inhibitory activity towards the binding of ll-50 antibody to the Lc4 antigen. This indicated that these anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5, were paratope-related anti-idiotype antibodies. G3, B3, and C5 were expected to define the nearest idiotope because they could mutually inhibit ll-50 antibody. Sera in patients with malignant disorders and healthy individuals were analyzed by Sandwich assay of immobilized and biotinylated anti-idiotype antibodies, G3, B3, and C5. As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by C5 (Id-C5+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher than that in healthy individuals (p less than 0.05). As to the ll-50 like antibodies defined by B3 (Id-B3+), the mean serum level in patients with malignant disorders was significantly higher

  13. Characterization of a purified nicotinic receptor from rat brain by using idiotypic and anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abood, L.G.; Langone, J.J.; Bjercke, R.; Lu, X.; Banerjee, S.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of an anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody has made it possible to further establish the nature of the nicotine recognition proteins purified from rat brain by affinity chromatography and to provide a highly sensitive assay for determining [ 3 H]nicotine binding to the purified material. An enantiomeric analogue of nicotine. (-)-6-hydroxymethylnicotine, was used to prepare the affinity column. In addition, with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody, it was confirmed that the recognition site for nicotine resides on a protein complex composed of two components with molecular masses of 62 and 57 kDa. It was also demonstrated that the same two proteins could be purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with the use of an anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody. With the use of the anti-nicotine antibody to measure [ 3 H]nicotine binding, the purified material was shown to bind 250 pmol/mg of protein. By utilizing a procedure in which the purified receptor protein was conjugated to membranes by disulfide bonds, a binding activity of 80 pmol/mg was obtained. With the availability of sterospecific monoclonal antibodies to (-)-nicotine as well as monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies derived when the anti-nicotine antibodies were used as immunogens, additional procedures became available for the further characterization of the purified nicotine receptor and examining its (-)-[ 3 H]nicotine-binding characteristics

  14. The main immunogenic region of acetylcholine receptors does not provoke the formation of antibodies of a predominant idiotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, J A; Hochschwender, S M; Lindstrom, J M

    1985-08-01

    Anti-idiotype antibodies were induced in rats by immunization with rat monoclonal antibodies to the main immunogenic region of acetylcholine receptors. These anti-idiotype antibodies showed very little crossreaction with other rat monoclonal antibodies which bind to the same region of the receptor. When the rats producing these anti-idiotype antibodies were immunized with receptor, they showed no net decrease in anti-receptor antibody production. These data indicate that, although more than half of the antibodies produced by rats immunized with receptor are directed at a small region, many anti-receptor idiotypes are involved in this response and anti-idiotype therapy is not beneficial.

  15. Anti-idiotypes against a monoclonal anti-haloperidol antibody bind to dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elazar, Z.; Kanety, H.; Schreiber, M.; Fuchs, S.

    1988-01-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies were raised in rabbits by immunization with a monoclonal anti-haloperidol antibody. Some of these anti-idiotypic antibodies bind in a concentration dependent manner to bovine striatal membranes. Following affinity purification, these antibodies inhibit haloperidol binding to striatal membranes and deplete [ 3 H]-spiperone binding sites from a solubilized preparation of striatal membranes. It is thus concluded that these anti-idiotypic antibodies are an internal image of haloperidol and as such can interact with D 2 -dopamine receptors

  16. Binding-site analysis of opioid receptors using monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Structural relatedness between the variable region of anti-ligand antibodies and opioid binding sites allowed the generation of anti-idiotypic antibodies which recognized opioid receptors. The IgG 3 k antibodies which bound to opioid receptors were obtained when an anti-morphine antiserum was the idiotype. Both antibodies bound to opioid receptors, but only one of these blocked the binding of [ 3 H]naloxone. The antibody which did not inhibit the binding of [ 3 H]naloxone was itself displaced from the receptor by opioid ligands. The unique binding properties displayed by this antibody indicated that anti-idiotypic antibodies are not always a perfect image of the original ligand, and therefore may be more useful than typical ligands as probes for the receptor. An auto-anti-idiotypic technique was successfully used to obtain anti-opioid receptor antibodies. Another IgG 3 k antibody that blocked the binding of [ 3 H]naloxone to rat brain opioid receptors was obtained when a mouse was immunized with naloxone conjugated to bovine serum albumin. These data confirmed that an idiotype-anti-idiotype network which can generate an anti-receptor antibody normally functions when an opioid ligand is introduced into an animal in an immunogenic form

  17. Men and IC

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    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  18. IC Treatment: Surgical Procedures

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    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  19. IC: Frequently Asked Questions

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    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  20. General IC Symptoms

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    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ...

  1. Children and IC

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    ... Cola, and Orange Crush, for example), Kool-Aid, chocolate, and many fruits, fruit juices and drinks (including ... Guideline IC Treatments IC Diet & Self Management Physical Therapy Antidepressants Antihistamines Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium Bladder Instillations Immunosuppresants ...

  2. Insight into the potential for DNA idiotypic fusion vaccines designed for patients by analysing xenogeneic anti-idiotypic antibody responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forconi, Francesco; King, Catherine A; Sahota, Surinder S; Kennaway, Christopher K; Russell, Nigel H; Stevenson, Freda K

    2002-01-01

    DNA vaccines induce immune responses against encoded proteins, and have clear potential for cancer vaccines. For B-cell tumours, idiotypic (Id) immunoglobulin encoded by the variable region genes provides a target antigen. When assembled as single chain Fv (scFv), and fused to an immunoenhancing sequence from tetanus toxin (TT), DNA fusion vaccines induce anti-Id antibodies. In lymphoma models, these antibodies have a critical role in mediating protection. For application to patients with lymphoma, two questions arise: first, whether pre-existing antibody against TT affects induction of anti-scFv antibodies; second, whether individual human scFv fusion sequences are able to fold consistently to generate antibodies able to recognize private conformational Id determinants expressed by tumour cells. Using xenogeneic vaccination with scFv sequences from four patients, we have shown that pre-existing anti-TT immunity slows, but does not prevent, anti-Id antibody responses. To determine folding, we have monitored the ability of nine DNAscFv–FrC patients' vaccines to induce xenogeneic anti-Id antibodies. Antibodies were induced in all cases, and were strikingly specific for each patient's immunoglobulin with little cross-reactivity between patients, even when similar VH or VL genes were involved. Blocking experiments with human serum confirmed reactivity against private determinants in 26–97% of total antibody. Both immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a subclasses were present at 1·3 : 1–15 : 1 consistent with a T helper 2-dominated response. Xenogeneic vaccination provides a simple route for testing individual patients' DNAscFv–FrC fusion vaccines, and offers a strategy for production of anti-Id antibodies. The findings underpin the approach of DNA idiotypic fusion vaccination for patients with B-cell tumours. PMID:12225361

  3. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic vaccination: more than molecular mimicry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez, Ana M. H.; Rodrèguez-Zhurbenko, Nely; López, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment, but the effectiveness of these treatments has reached a plateau. Thus, other strategies are being explored to combine with the current treatment paradigms in order to reach better clinical results. One of these approaches is the active immunotherapy based on the induction of anti-tumor responses by anti-idiotypic vaccination. This approach arose from Jerne’s idiotypic network theory, which postulates that B lymphocytes forms a functional network, with a role in the establishment of the immune repertoires, in the regulation of natural antibody production and even in the establishment of natural tolerance. Due to the large potential diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotypes repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes, even those of non-protein nature, like gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that have been considered attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy, based on the qualitative and quantitative changes they suffer during malignant transformation and due to their importance for tumor biology. Although any idiotype could be able to mimic any antigen, only those related to antigens involved in functions relevant for organism homeostasis, and that in consequence has been fixed by evolution, would be able not only to mimic, but also to activate the idiotypic cascades related with the nominal antigen. The present review updates the results, failures and hopes, obtained with ganglioside mimicking anti-idiotypic antibodies and presents evidences of the existence of a natural response against gangliosides, suggesting that these glycolipids could be idiotypically relevant antigens.

  4. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic vaccination: more than molecular mimicry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María eHernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment, but the effectiveness of these treatments has reached a plateau. Thus, other strategies are being explored to combine with the current treatment paradigms in order to reach better clinical results. One of these approaches is the active immunotherapy based on the induction of anti-tumor responses by anti-idiotypic vaccination. This approach arose from Jerne’s idiotypic network theory, which postulates that B lymphocytes forms a functional network, with a role in the establishment of the immune repertoires, in the regulation of natural antibody production and even in the establishment of natural tolerance. Due to the large potential diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotypes repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes, even those of non-protein nature, like gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that have been considered attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy, based on the qualitative and quantitative changes they suffer during malignant transformation and due to their importance for tumor biology. Although any idiotype could be able to mimic any antigen, only those related to antigens involved in functions relevant for organism homeostasis, and that in consequence has been fixed by evolution, would be able not only to mimic, but also to activate the idiotypic cascades related with the nominal antigen. The present review updates the results, failures and hopes, obtained with ganglioside mimicking anti-idiotypic antibodies and presents evidences of the existence of a natural response against gangliosides, suggesting that these glycolipids could be idiotypically relevant antigens.

  5. Anti-ganglioside anti-idiotypic vaccination: more than molecular mimicry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez, Ana M. H.; Rodrèguez-Zhurbenko, Nely; López, Ana M. V., E-mail: anita@cim.sld.cu [Tumor Immunology Direction, Center of Molecular Immunology, Habana (Cuba)

    2012-11-20

    Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy are standard modalities for cancer treatment, but the effectiveness of these treatments has reached a plateau. Thus, other strategies are being explored to combine with the current treatment paradigms in order to reach better clinical results. One of these approaches is the active immunotherapy based on the induction of anti-tumor responses by anti-idiotypic vaccination. This approach arose from Jerne’s idiotypic network theory, which postulates that B lymphocytes forms a functional network, with a role in the establishment of the immune repertoires, in the regulation of natural antibody production and even in the establishment of natural tolerance. Due to the large potential diversity of the immunoglobulin variable regions, the idiotypes repertoire can mimic the universe of self and foreign epitopes, even those of non-protein nature, like gangliosides. Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycolipids that have been considered attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy, based on the qualitative and quantitative changes they suffer during malignant transformation and due to their importance for tumor biology. Although any idiotype could be able to mimic any antigen, only those related to antigens involved in functions relevant for organism homeostasis, and that in consequence has been fixed by evolution, would be able not only to mimic, but also to activate the idiotypic cascades related with the nominal antigen. The present review updates the results, failures and hopes, obtained with ganglioside mimicking anti-idiotypic antibodies and presents evidences of the existence of a natural response against gangliosides, suggesting that these glycolipids could be idiotypically relevant antigens.

  6. Induction and characterization of monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies reactive with idiotopes of canine parvovirus neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); J. van Es (Johan); G.A. Drost; F.G.C.M. Uytdehaag (Fons); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractMonoclonal anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (Ab2) were generated against idiotypes (Id) of canine parvovirus (CPV) specific monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs). The binding of most of these anti-Id antibodies to their corresponding Id could be inhibited by antigen, thus classifying these

  7. Expression and regulation of two idiotype families and subsets within an idiotype family among BALB/c antibodies against p-azophenylarsonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    The expression and regulation of the two different iodiotype (id) families associated with the anti-p-azophenylarsonate (Ar) antibodies of BALB/c mice examined. Both families (5AF6 and 3C6) represented cross-reactive idiotypes (CRI) expressed in the anti-Ar of most individual BALB/c mice. In response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-Ar, an average of about 28% of BALB/c anti-Ar had 5AF6 family idiotopes, while 3C6 family was expressed on about 16% of BALBc anti-Ar antibodies. Suppression induced by anti-idiotype treatment against one family did not suppress the expression of the other family suggesting that the two families were regulated independently. However, the relative expression of one family could influence the expression of the other, because depression of the 5AF6 family tended to increase the expression of the 3C6 family of anti-Ar. Analysis of the 5AF6 family showed that a majority of BALB/c mice produced antibodies heating most or all of the idiotopes associated with the family, but that a subset of about 35% of the antibodies synthesized lacked idiotopes associated with a monoclonal anti-Ar member of this family, 2.4. Treatment of mice with anti-idiotypes prepared against two different monoclonal anti-Ar of the 5AF6 family produced different effects: one enhanced while the other suppressed idiotype expression, suggesting that there are differences in the idiotopes associated with these two regulatory pathways. Additionally, results indicated that subsets of antibodies within the 5AF6 idiotype family could be regulated independently of each other

  8. Pregnancy and IC

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    ... have not already done so, try to identify foods, beverages, and supplements that are irritating to your bladder ... Other Medicines Over-the-counter Medicines Pain Management Management of IC ... Diet Food Diaries Least and Most Bothersome Foods IC-Friendly ...

  9. IC Associated Conditions

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    ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Newly Diagnosed Toolkit IC Awareness Toolkit Know ... Bowel Syndrome Lupus Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pudendal Neuralgia Sjogren’s Syndrome Vulvodynia Click to learn more about these and ...

  10. LD to IC

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    LC to IC – Publication of posts: Following the publication of new LD to IC posts, we regret that a large number of post descriptions are not available in both CERN official languages, English and French. Consequently, the Staff Association has decided to provide assistance to those who need it with the translation of one or more posts of interest. To do this, please contact the Staff Association secretariat, tel. 72819 or 72761 or 74224.

  11. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus antibodies in commercial immunoglubulin preparations, human serum and milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Hahn-Zoric; B. Carlsson; S. Jeansson; H.P. Ekre; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D. Roberton; L.A. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOur previous studies have suggested that fetal antibody production can be induced by maternal antiidiotypic antibodies transferred to the fetus via the placenta. We tested commercial Ig, sera, and milk for the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus type 1, using affinity

  12. Self-tolerance in a minimal model of the idiotypic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Robert; Werner, Benjamin; Behn, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of self-tolerance in the frame of a minimalistic model of the idiotypic network. A node of this network represents a population of B-lymphocytes of the same idiotype, which is encoded by a bit string. The links of the network connect nodes with (nearly) complementary strings. The population of a node survives if the number of occupied neighbors is not too small and not too large. There is an influx of lymphocytes with random idiotype from the bone marrow. Previous investigations have shown that this system evolves toward highly organized architectures, where the nodes can be classified into groups according to their statistical properties. The building principles of these architectures can be analytically described and the statistical results of simulations agree very well with results of a modular mean-field theory. In this paper, we present simulation results for the case that one or several nodes, playing the role of self, are permanently occupied. These self nodes influence their linked neighbors, the autoreactive clones, but are themselves not affected by idiotypic interactions. We observe that the group structure of the architecture is very similar to the case without self antigen, but organized such that the neighbors of the self are only weakly occupied, thus providing self-tolerance. We also treat this situation in mean-field theory, which give results in good agreement with data from simulation. The model supports the view that autoreactive clones, which naturally occur also in healthy organisms are controlled by anti-idiotypic interactions, and could be helpful to understand network aspects of autoimmune disorders.

  13. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Requena, Alejandro; Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela

    2012-01-01

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  14. Idiotypes as immunogens: facing the challenge of inducing strong therapeutic immune responses against the variable region of immunoglobulins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Requena, Alejandro [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Immunobiology Division, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Bioengineering Research Institute, Biotech Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Beijing (China); Burrone, Oscar R.; Cesco-Gaspere, Michela, E-mail: cescogaspere@gmail.com [Molecular Immunology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-11-09

    Idiotype (Id)-based immunotherapy has been exploited as cancer treatment option. Conceived as therapy for malignancies bearing idiotypic antigens, it has been also extended to solid tumors because of the capacity of anti-idiotypic antibodies to mimic Id-unrelated antigens. In both these two settings, efforts are being made to overcome the poor immune responsiveness often experienced when using self immunoglobulins as immunogens. Despite bearing a unique gene combination, and thus particular epitopes, it is normally difficult to stimulate the immune response against antibody variable regions. Different strategies are currently used to strengthen Id immunogenicity, such as concomitant use of immune-stimulating molecules, design of Id-containing immunogenic recombinant proteins, specific targeting of relevant immune cells, and genetic immunization. This review focuses on the role of anti-Id vaccination in cancer management and on the current developments used to foster anti-idiotypic B and T cell responses.

  15. The oiling of ICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The incident command system (ICS) works for oil spills. It should be the industry standard and some will argue that it already is. But there are a number of temptations to fiddle with it. Fueling these inclinations is the fundamental difference between oil spills and natural disasters: Oil spills make the perpetrator fix the problem - under heavy oversight. Add to this difference the public outcry that attends oil spills and the dual role of government as both helper and prosecutor. From these conditions emerge adaptations of ICS which both weaken and strengthen it. The benefits of ICS are diminished by deputy incident commanders who block unified commanders from access to section chiefs, over-zealous crisis managers who displace command post decisions or its information office, separate press offices with party line slants, government law enforcement activity mixed into spill response, nonstandard operations terminology and structure involving open-quotes containment and clean upclose quotes or open-quotes salvage,close quotes and the commingling of public and private response funds. ICS's application to oil spill response is strengthened by the use of trained unified commanders, deputy incident commanders who operate as staff rather than line, crisis managers who support on-scene objectives, joint information centers, and heavy involvement of skilled, prepared environmental assessment teams in the planning section who generate priorities, strategies, and (operationally coordinated) tactics. Technically, not all these points constitute alterations of ICS, but most do and the others come close. This mixed bag of strengthening and weakening tweaks to oil spill ICS provides an opportunity to take a new look at this faithful friend to the crisis responder

  16. Anti-idiotypic antibodies directed against anti-HBs among the patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Suzuki, H; Ueno, Y; Nagatomi, R; Kanno, A; Otsuki, M; Toyota, T

    1990-08-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id) against anti-HBs were found in the sera of patients with chronic hepatitis type B. Anti-idiotypic antibodies were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using horseradish peroxidase conjugated mouse monoclonal anti-HBs. Ten of 72 HBsAg positive sera contained anti-Id (13.9%). The prevalence of anti-Id did not appear to correlate with HBeAg/anti-HBe system. However, HB virus specific DNA polymerase activity was significantly higher in anti-Id positive sera. In the sera obtained from the patients treated with predonisolone before, anti-Id positive rate was higher than that in the patients without a history of predonisolone therapy. These results suggest that anti-Id may be related to the immunoregulatory mechanism of HB virus replication.

  17. Suppression of immune response to Lol pI by administration of idiotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1995-03-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by an increased production of specific IgE antibodies. Suppression of IgE antibody production may be accomplished through idiotypic manipulation. Using an animal model, we explored the effects of anti-Lol pI monoclonal antibody administration on the subsequent IgE and IgG antibody response against Lol pI. Mice were treated with an anti-Lol pI monoclonal antibody (290A-167), which resulted in the production of anti-idiotypic antibodies as evidenced by their ability to bind to the Fab fraction of 290A-167 and to inhibit the binding of rabbit polyclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies to 290A-167. The animals were then immunized with Lol pI adsorbed onto alum, and the immune response to the protein was analyzed. Antigen-specific IgG1 and IgE responses were strongly suppressed as determined by immunoassay. Suppression of anti-Lol pI IgE antibodies was confirmed by a reduction of end-point titers measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. The suppression of antigen-specific antibody was accompanied by a reduction of anti-Lol pI antibody-producing spleen cells. These data indicate that pretreatment with 290A-167 can strongly downregulate the IgE response to the main allergen of ryegrass pollen, which is associated with an increase in anti-idiotypic antibodies. This approach could provide rapid, long-term hyposensitization in patients with grass pollen allergy.

  18. Quasispecies dynamics on a network of interacting genotypes and idiotypes: formulation of the model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Valmir C.; Donangelo, Raul; Souza, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    A quasispecies is the stationary state of a set of interrelated genotypes that evolve according to the usual principles of selection and mutation. Quasispecies studies have for the most part concentrated on the possibility of errors during genotype replication and their role in promoting either the survival or the demise of the quasispecies. In a previous work, we introduced a network model of quasispecies dynamics, based on a single probability parameter (p) and capable of addressing several plausibility issues of previous models. Here we extend that model by pairing its network with another one aimed at modeling the dynamics of the immune system when confronted with the quasispecies. The new network is based on the idiotypic-network model of immunity and, together with the previous one, constitutes a network model of interacting genotypes and idiotypes. The resulting model requires further parameters and as a consequence leads to a vast phase space. We have focused on a particular niche in which it is possible to observe the trade-offs involved in the quasispecies' survival or destruction. Within this niche, we give simulation results that highlight some key preconditions for quasispecies survival. These include a minimum initial abundance of genotypes relative to that of the idiotypes and a minimum value of p. The latter, in particular, is to be contrasted with the stand-alone quasispecies network of our previous work, in which arbitrarily low values of p constitute a guarantee of quasispecies survival.

  19. Security 1E10 anti-idiotypic vaccine in patients with tumors of different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Viada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a leading cause of death in Cuba and the world. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death, breast cancer is the second leading cause of death and colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of death. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is a new immunotherapeutic agent, registered for lung cancer by the Center for Molecular Immunology (CIM. You want to evaluate the safety of this vaccine in the treatment of various cancer sites. To determine the safety adverse events occurred in six clinical trials (one stage I lung, 3 phase II in breast, colon and lung, 1 phase II-III and program expanded use, both in lung were evaluated. 656 patients were studied. Demographic variables, the characteristics of the disease and adverse events were measured. The studies were balanced with respect to baseline characteristics. The most common adverse events were local reactions associated with 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine and systemic reactions of mild or moderate intensity that were not related to the administration of the vaccine under study. The 1E10 anti-idiotype vaccine is safe for the low frequency and intensity of adverse events reported.

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibody: A new strategy for the development of a growth hormone receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hainan; Zheng, Xin; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Li, Steven

    2015-11-01

    In general, traditional growth hormone receptor antagonist can be divided into two major classes: growth hormone (GH) analogues and anti-growth hormone receptor (GHR) antibodies. Herein, we tried to explore a new class of growth hormone receptor (GHR) antagonist that may have potential advantages over the traditional antagonists. For this, we developed a monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody growth hormone, termed CG-86. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate this antibody, and the results from a competitive receptor-binding assay, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) and epitope mapping demonstrate that CG-86 behaved as a typical Ab2β. Next, we examined its antagonistic activity using in vitro cell models, and the results showed that CG-86 could effectively inhibit growth hormone receptor-mediated signalling and effectively inhibit growth hormone-induced Ba/F3-GHR638 proliferation. In summary, these studies show that an anti-idiotypic antibody (CG-86) has promise as a novel growth hormone receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the current findings also suggest that anti-idiotypic antibody may represent a novel strategy to produce a new class of growth hormone receptor antagonist, and this strategy may be applied with other cytokines or growth factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Generation of anti-idiotype scFv for pharmacokinetic measurement in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical and clinical studies of therapeutic antibodies require highly specific reagents to examine their immune responses, bio-distributions, immunogenicity, and pharmacodynamics in patients. Selective antigen-mimicking anti-idiotype antibody facilitates the assessment of therapeutic antibody in the detection, quantitation and characterization of antibody immune responses. Using mouse specific degenerate primer pairs and splenocytic RNA, we generated an idiotype antibody-immunized phage-displayed scFv library in which an anti-idiotype antibody against the therapeutic chimera anti-CD22 antibody SM03 was isolated. The anti-idiotype scFv recognized the idiotype of anti-CD22 antibody and inhibited binding of SM03 to CD22 on Raji cell surface. The anti-idiotype scFv was subsequently classified as Ab2γ type. Moreover, our results also demonstrated firstly that the anti-idiotype scFv could be used for pharmacokinetic measurement of circulating residual antibody in lymphoma patients treated with chimera anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody SM03. Of important, the present approach could be easily adopted to generate anti-idiotype antibodies for therapeutic antibodies targeting membrane proteins, saving the cost and time for producing a soluble antigen.

  2. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  3. Generation of anti-idiotype antibodies for application in clinical immunotherapy laboratory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhanqi; Panousis, Con; Smyth, Fiona E; Murphy, Roger; Wirth, Veronika; Cartwright, Glenn; Johns, Terrance G; Scott, Andrew M

    2003-08-01

    The chimeric monoclonal antibody ch806 specifically targets the tumor-associated mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (de 2-7EGFR or EGFRVIII) and is currently under investigation for its potential use in cancer therapy. The humanised monoclonal antibody hu3S193 specifically targets the Lewis Y epithelial antigen and is currently in Phase I clinical trials in patients with advanced breast, colon, and ovarian carcinomas. To assist the clinical evaluation of ch806 and hu3S193, laboratory assays are required to monitor their serum pharmacokinetics and quantitate any immune responses to the antibodies. Mice immunized with ch806 or hu3S193 were used to generate hybridomas producing antibodies with specific binding to ch806 or hu3S193 and competitive for antigen binding. These anti-idiotype antibodies (designated Ludwig Melbourne Hybridomas, LMH) were investigated as reagents suitable for use as positive controls for HAHA or HACA analyses and for measuring hu3S193 or ch806 in human serum. Anti-idiotypes with the ability to concurrently bind two target antibody molecules were identified, which enabled the development of highly reproducible, sensitive, specific ELISA assays for determining serum concentrations of hu3S193 and ch806 with a 3 ng/mL limit of quantitation using LMH-3 and LMH-12, respectively. BIAcore analyses determined high apparent binding affinity for both idiotypes: LMH-3 binding immobilized hu3S193, Ka = 4.76 x 10(8) M(-1); LMH-12 binding immobilised ch806, Ka = 1.74 x 10(9) M(-1). Establishment of HAHA or HACA analysis of sera samples using BIAcore was possible using LMH-3 and LMH-12 as positive controls for quantitation of immune responses to hu3S193 or ch806 in patient sera. These anti-idiotypes could also be used to study the penetrance and binding of ch806 or hu3S193 to tumor cells through immunohistochemical analysis of tumor biopsies. The generation of anti-idiotype antibodies capable of concurrently binding a target antibody on each variable

  4. Irregular Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image (left) and visual image (right) of the irregular dwarf galaxy IC 1613. Low surface brightness galaxies, such as IC 1613, are more easily detected in the ultraviolet because of the low background levels compared to visual wavelengths.

  5. Phage-Mediated Competitive Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for Detecting Cry1Ab Toxin by Using an Anti-Idiotypic Camel Nanobody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yulou; Li, Pan; Dong, Sa; Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Qianru; Wang, Yulong; Ge, Jing; Hammock, Bruce D; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin

    2018-01-31

    Cry toxins have been widely used in genetically modified organisms for pest control, raising public concern regarding their effects on the natural environment and food safety. In this work, a phage-mediated competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay (c-CLIA) was developed for determination of Cry1Ab toxin using anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies. By extracting RNA from camels' peripheral blood lymphocytes, a naive phage-displayed nanobody library was established. Using anti-Cry1Ab toxin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the library for anti-idiotypic antibody screening, four anti-idiotypic nanobodies were selected and confirmed to be specific for anti-Cry1Ab mAb binding. Thereafter, a c-CLIA was developed for detection of Cry1Ab toxin based on anti-idiotypic camel nanobodies and employed for sample testing. The results revealed a half-inhibition concentration of developed assay to be 42.68 ± 2.54 ng/mL, in the linear range of 10.49-307.1 ng/mL. The established method is highly specific for Cry1Ab recognition, with negligible cross-reactivity for other Cry toxins. For spiked cereal samples, the recoveries of Cry1Ab toxin ranged from 77.4% to 127%, with coefficient of variation of less than 9%. This study demonstrated that the competitive format based on phage-displayed anti-idiotypic nanobodies can provide an alternative strategy for Cry toxin detection.

  6. Suppression of the immune response to ovalbumin in vivo by anti-idiotypic antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinevich, A.S.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions of suppression of the immune response to a food allergin (ovalbumin) were studied with the aid of anti-idiotypic (AID) antibodies. Hen ovalbumin was used and the experiments were performed on mice. Antibodies were isolated from the resulting protein fractions and tested for inhibitor activity by the method of direct radioimmunologic analysis. The test system consisted of the reaction of binding the globulin fraction to the total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin from mice and a 125 I-labeled total preparation of antibodies to ovalbumin of the same animals

  7. Simplified design of IC amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, John

    1996-01-01

    Simplified Design of IC Amplifiers has something for everyone involved in electronics. No matter what skill level, this book shows how to design and experiment with IC amplifiers. For experimenters, students, and serious hobbyists, this book provides sufficient information to design and build IC amplifier circuits from 'scratch'. For working engineers who design amplifier circuits or select IC amplifiers, the book provides a variety of circuit configurations to make designing easier.Provides basics for all phases of practical design.Covers the most popular forms for amplif

  8. Induction of a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in mice by a common human anti-DNA idiotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendlovic, S.; Brocke, S.; Meshorer, A.; Mozes, E.; Shoenfeld, Y.; Bakimer, R.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1988-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered to be the quintessential autoimmune disease. It has not been possible to induce SLE in animal models by DNA immunization or by challenge with anti-DNA antibodies. The authors report a murine model of SLE-like disease induced by immunization of C3H.SW female mice with a common human monoclonal anti-DNA idiotype (16/6 idiotype). Following a booster injection with the 16/6 idiotype, high levels of murine anti-16/6 and anti-anti-16/6 antibodies (associated with anti-DNA activity) were detected in the sera of the immunized mice. Elevated titers of autoantibodies reacting with DNA, poly(I), poly(dT), ribonucleoprotein, autoantigens [Sm, SS-A (Ro), and SS-B (La)], and cardiolipin were noted. The serological findings were associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia, proteinuria, immune complex deposition in the glomerular mesangium, and sclerosis of the glomeruli. The immune complexes in the kidneys were shown to contain the 16/6 idiotype. This experimental SLE-like model may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SLE

  9. Physicochemical and biological characterization of 1E10 Anti-Idiotype vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Yoan J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 1E10 monoclonal antibody is a murine anti-idiotypic antibody that mimics N-glycolyl-GM3 gangliosides. This antibody has been tested as an anti-idiotypic cancer vaccine, adjuvated in Al(OH3, in several clinical trials for melanoma, breast, and lung cancer. During early clinical development this mAb was obtained in vivo from mice ascites fluid. Currently, the production process of 1E10 is being transferred from the in vivo to a bioreactor-based method. Results Here, we present a comprehensive molecular and immunological characterization of 1E10 produced by the two different production processes in order to determine the impact of the manufacturing process in vaccine performance. We observed differences in glycosylation pattern, charge heterogeneity and structural stability between in vivo-produced 1E10 and bioreactor-obtained 1E10. Interestingly, these modifications had no significant impact on the immune responses elicited in two different animal models. Conclusions Changes in 1E10 primary structure like glycosylation; asparagine deamidation and oxidation affected 1E10 structural stability but did not affect the immune response elicited in mice and chickens when compared to 1E10 produced in mice.

  10. The role of idiotypic interactions in the adaptive immune system: a belief-propagation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolucci, Silvia; Mozeika, Alexander; Annibale, Alessia

    2016-08-01

    In this work we use belief-propagation techniques to study the equilibrium behaviour of a minimal model for the immune system comprising interacting T and B clones. We investigate the effect of the so-called idiotypic interactions among complementary B clones on the system’s activation. Our results show that B-B interactions increase the system’s resilience to noise, making clonal activation more stable, while increasing the cross-talk between different clones. We derive analytically the noise level at which a B clone gets activated, in the absence of cross-talk, and find that this increases with the strength of idiotypic interactions and with the number of T cells sending signals to the B clones. We also derive, analytically and numerically, via population dynamics, the critical line where clonal cross-talk arises. Our approach allows us to derive the B clone size distribution, which can be experimentally measured and gives important information about the adaptive immune system response to antigens and vaccination.

  11. Bio-medical CMOS ICs

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2011-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course entitled, Ubiquitous Healthcare Circuits and Systems, that was given by one of the editors. It includes an introduction and overview to biomedical ICs and provides information on the current trends in research.

  12. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B{sub 1} detection in cereal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Mei [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Xu, Yang, E-mail: xuyang@ncu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Liu, Xing [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); College of Food Science and Technology, Hainan University, No. 58 Renmin Avenue, Haikou 570228 (China); Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua [Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Tu, Zhui [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Fu, Jinheng [Jiangxi-OAI Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, No. 235 Nanjing East Road, Nanchang 330047 (China); Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D. [Department of Entomology and UCD Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-06-14

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB{sub 1} was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody–alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β−Nb−AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB{sub 1} were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL{sup −1}, respectively, with a linear range of 0.93–7.73 ng mL{sup −1}. The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL{sup −1}, and the IC{sub 50} was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL{sup −1} with a linear range of 0.29–2.68 ng mL{sup −1}. Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB{sub 1} contamination in cereals. The Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. - Highlights: • Ab2β−Nb−AP has the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes. • Ab2β−Nb−AP is homogeneous enzyme-labelled antigen can be prepared reproducibly. • We developed a green and rapid one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay. • The sensitivity of one-step CLIA was 9-folds higher than two-step ELISA.

  13. Anti-idiotypic nanobody-alkaline phosphatase fusion proteins: Development of a one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for fumonisin B_1 detection in cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay for the detection of FB_1 was developed. The anti-idiotypic nanobody–alkaline phosphatase (Ab2β−Nb−AP) was validated by the AP enzyme activity and the properties of bounding to anti-FB1-mAb (3F11) through colorimetric and chemiluminescence analyses. The 50% inhibitory concentration and the detection limit (LOD) of colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for FB_1 were 2.69 and 0.35 ng mL"−"1, respectively, with a linear range of 0.93–7.73 ng mL"−"1. The LOD of the chemiluminescence ELISA (CLIA) was 0.12 ng mL"−"1, and the IC_5_0 was 0.89 ± 0.09 ng mL"−"1 with a linear range of 0.29–2.68 ng mL"−"1. Compared with LC-MS/MS, the results of this assay indicated the reliability of the Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion protein based one-step competitive immunoassay for monitoring FB_1 contamination in cereals. The Ab2β−Nb−AP fusion proteins have the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes in competitive enzyme immunoassay systems. - Highlights: • Ab2β−Nb−AP has the potential to replace chemically-coupled probes. • Ab2β−Nb−AP is homogeneous enzyme-labelled antigen can be prepared reproducibly. • We developed a green and rapid one-step competitive enzyme immunoassay. • The sensitivity of one-step CLIA was 9-folds higher than two-step ELISA.

  14. Racotumomab: an anti-idiotype vaccine related to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides – preclinical and clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez, Ana M.; Hernández, Ana M.; Macías, Amparo; Montero, Enrique; Gómez, Daniel E.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Gabri, Mariano R.; Gómez, Roberto E.

    2012-01-01

    Neu-glycolyl (NeuGc)-containing gangliosides are attractive targets for immunotherapy with anti-idiotype mAbs, because these glycolipids are not normal components of the cytoplasmic membrane in humans, but their expression has been demonstrated in several human malignant tumors. Racotumomab is an anti-idiotype mAb specific to P3 mAb, an antibody which reacts to NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides, and other antigens expressed in tumors. Preparations containing racotumomab were able to induce a strong anti-metastatic effect in tumor-bearing mice. Different Phase I clinical trials have been conducted in patients with advanced melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The results of these clinical trials demonstrated the low toxicity and the high immunogenicity of this vaccine. The induced antibodies recognized and directly killed tumor cells expressing NeuGcGM3. A Phase II/III multicenter, controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated racotumomab vaccine in overall survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The clinical results of this study showed a significant clinical benefit in the patients who were treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine.

  15. Racotumomab: an anti-idiotype vaccine related to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides – preclinical and clinical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vázquez, Ana M.; Hernández, Ana M.; Macías, Amparo; Montero, Enrique [Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana (Cuba); Gómez, Daniel E.; Alonso, Daniel F.; Gabri, Mariano R. [Quilmes National University, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gómez, Roberto E., E-mail: maruchi@cim.sld.cu [ELEA Laboratories, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-10-23

    Neu-glycolyl (NeuGc)-containing gangliosides are attractive targets for immunotherapy with anti-idiotype mAbs, because these glycolipids are not normal components of the cytoplasmic membrane in humans, but their expression has been demonstrated in several human malignant tumors. Racotumomab is an anti-idiotype mAb specific to P3 mAb, an antibody which reacts to NeuGc-containing gangliosides, sulfatides, and other antigens expressed in tumors. Preparations containing racotumomab were able to induce a strong anti-metastatic effect in tumor-bearing mice. Different Phase I clinical trials have been conducted in patients with advanced melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The results of these clinical trials demonstrated the low toxicity and the high immunogenicity of this vaccine. The induced antibodies recognized and directly killed tumor cells expressing NeuGcGM3. A Phase II/III multicenter, controlled, randomized, double blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated racotumomab vaccine in overall survival in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The clinical results of this study showed a significant clinical benefit in the patients who were treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine.

  16. PELE-IC test problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, E.Y.; Alexander, E.E.; McMaster, W.H.; Quinones, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report provides prospective users of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) fluid-structure interaction computer code, PELE-IC, a variety of test problems for verifying the code on CDC 7600 computer systems at facilities external to the LLL environment. The test problems have been successfully run on CDC 7600 computers at the LLL and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) computer centers

  17. CMOS Analog IC Design: Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Bruun, Erik

    2018-01-01

    This book is intended for use as the main textbook for an introductory course in CMOS analog integrated circuit design. It is aimed at electronics engineering students who have followed basic courses in mathematics, physics, circuit theory, electronics and signal processing. It takes the students directly from a basic level to a level where they can start working on simple analog IC design projects or continue their studies using more advanced textbooks in the field. A distinct feature of thi...

  18. Analysis of the diversity of murine antibodies to dextran B1355. II. Demonstration of multiple idiotypes with variable expression in several strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansburg, D.; Briles, D.E.; Davie, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    We have developed radioimmunoassays that detect idiotypic (variable region) differences among the α(1 → 3) dextran-binding myeloma proteins U102, J558, and M104 as well as an assay that detects variable region determinants common to all three proteins. Using these assays, we have examined 7S and 19S anti-α(1 → 3) dextran antibodies induced in five murine strains of the a 1 I/sub g/C/sub H/ linkage group and the recombinant strain BAB/14. All idiotypes were expressed in both 19S and 7S antibodies from all strains, but with considerable strain-specific variability in penetrance. In two strains, one additional type of antibody, which lacked all four idiotypic determinants, generally constituted the bulk of total anti-α(1 → 3) dextran antibodies

  19. Monitoring multiple myeloma by idiotype-specific peptide binders of tumor-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccino, Enrico; Mimmi, Selena; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Marino, Fabiola; Candeloro, Patrizio; Di Loria, Antonio; Marimpietri, Danilo; Pisano, Antonio; Albano, Francesco; Vecchio, Eleonora; Ceglia, Simona; Golino, Gaetanina; Lupia, Antonio; Fiume, Giuseppe; Quinto, Ileana; Scala, Giuseppe

    2017-10-13

    Tumor-derived exosomes (TDEs) play a pivotal role in tumor establishment and progression, and are emerging biomarkers for tumor diagnosis in personalized medicine. To date, there is a lack of efficient technology platforms for exosome isolation and characterization. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-cell malignancy due to the rapid development of drug-resistance. MM-released exosomes express the immunoglobulin B-cell receptor (Ig-BCR) of the tumor B-cells, which can be targeted by Idiotype-binding peptides (Id-peptides). In this study, we analyzed the production of MM-released exosomes in the murine 5T33MM multiple myeloma model as biomarkers of tumor growth. To this end, we selected Id-peptides by screening a phage display library using as bait the Ig-BCR expressed by 5T33MM cells. By FACS, the FITC-conjugated Id-peptides detected the MM-released exosomes in the serum of 5T33MM-engrafted mice, levels of which are correlated with tumor progression at an earlier time point compared to serum paraprotein. These results indicate that Id-peptide-based recognition of MM-released exosomes may represent a very sensitive diagnostic approach for clinical evaluation of disease progression.

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibodies as cancer vaccines: achievements and future improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladjemi, Maha Z.

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), researchers have tried to develop immune-based anti-cancer therapies. Thanks to their specificity, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offer the major advantage to induce fewer side effects than those caused by non-specific conventional treatments (e.g., chemotherapy, radiotherapy). Passive immunotherapy by means of mAbs or cytokines has proved efficacy in oncology and validated the use of immune-based agents as part of anti-cancer treatment options. The next step was to try to induce an active immune protection aiming to boost own’s host immune defense against TAAs. Cancer vaccines are thus developed to specifically induce active immune protection targeting only tumor cells while preserving normal tissues from a non-specific toxicity. But, as most of TAAs are self antigens, an immune tolerance against them exists representing a barrier to effective vaccination against these oncoproteins. One promising approach to break this immune tolerance consists in the use of anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) mAbs, so called Ab2, as antigen surrogates. This vaccination strategy allows also immunization against non-proteic antigens (such as carbohydrates). In some clinical studies, anti-Id cancer vaccines indeed induced efficient humoral and/or cellular immune responses associated with clinical benefit. This review article will focus on recent achievements of anti-Id mAbs use as cancer vaccines in solid tumors.

  1. Computing fundamentals IC3 edition

    CERN Document Server

    Wempen, Faithe

    2014-01-01

    Kick start your journey into computing and prepare for your IC3 certification With this essential course book you'll be sending e-mails, surfing the web and understanding the basics of computing in no time. Written by Faithe Wempen, a Microsoft Office Master Instructor and author of more than 120 books, this complete guide to the basics has been tailored to provide comprehensive instruction on the full range of entry-level computing skills. It is a must for students looking to move into almost any profession, as entry-level computing courses have become a compulsory requirement in the modern w

  2. SEM probe of IC radiation sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M. K.; Stanley, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) used to irradiate single integrated circuit (IC) subcomponent to test for radiation sensitivity can localize area of IC less than .03 by .03 mm for determination of exact location of radiation sensitive section.

  3. Spitzer Observations Of IC 2118

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie et al. 2006) photometric data in an effort to segregate YSOs from background galaxies. While one previously known T...Spectral Typea Other names IRAS 04591−0856 05 01 30.2 −08 52 14 . . . HHL 17, G13 2MASS 05020630−0850467 05 02 06.3 −08 50 47 M2 IV . . . RXJ 0502.4−0744b...05 02 20.8 −07 44 10 . . . 2MASS 05022084−0744099 2MASS 05060574−0646151c 05 06 05.7 −06 46 15 G8: (May not be a member of IC 2118; see Kun et al

  4. Targeted DNA vaccines for enhanced induction of idiotype-specific B and T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredriksen, Agnete B.; Sandlie, Inger; Bogen, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Background: Idiotypes (Id) are antigenic determinants localized in variable (V) regions of Ig. Id-specific T and B cells (antibodies) play a role in immunotherapy of Id + tumors. However, vaccine strategies that enhance Id-specific responses are needed. Methods: Id + single-chain fragment variable (scFv) from multiple myelomas and B cell lymphomas were prepared in a fusion format that bivalently target surface molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC-specific targeting units were either scFv from APC-specific mAb (anti-MHC II, anti-CD40) or chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES). Homodimeric Id-vaccines were injected intramuscularly or intradermally as plasmids in mice, combined with electroporation. Results: (i) Transfected cells secreted plasmid-encoded Id + fusion proteins to extracellular fluid followed by binding of vaccine molecules to APC. (ii) Targeted vaccine molecules increased Id-specific B and T cell responses. (iii) Bivalency and xenogeneic sequences both contributed to enhanced responses. (iv) Targeted Id DNA vaccines induced tumor resistance against challenges with Id + tumors. (v) Human MIP-1α targeting units enhanced Id-specific responses in mice, due to a cross reaction with murine chemokine receptors. Thus, targeted vaccines designed for humans can be quality tested in mice. (vi) Human Id + scFv from four multiple myeloma patients were inserted into the vaccine format and were successfully tested in mice. (vii) Human MIP-1α vaccine proteins enhanced human T cell responses in vitro. (viii) A hypothetical model for how the APC-targeted vaccine molecules enhance Id-specific T and B cells is presented. Conclusion: Targeted DNA Id-vaccines show promising results in preclinical studies, paving the way for testing in patients.

  5. Targeted DNA vaccines for enhanced induction of idiotype-specific B and T cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredriksen, Agnete B.; Sandlie, Inger; Bogen, Bjarne, E-mail: bjarne.bogen@medisin.uio.no [Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute of Immunology, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-30

    Background: Idiotypes (Id) are antigenic determinants localized in variable (V) regions of Ig. Id-specific T and B cells (antibodies) play a role in immunotherapy of Id{sup +} tumors. However, vaccine strategies that enhance Id-specific responses are needed. Methods: Id{sup +} single-chain fragment variable (scFv) from multiple myelomas and B cell lymphomas were prepared in a fusion format that bivalently target surface molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC-specific targeting units were either scFv from APC-specific mAb (anti-MHC II, anti-CD40) or chemokines (MIP-1α, RANTES). Homodimeric Id-vaccines were injected intramuscularly or intradermally as plasmids in mice, combined with electroporation. Results: (i) Transfected cells secreted plasmid-encoded Id{sup +} fusion proteins to extracellular fluid followed by binding of vaccine molecules to APC. (ii) Targeted vaccine molecules increased Id-specific B and T cell responses. (iii) Bivalency and xenogeneic sequences both contributed to enhanced responses. (iv) Targeted Id DNA vaccines induced tumor resistance against challenges with Id{sup +} tumors. (v) Human MIP-1α targeting units enhanced Id-specific responses in mice, due to a cross reaction with murine chemokine receptors. Thus, targeted vaccines designed for humans can be quality tested in mice. (vi) Human Id{sup +} scFv from four multiple myeloma patients were inserted into the vaccine format and were successfully tested in mice. (vii) Human MIP-1α vaccine proteins enhanced human T cell responses in vitro. (viii) A hypothetical model for how the APC-targeted vaccine molecules enhance Id-specific T and B cells is presented. Conclusion: Targeted DNA Id-vaccines show promising results in preclinical studies, paving the way for testing in patients.

  6. Evidence for idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cellular interaction with the use of cloned antiidiotypic B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitoh, S; Fujimoto, S; Yamamoto, H

    1990-03-15

    Immunization of BALB/c mice with MOPC104E myeloma protein induces antiidiotypic B lymphocytes that have Id-specific enhancing activity on antibody production. The B-B cell interaction was restricted to both Igh and class II MHC. However, anti-Thy-1 and C-treated splenic B cells were maintained for more than 1 y in a mixture of Con A-stimulated splenocyte culture supernatant and synthetic medium. In applying the long term culture method, we have established a cloned B cell line named B19-1d, B19-1d cells are specific to MOPC104E or J558 cross-reactive Id and they express surface mu, lambda but no Ly-1. B19-1d do not spontaneously secrete Ig but produce them upon stimulation with bacterial LPS. The effect of B19-1d cell line on idiotypic antibody production was tested. Addition of only 10 to 100 B19-1d cells into dextran-immune B cell culture greatly enhanced the Id+ antidextran antibody responses. On the contrary, the antidextran antibody production was suppressed by the higher doses of B19-1d cells. The effective cooperation between dextran-immune B cells and B19-1d cloned B cells was restricted to class II MHC. The role of idiotypic- and antiidiotypic B-B cell interaction in immune regulation and repertoire generation was suggested.

  7. Mod 1 ICS TI Report: ICS Conversion of a 140% HPGe Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounds, John Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-05

    This report evaluates the Mod 1 ICS, an electrically cooled 140% HPGe detector. It is a custom version of the ORTEC Integrated Cooling System (ICS) modified to make it more practical for us to use in the field. Performance and operating characteristics of the Mod 1 ICS are documented, noting both pros and cons. The Mod 1 ICS is deemed a success. Recommendations for a Mod 2 ICS, a true field prototype, are provided.

  8. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  9. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4. Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS. Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR, a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE. Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM of DENV. However, there is still no effective drugs or vaccines to prevent ADE. In this study, we firstly confirmed that both DENV-2 infected human sera (anti-DENV-2 and DENV-2 prM monoclonal antibody (prM mAb could significantly enhance DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. Then we developed anti-idiotypic antibodies (prM-AIDs specific to prM mAb by immunizing of Balb/c mice. Results showed that these polyclonal antibodies can dramatically reduce ADE phenomenon of DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. To further confirm the anti-ADE effect of prM-AIDs in vivo, interferon-α and γ receptor-deficient mice (AG6 were used as the mouse model for DENV infection. We found that administration of DENV-2 prM mAb indeed caused a higher DENV-1 titer as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10 and alaninea minotransferase (ALT in mice infected with DENV-1, similar to clinical ADE symptoms. But when we supplemented prM-AIDs to DENV-1 challenged AG6 mice, the viral titer, IL-10 and ALT were obviously decreased to the negative control level. Of note, the number of platelets in peripheral blood of prM-AIDs group were significantly increased at day 3 post infection with DENV-1 compared that of prM-mAb group. These results confirmed that our prM-AIDs could prevent ADE not only in vitro but also in vivo, suggested that anti-idiotypic antibodies might be a new choice to be considered to

  10. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Huang, Yalan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Renli

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV. However, there is still no effective drugs or vaccines to prevent ADE. In this study, we firstly confirmed that both DENV-2 infected human sera (anti-DENV-2) and DENV-2 prM monoclonal antibody (prM mAb) could significantly enhance DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. Then we developed anti-idiotypic antibodies (prM-AIDs) specific to prM mAb by immunizing of Balb/c mice. Results showed that these polyclonal antibodies can dramatically reduce ADE phenomenon of DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. To further confirm the anti-ADE effect of prM-AIDs in vivo , interferon-α and γ receptor-deficient mice (AG6) were used as the mouse model for DENV infection. We found that administration of DENV-2 prM mAb indeed caused a higher DENV-1 titer as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and alaninea minotransferase (ALT) in mice infected with DENV-1, similar to clinical ADE symptoms. But when we supplemented prM-AIDs to DENV-1 challenged AG6 mice, the viral titer, IL-10 and ALT were obviously decreased to the negative control level. Of note, the number of platelets in peripheral blood of prM-AIDs group were significantly increased at day 3 post infection with DENV-1 compared that of prM-mAb group. These results confirmed that our prM-AIDs could prevent ADE not only in vitro but also in vivo , suggested that anti-idiotypic antibodies might be a new choice to be considered to treat

  11. Detection of auto-anti-idiotypic antibodies to Lol p I (rye I) IgE antibodies in human sera by the use of murine idiotypes: levels in atopic and non-atopic subjects and effects of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, J; Bernier, D; Mourad, W

    1990-06-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id Abs) are involved in the regulation of a number of immune responses including the IgE antibody production. In atopic patients, the increased synthesis of IgE antibodies could be related to a defective production of regulatory anti-Id Abs. In the present study, we first developed a sensitive assay for measuring the levels of anti-Id Abs directed against antibodies specific for Lol p I, the major allergenic determinant of Lolium perenne (rye grass). In this assay, we used previously described murine monoclonal anti-Lol p I antibodies that were shown to share epitopic specificities with human anti-Lol p I IgE and IgG antibodies, thus short-cutting the need for purification of F(ab')2 fragments of human IgG Abs and insuring optimal specificity and sensitivity. Levels of anti-Id Abs against two anti-Lol p I monoclonal antibodies (290A-167, 348A-6) were higher in normal volunteers than in untreated atopic patients. Specific immunotherapy increased the levels of anti-Id Abs to those of normal volunteers. These observations suggest a role for the Id-anti-Id network in the regulation of IgE antibody production.

  12. Mismatch and noise in modern IC processes

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Component variability, mismatch, and various noise effects are major contributors to design limitations in most modern IC processes. Mismatch and Noise in Modern IC Processes examines these related effects and how they affect the building block circuits of modern integrated circuits, from the perspective of a circuit designer.Variability usually refers to a large scale variation that can occur on a wafer to wafer and lot to lot basis, and over long distances on a wafer. This phenomenon is well understood and the effects of variability are included in most integrated circuit design with the use

  13. Design Developing of IC- Model Using VHDL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inzar-Anas

    2005-01-01

    In present, the electronic design required to become simple, small and flexible. The physical dimension of IC and number of pin can be significantly reduced while the flexibility and compatibility of IC was not change. Implementation of VHDL(VHSIC Hardware Description Language) seem as a great progress in the design of digital circuit. By using this language designing of model can be more simple, flexible and efficient. This paper was purposed to introduce VHDL and its features. Sample in modeling to illustrate the advantage of VHDL will also be described. (author)

  14. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  15. Abundances of Planetary Nebulae IC 418, IC 2165 and NGC 5882

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Bernard-Salas, J; Beintema, DA; Feibelman, WA

    The ISO and IUE spectra of the elliptical nebulae NGC 5882, IC 418 and IC 2165 are presented. These spectra are combined with the spectra in the visual wavelength region to obtain a complete, extinction corrected, spectrum. The chemical composition of the nebulae is then calculated and compared to

  16. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soriano, J.L.; Batista, N.; Lima, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Garcia, R.; Zarza, Y.; Lopez, M.V.; Rodriguez, M.; Loys, J.L.; Montejo, N.; Santiesteban, E.; Aguirre, F.; Macias, A.; Vazquez, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index =60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50?mg of cyclophosphamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by re immunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20-24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration.

  17. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  18. Challenges in IC design for hearing aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2012-01-01

    Designing modern hearing aids is a formidable challenge. The size of hearing aids is constantly decreasing, making them virtually invisible today. Still, as in all other modern electronics, more and more features are added to these devices driven by the development in modern IC technology....... The demands for performance and features at very low supply voltage and power consumption constantly prove a challenge to the physical design of hearing aids and not at least the design of the ICs for these. As a result of this all large hearing aid manufacturers use fully customized ASICs in their products...... to produce a competitive advantage. This presentation will give a brief insight into the hearing aid market and industry, a brief view of the historic development of hearing aids and an introduction to how a modern hearing is constructed showing the amplifier as the key component in the modern hearing aid...

  19. Simulation of SEU transients in CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Kerns, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that available analytical models of the number of single-event-induced errors (SEU) in combinational logic systems are not easily applicable to real integrated circuits (ICs). An efficient computer simulation algorithm set, SITA, predicts the vulnerability of data stored in and processed by complex combinational logic circuits to SEU. SITA is described in detail to allow researchers to incorporate it into their error analysis packages. Required simulation algorithms are based on approximate closed-form equations modeling individual device behavior in CMOS logic units. Device-level simulation is used to estimate the probability that ion-device interactions produce erroneous signals capable of propagating to a latch (or n output node), and logic-level simulation to predict the spread of such erroneous, latched information through the IC. Simulation results are compared to those from SPICE for several circuit and logic configurations. SITA results are comparable to this established circuit-level code, and SITA can analyze circuits with state-of-the-art device densities (which SPICE cannot). At all IC complexity levels, SITAS offers several factors of 10 savings in simulation time over SPICE

  20. Anti-idiotypic antibodies against UV-induced tumor-specific CTL clones. Preparation in syngeneic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, K.; Tanaka, C.; Matsubayashi, Y.; Masuda, T.; Udono, H.; Abe, M.; Nakayama, E.; Shiku, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, we first established several CTL clones of (BALB/c x C57BL/6)F1 origin that were specific for either syngeneic UV female 1 or UV male 1 fibrosarcoma cell lines. All the CTL clones had Thy-1+ Lyt-2+ L3T4- phenotypes and showed Kd restriction when lysing the corresponding target cells. Sera obtained from syngeneic animals immunized with three CTL clones, 10B-5 for UV female 1, and CTL9 and CTL10 for UV male 1, showed specific inhibition of target cell lysis with the corresponding CTL clones. The inhibitory activities were found in sera of the majority of immunized animals. Because the inhibitory activity resides in protein A-binding fraction, mAb were produced by hybridizing spleen cells of hyperimmune animals. N1-56 was thus obtained from a mouse immunized with 10B-5 CTL clone reactive with UV female 1. N1-56 was clonotype specific, reacting with 10B-5 but not with other CTL lines or leukemia cell lines. No N1-56+ cells were detectable in thymocytes, lymph node cells, or spleen cells of either naive or UV female 1-immune CB6F1 mice. Immunoprecipitation showed that N1-56 reacts with 90,000 Mr molecules on 10B-5 CTL clone under nonreducing conditions and 45,000 Mr molecules under reducing conditions, indicating its reactivities with idiotypic determinants of TCR on the CTL clone. N1-56 inhibited lytic activity of 10B-5, but neither N1-56 nor alpha-10B-5 hyperimmune serum inhibited that of alpha-UV female 1 mixed lymphocyte tumor cell culture cells. N1-56 induced proliferation of 10B-5 without addition of Ag

  1. Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avnir, Yuval; Prachanronarong, Kristina L; Zhang, Zhen; Hou, Shurong; Peterson, Eric C; Sui, Jianhua; Zayed, Hatem; Kurella, Vinodh B; McGuire, Andrew T; Stamatatos, Leonidas; Hilbert, Brendan J; Bohn, Markus-Frederik; Kowalik, Timothy F; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Finberg, Robert W; Wang, Jennifer P; Goodall, Margaret; Jefferis, Roy; Zhu, Quan; Kurt Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A; Marasco, Wayne A

    2017-12-12

    The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab) responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3) in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 residues starting with M53 and ending with N58. G6 binding studies demonstrate the remarkable breadth of binding to 51p1 IGHV1-69 Abs with diverse CDR-H3, light chain, and antigen binding specificities. These studies detail the broad expression of the G6 cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) that further define its potential role in precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural Determination of the Broadly Reactive Anti-IGHV1-69 Anti-idiotypic Antibody G6 and Its Idiotope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Avnir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The heavy chain IGHV1-69 germline gene exhibits a high level of polymorphism and shows biased use in protective antibody (Ab responses to infections and vaccines. It is also highly expressed in several B cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases. G6 is an anti-idiotypic monoclonal Ab that selectively binds to IGHV1-69 heavy chain germline gene 51p1 alleles that have been implicated in these Ab responses and disease processes. Here, we determine the co-crystal structure of humanized G6 (hG6.3 in complex with anti-influenza hemagglutinin stem-directed broadly neutralizing Ab D80. The core of the hG6.3 idiotope is a continuous string of CDR-H2 residues starting with M53 and ending with N58. G6 binding studies demonstrate the remarkable breadth of binding to 51p1 IGHV1-69 Abs with diverse CDR-H3, light chain, and antigen binding specificities. These studies detail the broad expression of the G6 cross-reactive idiotype (CRI that further define its potential role in precision medicine.

  3. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Molecular Mimicry between Anti-dsDNA CDR3 Idiotype, Microbial and Self Peptides-As Antigens for Th Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas-Hanssen, Kristin; Thompson, Keith M; Bogen, Bjarne; Munthe, Ludvig A

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is marked by a T helper (Th) cell-dependent B cell hyperresponsiveness, with frequent germinal center reactions, and gammaglobulinemia. A feature of SLE is the finding of IgG autoantibodies specific for dsDNA. The specificity of the Th cells that drive the expansion of anti-dsDNA B cells is unresolved. However, anti-microbial, anti-histone, and anti-idiotype Th cell responses have been hypothesized to play a role. It has been entirely unclear if these seemingly disparate Th cell responses and hypotheses could be related or unified. Here, we describe that H chain CDR3 idiotypes from IgG(+) B cells of lupus mice have sequence similarities with both microbial and self peptides. Matched sequences were more frequent within the mutated CDR3 repertoire and when sequences were derived from lupus mice with expanded anti-dsDNA B cells. Analyses of histone sequences showed that particular histone peptides were similar to VDJ junctions. Moreover, lupus mice had Th cell responses toward histone peptides similar to anti-dsDNA CDR3 sequences. The results suggest that Th cells in lupus may have multiple cross-reactive specificities linked to the IgVH CDR3 Id-peptide sequences as well as similar DNA-associated protein motifs.

  4. High energy ion implantation for IC processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oosterhoff, S.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis the results of fundamental research on high energy ion implantation in silicon are presented and discussed. The implantations have been carried out with the 500 kV HVEE ion implantation machine, that was acquired in 1981 by the IC technology and Electronics group at Twente University of Technology. The damage and anneal behaviour of 1 MeV boron implantations to a dose of 10 13 /cm 2 have been investigated as a function of anneal temperature by sheet resistance, Hall and noise measurements. (Auth.)

  5. PDC IC WELD FAILURE EVALUATION AND RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.; Howard, S.; Maxwell, D.; Fiscus, J.

    2012-04-16

    During final preparations for start of the PDCF Inner Can (IC) qualification effort, welding was performed on an automated weld system known as the PICN. During the initial weld, using a pedigree canister and plug, a weld defect was observed. The defect resulted in a hole in the sidewall of the canister, and it was observed that the plug sidewall had not been consumed. This was a new type of failure not seen during development and production of legacy Bagless Transfer Cans (FB-Line/Hanford). Therefore, a team was assembled to determine the root cause and to determine if the process could be improved. After several brain storming sessions (MS and T, R and D Engineering, PDC Project), an evaluation matrix was established to direct this effort. The matrix identified numerous activities that could be taken and then prioritized those activities. This effort was limited by both time and resources (the number of canisters and plugs available for testing was limited). A discovery process was initiated to evaluate the Vendor's IC fabrication process relative to legacy processes. There were no significant findings, however, some information regarding forging/anneal processes could not be obtained. Evaluations were conducted to compare mechanical properties of the PDC canisters relative to the legacy canisters. Some differences were identified, but mechanical properties were determined to be consistent with legacy materials. A number of process changes were also evaluated. A heat treatment procedure was established that could reduce the magnetic characteristics to levels similar to the legacy materials. An in-situ arc annealing process was developed that resulted in improved weld characteristics for test articles. Also several tack welds configurations were addressed, it was found that increasing the number of tack welds (and changing the sequence) resulted in decreased can to plug gaps and a more stable weld for test articles. Incorporating all of the process

  6. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  7. Studying Radiation Tolerant ICs for LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Faccio, F; Snoeys, W; Campbell, M; Casas-cubillos, J; Gomes, P

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\In the recent years, intensive work has been carried out on the development of custom ICs for the readout electronics for LHC experiments. As far as radiation hardness is concerned, attention has been focussed on high total dose applications, mainly for the tracker systems. The dose foreseen in this inner region is estimated to be higher than 1~Mrad/year. In the framework of R&D projects (RD-9 and RD-20) and in the ATLAS and CMS experiments, the study of different radiation hard processes has been pursued and good contacts with the manufacturers have been established. The results of these studies have been discussed during the Microelectronics User Group (MUG) rad-hard meetings, and now some HEP groups are working to develop radiation hard ICs for the LHC experiments on some of the available rad-hard processes.\\\\ \\\\In addition, a lot of the standard commercial electronic components and ASICs which are planned to be installed near the LHC machine and in the detectors will receive total doses in ...

  8. Electron Storage Ring Development for ICS Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, Roderick [Lyncean Technologies, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    There is an increasing world-wide interest in compact light sources based on Inverse Compton Scattering. Development of these types of light sources includes leveraging the investment in accelerator technology first developed at DOE National Laboratories. Although these types of light sources cannot replace the larger user-supported synchrotron facilities, they offer attractive alternatives for many x-ray science applications. Fundamental research at the SLAC National Laboratory in the 1990’s led to the idea of using laser-electron storage rings as a mechanism to generate x-rays with many properties of the larger synchrotron light facilities. This research led to a commercial spin-off of this technology. The SBIR project goal is to understand and improve the performance of the electron storage ring system of the commercially available Compact Light Source. The knowledge gained from studying a low-energy electron storage ring may also benefit other Inverse Compton Scattering (ICS) source development. Better electron storage ring performance is one of the key technologies necessary to extend the utility and breadth of applications of the CLS or related ICS sources. This grant includes a subcontract with SLAC for technical personnel and resources for modeling, feedback development, and related accelerator physics studies.

  9. Conceptualising Intellectual Capital (IC) as Language Game and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual Capital (IC) can be viewed as knowledge about knowledge, knowledge creation and how such processes might be leveraged into value. Developing a critical understanding of IC requires a historical and contextual understanding of how IC has emerged and how IC is used. This paper, drawing...... this process of social construction. The paper concludes by proposing some methodological guidelines for conducting critical genealogical research on intellectual capital....

  10. Anti-idiotypic antibody specific to GAD65 autoantibody prevents type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Overt autoantibodies to the smaller isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65Ab are a characteristic in patients with Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id directed to GAD65Ab effectively prevent the binding of GAD65 to GAD65Ab in healthy individuals. Levels of GAD65Ab-specific anti-Id are significantly lower in patients with T1D, leading to overt GAD65Ab in these patients. To determine the possible protective role of GAD65Ab-specific anti-Id in T1D pathogenesis, we developed the monoclonal anti-Id MAb 8E6G4 specifically targeting human monoclonal GAD65Ab b96.11. MAb 8E6G4 was demonstrated as a specific anti-Id directed to the antigen binding site of b96.11. MAb 8E6G4 recognized human antibodies in sera from healthy individuals, T2D patients, and T1D patients as established by ELISA. We confirmed these MAb 8E6G4-bound human antibodies to contain GAD65Ab by testing the eluted antibodies for binding to GAD65 in radioligand binding assays. These findings confirm that GAD65Ab are present in sera of individuals, who test GAD65Ab-negative in conventional detection assays. To test our hypothesis that GAD65Ab-specific anti-Id have an immune modulatory role in T1D, we injected young Non Obese Diabetic (NOD mice with MAb 8E6G4. The animals were carefully monitored for development of T1D for 40 weeks. Infiltration of pancreatic islets by mononuclear cells (insulitis was determined to establish the extent of an autoimmune attack on the pancreatic islets. Administration of MAb 8E6G4 significantly reduced the cumulative incidence rate of T1D and delayed the time of onset. Insulitis was significantly less severe in animals that received MAb 8E6G4 as compared to control animals. These results support our hypothesis that anti-Id specific to GAD65Ab have a protective role in T1D.

  11. Nanometer CMOS ICs from basics to ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    J M Veendrick, Harry

    2017-01-01

    This textbook provides a comprehensive, fully-updated introduction to the essentials of nanometer CMOS integrated circuits. It includes aspects of scaling to even beyond 12nm CMOS technologies and designs. It clearly describes the fundamental CMOS operating principles and presents substantial insight into the various aspects of design implementation and application. Coverage includes all associated disciplines of nanometer CMOS ICs, including physics, lithography, technology, design, memories, VLSI, power consumption, variability, reliability and signal integrity, testing, yield, failure analysis, packaging, scaling trends and road blocks. The text is based upon in-house Philips, NXP Semiconductors, Applied Materials, ASML, IMEC, ST-Ericsson, TSMC, etc., courseware, which, to date, has been completed by more than 4500 engineers working in a large variety of related disciplines: architecture, design, test, fabrication process, packaging, failure analysis and software.

  12. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  13. Decline in titers of anti-idiotypic antibodies specific to autoantibodies to GAD65 (GAD65Ab precedes development of GAD65Ab and type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elding Larsson

    Full Text Available The humoral Idiotypic Network consisting of antibodies and their anti-idiotypic antibodies (anti-Id can be temporarily upset by antigen exposure. In the healthy immune response the original equilibrium is eventually restored through counter-regulatory mechanisms. In certain autoimmune diseases however, autoantibody levels exceed those of their respective anti-Id, indicating a permanent disturbance in the respective humoral Idiotypic Network. We investigated anti-Id directed to a major Type 1 diabetes (T1D-associated autoantibody (GAD65Ab in two independent cohorts during progression to disease. Samples taken from participants of the Natural History Study showed significantly lower anti-Id levels in individuals that later progressed to T1D compared to non-progressors (anti-Id antibody index of 0.06 vs. 0.08, respectively, p = 0.02. We also observed a significant inverse correlation between anti-Id levels and age at sampling, but only in progressors (p = 0.014. Finally, anti-Id levels in progressors showed a significant decline during progression as compared to longitudinal anti-Id levels in non-progressors (median rate of change: -0.0004 vs. +0.0004, respectively, p = 0.003, suggesting a loss of anti-Id during progression. Our analysis of the Diabetes Prediction in Skåne cohort showed that early in life (age 2 individuals at risk have anti-Id levels indistinguishable from those in healthy controls, indicating that low anti-Id levels are not an innate characteristic of the immune response in individuals at risk. Notably, anti-Id levels declined significantly in individuals that later developed GAD65Ab suggesting that the decline in anti-Id levels precedes the emergence of GAD65Ab (median rate of change: -0.005 compared to matched controls (median rate of change: +0.001 (p = 0.0016. We conclude that while anti-Id are present early in life, their levels decrease prior to the appearance of GAD65Ab and to the development of T1D.

  14. LES of Gas Exchange in IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As engine technologies become increasingly complex and engines are driven to new operating points, understanding transient phenomena is important to ensure reliable engine operation. Unlike Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS studies that only provide cycle-averaged information, Large Eddy Simulation (LES studies are capable of simulating cycle-to-cycle dynamics. In this work, a finite difference based structured methodology for LES of IC engines is presented. This structured approach allows for an efficient mesh generation process and provides potential for higher order numerical accuracy. An efficient parallel scalable block decomposition is done to overcome the challenges associated with the low ratio of fluid elements to overall mesh elements. The motion of the valves and piston is handled using a dynamic cell blanking approach and the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE method, respectively. Modified three-dimensional Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Conditions (NSCBC are used in the simulation to prescribe conditions in the manifolds. The accuracy of the simulation framework is validated using various canonical configurations. Flow bench simulations of an axisymmetric configuration and an actual engine geometry are done with the LES methodology. Simulations of the gas exchange in an engine under motored conditions are also performed. Overall, good agreement is obtained with experiments for all the cases. Therefore, this framework can be used for LES of engine simulations. In the future, reactive LES simulations will be performed using this framework.

  15. The H II regions of IC 1613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, P.; Lee, M.G.; Gurwell, M.

    1990-01-01

    Narrow-band CCD H-alpha imaging of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC 1613 has revealed a total of 77 H II regions, five of which are complexes of several smaller emission regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The H-alpha luminosity function has the same shape as that for more luminous galaxies, following a power law with an exponent of -1.6. The faintest H II regions are at the low-luminosity end of the generally observed luminosity function for H II regions in galaxies, with fluxes of only 10 to the 35th erg/sec. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 56 pc. The morphologies of different H II regions are discussed and compared to those in other galaxies. Published radio continuum maps compare well with the H-alpha emission distribution. The distribution of H I is also similar in the central areas to the H II with, however, a tendency for the H II regions to lie to one side of H I peaks. 31 refs

  16. Prometheus Reactor I&C Software Development Methodology, for Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hamilton

    2005-07-30

    The purpose of this letter is to submit the Reactor Instrumentation and Control (I&C) software life cycle, development methodology, and programming language selections and rationale for project Prometheus to NR for approval. This letter also provides the draft Reactor I&C Software Development Process Manual and Reactor Module Software Development Plan to NR for information.

  17. The Implications Related to Different IC, Different Projects and Different Thinking Addressing the Common Core of IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Saghaug, Kristin Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    challenge the development of IC: - The IC at the organizational level seems to diminish when innovation gets highly dispersed and is operated outside the core of the organization - The attractiveness of the organization to different ICA, which is one fundament to sustainable and successful innovation, seems...... to fall when the IC at the organizational core level diminishes The objective of this paper is therefore to understand 1) How the IC at the organizational core level may continue to be developed, when at the same time innovation is taking place in dispersed groups and projects. 2) How to motivate...... the different ICA´s to bring learning and knowledge back to the core with the purpose to develop IC at the organizational core level....

  18. HI observations of the irregular galaxy IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shostak, G.S.; Woerden, H. van

    1983-01-01

    The authors have made radio synthesis observations of the galaxy IC 10 with resolutions of 30 arcsec and 8 km/sec in the neutral hydrogen line using the Westerbork telescope. These confirm Shostak's (1974) result that, in the central region of IC 10, the velocity gradient is opposite to that later measured by single-dish in the outer regions. The suggestion by Cohen (1979) that the velocity gradient reversal is due to IC 10 being nearly face-on and warped is consistent with the new data. (Auth.)

  19. Virtual design and qualification of IC backend structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van R.B.R.; Sluis, van der O.; Driel, van W.D.; Janssen, J.H.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2006-01-01

    For Integrated Circuit (IC) wafer backend development, process developers have to design robust backend structures that guarantee both functionality and reliability during waferfab processes, packaging, qualification tests and lifetime. Figure 1 shows a simplified diagram for the design (and

  20. Interband cascade (IC) photovoltaic (PV) architecture for PV devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui Q.; Tian, Zhaobing; Mishima, Tetsuya D.; Santos, Michael B.; Johnson, Matthew B.; Klem, John F.

    2015-10-20

    A photovoltaic (PV) device, comprising a PV interband cascade (IC) stage, wherein the IC PV stage comprises an absorption region with a band gap, the absorption region configured to absorb photons, an intraband transport region configured to act as a hole barrier, and an interband tunneling region configured to act as an electron barrier. An IC PV architecture for a photovoltaic device, the IC PV architecture comprising an absorption region, an intraband transport region coupled to the absorption region, and an interband tunneling region coupled to the intraband transport region and to the adjacent absorption region, wherein the absorption region, the intraband transport region, and the interband tunneling region are positioned such that electrons will flow from the absorption region to the intraband transport region to the interband tunneling region.

  1. Study on Mine Emergency Mechanism based on TARP and ICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Jian; Wu, Zongzhi

    2018-01-01

    By analyzing the experiences and practices of mine emergency in China and abroad, especially the United States and Australia, normative principle, risk management principle and adaptability principle of constructing mine emergency mechanism based on Trigger Action Response Plans (TARP) and Incident Command System (ICS) are summarized. Classification method, framework, flow and subject of TARP and ICS which are suitable for the actual situation of domestic mine emergency are proposed. The system dynamics model of TARP and ICS is established. The parameters such as evacuation ratio, response rate, per capita emergency capability and entry rate of rescuers are set up. By simulating the operation process of TARP and ICS, the impact of these parameters on the emergency process are analyzed, which could provide a reference and basis for building emergency capacity, formulating emergency plans and setting up action plans in the emergency process.

  2. APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE PRACTICAI- APPLICATTON OF SCTENTIF'IC PRINCIPLES IN MERINO SHEEP BREEDING. C.A. van der ..... There is, however, no practical evidence in this ... 1910" Comparison of three Australian merino strains for wool and body traits.

  3. Simulation of design dependent failure exposure levels for CMOS ICs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, N.; Bhuva, B.L.; Rangavajjhala, V.; van der Molen, H.; Kerns, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The total dose exposure of CMOS ICs introduces bias-dependent parameter shifts in individual devices. The bias dependency of individual parameter shifts of devices cause different designs to behave differently under identical testing conditions. This paper studies the effect of design and bias on the radiation tolerance of ICs and presents an automated design tool that produces different designs for a logic function, and presents important parameters of each design to circuit designer for trade off analysis

  4. A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody detects a common idiotope on human, mouse and rabbit antibodies to allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H; Kisil, F T

    1991-09-01

    A syngeneic mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated as B1/1, was generated against a monoclonal antibody (MoAb 91) specific for Ryegrass pollen allergen Lol p IV. This anti-Id recognized an idiotope (Id) that was also present on other monoclonal antibodies with the same specificity as MoAb 91. Observations that (i) the anti-Id inhibited the binding of MoAb 91 to Lol p IV and (ii) the Id-anti-Id interaction could be inhibited by Lol p IV indicated that the Id was located within or near the antigen combining site. These properties served to characterize B1/1 as an internal image anti-Id. Evidence that an immune response in different species to Lol p IV elicits the formation of antibodies which express a common Id was provided by the observations that (i) the Id-anti-Id interactions could be inhibited by mouse, human and rabbit antisera to Lol p IV and (ii) the binding of these antisera to Lol p IV could be inhibited by the anti-Id. Interestingly, the internal image anti-Id B1/1 also recognized an Id on a monoclonal antibody which was directed to an epitope of Lol p IV, different from that recognized by MoAb 91.

  5. Water saving in IC wafer washing process; IC wafer senjo deno sessui taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, H. [Mitsubishi Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Araki, M.; Nakazawa, T.

    1997-11-30

    This paper reports features of a wafer washing technology, a new IC wafer washing process, its pure water saving effect, and a `QC washing` which has pure water saving effect in the wafer washing. Wafer washing processes generally include the SC1 process (using ammonia + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to ultrafine particles, the SC2 process (using hydrochloric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to heavy metals, the piranha washing process (using hot sulfuric acid + hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution) purposed for removing contamination due to organic matters, and the DHF (using dilute hydrofluoric acid) purposed for removing natural oxide films. Natural oxide films are now remained as surface protection films, by which surface contamination has been reduced remarkably. A high-temperature washing chemical circulating and filtering technology developed in Japan has brought about a reform in wafer washing processes having been used previously. Spin washing is used as a water saving measure, in which washing chemicals or pure water are sprayed onto one each of wafers which is spin-rotated, allowing washing and rinsing to be made with small amount of washing chemicals and pure water. The QC washing is a method to replace tank interior with pure was as quick as possible in order to increase the rinsing effect. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  6. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  7. Considerations in applying on-line IC techniques to BWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleda, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Ion-Chromatography (IC) has moved from its traditional role as a laboratory analytical tool to a real time, dynamic, on-line measurement device to follow ppb and sub-ppb concentrations of deleterious impurities in nuclear power plants. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), individual utilities, and industry all have played significant roles in effecting the transition. This paper highlights considerations and the evolution in current on-line Ion Chromatography systems. The first applications of on-line techniques were demonstrated by General Electric (GE) under EPRI sponsorship at Rancho Seco (1980), Calvert Cliffs, and McGuire nuclear units. The primary use was for diagnostic purposes. Today the on-line IC applications have been expanded to include process control and routine plant monitoring. Current on-line IC's are innovative in design, promote operational simplicity, are modular for simplified maintenance and repair, and use field-proven components which enhance reliability. Conductivity detection with electronic or chemical suppression and spectrometric detection techniques are intermixed in applications. Remote multi-point sample systems have addressed memory effects. Early applications measured ionic species in the part per billion range. Today reliable part per trillion measurements are common for on-line systems. Current systems are meeting the challenge of EPRI guideline requirements. Today's on-line IC's, with programmed sampling systems, monitor fluid streams throughout a power plant, supplying data that can be trended, stored and retrieved easily. The on-line IC has come of age. Many technical challenges were overcome to achieve today's IC

  8. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.J.; Czajkowski, D.R.; Layton, P.; Shanken, S.

    1999-01-01

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  9. Transient SEU characterization of analog IC's for ESA's satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harboe-Soerensen, R.; Van Dooren, J.; Guerre, F.X.; Constans, H.; Berger, G.; Hajdas, W.

    1999-01-01

    Data analysis of four self switch-off power supply events in the SOHO satellite pointed strongly in the direction of being Cosmic Ray or Proton induced. Further analysis of the relevant power supply schematics identified a number of analog IC's capable of causing or contributing to such events. This paper concentrates on the testing aspects of these analog IC's and presents the results of a Single Event Effects (SEEs) test program. Ground testing, simulating the flight conditions, were carried out at both heavy ion and proton accelerators. (authors)

  10. Extreme low-power mixed signal IC design

    CERN Document Server

    Tajalli, Armin

    2010-01-01

    This book describes a completely novel class of techniques for designing ultra-low-power integrated circuits (ICs). In many applications such as battery operated systems and battery-less (energy-scavenging) systems, power dissipation is a critical parameter. As a result, there is a growing demand for reducing the power (energy) consumption in ICs to extremely low levels, not achievable by using classical ""subthreshold CMOS"" techniques. This book introduces a new family of ""subthreshold circuits"" called ""source-coupled circuits"". This family of circuits can be used for implementing digita

  11. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  12. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  13. El contenido de los mensajes icónicos: El discurso icónico como totalidad (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Raymond Colle

    1999-01-01

    En el capítulo anterior, hemos hablado de los códigos icónicos de modo general, por cuanto tienen algunas características comunes, en particular el uso de figuras como factores de los significantes. Sin embargo, como lo hemos señalado al final, no todos se construyen ni articulan de la misma manera. Tal como las lenguas son muchas y los códigos lingüísticos se rigen por diferentes reglas -aunque sobre la base de fonemas unidos secuencialmente-, los códigos icónicos son también variados y regi...

  14. Performance of Naturally Aspirating IC Engines Operating at High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The loss of power and the increase of fuel consumption of naturally aspirating IC engines operating with low atmospheric pressure at high altitude as well as changes in the mixture quality with non adapting mixture formation systems are principally known. Other effects like the additional advance of ignition timing in petrol ...

  15. Measures of interaction contrast (biological interaction) - ic, ici and icp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    in Hosmer & Lemeshow (1992) and Alfredsson et all (2005) purely in Stata.These two sources however both uses odds ratios as approximations for relational risks. This code on the other hand opens up for using proper estimates of relational risks. To install type "ssc install ic" in the Stata command...

  16. Analog IC Design at the University of Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Bram

    2007-01-01

    This article describes some recent research results from the IC Design group of the University of Twente, located in Enschede, The Netherlands. Our research focuses on analog CMOS circuit design with emphasis on high frequency and broadband circuits. With the trend of system integration in mind, we

  17. 30 CFR 57.22102 - Smoking (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22102 Smoking (I-C mines). (a...

  18. IC 3475: A stripped dwarf galaxy in the Virgo cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigroux, L.; Thuan, T.X.; Vader, J.P.; Lachieze-Rey, M.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained B and R CCD and H I observations of the Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3475. The galaxy is remarkable for its very large diameter (approx.10 kpc for a Virgo distance modulus of 31) and is comparable in size to the large dwarfs discussed by Sandage and Binggeli. Its light profile is best fitted by an exponential law, characteristic of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy. It possesses a central bar with many knots and inclusions concentrated toward the center of the galaxy. These knots and inclusions have the same color (B-Rapprox.1.5) as the rest of the galaxy and are best explained as intermediate-age (1--7 x 10 9 yr) star clusters such as those found in the Magellanic Clouds. Despite possessing the photometric structure of a dwarf Magellanic irregular galaxy, IC 3475 contains less than 5.3 x 10 6 M/sub sun/ of neutral hydrogen. Its hydrogen mass to blue light ratio is less than 0.01, approx.60 times less than the mean value observed for dwarf Magellanic irregulars. It is most likely that IC 3475, which is located near the core of the Virgo cluster, is a stripped dwarf galaxy. The very large size of the galaxy (its diameter is approx.1.8 times larger than that of ''normal'' dwarfs) appears to rule out evolution of IC 3475 from a normal dwarf irregular or to a normal dwarf elliptical

  19. Development of an ASD IC for the Micro Pixel Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Orito, R; Kubo, H; Miuchi, K; Nagayoshi, T; Okada, Y; Takada, A; Takeda, A; Tanimori, T; Ueno, M

    2004-01-01

    A new amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and manufactured for the Micro Pixel Chamber ($\\mu$-PIC). The design of this ASD IC is based on the ASD IC (TGC-ASD) for the Thin Gap Chamber in the LHC Atlas Experiment. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 5-times longer than that of the TGC-ASD, and some other modifications have been made in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the $\\mu$-PIC. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The decay time constant of the preamplifier is 80 ns and its gain is approximately 0.8 V/pC. The output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. A baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier, and the current used for the baseline restoration is 5-times smaller than that of the TGC-ASD. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The ASD...

  20. Computer modeling of magnetic structure for IC-35 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Morozov, N.A.

    1998-01-01

    An extensive series of calculations has been carried out in order to design the magnetic structure of the IC-35 cyclotron for radioisotope production. The calculations were carried out by 2-D POISCR code. The average magnetic field and its variation were produced with the help of two different calculation models. The parameters of the cyclotron magnetic system are presented

  1. K/sub Ic/ and J/sub Ic/ of Westerly granite: effects of thickness and in-plane dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.A.; Lutz, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is described in which tensile properties, fracture toughness, and critical J integral are measured for Westerly granite, a rock that is widely used in rock mechanics studies. This was primarily a parameter sensitivity study in which the effects of specimen dimensions and testing techniques were assessed. It is hoped that this study will aid in establishing tentative standards and guidelines for fracture toughness testing of rock as well as indicate the feasibility of using a J integral fracture criterion for this material. ASTM standard specimen configurations of the compact and bend types were tested with compact specimens ranging in width from W = 25.4 mm to W = 406.4 mm (0.5T to 8T) and with thickness ranging from 13 mm to 100 mm. A series of 4T compact specimens were tested to assess the effects of thickness and fatigue precracking. Techniques are described that enable several values of K/sub Ic/, a complete J vs crack growth curve, and a J/sub Ic/ value to be obtained from each sample. Direct-pull tension tests on shaped specimens of Westerly granite are described which indicate a high degree of nonlinear, inelastic behavior. This fact raises questions about the use of LEFM, but the J/sub Ic/ data presented appear to validate the K/sub Ic/ measurements

  2. Physical IC debug ─ backside approach and nanoscale challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Kerst

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical analysis for IC functionality in submicron technologies requires access through chip backside. Based upon typical global backside preparation with 50–100 µm moderate silicon thickness remaining, a state of the art of the analysis techniques available for this purpose is presented and evaluated for functional analysis and layout pattern resolution potential. A circuit edit technique valid for nano technology ICs, is also presented that is based upon the formation of local trenches using the bottom of Shallow Trench Isolation (STI as endpoint for Focused Ion Beam (FIB milling. As a derivative from this process, a locally ultra thin silicon device can be processed, creating a back surface as work bench for breakthrough applications of nanoscale analysis techniques to a fully functional circuit through chip backside. Several applications demonstrate the power and potential of this new approach.

  3. Shocked molecular hydrogen in the supernova remnant IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, M.G.; Brand, P.W.J.L.; Webster, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Emission from the υ = 1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen has been mapped over a section of the supernova remnant IC 443. The emission originates in a sinuous ridge where the expanding shell of the SNR is interacting with a molecular cloud. The relative intensities of the 1-0 S(1), 1-0 S(0) and 2-1 S(1) lines at 2.1-2.2 μm were measured and found to be characteristic of shock-excitation of the gas. The ridge shows bright spots which are possibly density enhancements in the molecular cloud. The total luminosity of the molecular hydrogen lines in the mapped region is estimated to be about 1000 times the solar luminosity, making IC 443 one of the most luminous galactic molecular hydrogen sources yet detected. (author)

  4. Development of brain injury criteria (BrIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhounts, Erik G; Craig, Matthew J; Moorhouse, Kevin; McFadden, Joe; Hasija, Vikas

    2013-11-01

    Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models. This study differs from the previous research in the following ways: first, it uses two different detailed mathematical models of human head (SIMon and GHBMC), each validated against various human brain response datasets; then establishes physical (strain and stress based) injury criteria for various types of brain injury based on scaled animal injury data; and finally, uses Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) (Hybrid III 50th Male, Hybrid III 5th Female, THOR 50th Male, ES-2re, SID-IIs, WorldSID 50th Male, and WorldSID 5th Female) test data (NCAP, pendulum, and frontal offset tests) to establish a kinematically based brain injury criterion (BrIC) for all ATDs. Similar procedures were applied to college football data where thousands of head impacts were recorded using a six degrees of freedom (6 DOF) instrumented helmet system. Since animal injury data used in derivation of BrIC were predominantly for diffuse axonal injury (DAI) type, which is currently an AIS 4+ injury, cumulative strain damage measure (CSDM) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were used to derive risk curves for AIS 4+ anatomic brain injuries. The AIS 1+, 2+, 3+, and 5+ risk curves for CSDM and MPS were then computed using the ratios between corresponding risk curves for head injury criterion (HIC) at a 50% risk. The risk curves for BrIC were then obtained from CSDM and MPS risk curves using the linear relationship

  5. Some new results on shock chemistry in IC 443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeNoyer, L.K.; Frerking, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    We have made new observations of CO, 13 CO, SiO, SO, H 2 CO, HCO + , N 2 H + , CS, OCS, HCN, and OH in the shocked clouds of IC 443. At position IC 443 B, we find (a) the shocked CO is optically thin, (b) the HCO + /CO abundance ratio is 4--9 x 10 -4 , a tenfold enhancement over normal interstellar clouds, (c) HCN/CO = 1--3 x 10 -4 and CS/CO = 2--3 x 10 -4 , consistent with abundances found in ordinary clouds, (d) no enhancements of SO or SiO as occur in Orion KL, (e) optically thin preshock OH, confirming a hundredfold enhancement of OH/CO in the shock, and (f) an OH main line anomaly, with T/sub ex/(1667)>T/sub ex/(1665) in the shocked region

  6. STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC443

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jinlong; Wang Junjie; Miller, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We have performed submillimeter and millimeter observations in CO lines toward supernova remnant (SNR) IC443. The CO molecular shell coincides well with the partial shell of the SNR detected in radio continuum observations. Broad emission lines and three 1720 MHz OH masers were detected in the CO molecular shell. The present observations have provided further evidence in support of the interaction between the SNR and the adjoining molecular clouds (MCs). The total mass of the MCs is 9.26 x 10 3 M sun . The integrated CO line intensity ratio (R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) ) for the whole MC is between 0.79 and 3.40. The average value is 1.58, which is much higher than previous measurements of individual Galactic MCs. Higher line ratios imply that shocks have driven into the MCs. We conclude that high R I CO(3-2) /I CO(2-1) is identified as a good signature of the SNR-MC interacting system. Based on the IRAS Point Source Catalog and the Two Micron All Sky Survey near-infrared database, 12 protostellar object and 1666 young stellar object (YSO) candidates (including 154 classical T Tauri stars and 419 Herbig Ae/Be stars) are selected. In the interacting regions, the significant enhancement of the number of protostellar objects and YSOs indicates the presence of some recently formed stars. After comparing the characteristic timescales of star formation with the age of IC443, we conclude that the protostellar objects and YSO candidates are not triggered by IC443. For the age of the stellar winds shell, we have performed our calculation on the basis of a stellar wind shell expansion model. The results and analysis suggest that the formation of these stars may be triggered by the stellar winds of the IC443 progenitor.

  7. Droplet-Wall/Film Impact in IC Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    Report: Droplet-Wall/ Film Impact in IC Engine Applications (ARO Topic 1.4.1 under ARO’s Dr. Ralph A. Anthenien) The views, opinions and/or findings...Participants: RPPR Final Report as of 12-Oct-2017 Agreement Number: W911NF-16-1-0449 Organization: Princeton University Title: Droplet-Wall/ Film Impact...droplets impacting a wet surface under various film thickness, which plays a critical role in controlling the efficiency of applications such as those

  8. The unusual kinematics of the galaxy IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of neutral hydrogen emission from the galaxy IC 10 show a large outer envelope of gas more than 1 0 in extent. The emission has a velocity gradient along the major axis in the opposite sense to that of the central concentration mapped by Shostak. This unusual velocity reversal can be interpreted in terms of a warped gas-layer in normal rotation and seen face-on. (author)

  9. Improved CVD Techniques for Depositing Passivation Layers of ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-10-01

    Halted PhilcoT xong, 43 o Flex b ru.an I ery t92." PrutptEnt,"e Electro nic -News; p. 34 --(M a~y 20, 1974). 355. 4t3fAtil, No 2(estbgru sey SpesHg-o e...and No. 4, 78 (1974). *J. G. Biddle Co., Plymouth Meeting, PA 19462. 222 NARROW AND WIDE INTERFERENCE CONTOUR 2 4 6 IC PE LLET Bonding pad oxide area

  10. IC modelling in the IRSN EPR level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delache, J.

    2012-01-01

    Today in France, an EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor) Unit is under construction at the Flamanville site. The creation authorization was granted in April 2007 and the plant commissioning is planned for 2012. The plant operator (EDF) provided for the construction license several PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) studies. IRSN, as TSO (Technical Safety Organisation), wishes to dispose of the appropriate knowledge and tools for the independent verification of the operator studies and so developed its own model of PSA level 1. The goal is not to rebuild the plant operator PSA (with a full scope...) but to dispose of a simplified model able to clearly point out specific important issues. In the IRSN model a particular effort has recently been done on the Digital IC modelling. The IC (Instrumentation and Control) is modelled in the IRSN EPR PSA by using Fault Trees. Instead, EDF EPR PSA applies the COMPACT model to simplify the command and instrumentation logics. The IRSN model is more detailed in order to be more accurate in the global analysis of the Digital IC. For instance the communication ways between automates are considered as well as the failure of support systems. The model is still under development mainly in order to define the CCF (Common Cause Failure) which may be considered. (authors)

  11. Protecting ICS Systems Within the Energy Sector from Cyber Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Shaquille

    Advance persistent threat (APT) groups are continuing to attack the energy sector through cyberspace, which poses a risk to our society, national security, and economy. Industrial control systems (ICSs) are not designed to handle cyber-attacks, which is why asset owners need to implement the correct proactive and reactive measures to mitigate the risk to their ICS environments. The Industrial Control Systems Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) responded to 290 incidents for fiscal year 2016, where 59 of those incidents came from the Energy Sector. APT groups know how vulnerable energy sector ICS systems are and the destruction they can cause when they go offline such as loss of production, loss of life, and economic impact. Defending against APT groups requires more than just passive controls such as firewalls and antivirus solutions. Asset owners should implement a combination of best practices and active defense in their environment to defend against APT groups. Cyber-attacks against critical infrastructure will become more complex and harder to detect and respond to with traditional security controls. The purpose of this paper was to provide asset owners with the correct security controls and methodologies to help defend against APT groups.

  12. AGB stars as tracers to IC 1613 evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, S. A.; Javadi, A.; van Loon, J. Th.

    We are going to apply AGB stars to find star formation history for IC 1613 galaxy; this a new and simple method that works well for nearby galaxies. IC 1613 is a Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy that is located at distance of 750 kpc, a gas rich and isolated dwarf galaxy that has a low foreground extinction. We use the long period variable stars (LPVs) that represent the very final stage of evolution of stars with low and intermediate mass at the AGB phase and are very luminous and cool so that they emit maximum brightness in near-infrared bands. Thus near-infrared photometry with using stellar evolutionary models help us to convert brightness to birth mass and age and from this drive star formation history of the galaxy. We will use the luminosity distribution of the LPVs to reconstruct the star formation history-a method we have successfully applied in other Local Group galaxies. Our analysis shows that the IC 1613 has had a nearly constant star formation rate, without any dominant star formation episode.

  13. Electronic States of IC60BA and PC71BM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Chun-Qi; Wang Peng; Shen Ying; Li Wen-Jie; Li Hong-Nian; Zhang Wen-Hua; Zhu Jun-Fa; Lai Guo-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the electronic states of IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM using first-principles calculations and photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements. The energy level structures for all possible isomers are reported and compared with those of C 60 , C 70 and PC 61 BM. The attachment of the side chains can raise the LUMO energies and decrease the HOMO-LUMO gaps, and thus helps to increase the power-conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction solar cells. In the PES studies, we prepared IC 60 BA and PC 71 BM films on Si:H(111) substrates to construct adsorbate/substrate interfaces describable with the integer charge-transfer (ICT) model. Successful measurements then revealed that one of the most important material properties for an electron acceptor, the energy of the negative integer charge-transfer state (E ICT− ), is 4.31 eV below the vacuum level for PC 71 BM. The E ICT− of IC 60 BA is smaller than 4.14 eV

  14. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2017-01-01

    , largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted following a genealogical exercise carried out on the 102...... with a recognised reporting vehicle such as the annual report, were also encountered. Research limitations/implications – The implications of this study are that timely, value-relevant IC disclosures and compliant reporting, primarily for accountability purposes, have the potential to coexist. In addition...... to the usual limitations of a semi-structured interview research design, respondents’ difficulties in clearly recalling events during the project after some 10-12 years is a further potential limitation. Additionally, the use of internet-based communication channels for disclosure purposes was in its infancy...

  15. Dynamical Competition of IC-Industry Clustering from Taiwan to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Bi-Huei; Tsai, Kuo-Hui

    2009-08-01

    Most studies employ qualitative approach to explore the industrial clusters; however, few research has objectively quantified the evolutions of industry clustering. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively analyze clustering among IC design, IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries by using the foreign direct investment (FDI) data. The Lotka-Volterra system equations are first adopted here to capture the competition or cooperation among such three industries, thus explaining their clustering inclinations. The results indicate that the evolution of FDI into China for IC design industry significantly inspire the subsequent FDI of IC manufacturing as well as IC packaging and testing industries. Since IC design industry lie in the upstream stage of IC production, the middle-stream IC manufacturing and downstream IC packing and testing enterprises tend to cluster together with IC design firms, in order to sustain a steady business. Finally, Taiwan IC industry's FDI amount into China is predicted to cumulatively increase, which supports the industrial clustering tendency for Taiwan IC industry. Particularly, the FDI prediction of Lotka-Volterra model performs superior to that of the conventional Bass model after the forecast accuracy of these two models are compared. The prediction ability is dramatically improved as the industrial mutualism among each IC production stage is taken into account.

  16. uvby and Hβ photometry of the open cluster IC 4996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.J.; Delgado, A.J.; Garcia-Pelayo, J.M.; Garrido, R.; Saez, M.

    1985-01-01

    Photoelectric uvby and Hβ observations have been obtained for 15 stars in the field of the open cluster IC 4996. An average colour excess of E(b-y)=0.473 is estimated for six observed members of the cluster, in good agreement with previous results. A comparison between the β-Msub(v) calibrations given by Crawford and by Eggen suggests that the first one takes better into account the evolutionary effects on the Hβ index. We have calculated a true distance modulus of 11.43 and an age of 7.5x10 6 years

  17. Integration of IC/EC systems in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, T.; Beaumont, B.; Baruah, U.K.; Bonicelli, T.; Chiocchio, S.; Cox, D.; Darbos, C.; Decamps, H.; Denisov, G.; Henderson, M.; Kazarian, F.; Lamalle, P.U.; Mukherjee, A.; Rasmussen, D.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Sakamoto, K.; Tanga, A.

    2010-01-01

    The RF heating and current drive (H and CD) systems that are to be installed in ITER during the construction phase, are the electron cyclotron (EC) and ion cyclotron (IC) systems. They are complex assemblies of high voltage power supplies (HVPS), RF generators, transmission lines and antennas. Their design and integration are constrained by many interfaces, both internal, between the subsystems, and external, with the other ITER systems. In addition, some components must be compatible with a nuclear environment and are classified as Safety Important Component. This paper describes the processes implemented in ITER to ensure proper integration.

  18. Preclinical evaluation of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides, with or without chemotherapy in a mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segatori, Valeria I.; Vazquez, Ana M.; Gomez, Daniel E.; Gabri, Mariano R.; Alonso, Daniel F.

    2012-01-01

    N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) is a sialic acid molecule usually found in mammalian cells as terminal constituents of different membrane glycoconjugates such as gangliosides. The NeuGcGM3 ganglioside has been described as a tumor antigen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in humans. Racotumomab is an anti-NeuGc-containing gangliosides anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) (formerly known as 1E10) that has received attention as a potential active immunotherapy for advanced lung cancer in clinical trials. In this work, we have examined the antitumor activity of racotumomab in combination or not with chemotherapy, using the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma as a preclinical model of NSCLC in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with biweekly doses of racotumomab at 50–200 μg/dose formulated in aluminum hydroxide (racotumomab-alum vaccine) demonstrated a significant antitumor effect against the progression of lung tumor nodules. Racotumomab-alum vaccination exerted a comparable effect on lung disease to that of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (100 mg/kg weekly). Interestingly, chemo-immunotherapy was highly effective against lung nodules and well-tolerated, although no significant synergistic effect was observed as compared to each treatment alone in the present model. We also obtained evidence on the role of the exogenous incorporation of NeuGc in the metastatic potential of 3LL cells. Our preclinical data provide support for the combination of chemotherapy with the anti-idiotype mAb racotumomab, and also reinforce the biological significance of NeuGc in lung cancer.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of racotumomab, an anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody to N-glycolyl-containing gangliosides, with or without chemotherapy in a mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segatori, Valeria I. [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Department of Science and Technology, Quilmes National University, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vazquez, Ana M. [Center of Molecular Immunology, Innovation Managing Direction, La Habana (Cuba); Gomez, Daniel E.; Gabri, Mariano R.; Alonso, Daniel F., E-mail: dfalonso@unq.edu.ar [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, Department of Science and Technology, Quilmes National University, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-11-08

    N-glycolylneuraminic acid (NeuGc) is a sialic acid molecule usually found in mammalian cells as terminal constituents of different membrane glycoconjugates such as gangliosides. The NeuGcGM3 ganglioside has been described as a tumor antigen for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in humans. Racotumomab is an anti-NeuGc-containing gangliosides anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) (formerly known as 1E10) that has received attention as a potential active immunotherapy for advanced lung cancer in clinical trials. In this work, we have examined the antitumor activity of racotumomab in combination or not with chemotherapy, using the 3LL Lewis lung carcinoma as a preclinical model of NSCLC in C57BL/6 mice. Vaccination with biweekly doses of racotumomab at 50–200 μg/dose formulated in aluminum hydroxide (racotumomab-alum vaccine) demonstrated a significant antitumor effect against the progression of lung tumor nodules. Racotumomab-alum vaccination exerted a comparable effect on lung disease to that of pemetrexed-based chemotherapy (100 mg/kg weekly). Interestingly, chemo-immunotherapy was highly effective against lung nodules and well-tolerated, although no significant synergistic effect was observed as compared to each treatment alone in the present model. We also obtained evidence on the role of the exogenous incorporation of NeuGc in the metastatic potential of 3LL cells. Our preclinical data provide support for the combination of chemotherapy with the anti-idiotype mAb racotumomab, and also reinforce the biological significance of NeuGc in lung cancer.

  20. Instantaneous flywheel torque of IC engine grey-box identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milašinović, A.; Knežević, D.; Milovanović, Z.; Škundrić, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a mathematical model developed for the identification of excitation torque acting on the IC engine flywheel is presented. The excitation torque gained through internal combustion of the fuel in the IC engine is transmitted from the flywheel to the transmission. The torque is not constant but variable and is a function of the crank angle. The verification of the mathematical model was done on a 4-cylinder 4-stroke diesel engine for which the in-cylinder pressure was measured in one cylinder and the instantaneous angular speed of the crankshaft at its free end. The research was conducted on a hydraulic engine brake. Inertial forces of all rotational parts, from flywheel to the turbine wheel of the engine brake, are acting on the flywheel due to the nonuniform motion of the flywheel. It is known from the theory of turbomachinery that the torque on the hydraulic brake is a quadratic function of angular speed. Due to that and the variable angular speed of the turbine wheel of the engine brake, the torque during one engine cycle is also variable. The motivation for this research was the idea (intention) to determine the instantaneous torque acting on the flywheel as a function of the crank angle with a mathematical model without any measuring and based on this to determine the quality of work of specific cylinders of the multi-cylinder engine. The crankshaft was considered elastic and also its torsional vibrations were taken into account.

  1. Practical silicon Light emitting devices fabricated by standard IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aharoni, H.; Monuko du Plessis; Snyman, L.W.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Research activities are described with regard to the development of a comprehensive approach for the practical realization of single crystal Silicon Light Emitting Devices (Si-LEDs). Several interesting suggestions for the fabrication of such devices were made in the literature but they were not adopted by the semiconductor industry because they involve non-standard fabrication schemes, requiring special production lines. Our work presents an alternative approach, proposed and realized in practice by us, permitting the fabrication of Si-LEDs using the standard conventional fully industrialized IC technology ''as is'' without any adaptation. It enables their fabrication in the same production lines of the presently existing IC industry. This means that Si-LEDs can now be fabricated simultaneously with other components, such as transistors, on the same silicon chip, using the same masks and processing procedures. The result is that the yield, reliability, and price of the above Si-LEDs are the same as the other Si devices integrated on the same chip. In this work some structural details of several practical Si-LED's designed by us, as well as experimental results describing their performance are presented. These Si-LED's were fabricated to our specifications utilizing standard CMOS/BiCMOS technology, a fact which comprises an achievement by itself. The structure of the Si-LED's, is designed according to specifications such as the required operating voltage, overall light output intensity, its dependence(linear, or non-linear) on the input signal (voltage or current), light generations location (bulk, or near-surface), the emission pattern and uniformity. Such structural design present a problem since the designer can not use any structural parameters (such as doping levels and junction depths for example) but only those which already exist in the production lines. Since the fabrication procedures in these lines are originally designed for processing of

  2. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. PMID:26806155

  3. Iterative categorization (IC): a systematic technique for analysing qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The processes of analysing qualitative data, particularly the stage between coding and publication, are often vague and/or poorly explained within addiction science and research more broadly. A simple but rigorous and transparent technique for analysing qualitative textual data, developed within the field of addiction, is described. The technique, iterative categorization (IC), is suitable for use with inductive and deductive codes and can support a range of common analytical approaches, e.g. thematic analysis, Framework, constant comparison, analytical induction, content analysis, conversational analysis, discourse analysis, interpretative phenomenological analysis and narrative analysis. Once the data have been coded, the only software required is a standard word processing package. Worked examples are provided. © 2016 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. BV photographic and CCD photometry of IC 4651

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anthony-Twarog, B.J.; Mukherjee, K.; Twarog, B.A.; Caldwell, N.

    1988-01-01

    A BV photometric survey in IC 4651 based on photographic and CCD material calibrated with photoelectric photometry from Eggen (1971) and Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) has been completed. The color-magnitude diagram is consistent with an age of 2.4 + or - 0.3 x 10 to the 9th yr derived by comparison with the isochrones of VandenBerg (1985) if the apparent distance modulus and reddening derived from uvby photometry in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987) are employed. While evidence is found of a hook in the upper main sequence, no evidence is found of a significantly bifurcated main sequence for this cluster, although it is similar in age to NGC 752 and NGC 3680, where this phenomenon has been noted. Finally, the survey has not resolved the apparent deficit of main-sequence stars fainter than V = 14.5 noted in Anthony-Twarog and Twarog (1987). 16 references

  5. Improving IC process efficiency with critical materials management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Kathy L.; Andrews, Robert E.

    2003-06-01

    The management of critical materials in a high technology manufacturing facility is crucial to obtaining consistently high production yield. This is especially true in an industry like semiconductors where the success of the product is so dependent on the integrity of the critical production materials. Bar code systems, the traditional management tools, are voluntary, defeatable, and do not continuously monitor materials when in use. The significant costs associated with mis-management of chemicals can be captured with a customized model resulting in highly favorable ROI"s for the NOWTrak RFID chemical management system. This system transmits reliable chemical data about each individual container and generates information that can be used to increase wafer production efficiency and yield. The future of the RFID system will expand beyond the benefits of chemical management and into dynamic IC process management

  6. VLA observations of circumnebular neutral hydrogen in IC 418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.R.; Gussie, G.T.; Goss, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of the planetary nebula IC 418 have been made with the Very Large Array. These images show H I emission and absorption in close association with the nebula. Assuming a distance of 1 kpc, the total mass of circumnebular neutral hydrogen is 0.35 + or - 0.05 solar mass. Model fits to the data indicate that the neutral gas falls as a 1/r-squared density distribution, with outflow velocity about 5 km/s less than the expansion rate of the ionized gas. The observations also indicate that there is a region devoid of H I emission between the outer edge of the H II nebula and the inner edge of the H I shell. It is suggested that this gap is comprised of molecular hydrogen and that the surrounding H I shell is produced by photodissociation of H2 by the interstellar radiation field. Physical parameters of the H I gas are derived. 25 refs

  7. Charge-sensitive preamplifier IC for silicon calorimetry at colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baturitsky, M.A.; Chekhovsky, V.A.; Emel'yanchik, I.F.; Shumeiko, N.M.; Golutvin, I.A.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Dvornikov, O.V.

    1995-01-01

    Four versions of a fast monolithic charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSP) were designed using microwave BJT-JFET technology. The best one has a 3.5 ns rise time for input detector capacitance C d =100 pF and approximately 8 mW power dissipation for 5 V supply voltage. The ENC performance at shaping time 30 ns is 1350 e+17 e/pF for C d up to 600 pF. Crosstalk in a four-channel amplifier made in the same chip was measured to be about -46 dB for C d =100 pF. The linear output voltage swing is 0.8 V for voltage supply 5 V. The IC has revealed good radiation hardness to neutron irradiation. ((orig.))

  8. A revolutionary concept to improve the efficiency of IC antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanesio, D.; Maggiora, R. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni (DET), Torino (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    The successful design of an Ion Cyclotron (IC) antenna mainly relies on the capability of coupling high power to the plasma (MW), feature that is currently reached by allowing rather high voltages (tens of kV) on the unavoidable unmatched part of the feeding lines. This requirement is often responsible of arcs along the transmission lines and other unwanted phenomena that considerably limit the usage of IC launchers. In this work, we suggest and describe a revolutionary approach based on high impedance surfaces, which allows to increase the antenna radiation efficiency and, hence, to highly reduce the imposed voltages to couple the same level of power to the plasma. High-impedance surfaces are periodic metallic structures (patches) displaced usually on top of a dielectric substrate and grounded by means of vertical posts usually embedded inside a dielectric, in a mushroom-like shape. In terms of working properties, high impedance surfaces are electrically thin in-phase reflectors, i.e. they present a high impedance, within a given frequency band, such that the image currents are in-phase with the currents of the antenna itself, thus determining a significant efficiency increase. While the usual design of a high impedance surface requires the presence of a dielectric layer, some alternative solutions can be realized in vacuum, taking advantage of double layers ofmetallic patches. After an introductory part on the properties of high impedance surfaces, this work documents both their design by means of numerical codes and their implementation on a scaled mock-up.

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0102 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FC-IC (Link to library) FC-IC0102 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U16527-1 FC-IC01...02F (Link to Original site) FC-IC0102F 434 - - - - - - Show FC-IC0102 Library FC-IC (Link to library) Clone ...ID FC-IC0102 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP ID - dictyBase ID - Link to Contig Contig-U16527-1 Original site URL http://dict... (bits) Value N AB088483 |AB088483.1 Dictyostelium discoideum gene for gamete and mating-type specific prote...oducing significant alignments: (bits) Value AB088483_1( AB088483 |pid:none) Dictyostelium discoideum gmsA g

  10. Profiles of the N II 6584 A line over the giant H II regions IC 1318b and c, NGC 7000 and IC 5070. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canto, J; Johnson, P G; Meaburn, J; Mikhail, J S; Terrett, D L; White, N J [Manchester Univ. (UK). Dept of Astronomy

    1979-06-01

    Previously (Paper I) large-scale splitting of the (N II) line was discovered over an area of IC 1318b. The motions of the ionized material have now been mapped over a much larger region of this nebula and also IC 1318c. The splitting reaches a maximum value of 53 km/s over the faintest regions of IC 1318b and occurs over an area approximately > 20 pc across. However, few split (N II) lines were found over IC 1318c, but the motions of this whole ionized and neutral complex have been shown to be closely related. Wind-driven flows along neutral and ionized shells are proposed to explain the observations. Similar measurements have also been made on either side of the dark lane separating NGC 7000 from IC 5070.

  11. The OptIC Data Assimilation Intercomparison: A Statistical Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Clisby, N.

    2008-12-01

    The development of improved terrestrial carbon models has assumed great importance because of concerns about significant climate-to-carbon feedback processes. The complexity of the interactions leads to considerable difficulties in the process of model calibration. The OptIC intercomparison explored some aspects of model calibration, using an idealised terrestrial carbon model. Participants were invited to estimate model parameters in various cases defined by specified time series of the model state, with various forms of added noise. The study identified the crucial importance of the choice of cost function. The present analysis revisits the OptIC study, by considering it as an exercise in statistical estimation. This treats the observations as random variables. Consequently parameter estimates, â, based on observations will also be random variables whose distribution is known as the 'sampling distribution'. Key questions for any specific case are: Are departures from â/a_true =1 indication of bias or sampling error? Under what circumstance are uncertainty estimates (of Var[â]) reliable? We consider cases where the estimate is obtained by minimising a cost function, ΘX. Assuming that we know the true form of ℓ, the log likelihood, there are three different characterisations of uncertainty that should be distinguished: (i) The uncertainty from maximum-likelihood estimates, corresponding (either exactly or asymptotically) to the Cramer-Rao bound. In a realistic calibration situation, we won't be able to determine this because the 'true' form of the likelihood is unknown. (ii) The actual uncertainty associated with using a particular cost function. If the true noise distribution is known, this can be calculated in simple cases and determined from simulations in more complicated cases. (iii) The 'formal uncertainty' based on assuming (usually incorrectly) that ΘX is the true likelihood. In the first stage of the analysis, the distinctions are illustrated by

  12. Broad Halpha Wing Formation in the Planetary Nebula IC 4997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee; Hyung

    2000-02-10

    The young and compact planetary nebula IC 4997 is known to exhibit very broad wings with a width exceeding 5000 km s-1 around Halpha. We propose that the broad wings are formed through Rayleigh-Raman scattering that involves atomic hydrogen, by which Lybeta photons with a velocity width of a few 102 km s-1 are converted to optical photons and fill the Halpha broad wing region. The conversion efficiency reaches 0.6 near the line center, where the scattering optical depth is much larger than 1, and rapidly decreases in the far wings. Assuming that close to the central star there exists an unresolved inner compact core of high density, nH approximately 109-1010 cm-3, we use the photoionization code "CLOUDY" to show that sufficient Lybeta photons for scattering are produced. Using a top-hat-incident profile for the Lybeta flux and a scattering region with a H i column density NHi=2x1020 cm-2 and a substantial covering factor, we perform a profile-fitting analysis in order to obtain a satisfactory fit to the observed flux. We briefly discuss the astrophysical implications of the Rayleigh-Raman processes in planetary nebulae and other emission objects.

  13. Plasma end-loss studies on Scylla I-C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, K.F.; York, T.M.

    1976-08-01

    The end-loss process in the collision dominated Scylla I-C plasma has been investigated with a local pressure sensitive diagnostic, integrated density measurement and axially arrayed diamagnetic loop probes. The development of a plasma loss orifice, well within the theta-pinch coil, has been identified. The magnitude of the observed orifice is found to be in excellent agreement with that predicted from collisional MHD theories. The axially flowing plasma is well confined until it flows through the loss orifice. After passing through the orifice, rapid axial expansion is observed. An indication of the existence of inward traveling rarefaction waves has been observed from the plasma midplane temperature data; an abrupt decrease in the plasma temperature at t approximately equal to 6.5 μs corresponds to the predicted time of arrival of rarefaction waves at the coil midplane. The plasma loss rate derived from the pressure data indicates an initial period (t 4 μs) of gradual decay in the loss rate. This initial period of high loss rate is predicted from the MHD flow theories when the measured, time dependent plasma parameters are substituted into the analytical models. The loss rate determined from the end-on interferograms does not respond to the detailed structure of the plasma loss process

  14. IRNSS/NavIC L5 Attitude Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoora Zaminpardaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS has recently (May 2016 become fully-operational and has been provided with the operational name of NavIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation. It has been developed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO with the objective of offering positioning, navigation and timing (PNT to the users in its service area. This contribution provides for the first time an assessment of the IRNSS L5-signal capability to achieve instantaneous attitude determination on the basis of data collected in Perth, Australia. Our evaluations are conducted for both a linear array of two antennas and a planar array of three antennas. A pre-requisite for precise and fast IRNSS attitude determination is the successful resolution of the double-differenced (DD integer carrier-phase ambiguities. In this contribution, we will compare the performances of different such methods, amongst which the unconstrained and the multivariate-constrained LAMBDA method for both linear and planar arrays. It is demonstrated that the instantaneous ambiguity success rates increase from 15% to 90% for the linear array and from 5% to close to 100% for the planar array, thus showing that standalone IRNSS can realize 24-h almost instantaneous precise attitude determination with heading and elevation standard deviations of 0.05 and 0.10 degrees, respectively.

  15. ICES IN THE QUIESCENT IC 5146 DENSE CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Ennico, K.; Greene, T. P.; Roellig, T. L.; Sandford, S. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Geballe, T. R.; Mason, R. E.; Keane, J. V.; Lada, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Werner, M. W.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Decin, L.; Eriksson, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spectra in the 2 to 20 μm range of quiescent cloud material located in the IC 5146 cloud complex. The spectra were obtained with NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility SpeX instrument and the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrometer. We use these spectra to investigate dust and ice absorption features in pristine regions of the cloud that are unaltered by embedded stars. We find that the H 2 O-ice threshold extinction is 4.03 ± 0.05 mag. Once foreground extinction is taken into account, however, the threshold drops to 3.2 mag, equivalent to that found for the Taurus dark cloud, generally assumed to be the touchstone quiescent cloud against which all other dense cloud and embedded young stellar object observations are compared. Substructure in the trough of the silicate band for two sources is attributed to CH 3 OH and NH 3 in the ices, present at the ∼2% and ∼5% levels, respectively, relative to H 2 O-ice. The correlation of the silicate feature with the E(J - K) color excess is found to follow a much shallower slope relative to lines of sight that probe diffuse clouds, supporting the previous results by Chiar et al.

  16. IC 630: Piercing the Veil of the Nuclear Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durré, Mark; Mould, Jeremy; Schartmann, Marc; Ashraf Uddin, Syed; Cotter, Garrett

    2017-04-01

    IC 630 is a nearby early-type galaxy with a mass of 6× {10}10 M ⊙ with an intense burst of recent (6 Myr) star formation (SF). It shows strong nebular emission lines, with radio and X-ray emission, which classifies it as an active galactic nucleus (AGN). With VLT-SINFONI and Gemini North-NIFS adaptive optics observations (plus supplementary ANU 2.3 m WiFeS optical IFU observations), the excitation diagnostics of the nebular emission species show no sign of standard AGN engine excitation; the stellar velocity dispersion also indicates that a supermassive black hole (if one is present) is small ({M}\\bullet =2.25× {10}5 {M}⊙ ). The luminosity at all wavelengths is consistent with SF at a rate of about 1-2 M ⊙ yr-1. We measure gas outflows driven by SF at a rate of 0.18 M ⊙ yr-1 in a face-on truncated cone geometry. We also observe a nuclear cluster or disk and other clusters. Photoionization from young, hot stars is the main excitation mechanism for [Fe II] and hydrogen, whereas shocks are responsible for the H2 excitation. Our observations are broadly comparable with simulations where a Toomre-unstable, self-gravitating gas disk triggers a burst of SF, peaking after about 30 Myr and possibly cycling with a period of about 200 Myr.

  17. FinFET modeling for IC simulation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chenming; Lu, Darsen D

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard - BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: * Why you should use FinFET* The physics and operation of FinFET* Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG)* Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG* FinFET circuit design and simulation * Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts' insight into the specifications of the standard* The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM...

  18. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Mou; Dong Xiang; Guanghong Duan

    2013-01-01

    Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the ...

  19. The integrated circuit IC EMP transient state disturbance effect experiment method investigates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Transient state disturbance characteristic study on the integrated circuit, IC, need from its coupling path outset. Through cable (aerial) coupling, EMP converts to an pulse current voltage and results in the impact to the integrated circuit I/O orifice passing the cable. Aiming at the armament system construction feature, EMP effect to the integrated circuit, IC inside the system is analyzed. The integrated circuit, IC EMP effect experiment current injection method is investigated and a few experiments method is given. (authors)

  20. A combined thermodynamic cycle based on methanol dissociation for IC (internal combustion) engine exhaust heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Liu, Jingping; Xu, Zhengxin; Ren, Chengqin; Deng, Banglin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for exhaust heat recovery was proposed to improve IC (internal combustion) engine fuel efficiency and also to achieve the goal for direct usage of methanol as IC engine fuel. An open organic Rankine cycle system using methanol as working medium is coupled to IC engine exhaust pipe for exhaust heat recovery. In the bottom cycle, the working medium first undergoes dissociation and expansion processes, and is then directed back to IC engine as fuel. As the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle are combined together, this scheme forms a combined thermodynamic cycle. Then, this concept was applied to a turbocharged engine, and the corresponding simulation models were built for both of the external bottom cycle and the IC engine main cycle. On this basis, the energy saving potential of this combined cycle was estimated by parametric analyses. Compared to the methanol vapor engine, IC engine in-cylinder efficiency has an increase of 1.4–2.1 percentage points under full load conditions, while the external bottom cycle can increase the fuel efficiency by 3.9–5.2 percentage points at the working pressure of 30 bar. The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points. - Highlights: • A combined thermodynamic cycle using methanol as working medium for IC engine exhaust heat recovery is proposed. • The external bottom cycle of exhaust heat recovery and IC engine working cycle are combined together. • IC engine fuel efficiency could be improved from both in-cylinder working cycle and external bottom cycle. • The maximum improvement to the IC engine global fuel efficiency reaches 6.8 percentage points at full load

  1. Prediction of fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ of steel from Charpy impact test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwadate, Tadao; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Takemata, Hiroyuki; Terashima, Shuhei

    1986-08-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ and/or K/sub Id/ of steels using their Charpy impact test results and tensile properties. The fracture toughness, Charpy impact and tensile properties of 2 1/4 Cr-1Mo, ASTM A508 Cl.1, A508 Cl.2 A508 Cl.3 and A533 Gr.B Cl.1 steels were measured and analysed on the basis of the excess temperature (test temperature minus FATT) and Rolfe-Novak correlation. The relationship between K/sub Ic//K/sub Ic-us/ and the excess temperature, where K/sub Ic-us/ is the upper-shelf fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ predicted by Rolfe-Novak correlation, discloses that the K/sub Ic/ transition curves of several steels are representable by only one trend curve of K/sub Ic//K/sub Ic-us/ or K/sub Id//K/sub Id-us/ versus excess temperature relation. This curve is denoted as a ''master curve''. By using this curve, the fracture toughness of steel can be predicted using Charpy impact and tensile test results. By taking account of the scattering of both the fracture toughness and Charpy impact test results, the confidence limits of the master curve were also determined. Another approach to develop more general procedure of predicting the fracture toughness K/sub Ic/ is also discussed.

  2. IC ENGINE SUPERCHARGING AND EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION USING JET COMPRESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhimoulame Kalaisselvane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercharging is a process which is used to improve the performance of an engine by increasing the specific power output whereas exhaust gas recirculation reduces the NOx produced by engine because of supercharging. In a conventional engine, supercharger functions as a compressor for the forced induction of the charge taking mechanical power from the engine crankshaft. In this study, supercharging is achieved using a jet compressor. In the jet compressor, the exhaust gas is used as the motive stream and the atmospheric air as the propelled stream. When high pressure motive stream from the engine exhaust is expanded in the nozzle, a low pressure is created at the nozzle exit. Due to this low pressure, atmospheric air is sucked into the expansion chamber of the compressor, where it is mixed and pressurized with the motive stream. The pressure of the mixed stream is further increased in the diverging section of the jet compressor. A percentage volume of the pressurized air mixture is then inducted back into the engine as supercharged air and the balance is let out as exhaust. This process not only saves the mechanical power required for supercharging but also dilutes the constituents of the engine exhaust gas thereby reducing the emission and the noise level generated from the engine exhaust. The geometrical design parameters of the jet compressor were obtained by solving the governing equations using the method of constant rate of momentum change. Using the theoretical design parameters of the jet compressor, a computational fluid dinamics analysis using FLUENT software was made to evaluate the performance of the jet compressor for the application of supercharging an IC engine. This evaluation turned out to be an efficient diagnostic tool for determining performance optimization and design of the jet compressor. A jet compressor was also fabricated for the application of supercharging and its performance was studied.

  3. The influence of the stress state on Ksub(Ic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, D.; Helms, R.; Schmidt, P.; Veith, H.; Ziebs, J.

    1977-01-01

    To get a first impression of the influence of stress states of higher multi-axiality than plane strain on Ksub(c) a specimen has been created, in which a bi-axial nominal stress state arises by uniaxial tension. This is attained by tension superimposed by transverse bending stress. The stress distribution without crack was analysed by photoelasticity as well as by finite element method. The results were identical. The stress distribution in the fracture (crack) plane was somewhat inhomogeneous, of course. But the ratio of the stress parallel to the tension axis to that perpendicular to it was max. 1:0.3 with a mean value 1:0.15. Specimens of this type were machined from a rolled sheet of the steel 22 NiMoCr 37, with specimen thickness of about 50 mm. For comparison single-edge notched specimens of the same cross section were prepared from the same material. Fatigue cracks were made following ASTM Recommendations. The fracture mechanics tests were carried out at a temperature of -100 0 C. Although valid Ksub(Ic)-values following the rigorous intention of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (ASTM Recommendations) were not obtained, the differences between the results of the two types of specimens and stress states were significant. The Ksub(Q)-values of the bi-axial stressed specimen were about 25% lower than that of the single-edge notched specimen. The deviation of the load-displacement trace from the linear elastic behavior was greater for the single-edge notched specimens than for the bi-axial stressed specimens. The consequences of these results for the assessment of flaws in pressure vessels are evident considering that bi-axial nominal stress states occur in pressure vessels

  4. Measuring IC following a semi-qualitative approach: An integrated framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Verbano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Considering the different IC measures adopted in literature, the advantages of adopting semi-qualitative measures, and the lack of an agreed system for IC evaluation, the purpose of the paper is to analyse literature on IC measurement following a semi-qualitative approach, with the final intent to build an IC measurement framework. Design/methodology/approach: A literature review on IC measurement system, following a semi-qualitative approach, has been conducted and analysed, in order to re-organize and synthesize all items used in previous researches. Findings: An integrated framework emerged from this research and it constitutes an IC  measurement system, created gathering and integrating different items previously adopted in literature. Each of these variables has been organized in categories belonging to one of the three main components of IC: human capital, internal structural capital and relational capital. Originality/value: This research provides an integrated tool for IC evaluation, fostering toward a well agreed measurement system that is still lacking in literature. This framework could be interesting  not only for the academic world, which in the last two decades reveals increasing attention to IC, but also for the management of the companies, that with IC measurement can increase awareness of the firm’s value and develop internal auditing system to support the management of these assets. Moreover, it could be a useful instrument for the communication of IC value to the external stakeholders, as customers, suppliers and especially shareholders, and to investors and financial analysts.

  5. Crowdsourcing Disease Biomarker Discovery Research: The IP4IC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Michael B; Bartolone, Sarah N; Veerecke, Andrew; Lamb, Laura E

    2018-05-01

    Biomarker discovery is limited by readily assessable, cost efficient human samples available in large numbers that represent the entire heterogeneity of the disease. We developed a novel, active participation crowdsourcing method to determine BP-RS (Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score). It is based on noninvasive urinary cytokines to discriminate patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had Hunner lesions from controls and patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome but without Hunner lesions. We performed a national crowdsourcing study in cooperation with the Interstitial Cystitis Association. Patients answered demographic, symptom severity and urinary frequency questionnaires on a HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) compliant website. Urine samples were collected at home, stabilized with a preservative and sent to Beaumont Hospital for analysis. The expression of 3 urinary cytokines was used in a machine learning algorithm to develop BP-RS. The IP4IC study collected a total of 448 urine samples, representing 153 patients (147 females and 6 males) with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, of whom 54 (50 females and 4 males) had Hunner lesions. A total of 159 female and 136 male controls also participated, who were age matched. A defined BP-RS was calculated to predict interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions or a bladder permeability defect etiology with 89% validity. In this novel participation crowdsourcing study we obtained a large number of urine samples from 46 states, which were collected at home, shipped and stored at room temperature. Using a machine learning algorithm we developed BP-RS to quantify the risk of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with Hunner lesions, which is indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology. To our knowledge BP-RS is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and one of the

  6. EVN observations of the OH megamaser galaxies Mrk 231 and IC 694

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klockner, HR; Baan, WA; Migenes,; Reid, MJ

    2002-01-01

    We present EVN observations of hydroxyl (OH) main-line emission in two megamaser sources Mrk 231 and IC 694. The observations indicate that the broad maser emission lines originate within the nuclear regions. A single 1667 MHz main-line feature is seen at the nucleus of IC 694. In Mrk 231 both

  7. Adopting De Novo Programming Approach on IC Design Service Firms Resources Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. C. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry has very important position in computer industry, ICT field, and new electronic technology developing. The IC design service is one of key factor of semiconductor industry development. There are more than 365 IC design service firms have been established around Hsinchu Science Park in Taiwan. Building an efficient planning model for IC design service firm resources integrating is very interest issue. This study aims to construct a planning model for IC design service firm implementation resources integration. This study uses the De Novo programming as an approach of criteria alternative to achieve optimal resource allocation on IC design firm. Results show the IC design service firm should conduct open innovation concept and utilizes design outsourcing obtains cost down and enhance IC design service business performance. This plan model of De Novo programming is not only for IC design service firm and also can apply to the other industrial implementation strategic alliance/integrating resource. This plan model is a universal model for the others industries field.

  8. 30 CFR 57.22203 - Main fan operation (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fan operation (I-C mines). 57.22203... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22203 Main fan operation (I-C mines). Main fans shall be operated continuously while ore production is in progress. ...

  9. Innovative Teaching of IC Design and Manufacture Using the Superchip Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P. R.; Wilcock, R.; McNally, I.; Swabey, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes how an intelligent chip architecture has allowed a large cohort of undergraduate (UG) students to be given effective practical insight into integrated circuit (IC) design by designing and manufacturing their own ICs. To achieve this, an efficient chip architecture, the "Superchip," was developed, which allows multiple student…

  10. Industry-Oriented Laboratory Development for Mixed-Signal IC Test Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Haffner, M.; Yoder, S.; Scott, M.; Reehal, G.; Ismail, M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is lacking qualified integrated circuit (IC) test engineers to serve in the field of mixed-signal electronics. The absence of mixed-signal IC test education at the collegiate level is cited as one of the main sources for this problem. In response to this situation, the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at…

  11. A Solder Based Self Assembly Project in an Introductory IC Fabrication Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Madhav; Lusth, John C.; Burkett, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated circuit (IC) fabrication principles is an elective course in a senior undergraduate and early graduate student's curriculum. Over the years, the semiconductor industry relies heavily on students with developed expertise in the area of fabrication techniques, learned in an IC fabrication theory and laboratory course. The theory course…

  12. 30 CFR 57.22209 - Auxiliary fans (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). 57.22209 Section 57... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22209 Auxiliary fans (I-C mines). Electric auxiliary fans shall be approved by MSHA under the applicable requirements of 30 CFR part 18...

  13. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Boreholes shall be drilled in such a manner to insure that the advancing face will not accidently break into... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines...

  14. Evaluation of accelerated test parameters for CMOS IC total dose hardness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogoyan, A.V.; Nikiforov, A.Y.; Chumakov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    The approach to accelerated test parameters evaluation is presented in order to predict CMOS IC total dose behavior in variable dose-rate environment. The technique is based on the analytical model of MOSFET parameters total dose degradation. The simple way to estimate model parameter is proposed using IC's input-output MOSFET radiation test results. (authors)

  15. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  16. Development of grouped icEEG for the study of cognitive processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Invasive intracranial EEG (icEEG offers a unique opportunity to study human cognitive networks at an unmatched spatiotemporal resolution. To date, the contributions of icEEG have been limited to the individual-level analyses or cohorts whose data are not integrated in any way. Here we discuss how grouped approaches to icEEG overcome challenges related to sparse-sampling, correct for individual variations in response and provide statistically valid models of brain activity in a population. By the generation of whole-brain activity maps, grouped icEEG enables the study of intra and interregional dynamics between distributed cortical substrates exhibiting task-dependent activity. In this fashion, grouped icEEG analyses can provide significant advances in understanding the mechanisms by which cortical networks give rise to cognitive functions.

  17. Periods and light curves of 16 Cepheid variables in IC 1613 not completed by Baade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    New periods and light curves are presented for 16 of the faintest Cepheids in IC 1613 which had not been finished by Baade. Magnitudes have been reduced to Freedman's new photometric scale. The P-L relation is extended to periods of 2 days using these new data. Comparison of the total Cepheid data now available in IC 1613 with the data in LMC shows no significant slope difference in the two P-L relations for periods of less than 10 days despite the lower metallicity of the young stars in IC 1613. Fifty new faint Cepheid candidates have been found in IC 1613 by blinking plates not used for this purpose by Baade. Most of these stars will have probable periods of less than 2 days, which will eventually permit an extension of the P-L relation in IC 1613 to fainter magnitudes when the photometry and period determinations are completed. 18 refs

  18. Prion seeding activities of mouse scrapie strains with divergent PrPSc protease sensitivities and amyloid plaque content using RT-QuIC and eQuIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vascellari

    Full Text Available Different transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-associated forms of prion protein (e.g. PrP(Sc can vary markedly in ultrastructure and biochemical characteristics, but each is propagated in the host. PrP(Sc propagation involves conversion from its normal isoform, PrP(C, by a seeded or templated polymerization mechanism. Such a mechanism is also the basis of the RT-QuIC and eQuIC prion assays which use recombinant PrP (rPrP(Sen as a substrate. These ultrasensitive detection assays have been developed for TSE prions of several host species and sample tissues, but not for murine models which are central to TSE pathogenesis research. Here we have adapted RT-QuIC and eQuIC to various murine prions and evaluated how seeding activity depends on glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI anchoring and the abundance of amyloid plaques and protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(Res. Scrapie brain dilutions up to 10(-8 and 10(-13 were detected by RT-QuIC and eQuIC, respectively. Comparisons of scrapie-affected wild-type mice and transgenic mice expressing GPI anchorless PrP showed that, although similar concentrations of seeding activity accumulated in brain, the heavily amyloid-laden anchorless mouse tissue seeded more rapid reactions. Next we compared seeding activities in the brains of mice with similar infectivity titers, but widely divergent PrP(Res levels. For this purpose we compared the 263K and 139A scrapie strains in transgenic mice expressing P101L PrP(C. Although the brains of 263K-affected mice had little immunoblot-detectable PrP(Res, RT-QuIC indicated that seeding activity was comparable to that associated with a high-PrP(Res strain, 139A. Thus, in this comparison, RT-QuIC seeding activity correlated more closely with infectivity than with PrP(Res levels. We also found that eQuIC, which incorporates a PrP(Sc immunoprecipitation step, detected seeding activity in plasma from wild-type and anchorless PrP transgenic mice inoculated with 22L, 79A and/or RML

  19. Current status of ITER I&C system as integration begins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William, E-mail: william.davis@iter.org [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Wallander, Anders [ITER Organisation, Route de Vinon-sur Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Yonekawa, Izuru [Nippon Advanced Technology Ltd., 3129-45 Hibara Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1112 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The ITER I&C system is organisationally complicated and technically challenging. • Standard technologies for the ITER I&C systems have been selected. • Supply of non-standard technologies will cause serious issues. • Differing levels of design maturity of plant I&C systems is a serious challenge. • Systems are in the final stages of design and are being delivered to site. - Abstract: The ITER I&C system is organisationally complicated and technically challenging, and integrating its many sub-systems into a single coherent system is critical for the ITER project to meet its objectives. This paper explains the integration risks being faced now and anticipated in the near future. Standardisation initiatives by the ITER central team to mitigate these risks are described. The paper also presents the architecture of the ITER I&C system, the current status of design and manufacture key developments made in recent years, and the current and future activities of the central I&C teams. Finally, a short description is given of the plant I&C systems that will be delivered to ITER in the near future.

  20. ICECAP: an integrated, general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chou, Judy; King, Kristopher W; Jing, Jing; Wei, Dong; Yang, Liyu

    2015-02-01

    IC50 and EC50 values are commonly used to evaluate drug potency. Mass spectrometry (MS)-centric bioanalytical and biomarker labs are now conducting IC50/EC50 assays, which, if done manually, are tedious and error-prone. Existing bioanalytical sample preparation automation systems cannot meet IC50/EC50 assay throughput demand. A general-purpose, automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform was developed to automate the calculations of spiking solutions and the matrix solutions preparation scheme, the actual spiking and matrix solutions preparations, as well as the flexible sample extraction procedures after incubation. In addition, the platform also automates the data extraction, nonlinear regression curve fitting, computation of IC50/EC50 values, graphing, and reporting. The automation-assisted IC50/EC50 assay platform can process the whole class of assays of varying assay conditions. In each run, the system can handle up to 32 compounds and up to 10 concentration levels per compound, and it greatly improves IC50/EC50 assay experimental productivity and data processing efficiency. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  1. Extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con LIX 860N-IC y LIX 84-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navarro, Carlos María

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the extraction of copper from chloride solutions with two hydroxyoximes: 5- nonylsalicylaldoxime (LIX 860N-IC and 2-hydroxy-5-nonylacetophenona oxime (LIX 84-IC is discussed. The results showed that an increase in the acidity and an increase in the total concentration of chloride ions in the aqueous phase decreased significantly the extraction of copper as well as the extraction of iron for both extractants. This effect of the chloride ions can be explained by the formation of a series of chloro complexes of Cu(II and Fe(III in the aqueous phase. The effect of initial pH and total chloride concentration on the extraction of chloride by the organic phase suggests that LIX 860N-IC, and to a lesser extent LIX 84-IC, extract small amounts of the cationic complex, CuCl+. An increase in the concentration of chloride ions also produced a small decrease in the rate of copper extraction with both hydroxyoximes.

    En este trabajo se discute el estudio de la extracción de cobre desde soluciones clorhídricas con dos hidroxioximas: 5-nonilsalicilaldoxima (LIX 860N-IC, y 2-hidroxi-5 nonilacetofenona oxima (LIX 84-IC. Los resultados indicaron que al aumentar la acidez o aumentar la concentración de cloruro en la fase acuosa se produce una significativa disminución en la extracción de cobre y hierro con ambas hidroxioximas. Este efecto del ion cloruro se explica por la formación de varios clorocomplejos de Cu(II y Fe(III en la solución acuosa. El efecto del pH y la concentración total de cloruro en la extracción de cloruro sugiere que el LIX 860N-IC, y en menor grado el LIX 84-IC extraen pequeñas cantidades del catión monovalente, CuCl+. Se determinó también que un aumento en la concentración de cloruro en la solución acuosa produce una leve disminución en la velocidad de extracción del cobre con ambas hidroxioximas.

  2. Identification of signals that facilitate isoform specific nucleolar localization of myosin IC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, Ryan S.; Ihnatovych, Ivanna; Yunus, Sharifah Z.S.A.; Domaradzki, Tera [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Hofmann, Wilma A., E-mail: whofmann@buffalo.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University at Buffalo—State University of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily that localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleus, where it is involved in transcription by RNA polymerases I and II, intranuclear transport, and nuclear export. In mammalian cells, three isoforms of myosin IC are expressed that differ only in the addition of short isoform-specific N-terminal peptides. Despite the high sequence homology, the isoforms show differences in cellular distribution, in localization to nuclear substructures, and in their interaction with nuclear proteins through yet unknown mechanisms. In this study, we used EGFP-fusion constructs that express truncated or mutated versions of myosin IC isoforms to detect regions that are involved in isoform-specific localization. We identified two nucleolar localization signals (NoLS). One NoLS is located in the myosin IC isoform B specific N-terminal peptide, the second NoLS is located upstream of the neck region within the head domain. We demonstrate that both NoLS are functional and necessary for nucleolar localization of specifically myosin IC isoform B. Our data provide a first mechanistic explanation for the observed functional differences between the myosin IC isoforms and are an important step toward our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that regulate the various and distinct functions of myosin IC isoforms. - Highlights: ► Two NoLS have been identified in the myosin IC isoform B sequence. ► Both NoLS are necessary for myosin IC isoform B specific nucleolar localization. ► First mechanistic explanation of functional differences between the isoforms.

  3. Classification of fMRI independent components using IC-fingerprints and support vector machine classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Federico; Gentile, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Balsi, Marco; Di Salle, Francesco; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2007-01-01

    We present a general method for the classification of independent components (ICs) extracted from functional MRI (fMRI) data sets. The method consists of two steps. In the first step, each fMRI-IC is associated with an IC-fingerprint, i.e., a representation of the component in a multidimensional space of parameters. These parameters are post hoc estimates of global properties of the ICs and are largely independent of a specific experimental design and stimulus timing. In the second step a machine learning algorithm automatically separates the IC-fingerprints into six general classes after preliminary training performed on a small subset of expert-labeled components. We illustrate this approach in a multisubject fMRI study employing visual structure-from-motion stimuli encoding faces and control random shapes. We show that: (1) IC-fingerprints are a valuable tool for the inspection, characterization and selection of fMRI-ICs and (2) automatic classifications of fMRI-ICs in new subjects present a high correspondence with those obtained by expert visual inspection of the components. Importantly, our classification procedure highlights several neurophysiologically interesting processes. The most intriguing of which is reflected, with high intra- and inter-subject reproducibility, in one IC exhibiting a transiently task-related activation in the 'face' region of the primary sensorimotor cortex. This suggests that in addition to or as part of the mirror system, somatotopic regions of the sensorimotor cortex are involved in disambiguating the perception of a moving body part. Finally, we show that the same classification algorithm can be successfully applied, without re-training, to fMRI collected using acquisition parameters, stimulation modality and timing considerably different from those used for training.

  4. IC3 Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 study guide

    CERN Document Server

    Rusen, Ciprian Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Hands-on IC3 prep, with expert instruction and loads of tools IC3: Internet and Computing Core Certification Global Standard 4 Study Guide is the ideal all-in-one resource for those preparing to take the exam for the internationally-recognized IT computing fundamentals credential. Designed to help candidates pinpoint weak areas while there's still time to brush up, this book provides one hundred percent coverage of the exam objectives for all three modules of the IC3-GS4 exam. Readers will find clear, concise information, hands-on examples, and self-paced exercises that demonstrate how to per

  5. A novel prototyping method for die-level monolithic integration of MEMS above-IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicek, Paul-Vahe; Zhang, Qing; Saha, Tanmoy; Mahdavi, Sareh; Allidina, Karim; Gamal, Mourad El; Nabki, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a convenient and versatile prototyping method for integrating surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) directly above IC electronics, at the die level. Such localized implementation helps reduce development costs associated with the acquisition of full-sized semiconductor wafers. To demonstrate the validity of this method, variants of an IC-compatible surface-micromachining MEMS process are used to build different MEMS devices above a commercial transimpedance amplifier chip. Subsequent functional assessments for both the electronics and the MEMS indicate that the integration is successful, validating the prototyping methodology presented in this work, as well as the suitability of the selected MEMS technology for above-IC integration. (paper)

  6. Optical transceiver ICs based on 3D die-stacking of opto-electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, P.; Raz, O.; Smalbrugge, B.E.; Plassche, van de K.L.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Wafer scale fabrication of the 3D stacked transceivers is discussed. Uniform open eye patterns at 10 Gb/s/channel of both 3D stacked transmitter and receiver ICs indicates that the interconnection technology is robust.

  7. Generic test platform for representative tests of safety I/C systems - 15546

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Kuck, H.; Richter, J.; Rieche, S.; Waitz, M.

    2015-01-01

    In compliance with the IEC 61513 safety Instrumentation and Control (I/C) systems must be successfully validated in their final configuration prior to installation on site and commissioning. However the contingent need for modifications during system validation activities or subsequently during the commissioning phase may entail long and costly re-engineering of the I/C systems. With the view to ease these possible modifications, a Generic Test Platform has been developed by AREVA which allows combining a real I/C system subpart with an emulation server. This platform provides a faithful representation of the I/C System allowing crediting the validation test results carried out on this platform. (authors)

  8. Dead-time free pixel readout architecture for ATLAS front-end IC

    CERN Document Server

    Einsweiler, Kevin F; Kleinfelder, S A; Luo, L; Marchesini, R; Milgrome, O; Pengg, F X

    1999-01-01

    A low power sparse scan readout architecture has been developed for the ATLAS pixel front-end IC. The architecture supports a dual discriminator and extracts the time over threshold (TOT) information along with a 2-D spatial address $9 of the hits associating them with a unique 7-bit beam crossing number. The IC implements level-1 trigger filtering along with event building (grouping together all hits in a beam crossing) in the end of column (EOC) buffer. The $9 events are transmitted over a 40 MHz serial data link with the protocol supporting buffer overflow handling by appending error flags to events. This mixed-mode full custom IC is implemented in 0.8 mu HP process to meet the $9 requirements for the pixel readout in the ATLAS inner detector. The circuits have been tested and the IC provides dead-time-less ambiguity free readout at 40 MHz data rate.

  9. CMOS analog integrated circuit design technology; CMOS anarogu IC sekkei gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, H.; Fujisawa, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    In the field of the LSI (large scale integrated circuit) in rapid progress toward high integration and advanced functions, CAD (computer-aided design) technology has become indispensable to LSI development within a short period. Fuji Electric has developed design technologies and automatic design system to develop high-quality analog ICs (integrated circuits), including power supply ICs. within a short period. This paper describes CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog macro cell, circuit simulation, automatic routing, and backannotation technologies. (author)

  10. Simultaneous detection of three lily viruses using Triplex IC-RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yubao; Wang, Yajun; Xie, Zhongkui; Yang, Guo; Guo, Zhihong; Wang, Le

    2017-11-01

    Viruses commonly infecting lily (Lilium spp.) include: Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Lily mottle virus (LMoV). These viruses usually co-infect lilies causing severe economic losses in terms of quantity and quality of flower and bulb production around the world. Reliable and precise detection systems need to be developed for virus identification. We describe the development of a triplex immunocapture (IC) reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV. The triplex IC-RT-PCR was compared with a quadruplex RT-PCR assay. Relative to the quadruplex RT-PCR, the specificity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system for LSV, CMV and LMoV was 100% for field samples. The sensitivity of the triplex IC-RT-PCR system was 99.4%, 81.4% and 98.7% for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. Agreement (κ) between the results obtained from the two tests was 0.968, 0.844 and 0.984 for LSV, CMV and LMoV, respectively. This is the first report of the simultaneous detection of LSV, CMV and LMoV in a triplex IC-RT-PCR assay. In particular we believe this convenient and reliable triplex IC-RT-PCR method could be used routinely for large-scale field surveys or crop health monitoring of lily. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. PENGARUH IC TERHADAP KINERJA KEUANGAN PERUSAHAAN PERBANKAN PERIODE 2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subkhan -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meneliti pengaruh intellectual capital (IC perusahaan pada kinerja keuangan mereka. Penelitian ini menggunakan Public Framework dan data dari 57 sektor perbankan Indonesia yang tercatat antara tahun 2005 dan 2007 pada Indonesian Stock Exchange. Penelitian ini menggunakan partial least square (PLS untuk menganalisis data. 3 elemen IC dan kinerja perusahaan dites dalam penelitian ini. Hasilnya memperlihatkan bahwa IC dan kinerja keuangan mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan, VACA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan, VAHU mempuyai pengaruh yang signifikan  terhadap kinerja keuangan, dan STVA mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap kinerja keuangan. Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of firm’s intellectual capital (IC on their financial performance. This paper uses Public Framework and data from 57 Indonesian banking sectors listed between 2005 and 2007 on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. This study uses partial least square (PLS for data analysis. Three elements of IC and company performances are tested by this study. The results show that IC and financial performance have significant influence, VACA has significant influence to financial performance, VAHU has significant influence to financial performance, and STVA has significant influence to financial performance.Keywords: intellectual capital; financial performance

  12. PENGARUH MEKANISME CORPORATE GOVERNANCE TERHADAP PENGUNGKAPAN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL: PADA PERUSAHAAN IC INTENSIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dista Amalia Arifah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intangible asset proxied by Intellectual Capital has important role to drive companies values creation. Although many companies have applied corporate governance mechanism in order to have IC disclosure recognition, most of them do not focus on Intellectual Capital disclosure yet. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of corporate governance mechanisms consisting of size of the board commissioners, the independence level of independent commissioner, the activities of independent commissioners, and audit committee on the intellectual capital disclosures of the companies listed in BEI in 2009 using intensive ICs category with the adding of kontrol variables. This study will provide an illustration on how the mechanisms of corporate governance practices and IC disclosure become a value creation source for the company. There are a total of 176 companies categorized as IC intensive. Using a purposive sampling method, 45 companies were selected as samples. The 2009 annual reports of the companies are used as secondary data source of this research. Furthermore, to get ICs disclosure data content analysis technique was used both for quantity and quality terms. The results indicate that audit committee is the only corporate governance mechanism that significantly affects the level of IC disclosures.

  13. Sensitivity Study on Availability of I&C Components Using Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Khalil Ur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to find out the impact of instrumentation and control (I&C components on the availability of I&C systems in terms of sensitivity analysis using Bayesian network. The analysis has been performed on I&C architecture of reactor protection system. The analysis results would be applied to develop I&C architecture which will meet the desire reliability features and save cost. RPS architecture unavailability P(x=0 and availability P(x=1 were estimated to 6.1276E-05 and 9.9994E-01 for failure (0 and perfect (1 states, respectively. The impact of I&C components on overall system risk has been studied in terms of risk achievement worth (RAW and risk reduction worth (RRW. It is found that circuit breaker failure (TCB, bi-stable processor (BP, sensor transmitter (TR, and pressure transmitter (PT have high impact on risk. The study concludes and recommends that circuit breaker bi-stable processor should be given more consideration while designing I&C architecture.

  14. Definition of intercultural competence (IC) in undergraduate students at a private university in the USA: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierke, Lioba; Binder, Nadine; Heckmann, Mark; Odağ, Özen; Leiser, Anne; Kedzior, Karina Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Intercultural competence (IC) is an important skill to be gained from higher education. However, it remains unclear what IC means to students and what factors might influence their definitions of IC. The aim of the current study was to qualitatively assess how students at one higher education institution in the USA define IC and to quantitatively test for relationships among IC components and various demographic characteristics, including intercultural experience and study context. A further aim was to descriptively compare the IC definitions from the US sample with the definitions obtained from another sample of university students in Germany. A purposive sample of n = 93 undergraduate, second semester students at Dickinson College, USA, participated in the study by completing an online questionnaire. The qualitative data were content-analyzed to define the dimensions of IC. The quantitative data were cluster-analyzed to assess the multivariate relationships among the IC components and the demographic characteristics of the sample. The most important dimensions of IC were Knowledge, External Outcomes (interaction, communication), and Attitudes (respect, tolerance) according to the US sample. The most frequently chosen dimensions of IC differed between both samples: Knowledge was chosen by the sample in the USA while External Outcomes was chosen by the sample in Germany. Relative to the US sample, significantly more students chose Attitudes, External Outcomes, and Intrapersonal Skills in the sample in Germany. The relationships among IC components and demographic characteristics were only weak in the US sample. A person with IC was rated as Open-minded and Respectful by students who lived predominantly in the USA or Tolerant and Curious by those who lived outside the USA for at least six months. The current results suggest that students residing in two countries (USA or Germany) define IC using similar dimensions. However, IC definitions may depend on the

  15. ICS logging solution for network-based attacks using Gumistix technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jeremy R.; Berman, Dustin; Butts, Jonathan; Lopez, Juan

    2013-05-01

    Industrial Control Systems (ICS) monitor and control operations associated with the national critical infrastructure (e.g., electric power grid, oil and gas pipelines and water treatment facilities). These systems rely on technologies and architectures that were designed for system reliability and availability. Security associated with ICS was never an inherent concern, primarily due to the protections afforded by network isolation. However, a trend in ICS operations is to migrate to commercial networks via TCP/IP in order to leverage commodity benefits and cost savings. As a result, system vulnerabilities are now exposed to the online community. Indeed, recent research has demonstrated that many exposed ICS devices are being discovered using readily available applications (e.g., ShodanHQ search engine and Google-esque queries). Due to the lack of security and logging capabilities for ICS, most knowledge about attacks are derived from real world incidents after an attack has already been carried out and the damage has been done. This research provides a method for introducing sensors into the ICS environment that collect information about network-based attacks. The sensors are developed using an inexpensive Gumstix platform that can be deployed and incorporated with production systems. Data obtained from the sensors provide insight into attack tactics (e.g., port scans, Nessus scans, Metasploit modules, and zero-day exploits) and characteristics (e.g., attack origin, frequency, and level of persistence). Findings enable security professionals to draw an accurate, real-time awareness of the threats against ICS devices and help shift the security posture from reactionary to preventative.

  16. EVIDENCE FOR AN INTERACTION IN THE NEAREST STARBURSTING DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY IC 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nidever, David L.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Ott, Jürgen; Johnson, Megan; Stanimirović, Snežana; Putman, Mary; Majewski, Steven R.; Jütte, Eva; Oosterloo, Tom A.; Burton, W. Butler

    2013-01-01

    Using deep 21 cm H I data from the Green Bank Telescope we have detected an ≳18.3 kpc long gaseous extension associated with the starbursting dwarf galaxy IC 10. The newly found feature stretches 1.°3 to the northwest and has a large radial velocity gradient reaching to ∼65 km s –1 lower than the IC 10 systemic velocity. A region of higher column density at the end of the extension that possesses a coherent velocity gradient (∼10 km s –1 across ∼26') transverse to the extension suggests rotation and may be a satellite galaxy of IC 10. The H I mass of IC 10 is 9.5 × 10 7 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ and the mass of the new extension is 7.1 × 10 5 (d/805 kpc) 2 M ☉ . An IC 10-M31 orbit using known radial velocity and proper motion values for IC 10 show that the H I extension is inconsistent with the trailing portion of the orbit so that an M31-tidal or ram pressure origin seems unlikely. We argue that the most plausible explanation for the new feature is that it is the result of a recent interaction (and possible late merger) with another dwarf galaxy. This interaction could not only have triggered the origin of the recent starburst in IC 10, but could also explain the existence of previously found counter-rotating H I gas in the periphery of the IC 10 which was interpreted as originating from primordial gas infall

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrnes, Laura J.; Badarau, Adriana; Vakulenko, Sergei B.; Smith, Clyde A.

    2008-01-01

    APH(2′′)-Ic is an enzyme that is responsible for high-level gentamicin resistance in E. gallinarum isolates. Crystals of the wild-type enzyme and three mutants have been prepared and a complete X-ray diffraction data set was collected to 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics is primarily the result of deactivation of the drugs. Three families of enzymes are responsible for this activity, with one such family being the aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs). The gene encoding one of these enzymes, aminoglycoside-2′′-phosphotransferase-Ic [APH(2′′)-Ic] from Enterococcus gallinarum, has been cloned and the wild-type protein (comprising 308 amino-acid residues) and three mutants that showed elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations towards gentamicin (F108L, H258L and a double mutant F108L/H258L) were expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. All APH(2′′)-Ic variants were crystallized in the presence of 14–20%(w/v) PEG 4000, 0.25 M MgCl 2 , 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 8.5 and 1 mM Mg 2 GTP. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. The approximate unit-cell parameters are a = 82.4, b = 54.2, c = 77.0 Å, β = 108.8°. X-ray diffraction data were collected to approximately 2.15 Å resolution from an F108L crystal at beamline BL9-2 at SSRL, Stanford, California, USA

  18. Intellectual Capital (IC Analysis and The Effect to Financial Performance in PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Ermayanti Susilo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Financial Performance (FP is one of the important things for a company to know the development of the company. One important thing that influences FP is the Intellectual Capital (IC. Research was conducted to get the best IC analysis in order to get success and fulfill the daily human needs which always increases. Therefore, it had research problem ‘how was the components of IC affecting the FP of PT Kalasuba Indonesia (KSI, and the objective is to explore the IC components in affecting the FP. It was interesting to be explored because it had unique characteristics, which consist of spiritual knowledge, attitude, discipline, management knowledge and managerial experience, as well as skill and capabilities, in which the first three points were different from the rest. It used qualitative analysis method as the instrument. It was done by collecting the data through observation and was analyzed using the Robbins theory. It can be concluded that those five IC has important effect in increasing FP of PT KSI and keeping it stable.

  19. AREVA advanced safety IC solutions and licensing experience for new nuclear builds and modernization projects - 15545

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourestie, B.; Pickelmann, J.; Richter, S.; Hilsenkopf, P.; Paris, P.

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory requirements for the Instrumentation and Control (IC) for Nuclear Power Plants have become significantly more stringent during the last 10 years in the areas of software development and qualification, traceability, diversity, or seismic requirements for instance, and with the introduction of new standards (such as the IEC 62566, or the IEC 62003). Based on a large and comprehensive experience gained from projects in several regulatory environments and different plant types (including non-OEM plants), AREVA has developed and adapted its processes and products to provide state-of-the-art IC solutions in full compliance with the regulatory demands and requirements in terms of robustness (independence, defense-in-depth, diversity and cyber-security). In this paper we present the safety IC platforms developed by AREVA. These platforms include TELEPERM XS as the computerized safety IC platform for class 1 system implementation, the Qualified Display System (QDS) for safety classified screen-based interface, and UNICORN as fully diverse analog safety IC platform for backup systems

  20. A nu-space for ICS: characterization and application to measure protein transport in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Chen, Lingfeng; Horwitz, Alan Rick; Wiseman, Paul W

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a new generalized theoretical framework for image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). Using this framework, we extend the ICS method in time-frequency ( ν , nu) space to map molecular flow of fluorescently tagged proteins in individual living cells. Even in the presence of a dominant immobile population of fluorescent molecules, nu-space ICS (nICS) provides an unbiased velocity measurement, as well as the diffusion coefficient of the flow, without requiring filtering. We also develop and characterize a tunable frequency-filter for STICS that allows quantification of the density, the diffusion coefficient and the velocity of biased diffusion. We show that the techniques are accurate over a wide range of parameter space in computer simulation. We then characterize the retrograde flow of adhesion proteins ( α 6- and αLβ 2-GFP integrins and mCherry-paxillin) in CHO.B2 cells plated on laminin and ICAM ligands respectively. STICS with a tunable frequency filter, in conjunction with nICS, measures two new transport parameters, the density and transport bias coefficient (a measure of the diffusive character of a flow/biased diffusion), showing that molecular flow in this cell system has a significant diffusive component. Our results suggest that the integrinligand interaction, along with the internal myosin-motor generated force, varies for different integrin-ligand pairs, consistent with previous results.

  1. A GRB and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova from a Single Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Duffell, Paul C.; Liu, Yuqian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B.; Kasen, Daniel; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2018-06-01

    Unusually high velocities (≳0.1c) and correspondingly high kinetic energies have been observed in a subset of Type Ic supernovae (so-called “broad-lined Ic” supernovae; SNe Ic-BL), prompting a search for a central engine model capable of generating such energetic explosions. A clue to the explosion mechanism may lie in the fact that all supernovae that accompany long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) belong to the SN Ic-BL class. Using a combination of two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations, we demonstrate that the central engine responsible for long GRBs can also trigger an SN Ic-BL. We find that a reasonable GRB engine injected into a stripped Wolf–Rayet progenitor produces a relativistic jet with energy ∼1051 erg, as well as an SN whose synthetic light curves and spectra are fully consistent with observed SNe Ic-BL during the photospheric phase. As a result of the jet’s asymmetric energy injection, the SN spectra and light curves depend on viewing angle. The impact of viewing angle on the spectrum is particularly pronounced at early times, while the viewing-angle dependence for the light curves (∼10% variation in bolometric luminosity) persists throughout the photospheric phase.

  2. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  3. Revealing the nebular properties and Wolf-Rayet population of IC10 with Gemini/GMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul A.; Archer, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group irregular galaxy IC10 using Gemini North and GMOS to unveil its global Wolf-Rayet (WR) population. We obtain a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.045 ± 0.023 M⊙ yr-1, for IC10 from the nebular H α luminosity, which is comparable to the Small Magellanic Cloud. We also present a revised nebular oxygen abundance of log(O/H) + 12 = 8.40 ± 0.04, comparable to the LMC. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WR subtype-metallicity dependance seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population awaits discovery. Our search revealed three new WN stars, and six candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. The new global WR star total of 29 stars is consistent with the Large Magellanic Cloud population when scaled to the reduced SFR of IC10. For spectroscopically confirmed WR stars, the WC/WN ratio is lowered to 1.0; however, including all potential candidates, and assuming those unconfirmed to be WN stars, would reduce the ratio to ∼0.7. We attribute the high WC/WN ratio to the high star formation surface density of IC10 relative to the Magellanic Clouds, which enhances the frequency of high-mass stars capable of producing WC stars.

  4. Monitoring System for Slope Stability under Rainfall by using MEMS Acceleration Sensor IC tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, S; Dairaku, A; Komine, H; Saito, O; Sakai, N; Isizawa, T; Maruyama, I

    2013-01-01

    Real-time warning system for slope failure under rainfall is available to disaster prevention and mitigation. Monitoring of multi-point and wireless measurements is effective because it is difficult to conclude the most dangerous part in a slope. The purpose of this study is to propose a method of monitoring system with multi-point and wireless measurements for a slope stability using MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is an acceleration sensor microminiaturized by a technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems on board IC tag. Especially, low cost of the sensor will yield to the realization of the system. In order to investigate the applicability of the proposed system, a large-scale model test of artificial slope subjected to rainfall has been performed. MEMS acceleration sensor IC tags has been located on the slope and ground acceleration caused by forced vibration has been measured until the model slope collapses. The experimental results show that the MEMS acceleration sensor IC tag is comfortably available under rainfall, the characteristics of ground accelerations varies with changing the condition of the slope subjected to rainfall, and the proposed method can be applied to a real-time monitoring system for slope failure under rainfall.

  5. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Corsi, Alessandra [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Frail, Dale A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Kasliwal, Mansi M. [Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, 5241 Broad Branch Road, Washington, DC 20008 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  6. PTF 12gzk—A rapidly declining, high-velocity type Ic radio supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Yaron, Ofer; Arcavi, Iair; Ofek, Eran O.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.

    2013-01-01

    Only a few cases of Type Ic supernovae (SNe) with high-velocity ejecta (≥0.2 c) have been discovered and studied. Here, we present our analysis of radio and X-ray observations of the Type Ic SN PTF 12gzk. The radio emission declined less than 10 days after explosion, suggesting SN ejecta expanding at high velocity (∼0.3 c). The radio data also indicate that the density of the circumstellar material (CSM) around the supernova is lower by a factor of ∼10 than the CSM around normal Type Ic SNe. PTF 12gzk may therefore be an intermediate event between a 'normal' SN Ic and a gamma-ray-burst-SN-like event. Our observations of this rapidly declining radio SN at a distance of 58 Mpc demonstrates the potential to detect many additional radio SNe, given the new capabilities of the Very Large Array (improved sensitivity and dynamic scheduling), which are currently missed, leading to a biased view of radio SNe Ic. Early optical discovery followed by rapid radio observations would provide a full description of the ejecta velocity distribution and CSM densities around stripped massive star explosions as well as strong clues about the nature of their progenitor stars.

  7. A remotely-controlled locomotive IC driven by electrolytic bubbles and wireless powering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jian-Yu; Kuo, Po-Hung; Huang, Yi-Chun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Tsai, Rong-Da; Wang, Tao; Chiu, Hung-Wei; Wang, Yao-Hung; Lu, Shey-Shi

    2014-12-01

    A batteryless remotely-controlled locomotive IC utilizing electrolytic bubbles as propelling force is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. Without any external components, such as magnets and on-board coils, the bare IC is wirelessly powered and controlled by a 10 MHz ASK modulated signal with RS232 control commands to execute movement in four moving directions and with two speeds. The receiving coil and electrolysis electrodes are all integrated on the locomotive chip. The experiment successfully demonstrated that the bare IC moved on the surface of an electrolyte with a speed up to 0.3 mm/s and change moving directions according to the commands. The total power consumptions of the chip are 207.4 μW and 180 μ W while the output electrolysis voltages are 2 V and 1.3 V, respectively.

  8. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC Atlas experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    1999-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7,500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59mW/ch

  9. The optical design of 3D ICs for smartphone and optro-electronics sensing module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Smartphone require limit space for image system, current lens, used in smartphones are refractive type, the effective focal length is limited the thickness of phone physical size. Other, such as optro-electronics sensing chips, proximity optical sensors, and UV indexer chips are integrated into smart phone with limit space. Due to the requirement of multiple lens in smartphone, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips in a limited space of CPU board in future smart phone, optro-electronics 3D IC's integrated with optical lens or components may be a key technology for 3 C products. A design for reflective lens is fitted to CMOS, proximity optical sensors, UV indexer and other optro-electronics sensing chips based on 3-D IC. The reflective lens can be threes times of effective focal lens, and be able to resolve small object. The system will be assembled and integrated in one 3-D IC more easily.

  10. A Search for Hydrodynamical Interaction Between the ISM and Radio Jets in IC4296

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Glen

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT HRI Data set on IC 4296 has been reduced and analysed. A draft paper on the small-scale structure of x-ray emission and its relation to the radio emission has been written. Mackie left the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in September 1997 and in January 1998 he joined the staff at Carter Observatory, New Zealand. Mackie is currently (May 1998) upgrading computer software at Carter to run IRAF-PROS and XSPEC x-ray software packages in order to reduce and analyze archival ROSAT PSPC data on IC 4296. The PSPC results are needed to investigate the hot gas temperature and abundance properties that will be used in conjunction with the radio jet properties to determine the hydrodynamical interaction status of IC 4296, and finalize the results of a research paper.

  11. Safety systems I/C equipment reliability analyses of the Kozloduy NPP units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halev, G; Christov, N [Risk Engineering Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the analysis is to assess the safety systems I/C equipment reliability. The assessment includes: quantification of the safety systems unavailability due to component failures; definition of the minimal cut sets leading to the analysed safety systems failure; quantification of the I/C equipment importance measures of the dominant contribution components. The safety systems I/C equipment reliability has been analysed using PSAPACK (a code for probabilistic safety assessment). Fault trees for the following safety systems of the Kozloduy-3 and Kozloduy-4 reactors have been constructed: neutron flow control equipment, reactor protection system, main coolant pumps, pressurizer safety valves `Sempell`, steam dump systems, spray system, low pressure injection system, emergency feeding water system, essential service water system. THree separate reports have been issued containing the performed analyses and results. 1 ref.

  12. Experimental and theoretical analysis of integrated circuit (IC) chips on flexible substrates subjected to bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Yuan, Jianghong; Zhang, Yingchao; Huang, Yonggang; Feng, Xue

    2017-10-01

    The interfacial failure of integrated circuit (IC) chips integrated on flexible substrates under bending deformation has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A compressive buckling test is used to impose the bending deformation onto the interface between the IC chip and the flexible substrate quantitatively, after which the failed interface is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. A theoretical model is established based on the beam theory and a bi-layer interface model, from which an analytical expression of the critical curvature in relation to the interfacial failure is obtained. The relationships between the critical curvature, the material, and the geometric parameters of the device are discussed in detail, providing guidance for future optimization flexible circuits based on IC chips.

  13. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1998-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC ATLAS experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 $9 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is $9 incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for the discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS-compatible. The IC also has analog output for the preamplifier. The equivalent $9 noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch. (8 refs).

  14. ASD IC for the thin gap chambers in the LHC ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, O

    1999-01-01

    An amplifier-shaper-discriminator (ASD) chip was designed and built for Thin Gap Chambers in the forward muon trigger system of the LHC Atlas experiment. The ASD IC uses SONY Analog Master Slice bipolar technology. The IC contains 4 channels in a QFP48 package. The gain of its first stage (preamplifier) is approximately 0.8 V/pC and output from the preamplifier is received by a shaper (main-amplifier) with a gain of 7. The baseline restoration circuit is incorporated in the main-amplifier. The threshold voltage for discriminator section is common to the 4 channels and their digital output level is LVDS- compatible. The IC also has analog output of the preamplifier. The equivalent noise charge at input capacitance of 150 pF is around 7500 electrons. The power dissipation with LDVS outputs (100 Omega load) is 59 mW/ch.

  15. SUPER-LUMINOUS TYPE Ic SUPERNOVAE: CATCHING A MAGNETAR BY THE TAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.; Jerkstrand, A.; Fraser, M.; Wright, D.; Smith, K.; Chen, T.-W.; Kotak, R.; Nicholl, M.; Valenti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Benetti, S.; Bresolin, F.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Botticella, M. T.; Ergon, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-01-01

    We report extensive observational data for five of the lowest redshift Super-Luminous Type Ic Supernovae (SL-SNe Ic) discovered to date, namely, PTF10hgi, SN2011ke, PTF11rks, SN2011kf, and SN2012il. Photometric imaging of the transients at +50 to +230 days after peak combined with host galaxy subtraction reveals a luminous tail phase for four of these SL-SNe. A high-resolution, optical, and near-infrared spectrum from xshooter provides detection of a broad He I λ10830 emission line in the spectrum (+50 days) of SN2012il, revealing that at least some SL-SNe Ic are not completely helium-free. At first sight, the tail luminosity decline rates that we measure are consistent with the radioactive decay of 56 Co, and would require 1-4 M ☉ of 56 Ni to produce the luminosity. These 56 Ni masses cannot be made consistent with the short diffusion times at peak, and indeed are insufficient to power the peak luminosity. We instead favor energy deposition by newborn magnetars as the power source for these objects. A semi-analytical diffusion model with energy input from the spin-down of a magnetar reproduces the extensive light curve data well. The model predictions of ejecta velocities and temperatures which are required are in reasonable agreement with those determined from our observations. We derive magnetar energies of 0.4 ∼ 51 erg) ∼ ej (M ☉ ) ∼< 8.6. The sample of five SL-SNe Ic presented here, combined with SN 2010gx—the best sampled SL-SNe Ic so far—points toward an explosion driven by a magnetar as a viable explanation for all SL-SNe Ic.

  16. A CENSUS OF YOUNG STARS AND BROWN DWARFS IN IC 348 AND NGC 1333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhman, K. L.; Esplin, T. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Loutrel, N. P., E-mail: kluhman@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    We have obtained optical and near-infrared spectra of candidate members of the star-forming clusters IC 348 and NGC 1333. We classify 100 and 42 candidates as new members of the clusters, respectively, which brings the total numbers of known members to 478 and 203. We also have performed spectroscopy on a large majority of the previously known members of NGC 1333 in order to provide spectral classifications that are measured with the same scheme that has been applied to IC 348 in previous studies. The new census of members is nearly complete for K {sub s}< 16.8 at A {sub J}< 1.5 in IC 348 and for K {sub s}< 16.2 at A {sub J}< 3 in NGC 1333, which correspond to masses of ≳0.01 M {sub ⊙} for ages of 3 Myr according to theoretical evolutionary models. The faintest known members extend below these completeness limits and appear to have masses of ∼0.005 M {sub ⊙}. In extinction-limited samples of cluster members, NGC 1333 exhibits a higher abundance of objects at lower masses than IC 348. It would be surprising if the initial mass functions of these clusters differ significantly given their similar stellar densities and formation environments. Instead, it is possible that average extinctions are lower for less massive members of star-forming clusters, in which case extinction-limited samples could be biased in favor of low-mass objects in the more heavily embedded clusters like NGC 1333. In the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, the median sequences of IC 348 and NGC 1333 coincide with each other for the adopted distances of 300 and 235 pc, which would suggest that they have similar ages. However, NGC 1333 is widely believed to be younger than IC 348 based on its higher abundance of disks and protostars and its greater obscuration. Errors in the adopted distances may be responsible for this discrepancy.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical & Spitzer photometry in IC 1805 (Sung+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, H.; Bessell, M. S.; Chun, M.-Y.; Yi, J.; Naze, Y.; Lim, B.; Karimov, R.; Rauw, G.; Park, B.-G.; Hur, H.

    2017-06-01

    For a study of the IMF and the star-formation history of the young open cluster IC 1805, we obtained deep wide-field VRI and Hα images of IC 1805 using the CFH12K mosaic CCD camera of the CFHT on 2002 January 6 and 7. We also observed several regions in IC 1805, for a study of the reddening and massive star content, using the SITe 2000x800 CCD (Maidanak 2k CCD) and standard UBVRI filters of the AZT-22 1.5m telescope at the Maidanak Astronomical Observatory in Uzbekistan on 2003 August 18 and 2004 december 25,30. Later, we obtained additional images of the central region of IC 1805 with the Fairchild 486 CCD (SNUCam) and UBVI and Hα filters of the AZT-22 telescope on 2007 October 7 and 2009 January 19. The Spitzer mapping observations were performed on 2006 September 20 under program ID 20052 (PI: S. Wolff). For complete photometry of stars in the CFH12K FOV in 3.6 and 4.5um, we also downloaded and reduced the GLIMPSE360 data (AOR: 38753280, 38763264, 38769408, 38799104, 38798592, 38784512, PI: B. A. Whitney). MIPS scans of IC 1805 were obtained on 2005 August 31 and 2005 September 2 (PID 3234, PI: J. S. Greeves). The Chandra X-ray Observatory Observations of IC 1805 (ObsID: 7033, PI: L. Townley) were made on 2006 November 25. The total exposure time was about 79ks. The properties of 647 X-ray sources were published in Townsley+ (2014,J/ApJS/213/1). We searched for the optical and MIR counterparts of these X-ray sources with a matching radius of up to 1.5". (4 data files).

  18. Use of JH4 joining segment gene by an anti-arsonate antibody that bears the major A-strain cross-reactive idiotype but displays diminished antigen binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaughter, C A; Jeske, D J; Kuziel, W A; Milner, E C; Capra, J D

    1984-06-01

    One of the antibody families utilized by the A/J mouse in its response to p-azophenylarsonate (Ars) is characterized by the expression of the major anti-arsonate cross-reactive idiotype (CRI) of the A strain. This family has been termed the Ars-A family. A hybridoma antibody (HP 101F11 ) obtained after immunization of an A/J mouse with Ars was identified initially as displaying the CRI, but was subsequently found to bind antigen at a level much lower than most members of the Ars-A family. The results of binding studies suggested that HP 101F11 possesses reduced avidity for antigen. When isolated light and heavy chains were allowed to recombine with the heavy and light chains of a strongly antigen-binding, strongly CRI-positive antibody of the Ars-A family (HP 93G7 ), the low level of antigen binding by HP 101F11 was found to be due to a structurally variant heavy chain. Whereas antibodies of the Ars-A family with normal avidity for antigen had been shown to use the JH2 joining segment gene, amino acid sequence analysis of HP 101F11 revealed that this antibody has a JH segment with a sequence identical to that encoded by a portion of a different JH gene, JH4 . The implication that 101F11 uses the JH4 gene instead of JH2 was supported by the observation that the productively rearranged gene is associated with an Eco R1 restriction fragment 0.95 Kb smaller than the corresponding fragments of Ars-A hybridomas with normal avidity for antigen. The size difference of 0.95 Kb corresponds exactly to the known distance between the JH2 and JH4 genes in BALB/c germline DNA. In addition to the structural differences immediately attributable to the use of JH4 , HP 101F11 has shown an amino acid interchange in the DH segment, and a single amino acid deletion at the DH-JH boundary. These results show that variation among members of the Ars-A family in the DH and/or JH segments provides alternative structural forms of Ars-A antibodies upon which selective processes can operate

  19. Optical observations of the nearby galaxy IC342 with narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučetić M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of a portion of the nearby spiral galaxy IC342 using narrow band [SII] and Hα filters. These observations were carried out in November 2011 with the 2m RCC telescope at Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory in Bulgaria. In this paper we report coordinates, diameters, Hα and [SII] fluxes for 203 HII regions detected in two fields of view in IC342 galaxy. The number of detected HII regions is 5 times higher than previously known in these two parts of the galaxy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176005: Emission nebulae: structure and evolution

  20. Consciência icônica: o sentimento material do significado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Alexander

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste ensaio seminal, Jeffrey Alexander apresenta algumas das bases de sua virada icônica. O giro analítico proposto se fundamenta em uma compreensão da materialidade como portadora de conteúdo estético e moral, o que é sintetizado na noção de consciência icônica: o processo em que um observador vincula a superfície estética de uma materialidade a uma determinada estrutura moral de valores sociais.

  1. SN 2017dio: A Type-Ic Supernova Exploding in a Hydrogen-rich Circumstellar Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi; Ashall, Christopher J.; Prentice, Simon J.; Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki; Fransson, Claes; Lundqvist, Peter; Pastorello, Andrea; Leloudas, Giorgos; Anderson, Joseph P.; Benetti, Stefano; Bersten, Melina C.; Cappellaro, Enrico; Cartier, Régis; Denneau, Larry; Della Valle, Massimo; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Folatelli, Gastón; Fraser, Morgan; Galbany, Lluís; Gall, Christa; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Gutiérrez, Claudia P.; Hamanowicz, Aleksandra; Heinze, Ari; Inserra, Cosimo; Kangas, Tuomas; Mazzali, Paolo; Melandri, Andrea; Pignata, Giuliano; Rest, Armin; Reynolds, Thomas; Roy, Rupak; Smartt, Stephen J.; Smith, Ken W.; Sollerman, Jesper; Somero, Auni; Stalder, Brian; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Taddia, Francesco; Tomasella, Lina; Tonry, John; Weiland, Henry; Young, David R.

    2018-02-01

    SN 2017dio shows both spectral characteristics of a type-Ic supernova (SN) and signs of a hydrogen-rich circumstellar medium (CSM). Prominent, narrow emission lines of H and He are superposed on the continuum. Subsequent evolution revealed that the SN ejecta are interacting with the CSM. The initial SN Ic identification was confirmed by removing the CSM interaction component from the spectrum and comparing with known SNe Ic and, reversely, adding a CSM interaction component to the spectra of known SNe Ic and comparing them to SN 2017dio. Excellent agreement was obtained with both procedures, reinforcing the SN Ic classification. The light curve constrains the pre-interaction SN Ic peak absolute magnitude to be around {M}g=-17.6 mag. No evidence of significant extinction is found, ruling out a brighter luminosity required by an SN Ia classification. These pieces of evidence support the view that SN 2017dio is an SN Ic, and therefore the first firm case of an SN Ic with signatures of hydrogen-rich CSM in the early spectrum. The CSM is unlikely to have been shaped by steady-state stellar winds. The mass loss of the progenitor star must have been intense, \\dot{M}∼ 0.02{({ε }{{H}α }/0.01)}-1 ({v}{wind}/500 km s‑1) ({v}{shock}/10,000 km s‑1)‑3 M ⊙ yr‑1, peaking at a few decades before the SN. Such a high mass-loss rate might have been experienced by the progenitor through eruptions or binary stripping. Based on observations made with the NOT, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This work is based (in part) on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile as part of PESSTO, (the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects Survey) ESO program 188.D-3003, 191.D-0935, 197.D-1075. Based on observations made with the Liverpool Telescope operated on the

  2. Advances in analog and RF IC design for wireless communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Manganaro, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Analog and RF IC Design for Wireless Communication Systems gives technical introductions to the latest and most significant topics in the area of circuit design of analog/RF ICs for wireless communication systems, emphasizing wireless infrastructure rather than handsets. The book ranges from very high performance circuits for complex wireless infrastructure systems to selected highly integrated systems for handsets and mobile devices. Coverage includes power amplifiers, low-noise amplifiers, modulators, analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) and digital-to-analog converters

  3. The Effects of Industry Type, Company Size and Performance on Chinese Companies’ IC Disclosure: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi An

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of industry type, firm size and corporate performance on intellectual capital (IC disclosure among Chinese (mainland companies. It was found that industry type did not have a significant influence on IC reporting practices of Chinese firms; the larger firms generally reported more IC information than the relatively smaller firms; and there was a positive relationship between corporate performance and IC disclosure. This paper contributes to fairly limited literature regarding the associations between the level of IC disclosure and a variety of relevant impact factors, in particular in the Chinese mainland context. In addition, the findings of this research provide some references for policy-makers while developing an IC reporting framework applicable to the Chinese environment.

  4. 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg-Henriksen, Kari

    2009-01-01

    * 3D integration: Opportunities and trends* e-CUBES: Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS)* Package design including thermo-mechanical modeling* Technology development* Sensor packaging concept* Gold stud bump bonding* Device characterization and testing* Summary and outlook 3D Integration of MEMS and IC: Design, technology and simulations

  5. EMERGING I&C TECHNOLOGIES UNDER THE SHIFTING REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyunyoung eHeo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA has been supplementary and Risk-Informed Applications (RIAs based on the insight from PSA has also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging Instrumentation and Control (I&C technologies including human-machine interface (HMI in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e. software embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI and PSA should be emphasized.

  6. Emerging I&C Technologies Under the Shifting Regulatory Environment in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Youngin-si (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Poong Hyun; Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-29

    The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has been supplementary and risk-informed applications based on the insight from PSA have also been utilized limitedly in the licensing process for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in South Korea. However, as the technical significance of PSA is getting increased, PSA has become a mandatory part of Safety Analysis Reports and Periodic Safety Review. It is worthwhile to highlight the role of emerging instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies including human–machine interface (HMI) in developing more credible and realistic PSA models. Particularly, it is expected that the information technology (i.e., software) embedded in digital I&C can adjust over- and under conservatism in analyzing risk. In this study, authors proposed the cases which would be able to significantly reduce risk if advanced I&C supported by information technologies is applied. In regard, the several enabling techniques and their effects are proposed. In order to improve the commercial competitiveness of NPPs, the need of collaboration and synergetic outcome of I&C, HMI, and PSA should be emphasized.

  7. The next generation in optical transport semiconductors: IC solutions at the system level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomatam, Badri N.

    2005-02-01

    In this tutorial overview, we survey some of the challenging problems facing Optical Transport and their solutions using new semiconductor-based technologies. Advances in 0.13um CMOS, SiGe/HBT and InP/HBT IC process technologies and mixed-signal design strategies are the fundamental breakthroughs that have made these solutions possible. In combination with innovative packaging and transponder/transceiver architectures IC approaches have clearly demonstrated enhanced optical link budgets with simultaneously lower (perhaps the lowest to date) cost and manufacturability tradeoffs. This paper will describe: *Electronic Dispersion Compensation broadly viewed as the overcoming of dispersion based limits to OC-192 links and extending link budgets, *Error Control/Coding also known as Forward Error Correction (FEC), *Adaptive Receivers for signal quality monitoring for real-time estimation of Q/OSNR, eye-pattern, signal BER and related temporal statistics (such as jitter). We will discuss the theoretical underpinnings of these receiver and transmitter architectures, provide examples of system performance and conclude with general market trends. These Physical layer IC solutions represent a fundamental new toolbox of options for equipment designers in addressing systems level problems. With unmatched cost and yield/performance tradeoffs, it is expected that IC approaches will provide significant flexibility in turn, for carriers and service providers who must ultimately manage the network and assure acceptable quality of service under stringent cost constraints.

  8. Mathematical and Simulation Modelling of Moisture Diffusion Mechanism during Plastic IC Packages Disassembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Mou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reuse of plastic IC packages disassembled from printed circuit boards (PCBs has significant environmental benefits and economic value. The interface delamination caused by moisture diffusion is the main failure mode of IC packages during the disassembling process, which greatly reduces the reusability and reliability of disassembled IC packages. Exploring moisture diffusion mechanism is a prerequisite to optimize prebaking processes before disassembling that is an effective way to avoid the interface delamination. To this end, a computational model with variable boundary conditions is developed based on the different combination state of water in IC packages. The distribution characteristics and mechanism of moisture diffusion behavior are analyzed including the humidity distribution field and the relation among baking temperature, water loss rate, and baking time during baking process, and then the results are validated by FEA simulation based on the improved definition of relative moisture concentration. Baking under variable temperature is proposed and compared with the baking process and baking efficiency under constant temperature to find out the optimized baking parameters. Finally, a set of curves which indicate the relation between baking energy consumption and temperature are determined under actual industrial baking experiments, which could be used as references to develop industrial standards for PCB disassembling process.

  9. In vitro assays for cobblestone area-forming cells, LTC-IC, and CFU-C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, Ronald P; Dethmers-Ausema, Bertien; de Haan, Gerald; Bunting, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Various assays exist that measure the function of hematopoietic stemcells (HSCs). In this chapter, in vitro assays are described that measure the frequency of progenitors (colony-forming unit in culture; CFU-C), stem cells (long-term culture-initiating cell; LTC-IC), or both (cobblestone

  10. Ethnobotany of the Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, Mireia Alcántara; Angueyra, Andrea; Cleef, Antoine M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2018-01-01

    Background: The Sierra Nevada del Cocuy-Güicán in the Colombian Andes is protected as a National Natural Park since 1977 because of its fragile páramo ecosystems, extraordinary biodiversity, high plant endemism, and function as water reservoir. The vegetation on this mountain is threatened by

  11. IC 3639 - A new bona fide Compton thick AGN unveiled by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D.

    2016-01-01

    We analyse high-quality NuSTAR observations of the local (z = 0.011) Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) IC 3639, in conjunction with archival Suzaku and Chandra data. This provides the first broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the source, spanning nearly two decades in energy (0.5 -30 keV)....

  12. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Bettarini, S [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Bosisio, L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste and INFN Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Universita di Trento e INFN Trento, Trento (Italy); Verzellesi, G [Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell' Ingegneria, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia and INFN Trento, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Zorzi, N, E-mail: giovanni.verzellesi@unimore.i [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  13. Alpha-particle detection based on the BJT detector and simple, IC-based readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovati, L; Bonaiuti, M; Bettarini, S; Bosisio, L; Dalla Betta, G-F; Tyzhnevyi, V; Verzellesi, G; Zorzi, N

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a portable instrument for alpha-particle detection based on a previously-developed BJT detector and a simple, IC-based readout electronics. Experimental tests of the BJT detector and readout electronics are reported. Numerical simulations are adopted to predict the performance enhancement achievable with optimized BJT detectors.

  14. On the Significance of Process Comprehension for Conducting Targeted ICS Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, Benjamin; Krotofil, Marina; Abbasi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of Industrial Control Systems (ICSs) has been described as both easy and impossible, where is the truth? Post-Stuxnet works have included a plethora of ICS focused cyber security research activities, with topics covering device maturity, network protocols, and overall cyber security

  15. 30 CFR 57.22104 - Open flames (I-C mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....22104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Fire Prevention and Control § 57.22104 Open flames (I-C...

  16. Using Tablet PCs and Interactive Software in IC Design Courses to Improve Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an initial study of using tablet PCs and interactive course software in integrated circuit (IC) design courses. A rapidly growing community is demonstrating how this technology can improve learning and retention of material by facilitating interaction between faculty and students via cognitive exercises during lectures. While…

  17. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and

  18. Comparison between dominant NB and dominant IC heated ELMy H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T.W.; Sartori, R.; de Vries, P.C.; et al, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The experiment described in this paper is aimed at characterization of ELMy H-mode discharges with varying momentum input, rotation, power deposition profiles and ion to electron heating ratio obtained by varying the proportion between ion cyclotron (IC) and neutral beam (NB) heating. The

  19. Comparison between dominant NB and dominant IC heated ELMy H-mode discharges in JET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versloot, T. W.; Sartori, R.; Rimini, F.; de Vries, P. C.; Saibene, G.; Parail, V.; Beurskens, M. N. A.; Boboc, A.; Budny, R.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Durodie, F.; Eich, T.; Giroud, C.; Kiptily, V.; Johnson, T.; Mantica, P.; Mayoral, M. L.; McDonald, D. C.; Monakhov, I.; Nave, M. F. F.; Voitsekhovitch, I.; Zastrow, K. D.

    2011-01-01

    The experiment described in this paper is aimed at characterization of ELMy H-mode discharges with varying momentum input, rotation, power deposition profiles and ion to electron heating ratio obtained by varying the proportion between ion cyclotron (IC) and neutral beam (NB) heating. The motivation

  20. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered By NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition f...

  1. The measurement of Ksub(IC) in single crystal SiC using the indentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, J.L.; Brookes, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    The present work has concentrated on investigating the underlying fracture toughness behaviour of SiC single crystals. This material was chosen because of the commercial importance of the various polycrystalline forms of SiC and the relative ready availability of reasonably sized single crystals. This study has examined the feasibility of using the indentation technique to determine Ksub(IC) in SiC single crystals. This requires much more less complex experimentation and also affords the possibility of being able to use this method to study the orientation dependence of Ksub(IC) in a similar manner to that used to investigate anisotropy in indentation hardness behaviour. A single crystal of 6H-SiC was used for all the hardness and conventional Ksub(IC) results reported here. The particular polytype and orientation were determined using the Laue X-ray method. All the measurements were made under ambient conditions. Three-point bend tests, with a 6 mm span on single edge notched beams, SENB, orientated such that the plane of the notch was brace 112-bar0 brace and the crack propagation direction were used for the conventional Ksub(IC) tests. The hardness indentations were all made on one particular SENB test piece after it had been fractured. The results are discussed. (author)

  2. A grammar of Ik (Icé-tód) : Northeast Uganda's last thriving Kuliak language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrock, Terrill B.

    2014-01-01

    The Ik language (Icé-tód), spoken in northeast Uganda, forms the Kuliak (Rub) subgroup along with So/Tepeth and Nyang’í. These latter two lects have already succombed to assimilative pressures from neighboring Nilotic pastoralists like the Karimojong, Turkana, and Pokot. Despite

  3. The Toby Jug nebula (IC 2220): a bipolar and biconical nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, H.G.; King, D.J.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1981-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of IC 2220, the nebula surrounding the cool red giant HD 65750, is presented. The nebula appears to be bipolar and biconical in structure. The mass of the nebula is estimated to be 0.01 solar mass and is consistent with the nebula being formed from the current mass loss stage of the central star. (author)

  4. Cardiovascular disease events and its predictors in women: Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In ICS, HTN, diabetes mellitus and high triglyceride are strong predictors for CV events in Iranian women. As almost all strong risk markers of CVD events are preventable, health policy makers have to give urgent consideration to make preventive public health strategies.

  5. The defective nature of ice Ic and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhs, W. F.; Hansen, T. C.

    2009-04-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4,5]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [6,7] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [8] and other group's work [9] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Moreover, the stacking faults lead to kinks in the outer shapes of the minute ice Ic crystals as seen by cryo scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM); these defective sites are likely to play some role in heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. The cryo-SEM work suggests that stacking-faulty ice Ic has many more active centres for such reactions than the usually considered thermodynamically stable form, ice Ih. [1] T Kobayashi & T Kuroda (1987) Snow Crystals. In: Morphology of Crystals (ed. I Sunagawa), Terra Scientific Publishing, Tokyo, pp.649-743. [2] DM Murphy (2003) Dehydration in cold clouds is enhanced by a transition from from cubic to hexagonal ice. Geophys.Res.Lett.,30, 2230, doi:10.1029/2003GL018566. [3] RS Gao & 19 other authors (2004

  6. OSL signal of IC chips from mobile phones for dose assessment in accidental dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrozik, A.; Marczewska, B.; Bilski, P.; Książek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The rapid assessment of the radiation dose is very important for the prediction of biological effects after unintended exposition. The materials for use as dosimeters in accidental dosimetry should be everyday objects which are usually placed near the human body, for example mobile phones. IC (Integrated Circuit) chip is one of several electronic components of mobile phones which give a luminescent signal. The measurements of samples from different mobile phones and smartphones were conducted by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) methods. The OSL measurement was performed in two ways: with readouts at room temperature and at 100 °C. This work is focused on determination of OSL dose response of IC chips, minimum detectable dose (MDD), OSL signal stability in the time after the exposition, its repeatability and sensitivity to light. Several tests of the assessment of unknown doses were also conducted. The readouts at 100 °C indicate the reducing of the fading of OSL signal in the first hours after irradiation in comparison with room temperature readouts. The obtained results showed relatively good dosimetric properties of IC chips: their high sensitivity to the ionizing radiation, linear dose response up to 10 Gy and a good reproducibility of OSL signal which can allow the dose recovery of doses less than 2 Gy in 14 days after an incident with the accuracy better than 25%. The fading is a drawback of IC chips and the fading factor should be considered when calculating the dose. - Highlights: • IC chips from smartphones demonstrated high potential for accidental dosimetry. • Minimum detectable dose was estimated as a value of 50 mGy. • Samples showed linear dose response for the dose range from 0.05 Gy up to 10 Gy.

  7. A cell-level power management IC in BCD-SOI for partial power processing in Concentrating-PV systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, M.S.; Wen, Y.; Fernandes, R.; Buter, B.; Doorn, T.S.; Dijkstra, M.; Bergveld, H.J.; Trescases, O.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a power management IC used to mitigate the effects of mismatch in Concentrating-Photovoltaic (CPV) systems. The IC contains a bi-directional dc-dc converter, an auxiliary boost converter to generate the internal 10 V power supply, as well as protection and monitoring circuits. The

  8. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio

  9. Radon measurements at IC-09 well of Chingshui geothermal field (Taiwan): A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Kuo, T.; Fan, K.; Liang, H.; Tsai, C.; Chiang, C.; Su, C.

    2011-01-01

    Radon concentration was monitored during the flow tests of well IC-09 at the Chingshui geothermal field. The radon concentration was found to increase from 54 ± 29 to 983 ± 65 Bq/m 3 as a step function of production time, or cumulative production. The observed radon behavior can be explained by a radial composite model with the carbonate scales deposited in the skin zone near the well. The radius of skin zone near well IC-09 can be estimated with radon data at about 20 m using a plug flow model. Monitoring natural radon during the well flow tests is a helpful tracer to diagnose the formation damage near the well.

  10. Tipe Mating pada Empat Isolat Thanatephorus Cucumeris Anamorf: Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group (AG 1-IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmadi Priyatmojo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Four parent isolates (189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 of Thanatephorus cucumeris (anamorph: Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IC were induced to produce basidiospores using soil-over culture method. All of four parent isolates could produce basidiospores. Colonies obtained from single basidiospore isolate of each parent isolate were paired on charcoal potato dextrose agar. Single basidiospore isolate having different mating type produced tuft at area of the junction of paired colonies. On the based of tuft formation, single basidiospore isolates of each parent isolate could be divided into two different mating types, therefore it is concluded that each of 189, Rh28, BW3 and F-1 isolate of T. cucumeris AG I-IC has bipolar mating type.

  11. Automatic analog IC sizing and optimization constrained with PVT corners and layout effects

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Nuno; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for automatic analog integrated circuit (IC) sizing and optimization. The authors provide a historical perspective on the early methods proposed to tackle automatic analog circuit sizing, with emphasis on the methodologies to size and optimize the circuit, and on the methodologies to estimate the circuit’s performance. The discussion also includes robust circuit design and optimization and the most recent advances in layout-aware analog sizing approaches. The authors describe a methodology for an automatic flow for analog IC design, including details of the inputs and interfaces, multi-objective optimization techniques, and the enhancements made in the base implementation by using machine leaning techniques. The Gradient model is discussed in detail, along with the methods to include layout effects in the circuit sizing. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the qual...

  12. Catalog of Realizations for DXCCII using Commercially Available ICs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maheshwari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fifteen distinct practical realizations for dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII using commercially available integrated circuits. Detailed comparisons and results are presented to verify the utility of proposed realizations. The catalog of proposed realizations is a first attempt and is expected to be useful for testing newly developed circuits based on dual-X second generation current conveyor. Each of the first fourteen proposed realizations uses four ICs. One three IC based implementation is further given making the total count fifteen. Some additional features are also explored which further enhance the versatility of DXCCII. The paper further presents a novel and compact quadrature oscillator to verify the applicability of the proposed realizations. Single resistance control of the frequency of oscillation is also demonstrated by employing the new gain-variable DXCCII. Experimental results are also included along with simulation results to validate the proposed theory and its practical significance.

  13. Anatomy of a merger - CO in Arp 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, A.; Scoville, N.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution (2.4-arcsec) CO observations of the interacting system Arp 299 (Mrk 171: IC 694 and NGC 3690) reveal major gas condensations at the nuclei of both galaxies and in the disk overlap region. The 0.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses of H2 at the nucleus of NGC 3690 extends to radii of 310 pc and probably sustains a starburst. A compact source (radius not greater than 250 pc) of mass 3.9 x 10 to the 9th solar masses is found at the nucleus of IC 694; this galaxy may harbor an AGN. At least three discrete subcondensations, probably active star-forming knots, are detected in the 1800 x 640 pc overlap region. 24 refs

  14. Interface for the Construction of the CMS Detector (IC''3MS); Interfaz para la Construccion de Camaras CMS (IC''3MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballador Ferreras, A.; Gonzalez Giralda, C. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    This Technical Report shows a computer System named: Interface for the Control of CMS Detector (IC''3MS), whose main objective is to provide a design and advice tool which can be used for the assembly of super layers for the Compacts Muon Solenoid. This computer application is divided up into three independent modules that maintain a proper connection between them. These modules correspond to the three principal actors that control the assembly we said before. These actors are the analysts, that determine the control routines, the engineers, that specify the control details and finally the workers who use the control routines. This application has been developed as a collaboration between the Experimental Physic of Particles; which belongs to the Fusion and Elementary particles department and the Special Project Group, belonging to the Information Technologies Department, both them from the CIEMAT (Author)

  15. Development of semiconductor ΔE-E detector chip using standard bipolar IC technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Vijay; Kataria, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    A proposal has been made for developing silicon based AE-E detector chip which can be used as particle identifiers in nuclear physics experiments and also in several applications in nuclear industry scenario. The proposed development work employs standard bipolar IC fabrication technology of Bharat Electronics Ltd. and the deliverable products that emerge out will be very cost effective. The present paper discusses the concept, feasibility studies and systematic plan for fabrication, characterization and packaging of the proposed detectors. (author)

  16. Near-infrared photometric study of open star cluster IC 1805

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, R.; Yu, Q.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The JHK magnitudes of 29 stars in the region of open star cluster IC 1805 were measured. These, and the existing infrared and optical observations, indicate a normal interstellar extinction law in the direction of the cluster. Further, most of the early-type stars have near-infrared fluxes as expected from their spectral types. Patchy distribution of ionized gas and dust appears to be the cause of nonuniform extinction across the cluster face. 36 refs

  17. International Cooperation in Acquisition, Technology and Logistics (IC in AT&L) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    to think of the hierarchy of relationships as a pyramid as illustrated in Figure 1-2. Even though IC in AT&L programs form the capstone, it does...negotiation Czech Republic RDT&E Agreement Egypt TRDP Agreement Finland RDT&E Agreement in final national staffing France RDT&E Agreement Germany RDT&E...Act Australia Luxembourg Belgium Netherlands Canada Norway Egypt Portugal Denmark Spain France Sweden Germany Switzerland Greece Turkey Israel

  18. Testbed diversity as a fundamental principle for effective ICS security research

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Benjamin; Frey, Sylvain Andre Francis; Rashid, Awais; Hutchison, David

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of diversity in testbeds is essential to understanding and improving the security and resilience of Industrial Control Systems (ICS). Employing a wide spec- trum of equipment, diverse networks, and business processes, as deployed in real-life infrastructures, is particularly diffi- cult in experimental conditions. However, this level of di- versity is key from a security perspective, as attackers can exploit system particularities and process intricacies to their advantage....

  19. A SPECTROSCOPICALLY NORMAL TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA FROM A VERY MASSIVE PROGENITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Stefano; Pastorello, Andrea; Benetti, Stefano; Cappellaro, Enrico; Tomasella, Lina; Turatto, Massimo; Taubenberger, Stefan; Aramyan, Levon; Botticella, Maria Teresa; Fraser, Morgan; Smartt, Stephen J.; Magill, Lindsay; Kotak, Rubina; Wright, Darryl E.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Ergon, Mattias; Sollerman, Jesper; Magnier, Eugene; Price, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We present observations of the Type Ic supernova (SN Ic) 2011bm spanning a period of about one year. The data establish that SN 2011bm is a spectroscopically normal SN Ic with moderately low ejecta velocities and with a very slow spectroscopic and photometric evolution (more than twice as slow as SN 1998bw). The Pan-STARRS1 retrospective detection shows that the rise time from explosion to peak was ∼40 days in the R band. Through an analysis of the light curve and the spectral sequence, we estimate a kinetic energy of ∼7-17 foe and a total ejected mass of ∼7-17 M ☉ , 5-10 M ☉ of which is oxygen and 0.6-0.7 M ☉ is 56 Ni. The physical parameters obtained for SN 2011bm suggest that its progenitor was a massive star of initial mass 30-50 M ☉ . The profile of the forbidden oxygen lines in the nebular spectra shows no evidence of a bi-polar geometry in the ejected material.

  20. Service Quality, Students' Satisfaction and Behavioural Intentions in STEM and IC Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Meštrović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Service quality, students' satisfaction and their behavioural intentions are recognised as rather important aspects in higher education institution's strategy in a competitive higher education marketplace, which enable them to attract and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM and information-communication (IC study areas. This research aimed to study the relationship between service quality, students' satisfaction and behavioural intentions of STEM and IC students of the University of Rijeka Departments. Partial least squares structural equation modelling using SmartPLS 3.0 software was performed on student survey data, confirming a direct, positive and significant relationship between higher education service quality and students' satisfaction and between students' satisfaction and their behavioural intentions. According to indirect effects analysis, perceived higher education service quality has an an indirect, positive and significant impact on students' behavioural intentions through students' satisfaction. The results indicate that higher education service quality is an imperative for higher education sector. Based on the findings of this study, useful to policy makers in the services industry in general and in higher education sector in particular, improvements can be planned all service quality dimensions as a key factor to attract, educate and retain STEM and IC students in Croatia.

  1. Interpretation of two compact planetary nebulae, IC 4997 and NGC 6572, with aid of theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyung, S; Aller, L H

    1993-01-15

    Observations of two dense compact planetary nebulae secured with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph at Lick Observatory combined with previously published UV spectra secured with the International Ultraviolet Explorer enable us to probe the electron densities and temperatures (plasma diagnostics) and ionic concentrations in these objects. The diagnostic diagrams show that no homogenous model will work for these nebulae. NGC 6572 may consist of an inner torordal ring of density 25,000 atoms/cm3 and an outer conical shell of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The simplest model of IC 4997 suggests a thick inner shell with a density of about 107 atoms/cm3 and an outer envelope of density 10,000 atoms/cm3. The abundances of all elements heavier than He appear to be less than the solar values in NGC 6572, whereas He, C, N, and O may be more abundant in IC 4997 than in the sun. IC 4997 presents puzzling problems.

  2. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences 2013 (IC-MSQUARE 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The second International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Prague, Czech Republic, from Sunday 1 September to Thursday 5 September 2013. The Conference was attended by more than 280 participants and hosted about 400 oral, poster, and virtual presentations while counted more than 600 pre-registered authors. The second IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel sessions were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee. Further information on the editors, speakers and committees is available in the attached pdf.

  3. PREFACE: 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachos, Dimitrios; Vagenas, Elias C.

    2015-09-01

    The 4th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place in Mykonos, Greece, from Friday 5th June to Monday 8th June 2015. The Conference was attended by more than 150 participants and hosted about 200 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. There were more than 600 pre-registered authors. The 4th IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather intense as after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with a high quality of talks creating an innovative and productive scientific environment for all attendees. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  4. PREFACE: 3rd International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The third International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSQUARE) took place at Madrid, Spain, from Thursday 28 to Sunday 31 August 2014. The Conference was attended by more than 200 participants and hosted about 350 oral, poster, and virtual presentations. More than 600 pre-registered authors were also counted. The third IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral sessions and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level of talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee.

  5. 5th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC-MSquare 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagenas, Elias C.; Vlachos, Dimitrios S.

    2016-01-01

    The 5th International Conference on Mathematical Modeling in Physical Sciences (IC- MSQUARE) took place at Athens, Greece, from Monday, 23"t"h of May, to Thursday, 26"t"h of May 2016. The Conference was attended by more than 130 participants and hosted about 170 oral, poster, and virtual presentations while counted more than 500 pre-registered authors. The 5"t"h IC-MSQUARE consisted of different and diverging workshops and thus covered various research fields where Mathematical Modeling is used, such as Theoretical/Mathematical Physics, Neutrino Physics, Non-Integrable Systems, Dynamical Systems, Computational Nanoscience, Biological Physics, Computational Biomechanics, Complex Networks, Stochastic Modeling, Fractional Statistics, DNA Dynamics, Macroeconomics etc. The scientific program was rather heavy since after the Keynote and Invited Talks in the morning, three parallel oral and one poster session were running every day. However, according to all attendees, the program was excellent with high level talks and the scientific environment was fruitful, thus all attendees had a creative time. We would like to thank the Keynote Speaker and the Invited Speakers for their significant contribution to IC-MSQUARE. We also would like to thank the Members of the International Advisory and Scientific Committees as well as the Members of the Organizing Committee. (paper)

  6. Two families from New England with usher syndrome type IC with distinct haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, M M; McGee, T L; Keats, B J; Slim, R; Berson, E L; Dryja, T P

    2001-03-01

    To search for patients with Usher syndrome type IC among those with Usher syndrome type I who reside in New England. Genotype analysis of microsatellite markers closely linked to the USH1C locus was done using the polymerase chain reaction. We compared the haplotype of our patients who were homozygous in the USH1C region with the haplotypes found in previously reported USH1C Acadian families who reside in southwestern Louisiana and from a single family residing in Lebanon. Of 46 unrelated cases of Usher syndrome type I residing in New England, two were homozygous at genetic markers in the USH1C region. Of these, one carried the Acadian USH1C haplotype and had Acadian ancestors (that is, from Nova Scotia) who did not participate in the 1755 migration of Acadians to Louisiana. The second family had a haplotype that proved to be the same as that of a family with USH1C residing in Lebanon. Each of the two families had haplotypes distinct from the other. This is the first report that some patients residing in New England have Usher syndrome type IC. Patients with Usher syndrome type IC can have the Acadian haplotype or the Lebanese haplotype compatible with the idea that at least two independently arising pathogenic mutations have occurred in the yet-to-be identified USH1C gene.

  7. An NFC-Enabled CMOS IC for a Wireless Fully Implantable Glucose Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHennis, Andrew; Getzlaff, Stefan; Grice, David; Mailand, Marko

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated circuit (IC) that merges integrated optical and temperature transducers, optical interface circuitry, and a near-field communication (NFC)-enabled digital, wireless readout for a fully passive implantable sensor platform to measure glucose in people with diabetes. A flip-chip mounted LED and monolithically integrated photodiodes serve as the transduction front-end to enable fluorescence readout. A wide-range programmable transimpedance amplifier adapts the sensor signals to the input of an 11-bit analog-to-digital converter digitizing the measurements. Measurement readout is enabled by means of wireless backscatter modulation to a remote NFC reader. The system is able to resolve current levels of less than 10 pA with a single fluorescent measurement energy consumption of less than 1 μJ. The wireless IC is fabricated in a 0.6-μm-CMOS process and utilizes a 13.56-MHz-based ISO15693 for passive wireless readout through a NFC interface. The IC is utilized as the core interface to a fluorescent, glucose transducer to enable a fully implantable sensor-based continuous glucose monitoring system.

  8. Stress Voiding in IC Interconnects - Rules of Evidence for Failure Analysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FILTER, WILLIAM F.

    1999-09-17

    Mention the words ''stress voiding'', and everyone from technology engineer to manager to customer is likely to cringe. This IC failure mechanism elicits fear because it is insidious, capricious, and difficult to identify and arrest. There are reasons to believe that a damascene-copper future might be void-free. Nevertheless, engineers who continue to produce ICs with Al-alloy interconnects, or who assess the reliability of legacy ICs with long service life, need up-to-date insights and techniques to deal with stress voiding problems. Stress voiding need not be fearful. Not always predictable, neither is it inevitable. On the contrary, stress voids are caused by specific, avoidable processing errors. Analytical work, though often painful, can identify these errors when stress voiding occurs, and vigilance in monitoring the improved process can keep it from recurring. In this article, they show that a methodical, forensics approach to failure analysis can solve suspected cases of stress voiding. This approach uses new techniques, and patiently applies familiar ones, to develop evidence meeting strict standards of proof.

  9. Recent Progress in Planetary Laboratory Astrophysics achieved with NASA Ames' COSmIC Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2016-10-01

    We describe the characteristics and the capabilities of the laboratory facility, COSmIC, that was developed at NASA Ames to generate, process and analyze interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1]. COSmIC stands for "Cosmic Simulation Chamber" and is dedicated to the study of neutral and ionized molecules and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate various space environments such as planetary atmospheres. COSmIC integrates a variety of state-of-the-art instruments that allow forming, processing and monitoring simulated space conditions for planetary, circumstellar and interstellar materials in the laboratory. The COSmIC experimental setup is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle (PDN) expansion, that generates a plasma in the stream of a free supersonic jet expansion, coupled to two high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostics: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF) systems for photonic detection [2, 3], and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [4].Recent results obtained using COSmIC will be highlighted. In particular, the progress that has been achieved in an on-going study investigating the formation and the characterization of laboratory analogs of Titan's aerosols generated from gas-phase molecular precursors [5] will be presented. Plans for future laboratory experiments on planetary molecules and aerosols in the growing field of planetary laboratory astrophysics will also be addressed, as well as the implications of studies underway for astronomical observations.References: [1] Salama F., in Organic Matter in Space, IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds, CUP, S251, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Biennier L., Salama, F., Allamandola L., & Scherer J., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[3] Tan X, & Salama F., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 84318 (2005)[4] Ricketts C., Contreras C., Walker, R., Salama F., Int. J. Mass Spec, 300

  10. Anti-Idiotype Probes for Toxin Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-11-08

    from Holstein dairy cows that had by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-hypaque (Histo- been diagnosed as positive for Staphylococcus aureus...clinically healthy and Regional Immunology, Vol. 4, 236-244 (1992) free of respiratory disease, were purchased from local dairy - Z 1993 John Wiley...reactions were 13.2mg oxylacetic acid, 0.8mg insulin and conducted manually in an apparatus similar to 5.5mg of sodium pyruvate. Supernatant was that

  11. Alma Survey of Circumstellar Disks in the Young Stellar Cluster IC 348

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruíz-Rodríguez, D.; Cieza, L. A.; Williams, J. P.; Andrews, S. M.; Principe, D. A.; Caceres, C.; Canovas, H.; Casassus, S.; Schreiber, M. R.; Kastner, J. H.

    2018-05-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of the young (2-3 Myr) stellar cluster IC 348, which lies at a distance of 310 pc, and is dominated by low-mass stars (M⋆ ˜ 0.1-0.6 M⊙). We observed 136 Class II sources (disks that are optically thick in the infrared) at 0.8″ (200 au) resolution with a 3σ sensitivity of ˜ 0.45 mJy (Mdust ˜ 1.3 M⊕). We detect 40 of the targets and construct a mm-continuum luminosity function. We compare the disk mass distribution in IC 348 to those of younger and older regions, taking into account the dependence on stellar mass. We find a clear evolution in disk masses from 1 to 5-10 Myr. The disk masses in IC 348 are significantly lower than those in Taurus (1-3 Myr) and Lupus (1-3 Myr), similar to those of Chamaleon I, (2-3 Myr) and σ Ori (3-5 Myr) and significantly higher than in Upper Scorpius (5-10 Myr). About 20 disks in our sample (˜5% of the cluster members) have estimated masses (dust + gas) >1 MJup and hence might be the precursors of giant planets in the cluster. Some of the most massive disks include transition objects with inner opacity holes based on their infrared SEDs. From a stacking analysis of the 96 non-detections, we find that these disks have a typical dust mass of just ≲ 0.4 M⊕, even though the vast majority of their infrared SEDs remain optically thick and show little signs of evolution. Such low-mass disks may be the precursors of the small rocky planets found by Kepler around M-type stars.

  12. Related Progenitor Models for Long-duration Gamma-Ray Bursts and Type Ic Superluminous Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Dena, David R.; Langer, Norbert; Moriya, Takashi J.; Schootemeijer, Abel

    2018-05-01

    We model the late evolution and mass loss history of rapidly rotating Wolf–Rayet stars in the mass range 5 M ⊙…100 M ⊙). We find that quasi-chemically homogeneously evolving single stars computed with enhanced mixing retain very little or no helium and are compatible with Type Ic supernovae. The more efficient removal of core angular momentum and the expected smaller compact object mass in our lower-mass models lead to core spins in the range suggested for magnetar-driven superluminous supernovae. Our higher-mass models retain larger specific core angular momenta, expected for long-duration gamma-ray bursts in the collapsar scenario. Due to the absence of a significant He envelope, the rapidly increasing neutrino emission after core helium exhaustion leads to an accelerated contraction of the whole star, inducing a strong spin-up and centrifugally driven mass loss at rates of up to {10}-2 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1 in the last years to decades before core collapse. Because the angular momentum transport in our lower-mass models enhances the envelope spin-up, they show the largest relative amounts of centrifugally enforced mass loss, i.e., up to 25% of the expected ejecta mass. Our most massive models evolve into the pulsational pair-instability regime. We would thus expect signatures of interaction with a C/O-rich circumstellar medium for Type Ic superluminous supernovae with ejecta masses below ∼10 M ⊙ as well as for the most massive engine-driven explosions with ejecta masses above ∼30 M ⊙. Signs of such interaction should be observable at early epochs of the supernova explosion; they may be related to bumps observed in the light curves of superluminous supernovae, or to the massive circumstellar CO-shell proposed for Type Ic superluminous supernova Gaia16apd.

  13. Motor SUS i životna sredina / IC engine and environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Građin

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Ekološki pokreti u svetu su sve aktivniji, zbog stvarne ugroženosti Zemlje Mnogobrojni su oblici i izvori zagađenja, a jedan od najvećih su motori sa unutrašnjim sagorevanjem, za koje se pretpostavlja da će još dugo dominirati kao pogonski agregati u mnogim oblastima primene. U vezi s tim moguće je delovati u dva smera: zamenom konvencionalnih goriva alternativnim i konstrukcionim izmenama na motorima radi smanjenja emisije i potrošnje goriva. Jedna od mogućnosti konstrukcionog poboljšanja motora je i smanjenje mehaničkih gubitaka, koji kod današnjih konstrukcija još uvek imaju znatan udeo u gubicima, pogotovo na parcijalnim režimima. Treba naglasiti da kompleksni problemi smanjenja potrošnje goriva i emisije izduvnih gasova motora (vozila mogu da se reše samo spregom razvoja automobilske i naftne industrije. / Ecological trends and movements in the modern world grow stronger and more active, due to a real danger of Earth pollution. One of the main sources of pollution are IC engines and their influence on environment is significant. However, conventional combustion engines still are and will be dominant powering systems for numerous future applications. Two solutions are possible answers to this problem: first, the replacement of conventional fuels by alternative ones and second, modifications on the IC engine design in order to decrease fuel emission and consumption. One of the solutions for the improvement of IC engine design is the modification of engine parts or their design, with great influence on the decrease of mechanical losses, especially on partial rating. Therefore, it is important to say that complex problems of engine (automotive decrease of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emission can be solved only by simultaneous development of oil and engine (automotive industry.

  14. PREFACE: 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technological Processes (IC-CMTP2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Gömze A.

    2013-12-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our life and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp2) are the following: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technology sciences; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication between the scientist of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are materials with extreme physical, chemical, biological, medical, thermal, mechanical properties and dynamic strength; including their crystalline and nano-structures, phase transformations as well as methods of their technological processes, tests and measurements. Multidisciplinary applications of materials science and technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industry, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance to the program of the conference ic-cmtp2, more than 250 inquiries and registrations from different organizations were received. Researchers from 36 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa, North and South America arrived at the venue of conference. Including co-authors, the research work of more than 500 scientists are presented in this volume. Professor Dr Gömze A László Chair, ic-cmtp2 The PDF also contains lists of the boards, session chairs and sponsors.

  15. Tribološke karakteristike motora SUS / Tribological characteristics of IC engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran B. Građin

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Poznato je da se intenzivno teži smanjenju potrošnje goriva kod motora SUS pre svega iz ekoloških razloga. To se postiže primenom raznih konstrukcionih mera, medu kojima su i postupci koji doprinose smanjenju trenja. Da bi se postigao određeni uspeh na tom planu, neophodno je da se poznaju tribološke karakteristike motora u celini, kao i pojedinih sklopova i sistema. Najveći uticaj na trenje u motoru, a time i najveći interes za izučavanje triboloških karakteristika, izazivaju klipna grupa, ležaji kolenastog vratila, sistem razvoda i sistem za podmazivanje. Tribološke karakteristike motora treba poznavati još u fazi konstruisanja motora, jer jedino na taj način maze da se da puni doprinos smanjenju potrošnje goriva i izduvne emisije. / Intensive research for decreasing fuel consumption of IC engines is due wainly to ecologycal reasons. The problem can be solved by applying numerous diferent design solutions, among them methods for friction decrease. In order to achieve any success in that field it is necessary to be familiar with tribological features of a complete engine and its individual parts and assemblies. The main influence on IC engine friction losses comes from the piston group, the cranckshaft bearings, the timing system and the lubrication system. Tribological characteristics have to be determined in the first stage of IC engine design, because this is the only way to give full contribution to the decreasing of fuel consumption and exhaust emission.

  16. SN 2009bb: A PECULIAR BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA ,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignata, Giuliano; Stritzinger, Maximilian; Phillips, M. M.; Morrell, Nidia; Boldt, Luis; Campillay, Abdo; Contreras, Carlos; Gonzalez, Sergio; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Roth, Miguel; Salgado, Francisco; Soderberg, Alicia; Mazzali, Paolo; Anderson, J. P.; Folatelli, Gaston; Foerster, Francisco; Hamuy, Mario; Maza, Jose; Levesque, Emily M.; Rest, Armin

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared photometry and optical spectroscopy of the broad-lined Type Ic supernova (SN) 2009bb are presented, following the flux evolution from -10 to +285 days past B-band maximum. Thanks to the very early discovery, it is possible to place tight constraints on the SN explosion epoch. The expansion velocities measured from near maximum spectra are found to be only slightly smaller than those measured from spectra of the prototype broad-lined SN 1998bw associated with GRB 980425. Fitting an analytical model to the pseudobolometric light curve of SN 2009bb suggests that 4.1 ± 1.9 M sun of material was ejected with 0.22 ± 0.06 M sun of it being 56 Ni. The resulting kinetic energy is 1.8 ± 0.7 x 10 52 erg. This, together with an absolute peak magnitude of M B = -18.36 ± 0.44, places SN 2009bb on the energetic and luminous end of the broad-lined Type Ic (SN Ic) sequence. Detection of helium in the early time optical spectra accompanied with strong radio emission and high metallicity of its environment makes SN 2009bb a peculiar object. Similar to the case for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), we find that the bulk explosion parameters of SN 2009bb cannot account for the copious energy coupled to relativistic ejecta, and conclude that another energy reservoir (a central engine) is required to power the radio emission. Nevertheless, the analysis of the SN 2009bb nebular spectrum suggests that the failed GRB detection is not imputable to a large angle between the line-of-sight and the GRB beamed radiation. Therefore, if a GRB was produced during the SN 2009bb explosion, it was below the threshold of the current generation of γ-ray instruments.

  17. 3-D ICs as a Platform for IoT Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    are both naturally reduced in 3-D ICs. I. INTRODUCTION The Internet of Things (IoT) is a novel computing paradigm based on connecting physical devices...cost and high transparency [6]. PET is used as the substrate of p-i-n type solar cells and is compatible with the traditional deposition process of solar ...10 138 3.42 to 3.48 130 to 185 2.6 400 to 1,060memory Solar cells Polyethylene 1 · 1016 0.2 1.58 to 1.64 2 to 2.7 3.9 400 to 1,600Terephthalate (PET

  18. Creating a FIESTA (Framework for Integrated Earth Science and Technology Applications) with MagIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (https://earthref.org/MagIC) has recently developed a containerized web application to considerably reduce the friction in contributing, exploring and combining valuable and complex datasets for the paleo-, geo- and rock magnetic scientific community. The data produced in this scientific domain are inherently hierarchical and the communities evolving approaches to this scientific workflow, from sampling to taking measurements to multiple levels of interpretations, require a large and flexible data model to adequately annotate the results and ensure reproducibility. Historically, contributing such detail in a consistent format has been prohibitively time consuming and often resulted in only publishing the highly derived interpretations. The new open-source (https://github.com/earthref/MagIC) application provides a flexible upload tool integrated with the data model to easily create a validated contribution and a powerful search interface for discovering datasets and combining them to enable transformative science. MagIC is hosted at EarthRef.org along with several interdisciplinary geoscience databases. A FIESTA (Framework for Integrated Earth Science and Technology Applications) is being created by generalizing MagIC's web application for reuse in other domains. The application relies on a single configuration document that describes the routing, data model, component settings and external services integrations. The container hosts an isomorphic Meteor JavaScript application, MongoDB database and ElasticSearch search engine. Multiple containers can be configured as microservices to serve portions of the application or rely on externally hosted MongoDB, ElasticSearch, or third-party services to efficiently scale computational demands. FIESTA is particularly well suited for many Earth Science disciplines with its flexible data model, mapping, account management, upload tool to private workspaces, reference metadata, image

  19. Spitzer observations of large amplitude variables in the LMC and IC 1613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitelock Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The 3.6 and 4.5 ìm characteristics of asymptotic giant branch variables in the LMC and IC 1613 are discussed. For C-rich Mira variables there is a very clear periodluminosity-colour relation, where the [3.6] . [4.5] colour is associated with the amount of circumstellar material and correlated with the pulsation amplitude. The [4.5] periodluminosity relation for dusty stars is approximately one mag brighter than for their naked counterparts with comparable periods.

  20. A Source Term for Wave Attenuation by Sea Ice in WAVEWATCH III (registered trademark): IC4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    blue and 4 locations in the ice: 1, 2, 5, and 10 km. Notice the steepening of the high frequency face and the shift of the peak to slightly lower...Term for Wave Attenuation by Sea Ice in WAVEWATCH III®: IC4 ClarenCe O. COllins iii W. eriCk rOgers Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch Oceanography...Wave model Sea ice Ocean surface waves Arctic Ocean WAVEWATCH III Spectral wave modeling Source terms Wave hindcasting 73-N2K2-07-5 Naval Research

  1. Field measurements and interpretation of TMI-2 instrumentation: IC-10-dPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.; Smith, J.T.; Mathis, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the measurements and results of the Control Rod Drive Bypass Flow IC-10-dPT. This instrument consists of a Bailey Type BY Process Computer Transmitter connected to a readout module by approximately 500 feet of cable through a penetration junction and an instrument mounting junction. The status of this instrument is uncertain, but it was producing a reasonable output reading of zero flow which could indicate it had not failed. As a result, measurements on this instrument were designed to determine if it were properly functioning

  2. HII regions in IC 1613: The ISM in a nearby dwarf irregular galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jill S.; Mason, Stephen F.; Gullixson, Craig A.

    1990-01-01

    IC 1613, a nearby (725 kpc distant) dwarf irregular galaxy, has always been known to contain large, ring-shaped HII regions in its northeast corner. A new H alpha image has been obtained using the Bell Labs Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera, an RCA 320 X 512 pixel-thinned, back-illuminated CCD, an H alpha filter of central wavelength 6562 A and width (full width half maximum) of 30 A, and the 42 inch telescope at Lowell Observatory. The low resolution images exhibit many new, faint features.

  3. NASA Ames’ COSmIC Laboratory Astrophysics Facility: Recent Results and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Farid; Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Bejaoui, Salma

    2018-06-01

    The COSmIC facility was developed at NASA Ames to study interstellar, circumstellar and planetary analogs in the laboratory [1, 2]. COSmIC stands for “Cosmic Simulation Chamber” and is dedicated to the study of molecules, ions and nanoparticles under the low temperature and high vacuum conditions that are required to simulate space environments. COSmIC integrates a variety of instruments that allow generating; processing and monitoring simulated space conditions in the laboratory. It is composed of a Pulsed Discharge Nozzle expansion that generates a plasma in a free supersonic jet expansion coupled to high-sensitivity, complementary in situ diagnostic tools, used for the detection and characterization of the species present in the expansion: a Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and fluorescence spectroscopy systems for photonic detection, and a Reflectron Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ReTOF-MS) for mass detection [3, 4].Recent advances achieved in laboratory astrophysics using COSmIC will be presented, in particular in the domain of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) [5, 6] and the monitoring, in the laboratory, of the formation of dust grains and aerosols from their gas-phase molecular precursors in environments as varied as circumstellar outflows [7] and planetary atmospheres [8, 9, 10]. Plans for future laboratory experiments on cosmic molecules and grains in the growing field of laboratory astrophysics (NIR-MIR CRDS, Laser Induced Fluorescence spectra of cosmic molecule analogs and the laser induced incandescence spectra of cosmic grain analogs) will also be addressed as well as the implications for astronomy.References: [1] Salama F., Proceed. IAU S251, Kwok & Sandford eds. CUP, 4, 357 (2008).[2] Salama F., et al., Proceed. IAU S332, Y. Aikawa, M. Cunningham, T. Millar, eds., CUP (2018)[3] Biennier L., et al., J. Chem. Phys., 118, 7863 (2003)[4] Ricketts C. et al. IJMS, 300, 26 (2011)[5] Salama F., et al., ApJ., 728, 154 (2011)[6] EDIBLES

  4. Silicon photonic IC embedded optical-PCB for high-speed interconnect application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallega, Rakshitha; Nambiar, Siddharth; Kumar, Abhai; Ranganath, Praveen; Selvaraja, Shankar Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Optical-Printed Circuit Board (PCB) is an emerging optical interconnect technology to bridge the gap between the board edge and the processing module. The technology so far has been used as a broadband transmitter using polymer waveguides in the PCB. In this paper, we report a Silicon Nitride based photonic IC embedded in the PCB along with the polymers as waveguides in the PCB. The motivation for such integration is to bring routing capability and to reduce the power loss due to broadcasting mode.

  5. Network security system for health and medical information using smart IC card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yoichi; Yachida, Masuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroharu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    1998-07-01

    A new network security protocol that uses smart IC cards has been designed to assure the integrity and privacy of medical information in communication over a non-secure network. Secure communication software has been implemented as a library based on this protocol, which is called the Integrated Secure Communication Layer (ISCL), and has been incorporated into information systems of the National Cancer Center Hospitals and the Health Service Center of the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Both systems have succeeded in communicating digital medical information securely.

  6. A low-power CMOS readout IC design for bolometer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioglu, Arman; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Shafique, Atia; Ceylan, Ömer; Yazici, Melik; Kaynak, Mehmet; Durmaz, Emre C.; Arsoy, Elif Gul; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-02-01

    A prototype of a readout IC (ROIC) designed for use in high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) SiGe microbolometers is presented. The prototype ROIC architecture implemented is based on a bridge with active and blind bolometer pixels with a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) input stage and column parallel integration with serial readout. The ROIC is designed for use in high (>= 4 %/K) TCR and high detector resistance Si/SiGe microbolometers with 17x17 μm2 pixel sizes in development. The prototype has been designed and fabricated in 0.25- μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process.

  7. TYPE IC CHOLEDOCHAL CYST PRESENTING AN EXTRAHEPATAL CHOLESTASIS IN A 3 YEAR OLD BOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Choledochal cyst is a rare congenital dilatation of the bile ducts, mostly diagnosed in childhood. Whenappropriate resection is not performed, cholangiocarcinoma may occur in a high incidence within thesecond decade of life. This report aims to present a rare case in experience of diagnosis and managementtype IC choledochal cyst in children. We present case of a 3-year-old boy who came with jaundice anditchy skin, abdominal pain, brownish urine, pales colored of stool. Abdominal ultrasonography andcomputed tomography scan revealed type IC choledochal cyst. Patient underwent complete cyst removalsurgery and bilioenteric anastomosis through Roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Excision biopsy confirmedthe diagnosis of type IC choledochal cyst. Post surgical follow up shown good physical and laboratorycondition  and  there was no  recurrence  of  symptoms. Early  surgical  procedure  through Roux-en-yhepatojejunostomy, has been performed. Long  term  follow up also  facilities good prognostic  to  thepatient. [MEDICINA 2015;46:56-60].Kista  koledokus  adalah merupakan  penyakit  saluran  empedu  bawaan  yang  jarang  dijumpai  danbanyak terdiagnosis pada saat usia anak-anak. Tindakan berupa reseksi kista adalah yang terpentingdilakukan,  jika  tidak  segera  dilakukan  maka  dapat  meningkatkan  resiko  terjadinyacholangiocarcinoma dalam usia dekade kedua penderita dalam kehidupan. Tujuan kasus ini dilaporkanuntuk menggambarkan pengalaman dalam mendiagnosis dan tata  laksana kista koledokal tipe ICyang jarang pada anak-anak. Laporan kasus ini pada anak laki-laki berumur 3 tahun dengan keluhankulit tampak kuning dan gatal, nyeri perut, urin berwarna kecoklatan, tinja yang pucat. Ultrasonografidan CT  scan abdomen memperlihatkan adanya kista koledokus. Tindakan bedah  eksisi kista dananastomosis bilioenterik dengan menggunakan tehnik hepatojejunostomi Roux-en-y. Diagnosa kistakoledokus  tipe  IC  terkonfirmasi  saat

  8. ic-cmtp3: 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Competitiveness is one of the most important factors in our lives and it plays a key role in the efficiency both of organizations and societies. The more scientifically advanced and prepared organizations develop more competitive materials with better physical, chemical, and biological properties, and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technological processes. The aims of the 3rd International Conference on Competitive Materials and Technology Processes (ic-cmtp3), and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Carbons and Carbon Based Materials (is-icbm1) and the 1st International Symposium on Innovative Construction Materials (is-icm1) organized alongside are the following: —Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of material, biological, environmental and technological sciences; —Exchange information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implementations; —Promote communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different nations, countries and continents. Among the major fields of interest are advanced and innovative materials with competitive characteristics, including mechanical, physical, chemical, biological, medical and thermal, properties and extreme dynamic strength. Their crystalline, nano - and micro-structures, phase transformations as well as details of their technological processes, tests and measurements are also in the focus of the ic-cmtp3 conference and the is-scbm1 and is-icm1 symposia. Multidisciplinary applications of material science and the technological problems encountered in sectors like ceramics, glasses, thin films, aerospace, automotive and marine industries, electronics, energy, construction materials, medicine, biosciences and environmental sciences are of particular interest. In accordance with the program of the ic-cmtp3 conference and is-icbm1 and is-icm1 symposia we have received more

  9. Near-infrared mapping of ARP 299 (IC 694-NGC 3690) - colliding galaxies unveiled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telesco, C.M.; Decher, R.; Gatley, I.; Edinburgh Royal Observatory, England)

    1985-01-01

    Near-infrared maps and multicolor photometry of the interacting galaxies IC 694 and NGC 3690 which form Arp 299 (= Markarian 171) are presented. These data reveal for the first time the distribution of nuclei and old red stars in a cataclysmically interacting system. The nuclei are considerably offset from the visual centroids of the galaxies but not from the mass centroids. The near-infrared colors of the most active regions are strongly affected by extinction, emission form hot dust, and bremsstrahlung. Near-infrared emission is also identified with secondary regions of star formation, probably resulting from the galaxies interaction. 24 references

  10. Note on a simple test method for estimaing J/sub Ic/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, T.A.; McHenry, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fracture toughness testing is generally a time-consuming and expensive procedure; therefore, there has been a significant amount of effort directed toward developing an inexpensive and rapid method of estimating the fracture toughness of materials. In this paper, a simple method for estimating J/sub Ic/ through the use of small, notched, bend bars is evaluated. The test only involves the measurement of the energy necessary to fracture the sample. Initial tests on Fe-18Cr-3Ni-13Mn and 304L stainless steel at 76 and 4 0 K have yielded results consistent with other fracture toughness tests, for materials in the low- to medium-toughness range

  11. Development of an FPGA-Based Motion Control IC for Caving Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Keng Lai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs with high density are available nowadays, systems with complex functions can thus be realized by FPGA in a single chip while they are traditionally implemented by several individual chips. In this research, the control of stepping motor drives as well as motion controller is integrated and implemented on Altera Cyclone III FPGA; the resulting system is evaluated by applying it to a 3-axis caving machine which is driven by stepping motors. Finally, the experimental results of current regulation and motion control integrated in FPGA IC are shown to prove the validness.

  12. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A [Wolfson School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.

  13. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, S; Justham, T; Clarke, A; Garner, C P; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations

  14. Time Resolved Digital PIV Measurements of Flow Field Cyclic Variation in an Optical IC Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, S.; Justham, T.; Clarke, A.; Garner, C. P.; Hargrave, G. K.; Halliwell, N. A.

    2006-07-01

    Time resolved digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) experimental data is presented for the in-cylinder flow field development of a motored four stroke spark ignition (SI) optical internal combustion (IC) engine. A high speed DPIV system was employed to quantify the velocity field development during the intake and compression stroke at an engine speed of 1500 rpm. The results map the spatial and temporal development of the in-cylinder flow field structure allowing comparison between traditional ensemble average and cycle average flow field structures. Conclusions are drawn with respect to engine flow field cyclic variations.

  15. Search for cold and hot gas in the ram pressure stripped Virgo dwarf galaxy IC 3418

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Kenney, J.D.P.; Růžička, Adam; Sun, M.; Combes, F.; Palouš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 556, August (2013), A99/1-A99/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP209/11/P699; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100031203 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : VCC 1217/IC 3418 * Virgo * evolution of galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.479, year: 2013

  16. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  17. ICS security in maritime transportation : a white paper examining the security and resiliency of critical transportation infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center was asked by the Office of Security of the Maritime Administration to examine the issue of industrial control systems (ICS) security in the Maritime Transportation System (MTS), and to develop ...

  18. Trivalent Chromium Process (TCP) as a Sealer for MIL-A-8625F Type II, IIB, and IC Anodic Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matzdorf, Craig; Beck, Erin; Hilgeman, Amy; Prado, Ruben

    2008-01-01

    This report documents evaluations of trivalent chromium compositions (TCP) as sealers for MIL-A-8625F Type II, IIB, and IC anodic coatings conducted from March 2001 through December 2007 by Materials Engineering...

  19. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) joint report on the terminology for female anorectal dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, A. H.; Monga, A.; Lee, J.; Emmanuel, A.; Norton, C.; Santoro, G.; Hull, T.; Berghmans, B.; Brody, S.; Haylen, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The terminology for anorectal dysfunction in women has long been in need of a specific clinically-based Consensus Report. METHODS: This Report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted on Committee by experts in their fields to form a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Female Anorectal...

  20. An International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)/International Continence Society (ICS) Joint Report on the Terminology for Female Anorectal Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, A. H.; Monga, A.; Lee, J.; Emmanuel, A.; Norton, C.; Santoro, G.; Hull, T.; Berghmans, B.; Brody, S.; Haylen, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The terminology for anorectal dysfunction in women has long been in need of a specific clinically-based Consensus Report. METHODS: This Report combines the input of members of the Standardization and Terminology Committees of two International Organizations, the International Urogynecological Association (IUGA) and the International Continence Society (ICS), assisted on Committee by experts in their fields to form a Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Female Anorectal Termi...

  1. Influence of the doping additives on heat stability and heat transfer of nickel coverings of cases IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novosyadly S. P.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available With the help of modern diagnostic microanalysis tools, the regularities are established for variation of electrophysical parameters of Ni-B galvanic coating of IC packages in the process of ultrasonic welding of internal Al leads and package seal. The optimal composition of the electrolyte which provides heat resistance increase of IC packages with alloyed Ni coating is selected. This, combined with the local gilding, enables mounting of crystals through a eutectic Si-Au sublayer.

  2. The MusIC method: a fast and quasi-optimal solution to the muscle forces estimation problem

    OpenAIRE

    Muller , Antoine; Pontonnier , Charles; Dumont , Georges

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The present paper aims at presenting a fast and quasi-optimal method of muscle forces estimation: the MusIC method. It consists in interpolating a first estimation in a database generated offline thanks to a classical optimization problem, and then correcting it to respect the motion dynamics. Three different cost functions – two polynomial criteria and a min/max criterion – were tested on a planar musculoskeletal model. The MusIC method provides a computation frequenc...

  3. Near-IR TRGB Distance Modulus of Dwarf Irregular Galaxy IC 1613

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The JHKs magnitudes of the red giant branch tip (TRGB and the distance moduli of the nearby dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been determined from the nearinfrared luminosity functions (LFs of the resolved stars in the galaxy. Applying a Savitzky-Golay filtering, we derived the second derivatives of the LFs, and estimated the apparent magnitudes of the TRGB as mJ = 19.1, mH = 18.4, and mKs = 18:0. The mean values of the theoretical absolute magnitudes of the TRGB were measured by using the Yonsei-Yale isochrones with a metallicity range of -2.1 < [Fe/H] < -0.5 and age of 12 Gyr. The derived values of near-infrared TRGB distance moduli for IC 1613 are (m-M = 24.12±0:25, 24.20±0.44, and 24.00±0.52 for J;H, and Ks bands, respectively.

  4. Infrared tip of the red giant branch and distances to the MAFFEI/IC 342 group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Po-Feng; Tully, R. Brent; Jacobs, Bradley A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, HI 96822 (United States); Rizzi, Luca [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Karachentsev, Igor D. [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnij Arkhyz, Karachai-Cherkessian Republic 369167 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we extend the use of the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) method to near-infrared wavelengths from the previously used I-band, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Upon calibration of a color dependency of the TRGB magnitude, the IR TRGB yields a random uncertainty of ∼5% in relative distance. The IR TRGB methodology has an advantage over the previously used Advance Camera for Surveys F606W and F814W filter set for galaxies that suffer from severe extinction. Using the IR TRGB methodology, we obtain distances toward three principal galaxies in the Maffei/IC 342 complex, which are located at low Galactic latitudes. New distance estimates using the TRGB method are 3.45{sub −0.13}{sup +0.13} Mpc for IC 342, 3.37{sub −0.23}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 1, and 3.52{sub −0.30}{sup +0.32} Mpc for Maffei 2. The uncertainties are dominated by uncertain extinction, especially for Maffei 1 and Maffei 2. Our IR calibration demonstrates the viability of the TRGB methodology for observations with the James Webb Space Telescope.

  5. A Single-Chip Solar Energy Harvesting IC Using Integrated Photodiodes for Biomedical Implant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Law, Man-Kay; Mak, Pui-In; Martins, Rui P

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-compact single-chip solar energy harvesting IC using on-chip solar cell for biomedical implant applications is presented. By employing an on-chip charge pump with parallel connected photodiodes, a 3.5 × efficiency improvement can be achieved when compared with the conventional stacked photodiode approach to boost the harvested voltage while preserving a single-chip solution. A photodiode-assisted dual startup circuit (PDSC) is also proposed to improve the area efficiency and increase the startup speed by 77%. By employing an auxiliary charge pump (AQP) using zero threshold voltage (ZVT) devices in parallel with the main charge pump, a low startup voltage of 0.25 V is obtained while minimizing the reversion loss. A 4 V in gate drive voltage is utilized to reduce the conduction loss. Systematic charge pump and solar cell area optimization is also introduced to improve the energy harvesting efficiency. The proposed system is implemented in a standard 0.18- [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and occupies an active area of 1.54 [Formula: see text]. Measurement results show that the on-chip charge pump can achieve a maximum efficiency of 67%. With an incident power of 1.22 [Formula: see text] from a halogen light source, the proposed energy harvesting IC can deliver an output power of 1.65 [Formula: see text] at 64% charge pump efficiency. The chip prototype is also verified using in-vitro experiment.

  6. Pocket EZPIN device for healthcare IC cards to enhance the security and convenience of senior citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jiun-Tze; Hou, Ting-Wei

    2008-04-01

    An application that adopts smart cards often requires users to enter a PIN (Personal Identification Number) code. In Taiwan's healthcare system, a PIN is used to protect a card holder's private data. However, should one forget one's PIN, the procedure to set up a new PIN is inconvenient. There is a higher probability that senior citizens may forget their PINs. We propose a device which stores the PIN of the cardholder's Healthcare IC card. When the healthcare IC card reader requires the cardholder to enter his/her PIN, the cardholder pushes a button of the device to remotely sends the cardholder's encrypted PIN, for example by Infra Red. The device is designed to be low cost and easy to carry, and, hence, affordable to be a gift to senior citizens. Moreover, if the cardholder should forget to take the device with him/her, the card still works as normal. The device would be helpful in ensuring the public's privacy and convenience in Taiwan's healthcare system.

  7. Large Eddy Simulations of Two-phase Turbulent Reactive Flows in IC Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaeizadeh, Araz; Schock, Harold; Jaberi, Farhad

    2008-11-01

    The two-phase filtered mass density function (FMDF) subgrid-scale (SGS) model is used for large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent spray combustion in internal combustion (IC) engines. The LES/FMDF is implemented via an efficient, hybrid numerical method. In this method, the filtered compressible Navier-Stokes equations in curvilinear coordinate systems are solved with a generalized, high-order, multi-block, compact differencing scheme. The spray and the FMDF are implemented with Lagrangian methods. The reliability and the consistency of the numerical methods are established for different IC engines and the complex interactions among mean and turbulent velocity fields, fuel droplets and combustion are shown to be well captured with the LES/FMDF. In both spark-ignition/direct-injection and diesel engines, the droplet size and velocity distributions are found to be modified by the unsteady, vortical motions generated by the incoming air during the intake stroke. In turn, the droplets are found to change the in-cylinder flow structure. In the spark-ignition engine, flame propagation is similar to the experiment. In the diesel engine, the maximum evaporated fuel concentration is near the cylinder wall where the flame starts, which is again consistent with the experiment.

  8. FINASOL OSR 51 biodegradation by the biological activators BIOLEN IG 30 and BIOLEN IC 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Guzman, E. [Balearic Island Univ., Palma de Mallorca, Islas Baleares (Spain); Morales, N. [Alfonso X El Sabio Univ., Madrid (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [LAESA, Zaragoza (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    Results of experimental work to study the biodegradation of the total ionic and anionic dispersants in FINASOL OSR 51 for the biological activators BIOLEN IG 30 and IC 10 were described. BIOLEN IG 30 and IC 10 are mixtures of bacteria chosen for their ability to degrade a wide range of chemical compounds. Biodegradation experiments were conducted in a non-isothermal container at room temperature (between 16.9 and 30.8 degrees C) to simulate the biodegradation process in a natural environment where the temperature cannot be controlled. Additional experiments were conducted at a controlled temperature value of 20 degrees C. Eight different reactor tests were performed with FINASOL OSR 51 dispersed in distilled and sterilized water. The influence of the accelerator INIPOL EAP 22 on the degradation process was also examined. Results from the degradation of the different compounds were presented and their kinetic coefficients were calculated. Biological Oxygen Demand at five days and at the end of the degradation was also determined. This made it possible to calculate the biodegradation constant and the biochemical stabilization constant. 11 refs., 13 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. Electromigration in 3D-IC scale Cu/Sn/Cu solder joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Cheng-En, E-mail: ceho1975@hotmail.com; Lee, Pei-Tzu; Chen, Chih-Nan; Yang, Cheng-Hsien

    2016-08-15

    The electromigration effect on the three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D-IC) scale solder joints with a Cu/Sn(25–50 μm)/Cu configuration was investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE–SEM) combined with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis system. Electron current stressing for a few days caused the pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} in specific Sn grain boundaries (GBs). The EBSD analysis indicated that both the β-Sn crystallographic orientation and GB orientation play dominant roles in this accumulation. The dependencies of the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation on the two above factors (i.e., Sn grain orientation and GB orientation) can be well rationalized via a proposed mathematic model based on the Huntington and Grone's electromigration theory with the Cu anisotropic diffusion data in a β-Sn lattice. - Highlights: • Anisotropic Cu electromigration in the 3D-IC scale microelectronic solder joints. • Pronounced accumulation of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic in specific Sn grain boundaries. • A linear dependence of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation over the current stressing time. • β-Sn and grain boundary orientations are the dominant factors in Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} accumulation.

  10. Jsub(Ic)-testing of A-533 B - statistical evaluation of some different testing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare statistically some different methods for the evaluation of fracture toughness of the nuclear reactor material A-533 B. Since linear elastic fracture mechanics is not applicable to this material at the interesting temperature (275 0 C), the so-called Jsub(Ic) testing method was employed. Two main difficulties are inherent in this type of testing. The first one is to determine the quantity J as a function of the deflection of the three-point bend specimens used. Three different techniques were used, the first two based on the experimentally observed input of energy to the specimen and the third employing finite element calculations. The second main problem is to determine the point when crack growth begins. For this, two methods were used, a direct electrical method and the indirect R-curve method. A total of forty specimens were tested at two laboratories. No statistically significant different results were obtained from the respective laboratories. The three methods of calculating J yielded somewhat different results, although the discrepancy was small. Also the two methods of determination of the growth initiation point yielded consistent results. The R-curve method, however, exhibited a larger uncertainty as measured by the standard deviation. The resulting Jsub(Ic) value also agreed well with earlier presented results. The relative standard deviation was of the order of 25%, which is quite small for this type of experiment. (author)

  11. The Carnegie Hubble Program: The Infrared Leavitt Law in IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scowcroft, Victoria; Freedman, Wendy L.; Madore, Barry F.; Monson, Andrew J.; Persson, S. E.; Seibert, Mark; Rigby, Jane R.; Melbourne, Jason

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the dwarf galaxy IC 1613 at multiple epochs in the midinfrared using Spitzer and the in the near-infrared using the new FourStar near-IR camera on Magellan. We have constructed Cepheid period luminosity relations in the J, H, Ks, [3.6] and [4.5] bands and have used the run of their apparent distance moduli as a function of wavelength to derive the line of sight reddening and distance to IC 1613. Using a nineband fit, we find E(BV ) = 0.050.01 mag and an extinction corrected distance modulus of 0 = 24.29 0.03statistical 0.03systematic mag. By comparing our multiband and [3.6] distance moduli to results from the tip of the red giant branch and red clump distance indicators, we find that metallicity has no measurable effect on Cepheid distances at 3.6 m in the metallicity range 1.0 [Fe/H] 0.2, hence derivations of the Hubble constant at this wavelength require no correction for metallicity.

  12. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-04-19

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power P OUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage V RECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a P OUT of 288 μW and a V RECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier.

  13. Interstellar Lithium and Rubidium in the Diffuse Gas Near IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Taylor, C. J.; Federman, S. R.; Lambert, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar lithium and rubidium from observations made with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the Li I λ6707 and Rb I λ7800 absorption lines along four lines of sight through the supernova remnant IC 443. The observations probe interstellar material polluted by the ejecta of a core-collapse (Type II) supernova and can thus be used to constrain the contribution from massive stars to the synthesis of lithium and rubidium. Production of 7Li is expected to occur through neutrino spallation in the helium and carbon shells of the progenitor star during the terminal supernova explosion, while both 6Li and 7Li are synthesized via spallation and fusion reactions involving cosmic rays accelerated by the remnant. Gamma-ray emission from IC 443 provides strong evidence for the interaction of accelerated cosmic rays with the ambient atomic and molecular gas. Rubidium is also produced by massive stars through the weak s-process in the He- and C-burning shells and the r-process during core collapse. We examine interstellar 7Li/6Li isotope ratios as well as Li/K and Rb/K ratios along each line of sight, and discuss the implications of our results in the context of nucleosynthesis associated with Type II supernovae.

  14. CO mapping of the nuclear region of NGC 6946 and IC 342 with Nobeyama millimeter array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuki, Sumio; Kawabe, Ryohei; Okumura, Sachiko K.; Morita, Koh-Ichiro; Ishiguro, Masato

    1990-01-01

    CO observations of nearby galaxies with nuclear active star forming regions (and starburst galaxies) with angular resolutions around 7 seconds revealed that molecular bars with a length of a few kiloparsecs have been formed in the central regions of the galaxies. The molecular bar is interpreted as part of shock waves induced by an oval or barred potential field. By shock dissipation or dissipative cloud-cloud collisions, the molecular gas gains an infall motion and the nuclear star formation activity is fueled. But the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas in the nuclear regions, which are sites of active star formation, remain unknown. Higher angular resolutions are needed to investigate the gas in the nuclear regions. Researchers made aperture synthesis observations of the nuclear region of the late-type spiral galaxies NGC 6946 and IC 342 with resolutions of 7.6 seconds x 4.2 seconds (P.A. = 147 deg) and 2.4 seconds x 2.3 seconds (P.A. = 149 deg), respectively. The distances to NGC 6496 and IC 342 are assumed to be 5.5 Mpc and 3.9 Mpc, respectively. Researchers have found 100-300 pc nuclear gas disk and ring inside a few kpc molecular gas bars. Researchers present the results of the observations and propose a possible mechanism of active star formation in the nuclear region.

  15. Physical Conditions in Shocked Interstellar Gas Interacting with the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Adam M.; Federman, Steven Robert; Jenkins, Edward B.; Caprioli, Damiano; Wallerstein, George

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed investigation into the physical conditions in interstellar material interacting with the supernova remnant IC 443. Our analysis is based on an examination of high-resolution HST/STIS spectra of two stars probing predominantly neutral gas located both ahead of and behind the supernova shock front. The pre-shock neutral gas is characterized by densities and temperatures typical of diffuse interstellar clouds, while the post-shock material exhibits a range of more extreme physical conditions, including high temperatures (>104 K) in some cases, which may require a sudden heating event to explain. The ionization level is enhanced in the high-temperature post-shock material, which could be the result of enhanced radiation from shocks or from an increase in cosmic-ray ionization. The gas-phase abundances of refractory elements are also enhanced in the high-pressure gas, suggesting efficient destruction of dust grains by shock sputtering. Observations of highly-ionized species at very high velocity indicate a post-shock temperature of 107 K for the hot X-ray emitting plasma of the remnant’s interior, in agreement with studies of thermal X-ray emission from IC 443.

  16. Insulin treatment promotes tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR and inhibits polyIC induced PKR threonine phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetha, Medchalmi; Ramaiah, Kolluru V A

    2015-11-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor beta (IRβ) in insulin treated HepG2 cells is inversely correlated to ser(51) phosphorylation in the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) that regulates protein synthesis. Insulin stimulates interaction between IRβ and PKR, double stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, also known as EIF2AK2, and phosphorylation of tyrosine residues in PKR, as analyzed by immunoprecipitation and pull down assays using anti-IRβ and anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies, recombinant IRβ and immunopurified PKR. Further polyIC or synthetic double stranded RNA-induced threonine phosphorylation or activation of immunopurified and cellular PKR is suppressed in the presence of insulin treated purified IRβ and cell extracts. Acute, but not chronic, insulin treatment enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of IRβ, its interaction with PKR and tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR. In contrast, lipopolysaccharide that stimulates threonine phosphorylation of PKR and eIF2α phosphorylation and AG 1024, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of IRβ, reduces PKR association with the receptor, IRβ in HepG2 cells. These findings therefore may suggest that tyrosine phosphorylated PKR plays a role in the regulation of insulin induced protein synthesis and in maintaining insulin sensitivity, whereas, suppression of polyIC-mediated threonine phosphorylation of PKR by insulin compromises its ability to fight against virus infection in host cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Resonant Rectifier ICs for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Using Low-Voltage Drop Diode Equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Amad Ud; Chandrathna, Seneke Chamith; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we present the design technique of a resonant rectifier for piezoelectric (PE) energy harvesting. We propose two diode equivalents to reduce the voltage drop in the rectifier operation, a minuscule-drop-diode equivalent (MDDE) and a low-drop-diode equivalent (LDDE). The diode equivalents are embedded in resonant rectifier integrated circuits (ICs), which use symmetric bias-flip to reduce the power used for charging and discharging the internal capacitance of a PE transducer. The self-startup function is supported by synchronously generating control pulses for the bias-flip from the PE transducer. Two resonant rectifier ICs, using both MDDE and LDDE, are fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process and their performances are characterized under external and self-power conditions. Under the external-power condition, the rectifier using LDDE delivers an output power POUT of 564 μW and a rectifier output voltage VRECT of 3.36 V with a power transfer efficiency of 68.1%. Under self-power conditions, the rectifier using MDDE delivers a POUT of 288 μW and a VRECT of 2.4 V with a corresponding efficiency of 78.4%. Using the proposed bias-flip technique, the power extraction capability of the proposed rectifier is 5.9 and 3.0 times higher than that of a conventional full-bridge rectifier. PMID:28422085

  18. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2 nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1 st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1 st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  19. 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (IC-RMM2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the rheological properties of materials and their rheological behaviors during their manufacturing processes and in their applications in many cases can help to increase the efficiency and competitiveness not only of the finished goods and products but the organizations and societies also. The more scientific supported and prepared organizations develop more competitive products with better thermal, mechanical, physical, chemical and biological properties and the leading companies apply more competitive equipment and technology processes. The aims of the 2nd International Conference on Rheology and Modeling of Materials (ic-rmm2) and the parallel organized symposiums of the 1st International Symposium on Powder Injection Molding (is-pim1) and the 1st International Symposium on Rheology and Fracture of Solids (is-rfs1) are the followings: Promote new methods and results of scientific research in the fields of modeling and measurements of rheological properties and behavior of materials under processing and applications; Change information between the theoretical and applied sciences as well as technical and technological implantations. Promote the communication and collaboration between the scientists, researchers and engineers of different disciplines, different nations, countries and continents. The international conference ic-rmm2 and symposiums of is-pim1 and is-rfs1 provide a platform among the leading international scientists, researchers, PhD students and engineers for discussing recent achievements in measurement, modeling and application of rheology in materials technology and materials science of liquids, melts, solids, crystals and amorphous structures. Among thr major fields of interest are the influence of materials structures, mechanical stresses, temperatures, deformation speeds and shear rates on rheological and physical properties, phase transformation of foams, foods, polymers, plastics and other competitive materials like ceramics

  20. Intraluminal Administration of Poly I:C Causes an Enteropathy That Is Exacerbated by Administration of Oral Dietary Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Romina E.; Jury, Jennifer; Bondar, Constanza

    2014-01-01

    Systemic administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), mimics virally-induced activation of TLR3 signalling causing acute small intestine damage, but whether and how mucosal administration of poly I:C causes enteropathy is less clear. Our aim was to investigate the inflammatory pathways elicited after intraluminal administration of poly I:C and determine acute and delayed consequences of this locally induced immune activation. Intraluminal poly I:C induced rapid mucosal immune activation in C57BL/6 mice involving IFNβ and the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, that may drive inflammation towards a Th1 profile. Intraluminal poly I:C also caused enteropathy and gut dysfunction in gliadin-sensitive NOD-DQ8 mice, and this was prolonged by concomitant oral administration of gliadin. Our results indicate that small intestine pathology can be induced in mice by intraluminal administration of poly I:C and that this is exacerbated by subsequent oral delivery of a relevant dietary antigen. PMID:24915573

  1. IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS (IC analysis DİREKT BİLEŞENLER ANALİZİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer MALKOÇ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available IC analysis is a method of sentence analysis first explicitly introduced by American linguist Leonard Bloomfield in his book, Language, in 1933, though the underlying principle is common both to the traditional practice of parsing and to many modern systems of grammatical analysis. In IC analysis, a sentence is divided up into major divisions or immediate constituents, and these constituents are in turn divided into further immediate constituents. This process continues until irreducible constituents are reached, i.e., until each constituent consists of only a word or meaningful part of a word. The important tests used to analyze the sentences are deletion, permutation, transformation, and substitution tests.The end result of an IC analysis is often presented in a visual diagrammatic form that reveals the hierarchical immediate constituent structure of a sentence Direkt bileşenler analiz metodu Amerikalı dil bilimci Leonard Bloomfield tarafından 1933 yılında sentaks alanında başlatılmış, daha sonraki yıllarda fonetik ve morfoloji alanlarında da uygulanmıştır. Bu analiz metodunun amacı tümce veya kelime gruplarının parçalanması ve tasnif edilmesi işleminden ibarettir. Tümcelerin parçalanması en küçük dil birimine kadar kademe kademe yapılmalı ve bileşenlerin sınıflandırılmasında ise ana öbeğe veya ana gövdeye daha yakın olan unsurlar ile ikincil öğeler analizin amacına uygun olarak belirtilmelidir. Bu işlemler yapılırken Yok Etme Testi, Yer Değiştirme Testi, Dönüştürme Testi, Yerine Koyma Testi gibi metotlardan faydalanılır. Bu prensipler çerçevesinde yapılan analizin sonuçları hiyerarşik yapıları göstermek için bir grafikle özetlenir

  2. Desain dan Implementasi Virtual Laboratory Materi Osilator Analog berbasis IC OP-AMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYIFAUL FUADA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Laboratorium virtual merupakan salah satu platform laboratorium modern yang dapat mendukung kegiatan praktikum yang berjalan secara tradisional (Hand-on Laboratory.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendesain dan mengimplementasikan Virtual Laboratory pada materi pembangkit sinyal dengan subtopik: Wien Bridge sebagai osilator RC, Hartley dan Colpitts sebagai osilator LC dan Astable Multivibrator sebagai osilator relaksasi,yang dibangun berbasis IC Operational Amplifier (OP-AMP.Jenis penelitian ini merupakan R&Dyang terdiri dari enam tahapan, yaitu:konsep, desain, pengumpulan bahan, pembuatan, pengujian dan pendistribusian. Aplikasi perangkat lunak berbasis dekstop ini telah diuji secara fungsional dengan 6 (enam aspek parameter yakni:uji polaritas kapastor; uji wiring; uji mode frekuensi dan mode perioda pada alat ukur frequency generator; uji specific decission pada trainer kit osilator hartley dan colpitts; uji kesesuaian antara frekuensi ouput dari masing-masing osilator dengan perhitungan teorema dan hasil percobaan sesungguhnya; dan uji kualitas media. Hasil secara keseluruhan telah sesuai dengan ekspektasi didalam story board. Kata kunci: IC OP-AMP, Osilator analog, Laboratorium virtual ABSTRACT The Virtual Laboratory is as one of modern laboratory platform which able to supportthe hand-on worklab. The goal of this research are for designing and implementing a Virtual Laboratory of signal generator material with subtopics i.e. the Wien Bridge as an RC oscillator, the Hartley and Colpitts as LC oscillator and the astable multivibrator as relaxation oscillator which assembled based on Operational Amplifier Integrated Circuit (OP-AMP.This research is R&D type which consists of six stages, i.e. concept, design, materials collection, assembling, testing and distribution. This desktop-based software application has been functionally tested with six aspect of parameters such as: capacitor polarity testing; wiring testing; testing of frequency

  3. In-situ volumetric topography of IC chips for defect detection using infrared confocal measurement with active structured light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang-Chia; Le, Manh-Trung; Phuc, Dao Cong; Lin, Shyh-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the development of in-situ integrated circuit (IC) chip defect detection techniques for automated clipping detection by proposing infrared imaging and full-field volumetric topography. IC chip inspection, especially held during or post IC packaging, has become an extremely critical procedure in IC fabrication to assure manufacturing quality and reduce production costs. To address this, in the article, microscopic infrared imaging using an electromagnetic light spectrum that ranges from 0.9 to 1.7 µm is developed to perform volumetric inspection of IC chips, in order to identify important defects such as silicon clipping, cracking or peeling. The main difficulty of infrared (IR) volumetric imaging lies in its poor image contrast, which makes it incapable of achieving reliable inspection, as infrared imaging is sensitive to temperature difference but insensitive to geometric variance of materials, resulting in difficulty detecting and quantifying defects precisely. To overcome this, 3D volumetric topography based on 3D infrared confocal measurement with active structured light, as well as light refractive matching principles, is developed to detect defects the size, shape and position of defects in ICs. The experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and suitable for in-situ defect detection of IC semiconductor packaging. The quality of defect detection, such as measurement repeatability and accuracy, is addressed. Confirmed by the experimental results, the depth measurement resolution can reach up to 0.3 µm, and the depth measurement uncertainty with one standard deviation was verified to be less than 1.0% of the full-scale depth-measuring range. (paper)

  4. Selective expression of myosin IC Isoform A in mouse and human cell lines and mouse prostate cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Ihnatovych

    Full Text Available Myosin IC is a single headed member of the myosin superfamily. We recently identified a novel isoform and showed that the MYOIC gene in mammalian cells encodes three isoforms (isoforms A, B, and C. Furthermore, we demonstrated that myosin IC isoform A but not isoform B exhibits a tissue specific expression pattern. In this study, we extended our analysis of myosin IC isoform expression patterns by analyzing the protein and mRNA expression in various mammalian cell lines and in various prostate specimens and tumor tissues from the transgenic mouse prostate (TRAMP model by immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, and by indirect immunohistochemical staining of paraffin embedded prostate specimen. Analysis of a panel of mammalian cell lines showed an increased mRNA and protein expression of specifically myosin IC isoform A in a panel of human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines but not in non-cancer prostate or other (non-prostate- cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that myosin IC isoform A expression is significantly increased in TRAMP mouse prostate samples with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN lesions and in distant site metastases in lung and liver when compared to matched normal tissues. Our observations demonstrate specific changes in the expression of myosin IC isoform A that are concurrent with the occurrence of prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse prostate cancer model that closely mimics clinical prostate cancer. These data suggest that elevated levels of myosin IC isoform A may be a potential marker for the detection of prostate cancer.

  5. Psychosocial co-morbidities in Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain syndrome (IC/BPS): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lindsey C; Walsh, Colin G; Reynolds, William S; Crofford, Leslie J; Dmochowski, Roger R; Williams, David A

    2018-03-01

    Psychosocial factors amplify symptoms of Interstitial Cystitis (IC/BPS). While psychosocial self-management is efficacious in other pain conditions, its impact on an IC/BPS population has rarely been studied. The objective of this review is to learn the prevalence and impact of psychosocial factors on IC/BPS, assess baseline psychosocial characteristics, and offer recommendations for assessment and treatment. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary information sources were PubMed including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and GoogleScholar. Inclusion criteria included: (i) a clearly defined cohort with IC/BPS or with Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome provided the IC/BPS cohort was delineated with quantitative results from the main cohort; (ii) all genders and regions; (iii) studies written in English from 1995 to April 14, 2017; (iv) quantitative report of psychosocial factors as outcome measures or at minimum as baseline characteristics. Thirty-four of an initial 642 articles were reviewed. Quantitative analyses demonstrate the magnitude of psychosocial difficulties in IC/BPS, which are worse than average on all measures, and fall into areas of clinical concern for 7 out of 10 measures. Meta-analyses shows mean Mental Component Score of the Short-Form 12 Health Survey (MCS) of 40.80 (SD 6.25, N = 2912), where <36 is consistent with severe psychological impairment. Averaged across studies, the population scored in the range seen in clinical depression (CES-D 19.89, SD 13.12, N = 564) and generalized anxiety disorder (HADS-A 8.15, SD 4.85, N = 465). The psychological impact of IC/BPS is pervasive and severe. Existing evidence of treatment is lacking and suggests self-management intervention may be helpful. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Individual receptor profiling as a novel tool to support diagnosis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schulte-Baukloh, Heinrich; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Speroni di Fenizio, Pietro; Horn, Lars-Christian; Rüffert, Henrik; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Burger, Maximilian; Schulze, Matthias; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of neurotransmitter receptors may contribute to bladder overactivity (OAB) symptoms. To address the question whether specific receptor expression patterns are associated with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), we examined the expression of muscarinic, purinergic and histamine receptors in the detrusor. Detrusor receptor expression was investigated in bladder biopsies of female BPS/IC patients (n = 44; age 60.64 ± 13.78, mean ± SD) and carcinoma patients (n = 11; age 58.91 ± 12.72) undergoing cystectomy. Protein expression of muscarinic (M2, M3), purinergic (P2X1-3) and histamine receptors (H1, H2) was analysed by confocal immunofluorescence, and gene expression was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 receptor immunoreactivity (-IR) was significantly enhanced in BPS/IC compared to the control group, while there was no difference for M3-, P2X3- and H2-IR. We calculated a score, which separated BPS/IC from control patients with an AUC of 89.46%, showing 84.09% sensitivity and 90.91% specificity. Patients had a 9.25 times enhanced calculated risk for BPS/IC. In addition, two patient subgroups (M2 > M3 and M3 > M2) were observed, which differed in associated purinergic and histamine receptor expression. M2, P2X1, P2X2 and H1 were significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients, and H2 was occasionally highly overexpressed. There was no significant correlation between receptor protein and gene expression, implying posttranslational mechanisms being responsible for the altered receptor expressions. On the basis of individual receptor profiles, upregulated receptors could be targeted by monotherapy or combination therapy with already approved receptor inhibitors, thereby promoting tailored therapy for patients suffering from BPS/IC-like symptoms.

  7. Interface for the Construction of the CMS Detector (IC''3MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailador Ferreras, A.; Gonzalez Giralda, C.

    2001-01-01

    This Technical Report shows a computer System named: Interface for the Control of CMS Detector (IC''3MS), whose main objective is to provide a design and advice tool which can be used for the assembly of super layers for the Compacts Muon Solenoid. This computer application is divided up into three independent modules that maintain a proper connection between them. These modules correspond to the three principal actors that control the assembly we said before. These actors are the analysts, that determine the control routines, the engineers, that specify the control details and finally the workers who use the control routines. This application has been developed as a collaboration between the Experimental Physic of Particles; which belongs to the Fusion and Elementary particles department and the Special Project Group, belonging to the Information Technologies Department, both them from the CIEMAT (Author)

  8. Advanced Reactor Licensing: Experience with Digital I&C Technology in Evolutionary Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, RT

    2004-09-27

    This report presents the findings from a study of experience with digital instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology in evolutionary nuclear power plants. In particular, this study evaluated regulatory approaches employed by the international nuclear power community for licensing advanced l&C systems and identified lessons learned. The report (1) gives an overview of the modern l&C technologies employed at numerous evolutionary nuclear power plants, (2) identifies performance experience derived from those applications, (3) discusses regulatory processes employed and issues that have arisen, (4) captures lessons learned from performance and regulatory experience, (5) suggests anticipated issues that may arise from international near-term deployment of reactor concepts, and (6) offers conclusions and recommendations for potential activities to support advanced reactor licensing in the United States.

  9. A Model for the Dynamical and Ionization Structure of Planetary Nebula IC 418

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available   The interacting two winds model and a spherical density distribution function are introduced to study the dynamical and ionization structure of the planetary nebula IC 418. A fast wind with a mechanical luminousity  2/34×1034erg.s-1 of interacts with a super wind with a mass-loss rate of  2×10-5M(°yr-1 and  a velocity of 10 , and produces a dense and luminous medium.   In this model, the expansion velocities of OI and HI lines are predicted to be 11 and 10.5kms-1 , respectively. The calculated dynamical time-scale 1033yr for the nebula is in good agreement with the evolution time of the central star after the interaction of the two winds. Our calculations give a luminosity  0.05M(°of for the central star

  10. A comparative icMRCI study of some NO+, NO and NO- electronic ground state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, R.; Fiser, J.

    2004-01-01

    Potential energy, electric field gradient (EFG) at both nuclei, and electric dipole moment functions for the electronic ground states of NO + , NO and NO - were calculated at the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction (icMRCI) level using augmented correlation-consistent basis sets. The changes in the EFG's with internuclear separation R were used to interpret the character of bonding in the triad of NO species. The vibrational dependences of the electric properties were estimated and the EFG's were employed to determine the 14 N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants. The effects of the choice of the basis set and reference configuration space were investigated. While the results obtained for NO + and NO served primarily to assess the quality of calculations by comparison with available experimental and theoretical data, new information was obtained on NO - , including electric property functions and some notions about the existence of metastable states

  11. Energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design for wireless smart sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Huang, Xiongchuan; Wang, Chao; Tae-Hyoung Kim, Tony; Lian, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless smart sensing is now widely used in various applications such as health monitoring and structural monitoring. In conventional wireless sensor nodes, significant power is consumed in wirelessly transmitting the raw data. Smart sensing adds local intelligence to the sensor node and reduces the amount of wireless data transmission via on-node digital signal processing. While the total power consumption is reduced compared to conventional wireless sensing, the power consumption of the digital processing becomes as dominant as wireless data transmission. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design techniques for reducing the power consumption of the wireless smart sensor node to prolong battery life and enable self-powered applications.

  12. DISCOVERY OF TWO SUPERNOVAE IN THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY IC 883

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Takalo, A. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Ryder, S. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Vaeisaenen, P. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Alberdi, A.; Perez-Torres, M.-A.; Romero-Canizales, C. [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andalucia, IAA-CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A.; Colina, L. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC/INTA, Carretera de Torrejon a Ajalvir, km 4, 28850, Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, A. [School of Sciences, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Kotilainen, J. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Melinder, J., E-mail: erkki.kankare@utu.fi [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-01-10

    We report the discovery of two consecutive supernovae (SNe), 2010cu and 2011hi, located at 0.''37 (180 pc) and 0.''79 (380 pc) projected distance, respectively, from the center of the K-band nucleus of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) IC 883. The SNe were discovered in an ongoing near-infrared K-band search for core-collapse SNe in such galaxies using the ALTAIR/NIRI adaptive optics system with laser guide star at the Gemini-North Telescope. These are thus the closest SNe yet discovered to an LIRG nucleus in optical or near-infrared wavelengths. The near-infrared light curves and colors of both SNe are consistent with core-collapse events. Both SNe seem to suffer from relatively low host galaxy extinction suggesting that regardless of their low projected galactocentric distances, they are not deeply buried in the nuclear regions of the host galaxy.

  13. Periodic Forcing of a 555-IC Based Electronic Oscillator in the Strong Coupling Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, Moisés

    We designed and developed a master-slave electronic oscillatory system (based on the 555-timer IC working in the astable mode), and investigated its dynamic behavior regarding synchronization. For that purpose, we measured the rotation numbers corresponding to the phase-locking rhythms achieved in a large set of values of the normalized forcing frequency (NFF) and of the coupling strength between the master and the slave oscillators. In particular, we were interested in the system behavior in the strong-coupling limit, because such problem has not been extensively studied from an experimental perspective. Our results indicate that, in such a limit, a degenerate codimension-2 bifurcation point at NFF = 2 exists, in which all the phase-locking regions converge. These findings were corroborated by means of a mathematical model developed to that end, as well as by ad hoc further experiments.

  14. How to Implement an Experimental Course on Analog IC design in a Standard Semester Schedule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Marker-Villumsen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    how the sequences of courses in integrated analog electronics at the Technical University of Denmark have been modified to enable this. It is outlined how a course can be designed using the three elements in constructive alignment: intended learning objectives, teaching activities and assessment....... As an example it is described in detail how a new course is designed. The course is the first of two new courses and the scope of the course is to teach the students the flow an IC designer has to go through when designing analog circuits. Additionally the course has a large focus on strengthening the generic...... engineering competences of the students. This is achieved by running the course as a project in a company with status meetings and a review meeting where the teacher acts as a manager. Finally, the course evaluation based on the Course Evaluation Questionnaire (CEQ) is presented and based on this future...

  15. Free-running InGaAs/InP single photon detector with feedback quenching IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Fu; Wang, Feilong; Wang, Chao; Sun, Zhibin; Zhai, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes (APD) are usually employed as Geiger-mode single photon detector at near-infrared wavelength between 1.0 μm and 1.7 μm. In order to work in the free-running regime rather than gated regime, we demonstrate a feedback quenching integrated circuit to rapidly quench the avalanche and reset the APD. Because this IC is close to the APD, parasitic capacitance is largely reduced, thus reducing the quench-time, reset-time and also the afterpulsing probability. We investigated the free-running single photon detector's afterpulsing effect, de-trapping time, dark count rate and detection efficiency and also compared with gated regime operation. After corrected for deadtime and afterpulse, we found the free-running detector performance is comparable with gated regime

  16. JVLA observations of IC 348 SW: Compact radio sources and their nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez, Luis F.; Zapata, Luis A.; Palau, Aina, E-mail: l.rodriguez@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: l.zapata@crya.unam.mx, E-mail: a.palau@crya.unam.mx [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2014-07-20

    We present sensitive 2.1 and 3.3 cm Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum observations of the region IC 348 SW. We detect a total of 10 compact radio sources in the region, 7 of which are first reported here. One of the sources is associated with the remarkable periodic time-variable infrared source LRLL 54361, opening the possibility of monitoring this object at radio wavelengths. Four of the sources appear to be powering outflows in the region, including HH 211 and HH 797. In the case of the rotating outflow HH 797, we detect a double radio source at its center, separated by ∼3''. Two of the sources are associated with infrared stars that possibly have gyrosynchrotron emission produced in active magnetospheres. Finally, three of the sources are interpreted as background objects.

  17. Visual study of capabilities of managing IC engine filling degree vs engine ecological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziej, Szymon; Ligus, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    The operation of an internal combustion engine in a transient state is related to constant changes in cylinder filling degree. Managing a steady course of engine torque demands constant corrections in the volume of air delivered to the engine. In this work, different engine throttle management strategies were analyzed. The effect of throttle velocity on emissions was depicted. The research has shown that the greatest value of work density is reached by the IC engine for relatively low values of throttle angle. For shown values, disturbances in air flow in engine intake which may adversely affect emissions due to uneven cylinder filling were researched with the use of Digital Particle Image Velocimetry. The conducted research has shown significant unevennes in air supply to individual cylinders in the engine. This effect may cause discrepancies in air excess ratio for each cylinder, and result in heightened harmful substance emission.

  18. Aida-CMK multi-algorithm optimization kernel applied to analog IC sizing

    CERN Document Server

    Lourenço, Ricardo; Horta, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    This work addresses the research and development of an innovative optimization kernel applied to analog integrated circuit (IC) design. Particularly, this works describes the modifications inside the AIDA Framework, an electronic design automation framework fully developed by at the Integrated Circuits Group-LX of the Instituto de Telecomunicações, Lisbon. It focusses on AIDA-CMK, by enhancing AIDA-C, which is the circuit optimizer component of AIDA, with a new multi-objective multi-constraint optimization module that constructs a base for multiple algorithm implementations. The proposed solution implements three approaches to multi-objective multi-constraint optimization, namely, an evolutionary approach with NSGAII, a swarm intelligence approach with MOPSO and stochastic hill climbing approach with MOSA. Moreover, the implemented structure allows the easy hybridization between kernels transforming the previous simple NSGAII optimization module into a more evolved and versatile module supporting multiple s...

  19. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; van der Horst, A.; Yukita, M.

    2013-04-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXO J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant IC443 confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by a pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The observations further reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest, appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock and the ring, presumably formed at a wind termination shock, is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  20. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, D. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V. E.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; O'Dell, S. L.; vanderHorst, A J.; Yukita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222117, in the supernova remnant IC443 reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by the pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest (or, equivalently, flow of ambient medium to the northeast), appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock, and the circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  1. ¿Cómo procesa el cerebro los gestos icónicos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Sánchez Borges

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Las personas cuando se comunican están constantemente recibiendo información que no siempre viene solo del lenguaje verbal. La comunicación no verbal también colabora en cómo se produce y comprende dicha información. Un claro ejemplo es la dificultad que tienen los oradores para comunicar acciones. Por ejemplo, es difícil explicar cómo atarse los zapatos si no va acompañado por gestos. Diversos estudios recientes con medidas electrofisiológicas de la respuesta cerebral han comprobado que los gestos icónicos implican procesos semánticos similares a las palabras o las imágenes, y que además pueden modular, facilitar y enriquecer el procesamiento del lenguaje.

  2. Instrument Control (iC) – An Open-Source Software to Automate Test Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernstich, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    It has become common practice to automate data acquisition from programmable instrumentation, and a range of different software solutions fulfill this task. Many routine measurements require sequential processing of certain tasks, for instance to adjust the temperature of a sample stage, take a measurement, and repeat that cycle for other temperatures. This paper introduces an open-source Java program that processes a series of text-based commands that define the measurement sequence. These commands are in an intuitive format which provides great flexibility and allows quick and easy adaptation to various measurement needs. For each of these commands, the iC-framework calls a corresponding Java method that addresses the specified instrument to perform the desired task. The functionality of iC can be extended with minimal programming effort in Java or Python, and new measurement equipment can be addressed by defining new commands in a text file without any programming. PMID:26900522

  3. Instrument Control (iC) - An Open-Source Software to Automate Test Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernstich, K P

    2012-01-01

    It has become common practice to automate data acquisition from programmable instrumentation, and a range of different software solutions fulfill this task. Many routine measurements require sequential processing of certain tasks, for instance to adjust the temperature of a sample stage, take a measurement, and repeat that cycle for other temperatures. This paper introduces an open-source Java program that processes a series of text-based commands that define the measurement sequence. These commands are in an intuitive format which provides great flexibility and allows quick and easy adaptation to various measurement needs. For each of these commands, the iC-framework calls a corresponding Java method that addresses the specified instrument to perform the desired task. The functionality of iC can be extended with minimal programming effort in Java or Python, and new measurement equipment can be addressed by defining new commands in a text file without any programming.

  4. Absolute spectrophotometry of the IC 2149, 4593, and NGC 6210 planetary nebulae in near infrared region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, R.I.

    1976-01-01

    The absolute monochromatic energy flux (in ergs.cm -2 sec -1 ) was determined for the emission lines of the planetary nebulae IC2149, 4593 and NGC 6210 in the spectral interval lambda 6300-11000 A. The interstellar extinction Asub(β)=1.sup(m)3; O.sup(m)4; O.sup(m)6, accordingly, was estimated by using spectral lines HI of the Paschen and Balmer series. The energy distribution (in ergsxcm -2 xsec -1 1A -1 ) was found in summary continuous spectrum in the interval lambda 4000-10000 A. The attempt was made to separate the continuum of the nucleus and the nebula. The theoretical nebula continuous spectrum was calculated from lambda 3000 A to the radio range. The continuum, calibrated by menas of the flat part of the radiospectrum, linked well enough with the optical spectrum calculated here

  5. Implantable optogenetic device with CMOS IC technology for simultaneous optical measurement and stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Makito; Kamiyama, Naoya; Nakajima, Shun; Motoyama, Mayumi; Kawahara, Mamiko; Ohta, Yasumi; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Takehara, Hiroaki; Noda, Toshihiko; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Tokuda, Takashi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Ohta, Jun

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable optogenetic device that can measure and stimulate neurons by an optical method based on CMOS IC technology. The device consist of a blue LED array for optically patterned stimulation, a CMOS image sensor for acquiring brain surface image, and eight green LEDs surrounding the CMOS image sensor for illumination. The blue LED array is placed on the CMOS image sensor. We implanted the device in the brain of a genetically modified mouse and successfully demonstrated the stimulation of neurons optically and simultaneously acquire intrinsic optical images of the brain surface using the image sensor. The integrated device can be used for simultaneously measuring and controlling neuronal activities in a living animal, which is important for the artificial control of brain functions.

  6. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea

    2014-01-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s –1 ). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M ☉ ) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  7. Identification of Large-Scale Structure Fluctuations in IC Engines using POD-Based Conditional Averaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhl Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-to-Cycle Variations (CCV in IC engines is a well-known phenomenon and the definition and quantification is well-established for global quantities such as the mean pressure. On the other hand, the definition of CCV for local quantities, e.g. the velocity or the mixture distribution, is less straightforward. This paper proposes a new method to identify and calculate cyclic variations of the flow field in IC engines emphasizing the different contributions from large-scale energetic (coherent structures, identified by a combination of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD and conditional averaging, and small-scale fluctuations. Suitable subsets required for the conditional averaging are derived from combinations of the the POD coefficients of the second and third mode. Within each subset, the velocity is averaged and these averages are compared to the ensemble-averaged velocity field, which is based on all cycles. The resulting difference of the subset-average and the global-average is identified as a cyclic fluctuation of the coherent structures. Then, within each subset, remaining fluctuations are obtained from the difference between the instantaneous fields and the corresponding subset average. The proposed methodology is tested for two data sets obtained from scale resolving engine simulations. For the first test case, the numerical database consists of 208 independent samples of a simplified engine geometry. For the second case, 120 cycles for the well-established Transparent Combustion Chamber (TCC benchmark engine are considered. For both applications, the suitability of the method to identify the two contributions to CCV is discussed and the results are directly linked to the observed flow field structures.

  8. IC 3639 - A New Bona Fide Compton-Thick AGN Unveiled By NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.; Annuar, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We analyze high-quality NuSTAR observations of the local (z = 0.011) Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) IC 3639, in conjunction with archival Suzaku and Chandra data. This provides the first broadband X-ray spectral analysis of the source, spanning nearly two decades in energy (0.5-30 keV). Previous X-ray observations of the source below 10 keV indicated strong reflection/obscuration on the basis of a pronounced iron fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. The hard X-ray energy coverage of NuSTAR, together with self-consistent toroidal reprocessing models, enables direct broadband constraints on the obscuring column density of the source. We find the source to be heavily Compton-thick (CTK) with an obscuring column in excess of 3.6 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2), unconstrained at the upper end. We further find an intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of log(sub 10) (L(sub 2-10 keV) [erg s(exp -1)])= 43.4(+0.6/-1.1) to 90% confidence, almost 400 times the observed flux, and consistent with various multiwavelength diagnostics. Such a high ratio of intrinsic to observed flux, in addition to an Fe-K(alpha) fluorescence line equivalent width exceeding 2 keV, is extreme among known bona fide CTK AGNs, which we suggest are both due to the high level of obscuration present around IC 3639. Our study demonstrates that broadband spectroscopic modeling with NuSTAR enables large corrections for obscuration to be carried out robustly and emphasizes the need for improved modeling of AGN tori showing intense iron fluorescence.

  9. Optical observations of the type Ic supernova 2007gr in NGC 1058

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Juncheng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Junzheng [Physics Department and Tsinghua Center for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li, Weidong; Chornock, Ryan; Steele, Thea, E-mail: cjc09@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: wang_xf@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We present extensive optical observations of the normal Type Ic supernova (SN) 2007gr, spanning from about one week before maximum light to more than one year thereafter. The optical light and color curves of SN 2007gr are very similar to those of the broad-lined Type Ic SN 2002ap, but the spectra show remarkable differences. The optical spectra of SN 2007gr are characterized by unusually narrow lines, prominent carbon lines, and slow evolution of the line velocity after maximum light. The earliest spectrum (taken at t = –8 days) shows a possible signature of helium (He I λ5876 at a velocity of ∼19,000 km s{sup –1}). Moreover, the larger intensity ratio of the [O I] λ6300 and λ6364 lines inferred from the early nebular spectra implies a lower opacity of the ejecta shortly after the explosion. These results indicate that SN 2007gr perhaps underwent a less energetic explosion of a smaller-mass Wolf-Rayet star (∼8-9 M{sub ☉}) in a binary system, as favored by an analysis of the progenitor environment through pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images. In the nebular spectra, asymmetric double-peaked profiles can be seen in the [O I] λ6300 and Mg I] λ4571 lines. We suggest that the two peaks are contributed by the blueshifted and rest-frame components. The similarity in velocity structure and the different evolution of the strength of the two components favor an aspherical explosion with the ejecta distributed in a torus or disk-like geometry, but inside the ejecta the O and Mg have different distributions.

  10. LONG-TERM X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDY OF IC342 FROM XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Daisy S. Y.; Pun, Chun S. J.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2011-01-01

    We presented the results of an analysis of four XMM-Newton observations of the starburst galaxy IC342 taken over a four-year span from 2001 to 2005, with an emphasis on investigating the long-term flux and spectral variability of the X-ray point sources. We detected a total of 61 X-ray sources within 35' x 30' of the galaxy down to a luminosity of (1-2) x 10 37 erg s -1 depending on the local background. We found that 39 of the 61 detected sources showed long-term variability, in which 26 of them were classified as X-ray transients. We also found 19 sources exhibiting variations in hardness ratios or undergoing spectral transitions among observations, and were identified as spectral variables. In particular, eight of the identified X-ray transients showed spectral variability in addition to flux variability. The diverse patterns of variability observed are indicative of a population of X-ray binaries. We used X-ray colors, flux and spectral variability, and in some cases the optical or radio counterparts to classify the detected X-ray sources into several stellar populations. We identified a total of 11 foreground stars, 1 supersoft source (SSS), 3 quasisoft sources (QSSs), and 2 supernova remnants (SNRs). The identified SSS/QSSs are located near or on the spiral arms, associated with young stellar populations; the 2 SNRs are very close to the starburst nucleus where current star formation activities are dominated. We also discovered a spectral change in the nuclear source of IC342 for the first time by a series of X-ray spectrum analysis.

  11. IC 751: A New Changing Look AGN Discovered by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Arevalo, P.; Boggs, S.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Ghandi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results of five Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) in IC 751, three of which were performed simultaneously with XMM-Newton or Swift/ X-Ray Telescope. We find that the nuclear X-ray source underwent a clear transition from a Compton-thick (NH approx. = 2 x10(exp 24)/sq cm) to a Compton-thin ( N(sub H) approx. = 4 x10(exp 23)/sq cm) state on timescales of < or approx.3 months, which makes IC 751 the first changing look AGN discovered by NuSTAR. Changes of the line of sight column density at the approx.2 (sigma) level are also found on a timescale of approx. 48 hr (delta N(sub H approx. 10(exp 23)/sq cm). From the lack of spectral variability on timescales of approx.100 ks, we infer that the varying absorber is located beyond the emission-weighted average radius of the broad-line region (BLR), and could therefore be related either to the external part of the BLR or a clumpy molecular torus. By adopting a physical torus X-ray spectral model, we are able to disentangle the column density of the non-varying absorber (N(sub H) approx. 3.8 x10(exp 23)/sq cm) from that of the varying clouds [N(sub H) approx. (1- 150) x 10(exp 22)/sq cm], and to constrain that of the material responsible for the reprocessed X-ray radiation (N(sub H approx. 6 x 10(exp 24)/sq cm).24 -2). We find evidence of significant intrinsic X-ray variability, with the flux varying by a factor of five on timescales of a few months in the 2-10 and 10-50 keV band.

  12. Design of a High Performance Green-Mode PWM Controller IC with Smart Sensing Protection Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Li Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A design of high performance green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC with smart sensing protection circuits for the application of lithium-ion battery charger (1.52 V ~ 7.5 V is investigated in this paper. The protection circuits architecture of this system mainly bases on the lithium battery function and does for the system design standard of control circuit. In this work, the PWM controller will be with an automatic load sensing and judges the system operated in the operating mode or in the standby mode. Therefore, it reduces system’s power dissipation effectively and achieves the saving power target. In the same time, many protection sensing circuits such as: (1 over current protection (OCP and under current protection (UCP, (2 over voltage protection (OVP and under voltage protection (UVP, (3 loading determintion and short circuit protection (SCP, (4 over temperature protection (OTP, (5 VDD surge-spiking protection are included. Then, it has the characteristics of an effective monitoring the output loading and the harm prevention as a battery charging. Eventually, this green-mode pulse-width-modulation (PWM controller IC will be that the operation voltage is 3.3 V, the operation frequency is 0.98 MHz, and the output current range is from 454 mA to 500 mA. Meanwhile, the output convert efficiency is range from 74.8 % to 91 %, the power dissipation efficiency in green-mode is 25 %, and the operation temperature range is between -20 0C ~ 114 0C.

  13. Clinical efficacy and safety of ICS/LABA in patients with combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fushi; Zhang, Yimei; Chi, Fangzhou; Song, Qi; Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Yupeng; Che, Chunli

    2015-01-01

    The study aim was to explore the clinical efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)/long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) in combined with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. 45 patients with combined idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) who were treated with ICS/LABA (Group A), 24 patients with CPFE who were treated without ICS/LABA (Group B) and 35 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (Group C) were enrolled into this study. Then, clinical efficacy and safety of ICS/LABA was analyzed through lung function scores and lung high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. Compared with baseline levels, the FEV1%, FVC% and DLCO% levels were increased 11.2%, 13.53% and 12.8% respectively in group A, but declined 14.21%, 16.8% and 21.25% respectively in group B, meanwhile, lung HRCT score was declined 9.31 in group A but increased 14.87 in group B, and there was significant difference between group A and group B (P0.05). The incidence of adverse reaction was higher in group A than that in group B during this study, but there was no significant difference (P>0.05). ICS/LABA therapy could improve lung function condition in patients with CPFE and declined acute out-break frequency and severity of diseases during acute episode period.

  14. PmagPy: Software Package for Paleomagnetic Data Analysis and Gateway to the Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonestrask, L.; Tauxe, L.; Shaar, R.; Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A. A. P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many data types and methods of analysis in rock and paleomagnetic investigations. The MagIC database (http://earthref.org/MAGIC) was designed to accommodate the vast majority of data used in such investigations. Yet getting data from the laboratory into the database, and visualizing and re-analyzing data downloaded from the database, makes special demands on data formatting. There are several recently published programming packages that deal with single types of data: demagnetization experiments (e.g., Lurcock et al., 2012), paleointensity experiments (e.g., Leonhardt et al., 2004), and FORC diagrams (e.g., Harrison et al., 2008). However, there is a need for a unified set of open source, cross-platform software that deals with the great variety of data types in a consistent way and facilitates importing data into the MagIC format, analyzing them and uploading them into the MagIC database. The PmagPy software package (http://earthref.org/PmagPy/cookbook/) comprises a such a comprehensive set of tools. It facilitates conversion of many laboratory formats into the common MagIC format and allows interpretation of demagnetization and Thellier-type experimental data. With some 175 programs and over 250 functions, it can be used to create a wide variety of plots and allows manipulation of downloaded data sets as well as preparation of new contributions for uploading to the MagIC database.

  15. The ACS LCID project. X. the star formation history of IC 1613: Revisiting the over-cooling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Hidalgo, Sebastian L.; Monelli, Matteo; Gallart, Carme; Aparicio, Antonio, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: shidalgo@iac.es, E-mail: monelli@iac.es, E-mail: carme@iac.es, E-mail: aparicio@iac.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain); and others

    2014-05-01

    We present an analysis of the star formation history (SFH) of a field near the half-light radius in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 based on deep Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging. Our observations reach the oldest main sequence turn-off, allowing a time resolution at the oldest ages of ∼1 Gyr. Our analysis shows that the SFH of the observed field in IC 1613 is consistent with being constant over the entire lifetime of the galaxy. These observations rule out an early dominant episode of star formation in IC 1613. We compare the SFH of IC 1613 with expectations from cosmological models. Since most of the mass is in place at early times for low-mass halos, a naive expectation is that most of the star formation should have taken place at early times. Models in which star formation follows mass accretion result in too many stars formed early and gas mass fractions that are too low today (the 'over-cooling problem'). The depth of the present photometry of IC 1613 shows that, at a resolution of ∼1 Gyr, the star formation rate is consistent with being constant, at even the earliest times, which is difficult to achieve in models where star formation follows mass assembly.

  16. Congenital disorder of glycosylation Ic due to a de novo deletion and an hALG-6 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Erik A; Sun, Liangwu; Yang, Samuel P; Pasion, Romela M; Thorland, Erik C; Freeze, Hudson H

    2006-01-20

    We describe a new cause of congenital disorder of glycosylation-Ic (CDG-Ic) in a young girl with a rather mild CDG phenotype. Her cells accumulated lipid-linked oligosaccharides lacking three glucose residues, and sequencing of the ALG6 gene showed what initially appeared to be a homozygous novel point mutation (338G>A). However, haplotype analysis showed that the patient does not carry any paternal DNA markers extending 33kb in the telomeric direction from the ALG6 region, and microsatellite analysis extended the abnormal region to at least 2.5Mb. We used high-resolution karyotyping to confirm a deletion (10-12Mb) [del(1)(p31.2p32.3)] and found no structural abnormalities in the father, suggesting a de novo event. Our findings extend the causes of CDG to larger DNA deletions and identify the first Japanese CDG-Ic mutation.

  17. On the truth of Ksub(IC) values, taken from RD 50-260-81 methodical instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    Ways to evaluate correctness of Ksub(Ic) values, taking into account self-similarity of prefracture zone and stability of critical density of strain energy, as well as necessity to introduce corrections for plastic strain zone, are considered. Correctness of Ksub(Ic) values and temperature range of tough (hole) fracture mechanism realization, taking into account the effect of plastic strain compression degree for the Ksub(Ic) vaclue established in the basic experiment; necessity to introduce on the basis of similarity theory approaches the method of plastic strain compression degree during the development of state standard project, so as to decrease data spread and to increase information value of separate experiments, when studying crack resistance of plastic materials, have been confirmed

  18. The basic circuit of the IC: tectothalamic neurons with different patterns of synaptic organization send different messages to the thalamus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsufumi; Oliver, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) in the midbrain of the auditory system uses a unique basic circuit to organize the inputs from virtually all of the lower auditory brainstem and transmit this information to the medial geniculate body (MGB) in the thalamus. Here, we review the basic circuit of the IC, the neuronal types, the organization of their inputs and outputs. We specifically discuss the large GABAergic (LG) neurons and how they differ from the small GABAergic (SG) and the more numerous glutamatergic neurons. The somata and dendrites of LG neurons are identified by axosomatic glutamatergic synapses that are lacking in the other cell types and exclusively contain the glutamate transporter VGLUT2. Although LG neurons are most numerous in the central nucleus of the IC (ICC), an analysis of their distribution suggests that they are not specifically associated with one set of ascending inputs. The inputs to ICC may be organized into functional zones with different subsets of brainstem inputs, but each zone may contain the same three neuron types. However, the sources of VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on the LG neuron are not known. Neurons in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and IC itself that express the gene for VGLUT2 only are the likely origin of the dense VGLUT2 axosomatic terminals on LG tectothalamic neurons. The IC is unique since LG neurons are GABAergic tectothalamic neurons in addition to the numerous glutamatergic tectothalamic neurons. SG neurons evidently target other auditory structures. The basic circuit of the IC and the LG neurons in particular, has implications for the transmission of information about sound through the midbrain to the MGB. PMID:22855671

  19. Fermi Non-detections of Four X-Ray Jet Sources and Implications for the IC/CMB Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiding, Peter; Meyer, Eileen T.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Keenan, M. E.; DeNigris, N. S.; Hewitt, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Since its launch in 1999, the Chandra X-ray observatory has discovered several dozen X-ray jets associated with powerful quasars. In many cases, the X-ray spectrum is hard and appears to come from a second spectral component. The most popular explanation for the kpc-scale X-ray emission in these cases has been inverse-Compton (IC) scattering of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photons by relativistic electrons in the jet (the IC/CMB model). Requiring the IC/CMB emission to reproduce the observed X-ray flux density inevitably predicts a high level of gamma-ray emission, which should be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). In previous work, we found that gamma-ray upper limits from the large-scale jets of 3C 273 and PKS 0637-752 violate the predictions of the IC/CMB model. Here, we present Fermi/LAT flux density upper limits for the X-ray jets of four additional sources: PKS 1136-135, PKS 1229-021, PKS 1354+195, and PKS 2209+080. We show that these limits violate the IC/CMB predictions at a very high significance level. We also present new Hubble Space Telescope observations of the quasar PKS 2209+080 showing a newly detected optical jet, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array band 3 and 6 observations of all four sources, which provide key constraints on the spectral shape that enable us to rule out the IC/CMB model.

  20. A Novel Small-molecule WNT Inhibitor, IC-2, Has the Potential to Suppress Liver Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Kenzo; Sakabe, Tomohiko; Itaba, Noriko; Azumi, Junya; Oka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Minoru; Umekita, Yoshihisa; Shiota, Goshi

    2017-07-01

    The presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) contributes to metastasis, recurrence, and resistance to chemo/radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The WNT signaling pathway is reportedly linked to the maintenance of stemness of CSCs. In the present study, in order to eliminate liver CSCs and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC, we explored whether small-molecule compounds targeting WNT signaling pathway suppress liver CSCs. The screening was performed using cell proliferation assay and reporter assay. We next investigated whether these compounds suppress liver CSC properties by using flow cytometric analysis and sphere-formation assays. A mouse xenograft model transplanted with CD44-positive HuH7 cells was used to examine the in vivo antitumor effect of IC-2. In HuH7 human HCC cells, 10 small-molecule compounds including novel derivatives, IC-2 and PN-3-13, suppressed cell viability and WNT signaling activity. Among them, IC-2 significantly reduced the CD44-positive population, also known as liver CSCs, and dramatically reduced the sphere-forming ability of both CD44-positive and CD44-negative HuH7 cells. Moreover, CSC marker-positive populations, namely CD90-positive HLF cells, CD133-positive HepG2 cells, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule-positive cells, were also reduced by IC-2 treatment. Finally, suppressive effects of IC-2 on liver CSCs were also observed in a xenograft model using CD44-positive HuH7 cells. The novel derivative of small-molecule WNT inhibitor, IC-2, has the potential to suppress liver CSCs and can serve as a promising therapeutic agent to improve the prognosis of patients with HCC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a Cordia-IC enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for the detection of circulating immune complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landoy, Z; West, T E; Vladutiu, A O; Fitzpatrick, J E

    1985-01-01

    A commercial kit (Cordia-IC) from Cordis Laboratory, Miami, Fla., was compared with the Raji cell radioimmunoassay for its ability to detect circulating immune complexes (CIC) in sera from 30 control subjects and 118 patients with infectious diseases. The 118 patients were categorized into the following groups: (i) 23 patients with bacterial endocarditis, (ii) 41 patients with bacteremia from an infected intravascular catheter or access device, and (iii) 54 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia related to a deep tissue infection. The Cordia-IC was comparable to the Raji cell radioimmunoassay in intraassay variability (4.0 versus 8.0%) and interassay reproducibility (8.7 versus 20.0%). Neither assay found CIC amounts above 12.5 micrograms equivalents (eq) of aggregated human gamma globulin (AHG) per ml in any of the 30 control individuals. In group 1, Cordia-IC detected 19 of 23 positives (mean, 73.6 micrograms eq of AHG per ml), whereas the Raji cell detected 16 of 23 positives (mean, 54.8 micrograms eq of AHG per ml). In group 2, Cordia-IC detected 19 of 41 positives (mean, 20.6 micrograms eq of AHG per ml), whereas the Raji cell detected 16 of 41 positives (mean, 15.1 micrograms eq of AHG per ml). In group 3, Cordia-IC found 38 of 54 positives (mean, 28.0 micrograms eq of AHG per ml), whereas the Raji cell found 32 of 54 positives (mean, 23.9 micrograms eq of AHG per ml). Statistically, these findings were not significantly different in any of the three patient groups (P> 0.15), and there was an overall good correlation between the results obtained by the two assays (r+0.64, PCordia-IC provided a suitable assay for the detection of CIC and might find application in routine clinical laboratories. PMID:3897269

  2. Immunogenicity and safety of different injection routes and schedules of IC41, a Hepatitis C virus (HCV) peptide vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firbas, Christa; Boehm, Thomas; Buerger, Vera; Schuller, Elisabeth; Sabarth, Nicolas; Jilma, Bernd; Klade, Christoph S

    2010-03-11

    An effective vaccine would be a significant progress in the management of chronic HCV infections. This study was designed to examine whether different application schedules and injection routes may enhance the immunogenicity of the HCV peptide vaccine IC41. In this randomized trial 54 healthy subjects received either subcutaneous (s.c.) or intradermal (i.d.) vaccinations weekly (16 injections) or every other week (8 injections). One group additionally received imiquimod, an activator of the toll-like receptor (TLR) 7. The T cell epitope-specific immune response to IC41 was assessed using [(3)H]-thymidine CD4+ T cell proliferation, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) CD8+ and CD4+ ELIspot and HLA-A*0201 fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) tetramer-binding assays. More than 60% of vaccinees responded in the CD4+ T cell proliferation assay in all groups. An HLA-A*0201 FACS tetramer-binding assay and IFN-gamma CD8+ ELIspot class I response of more than 70% was induced in four and three groups, respectively. IC41 induced significant immunological responses in all groups with responder rates of up to 100%. Interestingly, topical imiquimod was not able to enhance immunogenicity but was associated with a lower immune response. Local injection site reactions were mostly transient. Intradermal injections caused more pronounced reactions compared to s.c., especially erythema and edema. Compared to a previous study intensified dosing and/or i.d. injections enhanced the response rates to the vaccine IC41 in three assays measuring T cell function. Immunization with IC41 was generally safe in this study. These results justify testing IC41 in further clinical trials with HCV-infected individuals.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Properties of OB associations in IC 1613 (Garcia+, 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M.; Herrero, A.; Castro, N.; Corral, L.; Rosenberg, A.

    2014-06-01

    To understand the structure and evolution of massive stars, systematic surveys of the Local Group galaxies have been undertaken, to find these objects in environments of different chemical abundances. We focus on the metal-poor irregular galaxy IC 1613 to analyze the stellar and wind structure of its low-metallicity massive stars. We ultimately aim to study the metallicity-dependent driving mechanism of the winds of blue massive stars and use metal-poor massive stars of the Local Volume as a proxy for the stars in the early Universe. In a previous paper we produced a list of OB associations in IC 1613. Their properties are not only a powerful aid towards finding the most interesting candidate massive stars, but also reveal the structure and recent star formation history of the galaxy. We characterize these OB associations and study their connection with the galactic global properties. The reddening-free Q parameter is a powerful tool in the photometric analysis of young populations of massive stars, since it exhibits a smaller degree of degeneracy with OB spectral types than the B-V color. The color-magnitude diagram (Q vs. V) of the OB associations in IC 1613 is studied to determine their age and mass, and confirm the population of young massive stars. We identified more than 10 stars with M>=50M⊙. Spectral classification available for some of them confirm their massive nature, yet we find the common discrepancy with the spectroscopically derived masses. There is a general increasing trend of the mass of the most massive member with the number of members of each association, but not with the stellar density. The average diameter of the associations of this catalog is 40pc, half the historically considered typical size of OB associations. Size increases with the association population. The distribution of the groups strongly correlates with that of neutral and ionized hydrogen. We find the largest dispersion of association ages in the bubble region of the galaxy

  4. PREFACE: 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry (IC3DDose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwaites, David; Baldock, Clive

    2013-06-01

    IC3DDose 2013, the 7th International Conference on 3D Radiation Dosimetry held in Sydney, Australia from 4-8 November 2012, grew out of the DosGel series, which began as DosGel99, the 1st International Workshop on Radiation Therapy Gel Dosimetry in Lexington, Kentucky. Since 1999 subsequent DoSGel conferences were held in Brisbane, Australia (2001), Ghent, Belgium (2004), Sherbrooke, Canada (2006) and Crete, Greece (2008). In 2010 the conference was held on Hilton Head Island, South Carolina and underwent a name-change to IC3DDose. The aim of the first workshop was to bring together individuals, both researchers and users, with an interest in 3D radiation dosimetry techniques, with a mix of presentations from basic science to clinical applications, which has remained an objective for all of the meetings. One rationale of DosGel99 was stated as supporting the increasing clinical implementation of gel dosimetry, as the technique appeared, at that time, to be leaving the laboratories of gel dosimetry enthusiasts and entering clinical practice. Clearly by labelling the first workshop as the 1st, there was a vision of a continuing series, which has been fulfilled. On the other hand, the expectation of widespread clinical use of gel dosimetry has perhaps not been what was hoped for and anticipated. Nevertheless the rapidly increasing demand for advanced high-precision 3D radiotherapy technology and techniques has continued apace. The need for practical and accurate 3D dosimetry methods for development and quality assurance has only increased. By the 6th meeting, held in South Carolina in 2010, the Conference Scientific Committee recognised the wider developments in 3D systems and methods and decided to widen the scope, whilst keeping the same span from basic science to applications. This was signalled by a change of name from 'Dosgel' to 'IC3DDose', a name that has continued to this latest conference. The conference objectives were: to enhance the quality and accuracy of

  5. 3D IC and RF SiPs advanced stacking and planar solutions for 5G mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Lih-Tyng

    2017-01-01

    An interdisciplinary guide to enabling technologies for 3D ICs and 5G mobility, covering packaging, design to product life and reliability assessments * Features an interdisciplinary approach to the enabling technologies and hardware for 3D ICs and 5G mobility * Presents statistical treatments and examples with tools that are easily accessible, such as Microsoft's Excel and Minitab * Fundamental design topics such as electromagnetic design for logic and RF/passives centric circuits are explained in detail * Provides chapter-wise review questions and powerpoint slides as teaching tools

  6. Relationships between Charpy impact shelf energies and upper shelf Ksub(IC) values for reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charpy shelf data and lower bound estimates of Ksub(IC) shelf data for the same steels and test temperatures are given. Included are some typical reactor pressure vessel steels as well as some less tough or degraded steels. The data were evaluated with shelf estimates of Ksub(IC) up to and exceeding 550 MPa√m. It is shown that the high shelf fracture toughness representative of tough reactor pressure vessel steels may be obtained from a knowledge of the Charpy shelf energies. The toughness transition may be obtained either by testing small fracture toughness specimens or by Charpy energy indexing. (U.K.)

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Absorption velocities for 21 super-luminous SNe Ic (Liu+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.-Q.; Modjaz, M.; Bianco, F. B.

    2018-04-01

    We have collected the spectra of all available super-luminous supernovae (SLSNe) Ic that have a date of maximum light published before April of 2016. These SLSNe Ic were mainly discovered and observed by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN), the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey, the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1), the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO), the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) as well as the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). See table 1. (2 data files).

  8. High-precision analog circuit technology for power supply integrated circuits; Dengen IC yo koseido anarogu kairo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamori, A.; Suzuki, T.; Mizoe, K. [Fuji Electric Corporate Research and Development,Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-08-10

    With the recent rapid spread of portable electronic appliances, specification requirements such as compact power supply and long operation with batteries have become severer. Power supply ICs (integrated circuits) are required to reduce power consumption in the circuit and perform high-precision control. To meet these requirements, Fuji Electric develops high-precision CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) analog technology. This paper describes three analog circuit technologies of a voltage reference, an operational amplifier and a comparator as circuit components particularly important for the precision of power supply ICs. (author)

  9. The MusIC method: a fast and quasi-optimal solution to the muscle forces estimation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Pontonnier, C; Dumont, G

    2018-02-01

    The present paper aims at presenting a fast and quasi-optimal method of muscle forces estimation: the MusIC method. It consists in interpolating a first estimation in a database generated offline thanks to a classical optimization problem, and then correcting it to respect the motion dynamics. Three different cost functions - two polynomial criteria and a min/max criterion - were tested on a planar musculoskeletal model. The MusIC method provides a computation frequency approximately 10 times higher compared to a classical optimization problem with a relative mean error of 4% on cost function evaluation.

  10. H I IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERTHIN GALAXIES. II. IC 2233 AND THE BLUE COMPACT DWARF NGC 2537

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lynn D.; Uson, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array to image the H I 21 cm line emission in the edge-on Sd galaxy IC 2233 and the blue compact dwarf NGC 2537. We also present new optical B, R, and Hα imaging of IC 2233 obtained with the WIYN telescope. Despite evidence of localized massive star formation in the form of prominent H II regions and shells, supergiant stars, and a blue integrated color, IC 2233 is a low surface brightness system with a very low global star formation rate (∼ sun yr -1 ), and we detect no significant 21 cm radio continuum emission from the galaxy. The H I and ionized gas disks of IC 2233 are clumpy and vertically distended, with scale heights comparable to that of the young stellar disk. Both the stellar and H I disks of IC 2233 appear flared, and we also find a vertically extended, rotationally anomalous component of H I extending to ∼ 2.4d 10 kpc from the midplane. The H I disk exhibits a mild lopsidedness as well as a global corrugation pattern with a period of ∼7d 10 kpc and an amplitude of ∼150d 10 pc. To our knowledge, this is the first time corrugations of the gas disk have been reported in an external galaxy; these undulations may be linked to bending instabilities or to underlying spiral structure and suggest that the disk is largely self-gravitating. Lying at a projected distance of 16'.7 from IC 2233, NGC 2537 has an H I disk with a bright, tilted inner ring and a flocculent, dynamically cold outer region that extends to ∼3.5 times the extent of the stellar light (D 25 ). Although NGC 2537 is rotationally-dominated, we measure H I velocity dispersions as high as σ V.HI ∼25 km s -1 near its center, indicative of significant turbulent motions. The inner rotation curve rises steeply, implying a strong central mass concentration. Our data indicate that IC 2233 and NGC 2537 do not constitute a bound pair and most likely lie at different distances. We also find no compelling evidence of a recent minor merger in either IC 2233 or NGC

  11. Differential effectiveness of Serratia plymuthica IC1270-induced systemic resistance against hemibiotrophic and necrotrophic leaf pathogens in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Höfte Monica M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant reacting to specific biotic or chemical stimuli. Over the years, several forms of induced resistance have been characterized, including systemic acquired resistance, which is induced upon localized infection by an avirulent necrotizing pathogen, and induced systemic resistance (ISR, which is elicited by selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria. However, contrary to the relative wealth of information on inducible defense responses in dicotyledoneous plants, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying induced resistance phenomena in cereal crops is still in its infancy. Using a combined cytomolecular and pharmacological approach, we analyzed the host defense mechanisms associated with the establishment of ISR in rice by the rhizobacterium Serratia plymuthica IC1270. Results In a standardized soil-based assay, root treatment with IC1270 rendered foliar tissues more resistant to the hemibiotrophic pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae, causal agent of the devastating rice blast disease. Analysis of the cytological and biochemical alterations associated with restriction of fungal growth in IC1270-induced plants revealed that IC1270 primes rice for enhanced attacker-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and autofluorescent phenolic compounds in and near epidermal cells displaying dense cytoplasmic granulation. Similar, yet more abundant, phenotypes of hypersensitively dying cells in the vicinity of fungal hyphae were evident in a gene-for-gene interaction with an avirulent M. oryzae strain, suggesting that IC1270-inducible ISR and R protein conditioned effector-triggered immunity (ETI target similar defense mechanisms. Yet, this IC1270-inducible ISR response seems to act as a double-edged sword within the rice defense network as induced plants displayed an increased vulnerability to the necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia

  12. The Interstellar 7Li/6Li Ratio in the Diffuse Gas Near IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, A. M.; Taylor, C. J.; Federman, S. R.; Lambert, D. L.

    2010-11-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the primary acceleration sites of Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which are essential to gas-phase interstellar chemistry since they are a major source of ionization in both diffuse and dense environments. The interaction of accelerated particles with interstellar gas will also synthesize isotopes of the light elements Li, Be, and B through the spallation of CNO nuclei (producing all stable LiBeB isotopes) and through α+α fusion (yielding 6Li and 7Li, only). Type II supernovae may provide an additional source of 7Li and 11B during core collapse through neutrino-induced spallation in the He and C shells of the progenitor star (the ν-process). However, direct observational evidence for light element synthesis resulting from cosmic-ray or neutrino-induced spallation is rare. Here, we examine 7Li/6Li isotope ratios along four lines of sight through the supernova remnant IC 443 using observations of the Li I λ6707 doublet made with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory. The 7Li/6Li ratio in the general interstellar medium is expected to be similar to the ratio of ~12 that characterizes solar system material. A local enhancement in the cosmic-ray flux will act to lower 7Li/6Li, yielding a ratio of ~2 when cosmic rays dominate Li synthesis. Gamma-ray emission from IC 443 provides strong evidence for the interaction of cosmic rays accelerated by the remnant with the ambient atomic and molecular gas. Yet this material has also been contaminated by the ejecta of a Type II supernova, which should be enriched in 7Li. We are seeking 7Li/6Li ratios that are either higher than the solar system ratio as a result of the ν-process or lower due to cosmic-ray spallation. Since the fine structure separation of the Li I doublet is comparable to the isotope shift (~7 km s-1) and each fine structure line is further split into hyperfine components, the velocity structure along the line of sight must be carefully constrained if

  13. Comparison of soil moisture retrieval algorithms based on the synergy between SMAP and SMOS-IC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Khusfi, Mohsen; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem; Hamzeh, Saeid; Amiraslani, Farshad; Neysani Samany, Najmeh; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2018-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate possible improvements of the soil moisture (SM) retrievals from the SMAP observations, based on the synergy between SMAP and SMOS. We assessed the impacts of the vegetation and soil roughness parameters on SM retrievals from SMAP observations. To do so, the effects of three key input parameters including the vegetation optical depth (VOD), effective scattering albedo (ω) and soil roughness (HR) parameters were assessed with the emphasis on the synergy with the VOD product derived from SMOS-IC, a new and simpler version of the SMOS algorithm, over two years of data (April 2015 to April 2017). First, a comprehensive comparison of seven SM retrieval algorithms was made to find the best one for SM retrievals from the SMAP observations. All results were evaluated against in situ measurements over 548 stations from the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN) in terms of four statistical metrics: correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), bias and unbiased RMSE (UbRMSE). The comparison of seven SM retrieval algorithms showed that the dual channel algorithm based on the additional use of the SMOS-IC VOD product (selected algorithm) led to the best results of SM retrievals over 378, 399, 330 and 271 stations (out of a total of 548 stations) in terms of R, RMSE, UbRMSE and both R & UbRMSE, respectively. Moreover, comparing the measured and retrieved SM values showed that this synergy approach led to an increase in median R value from 0.6 to 0.65 and a decrease in median UbRMSE from 0.09 m3/m3 to 0.06 m3/m3. Second, using the algorithm selected in a first step and defined above, the ω and HR parameters were calibrated over 218 rather homogenous ISMN stations. 72 combinations of various values of ω and HR were used for the calibration over different land cover classes. In this calibration process, the optimal values of ω and HR were found for the different land cover classes. The obtained results indicated that the

  14. In situ corrosion measurements by electrochemical method (IC experiment) at Mont Terri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewonck, S.; Bataillon, C.; Crusset, D.; Schwyn, B.; Nakayama, N.; Kwong, G.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The study of the interactions of steel pieces with an argillaceous rock is the aim of the IC experiment carried out in the Mont Terri Rock Laboratory (Switzerland). More precisely, the IC experiment consists in monitoring the corrosion rate of various steel (Inconel 690, 316L stainless steel, 2 carbon steels one representative of Andra concept and another of Nagra concept) at 80 deg. C, in anaerobic condition, in contact with the Opalinus clay formation. The corrosion rate monitoring is based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). This method is not disturbing for the corrosion process i.e. the corrosion rate doesn't change during the electrochemical measurement. The main drawback of this method is that the corrosion process must be in stationary or quasi stationary state: EIS can only measure corrosion rates which do not change quickly with time. This method is well adapted for long term corrosion monitoring because long term corrosion rate evolves slowly. A special design of the experimental setup was developed to allow optimal interactions between rock and steel samples. It consists in mounting the steel samples inside of a bore-core section. This section is then placed at the extremity of the borehole equipment. The equipment is inserted in a vertical descending borehole and sealed by a large packer. Another particularity of the experimental setup is the possibility of heating the experimental section up to 80 deg. C. Finally, the equipment was built in such a way that such that it will be retrievable from the borehole after several years of experiment, in order to perform further analyses on the reacting materials (core and steel samples). A circulation loop links the experimental interval to the sampling, measuring various parameters (pH, Eh, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and hydrogen) and control equipment installed in a cabinet, in the gallery of the underground laboratory. At the

  15. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinghe; Lu, Nanyao; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Xu, C. Kevin; Gao, Yu; Charmandaris, Vassilis; van der Werf, Paul; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Cao, Chen

    2017-08-01

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ˜34 pc) observations of the CO (6-5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μm dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6-5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6-5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ˜10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa-α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ˜ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ˜34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s-1 (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  17. Machine learning and predictive data analytics enabling metrology and process control in IC fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Narender; Zhang, Yunlin; Wall, Donald; Dirahoui, Bachir; Bailey, Todd C.

    2015-03-01

    Integrate circuit (IC) technology is going through multiple changes in terms of patterning techniques (multiple patterning, EUV and DSA), device architectures (FinFET, nanowire, graphene) and patterning scale (few nanometers). These changes require tight controls on processes and measurements to achieve the required device performance, and challenge the metrology and process control in terms of capability and quality. Multivariate data with complex nonlinear trends and correlations generally cannot be described well by mathematical or parametric models but can be relatively easily learned by computing machines and used to predict or extrapolate. This paper introduces the predictive metrology approach which has been applied to three different applications. Machine learning and predictive analytics have been leveraged to accurately predict dimensions of EUV resist patterns down to 18 nm half pitch leveraging resist shrinkage patterns. These patterns could not be directly and accurately measured due to metrology tool limitations. Machine learning has also been applied to predict the electrical performance early in the process pipeline for deep trench capacitance and metal line resistance. As the wafer goes through various processes its associated cost multiplies. It may take days to weeks to get the electrical performance readout. Predicting the electrical performance early on can be very valuable in enabling timely actionable decision such as rework, scrap, feedforward, feedback predicted information or information derived from prediction to improve or monitor processes. This paper provides a general overview of machine learning and advanced analytics application in the advanced semiconductor development and manufacturing.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR A COMPACT WOLF-RAYET PROGENITOR FOR THE TYPE Ic SUPERNOVA PTF 10vgv

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corsi, A. [LIGO laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-36, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Arcavi, I.; Ben-Ami, S.; Rabinak, I. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Poznanski, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Mazzali, P. A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico, vicolo dellOsservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Kulkarni, S. R.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Horesh, A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Kleiser, I. K. W.; Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Fox, D. B.; Howell, J. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nakar, E. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sari, R., E-mail: corsi@caltech.edu [Racah Institute for Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); and others

    2012-03-15

    We present the discovery of PTF 10vgv, a Type Ic supernova (SN) detected by the Palomar Transient Factory, using the Palomar 48 inch telescope (P48). R-band observations of the PTF 10vgv field with P48 probe the SN emission from its very early phases (about two weeks before R-band maximum) and set limits on its flux in the week prior to the discovery. Our sensitive upper limits and early detections constrain the post-shock-breakout luminosity of this event. Via comparison to numerical (analytical) models, we derive an upper-limit of R {approx}< 4.5 R{sub Sun} (R {approx}< 1 R{sub Sun }) on the radius of the progenitor star, a direct indication in favor of a compact Wolf-Rayet star. Applying a similar analysis to the historical observations of SN 1994I yields R {approx}< 1/4 R{sub Sun} for the progenitor radius of this SN.

  19. Tradução criativa, diagrama e cálculo icônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Queiroz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O ícone é operacionalmente definido como um signo cuja manipulação permite, por observação direta de suas propriedades intrínsecas, a descoberta de alguma informação sobre seu objeto. Esta definição representa uma destrivialização da noção do ícone como um análogo do objeto representado. Vou explorar aqui a noção de tradução icônica, que Haroldo de Campos relaciona à tradução criativa, em uma nova direção, baseado em um critério operacional que associa os ícones aos diagramas, que são signos icônicos de relação. Tão logo um ícone seja observado como algo consistindo de partes inter-relacionadas, e uma vez que as relações estejam sujeitas a mudanças experimentais baseadas em leis, estamos operando com diagramas. Trata-se de um argumento conhecido que a tradução criativa recria relações de isomorfismos (ou paramorfismos entre diversos níveis de descrição do signo traduzido. Esta ideia aquié subsidiada pelo conceito operacional do ícone, capaz de revelar a forma definida de uma relação. Exemplifico, ao final, minha argumentação exibindo um caso notável de tradução de John Donne, por Augusto de Campos.El icono se define operacionalmente como un signo cuya manipulación permite, a través de la observación directa de sus propiedades intrínsecas, el descubrimiento de alguna información acerca de su objeto. Esta definición representa una destrivializacion de la noción del icono como un análogo del objeto representado. Voy a estudiar aquí la noción de traducción icónica, que Haroldo de Campos relaciona a la traducción creativa, en una nueva dirección, con base en un criterio operativo que asocia los iconos a los diagramas, que son signos icónicos de relación. Tan pronto el icono sea observado como algo compuesto de partes interrelacionadas, y una vez que las relaciones estén sujetas a cambios experimentales basados en leyes, estamos trabajando con diagramas. Se trata de un conocido

  20. Computing exact Fourier series coefficients of IC rectilinear polygons from low-resolution fast Fourier coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibler, Robin; Hurley, Paul

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel, accurate and fast algorithm to obtain Fourier series coefficients from an IC layer whose description consists of rectilinear polygons on a plane, and how to implement it using off-the-shelf hardware components. Based on properties of Fourier calculus, we derive a relationship between the Discrete Fourier Transforms of the sampled mask transmission function and its continuous Fourier series coefficients. The relationship leads to a straightforward algorithm for computing the continuous Fourier series coefficients where one samples the mask transmission function, compute its discrete Fourier transform and applies a frequency-dependent multiplicative factor. The algorithm is guaranteed to yield the exact continuous Fourier series coefficients for any sampling representing the mask function exactly. Computationally, this leads to significant saving by allowing to choose the maximal such pixel size and reducing the fast Fourier transform size by as much, without compromising accuracy. In addition, the continuous Fourier series is free from aliasing and follows closely the physical model of Fourier optics. We show that in some cases this can make a significant difference, especially in modern very low pitch technology nodes.

  1. Mapping the gas-to-dust ratio in the edge-on spiral galaxy IC2531

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Gentile, Gianfranco; Allaert, Flor; Kuno, Nario; Verstappen, Joris

    2012-04-01

    The gas-to-dust ratio is an important diagnostic of the chemical evolution of galaxies, but unfortunately, there are only a few unbiased studies of the gas-to-dust ratio within galaxies and among different galaxies. We want to take advantage of the revolutionary capabilities of the Herschel Space Observatory and the special geometry of edge-on spiral galaxies to derive accurate gas and dust mass profiles in the edge-on spiral galaxy IC2531, the only southern galaxy from a sample of large edge-on spirals observed with Herschel. We already have a wealth of ancillary data and detailed radiative transfer modelling at our disposal for this galaxy, and now request CO observations to map the molecular gas distribution. With our combined dataset, we will investigate the radial behaviour of the gas-to-dust ratio, compare it with the properties of the stellar population and the dark matter distribution, and test the possibility to use the far-infrared emission from dust to determine the total ISM mass in galaxies.

  2. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates...... obtained. To verify laser driving performance a back-to-back optical-fiber transmission experiment was performed, giving good optical eye diagrams at 2.5 Gb/s. The electrooptical interplay between laser-diode driver and laser-diode has been demonstrated using SPICE simulations...... up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximum output current is obtained by implementing the output driver as a cascode differential amplifier...

  3. Imaging Spectrophotometry of the Jet/ISM Interaction in IC5063

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, G.; Schuft, B.; Morse, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.

    2004-01-01

    IC5063 is a somewhat dusty z=0.0110 S0 galaxy with a Seyfert 2 nucleus. It has a triple radio source that spans 3 arcsec, mostly blueshifted H I absorption that spans 700 km/s, and ionization cones that extend for more than 2 arcmins. We obtained fully sampled [O III]\\lambda5007 grids at 0."9 and 70 km/s FWHM resolution using the Rutgers Fabry-Perot system on the Blanco 4m telescope. Complementary long-slit spectra using the RC spectrograph on the Blanco, and Taurus Tunable Filter spectral images in H\\alpha and [N II]\\lambda6583, were also obtained to assess gaseous ionization conditions. We present the results of our analysis, and correlate spectral structures to those visible in archival WFPC2 images. We find that, in the region near the radio triple, gaseous ionization and line velocity width is tightly correlated, in excellent quantitative agreement with the high-velocity shock regime in the diagnostic emission-line ratio diagrams of Dopita & Sutherland. We separate kinematically gas in normal disk rotation that is illuminated by the AGN in the ionization cones from that agitated mechanically by the jet, and assess the energy input from both processes.

  4. ALMA Maps of Dust and Warm Dense Gas Emission in the Starburst Galaxy IC 5179

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Yinghe [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Lu, Nanyao; Xu, C. Kevin [National Astronomical Observatories of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército Libertador 441, Santiago (Chile); Gao Yu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Werf, Paul van der [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Zhang Zhi-Yu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Cao, Chen, E-mail: zhaoyinghe@ynao.ac.cn [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China)

    2017-08-10

    We present our high-resolution (0.″15 × 0.″13, ∼34 pc) observations of the CO (6−5) line emission, which probes the warm and dense molecular gas, and the 434 μ m dust continuum emission in the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 5179, conducted with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). The CO (6−5) emission is spatially distributed in filamentary structures with many dense cores and shows a velocity field that is characteristic of a circumnuclear rotating gas disk, with 90% of the rotation speed arising within a radius of ≲150 pc. At the scale of our spatial resolution, the CO (6−5) and dust emission peaks do not always coincide, with their surface brightness ratio varying by a factor of ∼10. This result suggests that their excitation mechanisms are likely different, as further evidenced by the southwest to northeast spatial gradient of both CO-to-dust continuum ratio and Pa- α equivalent width. Within the nuclear region (radius ∼ 300 pc) and with a resolution of ∼34 pc, the CO line flux (dust flux density) detected in our ALMA observations is 180 ± 18 Jy km s{sup −1} (71 ± 7 mJy), which accounts for 22% (2.4%) of the total value measured by Herschel .

  5. Exergy, Economic and Environmental Analysis for Simple and Combined Heat and Power IC Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Aliehyaei

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of exergy, economic and environmental analyses of simple and combined heat and power internal combustion engines. Values of entropy production, second law efficiency are calculated, and an objective function, including initial, operation, maintenance and fuel costs, as well as the external costs of environmental pollutants, such as CO2, CO and NOx, are presented for the flue gas of the internal combustion engine. The results show that entropy generation in the combined heat and power mode is 30% lower than that in the simple internal combustion engine. Also, by excessively increasing the air ratio, the system entropy generation decreases in both cases of simple and combined heat and power IC engines. The greatest portion of entropy generation is related to the combined heat and power internal combustion engine. The gas heat exchanger generates more entropy than the jacket heat exchanger. Lower values of electricity cost and external costs of air pollution are provided by higher values of molar air to fuel ratio. The environmental aspects depend on location of the system and time of engine operation.

  6. Spectral state transitions of the Ultraluminous X-ray Source IC 342 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, H.; Kaaret, P.; Lang, C.; Feng, H.; Grisé, F.; Miller, N.; Cseh, D.; Corbel, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2014-10-01

    We observed the Ultraluminous X-ray Source (ULX) IC 342 X-1 simultaneously in X-ray and radio with Chandra and the JVLA to investigate previously reported unresolved radio emission coincident with the ULX. The Chandra data reveal a spectrum that is much softer than observed previously and is well modelled by a thermal accretion disc spectrum. No significant radio emission above the rms noise level was observed within the region of the ULX, consistent with the interpretation as a thermal state though other states cannot be entirely ruled out with the current data. We estimate the mass of the black hole using the modelled inner disc temperature to be 30 M_{⊙} ≲ M√{cosi}≲ 200 M_{⊙} based on a Shakura-Sunyaev disc model. Through a study of the hardness and high-energy curvature of available X-ray observations, we find that the accretion state of X-1 is not determined by luminosity alone.

  7. A heating and diffusion barrier based on TaSiN x for miniaturized IC devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-Y.; Chen, Y.-C.; Lee, C.-M.; Wang, S.-H.; Chin, T.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Highly resistive TaSiN x films investigated as candidates for heating and diffusion-barrier layers for miniaturized IC devices such as a sensor or a phases-change random access memory (PCRAM). The obtained resistivity, between 0.069-1.21 Ω cm, increases with increasing nitrogen content up to 52.83%, and fulfills the requirements as a suitable heating layer. All the as-deposited films were amorphous, and the films with substantial nitrogen content showed excellent thermal stability The amorphous structure had a very smooth surface which was stable at temperatures up to 800 deg. C. In addition to its heating capability, the amorphous structure with no grain boundaries was found to also act as a good diffusion barrier effect in contact with a tungsten electrode as determined by AES an TEM analysis. The barrier effect was evaluated by an annealing at 500 and 600 deg. C in Ar atmosphere for 30 min, respectively. The highly resistive TaSiN x heating layer successfully obstructed the diffusion of tungsten atoms from the W electrodes even when the layer was only 10 nm thick. With increasing N content, the heating and diffusion-barrier layer for PCRAM was proposed as a typical example of many potential applications

  8. EVIDENCE FOR H{sub 2} FORMATION DRIVEN DUST GRAIN ALIGNMENT IN IC 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, B-G; De Buizer, J.; Charcos-Llorens, M. [SOFIA Science Center, USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, M.S. N211-3 Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Piirola, V. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); Clemens, D. P. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Uomoto, A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Geballe, T. R. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lazarian, A.; Hoang, T. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Vornanen, T., E-mail: bg@sofia.usra.edu [Tuorla Observatory, University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland)

    2013-10-01

    In the interstellar medium (ISM), molecular hydrogen is expected to form almost exclusively on the surfaces of dust grains. Due to that molecule's large formation energy (–4.5 eV), several dynamical effects are likely associated with the process, including the alignment of asymmetric dust grains with the ambient magnetic field. Such aligned dust grains are, in turn, believed to cause the broadband optical/infrared polarization observed in the ISM. Here, we present the first observational evidence for grain alignment driven by H{sub 2} formation, by showing that the polarization of the light from stars behind the reflection nebula IC 63 appears to correlate with the intensity of H{sub 2} fluorescence. While our results strongly suggest a role for 'Purcell rockets' in grain alignment, additional observations are needed to conclusively confirm their role. By showing a direct connection between H{sub 2} formation and a probe of the dust characteristics, these results also provide one of the first direct confirmations of the grain-surface formation of H{sub 2}. We compare our observations to ab initio modeling based on Radiative Torque Alignment (RAT) theory.

  9. On the importance of specific heats as regards efficiency increases for highly dilute IC engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, Jerald A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Importance of specific heats towards increasing engine efficiency was quantified. • Decreases of specific heats contribute 3.5–6.3% (abs) to the efficiency. • Dilute engines benefit from decreases of specific heats due to lower temperatures. - Abstract: Engineering and scientific efforts continue with the development of advanced, IC engines using highly dilute mixtures, and relatively high compression ratios. Such engines are known to provide opportunities for low emissions as well as high efficiencies. The main features of these engines include higher compression ratios, lean operation, use of EGR, and shorter burn durations. First, this study reviews the quantitative contributions of each of these features as determined by an engine cycle simulation. Second, this study provides the quantitative contributions to the increased efficiency in terms of fundamental thermodynamic considerations. An automotive engine operated at 2000 rpm was selected for this study. For the conditions examined, the net indicated thermal efficiency increased from 37.0% (conventional engine) to 53.9% (high efficiency engine) – for an incremental increase of 16.9% (absolute). The contribution of increases of the ratio of specific heats towards the final thermal efficiency is quantified. This aspect has been well known, but has not been quantified for actual engines. For the various conditions examined, 21–35% of the total efficiency improvement was estimated to be due to the increase of the ratio of specific heats

  10. XPS: A multi-channel preamplifier-shaper IC for X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, B.; Kipnis, I.; Ludewigt, B.A.

    1997-11-01

    An integrated circuit featuring 48 channels of charge-sensitive preamplifiers followed by variable-gain pulse shaping amplifiers is being developed as part of an x-ray spectrometer with a highly segmented detector to handle high fluxes in synchrotron experiments. Such detector systems can provide excellent energy resolution combined with one-dimensional spatial information. The IC combines many basic spectroscopy amplifier functions with a low-noise preamplifier section to produce a unique circuit capable of driving conventional ADC modules directly. An important feature of the design is the novel CR-RC 2 pulse shaper. In this section, high-linearity transconductor circuits are required in order to provide a broad range of continuously variable peaking times while still maintaining the linearity and noise performance necessary for x-ray spectroscopy. Reported here are first measurements made on the performance of a 16-channel prototype integrated circuit. At present, the preamplifier-shaper circuit achieves an equivalent input noise of 26 electrons rms at 2 micros peaking time with a 0.2 pF external capacitor, which is similar to the capacitance of a single detector element. The design was fabricated in standard 1.2 microm CMOS technology

  11. Nonsyndromic recessive deafness DFNB18 and Usher syndrome type IC are allelic mutations of USHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zubair M; Smith, Tenesha N; Riazuddin, Saima; Makishima, Tomoko; Ghosh, Manju; Bokhari, Sirosh; Menon, Puthezhath S N; Deshmukh, Dilip; Griffith, Andrew J; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Friedman, Thomas B; Wilcox, Edward R

    2002-06-01

    Human chromosome 11 harbors two Usher type I loci, USHIB and USHIC, which encode myosin VIIA and harmonin, respectively. The USHIC locus overlaps the reported critical interval for nonsyndromic deafness locus DFNB18. We found an IVS12+5G-->C mutation in the USHIC gene, which is associated with nonsyndromic recessive deafness ( DFNB18) segregating in the original family, S-11/12. No other disease-associated mutation was found in the other 27 exons or in the intron-exon boundaries, and the IVS12+5G-->C mutation was not present in 200 representative unaffected individuals ascertained from the same area of India. An exon-trapping assay with a construct harboring IVS12+5G-->C generated wildtype spliced mRNA having exons 11 and 12 and mRNA that skipped exon 12. We conclude that mutations of USHIC can cause both Usher syndrome type IC and nonsyndromic recessive deafness DFNB18.

  12. Measuring the coronal properties of IC 4329A with NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian CfA, 60 Garden Street MS-67, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madejski, G. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rivers, E.; Walton, D. J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matt, G.; Marinucci, A. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ballantyne, D. R. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Boggs, S. E. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W. [DTU Space National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    We present an analysis of a ∼160 ks NuSTAR observation of the nearby bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A. The high-quality broadband spectrum enables us to separate the effects of distant reflection from the direct coronal continuum, and to therefore accurately measure the high-energy cutoff to be E{sub cut}=178{sub −40}{sup +74} keV. The coronal emission arises from accretion disk photons Compton up-scattered by a thermal plasma, with the spectral index and cutoff being due to a combination of the finite plasma temperature and optical depth. Applying standard Comptonization models, we measure both physical properties independently using the best signal to noise obtained to date in an active galactic nucleus over the 3-79 keV band. We derive kT{sub e}=37{sub −6}{sup +7} keV with τ=1.25{sub −0.10}{sup +0.20} assuming a slab geometry for the plasma, and kT{sub e}=33{sub −6}{sup +6} keV with τ=3.41{sub −0.38}{sup +0.58} for a spherical geometry, with both having an equivalent goodness-of-fit.

  13. PROTOPLANETARY AND TRANSITIONAL DISKS IN THE OPEN STELLAR CLUSTER IC 2395

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balog, Zoltan [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, D-69117 (Germany); Siegler, Nick [NASA Exoplanet Exploration Program, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Rieke, G. H.; Su, K. Y. L.; Gáspár, András [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Ave, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kiss, L. L. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Center for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Muzerolle, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gutermuth, R. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Bell, Cameron P. M. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093, Zürich (Switzerland); Vinkó, J. [Dept. of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Young, E. T., E-mail: balog@mpia-hd.mpg.de [NASA Ames SOFIA Science Center, N211, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We present new deep UBVRI images and high-resolution multi-object optical spectroscopy of the young (∼6–10 Myr old), relatively nearby (800 pc) open cluster IC 2395. We identify nearly 300 cluster members and use the photometry to estimate their spectral types, which extend from early B to middle M. We also present an infrared imaging survey of the central region using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope , covering the wavelength range from 3.6 to 24 μ m. Our infrared observations allow us to detect dust in circumstellar disks originating over a typical range of radii from ∼0.1 to ∼10 au from the central star. We identify 18 Class II, 8 transitional disk, and 23 debris disk candidates, respectively, 6.5%, 2.9%, and 8.3% of the cluster members with appropriate data. We apply the same criteria for transitional disk identification to 19 other stellar clusters and associations spanning ages from ∼1 to ∼18 Myr. We find that the number of disks in the transitional phase as a fraction of the total with strong 24 μ m excesses ([8] – [24] ≥ 1.5) increases from (8.4 ± 1.3)% at ∼3 Myr to (46 ± 5)% at ∼10 Myr. Alternative definitions of transitional disks will yield different percentages but should show the same trend.

  14. Investigation of friction characteristics in segmented piston ring liner assembly of IC engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejaskumar Chaudhari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The friction at the piston ring cylinder liner assembly (PRLA is a major contributor in the total friction losses in the I.C. engine. New materials, coatings and high-tech machining processes that previously were considered to be too expensive and therefore only used in complex applications are today becoming more affordable. A significant amount of the total power loss in a modern automotive engine is due to the Friction interaction between the top compression ring and the cylinder liner, especially at the TDC and BDC where boundary lubrication exists. The change in piston speed is accompanied with change the lubrication regime in the cylinder, which results change in friction between the ring and the liner during the entire stroke of the piston. Theoretical modelling of friction force from the various sources of friction will be compared to experimental results for analysing the tribological characteristics. The appropriate sample of piston ring and cylinder liner pair is developed for studying the different tribological parameters on Reciprocating Tribometer. The variable parameters are engine speed, oil viscosity, and load. The experimental results and observations are studied under different operating conditions in speed ranges from 300 rpm to 1500 rpm with constant load of 60 N. It can be seen that as speed increases, the friction force and friction coefficient also decreases.

  15. Measuring the coronal properties of IC 4329A with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of a ~160 ks NuSTAR observation of the nearby bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A. The highquality broadband spectrum enables us to separate the effects of distant reflection from the direct coronal continuum, and to therefore accurately measure the high-energy cutoff to be Ecut...... = 178-40+74 keV. The coronal emission arises from accretion disk photons Compton up-scattered by a thermal plasma, with the spectral index and cutoff being due to a combination of the finite plasma temperature and optical depth. Applying standard Comptonization models, we measure both physical...... properties independently using the best signal to noise obtained to date in an active galactic nucleus over the 3-79 keV band. We derive kTe = 37-6+7 keV with τ = 1.25-0.10+0.20 assuming a slab geometry for the plasma, and kTe = 33-6+6 keV with τ = 3.41-0.38+0.58 for a spherical geometry, with both having...

  16. Photometry of SN 2002ic and implications for the progenitor mass-loss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Wang, L.; Aldering, G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new pre-maximum and late-time optical photometry of the Type Ia/IIn supernova 2002ic. These observations are combined with the published V-band magnitudes of Hamuy et al. (2003) and the VLT spectrophotometry of Wang et al. (2004) to construct the most extensive light curve to date of this unusual supernova. The observed flux at late time is significantly higher relative to the flux at maximum than that of any other observed Type Ia supernova and continues to fade very slowly a year after explosion. Our analysis of the light curve suggests that a non-Type Ia supernova component becomes prominent ∼20 days after explosion. Modeling of the non-Type Ia supernova component as heating from the shock interaction of the supernova ejecta with pre-existing circumstellar material suggests the presence of a ∼1.7 x 1015 cm gap or trough between the progenitor system and the surrounding circumstellar material. This gap could be due to significantly lower mass-loss ∼15 (nu omega /10 km/s) -1 years prior to explosion or evacuation of the circumstellar material by a low-density fast wind. The latter is consistent with observed properties of proto-planetary nebulae and with models of white-dwarf + asymptotic giant branch star progenitor systems with the asymptotic giant branch star in the proto-planetary nebula phase

  17. Development of digital I&C system in HTR-PM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guilian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: HTR-PM DCS has been under execution for 5 years( 2009-2014) . It has taken CTEC 150 man/year so far. With close cooperation with INET, Chinergyand Shanghai Electric, CTEC overcame difficulties, like iterative design, voluminous customization work, new technology, and lacking of drawings. However, the accomplishment of the planned milestones prepared CTEC for the following work in HTR-PM DCS. 1. The 1ST integrated DCS, including safety DCS, non-safety DCS, DEH supplied by Chinese supplier. Rod control system and DEH are integrated in non-safety DCS. Simplified interface, integrated platform, and easy to use and maintenance. 2. CTEC obtained knowledge of 4th generation HTR-PM digital I&C, key design technology, and riched its DCS products by participation in HTRPM. HTR-PM Safety DCS project provided valuable experience for CTEC’s development and application of FIRMSYS, a safety protection control system platform. 3. The qualification solution by customized HTR-PM safety DCS prototype helps simply safety DCS design, V&V, qualification and safety review of the actual system, but results in some problems in system upgrade and maintenance. With the satisfactory application of FIRMSYS in 1000mw PWR and platform qualification , the future HTR-PM safety DCS could be provided based on a qualified safety DCS platform.

  18. Sliding Mode Pulsed Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Anatoly Shteynberg, PhD

    2006-08-17

    This project developed new Light Emitting Diode (LED) driver ICs associated with specific (uniquely operated) switching power supplies that optimize performance for High Brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs). The drivers utilize a digital control core with a newly developed nonlinear, hysteretic/sliding mode controller with mixed-signal processing. The drivers are flexible enough to allow both traditional microprocessor interface as well as other options such as “on the fly” adjustment of color and brightness. Some other unique features of the newly developed drivers include • AC Power Factor Correction; • High power efficiency; • Substantially fewer external components should be required, leading to substantial reduction of Bill of Materials (BOM). Thus, the LED drivers developed in this research : optimize LED performance by increasing power efficiency and power factor. Perhaps more remarkably, the LED drivers provide this improved performance at substantially reduced costs compared to the present LED power electronic driver circuits. Since one of the barriers to market penetration for HB-LEDs (in particular “white” light LEDs) is cost/lumen, this research makes important contributions in helping the advancement of SSL consumer acceptance and usage.

  19. A ''Winner-Take-All'' IC for determining the crystal of interaction in PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.; Beuville, E.; Ho, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present performance measurements of a Winner-Take-All (WTA) CMOS integrated circuit to be used with a pixel based PET detector module. Given n input voltages, it rapidly determines the input with the largest voltage, and outputs the encoded address of this input and a voltage proportional to this largest voltage. This is more desirable than a threshold approach for applications that require exactly one channel to be identified or when noise is a significant fraction of the input signal. A sixteen input prototype has been fabricated using two 1.2 microm processes (HP linear MOS capacitance and Orbit double-poly capacitance). ICs from both processes reliably identify (within 50 ns) the maximum channel if ΔV (the difference between the two highest channels) is >20 mV. The key element in the WTA circuit is an array of high gain nonlinear current amplifiers. There is one amplifier for each input channel, and each amplifier is composed of only two FETs. All amplifiers are supplied by a common, limited current source, so the channel with the largest input current takes all of this supply current while the other channels receive virtually none. Thus, these amplifier outputs become a set of logical bits that identify the maximum channel, which is encoded and used to select a multiplexer input. A voltage to current converter at each input channel turns this into a voltage sensitive device. This circuit uses very little power, drawing approximately 100 microA at 5 V

  20. Structural characterization and monitoring of heritage constructions: contributions of IC-LESE-FEUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arêde, Antonio; Varum, Humberto; Vila-Pouca, Nelson; Guedes, João; Romão, Xavier; Paupério, Esmeralda; Cosa, Anibal

    2016-01-01

    The need for interventions in heritage constructions often calls for deciding whether the structure can be kept in the existing conditions or should it be retrofitted by introducing more or less significant modifications. Still, sustainable interventions in heritage constructions can only be achieved if there is adequate knowledge about their state of conservation. To obtain such knowledge, reliable structural survey and diagnosis procedures need to be employed. In this context, structural monitoring can be particularly helpful in cases where the information obtained from the structural survey or from other stages of the analysis is insufficient to establish a final diagnosis. Over the last 15 years, the Construction Institute (IC) and the Laboratory for Earthquake and Structural Engineering (LESE) of the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto (FEUP) were involved in the survey and monitoring activities o f numerous heritage structures for private institutions as well as for governmental stake-holders managing cultural heritage in Portugal. This work describes the structural survey/diagnosis and the monitoring systems supporting the decision about the need for interventions for three heritage constructions .

  1. LDMOS Channel Thermometer Based on a Thermal Resistance Sensor for Balancing Temperature in Monolithic Power ICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingyou Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of thermal balancing for monolithic power integrated circuits (ICs. An on-chip temperature monitoring sensor that consists of a poly resistor strip in each of multiple parallel MOSFET banks is developed. A temperature-to-frequency converter (TFC is proposed to quantize on-chip temperature. A pulse-width-modulation (PWM methodology is developed to balance the channel temperature based on the quantization. The modulated PWM pulses control the hottest of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET bank to reduce its power dissipation and heat generation. A test chip with eight parallel MOSFET banks is fabricated in TSMC 0.25 μm HV BCD processes, and total area is 900 × 914 μm2. The maximal temperature variation among the eight banks can reduce to 2.8 °C by the proposed thermal balancing system from 9.5 °C with 1.5 W dissipation. As a result, our proposed system improves the lifetime of a power MOSFET by 20%.

  2. High Spatial Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the IC 443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Pavlov, George G.; Clarke, Tracy; Castelletti, Gabriela; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Karovska, Margarita; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-07-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ˜5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06h17m5.ˢ200 + 22°21‧27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr-1 (310 km s-1 for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west.

  3. High Spatial Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bucciantini, Niccolo; Clarke, Tracy E.; Karovska, Margarita; Pavlov, George G.; van der Horst, Alexander; Yukita, Mihoko; Zavlin, Vyacheslav

    2014-08-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant IC443, reveal a ~5" radius ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar's location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence for a strong bow shock; and the ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium. Comparing this observation with historical observations of the same target we set a 99-% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 310 km/s, with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) direction toward the west.

  4. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE IC 443 PULSAR WIND NEBULA AND ENVIRONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Pavlov, George G.; Clarke, Tracy; Castelletti, Gabriela; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Karovska, Margarita; Horst, Alexander J. van der; Yukita, Mihoko; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ∼5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north–south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06 h 17 m 5. s 200 + 22°21′27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr −1 (310 km s −1 for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west

  5. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, S; Hirai, H; Kawamura, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yagi, T

    2010-01-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  6. A simple two-step purification procedure for the iC3b binding collectin conglutinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Meibom, Thomas; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Tornoe, Ida

    2010-01-01

    Bovine conglutinin is a serum protein involved in innate immunity. It binds calcium dependently to iC3b, a product of the complement component C3 deposited on cell surfaces, immune complexes or artificial surfaces after complement activation. We here present a simple and efficient two-step proced...

  7. Pengaruh Pengungkapan Intellectual Capital (IC dan Economic Value Added (EVA terhadap Harga Saham Perusahaan Manufaktur yang terdaftar di BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Fauzi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at finding out if The Influence of Intellectual Capital (ICand Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The hypothesis of this study is : There is Influence of Intellectual Capital (IC and Economic Value Added (EVA on Stock Price of Manufacturing Company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI in 2012. The method used is the author of the survey method with a quantitative approach . This study population is the entire manufacturing companies listed on the Stock Exchange in 2012 his sampling technique is random sampling as many as 36 samples .. Correlation Coefficient significance test ( Test A of 0.512 , indicating that there is a middle relationship between IC and EVA on Stock Price. The results of the coefficient of determination ( R2 Test stated that R2 is 0.262 or 26.2% . This shows that the percentage contribution of the effect of independent variables ( IC and EVA on the dependent variable ( stock price of 26.2 % . Or variations of the independent variables used in the model ( IC and EVA are able to explain 26.2% of variation in the dependent variable ( stock price . While the remaining 73.8 % are influenced or explained by other variables not included in this research model .

  8. The H I chronicles of little things BCDs II: The origin of IC 10's H I structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Pokhrel, Nau Raj [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, CP 204, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Johnson, Megan [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 Australia (Australia); Nidever, David L., E-mail: trisha.l.ashley@nasa.gov, E-mail: simpsonc@fiu.edu, E-mail: npokh001@fiu.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: megan.johnson@csiro.au, E-mail: dnidever@umich.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI, 48109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we analyze Very Large Array (VLA) telescope and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) atomic hydrogen (H I) data for the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey; https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/littlethings) blue compact dwarf galaxy IC 10. The VLA data allow us to study the detailed H I kinematics and morphology of IC 10 at high resolution while the GBT data allow us to search the surrounding area at high sensitivity for tenuous H I. IC 10's H I appears highly disturbed in both the VLA and GBT H I maps with a kinematically distinct northern H I extension, a kinematically distinct southern plume, and several spurs in the VLA data that do not follow the general kinematics of the main disk. We discuss three possible origins of its H I structure and kinematics in detail: a current interaction with a nearby companion, an advanced merger, and accretion of intergalactic medium. We find that IC 10 is most likely an advanced merger or a galaxy undergoing accretion.

  9. Fusion zone microstructure of laser beam welded directionally solidified Ni3Al-base alloy IC6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, R.G.; Ojo, O.A.; Chaturvedi, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The fusion zone microstructure of laser welded alloy IC6 was examined. Extensive weld-metal cracking was observed to be closely associated with non-equilibrium eutectic-type microconstituents identified as consisting of γ, γ' and NiMo (Y) phases. Their formation has been related to modification of primary solidification path due to reduced solutal microsegregation

  10. The H I chronicles of little things BCDs II: The origin of IC 10's H I structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Pokhrel, Nau Raj; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Johnson, Megan; Nidever, David L.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Very Large Array (VLA) telescope and Green Bank Telescope (GBT) atomic hydrogen (H I) data for the LITTLE THINGS (Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey; https://science.nrao.edu/science/surveys/littlethings) blue compact dwarf galaxy IC 10. The VLA data allow us to study the detailed H I kinematics and morphology of IC 10 at high resolution while the GBT data allow us to search the surrounding area at high sensitivity for tenuous H I. IC 10's H I appears highly disturbed in both the VLA and GBT H I maps with a kinematically distinct northern H I extension, a kinematically distinct southern plume, and several spurs in the VLA data that do not follow the general kinematics of the main disk. We discuss three possible origins of its H I structure and kinematics in detail: a current interaction with a nearby companion, an advanced merger, and accretion of intergalactic medium. We find that IC 10 is most likely an advanced merger or a galaxy undergoing accretion.

  11. Submicron InP DHBT technology for high-speed high-swing mixed-signal ICs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godin, Jean; Nodjiadjim, V.; Riet, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    We report on the development of a submicron InP DHBT technology, optimized for the fabrication of 50-GHz-clock mixed signal ICs. In-depth study of device geometry and structure has allowed to get the needed performances and yield. Special attention has been paid to critical thermal behavior. Vari...... applications of interest....

  12. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of the low-luminosity, broad-lined Ic supernova iPTF15dld

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pian, E.; Tomasella, L.; Cappellaro, E.

    2017-01-01

    Core-collapse stripped-envelope supernova (SN) explosions reflect the diversity of physical parameters and evolutionary paths of their massive star progenitors. We have observed the Type Ic SN iPTF15dld (z = 0.047), reported by the Palomar Transient Factory. Spectra were taken starting 20 rest-frame...

  13. Contribution of AcrAB-ToIC to multidrug resistance in an Escherichia coli sequence type 131 isolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Schweigger, Tobias M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Kern, Winfried V.

    Drug efflux by resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type transporters, such as AcrAB-ToIC of Escherichia can, is an important resistance mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria; however, its contribution to multidrug resistance (MDR) in clinical isolates is poorly defined. We inactivated acrB of a

  14. Somato-motor haptic processing in posterior inner perisylvian region (SII/pIC of the macaque monkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Ishida

    Full Text Available The posterior inner perisylvian region including the secondary somatosensory cortex (area SII and the adjacent region of posterior insular cortex (pIC has been implicated in haptic processing by integrating somato-motor information during hand-manipulation, both in humans and in non-human primates. However, motor-related properties during hand-manipulation are still largely unknown. To investigate a motor-related activity in the hand region of SII/pIC, two macaque monkeys were trained to perform a hand-manipulation task, requiring 3 different grip types (precision grip, finger exploration, side grip both in light and in dark conditions. Our results showed that 70% (n = 33/48 of task related neurons within SII/pIC were only activated during monkeys' active hand-manipulation. Of those 33 neurons, 15 (45% began to discharge before hand-target contact, while the remaining neurons were tonically active after contact. Thirty-percent (n = 15/48 of studied neurons responded to both passive somatosensory stimulation and to the motor task. A consistent percentage of task-related neurons in SII/pIC was selectively activated during finger exploration (FE and precision grasping (PG execution, suggesting they play a pivotal role in control skilled finger movements. Furthermore, hand-manipulation-related neurons also responded when visual feedback was absent in the dark. Altogether, our results suggest that somato-motor neurons in SII/pIC likely contribute to haptic processing from the initial to the final phase of grasping and object manipulation. Such motor-related activity could also provide the somato-motor binding principle enabling the translation of diachronic somatosensory inputs into a coherent image of the explored object.

  15. Making the MagIC (Magnetics Information Consortium) Web Application Accessible to New Users and Useful to Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Jarboe, N.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jonestrask, L.

    2017-12-01

    Challenges are faced by both new and experienced users interested in contributing their data to community repositories, in data discovery, or engaged in potentially transformative science. The Magnetics Information Consortium (https://earthref.org/MagIC) has recently simplified its data model and developed a new containerized web application to reduce the friction in contributing, exploring, and combining valuable and complex datasets for the paleo-, geo-, and rock magnetic scientific community. The new data model more closely reflects the hierarchical workflow in paleomagnetic experiments to enable adequate annotation of scientific results and ensure reproducibility. The new open-source (https://github.com/earthref/MagIC) application includes an upload tool that is integrated with the data model to provide early data validation feedback and ease the friction of contributing and updating datasets. The search interface provides a powerful full text search of contributions indexed by ElasticSearch and a wide array of filters, including specific geographic and geological timescale filtering, to support both novice users exploring the database and experts interested in compiling new datasets with specific criteria across thousands of studies and millions of measurements. The datasets are not large, but they are complex, with many results from evolving experimental and analytical approaches. These data are also extremely valuable due to the cost in collecting or creating physical samples and the, often, destructive nature of the experiments. MagIC is heavily invested in encouraging young scientists as well as established labs to cultivate workflows that facilitate contributing their data in a consistent format. This eLightning presentation includes a live demonstration of the MagIC web application, developed as a configurable container hosting an isomorphic Meteor JavaScript application, MongoDB database, and ElasticSearch search engine. Visitors can explore the MagIC

  16. A reuse-based framework for the design of analog and mixed-signal ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Lopez, Rafael; Fernandez, Francisco V.; Rodriguez Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    Despite the spectacular breakthroughs of the semiconductor industry, the ability to design integrated circuits (ICs) under stringent time-to-market (TTM) requirements is lagging behind integration capacity, so far keeping pace with still valid Moore"s Law. The resulting gap is threatening with slowing down such a phenomenal growth. The design community believes that it is only by means of powerful CAD tools and design methodologies - and, possibly, a design paradigm shift - that this design gap can be bridged. In this sense, reuse-based design is seen as a promising solution, and concepts such as IP Block, Virtual Component, and Design Reuse have become commonplace thanks to the significant advances in the digital arena. Unfortunately, the very nature of analog and mixed-signal (AMS) design has hindered a similar level of consensus and development. This paper presents a framework for the reuse-based design of AMS circuits. The framework is founded on three key elements: (1) a CAD-supported hierarchical design flow that facilitates the incorporation of AMS reusable blocks, reduces the overall design time, and expedites the management of increasing AMS design complexity; (2) a complete, clear definition of the AMS reusable block, structured into three separate facets or views: the behavioral, structural, and layout facets, the two first for top-down electrical synthesis and bottom-up verification, the latter used during bottom-up physical synthesis; (3) the design for reusability set of tools, methods, and guidelines that, relying on intensive parameterization as well as on design knowledge capture and encapsulation, allows to produce fully reusable AMS blocks. A case study and a functional silicon prototype demonstrate the validity of the paper"s proposals.

  17. A Review on Atomization and Sprays of Biofuels for IC Engine Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Boggavarapu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ever increasing energy requirements, environmental concerns and energy security needs are strongly influencing engine researchers to consider renewable biofuels as alternatives to fossil fuels. Spray process being important in IC engine combustion, existing literature on various biofuel sprays is reviewed and summarized. Both experimental and computational research findings are reviewed in a detailed manner for compression ignition (CI engine sprays and briefly for spark ignition (SI engine sprays. The physics of basic atomization process of sprays from various injectors is included to highlight the most recent research findings followed by discussion highlighting the effect of physico-chemical properties on spray atomization for both biofuels and fossil fuels. Biodiesel sprays are found to penetrate faster and have narrow spray plume angle and larger droplet sizes compared to diesel. Results of analytical and computational models are shown to be useful in shedding light on the actual process of atomization. However, further studies on understanding primary atomization and the effect of fuel properties on primary atomization are required. As far as secondary atomization is concerned, changes in regimes are observed to occur at higher air-jet velocities for biodiesel compared to those of diesel. Evaporating sprays revealed that the liquid length is longer for biodiesel. Pure plant oil sprays with potential use in CI engines may require alternative injector technology due to slower breakup as compared to diesel. Application of ethanol to gasoline engines may be feasible without any modifications to port fuel injection (PFI engines. More studies are required on the application of alternative fuels to high pressure sprays used in Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI engines.

  18. The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonçalves, Luís; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is a European COST Action that has been running from 2007 to 2011. COST Actions are funded by the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) Agency, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), of the European Union. EURO-TELEPATH's main objectives were evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical professionals in a networked environment. The project was organized in four working groups. orking Group 1 "Business modeling in pathology" has designed main pathology processes - Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy -using Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). orking Group 2 "Informatics standards in pathology" has been dedicated to promoting the development and application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Working Group 3 "Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management" worked on the use of virtual or digital slides that are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Working Group 4 "Technology and Automation in Pathology" was focused on studying the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including, e.g., the quality of images obtained by slide scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. Major outcome of this action are the collaboration with international health informatics standardization bodies to foster the development of standards for digital pathology, offering a new approach for workflow analysis, based in business process

  19. Toward the Understanding of the Physical Origin of Recombining Plasma in the Supernova Remnant IC 443

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Okon, Hiromichi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go

    2017-12-01

    We perform a spatially resolved spectroscopic analysis of X-ray emission from the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 with Suzaku. All of the spectra are well reproduced by a model consisting of a collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE) and two recombining plasma (RP) components. Although previous X-ray studies found an RP in the northeastern region, this is the first report on RPs in the other parts of the remnant. The electron temperature, kT e , of the CIE component is almost uniform at ∼0.2 keV across the remnant. The CIE plasma has metal abundances consistent with solar and is concentrated toward the rim of the remnant, suggesting that it is of shocked interstellar medium origin. The two RP components have different kT e : one in the range of 0.16–0.28 keV and the other in the range of 0.48–0.67 keV. The electron temperatures of both RP components decrease toward the southeast, where the SNR shock is known to be interacting with a molecular cloud. We also find the normalization ratio of the lower-kT e RP to higher-kT e RP components increases toward the southeast. Both results suggest the X-ray emitting plasma in the southeastern region is significantly cooled by some mechanism. One of the plausible cooling mechanisms is a thermal conduction between the hot plasma and the molecular cloud. If the cooling proceeds faster than the recombination timescale of the plasma, the same mechanism can account for the recombining plasma as well.

  20. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manimaran, M., E-mail: maran@igcar.gov.in; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored.

  1. Software development methodology for computer based I&C systems of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manimaran, M.; Shanmugam, A.; Parimalam, P.; Murali, N.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Software development methodology adopted for computer based I&C systems of PFBR is detailed. • Constraints imposed as part of software requirements and coding phase are elaborated. • Compliance to safety and security requirements are described. • Usage of CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools during software design, analysis and testing phase are explained. - Abstract: Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is sodium cooled reactor which is in the advanced stage of construction in Kalpakkam, India. Versa Module Europa bus based Real Time Computer (RTC) systems are deployed for Instrumentation & Control of PFBR. RTC systems have to perform safety functions within the stipulated time which calls for highly dependable software. Hence, well defined software development methodology is adopted for RTC systems starting from the requirement capture phase till the final validation of the software product. V-model is used for software development. IEC 60880 standard and AERB SG D-25 guideline are followed at each phase of software development. Requirements documents and design documents are prepared as per IEEE standards. Defensive programming strategies are followed for software development using C language. Verification and validation (V&V) of documents and software are carried out at each phase by independent V&V committee. Computer aided software engineering tools are used for software modelling, checking for MISRA C compliance and to carry out static and dynamic analysis. Various software metrics such as cyclomatic complexity, nesting depth and comment to code are checked. Test cases are generated using equivalence class partitioning, boundary value analysis and cause and effect graphing techniques. System integration testing is carried out wherein functional and performance requirements of the system are monitored

  2. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE IC 443 PULSAR WIND NEBULA AND ENVIRONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E. [USRA, Astrophysics Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pavlov, George G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clarke, Tracy [Remote Sensing Division, Code 7213, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC (United States); Castelletti, Gabriela [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), CC67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bucciantini, Niccolò [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L. go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Karovska, Margarita [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Horst, Alexander J. van der [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21 Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Yukita, Mihoko [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Weisskopf, Martin C. [Astrophysics Office, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP12, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ∼5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north–south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06{sup h}17{sup m}5.{sup s}200 + 22°21′27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr{sup −1} (310 km s{sup −1} for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west.

  3. PELE-IC, 2-D Eulerian Incompressible Hydrodynamic and Bubble Dynamic after LWR LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: PELE-IC is a two-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics program for the solution of incompressible flow coupled to flexible structures. The code was developed to calculate fluid-structure interactions and bubble dynamics of a pressure-suppression system following a loss-of- coolant accident (LOCA). The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by calculation of benchmark problems and air and steam blowdown experiments. The code is written for both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a wide variety of structural shapes. The concepts of void fractions and interface orientation are used to track the movement of free surfaces, allowing great versatility in following fluid-gas interfaces both for bubble definition and water surface motion without the use of marker particles. 2 - Method of solution: The solution strategy is to first solve the Navier-Stokes equations explicitly using values from the previous time-step. Since these values do not necessarily satisfy the continuity equation, the pressure field is iterated upon until the incompressibility condition for each computational cell is satisfied within prescribed limits. The structural motion is computed by a finite element code from the applied pressure at the fluid-structure interface. The shell structure algorithm uses conventional thin-shell theory with transverse shear. The finite-element spatial discretization employs piecewise-linear interpolation functions and one-point quadrature applied to conical frustra. The Newmark implicit time integration method is used as a one-step module. The fluid code then uses the structure's position and velocity as boundary conditions. The fluid pressure field and the structure's response are corrected iteratively until the normal velocities of fluid and structure are equal. The effects of steam condensation and oscillatory chugging on structures are

  4. Uploading, Searching and Visualizing of Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Data in the Online MagIC Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Donadini, F.

    2007-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by both rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all available measurements and derived properties from paleomagnetic studies of directions and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). MagIC is hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ and will soon implement two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Currently the PMAG node is operational. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual map interface to browse and select locations. Users can also browse the database by data type or by data compilation to view all contributions associated with well known earlier collections like PINT, GMPDB or PSVRL. The query result set is displayed in a digestible tabular format allowing the user to descend from locations to sites, samples, specimens and measurements. At each stage, the result set can be saved and, where appropriate, can be visualized by plotting global location maps, equal area, XY, age, and depth plots, or typical Zijderveld, hysteresis, magnetization and remanence diagrams. User contributions to the MagIC database are critical to achieving a useful research tool. We have developed a standard data and metadata template (version 2.3) that can be used to format and upload all data at the time of publication in Earth Science journals. Software tools are provided to facilitate population of these templates within Microsoft Excel. These tools allow for the import/export of text files and provide advanced functionality to manage and edit the data, and to perform various internal checks to maintain data integrity and prepare for uploading. The MagIC Contribution Wizard at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/upload.htm executes the upload

  5. The time-dependence of the defective nature of ice Ic (cubic ice) and its implications for atmospheric science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Christian; Koza, Michael M.; Hansen, Thomas C.; Kuhs, Werner F.

    2010-05-01

    The possible atmospheric implication of ice Ic (cubic ice) has already been suggested some time ago in the context of snow crystal formation [1]. New findings from air-borne measurements in cirrus clouds and contrails have put ice Ic into the focus of interest to understand the so-called "supersaturation puzzle" [2,3,4]. Our recent microstructural work on ice Ic [5,6] appears to be highly relevant in this context. We have found that ice Ic is characterized by a complex stacking fault pattern, which changes as a function of temperature as well as time. Indeed, from our own [7] and other group's work [8] one knows that (in contrast to earlier believe) ice Ic can form up to temperatures at least as high as 240K - thus in the relevant range for cirrus clouds. We have good preliminary evidence that the "cubicity" (which can be related to stacking fault probabilities) as well as the particle size of ice Ic are the relevant parameters for this correlation. The "cubicity" of stacking faulty ice Ic (established by diffraction) correlates nicely with the increased supersaturation at decreasing temperatures observed in cirrus clouds and contrails, a fact, which may be considered as further evidence for the presence of ice Ic. Recently, we have studied the time-dependency of the changes in both "cubicity" and particle size at various temperatures of relevance for cirrus clouds and contrails by in-situ neutron powder diffraction. The timescales over which changes occur (several to many hours) are similar to the life-time of cirrus clouds and contrails and suggest that the supersaturation situation may change within this time span in the natural environment too. Some accompanying results obtained by cryo-SEM (scanning electron microscopy) work will also be presented and suggest that stacking-faulty ice Ic has kinky surfaces providing many more active centres for heterogeneous reactions on the surface than in the usually assumed stable hexagonal form of ice Ih with its rather

  6. LABA/LAMA combinations versus LAMA monotherapy or LABA/ICS in COPD: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo GJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gustavo J Rodrigo,1 David Price,2,3 Antonio Anzueto,4,5 Dave Singh,6 Pablo Altman,7 Giovanni Bader,8 Francesco Patalano,8 Robert Fogel,7 Konstantinos Kostikas8 1Departamento de Emergencia, Hospital Central de las Fuerzas Armadas, Montevideo, Uruguay; 2Academic Primary Care, Division of Applied Health Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK; 3Observational and Pragmatic Research Institute, Singapore; 4University of Texas Health Science Center, 5South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; 6Medicines Evaluation Unit, National Institute for Health Research Respiratory and Allergy Clinical Research Facility, University Hospital of South Manchester NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester, England, UK; 7Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 8Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland Background: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs indicate that long-acting bronchodilator combinations, such as β2-agonist (LABA/muscarinic antagonist (LAMA, have favorable efficacy compared with commonly used COPD treatments. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of LABA/LAMA with LAMA or LABA/inhaled corticosteroid (ICS in adults with stable moderate-to-very-severe COPD. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library and clinical trial/manufacturer databases included RCTs comparing ≥12 weeks’ LABA/LAMA treatment with LAMA and/or LABA/ICS (approved doses only. Eligible studies were independently selected by two authors using predefined data fields; the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Results: Eighteen studies (23 trials were eligible (N=20,185. LABA/LAMA significantly improved trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 from baseline to week 12 versus both LAMA and LABA/ICS (0.07 L and 0.08 L, P<0.0001, with patients more likely to achieve clinically

  7. The Front-End Readout as an Encoder IC for Magneto-Resistive Linear Scale Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trong-Hieu Tran

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a front-end readout circuit as an encoder chip for magneto-resistance (MR linear scales. A typical MR sensor consists of two major parts: one is its base structure, also called the magnetic scale, which is embedded with multiple grid MR electrodes, while another is an “MR reader” stage with magnets inside and moving on the rails of the base. As the stage is in motion, the magnetic interaction between the moving stage and the base causes the variation of the magneto-resistances of the grid electrodes. In this study, a front-end readout IC chip is successfully designed and realized to acquire temporally-varying resistances in electrical signals as the stage is in motions. The acquired signals are in fact sinusoids and co-sinusoids, which are further deciphered by the front-end readout circuit via newly-designed programmable gain amplifiers (PGAs and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs. The PGA is particularly designed to amplify the signals up to full dynamic ranges and up to 1 MHz. A 12-bit successive approximation register (SAR ADC for analog-to-digital conversion is designed with linearity performance of ±1 in the least significant bit (LSB over the input range of 0.5–2.5 V from peak to peak. The chip was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.35-micron complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS technology for verification with a chip size of 6.61 mm2, while the power consumption is 56 mW from a 5-V power supply. The measured integral non-linearity (INL is −0.79–0.95 LSB while the differential non-linearity (DNL is −0.68–0.72 LSB. The effective number of bits (ENOB of the designed ADC is validated as 10.86 for converting the input analog signal to digital counterparts. Experimental validation was conducted. A digital decoder is orchestrated to decipher the harmonic outputs from the ADC via interpolation to the position of the moving stage. It was found that the displacement

  8. Advanced I&C for Fault-Tolerant Supervisory Control of Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Daniel G. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2018-01-30

    this goal, we have identified the following objectives. These objective are an ordered approach to the research: I) Development of a supervisory digital I&C system II) Fault-tolerance of the supervisory control architecture III) Automated decision making and online monitoring.

  9. Advances in Grid Computing for the FabrIc for Frontier Experiments Project at Fermialb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herner, K. [Fermilab; Alba Hernandex, A. F. [Fermilab; Bhat, S. [Fermilab; Box, D. [Fermilab; Boyd, J. [Fermilab; Di Benedetto, V. [Fermilab; Ding, P. [Fermilab; Dykstra, D. [Fermilab; Fattoruso, M. [Fermilab; Garzoglio, G. [Fermilab; Kirby, M. [Fermilab; Kreymer, A. [Fermilab; Levshina, T. [Fermilab; Mazzacane, A. [Fermilab; Mengel, M. [Fermilab; Mhashilkar, P. [Fermilab; Podstavkov, V. [Fermilab; Retzke, K. [Fermilab; Sharma, N. [Fermilab; Teheran, J. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The FabrIc for Frontier Experiments (FIFE) project is a major initiative within the Fermilab Scientic Computing Division charged with leading the computing model for Fermilab experiments. Work within the FIFE project creates close collaboration between experimenters and computing professionals to serve high-energy physics experiments of diering size, scope, and physics area. The FIFE project has worked to develop common tools for job submission, certicate management, software and reference data distribution through CVMFS repositories, robust data transfer, job monitoring, and databases for project tracking. Since the projects inception the experiments under the FIFE umbrella have signicantly matured, and present an increasingly complex list of requirements to service providers. To meet these requirements, the FIFE project has been involved in transitioning the Fermilab General Purpose Grid cluster to support a partitionable slot model, expanding the resources available to experiments via the Open Science Grid, assisting with commissioning dedicated high-throughput computing resources for individual experiments, supporting the eorts of the HEP Cloud projects to provision a variety of back end resources, including public clouds and high performance computers, and developing rapid onboarding procedures for new experiments and collaborations. The larger demands also require enhanced job monitoring tools, which the project has developed using such tools as ElasticSearch and Grafana. in helping experiments manage their large-scale production work ows. This group in turn requires a structured service to facilitate smooth management of experiment requests, which FIFE provides in the form of the Production Operations Management Service (POMS). POMS is designed to track and manage requests from the FIFE experiments to run particular work ows, and support troubleshooting and triage in case of problems. Recently a new certicate management infrastructure called Distributed

  10. NLRC5 knockdown in chicken macrophages alters response to LPS and poly (I:C stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Ling

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NLRC5 is a member of the CARD domain containing, nucleotide-binding oligomerization (NOD-like receptor (NLR family, which recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and initiates an innate immune response leading to inflammation and/or cell death. However, the specific role of NLRC5 as a modulator of the inflammatory immune response remains controversial. It has been reported to be a mediator of type I IFNs, NF-kB, and MHC class I gene. But no study on NLRC5 function has been reported to date in chickens. In the current study, we investigated the role of NLRC5 in the regulation of IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I in the chicken HD11 macrophage cell line, by using RNAi technology. HD11 cells were transfected with one of five siRNAs (s1, s2, s3, negative-siRNA, or a mixture of s1, s2, s3-siRNAs. After 24 hours, cells were exposed to LPS or poly (I:C or a vehicle control. Gene expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, IL-6, and MHC class I at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours post stimulation (hps was quantified by qPCR. Results The expression of NLRC5, IFNA, IFNB, and IL-6 genes in negative irrelevant transfection controls was up-regulated at 2 hps after LPS treatment compared to the vehicle controls. S3-siRNA effectively knocked down NLRC5 expression at 4 hps, and the expression of IFNA and IFNB (but not IL-6 and MHC class I was also down-regulated at 4 hps in s3-siRNA transfected cells, compared to negative irrelevant transfection controls. Stimulation by LPS appeared to relatively restore the decrease in NLRC5, IFNA, and IFNB expression, but the difference is not significant. Conclusions Functional characterization of chicken NLRC5 in an in vitro system demonstrated its importance in regulating intracellular molecules involved in inflammatory response. The knockdown of NLRC5 expression negatively mediates gene expression of IFNA and IFNB in the chicken HD11 cell line; therefore, NLRC5 likely has a role in positive regulation of

  11. Variability in P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potency (IC50) Using Various in Vitro Experimental Systems: Implications for Universal Digoxin Drug- Drug Interaction Risk Assessment Decision Criterias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentz, J.; O'Connor, M.P.; Bednarczyk, D.; Coleman, J.; Lee, C.; Palm, J.; Pak, Y.A.; Perloff, E.S.; Reyner, E.; Balimane, P.; Brännström, M.; Chu, X.; Funk, C.; Guo, A.; Hanna, I.; Herédi-Szabó, K.; Hillgren, K.; Li, L.; Hollnack-Pusch, E.; Jamei, M.; Lin, X.; Mason, A.K.; Neuhoff, S.; Patel, A.; Podila, L.; Plise, E.; Rajaraman, G.; Salphati, L.; Sands, E.; Taub, M.E.; Taur, J.-S.; Weitz, D.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Xia, C.Q.; Xiao, G.; Yabut, J.; Yamagata, T.; Zhang, L.; Ellens, H.

    2013-01-01

    A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC 50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro

  12. Impact of the International Continence Society (ICS) report on the standardisation of terminology in nocturia on the quality of reports on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Ilse; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; Drake, Marcus J.; Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To systematically review and evaluate the impact of the International Continence Society (ICS)-2002 report on standardisation of terminology in nocturia, on publications reporting on nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP). In 2002, the ICS defined NP as a Nocturnal Polyuria Index (nocturnal

  13. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. 180.1154 Section 180.1154 Protection of Environment... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus...

  14. Studies on the determination of trace amounts of nitrogen along with alkali and alkaline earth elements in uranium based samples by ion-chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Poonam; Rastogi, R.K.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2006-12-01

    Present report describes an ion chromatography (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection for the determination of traces of nitrogen along with alkali and alkaline earth elements in uranium based nuclear fuels. Method was developed to determine nitrogen as NH 4 + along with alkali and alkaline earth cations by IC using a cation exchange column. (author)

  15. Three-Input Single-Output Voltage-Mode Multifunction Filter with Electronic Controllability Based on Single Commercially Available IC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachai Klungtong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a second-order voltage-mode filter with three inputs and single-output voltage using single commercially available IC, one resistor, and two capacitors. The used commercially available IC, called LT1228, is manufactured by Linear Technology Corporation. The proposed filter is based on parallel RLC circuit. The filter provides five output filter responses, namely, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP, high-pass (HP, and all-pass (AP functions. The selection of each filter response can be done without the requirement of active and passive component matching condition. Furthermore, the natural frequency and quality factor are electronically controlled. Besides, the nonideal case is also investigated. The output voltage node exhibits low impedance. The experimental results can validate the theoretical analyses.

  16. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom......A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock...

  17. Using the Climbing Drum Peel (CDP) Test to Obtain a G(sub IC) value for Core/Facesheet Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Gregory, Elizabeth D.; Jackson, Justin R.

    2006-01-01

    A method of measuring the Mode I fracture toughness of core/facesheet bonds in sandwich Structures is desired, particularly with the widespread use of models that need this data as input. This study examined if a critical strain energy release rate, G(sub IC), can be obtained from the climbing drum peel (CDP) test. The CDP test is relatively simple to perform and does not rely on measuring small crack lengths such as required by the double cantilever beam (DCB) test. Simple energy methods were used to calculate G(sub IC) from CDP test data on composite facesheets bonded to a honeycomb core. Facesheet thicknesses from 2 to 5 plies were tested to examine the upper and lower bounds on facesheet thickness requirements. Results from the study suggest that the CDP test, with certain provisions, can be used to find the GIG value of a core/facesheet bond.

  18. Determination of anions in pure and commercial phosphoric acid by ion chromatography and manual of 792 basic IC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kabani, F.; Abdulbaki, M. K.

    2007-01-01

    A method for determination of anions in pure and concentrated phosphoric and samples (85%) and commercial phosphoric acid ion chromatography was developed, in order to control the specification of phosphoric acid produced in the pilot plant for phosphoric acid purification. The accuracy of the method was studied and the standard deviation was found to be between 0.09 and 0.10. Operation instructions of 792 Basic IC was described. (author)

  19. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) for Severe Toxicological Exposures: Review of the Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G S; Levitan, R; Wiegand, T J; Lowry, J; Schult, R F; Yin, S

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many developments related to specific strategies for treating patients after poisoning exposures, the mainstay of therapy remains symptomatic and supportive care. One of the most aggressive supportive modalities is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Our goal was to describe the use of ECMO for toxicological exposures reported to the American College of Medical Toxicology (ACMT) Toxicology Investigators Consortium (ToxIC). We performed a retrospective review of the ACMT ToxIC Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included patients aged 0 to 89 years, evaluated between January 2010 through December 2013, and received ECMO for toxicological exposure. There were 26,271 exposures (60 % female) reported to the ToxIC Registry, 10 (0.0004 %) received ECMO: 4 pediatric (18 years). Time of initiation of ECMO ranged from 4 h to 4 days, with duration from 15 h to 12 days. Exposures included carbon monoxide/smoke inhalation (2), bitter almonds, methanol, and several medications including antihistamines (2), antipsychotic/antidepressant (2), cardiovascular drugs (2), analgesics (2), sedative/hypnotics (2), and antidiabetics (2). Four ECMO patients received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during their hospital course, and the overall survival rate was 80 %. ECMO was rarely used for poisoning exposures in the ACMT ToxIC Registry. ECMO was utilized for a variety of ages and for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical exposures. In most cases, ECMO was administered prior to cardiovascular failure, and survival rate was high. If available, ECMO may be a valid treatment modality.

  20. DISCOVERY OF THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SN 2013cq ASSOCIATED WITH THE VERY ENERGETIC GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, D.; Krühler, T.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; Geier, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Leloudas, G. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cano, Z.; Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Schulze, S. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kaper, L. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cabrera-Lavers, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cao, C. [Department of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Covino, S. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H., E-mail: dong@dark-cosmology.dk [Laboratoire Galaxies Etoiles Physique et Instrumentation, Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); and others

    2013-10-20

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399 ± 0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E{sub iso} ∼ 9.6 × 10{sup 53} erg, more than an order of magnitude more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, ∼0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.

  1. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Hee-Jin [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Min-Su, E-mail: msha12@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck-Hoi [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon - CS 90046, 13067 Sant Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K{sub e} factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  2. Comparative evaluation of structural integrity for ITER blanket shield block based on SDC-IC and ASME code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Hee-Jin; Ha, Min-Su; Kim, Sa-Woong; Jung, Hun-Chea; Kim, Duck-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The procedure of structural integrity and fatigue assessment was described. • Case studies were performed according to both SDC-IC and ASME Sec. • III codes The conservatism of the ASME code was demonstrated. • The study only covers the specifically comparable case about fatigue usage factor. - Abstract: The ITER blanket Shield Block is a bulk structure to absorb radiation and to provide thermal shielding to vacuum vessel and external vessel components, therefore the most significant load for Shield Block is the thermal load. In the previous study, the thermo-mechanical analysis has been performed under the inductive operation as representative loading condition. And the fatigue evaluations were conducted to assure structural integrity for Shield Block according to Structural Design Criteria for In-vessel Components (SDC-IC) which provided by ITER Organization (IO) based on the code of RCC-MR. Generally, ASME code (especially, B&PV Sec. III) is widely applied for design of nuclear components, and is usually well known as more conservative than other specific codes. For the view point of the fatigue assessment, ASME code is very conservative compared with SDC-IC in terms of the reflected K_e factor, design fatigue curve and other factors. Therefore, an accurate fatigue assessment comparison is needed to measure of conservatism. The purpose of this study is to provide the fatigue usage comparison resulting from the specified operating conditions shall be evaluated for Shield Block based on both SDC-IC and ASME code, and to discuss the conservatism of the results.

  3. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Thuy Duong; Pham Duc Vinh; Phuong Thien Thuong; Nguyen Thi Hoai; Le Nguyen Thanh; Tran The Bach; Nguyen Hai Nam; Nguyen Hoang Anh

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant.Methods: The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, includingn-hexane, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Results:Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia,Smilax poilanei,Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract ofArchidendron clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.Conclusions:From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (?)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from Archidendron clypearia with IC50 value of 25.5 μmol/L.

  4. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Archidendron clypearia (Jack.) I.C. Nielsen: Results from systematic screening of Vietnamese medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Nguyen Thuy; Vinh, Pham Duc; Thuong, Phuong Thien; Hoai, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Le Nguyen; Bach, Tran The; Nam, Nguyen Hai; Anh, Nguyen Hoang

    2017-06-01

    To screen Vietnamese medicinal plants for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity and to isolate XO inhibitor(s) from the most active plant. The plants materials were extracted by methanol. The active plant materials were fractionated using different organic solvents, including n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Bioassay-guided fractionation and column chromatography were used to isolate compounds. The compounds structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Three hundreds and eleven methanol extracts (CME) belonging to 301 Vietnamese herbs were screened for XO inhibitory activity. Among these plants, 57 extracts displayed XO inhibitory activity at 100 μg/mL with inhibition rates of over 50%. The extracts of Archidendron clypearia (A. clypearia), Smilax poilanei, Linociera ramiflora and Passiflora foetida exhibited the greatest potency with IC 50 values below 30 μg/mL. Chemical study performed on the extract of A. clypearia resulted in the isolation of six compounds, including 1-octacosanol, docosenoic acid, daucosterol, methyl gallate, quercitrin and (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan. The compound (-)-7-O-galloyltricetiflavan showed the most potent XO inhibitory activity with an IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. From this investigation, four Vietnamese medicinal plants were identified to have XO inhibitory effects with IC 50 values of the methanol extracts below 30 μg/mL. Compound (-)-7-O- galloyltricetiflavan was identified as an XO inhibitor from A. clypearia with IC 50 value of 25.5 μmol/L. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential diagnosis between aneurysm and infundibular dilatation in the IC-PC region with 3D-CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Tsukasa; Niwa, Jun; Tanigawara, Tetsuya; Chiba, Masahiko; Akiyama, Yukinori; Inamura Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    In cases of asymptomatic internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) protrusions, it is sometimes difficult to differentiate infundibular dilatation (ID) from aneurysm by digital subtraction angiography. We applied three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA) in 32 cases of these IC-PC protrusions. SOMATOM PLUS 4 was used under such conditions as to provide images with high spatial resolution. The shaded surface display (SSD) method was adopted to reconstruct the 3D images because of its advantage in separating overlapped vasculature. We also made reference to source images and maximum intensity projection (MIP) to make sure of our diagnoses. In all cases including 4 aneurysms and 28 IDs, we were able to distinguish between ID and aneurysm. The accuracy of 3D-CTA was confirmed by 9 surgical cases. Our technique was as follows: To inject a high dose of diluted contrast medium rapidly to smaller arteries for opacification of contrast medium. To exclude neighboring useless structures except for the very close structures such as posterior clinoid process from the target image focusing on the IC-PC region. To observe the reconstructed image of MIP and SSD from various angles. The contralateral and craniocaudal view were valuable. To change the threshold level gradually and observe the configurational changes of the apex of protrusion. Poorly developed PcomA was mostly delineated at the optimum threshold level. Otherwise, the apex of protrusion remained spherical in an aneurysm and became pyramidal in shape in an ID when the threshold level was gradually decreased. In conclusion, 3D-CTA was a useful modality for IC-PC protrusions to distinguish between ID and aneurysm. (author)

  6. A high PSRR Class-D audio amplifier IC based on a self-adjusting voltage reference

    OpenAIRE

    Huffenus , Alexandre; Pillonnet , Gaël; Abouchi , Nacer; Goutti , Frédéric; Rabary , Vincent; Cittadini , Robert

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In a wide range of applications, audio amplifiers require a large Power Supply Rejection Ratio (PSRR) that the current Class-D architecture cannot reach. This paper proposes a self-adjusting internal voltage reference scheme that sets the bias voltages of the amplifier without losing on output dynamics. This solution relaxes the constraints on gain and feedback resistors matching that were previously the limiting factor for the PSRR. Theory of operation, design and IC ...

  7. Comparison of fracture toughness (K{sub IC}) and strain energy release rate (G) of selected nuclear graphites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Se-Hwan, E-mail: shchi@kaeri.re.kr

    2016-08-01

    The fracture behaviors of six nuclear graphite grades for a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which differed in coke particle size and forming method, were characterized based on the ASTM standard graphite fracture toughness test method (ASTM D 7779-11) at room temperature. The G appeared to show good correlation with the fracture surface roughness and the G-Δa curves appeared to describe the fracture process well from crack initiation to failure. Comparison of the local (K{sub IC}) and gross (G{sub IC}, G-Δa) fracture parameters showed that the resistance to crack initiation and propagation was higher in the extruded or vibration molded medium particle size grades (PCEA, NBG-17, NBG-18: EVM group) than in the iso-molded fine particle size grades (IG-110, IG-430, NBG-25: IMF group). The ASTM may need to provide a guideline for G-Δa curve analysis. The K{sub IC} appeared to increase with specimen thickness (size).

  8. SpinlineTM, Benefits of a nuclear specific safety-critical digital I/C platform - 15102

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duthou, A.; Mouly, P.; Jegou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Spinline TM is Rolls-Royce modular and digital solution dedicated to developing and/or upgrading safety I/C used in nuclear reactors. From the start, Spinline TM was specifically designed for Nuclear applications. Therefore, its architecture and components satisfy, from design, the most stringent safety standards required by the local Safety authorities, while they can be adapted to various types of reactors. This is a significant advantage over suppliers who tried to adapt industrial systems to the Nuclear constraints and faced unexpected delays and costs to meet Safety authorities requirements. Spinline TM was specifically designed to implement any Class 1E and category A IEC-61226 safety I/C functions. It is qualified according to European and French nuclear standard and more recently by the US NRC, notably thanks to its Fail-safe features, deterministic behavior and Physical and Functional Separation. In 2011 EDF chose Spinline TM as its safety I/C systems technology for the modernization of 20 units of its 1300 MW PWR fleet

  9. A search for extragalactic pulsars in the local group galaxies IC 10 and Barnard’s galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Noori, H; Roberts, M S E; Champion, D; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, Scott; Ray, P S

    2017-01-01

    As of today, more than 2500 pulsars have been found, nearly all in the Milky Way, with the exception of ∼28 pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. However, there have been few published attempts to search for pulsars deeper in our Galactic neighborhood. Two of the more promising Local Group galaxies are IC 10 and NGC 6822 (also known as Barnard’s Galaxy) due to their relatively high star formation rate and their proximity to our galaxy. IC 10 in particular, holds promise as it is the closest starburst galaxy to us and harbors an unusually high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, implying the presence of many neutron stars. We observed IC 10 and NGC 6822 at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope for ∼15 and 5 hours respectively, and put a strong upper limit of 0.1 mJy on pulsars in either of the two galaxies. We also performed single pulse searches of both galaxies with no firm detections. (paper)

  10. ENN-ICS - quality assurance and online evaluation of a multilingual learning management system for sleep medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobl, Brigitte

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development and implementation of a multilingual interactive communication system the e-health project ENN-ICS, funded by the European Union, aims at the improvement of health care in Europe. The field of application is sleep physiology and sleep medicine. ENN-ICS Centre offers direct access to medical information for multiple users, i.e. health authorities, health care professionals, patients and citizen. Using XML technologies the new web based network integrates advanced e-learning and e-publishing methods for the training of healthcare professionals. Editorial and distributive processes are supported by customized central editorial, content management and learning management systems (CMS, LMS. ENN-ICS e-health services are evaluated by selected user groups in North, Middle and Southern Europe using reliable and scientifically accepted validation instruments. The compliance with essential quality requirements and criteria is tested and verified by using adapted online questionnaires based on the DISCERN questionnaire for evaluating patient information, on the HON principles for evaluating health-related websites and on the GMDS catalogue of quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine. The system architecture and its exemplary applications can be used as a model for future e-health services dealing with neurological and other medical topics.

  11. Separation and quantitation of radionuclides in Hanford environmental and waste tank samples using IC-ICP/MS techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, O.T. III; Smith, M.R.; Wyse, E.J.; Barinage, C.J.; Koppenaal, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The use of shielded ICP/MS instrumentation to characterize radioactive material has seen marked growth over the past few years. With a lower limit detection now in the fg/mL range for newer units, ICP/MS has become the method of choice for many studies requiring rapid, isotopic analysis of both stable elements and radionuclides with half-lives greater than 102-103 years. However, despite its sensitivity and versatility, ICP/MS has heretofore had some notable limitations in certain radiological applications. For example, Hanford waste tank samples contain a variety of nuclides with altered isotopic abundances, which complicate identification of these nuclides. Even if a nuclide can be identified, conventional quantitation using vendor-supplied software assumes natural, or knowledge of, isotopic abundance. Difficult sample matrices like those obtained from the Hanford tanks can further complicate interpretation and quantitation. On-line ion chromatography (IC) has been recently employed to mitigate some these problems. By sequentially separating elements, isobars can be resolved, thereby permitting the unequivocal determination of isotopic abundances. But even though the technique resolves isobaric interferences and is effective in reducing matrix problems, IC does not easily lend itself to quantitation. Internal standards, which are crucial for quantitation during a prolonged ICP/MS analysis with varying eluant matrices, are separated or affected as any indigenous element is using standard IC methodology

  12. Analysis of perchlorate in foods and beverages by ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Aribi, Houssain [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada)]. E-mail: houssain.aribi@sciex.com; Le Blanc, Yves J.C. [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada); Antonsen, Stephen [Dionex Canada Ltd., 1540 Cornwall Road, Oakville, Ont., L6J 7W5 (Canada); Sakuma, Takeo [Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ont., L4K 4V8 (Canada)

    2006-05-10

    A new IC-ESI-MS/MS method, with simple sample preparation procedure, has been developed for quantification and confirmation of perchlorate (ClO{sub 4} {sup -}) anions in water, fresh and canned food, wine and beer samples at low part-per-trillion (ng l{sup -1}) levels. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time an analytical method is used for determination of perchlorate in wine and beer samples. The IC-ESI-MS/MS instrumentation consisted of an ICS-2500 ion chromatography (IC) system coupled to either an API 2000{sup TM} or an API 3200{sup TM} mass spectrometer. The IC-ESI-MS/MS system was optimized to monitor two pairs of precursor and fragment ion transitions, i.e., multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). All samples had oxygen-18 isotope labeled perchlorate internal standard (ISTD) added prior to extraction. Chlorine isotope ratio ({sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl) was used as a confirmation tool. The transition of {sup 35}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 98.9) into {sup 35}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 82.9) was monitored for quantifying the main analyte; the transition of {sup 37}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 100.9) into {sup 37}Cl{sup 16}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 84.9) was monitored for examining a proper isotopic abundance ratio of {sup 35}Cl/{sup 37}Cl; and the transition of {sup 35}Cl{sup 18}O{sub 4} {sup -} (m/z 107.0) into {sup 35}Cl{sup 18}O{sub 3} {sup -} (m/z 89.0) was monitored for quantifying the internal standard. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for this method in de-ionized water is 5 ng l{sup -1} (ppt) using the API 2000{sup TM} mass spectrometer and 0.5 ng l{sup -1} using the API 3200{sup TM} mass spectrometer. Over 350 food and beverage samples were analyzed mostly in triplicate. Except for four, all samples were found to contain measurable amounts of perchlorate. The levels found ranged from 5 ng l{sup -1} to 463.5 {+-} 6.36 {mu}g kg{sup -1} using MRM 98.9 {sup {yields}} 82.9 and 100 {mu}l injection.

  13. PREFACE: 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers (IC-MAST2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristoforou, E.; Vlachos, D. S.; Giouroudi, I.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Potirakis, S.

    2016-03-01

    The 5th International Conference on Materials and Applications for Sensors and Transducers, Mykonos island, Greece, hosted about 110 oral and poster papers and more than 90 participants. IC-MAS, as an international annual conference which tries to meet the needs for various types of sensors, particularly those which may be manufactured by low cost methods (i.e. hybrid sensors, smart specialization devices, particular applications not necessarily requiring integrated micro-nano technologies), covering all types of materials and physical effects, appears to be a necessity. IC-MAST has been established as a high quality international conference by: I. Gathering together multinational researchers from all over the world, working in different materials for sensors and transducers and technical applications of sensors, but also in some cases in the management of the data coming from sensors and transducers. The careful selection of the conference place (like Aegean Sea, Budapest, Prague, Bilbao, Mykonos etc) allows for enjoying the local hospitality and sightseeing. II. Emphasizing in hybrid sensors and smart specialization devices produced by inexpensive methods, without excluding of course micro-nano technology, from all kinds of solid state, liquid and gaseous materials, as well as in particular transducer applications (design and development, as well as use of sensing data) III. Innovatively implementing the Virtual Paper Concept, allowing for large impact of research works presented in the conference by authors who either have no time or no funding support for visiting a conference; this year more than 12 virtual papers are presented in the 5th IC MAST, following a standardized procedure via the our robust and reliable Conference Site (www.icmast.net!) > IV. Allowing for lengthy technical and managerial discussions in terms of sensor, material and instrumentation development; furthermore, the different research groups gathered together are offered the particular

  14. Simulation of a class of hazardous situations in the ICS «INM RAS - Baltic Sea»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Natalia; Agoshkov, Valery; Aseev, Nikita; Parmuzin, Eugene; Sheloput, Tateana; Shutyaev, Victor

    2017-04-01

    Development of Informational Computational Systems (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in mathematical modeling, theory of adjoint equations and optimal control, inverse problems, numerical methods theory, numerical algebra, scientific computing and processing of satellite data. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Baltic Sea" are presented. We discuss practical problems studied by ICS. The System includes numerical model of the Baltic Sea thermodynamics, the new oil spill model describing the propagation of a slick at the Sea surface (Agoshkov, Aseev et al., 2014) and the optimal ship route calculating block (Agoshkov, Zayachkovsky et al., 2014). The ICS is based on the INMOM numerical model of the Baltic Sea thermodynamics (Zalesny et al., 2013). It is possible to calculate main hydrodynamic parameters (temperature, salinity, velocities, sea level) using user-friendly interface of the ICS. The System includes data assimilation procedures (Agoshkov, 2003, Parmuzin, Agoshkov, 2012) and one can use the block of variational assimilation of the sea surface temperature in order to obtain main hydrodynamic parameters. Main possibilities of the ICS and several numerical experiments are presented in the work. By the problem of risk control is meant a problem of determination of optimal resources quantity which are necessary for decreasing the risk to some acceptable value. Mass of oil slick is chosen as a function of control. For the realization of the random variable the quadratic "functional of cost" is introduced. It comprises cleaning costs and deviation of damage of oil pollution from its acceptable value. The problem of minimization of this functional is solved based on the methods of optimal control and the theory of adjoint equations. The solution of this problem is

  15. The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) Online Database: Uploading, Searching and Visualizing Paleomagnetic and Rock Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Jackson, M.; Solheid, P.; Banerjee, S.; Johnson, C.

    2006-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by both rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all measurements and the derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). MagIC is hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ and has two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual map interface to browse and select locations. The query result set is displayed in a digestible tabular format allowing the user to descend through hierarchical levels such as from locations to sites, samples, specimens, and measurements. At each stage, the result set can be saved and, if supported by the data, can be visualized by plotting global location maps, equal area plots, or typical Zijderveld, hysteresis, and various magnetization and remanence diagrams. User contributions to the MagIC database are critical to achieving a useful research tool. We have developed a standard data and metadata template (Version 2.1) that can be used to format and upload all data at the time of publication in Earth Science journals. Software tools are provided to facilitate population of these templates within Microsoft Excel. These tools allow for the import/export of text files and provide advanced functionality to manage and edit the data, and to perform various internal checks to maintain data integrity and prepare for uploading. The MagIC Contribution Wizard at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/upload.htm executes the upload and takes only a few minutes to process several thousand data records. The standardized MagIC template files are stored in the digital archives of EarthRef.org where they

  16. Migration to Current Open Source Technologies by MagIC Enables a More Responsive Website, Quicker Development Times, and Increased Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarboe, N.; Minnett, R.; Koppers, A.; Constable, C.; Tauxe, L.; Jonestrask, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) supports an online database for the paleo, geo, and rock magnetic communities ( https://earthref.org/MagIC ). Researchers can upload data into the archive and download data as selected with a sophisticated search system. MagIC has completed the transition from an Oracle backed, Perl based, server oriented website to an ElasticSearch backed, Meteor based thick client website technology stack. Using JavaScript on both the sever and the client enables increased code reuse and allows easy offloading many computational operations to the client for faster response. On-the-fly data validation, column header suggestion, and spreadsheet online editing are some new features available with the new system. The 3.0 data model, method codes, and vocabulary lists can be browsed via the MagIC website and more easily updated. Source code for MagIC is publicly available on GitHub ( https://github.com/earthref/MagIC ). The MagIC file format is natively compatible with the PmagPy ( https://github.com/PmagPy/PmagPy) paleomagnetic analysis software. MagIC files can now be downloaded from the database and viewed and interpreted in the PmagPy GUI based tool, pmag_gui. Changes or interpretations of the data can then be saved by pmag_gui in the MagIC 3.0 data format and easily uploaded to the MagIC database. The rate of new contributions to the database has been increasing with many labs contributing measurement level data for the first time in the last year. Over a dozen file format conversion scripts are available for translating non-MagIC measurement data files into the MagIC format for easy uploading. We will continue to work with more labs until the whole community has a manageable workflow for contributing their measurement level data. MagIC will continue to provide a global repository for archiving and retrieving paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data and, with the new system in place, be able to more quickly respond to the community

  17. Nonlinear concentration gradients regulated by the width of channels for observation of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yuta; Kamiya, Koki; Osaki, Toshihisa; Sasaki, Hirotaka; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-08-21

    This paper describes a simple microfluidic device that can generate nonlinear concentration gradients. We changed the "width" of channels that can drastically shorten the total microfluidic channel length and simplify the microfluidic network design rather than the "length" of channels. The logarithmic concentration gradients generated by the device were in good agreement with those obtained by simulation. Using this device, we evaluated a probable IC50 value of the ABC transporter proteins by the competitive transport assays at five different logarithmic concentrations. This probable IC50 value was in good agreement with an IC50 value (0.92 μM) obtained at the diluted concentrations of seven points.

  18. Biochemical investigations of the mechanism of action of small molecules ZL006 and IC87201 as potential inhibitors of the nNOS-PDZ/PSD-95-PDZ interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders

    2015-01-01

    ZL006 and IC87201 have been presented as efficient inhibitors of the nNOS/PSD-95 protein-protein interaction and shown great promise in cellular experiments and animal models of ischemic stroke and pain. Here, we investigate the proposed mechanism of action of ZL006 and IC87201 using biochemical...... by interacting with the β-finger of nNOS-PDZ. Our findings have implications for further medicinal chemistry efforts of ZL006, IC87201 and analogues, and challenge the general and widespread view on their mechanism of action....

  19. The Near-infrared Tip of the Red Giant Branch. I. A Calibration in the Isolated Dwarf Galaxy IC 1613

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Hatt, Dylan; Hoyt, Taylor J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Jang, In Sung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Based on observations from the FourStar near-infrared camera on the 6.5 m Baade-Magellan telescope at Las Campanas, Chile, we present calibrations of the JHK luminosities of stars defining the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) in the halo of the Local Group dwarf galaxy IC 1613. We employ metallicity-independent (rectified) T-band magnitudes—constructed using J-, H-, and K-band magnitudes and both (J ‑ H) and (J ‑ K) colors to flatten the upward-sloping red giant branch tips as otherwise seen in their apparent color–magnitude diagrams. We describe and quantify the advantages of working at these particular near-infrared wavelengths, which are applicable to both the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We also note that these same wavelengths can be accessed from the ground for an eventual tie-in to Gaia for absolute astrometry and parallaxes to calibrate the intrinsic luminosity of the TRGB. Adopting the color terms derived from the IC 1613 data, as well as the zero points from a companion study of the Large Magellanic Cloud, whose distance is anchored to the geometric distances of detached eclipsing binaries, we find a true distance modulus of 24.32 ± 0.02 (statistical) ±0.05 mag (systematic) for IC 1613, which compares favorably with the recently published multi-wavelength, multi-method consensus modulus of 24.30 ± 0.05 mag by Hatt et al.

  20. Energy-dependent evolution in IC10 X-1: hard evidence for an extended corona and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, R.; Steiner, J. F.; Prestwich, A. F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CFA), Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stevens, I. R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C. [The Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-10

    We have analyzed a ∼130 ks XMM-Newton observation of the dynamically confirmed black hole + Wolf-Rayet (BH+WR) X-ray binary (XB) IC10 X-1, covering ∼1 orbital cycle. This system experiences periodic intensity dips every ∼35 hr. We find that energy-independent evolution is rejected at a >5σ level. The spectral and timing evolution of IC10 X-1 are best explained by a compact disk blackbody and an extended Comptonized component, where the thermal component is completely absorbed and the Comptonized component is partially covered during the dip. We consider three possibilities for the absorber: cold material in the outer accretion disk, as is well documented for Galactic neutron star (NS) XBs at high inclination; a stream of stellar wind that is enhanced by traveling through the L1 point; and a spherical wind. We estimated the corona radius (r {sub ADC}) for IC10 X-1 from the dip ingress to be ∼10{sup 6} km, assuming absorption from the outer disk, and found it to be consistent with the relation between r {sub ADC} and 1-30 keV luminosity observed in Galactic NS XBs that spans two orders of magnitude. For the other two scenarios, the corona would be larger. Prior BH mass (M {sub BH}) estimates range over 23-38 M {sub ☉}, depending on the inclination and WR mass. For disk absorption, the inclination, i, is likely to be ∼60-80°, with M {sub BH} ∼ 24-41 M {sub ☉}. Alternatively, the L1-enhanced wind requires i ∼ 80°, suggesting ∼24-33 M {sub ☉}. For a spherical absorber, i ∼ 40°, and M {sub BH} ∼ 50-65 M {sub ☉}.

  1. Innate immune responses against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection in rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) following poly (I:C) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jung, Sung-Ju

    2017-12-01

    Poly (I:C) showed promise as an immunoprotective agents in rock bream against rock bream iridovirus (RBIV) infection. In this study, we evaluated the time-dependent virus replication pattern and antiviral immune responses in RBIV-infected rock bream with and without poly (I:C) administration. In the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, virus copy numbers were more than 18.9-, 24.0- and 479.2-fold lower than in the virus only injected group at 4 (4.73 × 10 4 and 8.95 × 10 5 /μl, respectively), 7 (3.67 × 10 5 and 8.81 × 10 6 /μl, respectively) and 10 days post infection (dpi) (1.26 × 10 5 and 6.02 × 10 7 /μl, respectively). Moreover, significantly high expression levels of TLR3 (8.6- and 7.7-fold, at 4 and 7 dpi, respectively) and IL1β (3.6-fold at 2 dpi) were observed in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, but the expression levels were not significantly in the virus-injected group. However, IL8 and TNFα expression levels showed no statistical significance in both groups. Mx, ISG15 and PKR were significantly highly expressed from 4 to 10 dpi in the virus-injected group. Nevertheless, in the poly (I:C)+virus-injected group, Mx and ISG15 expression were significantly expressed from 2 dpi. In summary, poly (I:C) administration in rock bream induces TLR3, IL1β, Mx and ISG15-mediated immune responses, which could be a critical factor for inhibition of virus replication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Social Interaction, Recognition and Working Memory with Cannabidiol Treatment in a Prenatal Infection (poly I:C) Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Ashleigh L; Solowij, Nadia; Babic, Ilijana; Huang, Xu-Feng; Weston-Green, Katrina

    2017-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning, memory and attention deficits. Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their efficacy to improve cognition; therefore, new therapeutic agents are required. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of cannabis, has anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antipsychotic-like properties; however, its ability to improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia remains unclear. Using a prenatal infection model, we examined the effect of chronic CBD treatment on cognition and social interaction. Time-mated pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16) were administered polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (poly I:C) (POLY; 4 mg/kg) or saline (CONT) at gestation day 15. Male offspring (PN56) were injected twice daily with 10 mg/kg CBD (CONT+CBD, POLY+CBD; n=12 per group) or vehicle (VEH; CONT+VEH, POLY+VEH; n=12 per group) for 3 weeks. Body weight, food and water intake was measured weekly. The Novel Object Recognition and rewarded T-maze alternation tests assessed recognition and working memory, respectively, and the social interaction test assessed sociability. POLY+VEH offspring exhibited impaired recognition and working memory, and reduced social interaction compared to CONT+VEH offspring (psocial interaction deficits in the poly I:C model (p0.05). In conclusion, chronic CBD administration can attenuate the social interaction and cognitive deficits induced by prenatal poly I:C infection. These novel findings present interesting implications for potential use of CBD in treating the cognitive deficits and social withdrawal of schizophrenia.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Carnegie-Chicago Hubble Program. II. IC 1613 (Hatt+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, D.; Beaton, R. L.; Freedman, W. L.; Madore, B. F.; Jang, I.-S.; Hoyt, T. J.; Lee, M. G.; Monson, A. J.; Rich, J. A.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M.

    2018-04-01

    Observations of IC 1613 were obtained on 2015 June 12 using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph (IMACS) on the 6.5m Magellan-Baade telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We obtain a 15.46'x15.46' field of view with resolution of 0.2"/pixel and observed in the BVI filters. See section 2.1.1. We have made use of archival imaging of IC 1613 taken from the Local Cosmology from Isolated Dwarfs program (PID:GO10505, PI: Gallart; Gallart 2005, LCID). A single field was imaged over 24 orbits between 2006 August 28 and 30 approximately 5' west of the center of IC 1613 using the HST ACS/WFC instrument, which provides a 202"x202" field of view with 0.05"/pixel resolution. Each orbit was divided between two ~1200s exposures in the F475W and F814W passbands, resulting in 48 epochs per filter. See section 2.1.2. We obtained near-infrared imaging over 24 orbits between 2014 December 17 and 18 using the HST WFC3/IR instrument (PID:GO13691, PI: Freedman; Freedman W. 2014 HST Proposal). The orbits were divided between two overlapping 136"x123" WFC3/IR pointings with a native resolution of 0.135"/pixel. See section 2.1.3. In parallel with the observations described in the previous section were 24 orbits with the HST ACS/WFC instrument (PID:GO13691, PI: Freedman; Freedman 2014 W. HST Proposal). Each exposure in F606W and F814W spanned ~500s. See section 2.1.4. (2 data files).

  4. Determination of chemical form of iodine with IC-ICP-MS system and its application to the environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Katou, S.; Sekimoto, H.; Muramatsu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Iodine-129 is one of the important radionuclides possibly released into the environment from nuclear weapons testing and from the nuclear facilities such as nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Because of its long half-life (1.57 x 10 7 y), knowing its long-term behavior in the environment is a major concern. As I-129 is expected to act together with stable iodine (I-127) in the environment after long time, the biogeochemical cycling of stable iodine in the environment can be used for the reliable safety assessment of I-129. Chemical form is the one of the important factors controlling the 'iodine behavior in the environment. Iodide (I - ) and iodate (IO 3 - ) are known to be the major chemical form in the aqueous solution. However, the information on the chemical form of iodine in the environmental sample is limited because of lack of reliable analytical technique for trace level of iodine in the environment. In this study, the analytical system by using ion chromatograph (IC) followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the separate determination of I - and IO 3 - in the aqueous solution. The IC with anion exchange column (EXCELPAK ICS-A23) was used for the separation of I - and IO 3 - with 30 mM (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 as eluent. Separated iodine was determined with ICP-MS on line. with the detection limit 0.1 - 1 μg/L. The total iodine concentration was also measured by the direct determination with ICP-MS. The iodine in the several environmental samples such as irrigation water in paddy field was successfully determined with information of chemical form. In incubation experiment with flooded soil, the change of the chemical form of iodine in the soil solution with change of Eh was observed. Detailed data will be discussed in the presentation.

  5. SN 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp: An example of residual helium in a type Ic supernova?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, S. J.; Ashall, C.; Mazzali, P. A.; Zhang, J.-J.; James, P. A.; Wang, X.-F.; Vinkó, J.; Percival, S.; Short, L.; Piascik, A.; Huang, F.; Mo, J.; Rui, L.-M.; Wang, J.-G.; Xiang, D.-F.; Xin, Y.-X.; Yi, W.-M.; Yu, X.-G.; Zhai, Q.; Zhang, T.-M.; Hosseinzadeh, G.; Howell, D. A.; McCully, C.; Valenti, S.; Cseh, B.; Hanyecz, O.; Kriskovics, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Székely, P.; Varga-Verebélyi, E.; Vida, K.; Bradac, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Sand, D.; Tartaglia, L.

    2018-05-01

    The optical observations of Ic-4 supernova (SN) 2016coi/ASASSN-16fp, from ˜2 to ˜450 days after explosion, are presented along with analysis of its physical properties. The SN shows the broad lines associated with SNe Ic-3/4 but with a key difference. The early spectra display a strong absorption feature at ˜5400 Åwhich is not seen in other SNe Ic-3/4 at this epoch. This feature has been attributed to HeIin the literature. Spectral modelling of the SN in the early photospheric phase suggests the presence of residual He in a C/O dominated shell. However, the behaviour of the HeIlines is unusual when compared with He-rich SNe, showing relatively low velocities and weakening rather than strengthening over time. The SN is found to rise to peak ˜16 d after core-collapse reaching a bolometric luminosity of Lp ˜ 3 × 1042 erg s-1. Spectral models, including the nebular epoch, show that the SN ejected 2.5 - 4 M⊙of material, with ˜1.5 M⊙below 5000 km s-1, and with a kinetic energy of (4.5 - 7) × 1051 erg. The explosion synthesised ˜0.14 M⊙of 56Ni. There are significant uncertainties in E(B - V)host and the distance however, which will affect Lp and MNi. SN 2016coi exploded in a host similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and away from star-forming regions. The properties of the SN and the host-galaxy suggest that the progenitor had MZAMS of 23 - 28 M⊙and was stripped almost entirely down to its C/O core at explosion.

  6. A Cometary Bow Shock and Mid-Infrared Emission Variations Revealed in Spitzer Observations of HD 34078 and IC 405

    OpenAIRE

    France, Kevin; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Lupu, Roxana E.

    2006-01-01

    We present new infrared observations of the emission/reflection nebula IC 405 obtained with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared images in the four IRAC bands (3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 um) and two MIPS bands (24 and 70 um) are complemented by IRS spectroscopy (5-30 um) of two nebular filaments. The IRAC (8.0 um) and MIPS imaging shows evidence of a bow shock associated with the runaway O9.5V star, HD 34078, created by the interaction between the star and nebular material. The ratio of emission...

  7. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brenneman, L. W.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.

    2014-01-01

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku andNuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found...... also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than justNuSTAR alone: Ecut = 186±14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate...

  8. JAK kinases are required for the bacterial RNA and poly I:C induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR

    OpenAIRE

    Bleiblo, Farag; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Ramana, Chilakamarti V; Tai, TC; Saleh, Mazen; Parrillo, Joseph E; Kumar, Anand; Kumar, Aseem

    2012-01-01

    Discriminating the molecular patterns associated with RNA is central to innate immunity. The protein kinase PKR is a cytosolic sensor involved in the recognition of viral dsRNA and triggering interferon-induced signaling. Here, we identified bacterial RNA as a novel distinct pattern recognized by PKR. We show that the tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR induced by either bacterial RNA or poly I:C is impaired in mutant cells lacking TYK2, JAK1, or JAK2 kinases. PKR was found to be a direct substra...

  9. Assessing the organizational context for EBP implementation: the development and validity testing of the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Aarons, Gregory A; Farahnak, Lauren R

    2014-10-23

    Although the importance of the organizational environment for implementing evidence-based practices (EBP) has been widely recognized, there are limited options for measuring implementation climate in public sector health settings. The goal of this research was to develop and test a measure of EBP implementation climate that would both capture a broad range of issues important for effective EBP implementation and be of practical use to researchers and managers seeking to understand and improve the implementation of EBPs. Participants were 630 clinicians working in 128 work groups in 32 US-based mental health agencies. Items to measure climate for EBP implementation were developed based on past literature on implementation climate and other strategic climates and in consultation with experts on the implementation of EBPs in mental health settings. The sample was randomly split at the work group level of analysis; half of the sample was used for exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and the other half was used for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The entire sample was utilized for additional analyses assessing the reliability, support for level of aggregation, and construct-based evidence of validity. The EFA resulted in a final factor structure of six dimensions for the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS): 1) focus on EBP, 2) educational support for EBP, 3) recognition for EBP, 4) rewards for EBP, 5) selection for EBP, and 6) selection for openness. This structure was supported in the other half of the sample using CFA. Additional analyses supported the reliability and construct-based evidence of validity for the ICS, as well as the aggregation of the measure to the work group level. The ICS is a very brief (18 item) and pragmatic measure of a strategic climate for EBP implementation. It captures six dimensions of the organizational context that indicate to employees the extent to which their organization prioritizes and values the successful implementation of EBPs

  10. IC-tagged proteins are able to interact with each other and perform complex reactions when integrated into muNS-derived inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Otero-Romero, Iria; Benavente, Javier; Martinez-Costas, Jose M

    2011-09-20

    We have recently developed a versatile tagging system (IC-tagging) that causes relocation of the tagged proteins to ARV muNS-derived intracellular globular inclusions. In the present study we demonstrate (i) that the IC-tag can be successfully fused either to the amino or carboxyl terminus of the protein to be tagged and (ii) that IC-tagged proteins are able to interact between them and perform complex reactions that require such interactions while integrated into muNS inclusions, increasing the versatility of the IC-tagging system. Also, our studies with the DsRed protein add some light on the structure/function relationship of the evolution of DsRed chromophore. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Self-Patterning of Silica/Epoxy Nanocomposite Underfill by Tailored Hydrophilic-Superhydrophobic Surfaces for 3D Integrated Circuit (IC) Stacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Chia-Chi; James, Nathan Pataki; Lin, Ziyin; Chen, Yun; Liu, Yan; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Li, Zhuo; Wong, C P

    2017-03-15

    As microelectronics are trending toward smaller packages and integrated circuit (IC) stacks nowadays, underfill, the polymer composite filled in between the IC chip and the substrate, becomes increasingly important for interconnection reliability. However, traditional underfills cannot meet the requirements for low-profile and fine pitch in high density IC stacking packages. Post-applied underfills have difficulties in flowing into the small gaps between the chip and the substrate, while pre-applied underfills face filler entrapment at bond pads. In this report, we present a self-patterning underfilling technology that uses selective wetting of underfill on Cu bond pads and Si 3 N 4 passivation via surface energy engineering. This novel process, fully compatible with the conventional underfilling process, eliminates the issue of filler entrapment in typical pre-applied underfilling process, enabling high density and fine pitch IC die bonding.

  12. A novel application of t-statistics to objectively assess the quality of IC50 fits for P-glycoprotein and other transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael; Lee, Caroline; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

    2015-02-01

    Current USFDA and EMA guidance for drug transporter interactions is dependent on IC50 measurements as these are utilized in determining whether a clinical interaction study is warranted. It is therefore important not only to standardize transport inhibition assay systems but also to develop uniform statistical criteria with associated probability statements for generation of robust IC50 values, which can be easily adopted across the industry. The current work provides a quantitative examination of critical factors affecting the quality of IC50 fits for P-gp inhibition through simulations of perfect data with randomly added error as commonly observed in the large data set collected by the P-gp IC50 initiative. The types of errors simulated were (1) variability in replicate measures of transport activity; (2) transformations of error-contaminated transport activity data prior to IC50 fitting (such as performed when determining an IC50 for inhibition of P-gp based on efflux ratio); and (3) the lack of well defined "no inhibition" and "complete inhibition" plateaus. The effect of the algorithm used in fitting the inhibition curve (e.g., two or three parameter fits) was also investigated. These simulations provide strong quantitative support for the recommendations provided in Bentz et al. (2013) for the determination of IC50 values for P-gp and demonstrate the adverse effect of data transformation prior to fitting. Furthermore, the simulations validate uniform statistical criteria for robust IC50 fits in general, which can be easily implemented across the industry. A calibration of the t-statistic is provided through calculation of confidence intervals associated with the t-statistic.

  13. Enhanced urothelial expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta (hCGβ) in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Ho, Thi Phuc; Mallock, Tobias; Hartenstein, Siegurd; Alexander, Henry; Zimmermann, Gerolf; Hohenfellner, Rudolf; Denzinger, Stefan; Burger, Maximilian; Horn, Lars-Christian; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2012-06-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is associated with urothelial lesions. Pathomechanisms of urothelial damage and factors for urothelial restoration are unknown. hCG is a factor for cellular differentiation, angiogenesis and immune competence of the endometrium during pregnancy. Clinical observations demonstrate improvement of BPS/IC symptoms during pregnancy or during infertility treatment with hCG. Our research aims were to examine the expression of hCG and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) in the urothelium of BPS/IC patients and compare the levels of hCGβ with healthy controls. Bladder biopsies of BPS/IC (CLSM: n = 10; qPCR: n = 15); Tumour-free control tissue from cystectomies (n = 12). hCGα, hCGβ and LHR expression were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and hCGβ expression was quantified. hCGβ5 and hCGβ7 mRNA splice variants were quantified in real-time polymerase chain reaction. We found constitutive expression of hCGα, hCGβ and LHR in healthy controls. HCGβ was significantly upregulated in BPS/IC patients in CLSM. PCR analysis revealed higher levels of hCGβ7 than hCGβ5 in controls and BPS/IC patients. The constitutive expression of hCG and LHR speaks in favour for a functional signalling in urothelial cells without any association with either pregnancy or tumour. We show for the first time that hCGβ is upregulated in BPS/IC urothelium and that hCGβ7 is the dominant splice variant in those cells. Our findings imply a major role of hCG for urothelial integrity and a disturbance of hCG signalling in case of BPS/IC. We conclude that hCG could gain therapeutical relevance in the future.

  14. Unique structure of iC3b resolved at a resolution of 24 Å by 3D-electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcorlo, Martin; Martínez-Barricarte, Ruben; Fernández, Francisco J; Rodríguez-Gallego, César; Round, Adam; Vega, M Cristina; Harris, Claire L; de Cordoba, Santiago Rodríguez; Llorca, Oscar

    2011-08-09

    Activation of C3, deposition of C3b on the target surface, and subsequent amplification by formation of a C3-cleaving enzyme (C3-convertase; C3bBb) triggers the effector functions of complement that result in inflammation and cell lysis. Concurrently, surface-bound C3b is proteolyzed to iC3b by factor I and appropriate cofactors. iC3b then interacts with the complement receptors (CR) of the Ig superfamily, CR2 (CD21), CR3 (CD11b/CD18), and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) on leukocytes, down-modulating inflammation, enhancing B cell-mediated immunity, and targeting pathogens for clearance by phagocytosis. Using EM and small-angle X-ray scattering, we now present a medium-resolution structure of iC3b (24 Å). iC3b displays a unique conformation with structural features distinct from any other C3 fragment. The macroglobulin ring in iC3b is similar to that in C3b, whereas the TED (thioester-containing domain) domain and the remnants of the CUB (complement protein subcomponents C1r/C1s, urchin embryonic growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 1) domain have moved to locations more similar to where they were in native C3. A consequence of this large conformational change is the disruption of the factor B binding site, which renders iC3b unable to assemble a C3-convertase. This structural model also justifies the decreased interaction between iC3b and complement regulators and the recognition of iC3b by the CR of the Ig superfamily, CR2, CR3, and CR4. These data further illustrate the extraordinary conformational versatility of C3 to accommodate a great diversity of functional activities.

  15. 30 CFR 57.22202 - Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V... Main fans (I-A, I-B, I-C, II-A, III, V-A, and V-B mines). (a) Main fans shall be— (1) Installed on the... mines, provided with an automatic signal device to give an alarm when the fan stops. The signal device...

  16. NGC1448 and IC 3639: Two Concealed Black Holes Lurking in our Cosmic Backyard Unveiled by NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; Boorman, Peter; Annuar, Ady; Gandhi, Poshak; Alexander, D. M.; Lansbury, George B.; Asmus, Daniel; Ballantyne, David R.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Brightman, Murray; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Farrah, Duncan; Goulding, Andy D.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hoenig, Sebastian; Koss, Michael; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Masini, Alberto; Murray, Stephen S.; Ricci, Claudio; Risaliti, Guido; Rosario, David J.; Stanley, Flora; Zhang, William

    2017-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of two nearby Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), NGC 1448 and IC 3639, located at distances of 12 Mpc and 54 Mpc, respectively. NuSTAR high-energy X-ray (> 10 keV) observations, combined with archival lower energy X-ray observations from Chandra and Suzaku, reveal both sources to contain heavily obscured, accreting super-massive black holes. NGC 1448 is one of the nearest luminous galaxies to the Milky Way, yet the AGN at its centre was only discovered in 2009. Using state-of-the-art models, we constrain the obscuring column density (NH) of gas concealing both AGN, finding them to be extreme, with NH values well into the Compton-thick (CT) regime with N(H) > 3e24 /cm2. NGC 1448 has an intrinsic X-ray luminosity of L(24 keV) ˜ 5e40 erg/s, making it one of the lowest luminosity CT AGN known. IC 3639, on the other hand, has one of the strongest iron fluorescence emission lines known. We also discuss multi-wavelength diagnostics at optical and mid-infrared energies as indirect indicators to penetrate through the obscuring veils and probe the intrinsic properties of the AGN. Through detailed studies such as we present here, NuSTAR is showing that there are still plenty of interesting discoveries awaiting to be made, even in the nearby Universe.

  17. Santa Maria de Garoña, goals of I&C at its Long Term Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alutiz, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Santa Maria de Garoña (SMG) Nuclear Power Plant is a GE BWR/3 connected to the grid in 1971 and operated by Nuclenor, S.A. It is owned by two of the largest spanish electrical utilities, Endesa and Iberdrola, each with 50% ownership. Garoña was powered down in December 2012 due to financial reasons and was formally closed for decommissioning in July 2013. One year later, SMG has applied to re-open the plant until 2031. To ensure the continued safe, reliable and efficient operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is essential to address obsolescence, aging and reliability Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Issues, and must therefore take into consideration these two major issues with the following goals: (1) To ensure that current analog and digital I&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the operation of the plant. (2) To implement digital Instrumentation,Information & Control systems (II&C) technologies, improving efficiency and performance of the internal work processes, and, to monitor the main assets of the plant, targeting operation and management costs. This paper will describe the strategy developed for a single unit, in this case the SMG NPP, to face the above mentioned challenges. (Author)

  18. Prospects for an energy determination of the {sup 229m}Th nuclear isomer via IC electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiferle, B.; Wense, L. v.d.; Thirolf, P.G. [LMU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Laatiaoui, M. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Of all known nuclear excited states, the isomeric first excited state of {sup 229}Th possesses the lowest excitation energy reported to be E{sup *}=7.6(5) eV (=163(11) nm). This opens up the possibility to drive the transition with a laser and makes {sup 229m}Th an interesting candidate for future developments linking nuclear and atomic physics, such as a nuclear optical clock or a nuclear γ-ray laser. Still, for a direct laser excitation, the knowledge on the energy and half-life of the isomer is not precise enough. In this work and for the expected transition energy, neutral {sup 229}Th decays via the emission internal conversion (IC) electrons with an energy of 1.2 eV (i.e. difference between E* and the 1{sup st} ionization potential). A {sup 233}U α-recoil source is placed in a buffer-gas stopping cell. {sup 229}Th ions, of which 2% are in the isomeric state are recoiled out of the source. RF- and DC electrode structures form an ion beam out of all the recoil ions. Afterwards, {sup 229(m)}Th ions are separated from other short-lived daughter isotopes with a quadrupole mass separator and can be prepared for further experiments. The poster gives prospects for an energy determination of the IC electrons emitted during the decay of the isomer and for a corresponding half-life determination with this experimental setup.

  19. PROTOPLANETARY DISK MASSES IN IC348: A RAPID DECLINE IN THE POPULATION OF SMALL DUST GRAINS AFTER 1 Myr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nicholas; Williams, Jonathan P.; Cieza, Lucas A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a 1.3 mm continuum survey of protoplanetary disks in the 2-3 Myr old cluster, IC348, with the Submillimeter Array. We observed 85 young stellar objects and detected 10 with 1.3 mm fluxes greater than 2 mJy. The brightest source is a young embedded protostar driving a molecular outflow. The other nine detections are dusty disks around optically visible stars. Our millimeter flux measurements translate into total disk masses ranging from 2 to 6 Jupiter masses. Each detected disk has strong mid-infrared emission in excess of the stellar photosphere and has Hα equivalent widths larger than the average in the cluster and indicative of ongoing gas accretion. The disk mass distribution, however, is shifted by about a factor of 20 to lower masses, compared to that in the ∼1 Myr old Taurus and Ophiuchus regions. These observations reveal the rapid decline in the number of small dust grains in disks with time and probably their concomitant growth beyond millimeter sizes. Moreover, if IC348 is to form planets in the same proportion as detected in the field, these faint millimeter detections may represent the best candidates in the cluster to study the progression from planetesimals to planets.

  20. Function analysis of working integrated circuit with scanning laser microscope. Laser kenbikyo ni yoru IC no dosa kansatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ode, T. (Lasertec Corp., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1992-10-20

    By scanning a laser light, the reaction of a specimen against the light is detected in some means. The optical effect can be visualized by displaying that on the CRT or the like in synchronism with the scanning. Among these, an image formed and visualized by internal photoelectric effect by light is called OBIC image, and chiefly used for evaluating and analyzing semiconductor devices. Observing this OBIC image by a high speed scanning laser microscope has been spotlighted these days as an effective means for observing the state of p-n junction of an IC in operation. This paper descries the principle, the observing method, the detecting circuit, etc. of the semiconductor observing method using a laser microscope. Further, actual examples of detecting defects of an IC by means of OBIC image are shown. As for the problem, since leak parts are displayed as negative contrast in the OBIC image to affect finding work of leak part, the necessity of improvement is pointed out. 39 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Post-test analysis of PIPER-ONE PO-IC-2 experiment by RELAP5/MOD3 codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovalini, R.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.; Mazzini, M.

    1996-11-01

    RELAP5/MOD3.1 was applied to the PO-IC-2 experiment performed in PIPER-ONE facility, which has been modified to reproduce typical isolation condenser thermal-hydraulic conditions. RELAP5 is a well known code widely used at the University of Pisa during the past seven years. RELAP5/MOD3.1 was the latest version of the code made available by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory at the time of the reported study. PIPER-ONE is an experimental facility simulating a General Electric BWR-6 with volume and height scaling ratios of 1/2,200 and 1./1, respectively. In the frame of the present activity a once-through heat exchanger immersed in a pool of ambient temperature water, installed approximately 10 m above the core, was utilized to reproduce qualitatively the phenomenologies expected for the Isolation Condenser in the simplified BWR (SBWR). The PO-IC-2 experiment is the flood up of the PO-SD-8 and has been designed to solve some of the problems encountered in the analysis of the PO-SD-8 experiment. A very wide analysis is presented hereafter including the use of different code versions

  2. Radio Jets Clearing the Way Through a Galaxy: Watching Feedback in Action in the Seyfert Galaxy IC 5063

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Oonk, J. B. R.; Frieswijk, W.; Tadhunter, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array have been used to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy{IC 5063}. Although one of the most radio-loud Seyfert galaxy, IC 5063 is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4GHz=3 ×1023 W Hz-1). The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (˜ 1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot-spot in the W lobe. All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This suggests that most of the observed cold molecular outflow is due to fast cooling of the gas after the passage of a shock and that it is the end product of the cooling process.

  3. LARGE-AREA [Fe II] LINE MAPPING OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE IRSF/SIRIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokusho, Takuma; Nagayama, Takahiro; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Ishihara, Daisuke [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Lee, Ho-Gyu; Onaka, Takashi, E-mail: kokusho@u.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of near-infrared (near-IR) [Fe II] line mapping of the supernova remnant IC 443 with IRSF/SIRIUS, using the two narrow-band filters tuned for the [Fe II] 1.257 {mu}m and [Fe II] 1.644 {mu}m lines. Covering a large area of 30' Multiplication-Sign 35', our observations reveal that [Fe II] filamentary structures exist all over the remnant, not only in an ionic shock shell, but also in a molecular shock shell and a central region inside the shells. With the two [Fe II] lines, we performed corrections for dust extinction to derive the intrinsic line intensities. We also obtained the intensities of thermal emission from the warm dust associated with IC 443, using the far- and mid-IR images taken with AKARI and Spitzer, respectively. As a result, we find that the [Fe II] line emission relative to the dust emission notably enhances in the inner central region. We discuss causes of the enhanced [Fe II] line emission, estimating the Fe{sup +} and dust masses.

  4. Evolved stars in the Local Group galaxies - II. AGB, RSG stars and dust production in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agli, F.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Ventura, P.; Limongi, M.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Marini, E.; Rossi, C.

    2018-06-01

    We study the evolved stellar population of the Local Group galaxy IC10, with the aim of characterizing the individual sources observed and to derive global information on the galaxy, primarily the star formation history and the dust production rate. To this aim, we use evolutionary sequences of low- and intermediate-mass (M account for 40% of the sources brighter than the tip of the red giant branch. Most of these stars descend from ˜1.1 - 1.3 M⊙ progenitors, formed during the major epoch of star formation, which occurred ˜2.5 Gyr ago. The presence of a significant number of bright stars indicates that IC10 has been site of significant star formation in recent epochs and currently hosts a group of massive stars in the core helium-burning phase. Dust production in this galaxy is largely dominated by carbon stars; the overall dust production rate estimated is 7 × 10-6 M⊙/yr.

  5. High diagnostic value of second generation CSF RT-QuIC across the wide spectrum of CJD prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Alessia; Baiardi, Simone; Hughson, Andrew G; McKenzie, Neil; Moda, Fabio; Rossi, Marcello; Capellari, Sabina; Green, Alison; Giaccone, Giorgio; Caughey, Byron; Parchi, Piero

    2017-09-06

    An early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of rapidly progressive dementia remains challenging, despite its critical importance for the outcome of treatable forms, and the formulation of prognosis. Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion (RT-QuIC) is an in vitro assay that, for the first time, specifically discriminates patients with prion disease. Here, using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 239 patients with definite or probable prion disease and 100 patients with a definite alternative diagnosis, we compared the performance of the first (PQ-CSF) and second generation (IQ-CSF) RT-QuIC assays, and investigated the diagnostic value of IQ-CSF across the broad spectrum of human prions. Our results confirm the high sensitivity of IQ-CSF for detecting human prions with a sub-optimal sensitivity for the sporadic CJD subtypes MM2C and MM2T, and a low sensitivity limited to variant CJD, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome and fatal familial insomnia. While we found no difference in specificity between PQ-CSF and IQ-CSF, the latter showed a significant improvement in sensitivity, allowing prion detection in about 80% of PQ-CSF negative CJD samples. Our results strongly support the implementation of IQ-CSF in clinical practice. By rapidly confirming or excluding CJD with high accuracy the assay is expected to improve the outcome for patients and their enrollment in therapeutic trials.

  6. Exploring physical and chemical factors influencing the properties of recombinant prion protein and the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Keding; Sloan, Angela; Avery, Kristen M; Coulthart, Michael; Carpenter, Michael; Knox, J David

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), a highly specific and sensitive assay able to detect low levels of the disease-inducing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)) in brain tissue biopsies and cerebral spinal fluid, has great potential to become a method for diagnosing prion disease ante mortem. In order to standardize the assay method for routine analysis, an understanding of how physical and chemical factors affect the stability of the recombinant prion protein (rPrP) substrate and the RT-QuIC assay's sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility is required. In this study, using sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease brain homogenate to seed the reactions and an in vitro-expressed recombinant prion protein, hamster rPrP, as the substrate, the following factors affecting the RT-QuIC assay were examined: salt and substrate concentrations, substrate storage, and pH. Results demonstrated that both the generation of the quality and quantities of rPrP substrate critical to the reaction, as well as the RT-QuIC reaction itself required strict adherence to specific physical and chemical conditions. Once optimized, the RT-QuIC assay was confirmed to be a very specific and sensitive assay method for sCJD detection. Findings in this study indicate that further optimization and standardization of RT-QuIC assay is required before it can be adopted as a routine diagnostic test.

  7. Managing Rock and Paleomagnetic Data Flow with the MagIC Database: from Measurement and Analysis to Comprehensive Archive and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, A. A.; Minnett, R. C.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Donadini, F.

    2008-12-01

    The Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC) is commissioned to implement and maintain an online portal to a relational database populated by rock and paleomagnetic data. The goal of MagIC is to archive all measurements and derived properties for studies of paleomagnetic directions (inclination, declination) and intensities, and for rock magnetic experiments (hysteresis, remanence, susceptibility, anisotropy). Organizing data for presentation in peer-reviewed publications or for ingestion into databases is a time-consuming task, and to facilitate these activities, three tightly integrated tools have been developed: MagIC-PY, the MagIC Console Software, and the MagIC Online Database. A suite of Python scripts is available to help users port their data into the MagIC data format. They allow the user to add important metadata, perform basic interpretations, and average results at the specimen, sample and site levels. These scripts have been validated for use as Open Source software under the UNIX, Linux, PC and Macintosh© operating systems. We have also developed the MagIC Console Software program to assist in collating rock and paleomagnetic data for upload to the MagIC database. The program runs in Microsoft Excel© on both Macintosh© computers and PCs. It performs routine consistency checks on data entries, and assists users in preparing data for uploading into the online MagIC database. The MagIC website is hosted under EarthRef.org at http://earthref.org/MAGIC/ and has two search nodes, one for paleomagnetism and one for rock magnetism. Both nodes provide query building based on location, reference, methods applied, material type and geological age, as well as a visual FlashMap interface to browse and select locations. Users can also browse the database by data type (inclination, intensity, VGP, hysteresis, susceptibility) or by data compilation to view all contributions associated with previous databases, such as PINT, GMPDB or TAFI or other user

  8. Caracterización de tres índices de cosecha de cacao de los clones CCN51, ICS60 e ICS 95, en la montaña santandereana, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Fernando Quintana Fuentes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia la región con mayor producción de cacao es la denominada montaña santandereana, que se ubica entre los pisos térmicos cálido y templado donde se cultiva cacao entre los 200 a 1200 msnm. en los departamentos de Santander y Norte de Santander. Esta investigación surge como una necesidad de la Federación nacional de cacaoteros, Fedecacao, con el propósito de construir herramientas que permitan a futuro tomar decisiones sobre el manejo poscosecha del fruto, buscando una mejora continua de la calidad e incrementando así la competitividad en los mercados. El objetivo fue evaluar tres variables: índice de mazorca, índice de grano y porcentaje de cascarilla, según la Norma Técnica Colombiana 1252, en tres franjas altitudinales de la montaña santandereana, para tres clones introducidos: CCN 51, ICS 60 e ICS 95. El seguimiento y análisis de las tres variables se registró en dos cosechas denominadas principal e intermedia, en tres fincas para cada franja altitudinal y en los tres clones. Se determinó la manera cómo esta condición influye en el resultado de estas variables relacionadas con el rendimiento y la calidad, mediante la evaluación de los datos obtenidos a través de métodos estadísticos de correlación y de determinación, estableciéndose que no hay diferencias significativas que permitan concluir que la altitud influye en estas variables de calidad.

  9. Targeting the Immune System to Fight Cancer Using Chemical Receptor Homing Vectors Carrying Polyinosine/Cytosine (PolyIC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitzki, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Cancer researchers have been looking for ways to harness the immune system and to reinstate immune surveillance, to kill cancer cells without collateral damage. Here we scan current approaches to targeting the immune system against cancer, and emphasize our own approach. We are using chemical vectors attached to a specific ligand, to introduce synthetic dsRNA, polyinosine/cytosine (polyIC), into tumors. The ligand binds to a receptor protein that is overexpressed on the surface of the tumor cells. Upon ligand binding, the receptor complex is internalized, introducing the polyIC into the cell. In this fashion a large amount of synthetic dsRNA can be internalized, leading to the activation of dsRNA-binding proteins, such as dsRNA dependent protein kinase (PKR), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1), and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5). The simultaneous activation of these signaling proteins leads to the rapid demise of the targeted cell and to cytokine secretion. The cytokines lead to a strong bystander effect and to the recruitment of immune cells that converge upon the targeted cells. The bystander effects lead to the destruction of neighboring tumor cells not targeted themselves by the vector. Normal cells, being more robust than tumor cells, survive. This strategy has several advantages: (1) recruitment of the immune system is localized to the tumor. (2) The response is rapid, leading to fast tumor eradication. (3) The bystander effects lead to the eradication of tumor cells not harboring the target. (4) The multiplicity of pro-death signaling pathways elicited by PolyIC minimizes the likelihood of the emergence of resistance. In this chapter we focus on EGFR as the targeted receptor, which is overexpressed in many tumors. In principle, the strategy can be extended to other tumors that overexpress a protein that can be internalized by a ligand, which can be a small molecule, a single chain antibody, or an affibody.

  10. FE K EMISSION AND ABSORPTION FEATURES IN THE XMM-EPIC SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY IC 4329A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2001-01-01

    We present a re-analysis of the XMM-Newton long-look of the X-ray bright Seyfert galaxy IC 4329a. The Fe K bandpass is dominated by two peaks, consistent with emission from neutral or near-neutral Fe Ka and KP. A relativistic diskline model whereby both peaks are the result of one doubly-peaked diskline profile is found to be a poor description of the data. Models using two relativistic disklines are found to describe the emission profile well. A low-inclination, moderately-relativistic dual-diskline model is possible if the contribution from narrow components, due to distant material, is small or absent. A high-inclination, moderately relativistic profile for each peak is possible if there are roughly equal contributions from both the broad and narrow components. Upper limits on Fe XXV and Fe XXVI emission and absorption at the systemic velocity of IC 4329a are obtained. We also present the results of RXTE monitoring of this source obtained so far; the combined XMM-Newton and RXTE data sets allow us to explore the time-resolved spectral behavior of this source on time scales ranging from hours to 2 years. We find no strong evidence for variability of the Fe Ka emission line on any time scale probed, likely due to the minimal level of continuum variability. We detect a narrow absorption line, at a energy of 7.68 keV in the rest frame of the source; its significance has been confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations. This feature is most likely due to absorption from Fe XXVI blueshifted to approximately 0.1c relative to the systemic velocity, making IC 4329a the lowest-redshift AGN known with a high-velocity, highly-ionized outflow component. As is often the case with similar outflows seen in high-luminosity quasars, the estimated mass outflow rate is larger than the inflow accretion rate, signaling that the outflow represents a substantial portion of the total energy budget of the AGN. The outflow could arise from a radiatively-driven disk wind, or it may be in the

  11. Sewage sludge based producer gas of rich H{sub 2} content as a fuel for an IC engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szwaja, Stanislaw; Cupial, Karol [Czestochowa Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The manuscript presents investigation on hydrogen rich gas combustion in an internal combustion (IC) engine. The gas is obtained from gasification process of sewage sludge which is by-product of waste water treatment in a municipal sewage treatment plant. Recently introduced EU regulations of environmental protection do not allow to use such sludge as a soil fertilizer or substance for landfilling the ground due to its biological toxicity. On another hand, this sludge contains organic content of approximately 45-55% and from this point of view the sludge looks as an attractive material for fuel production through its gasification. This technology, primarily applied for wood gasification, has been also successfully implemented for gasification of sludge. It was found that the producer gas obtained in this way is rich of hydrogen content even up to 25%. This is because of high water content in the sludge that provides favorable conditions for steam reforming resulting in increase of hydrogen in the products of gasification. The high hydrogen content in the producer gas can lead to improper combustion particularly when the combustion takes place in the internal combustion engine. That improper combustion might appear as combustion knock and it is the main problem for the engine in which hydrogen is used as a fuel [1]. Onset of the knock during combustion contributes to rapid increase in heat transfer to the piston crown causing the piston to be quickly overheated that leads to surface erosion and damages. Additionally, engine body vibration coming from the knock significantly shortens engine durability. Conclusions from this investigation provide good premises for combusting the sludge producer gas in the IC engine without any improper combustion anomalies, thus considers this gas as worthy fuel for a stationary engine driven a power generator. The presentation shows results of producer gas combustion in both the spark-ignited and the compression ignition engine with

  12. Targeting the immune system to fight cancer using chemical receptor homing vectors carrying Poly Inosine/Cytosine (PolyIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eLevitzki

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer researchers have been looking for ways to harness the immune system and to reinstate immune surveillance, to kill cancer cells without collateral damage. Here we scan current approaches to targeting the immune system against cancer, and emphasize our own approach. We are using chemical vectors attached to a specific ligand, to introduce synthetic dsRNA, poly Inosine/Cytosine (polyIC, into tumors. The ligand binds to a receptor protein that is overexpressed on the surface of the tumor cells. Upon ligand binding, the receptor complex is internalized, introducing the polyIC into the cell. In this fashion a large amount of synthetic dsRNA can be internalized, leading to the activation of dsRNA binding proteins, such as dsRNA dependent protein kinase (PKR, Toll-3 receptor (TLR3, retinoic acid–inducible gene I (RIG-1 and melanoma differentiation–associated gene 5 (MDA5. The simultaneous activation of these signaling proteins leads to the rapid demise of the targeted cell and to cytokine secretion. The cytokines lead to a strong bystander effect and to the recruitment of immune cells that converge upon the targeted cells. The bystander effects lead to the destruction of neighboring tumor cells not targeted themselves by the vector. Normal cells, being more robust than tumor cells, survive. This strategy has several advantages: (1 Recruitment of the immune system is localized to the tumor. (2 The response is rapid, leading to fast tumor eradication. (3 The bystander effects lead to the eradication of tumor cells not harboring the target. (4 The multiplicity of pro-death signaling pathways elicited by PolyIC minimizes the likelihood of the emergence of resistance. In this chapter we focus on EGFR as the targeted receptor, which is overexpressed in many tumors. In principle, the strategy can be extended to other tumors that overexpress a protein that can be internalized by a ligand, which be a small molecule, a single chain antibody or an

  13. DECONVOLUTION OF IMAGES FROM BLAST 2005: INSIGHT INTO THE K3-50 AND IC 5146 STAR-FORMING REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arabindo; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Bock, James J.; Brunt, Christopher M.; Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew G.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon R.; Klein, Jeff; France, Kevin; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Martin, Peter G.; Olmi, Luca

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the iterative flux-conserving Lucy-Richardson (L-R) deconvolution method of image restoration for maps produced by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST). Compared to the direct Fourier transform method of deconvolution, the L-R operation restores images with better-controlled background noise and increases source detectability. Intermediate iterated images are useful for studying extended diffuse structures, while the later iterations truly enhance point sources to near the designed diffraction limit of the telescope. The L-R method of deconvolution is efficient in resolving compact sources in crowded regions while simultaneously conserving their respective flux densities. We have analyzed its performance and convergence extensively through simulations and cross-correlations of the deconvolved images with available high-resolution maps. We present new science results from two BLAST surveys, in the Galactic regions K3-50 and IC 5146, further demonstrating the benefits of performing this deconvolution. We have resolved three clumps within a radius of 4.'5 inside the star-forming molecular cloud containing K3-50. Combining the well-resolved dust emission map with available multi-wavelength data, we have constrained the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of five clumps to obtain masses (M), bolometric luminosities (L), and dust temperatures (T). The L-M diagram has been used as a diagnostic tool to estimate the evolutionary stages of the clumps. There are close relationships between dust continuum emission and both 21 cm radio continuum and 12 CO molecular line emission. The restored extended large-scale structures in the Northern Streamer of IC 5146 have a strong spatial correlation with both SCUBA and high-resolution extinction images. A dust temperature of 12 K has been obtained for the central filament. We report physical properties of ten compact sources, including six associated protostars, by fitting

  14. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY OF SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION SITES: CONSTRAINING THE MASS AND METALLICITY OF THE PROGENITORS. I. TYPE Ib AND Ic SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo; Maeda, Keiichi [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Doi, Mamoru; Morokuma, Tomoki; Hashiba, Yasuhito [Institute of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Aldering, Greg [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Arimoto, Nobuo [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-0015 (Japan); Pereira, Rui [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, 4 Rue Enrico Fermi, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Usuda, Tomonori, E-mail: hanindyo.kuncarayakti@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of 11 Type Ib/Ic supernova (SN Ib/Ic) explosion sites in nearby galaxies has been obtained using UH88/SNIFS and Gemini-N/GMOS. The use of integral field spectroscopy enables us to obtain both spatial and spectral information about the explosion site, enabling the identification of the parent stellar population of the SN progenitor star. The spectrum of the parent population provides metallicity determination via strong-line method and age estimation obtained via comparison with simple stellar population models. We adopt this information as the metallicity and age of the SN progenitor, under the assumption that it was coeval with the parent stellar population. The age of the star corresponds to its lifetime, which in turn gives the estimate of its initial mass. With this method we were able to determine both the metallicity and initial (zero-age main sequence) mass of the progenitor stars of SNe Ib and Ic. We found that on average SN Ic explosion sites are more metal-rich and younger than SN Ib sites. The initial mass of the progenitors derived from parent stellar population age suggests that SN Ic has more massive progenitors than SN Ib. In addition, we also found indication that some of our SN progenitors are less massive than {approx}25 M{sub Sun }, indicating that they may have been stars in a close binary system that have lost their outer envelope via binary interactions to produce SNe Ib/Ic, instead of single Wolf-Rayet stars. These findings support the current suggestions that both binary and single progenitor channels are in effect in producing SNe Ib/Ic. This work also demonstrates the power of integral field spectroscopy in investigating SN environments and active star-forming regions.

  15. Development of the ATLAS FE-I4 pixel readout IC for b-layer Upgrade and Super-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karagounis, M

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the upcoming upgrade of the ATLAS hybrid pixel detector, a new Front-End (FE) IC is being developed in a 130nm technology to face the tightened requirements of the upgraded pixel system. The main design goals are the reduction of material and a decrease in power consumption combined with the capability to handle the higher hit rates that will result from the upgraded machine. New technology features like the higher integration density for digital circuits, better radiation tolerance and Triple-Well transistors are used for optimization and the implementation of new concepts. A description of the ongoing design work is given, focusing more on the analog part and peripheral design blocks.

  16. Thermal annealing of radiation damage in CMOS ICs in the temperature range -140 C to +375 C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchenko, V.; Fang, P. H.; Brashears, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    Annealing of radiation damage was investigated in the commercial, Z- and J-processes of the RCA CD4007A ICs in the temperature range from -140 C to +375 C. Tempering curves were analyzed for activation energies of thermal annealing, following irradiation at -140 C. It was found that at -140 C, the radiation-induced shifts in the threshold potentials were similar for all three processes. The radiation hardness of the Z- and J-process is primarily due to rapid annealing of radiation damage at room temperature. In the region -140 to 20 C, no dopant-dependent charge trapping is seen, similar to that observed at higher temperatures. In the unbiased Z-process n-channels, after 1 MeV electron irradiation, considerable negative charge remains in the gate oxide.

  17. Determination of Na+ and K+ ions in the high-level liquid waste by ion chromatography (IC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lianzhong; Ma Guilan

    1992-01-01

    The determination of Na + and k + ions in the high-level liquid waste is investigated using ion chromatography. In order to protect the low capacity ion exchange resin in single column IC and remove the transition metal as well as other heavy metal ions that are contained in liquid waste, the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin is used. Those impurity metal ions are strongly absorbed by EDTA chelating resin and 100% of Na + and K + ions in the solution are eluted. The ability of the decontamination of EDTA chelating resin is satisfactory. The sample of the high-level liquid waste is diluted appropriately, then an aliquot of the sample is passed through the pretreatment column with EDTA chelating resin, the eluate is analysed by single column ion chromatography. The precision of this method is better than 5% for the determination of Na + and K + ions (at μg· ml -1 level)

  18. Task 4 - EMI/RFI Issues Potentially Impacting Electromagnetic Compatibility of I&C Systems (NRCHQ6014D0015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) regulations in Part 50, “Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,” of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR Part 50) state that structures, systems, and components important to safety in a nuclear power plant are to be designed to accommodate the effects of environmental conditions (i.e., remain functional under all postulated service conditions) and that design control measures such as testing are to be used to check the adequacy of design. Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.180 was developed to provide guidance to licensees and applicants on methods acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the NRC’s regulations on design, installation, and testing practices for addressing the effects of electromagnetic and radio-frequency interference (EMI/RFI) and power surges on safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. The first revision of RG 1.180 was issued in January 2000 and a second revision was issued in October 2003*. The second revision differed from the first revision in endorsing Military Standard (MIL-STD)-461E and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard (Std) 61000 series of EMI/RFI test methods, extending the guidance to cover signal line testing, incorporating frequency ranges where portable communications devices are experiencing increasing use, and relaxing the operating envelopes (test levels) when experience and confirmatory research warranted. It also offered exemptions from specific test criteria based on technical considerations such as plant conditions and the intended location of the safety-related I&C equipment. Since the last revision, new requirements have been identified, associated RGs have been created and updated, and additional industry guidance has been developed. Additionally, the operational environment has changed with the increase in wireless communication technology for both personal (smartphone) and industrial

  19. JAK kinases are required for the bacterial RNA and poly I:C induced tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiblo, Farag; Michael, Paul; Brabant, Danielle; Ramana, Chilakamarti V; Tai, TC; Saleh, Mazen; Parrillo, Joseph E; Kumar, Anand; Kumar, Aseem

    2013-01-01

    Discriminating the molecular patterns associated with RNA is central to innate immunity. The protein kinase PKR is a cytosolic sensor involved in the recognition of viral dsRNA and triggering interferon-induced signaling. Here, we identified bacterial RNA as a novel distinct pattern recognized by PKR. We show that the tyrosine phosphorylation of PKR induced by either bacterial RNA or poly I:C is impaired in mutant cells lacking TYK2, JAK1, or JAK2 kinases. PKR was found to be a direct substrate for the activated JAKs. Our results indicated that the double-stranded structures of bacterial RNA are required to fully activate PKR. These results suggest that bacterial RNA signaling is analogous in some respects to that of viral RNA and interferons and may have implications in bacterial immunity. PMID:23236554

  20. The International Continence Society (ICS) urinary incontinence definition: is the social and hygienic aspect appropriate for etiologic research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    (ICS) incontinence definition presents intrinsic logical problems that invalidates its use in biomedical, if not in sociomedical, research. As definition and medical decision are different concepts, this does not necessarily affect the potential utility of the problem assessment aspect when used......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of applying a problem assessment versus a pure symptom urinary incontinence (UI) caseness definition in etiologic research. SUBJECTS: A random population sample of 2613 women aged 30-59 years, who responded to a postal questionnaire. MAIN PARAMETERS: One...... it a social or hygienic problem, and 21.9% had ever abstained socially because of UI. Applying a problem assessment caseness definition caused under-estimation of the role of childbirth, as compared with analyses including a pure symptom caseness definition. CONCLUSION: The International Continence Society...