Lilienfeld, Scott O; Latzman, Robert D
Although disparities in political ideology are rooted partly in dispositional differences, Hibbing et al.'s analysis paints with an overly broad brush. Research on the personality correlates of liberal-conservative differences points not to global differences in negativity bias, but to differences in threat bias, probably emanating from differences in fearfulness. This distinction bears implications for etiological research and persuasion efforts.
Zmigrod, Leor; Rentfrow, Peter J; Robbins, Trevor W
Nationalistic identities often play an influential role in citizens' voting behavior and political engagement. Nationalistic ideologies tend to have firm categories and rules for what belongs to and represents the national culture. In a sample of 332 UK citizens, we tested whether strict categorization of stimuli and rules in objective cognitive tasks would be evident in strongly nationalistic individuals. Using voting behavior and attitudes from the United Kingdom's 2016 EU referendum, we found that a flexible representation of national identity and culture was linked to cognitive flexibility in the ideologically neutral Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Remote Associates Test, and to self-reported flexibility under uncertainty. Path analysis revealed that subjective and objective cognitive inflexibility predicted heightened authoritarianism, nationalism, conservatism, and system justification, and these in turn were predictive of support for Brexit and opposition to immigration, the European Union, and free movement of labor. This model accounted for 47.6% of the variance in support for Brexit. Path analysis models were also predictive of participants' sense of personal attachment to the United Kingdom, signifying that individual differences in cognitive flexibility may contribute toward ideological thinking styles that shape both nationalistic attitudes and personal sense of nationalistic identity. These findings further suggest that emotionally neutral "cold" cognitive information processing-and not just "hot" emotional cognition-may play a key role in ideological behavior and identity.
The article explores the ideological underpinnings of those narratives in four sections: 1) Paper-thin facts presents certain attitudes about Africa and the African body that have come into currency in relation to colonialism; 2) A matter of mor(t)ality examines the relationship between morality and the mortality of the African ...
Shantz, A.; Alfes, K.; Truss, C.
This paper responds to calls for research that takes into consideration the broader ideologies underpinning the employment relationship within capitalist societies by building and testing a model of work alienation. We examine how three work-related factors identified originally by Karl Marx act as
a 'with woman' ideology. understanding the dilemmas created by conflicting occupational ideologies is important in order to improve the quality of midwives' working lives and hence the care they give to women and families. In the short term, strategies involving education and supervision may be of assistance in enabling midwives to reconcile these conflicting perspectives. However, in the long term more radical solutions may be required to address the underpinning contradictions.
In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes. PMID:27247699
Full Text Available In our study we investigated the motivational and ideological correlates of the approval of welfare services in postsocialist Central Eastern and Western Europe. In the centre of our inquiry stood how the motivations of selflessness and conventionality, along with distributional justice principles, are related to our welfare preferences beyond our rational self-interest, furthermore, how these associations depend on social-cultural circumstances. We have found that the motivational background of egalitarian economic and welfare attitudes are substantially different in the two regions. While beside of the rationalisation of self-interest, it seems to be related to selflessness-driven solidarity in Western Europe, pro-welfare and egalitarian distributional views are primarily motivated by conventionality-driven norm adherence in postsocialist countries in the form of the mechanism of postsocialist economic system nostalgia. Our results highlight the benefits of a context-specific ’motivated social cognition’ approach to ideological and political attitudes.
Working memory is the retention of a small amount of information in a readily accessible form. It facilitates planning, comprehension, reasoning, and problem solving. I examine the historical roots and conceptual development of the concept and the theoretical and practical implications of current debates about working memory mechanisms. Then, I…
Luís Barreiro Carballal
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the appearance of a series of new political subjects in democratic society at the change of the millennium, political subjects that the author considers of substantial importance in the realm of Constitutional Law. These include National Law 6/1996 concerning voluntary work, the variety of laws concerning voluntary work and finally the Organic Law, which regulates the Right to Association of March 7 2002. These are all clear examples of the recent and intense interest by the part of the administration in colonizing this until recently ignored territory. In Spain, it has been curious to note how the protagonists have changed in the debate about political participation. In the 1970s, it was seen that only parties and unions could transform society. In the 1980s, the new social movements were the only voices capable of correcting savage capitalism. Since the 1990s, only volunteers are understood to be capable of offering a bit of hope to the cloudy realm of social and political participation.
Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza
To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em
In last month's Journal, readers were introduced to the government's Improving Working Lives Strategy. This month some of the underpinning detail will be examined in order to show what is expected from employers and employees when getting the balance right between work and life away from work.
Jogia, Jigar; Dima, Danai; Kumari, Veena; Frangou, Sophia
Emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder is thought to arise from dysfunction within prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control coupled with increased or aberrant activation within regions engaged in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to determine the common and distinct patterns of functional brain abnormalities during reward and working memory processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 36 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 37 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex and IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the n-back working memory task. During both tasks, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a pattern of inefficient engagement within the ventral frontopolar prefrontal cortex with evidence of segregation along the medial-lateral dimension for reward and working memory processing, respectively. Moreover, patients also showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during the Iowa Gambling Task and in the insula during the n-back task. Our data implicate ventral frontopolar dysfunction as a core abnormality underpinning bipolar disorder and confirm that overactivation in regions involved in emotional arousal is present even in tasks that do not typically engage emotional systems.
Wierda-Boer, Hilde H.; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Vermulst, Ad A.
Using questionnaire data on 149 Dutch dual-earner couples with young children participating in the European Famwork study, we examine how adaptive strategies and gender ideology relate to parents' perceived success in balancing work and family. Path analysis indicates that some adaptive strategies may harm individuals' work-family balance,…
Full Text Available This paper summarizes a study conducted in 2012 with the purpose of analyzing work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability during the 2009 implementation of the Special Act Declaring a State of Fiscal Emergency to Save the Credit of Puerto Rico (Act No. 7. Through a qualitative design and the manifest and latent content analysis techniques, and using the Disability and Human Subjectivity Models as the theoretical framework, a total of four hundred and sixty-seven (467 newspaper articles published between February and October 2009 was reviewed. Results demonstrate that only fourteen articles (3%, which constitute the units of analysis, made reference, directly or indirectly, to disability. The content of these articles is based on an ideology that excludes people with disabilities from social participation because they are considered incapable, unfit and worthless. The disability and human subjectivity models that predominate are the socio-political and positional-existential ideology, respectively. It was concluded that the work ideologies constructed by the media regarding subjectivity towards disability are used to exclude people with disabilities from the job market, without recognizing their power and ability of being and doing.
This article analyses the values and practices surrounding work among the Castellorizian migrants of Perth, Western Australia. The article compares and analyses the occupational and class patterns of the Castellorizians of Perth and those of their original community on the island of Castellorizo, to focus upon the construction of Castellorizian ethnic identity. Castellorizian men, with an occupational background in business and the professions, selectively deploy elements of regional Castello...
While the psychological underpinnings of social ideology are well established, less is known about the psychological underpinnings of economic ideology. In this study I assess whether Big Five personality traits are associated with economic ideology and when personality traits are more strongly or
van Eijk, Marieke
Health care institutions are often severely criticized for regulating the lives of individuals who deviate from socially sanctioned norms. In teaching people where they fit in the conventional scheme of things, institutions often reproduce socially dominant ideologies of normality, health, and self. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at a university-based gender identity clinic in the United States, I demonstrate that while some institutions adopt dominant cultural frameworks, others critically assess these. To understand the intricacies of the clinic's psychotherapeutic practices, I analyze the clinicians' constructions of health and suffering. Instead of viewing transgenderism as a psychiatric condition, these clinicians approach it as a normal human condition that is marginalized by society's heteronormative values. The analysis, attentive to the interaction among social context, institutional work, and psychotherapeutic ideologies, shows that while some institutions reproduce hegemonic cultural frameworks, others, in their attempts to alleviate people's suffering, do challenge dominant social norms.
Biernat, Monica; Malin, Martin H
Labor arbitrators were asked to render decisions about grievances brought by employees who had been fired because of problems created by work conflicts with family responsibilities. The study examined the effects of experimentally manipulated grievant attributes (gender, type of work-family conflict) as well as arbitrator attributes (gender, political ideology) on decision making. When employees were depicted as having had child care problems, liberal arbitrators tended to favor female over male grievants, and political conservatism predicted more favorable judgments rendered toward male grievants. Overall, the data suggest that child care responsibilities cue different patterns of gender bias among liberal and conservative decision makers.
Pais, Alexandre; Straehler-Pohl, Hauke
a German secondary school, we take failure not as a correctable obstacle but as a symptom of the ideology at work in current educational practices. Symptoms, as Žižek, (after Lacan) suggested, cannot be eliminated but always (re)emerge since they concern the impossibility of official discourses actualizing...... themselves. We thus argue for a research agenda that learns from failure instead of research concerned with the possible successes that might prospectively be brought into existence, if just the "right" theory was applied "correctly"....
van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C
The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.
Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir
Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.
Full Text Available The present paper explores the role of (neo-liberal ideology in reproducing digital labour. Drawing on Terranova’s concept of “free labour”, and Fuchs and Sevignani’s distinction between “work” and “labour”, the author claims that theorization of Web 2.0 practices requires the exploration of ideology as a material force and a contradictory phenomenon. More specifically, the paper considers the capability of ideology to mediate between the valorization and exploitation of user-generated content and the utopian thrust that re-signifies unpaid labour into apparently engaged practices resonating with liberal ideology. In the last section, the paper takes Facebook as an exemplification of such an ideological synthesis of exploitative and normative aspects.
Klein, Jr, John M
.... These underpinnings are well-established and rigorously authenticated precepts that serve as a foothold for Jihadi conduct, making Islam a ready-made ideology that suits the Jihadis' insatiable goals...
Ahmad, Madiha; Ahmad, Sofia; Ijaz, Nida; Batool, Sumera; Abid, Maratab
The article aims at the analysis of the TV commercials of three carbonated cold drinks from Pakistani media. The analysis will be carried out using the three dimensional framework presented by Fairclough. Through the analysis, the ideological framing of the commercials will be brought to light. To achieve this purpose different techniques used by…
Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and
Rubia Vila, Francisco José
The ideologies of the xx century have caused millions of casualties. It is important to know the cognitive processes that originate ideological thinking. Ideologies are typically closed visions of the world with a strong dualistic component. Dualistic thinking is likely to be a distinct mental category which implicates the right inferior parietal lobe of the brain. Nevertheless, the connection between a manichean mental-cognitive thought and an emotional component presents great danger, due to the resulting simplification of history, its reification, and the demonization of the opposite, before proceeding to its destruction. Both communism and national socialism are evident examples of this perversion of thought. To know the neurocognitive underpinnings is hence of great relevance if we do not want ro repeat history.
Jones, Samantha K; Griep, Yannick
Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee's well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this "double edged" role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs), which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential "dark side" of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees' reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.
Jones, Samantha K.; Griep, Yannick
Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs), which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes. PMID:29479334
Samantha K. Jones
Full Text Available Employees often draw meaning from personal experiences and contributions in their work, particularly when engaging in organizational activities that align with their personal identity or values. However, recent empirical findings have demonstrated how meaningful work can also have a negative effect on employee’s well-being as employees feel so invested in their work, they push themselves beyond their limits resulting in strain and susceptibility to burnout. We develop a framework to understand this “double edged” role of meaningful work by drawing from ideological psychological contracts (iPCs, which are characterized by employees and their employer who are working to contribute to a shared ideology or set of values. Limited iPC research has demonstrated employees may actually work harder in response to an iPC breach. In light of these counterintuitive findings, we propose the following conceptual model to theoretically connect our understanding of iPCs, perceptions of breach, increases in work effort, and the potential “dark side” of repeated occurrences of iPC breach. We argue that time plays a central role in the unfolding process of employees’ reactions to iPC breach over time. Further, we propose how perceptions of iPC breach relate to strain and, eventually, burnout. This model contributes to our understanding of the role of time in iPC development and maintenance, expands our exploration of ideology in the PC literature, and provides a framework to understanding why certain occupations are more susceptible to instances of strain and burnout. This framework has the potential to guide future employment interventions in ideology-infused organizations to help mitigate negative employee outcomes.
Wander, Philip C.
"Whither ideology?" is an intriguing question, to which the author's immediate response is: Nowhere! Has its moment passed, at least in relation to the way that people ordinarily think of it? Not because the end of ideology has finally come, but because the emergence of the concept in American academic work, as an expression of political…
Ana Isel Rodríguez-Cruz
Full Text Available The values like complex formations of the personality are very related to the person's own existence and they have a lot to do with each individual's ideological political formation, that’s why, by means of a texts selection associated to this theme and from the Communicative Spanish subject, the authors propose to deep in the ideological political work and the main values in correspondence with the expectations, interests and the necessities of the current Cuban society. After the application of theoretical, empirical and statistical methods the necessity of reinforcing the ideological political work and the formation of values in our students was verified. In this way, the subject team puts in practice the educational ways and the performance ways by the teacher, in such way from the classes, the teacher generates changes in the students and contributes to the professional's formation that demands the modern society. For this reason, the teacher works with texts through diverse themes related like history, sport, personalities, and important events. (The texts make emphasis in the fight that at present is taken place for the free of the Cuban five, among others. The texts analysis includes the search of key words, the relationships among significant and meaning, the translation, interpretation and extrapolation of the same ones, the paragraph qualities, as well as the rhetorical patterns or methods of development of it, among other aspects. All of these items contribute to reinforce the values that the students have and at the same time the teacher's work facilitates the students express their feelings and thinking in correspondence with their personality.
Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.
Sneijder, Petra; Te Molder, Hedwig
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated--in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, 'ordinariness' helps to construct and protect veganism as an ideology. We point out similarities and differences with other studies on eating or healthy lifestyles and argue, more broadly, that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation package.
Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…
The Party＇s ideological and political work in practice has accumulated valuable experience ,and formed some regular cognitions ,which include： the organic combination of ideological education and the completion of the Party＇s political tasks; the organic combination of strengthening the Party＇s ideological and political work with improving the Party＇s leading; the organic integration of legal education in ideals and beliefs with the day - to - day ideological and political work ; the organic integration of positive education and refute misconceptions ; the organic integration of advanced demands of the ideological and political education with the mass popularity.%党的思想政治工作在实践中积累了宝贵经验，形成了一些规律性认识，主要包括：思想教育同完成党的政治任务有机结合律；加强党的思想政治工作同改善党的领导有机结合律；理想信念教育同日常思想政治工作有机结合律；正面教育同批驳错误观念有机结合律；思想政治教育的先进性要求同群众性普及有机结合律。
Christiansen, Steen Ledet
; it is a materialisation of an ideological fission which attempts to excise certain ideological constructions, yet paradoxically casting them in a form that is recognizable and familiar. The monstrous metonomy which is used shows us glimpses of a horrid being, intended to vilify the attack on New York City. However......, it is a being which is reminiscent of earlier monsters - from Godzilla to The Blob. It is evident that the Cloverfield monster is a paradoxical construction which attempts to articulate fear and loathing about terrorism, but ends up trapped in an ideological dead-end maze, unable to do anything other than...
Mario R. Casa-Guerrero
Full Text Available The present work has as objective to demonstrate the implementation of the TICs in the political and ideological work, in the university teaching. They offer theoretical and methodological recommendations for the treatment of the selected materials, from the educational process, in the political preparation of the new generations and our educational ones. The main result of the work is to offer to educational and students, materials that contribute to the reflection in such a current topic as the use of the TICs in the ideological political preparation and how the enemy to influence in our social project can use it. In the work topics related with the subversion are approached that is not only the activity related with the actions of the historical opponent of the Cuban Revolution, USA.
Despite contrasts between capitalist Hong Kong and socialist Guangzhou, the two cities' community work is similar in terms of superficial emphasis on citizen participation, maintenance of status quo, and consensus orientation. The imminent changeover in Hong Kong's sovereignty will change social welfare services in both cities. (SK)
Claudia Escobar García
This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Grunow, Daniela; Begall, Katia; Buchler, Sandra
The authors argue, in line with recent research, that operationalizing gender ideology as a unidimensional construct ranging from traditional to egalitarian is problematic and propose an alternative framework that takes the multidimensionality of gender ideologies into account. Using latent class analysis, they operationalize their gender ideology framework based on data from the 2008 European Values Study, of which eight European countries reflecting the spectrum of current work-family policies were selected. The authors examine the form in which gender ideologies cluster in the various countries. Five ideology profiles were identified: egalitarian, egalitarian essentialism, intensive parenting, moderate traditional, and traditional. The five ideology profiles were found in all countries, but with pronounced variation in size. Ideologies mixing gender essentialist and egalitarian views appear to have replaced traditional ideologies, even in countries offering some institutional support for gendered separate spheres.
Claudia Escobar García
Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this book investigates the style, or 'voice,' of English language translations of twentieth-century Latin American writing, including fiction, political speeches, and film. Existing models of stylistic analysis, supported at times by computer-assisted analysis, are developed to examine a range of works and writers, selected for their literary, cultural, and ideological importance. The style of the different translators is subjected to a close linguistic investigation within their cultural and ideological framework.
Full Text Available The point of this essay is threefold: to describe the main tenets of Marx’s theory of ideology by critically engaging in the work of Marx and Engels, to flesh out the claim that Sarah Palin’s “feminism” works ideologically as Marx and Engels describe, and consequently, to demonstrate that ideology critique is important intellectual work for feminist Marxist scholars. As I suggest in the conclusion, this is work that should inform scholars’ political activism.
Lesa Natacha Rodríguez Pérez
Full Text Available The search of alternatives to organize and improve the formation process in higher education through the unbreakable fusion between instruction and education constitutes a challenge in the professional culture of university teachers. It is worthy if you bet for a constant interaction among teachers. Taking into consideration this aspiration, the present work, by the scientific way, contributes to the socialization of experiences from the pedagogical staff. Due to this, the authors of the investigation propose: to design a system of budgets for the achievement of the educative labor and the political and ideological work as part of the professional culture. The investigation carried out was sustained on the integral character that primes in this determination, due to its aim it must be directed towards the progress of dimensions: educative, instructive, and developing, necessary to the students’ integral formation.
their own pivotal roles in making for mature and great societies have been ... Need of course comes in its physical and psycho-social gaps with the .... imposed the burden of inequality on an otherwise just man. .... are physically able to work.
Smith, Hayden; Michelsen, Niall
Utilizing a web-based simulation Statecraft, we explore the relative influence of ideology (realism and idealism) on student behavior and learning. By placing students into ideologically cohesive groups, we are able to demonstrate the effect of their ideology on the goals they pursue and identify the constraints imposed on the system by the…
Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.
To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…
Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva; Luiz Carlos Nascimento da Rosa; Gustavo da Silva Flores; Narendranath Martins Costa
The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better) jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological...
Young, A P
With the introduction of general management and then of planned markets into the National Health Service (NHS), health care in the UK has gone through a massive amount of change. The effect on those working for the NHS has been 'challenging' and often confusing. This paper aims to clarify what is happening by taking an ideological perspective: what ideologies exist, how they are changing and the strategies being used to ensure their survival. Ideologies are basically about power. The relationship between market, managerial and professional ideologies is analysed using charters, codes of conduct and other associated documents. A tentative conclusion is reached that professional ideologies are able to adjust to the overriding market/consumerist ideology. However, the managerial ideology is having difficulty in gaining any real ground against the professional ideology and is having to move strategically by using audit, not just of finance, but also of clinical judgement, to gain power.
Bouras, N; Ikkos, G
Psychiatry, associated as it is with social and cultural factors, has undergone profound changes over the last 50 years. Values, attitudes, beliefs and ideology all influence psychiatry. Deinstitutionalisation, the normalization principle, advocacy, empowerment and the recovery model are ideologies that have been closely associated with policy, service developments and clinical practice in psychiatry. A "new professionalism" is emerging as a consequence of a number of changes in mental health care that needs to be guided by the highest standards of care which are best epitomized in psychiatry as a social contract with society. Looking to the future it is important that the profession recognises the impact ideology can make, if it is not to remain constantly on the defensive. In order to engage proactively and effectively with ideology as well as clinical science and evidence based service development, psychiatry as a profession will do best to approach significant future policy, practice and service changes by adopting an ethical approach, as a form a social contract. Psychiatrists must pay increasing attention to understanding values as expressed by ideologies, working in a collaborative way with other mental health professionals, involve service users and manage systems as well as be competent in clinical assessment and treatment. Whether in time of plenty or in times of deprivation, ideology produces effects on practice and in the context of constantly changing knowledge and the current financial stress this is likely to be more the case (and not less) in the foreseeable future. Psychiatrists must take into consideration the new social problems seen in some high income countries with the increased availability of highly potent "street drugs", perceived threats from various immigrant and minority communities and breakdown of "social capital" such as the decline of the nuclear family.
the majority of this literature commends the possibility of transfer, thus assuming both the desirability of transfer and the importance of school mathematics for the professional and mundane lives of individuals, I am interested in developing an ideology critique on the beliefs underpinning the research...
Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna
Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.
What is the objective of ideology critique today? A unique answer to this question can be found in the work of Bernard Stiegler: the object of ideology critique is stupidity. Stiegler’s work will be situated with regard to the study of ideology and post-structuralism, reframed as respective versions of a dichotomy between critical and neutral theories, to show how Stiegler’s conception of ideology encompasses both. How he thinks ideology 'after' post-structuralism will be explored through his...
to expose the corruption is unethical decision based ideology. Decision ethical ideology is the main basis for a personally-corruption (whistleblowers. The research aims to uncover the reasons the civilian apparatus of the State in exposing corruption in their working environment, and to describe their actions in exposing corruption birokkrasi. The study was conducted with the approach of socio legal research, informants of this study is the civilian state apparatus that exposed the corruption of the bureaucracy in Central Java. Research shows that personal and environmental reasons is the reason the civilian apparatus of the state in exposing corruption. Ethical ideology was instrumental in uncovering of irregularities in the workplace, including bureaucratic corruption. Idealism becomes penyinngkap ethical considerations for bureaucratic corruption. Typology ethical ideology personally owned the bureaucratic corruption are Absolutists Idealism. Absolutist idealism owned by the whistleblower make them as those who despised and excluded within the bureaucracy. Regrettably, their actions expose the corrupt bureaucracy has legal protection.
Brandt, Mark J
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models' predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors.
Alceu Júnior Paz da Silva
Full Text Available The contemporary setting of huge unemployment and precarization of work has brought to Adult and Youth Education courses an imaginary that secondary education is fundamental for professional qualification and achievement of (better jobs. The objective of this work is to problematize the Chemistry curriculum according to young and adults interests in order to qualify them to the world of work. For that purpose, we adopted some contributions of Gramsci’s Marxist social theory as methodological and theoretical tools to investigate hegemonic aspects in which the curriculum is immersed. By analyzing the curriculum as a space of struggle for social hegemony, we conclude that is promising to explore the historical approach of the chemical knowledge as a mediator element of counter-hegemonic educational practices.
This variation, by its very nature, makes it somewhat difficult to identify overarching patterns in how terrorist ideologies might motivate individuals and sympathetic communities on a global level...
This paper argues that the British period drama Downton Abbey, which aired between 2010 and 2015 and encountered worldwide success, uses working class and middle-class female characters to promote the aristocracy and conservative ideas, while hiding behind historical accuracy and seemingly progressive patterns of behaviour. Through a close reading of four female characters, I will demonstrate how the series’ author, Julian Fellowes, uses the show to endorse his own political ag...
Full Text Available This paper argues that the British period drama Downton Abbey, which aired between 2010 and 2015 and encountered worldwide success, uses working class and middle-class female characters to promote the aristocracy and conservative ideas, while hiding behind historical accuracy and seemingly progressive patterns of behaviour. Through a close reading of four female characters, I will demonstrate how the series’ author, Julian Fellowes, uses the show to endorse his own political agenda, as a Conservative member of the House of Lords in the British Parliament.
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models
Berg Johansen, Christina; De Cock, Christian
are ideologically marked. This ideological dimension offers a common sense frame that is structured around a perceived inevitability of capitalism, a market economy as the basic organizational structure of the social and economic order, and an assumption of confident access to the future. Managers envisage...
Pisani, Elise; Works in Progress Seminars Series
A talk organised in the Works in Progress Seminars Series about cookery books and Maltese national ideology. The talk is given by Elise Billiard Pisani. Cookery books can become powerful tools for promoting national ideology in the hands of some food amateurs. In this paper she will explain how popular gastronomy has become a subject of national pride and a large number of cookery books have constructed a particular image of Maltese food.
Rysman, Alexander R.
Defines the transmission of gossip as an essential social process reflecting a shared group membership and discusses the ways in which gossip supports ideologies held by members of a specific occupation. (MH)
Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.
Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland
We find that cognitive abilities, educational attainment, and some personality traits indirectly affect ideological preferences through changes in income. The effects of changes in personality traits on ideology directly and indirectly through income are in the same direction. However, the indirect...... effects of cognitive abilities and education often offset the direct effects of these variables on ideological preferences. That is, increases in cognitive abilities and education significantly increase income, which reduces the tendency of individuals to express leftist preferences. These indirect...... effects are in some cases sizeable relative to direct effects. The indirect effects of cognitive abilities through income overwhelm the direct effects such that increasing IQ increases rightwing preferences. For ideological preferences over economic policy the indirect effects of advanced education also...
The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society.
Sergey Aleksandrovich Karaganov
Full Text Available Instead of predicted end of ideology and ideological competition due to presumed 15-20 years ago final victory of Western liberalism and democracy the world is sliding into the new ideological struggle. There are many reasons for it: appeal of the West is declining, the democratization and renationalization of international polities push to the fore new leaders and most of them profess traditional and nationalist values. New post-European values did not get hold in Russian society seeking old values it has been cut off during the 70 years of the Communist experiment and also due to the fact that the West pursued a neo-Weimar policy of geopolitical expansion, which provoked defensive reaction to everything coming from the West. The intensity of the new ideological struggle is exacerbated by the moral and ideological vacuum created by modernization, which pushes aside many traditional religious and moral values. Author concludes that mutual resentment between Russia and Europe is quite strong right now, but it’s better to build good-neighborly relations while understanding that we are different. And it’s needed to try hard to avoid a new systemic military-political confrontation that is desired by many forces.
Maria Eduarda Gonçalves Peixoto
Full Text Available The article aims to contribute to the understanding of the connection between text and ideology articulated by the text-oriented analysis of discourse (ADTO. Based on the reflections of Fairclough (1989, 2001, 2003 and Fairclough and Chouliaraki (1999, the debate presents the social ontology that ADTO uses to base its conception of social life as an open system and textually mediated; the article then explains the chronological-narrative development of the main critical theories of ideology, by virtue of which ADTO organizes the assumptions that underpin the particular use it makes of the term. Finally, the discussion presents the main aspects of the connection between text and ideology, offering a conceptual framework that can contribute to the domain of the theme according to a critical discourse analysis approach.
German A. Ivanov
Full Text Available In this paper the problem of interdependence between power and language is viewed. The authors point out that the problem may be investigated in two aspects: from the point of view of a conscious use of language as a political instrument and from the point of view of an unconscious dependence of an individual on language and ideology. In this context, the authors investigate the ideas expressed by Louis Althusser and Michel Pźcheux. The theory of Ideological State Apparatuses by Althusser is represented here as one of possible conceptual bases for defining gender distribution of power. In this paper the specificity of the Pźcheux’s discourse analysis is revealed: discourse is viewed by Pźcheux as a sphere of intersection of language and extra-linguistic restrictions created by ideology.
The paper analyses the role of internal ideology in historical reconstructions in. Ashley Montagu's work on the concept of race. It is shown that Montagu misinterpreted the work of Joseph Deniker in a way that would provide support for his own views on 'race'. The reasons for this are to be found in the broader scientific and ...
Machin, David; Van Leeuwen, T.
This journal's editorial statement is clear that political discourse should be studied not only as regards parliamentary type politics. In this introduction we argue precisely for the need to pay increasing attention to the way that political ideologies are infused into culture more widely...... of power, requires meanings and identities which can hold them in place. We explain the processes by which critical multimodal discourse analysis can best draw out this ideology as it is realized through different semiotics resources. © John Benjamins Publishing Company....
Liddicoat, Anthony J.; Taylor-Leech, Kerry
This paper overviews issues relating to the role of ideologies and attitudes in multilingual education (MLE). It argues that ideologies and attitudes are constituent parts of the language planning process and shape the possibilities for multilingualism in educational programmes in complex ways, but most frequently work to constrain the ways that…
This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens affect the size of government and the quality of the legal system and regulations. These effects depend on the degree of politica...
This paper examines the association between political ideology and the size of government and quality of the legal system and regulations. A cross-country indicator of government and citizen ideology is presented. Empirical results suggest that ideologically leftwing governments increase the size...... of government while the long-term ideological convictions of citizens but not governments affect the quality of the legal system and regulations....
Hansen, Brian Benjamin
This article opts for a return to a critique of the ideology of consumption. Following Slavoj Žižek it argues that what must be addressed in present-day consumer-capitalism is the level of the superego. Superego is not about living up to certain norms/standards; rather, superego fits consumerism...
Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi; Macchiella, Claudia
Research has widely explored the differences between conservatives and liberals, and it has been also recently demonstrated that conservatives display different reactions toward valenced stimuli. However, previous studies have not yet fully illuminated the cognitive underpinnings of these differences. In the current work, we argued that political ideology is related to selective attention processes, so that negative stimuli are more likely to automatically grab the attention of conservatives as compared to liberals. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that negative (vs. positive) information impaired the performance of conservatives, more than liberals, in an Emotional Stroop Task. This finding was confirmed in Experiment 2 and in Experiment 3 employing a Dot-Probe Task, demonstrating that threatening stimuli were more likely to attract the attention of conservatives. Overall, results support the conclusion that people embracing conservative views of the world display an automatic selective attention for negative stimuli. PMID:22096486
Like those of business and management studies, methodological and theoretical contributions of anthropology to the study of family business cannot be ignored. This article elucidates three interconnected themes relating to the development and practices of business anthropology and family ideology...... in Japan. It also looks at how the family ideology in Japanese business first described and explained by anthropologists has been taken up by those with an interest in the Japanese industrial system, but working in field of management and business studies without any particular specialization in "things...... Japanese." Their research often relies on second than first-hand knowledge, and can therefore be misleading. The author points to the perceived connections between the traditional household system, not just family ideology, and modern economic relations. He reminds us that what distinguishes anthropology...
Business schools bear a central mission in our society and are responsible for training business managers who work in, lead, and indeed control our corporations and drive our economy's wealth. Historical and ideological challenges have influenced business education and steered it off the expected path. Several theoretical frameworks such as…
Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C
Our past work linking motivation and morality provides a basis for understanding differences in political ideology and positions across the political spectrum. Conservatism is rooted in avoidance-based proscriptive morality, whereas liberalism is rooted in approach-based prescriptive morality. Two distinct, binding, group moralities reflect these different regulatory systems and emphasize social coordination through Social Order versus social cooperation through Social Justice.
Full Text Available Teaching profession is not a common job, it carries certain sets of ideology. A teacher who is committed to certain ideology will likely to be more successful and highly appreciated in pursuing her career. It has already been proved through the history that best teachers are born among individuals who possessed pedagogical ideology. Great cares have been continuously given by the Government to improve teachers’ lives and positions through Law number 14 year 2005 dealing with teacher and lecturer. The improvement of teacher’s status as professional staff has brought about wide impacts. Its positive impact is that teacher position becomes more prestigious and it affects to the betterment of their welfares. However, there is a critique to the procedures of certification that it doesn’t provide significant impact to the quality improvement of education.Copyright © 2013 by Al-Ta'lim All right reservedDOI: 10.15548/jt.v20i2.32
Research shows that individuals with liberal and conservative ideological orientations display different value positions concerning the acceptance of social change and inequality. Research also links the expression of different values to a number of biological factors, including heredity. In light of these biological influences, I investigate whether differences in social values associated with liberal and conservative ideologies reflect alternative strategies to maximize returns from social interactions. Using an American sample of Democrats and Republicans, I test whether information about shared and unshared social values in the form of implicit social attitudes have a disproportionate effect on the willingness of Democrats and Republicans to trust an anonymous social partner. I find evidence that knowledge of shared values significantly increases levels of trust among Democrats but not Republicans. I further find that knowledge of unshared values significantly decreases trust among Republicans but not Democrats. These findings are consistent with studies indicating that differences in ideological orientation are linked to differences in cognition and decision-making.
Ng, Roxana; Shan, Hongxia
Critiques of lifelong learning have focused on the neo-liberal underpinning of state policy, where individuals are expected to take responsibility for meeting the needs of changing labour market conditions in the post-Fordist economy. We treat lifelong learning as an "ideological frame" that (re)shapes how people see and understand…
Lucas Moreira Sales de Oliveira
Full Text Available The global warming derived from human activities issue takes account today of a considerable part of individual and public attention in the political, economic, social and environmental scenario. The theoretical and ideological aspects of the environmental discourses involved are however often ignored. This paper aims to bring to light without attempting to exhaust the discussion on this subject (the ideology that involves interpretations of global climate change. To reach the objective it will be used de theoretical framework of ideology developed by Göhan Therborn (1991 applied to Six Degrees book by Mark Lynas (2009 and An inconvenient truth documentary by Al Gore (2006 analysis. Both works served as an example for the characterization of the point of view that blames human activities for global warming as ideological and how this ideology interpellates the individuals, in order to submit and qualify them.
Trabalho infantil e ideologia: contribuição ao estudo da crença indiscriminada na dignidade do trabalho Child work and ideology: contribution to the study about the indiscriminated belief on the dignity of work
Herculano Ricardo Campos
Full Text Available No Brasil, a maioria das ações de combate ao trabalho infantil busca assegurar às famílias das vítimas apoio financeiro para compensar a renda até então auferida por elas. Contudo, pesquisas constatam que, aliada à permanência de grande número de crianças no trabalho, observa-se a crença das famílias, das próprias crianças, dos empregadores e até mesmo de muitos agentes encarregados do combate a esse tipo de trabalho, de que ele só trará benefícios para as crianças. Neste sentido, avalia-se, as ações de combate encontram-se comprometidas em face de aspectos subjetivos afirmativos do trabalho, de modo que seu sucesso parece condicionado ao desvelamento desses aspectos. O presente estudo oferece dados que permitem uma maior compreensão do processo social e histórico por meio do qual a ideologia do trabalho como educador, dignificante, se estabeleceu nas mentalidades do povo brasileiro e orientou as políticas públicas voltadas para a criança.In Brazil, most of the actions that fight child labor offers financial support to the victim's families as a supplement to their lost income. Nevertheless, previous studies have shown that many children remain in their work lurked to a belief by the children themselves, their families, their employers and even technicians who are responsible for the erradication of child labor, that this kind of work will bring benefits to the children. Accordingly, the success of the actions intended to reduce child labor should be connected and conditioned to better comprehension of these aspects. This study contributes to this understanding, presenting issues about the social and historical processes by which the ideology of labor as educative and dignifying was settled down in the mentality of Brazilian people and has oriented the public policies related to childhood.
Justice can be approached from many angles in ethical and political debates, including those involving healthcare, biomedical research, and well-being. The main doctrines of justice are liberal egalitarianism, libertarianism, luck egalitarianism, socialism, utilitarianism, capability approach, communitarianism, and care ethics. These can be further elaborated in the light of traditional moral and social theories, values, ideals, and interests, and there are distinct dimensions of justice that are captured better by some tactics than by others. In this article, questions surrounding these matters are approached with the hermeneutic idea of a distinction between "American" and "European" ways of thinking.
Hamilton, Antonia F de C
Human social interaction is part of what defines us. Here I present an overview of recent studies of imitation, a subdomain of social interaction that can be dissected and examined in a scientific fashion. I use these studies to test two core claims: (a) that there is more than one copying mechanism in the human brain and (b) that mimicry (a form of copying) is particularly relevant for understanding social behaviour. Evidence in favour of the first claim comes from neuroimaging studies that show distinct brain systems for understanding action kinematics, action goals, and irrational actions. Further studies of participants with autism show abnormal copying of irrational actions. Evidence in favour of the second claim comes from behavioural studies of the social cues that prime mimicry and from neuroimaging studies of the pathways involved in this priming. These studies suggest that medial prefrontal cortex has a core role in controlling mimicry responses and support the STORM (social top-down response modulation) model. Future work should determine what organizing principles govern the control of social responses and how these critical mechanisms for interpersonal connection differ in autism.
In the late 1960s, Georges Canguilhem introduced the concept of 'scientific ideology'. This concept had not played any role in his previous work, so why introduce it at all? This is the central question of my paper. Although it may seem a rather modest question, its answer in fact uncovers hidden tensions in the tradition of historical epistemology, in particular between its normative and descriptive aspects. The term ideology suggests the influence of Althusser's and Foucault's philosophies. However, I show the differences between Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology and Althusser's and Foucault's respective concepts of ideology. I argue that Canguilhem was in fact attempting to solve long-standing problems in the tradition of historical epistemology, rather than following the lead of his younger colleagues. I argue that Canguilhem's 'refurbishment without rejection' of Bachelard's epistemology, which the concept of scientific ideology was aimed to implement, was necessary to justify the historical narratives that Canguilhem had constructed in his own work as a historian of concepts. A strict acceptance of Bachelard's epistemology would have made it impossible to justify them. Canguilhem's concept of scientific ideology therefore served as a theoretical justification of his practice as a historian. I maintain that the concept of scientific ideology was needed to reconcile Bachelard's normative epistemology with Canguilhem's view of the history of science and its aims, which differed from Bachelard's more than it is generally acknowledged. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Costa-Lopes, Rui; Pereira, Cícero Roberto; Judd, Charles M
The current work sought to test the moderating role of a multicultural ideology on the relationship between categorisation salience and ingroup bias. Accordingly, in one experimental study, we manipulated categorisation salience and the accessibility of a multicultural ideology, and measured intergroup attitudes. Results show that categorisation salience only leads to ingroup bias when a multiculturalism (MC) ideology is not made salient. Thus, MC ideology attenuates the negative effects of categorisation salience on ingroup bias. These results pertain to social psychology in general showing that the cognitive processes should be construed within the framework of ideological contexts. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Full Text Available Isu keamanan pangan memberikan dampak yang signiﬁ kan pada kehidupan sosial ekonomi dunia. Hal ini ditandai dengan penyebaran bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida yang menyebabkan gangguan kesehatan bahkan kematian.Untuk melindungi negara dari bahaya virus, mikroba patogen dan residu pestisida, maka negara maju menerapkan standar sebagai hambatan perdagangan agar produk yang terkontaminasi dan berbahaya tersebut tidak dapat masuk ke negaranya. Epistemologi Islam menjabarkan keamanan pangan dalam Al Quran sebagaimana tertulis dalam Qs Al-Baqoroh (2: 168 “makanlah yang halal lagi baik.” Makanan yang halal adalah hak Allah yang menghalalkan. Makanan yang baik adalah makanan yang memberikan ketenangan dan tidak menimbulkan bahaya. Hal ini sejalan dengan ideologi Pancasila dan konstitusi sebagai dasar ﬁ losoﬁ pembentukan peraturan perundang-undangan Indonesia.
Muhamad Yakub Mubaro
Full Text Available It is known that the communism had affected the history of this world. This ideology had succeeded influencing a third of the world in less than one century after Karl Marx’s death and it had caused some revolutionary movements at some countries of the world. It is interesting to say that even what Marx had predicted about the history of human being in the future was not surely proven, but his ideas have been affecting people. But, the communism has serious problems related to the theological matter for sure. It could make people becoming atheist. Moreover, it could create the people hate their religion, but they could become religion’s antagonists. Marx’s hatred toward religions was expressed by the words: “Religion is the opium of the masses”. Then Lenin, another figure of the communism, did a discrimination to religious people, as well as, Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong who prohibited all kinds of religious activities during their lifetime. Long time ago, thousands of Indonesian Moslems were becoming victims of a communist party in Indonesia (PKI. Nowadays, the communism doctrine begins to appear and affect some youths of Indonesia. Perhaps, it does because they have been frustrated and being disappointed by the socio-political condition which is controlled by modern capitalists. But, they have to be aware that the communism is not a solution. In fact, it is surely dangerous. It could ruin religions’ concepts. Hence, this article would try to explain some theological problems of the communism ideology.
Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S.; Park, Juyong
Social network sites (SNSs) are valuable source of information on various subjects in network science. Recently, political activity of SNSs users has increasing attention and is an interesting interdisciplinary subject of physical and social science. In this work, we measure ideological positions of the legislators of U.S. and South Korea (S.K.) evaluated by Twitter users, using the information employed in the bipartite network structure of the legislators and their Twitter followers. We compare the result with ideological positions constructed from roll call record of the legislators. This shows there is a discrepancy between the ideological positions evaluated by Twitter users and actual positions estimated from roll call votes in S.K. We also asses the ideological positions of the Twitter users themselves and analyze the distribution of the positions.
Adilson Aquino Silveira Júnior
Full Text Available Este artigo busca apreender as determinações teórico-metodológicas contidas na obra de Antônio Gramsci para a análise das relações de hegemonia entre as classes sociais. Nessa perspectiva, realiza uma revisão bibliográfica abrangendo os Cadernos do cárcere (a obra mais importante do comunista italiano e as contribuições de importantes estudiosos da tradição marxista. Identifica que Gramsci compreende as relações entre os aspectos material, político e espírito-intelectual da sociabilidade em sua totalidade, com suas interações complexas e com os processos de determinação recíproca próprios do movimento dialético. As ideologias são consideradas momentos constitutivos das disputas hegemônicas entre as classes, difundindo a consciência prática necessária aos processos reprodutivos. Através da noção de Estado integral, conectada à categoria de bloco histórico, as relações de hegemonia se evidenciam, demandando uma abordagem das vinculações orgânicas e dialéticas entre sociedade civil e sociedade política, consenso e coerção, intelectuais e partido, produção e reprodução social. Palavras-chave: Ideologia.Consciência social. Hegemonia. Abstract: This article aims to understand the theoretical-methodological determinations in the work of Antonio Gramsci for the analysis of hegemony relationships between social classes. To achieve this, a literature review covering the Prison Notebooks (the most important work of the Italian communist and the contributions of important researchers of the Marxist tradition was conducted. It also identifies that Gramsci understands the relationships between the material, political and intellectual aspects of sociability in their totality, with its complex interactions and processes of reciprocal determination of the dialectical movement. Ideologies are considered as constitutive moments of the hegemony disputes of classes, disseminating the practical conscience necessary
Balliet, Daniel; Tybur, Joshua M.; Wu, Junhui; Antonellis, Christian; Van Lange, Paul A. M.
Theories suggest that political ideology relates to cooperation, with conservatives being more likely to pursue selfish outcomes, and liberals more likely to pursue egalitarian outcomes. In study 1, we examine how political ideology and political party affiliation (Republican vs. Democrat) predict cooperation with a partner who self-identifies as Republican or Democrat in two samples before (n = 362) and after (n = 366) the 2012 US presidential election. Liberals show slightly more concern for their partners’ outcomes compared to conservatives (study 1), and in study 2 this relation is supported by a meta-analysis (r = .15). However, in study 1, political ideology did not relate to cooperation in general. Both Republicans and Democrats extend more cooperation to their in-group relative to the out-group, and this is explained by expectations of cooperation from in-group versus out-group members. We discuss the relation between political ideology and cooperation within and between groups. PMID:29593363
Thomas Ford Brown
In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order ...
The employment of Peer Support Workers, who themselves have experience of significant emotional distress, can promote recovery at an individual and organisational level. While research examining the benefits of peer support within mental health services continues to grow, an understanding of how, and through what processes, these benefits are reached remains under-developed. To review the published research literature relating to the process of peer support and its underpinning mechanisms to better understand how and why it works. A scoping review of published literature identified studies relating to peer support mechanisms, processes and relationships. Studies were summarised and findings analysed. Five mechanisms were found to underpin peer support relationships (lived experience, love labour, the liminal position of the peer worker, strengths-focussed social and practical support, and the helper role). The identified mechanisms can underpin both the success and difficulties associated with peer support relationships. Further research should review a broader range of literature and clarify how these mechanisms contribute to peer support in different contexts.
Hansford, Candace; Ely, Gretchen E.; Flaherty, Chris; Meyer-Adams, Nancy
The purpose of this article is to describe student perceptions of their experiences around social justice discussions in the social work classroom through a qualitative, grounded theory framework. Student responses from a qualitative section of a survey were analyzed and sorted into three categories: perceived discrimination, heightened…
Maurilio Lima Botelho
Full Text Available This essay explores the changes in the so-called ideology of labor, from the classic Protestant work ethic, passing through the hedonism of consumer society to the current reformulation of this ideology in a society in crisis. It emphasizes that the modifications occur both in the form and content of this ideology, which stimulates an analysis of its relationship with social reality.
Jared D Margulies
Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.
Hatemi, Peter K; Medland, Sarah E; Klemmensen, Robert
Almost 40 years ago, evidence from large studies of adult twins and their relatives suggested that between 30 and 60 % of the variance in social and political attitudes could be explained by genetic influences. However, these findings have not been widely accepted or incorporated into the dominant...... paradigms that explain the etiology of political ideology. This has been attributed in part to measurement and sample limitations, as well the relative absence of molecular genetic studies. Here we present results from original analyses of a combined sample of over 12,000 twins pairs, ascertained from nine...... different studies conducted in five democracies, sampled over the course of four decades. We provide evidence that genetic factors play a role in the formation of political ideology, regardless of how ideology is measured, the era, or the population sampled. The only exception is a question that explicitly...
Greenstein, Theodore N.
A study of 3,284 married women hypothesizes that nontraditional working women are more likely to experience marital disruption than traditional working women. Number of hours of paid employment per week was negatively related to marital stability for women holding nontraditional gender ideologies but not for women with traditional views. (JPS)
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Samuel R
Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder is assoc......Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder...... is associated with dysfunction across multiple cognitive domains which can be considered in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity. Neuroimaging data suggest structural and functional abnormalities of networks involved in reward processing and top-down control. Gambling disorder shows 50-60% heritability...... is required to evaluate whether cognitive dysfunction and personality aspects influence the longitudinal course and treatment outcome for gambling disorder. It is hoped that improved understanding of the biological and psychological components of gambling disorder, and their interactions, may lead to improved...
Thomas Ford Brown
Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze libertarian discourse from the perspective of regulation theory, a~ a hegemonic ideology that underlies the emergence of a new mode of regulation. Within this general theoretical approach, I will also employ frames from regime theory as developed by international relations scholars, as well as the "epistemic community" approach from the same discipline. I want to suggest that free-market ideology could engender the emergence of rationalized global governance in order to maintain free trade, property rights, and other regulatory concerns of the emerging mode of accumulation, and that such a world state could conceivably extend liberalism's life by carrying liberalism to its extreme.
Begall, Katia; Buchler, Sandra
The authors argue, in line with recent research, that operationalizing gender ideology as a unidimensional construct ranging from traditional to egalitarian is problematic and propose an alternative framework that takes the multidimensionality of gender ideologies into account. Using latent class analysis, they operationalize their gender ideology framework based on data from the 2008 European Values Study, of which eight European countries reflecting the spectrum of current work–family policies were selected. The authors examine the form in which gender ideologies cluster in the various countries. Five ideology profiles were identified: egalitarian, egalitarian essentialism, intensive parenting, moderate traditional, and traditional. The five ideology profiles were found in all countries, but with pronounced variation in size. Ideologies mixing gender essentialist and egalitarian views appear to have replaced traditional ideologies, even in countries offering some institutional support for gendered separate spheres. PMID:29491532
Allen, Ricky Lee
Over the past few decades, social reproduction theorists have criticized achievement ideology as a dominant and dominating myth that hides the true nature of class immobility. Social reproductionists' primary criticism of achievement ideology is that it blinds the working class, regardless of race or gender, to the possibilities of collective…
Daly, Leslie Kim
Paradigm debates have been featured in the nursing literature for over four decades. There are at least two opposing paradigms specific to nursing that have remained central in these debates. Advocates of the unitary perspective (or simultaneity paradigm) consider their theories to be more philosophically advanced and contemporary alternatives when compared to the older more traditional ideas characteristic of models they describe as originating from the totality paradigm. In the context of these debates, I focus on some theoretical positions embedded in the unitary perspective, noting their limitations with respect to integrating the individual and social mandates of nursing; nurses are responsible not only for individual health-related needs, but also for the health of the collective. I explore two hypotheses that may explain the powers of endurance of the unitary perspective. Paley, who outlines the origins of nurses' 'slave morality', inspires the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis speaks to the location of nursing knowledge development in the context of liberal ideology. In this work, I outline key conceptualizations of the unitary perspective in order to clearly illustrate the limitations of the unitary perspective for nurses' social mandate. Then, I explore how slave morality and liberal ideological assumptions might both work to sustain the unitary perspective. A paradigm for nursing must have utility in addressing both the health-related needs of individuals, and for addressing the health of the collective. To this end, I advance suggestions in three areas: first, to transform nurses' slave morality to more honest and noble aspirations; second, to examine liberal ideological premises; and third, to end paradigm debate by resituating elements of the unitary perspective to the level of mid-range theory, where it could be most effective for research and practice with specific populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Ideology is the theoretical and practical mirror through which the society is viewed. It gives social, political and economic direction to governments and their policy makers. But a particular ideology could be of disservice to a particular people at a particular time. And in the. African situation, some ideologies, instead of serving ...
Studying imagery, irrespective of the kind, must focus equally upon its aesthetic attractiveness, its sensory lures, and its oftentimes dubious social ideology. The terms "aesthetic" and "ideology" are addressed as problematic and are defined in current, ordinary language terms: aesthetics as visual appearances and their effects and ideology as a…
Crandall, Christian S.; Martinez, Rebecca
Tests the role of blame and ideology in antifat prejudice by comparing attitudes among college students (N=406) in the United States and Mexico. Mexican students were significantly less concerned about their own weight and more accepting of fat people than United States students. Prejudice toward fat people in the United States appears to have a…
Prinz, J.; Rossi, E.
This paper outlines an account of political realism as a form of ideology critique. We defend the normative edge of this critical-theoretic project against the common charge that there is a problematic trade-off between a theory’s groundedness in facts about the political status quo and its ability
Full Text Available The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.
The paper offers a critical analysis of the central concept around which the popular construct of social capital is organised, i.e. trust. To this end the views of Fukuyama, the leading exponent of the said concept are considered. As a result, the concept in question is found to be ideologically charged and substantively weak in many respects.
This paper outlines how corpus linguistics--and more specifically the corpus-assisted discourse studies approach--can add useful dimensions to studies of language ideology. First, it is argued that the identification of words of high, low, and statistically significant frequency can help in the identification and exploration of language ideologies…
Alternative, parallel explanations for a number of counter-intuitive concepts connected with the foundations of quantum mechanics can be constructed in terms of nonlinear dynamics. These include ideas as diverse as the statistical exponential decay law and spontaneous symmetry breaking to decoherence itself and the inference from violations of Bell's inequality that local reality is ruled out in hidden variable extensions of quantum mechanics. Such alternative explanations must not be taken as demonstrations of nonlinear underpinnings for quantum mechanics, but they do raise the possibility of their existence. In this article I delve a bit into ideas connected with the exponential decay law and with Bell's inequality as demonstrations. Then an investigation of the Klein-Gordon equation shows that it should not come as a complete surprise that quantum mechanics just might contain fundamental nonlinearities. (author)
Full Text Available This article analyzes the ideological representations in the discourse of contemporary superhero films. In recent years, there has been a tendency in the genre: The characters have become more self-conscious of their roles, even questioning the ‘greater good’ that they are trying to achieve. Thus, the ideological representations of two recent superhero films are studied. For the corpus of analysis, Iron Man (2008 and Captain America: The Winter Soldier (2014 would be selected to be examined based on a Critical Discourse Analysis approach, and using two categories: plot and characters (the second with two subcategories: biographic origin and objectives. The main results point out political contradictions at the discursive level and suggest a relation with current political issues of the contemporary capitalism. This work discusses how a text unfolds an ideology harbored in the meanings and values of an American-based production and political culture.
Bayu Adi Sulistyo
Full Text Available This study belongs to Critical Discourse Analysis in sub-branch of Political Discourse. The analysis of this research uses the CDA theory by Norman Fairclough which is widely known as 3D model. Since CDA is closely related to ideology, this study investigates the ideology held by the text producer, speaker. The data used in this study is the speeches delivered by Trump in 2015 as the announcement of his decision to run in the US presidential race. Generally, there are two major topics in them: the dissatisfaction of the current government’s work, especially in economical and political aspect, and the negative perception on Islam. These are considered as Trump’s ideology. Based on the analysis, it can be inferred that Trump seems to have been successfull in creating his discourse. He has successfully persuaded the audience to be on his side.
More than a decade after its passing, Sri Lanka's Prevention of Domestic Violence Act (PDVA) remains a remedy of last resort for female survivors of intimate partner violence, as there is little support to take on a rights-defined identity as a battered woman both inside and outside the courtroom. However, large numbers of women are accessing the Maintenance Act of 1999 to exit violent relationships without the censure and stigma that attaches to the PDVA. The key to understanding this phenomenon is to consider how familial ideology works in unpredictable ways within the Sri Lankan judicial system. This article examines the reach and different impacts of familial ideology within the judiciary and argues that female survivors of violence navigate this ideology to their own advantage. However, the preference to address violence through the Maintenance Act renders such violence invisible. The price for judicial redress is silence.
Gorski, Paul C.
In this article I explore the educational equity implications of three popular ideological positions that drive teachers' and teacher educators' understandings of, and responses to, poverty and economic injustice in schools: deficit ideology, grit ideology, and structural ideology. The educator's ideological position, I illustrate, determines…
Full Text Available George Anderson,1 Michael Maes21CRC Clincial Research Centre/Communications, Glasgow, Scotland; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: Postpartum depression (PPD is common, occurring in 10%–15% of women. Due to concerns about teratogenicity of medications in the suckling infant, the treatment of PPD has often been restricted to psychotherapy. We review here the biological underpinnings to PPD, suggesting a powerful role for the tryptophan catabolites, indoleamine 2,3-dixoygenase, serotonin, and autoimmunity in mediating the consequences of immuno-inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress. It is suggested that the increased inflammatory potential, the decreases in endogenous anti-inflammatory compounds together with decreased omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids, in the postnatal period cause an inflammatory environment. The latter may result in the utilization of peripheral inflammatory products, especially kynurenine, in driving the central processes producing postnatal depression. The pharmacological treatment of PPD is placed in this context, and recommendations for more refined and safer treatments are made, including the better utilization of the antidepressant, and the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of melatonin.Keywords: SSRI, kynurenine, IDO, TDO, melatonin
Gleim, Savannah; Smyth, Stuart J
Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Tofaris, George K; Buckley, Noel J
In our ageing population, neurodegenerative disorders carry an enormous personal, societal and economic burden. Although neurodegenerative diseases are often thought of as clinicopathological entities, increasing evidence suggests a considerable overlap in the molecular underpinnings of their pathogenesis. Such overlapping biological processes include the handling of misfolded proteins, defective organelle trafficking, RNA processing, synaptic health and neuroinflammation. Collectively but in different proportions, these biological processes in neurons or non-neuronal cells lead to regionally distinct patterns of neuronal vulnerability and progression of pathology that could explain the disease symptomology. With the advent of patient-derived cellular models and novel genetic manipulation tools, we are now able to interrogate this commonality despite the cellular complexity of the brain in order to develop novel therapeutic strategies to prevent or arrest neurodegeneration. Here, we describe broadly these concepts and their relevance across neurodegenerative diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Lavorel, Sandra; Colloff, Matthew J; McIntyre, Sue; Doherty, Michael D; Murphy, Helen T; Metcalfe, Daniel J; Dunlop, Michael; Williams, Richard J; Wise, Russell M; Williams, Kristen J
Ecosystem services are typically valued for their immediate material or cultural benefits to human wellbeing, supported by regulating and supporting services. Under climate change, with more frequent stresses and novel shocks, 'climate adaptation services', are defined as the benefits to people from increased social ability to respond to change, provided by the capability of ecosystems to moderate and adapt to climate change and variability. They broaden the ecosystem services framework to assist decision makers in planning for an uncertain future with new choices and options. We present a generic framework for operationalising the adaptation services concept. Four steps guide the identification of intrinsic ecological mechanisms that facilitate the maintenance and emergence of ecosystem services during periods of change, and so materialise as adaptation services. We applied this framework for four contrasted Australian ecosystems. Comparative analyses enabled by the operational framework suggest that adaptation services that emerge during trajectories of ecological change are supported by common mechanisms: vegetation structural diversity, the role of keystone species or functional groups, response diversity and landscape connectivity, which underpin the persistence of function and the reassembly of ecological communities under severe climate change and variability. Such understanding should guide ecosystem management towards adaptation planning. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Administration in the social field is examined based on an analysis of its practices, the rationalist myth and its ideological dimensions. In this way, the article discusses the most frequently utilized concepts (administration, management, gerencia, gestión) and their etymologies; the limitations of teaching administration; the complexity of a practice marked by the dimensions of science, art and the social game; and the ideological question underlying the great thought factory that the general theory of administration has been since the start of the 19th century. The article reflects upon the need to construct a theory based in practice contextualized in the global south that goes beyond the classic frames of reference and, above all, to transform administration into a problem to be discussed outside of the knowledge that recognizes it as a technical practice.
Full Text Available The idea that ideologies present to us a rationality for making decisions, for getting things done, allows us to avoid the agony of choosing one world or another as a finite being, allows us to forget that it is we ourselves who must do and thus who are also to be done. Due to the work of having to live a human life with others who do not agree with us and will never be our servants, we are all ready to give up responsibilities to the political saviour; already this one presents to ourselves the One and only. By examining our private and picayune dogmatisms, we might gain some insight into why we are ever so often willing to become public fascists. We might well object to being objected to. Along with this, we are also objects in a world of objects. This is routine when compared to the dialectical intersubjectivity of voicing an objection in a throng of objections, of questioning the objectionable in a questionable politics. It is the very mundanity of acquiescence that dulls us to the danger pedestal-dwelling ideologies still represent.
Berg Johansen, Christina; De Cock, Christian
Our article deals with how elite corporate actors in a Western capitalist-democratic society conceive of and prepare for the future. Paying attention to how senior officers of 10 important Danish companies make sense of the future will help us to identify how particular temporal narratives...... their organization’s future and make plans for organizational action in a space where ‘business as usual’ reigns, and there is little engagement with the future as fundamentally open – as a time-yet-to-come. In using a conceptual lens inspired by the work of Fredric Jameson, we first explore the details...... of this presentism and a particular colonization of the future and then linger over small disruptions in the narratives of our interviewees which point to what escapes or jars their common sense frame, explore the implicit meanings they assign to their agency and also find clues and traces of temporal actions...
Freedson, Margaret; Eastman, Wayne
Discussing ideologically opposing views of beginning reading, the authors trace the politics of reading curriculum in two racially diverse New Jersey school districts working to raise the literacy achievement of traditionally underserved students through socially just literacy education.
Ideology is one of the foundations of authoritative regimes and forms the image of their leaders. Using Uzbekistan as an example, A. March comes to the conclusion that the ideological system imposed by the state has a tangible impact on society, even one that has already lived at one time under the communist ideology. Based on an analysis of several special features of the development of the post-Communist countries (and several others), the conclusion is drawn that during a political regime ...
One of the guiding questions in this discussion is how is it that certain ideologies become so ingrained and resistant to challenge and scrutiny? The central assumptions sustaining the argument conceive curriculum--the backbone of educational practice--to be an expression of ideological activity; the understanding of ideology as lived experience;…
Maria das Graças e Silva
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to raise a set of questions about “conscious consumption.” It is an essay of a bibliographic nature whose central thesis consists in affirming that in a capitalist society conscious consumption cannot be instituted as an affirmation of the principle of socioenvironmental sustainability. The paper presents the ideological nature of this formulation, which associates consumerism and the possibility of overcoming it only to the need for behavioral changes, without explaining its socioeconomic dimensions and its functionality as a mechanism for the reproduction of the destructive logic of capital.
Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra
Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…
Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.
Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…
Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava
The article examines the associations between political ideology and level of psychological symptoms in youth exposed to terror attacks. The study included 2,999 7th to 10th graders from various parts of Israel. Political ideology was examined in two ways: (a) as a content dimension: "political stand"--holding right, centrist, or left…
Poler Kovacic, Melita; Zgrabljic Rotar, Nada; Erjavec, Karmen
New information and communication technologies were widely perceived as something that would lead post-socialist European countries towards the technologically developed information society. In this article, a critical perspective is taken in examining information literacy as an ideological form. The deconstruction of ideological practice was…
Wilson, Marguerite Anne Fillion
Educational researchers have called attention to how neoliberal ideology has profoundly and detrimentally influenced public education systems, but less attention has been paid to how neoliberalism influences "private" educational institutions. This article examines the influence of neoliberal ideology on education in the USA through an…
Magzan, Masa Bogojeva
Approaching music from a sociological perspective, this book deals with the concept of ideology in relation to music. The focus of investigation is on the reflection of ideology and power relations in the music curriculum before and after Croatian independence. The goal of this work is to help our understanding of how and why certain musical…
LeBlanc, Robert Jean
Framing ethnography as a form of democratic inquiry, this study examines how the author worked with a group of Mexican and Vietnamese American adolescents to learn and apply ethnographic tools to interrogate language and literacy ideologies in their school and community. Examination of the students' findings reveals circulating ideologies and…
This paper puts forward the argument that there are various, competing, and antithetical evidence-based practice (EBP) definitions and acknowledges that the different EBP definitions are based on different epistemological perspectives. However, this is not enough to understand the way in which nurse professionals choose between the various EBP formations and consequently facilitate them in choosing the most appropriate for their needs. Therefore, the current article goes beyond and behind the various EBP epistemologies to identify how individuals choose an epistemology, which consequently will assist our understanding as to how an individual chooses a specific EBP formation. Individuals choose an epistemology on the mere belief that the specific epistemology offers the ideals or ideas of best explaining or interpreting daily reality. These ideals or ideas are termed by science, history, and politics as ideology. Similarly, individual practitioners choose or should choose between the different EBP formations based on their own personal ideology. Consequently, this article proceeds to analyse the various ideologies behind different EBP definitions as to conclude that there are two broad ideologies that inform the various EBP formations, namely the ideology of truth and the ideology of individual emancipation. These two ideologies are analysed and their connections to the various EBP formations are depicted. Eventually, the article concludes that the in-depth, critical, and intentional analysis by individual nurses of their own ideology will allow them to choose the EBP formation that is most appropriate and fitting for them, and their specific situation. Hence, the conscious analysis of individual ideology becomes the criterion for choosing between competing EBP formations and allows for best evidence to be implemented in practice. Therefore, the best way to teach EBP courses is by facilitating students to analyse their own ideology.
Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.
In this work we investigate some issues in applying formal methods to hybrid system development and develop a categorical framework. We study the themes of stochastic reasoning, heterogeneous formal specification and retrenchment. Hybrid systems raise a rich pallets of aspects that need to be
Oksana Konstantinovna Vasilchenko
Full Text Available The subject of the article is a studying of modern ideologies of managing fear. The purpose of the article is to examine the managing fear practice and explain how it is used in the policy of homeland security. The research methodology is based on the general scientific methods such as analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction and special kind of theoretical me-thods such as studying literature about the problem. The study can be used in courses on social philosophy and political science. The author concludes that social fears are very effective instrument of influence with mass consciousness. The authorities need to legitimize their political decisions through public opinion. But before that they should form it. The author shows how policy of homeland security helps to produce fears in society and how politicians intentionally exaggerate them. In this regard the author considers a concept of homeland security which can eliminate the negative sides of homeland security in future.
I examine how gender ideology is associated with the levels of women's participation in work in Japan, the United States, France and Sweden. The 2005 international comparative survey on fertility decline by the Cabinet Office, Government of Japan was utilized. After controlling for age, wife's education, husband's education and age of the youngest child,\\\\r\\\\\\wife's gender role ideology is found to be related to the negative attitudes toward labor\\\\r\\\\\\force participation in the four countrie...
K J Murray
Full Text Available Providing a sustainable spatial data infrastructure creates responsibility and high demand by continually meeting and satisfying the needs of all kinds of users. It is essential to provide the right information at the right level of quality and reliability and at the right time. Geographic information (GI is today being universally recognised as a key part of the national information infrastructure, especially by government. GI is an enabler in the knowledge economy since the power of geography can be used to underpin the sharing (and trading of vital georeferenced information collected by all kinds of organisations. From this information reliable conclusions can and will be drawn and decisions made. However, achieving such an environment does not just happen. It has to be led, nurtured and developed in line with user needs. Funding requires sustained investment, and it all has to be implemented and maintained whether the economy enjoys good times or bad, and through periods of political change. These are all big challenges encountered by just about every national economy. The aim of many national governments around the world is to establish a reliable and integrated reference base for GI that can underpin the e-economy. This base needs to support government and the commercial sector who need to reference information, and potentially share it with others (eg land ownership or link it up to form an application.(eg location based services. To achieve this a consistent method of georefererencing is required and the Digital National Framework is intended to fulfil that need in Great Britain. This paper will describe what has been happening in Great Britain to build on the firm foundations of the past, and develop a modern and sustainable framework for geographic information for the future. In particular it will be shown that the business model adopted by Ordnance Survey in recent years (ie the users pay for the data has played a key role in securing
Classes of socio-technical hazards allow a characterization of the risk in technology innovation and clarify the mechanisms underpinning emergent technological risk. Emerging Technological Risk provides an interdisciplinary account of risk in socio-technical systems including hazards which highlight: · How technological risk crosses organizational boundaries, · How technological trajectories and evolution develop from resolving tensions emerging between social aspects of organisations and technologies and · How social behaviour shapes, and is shaped by, technology. Addressing an audience from a range of academic and professional backgrounds, Emerging Technological Risk is a key source for those who wish to benefit from a detail and methodical exposure to multiple perspectives on technological risk. By providing a synthesis of recent work on risk that captures the complex mechanisms that characterize the emergence of risk in technology innovation, Emerging Tec...
Berryman, Donna R
Librarians may benefit from understanding research theory more fully, looking at the services they offer as a program, and using program evaluation to understand the program value more completely. The process of program evaluation is research, and, as such, it should be situated within theory. This article reviews two of the basic theoretical concepts of research: ontology and epistemology. These concepts work together to help craft the research questions, and the questions drive the selection of methodology. The article also provides a list of web resources useful for understanding research theory in evaluation.
Marius Ioan Chindris
Full Text Available The period before the 1848 revolution was the one in which the ideas of nation and national unity were formed. National ideology did not appear out of nowhere and it could not have come to life without it being supported by the people of culture and propagated through education. The European ideological currents penetrated in Moldavia, fuelling Romanians’ centuries old dream of being united, the national ideology having had to wage a fierce struggle for the establishment of a Romanian education in which the Romanian language to have the supremacy.
Full Text Available The study on “Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand” is qualitative study with the method of documentary research from text books, books, newspapers and online newspapers to find the definition of democracy which was the system of forming the elected government with the principle of sovereignty, majority, equality, freedom and laws. However, some mass media had false consciousness of democracy which included: election brought bad quality politicians; recruitment of persons to form the government was better than election; promotion of superstition; one man one vote was not for Thai society; capitalism deteriorated the nation; The Armed Forces worked for the people. Another concept was the idea that believed Thai society was praising the elite groups. The ideology said the society should obey the senior citizen who had morals, and the Armed Forces forced people to obey.
Juan Luis Conde
Full Text Available An interpretation of René Magritte's series La condition humaine underlines its anti-realistic warning. On that analogical basis, an approach to three of Cornelius Tacitus' protraits of emperors is provided, namely those of Galba, Tiberius, and Augustus. A common feature in these personalities is their particular difficulty to be represented in the static and univocal way required by literary portrait. The paper analyzes the rhetorical and ideological devices used by the artist to tackle that goal. As a counterpart, a circularity in the appropriation of ideological legacies is suggested, according to which forms that were designed by writers to describe characters in their works have historically moulded social representations of personality
Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol
Narvaez, D; Getz, I; Rest, J R; Thoma, S J
Moral judgment cannot be reduced to cultural ideology, or vice versa. But when each construct is measured separately, then combined, the product predicts powerfully to moral thinking. In Study 1, 2 churches (N = 96) were selected for their differences on religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment. By combining these 3 variables, a multiple correlation of .79 predicted to members' moral thinking (opinions on human rights issues). Study 2 replicated this finding in a secular sample, with the formula established in Study 1 (R = .77). Individual conceptual development in moral judgment and socialization into cultural ideology co-occur, simultaneously and reciprocally, in parallel, and not serially. Individual development in moral judgment provides the epistemological categories for cultural ideology, which in turn influences the course of moral judgment, to produce moral thinking (e.g., opinions about abortion, free speech).
Full Text Available Major trends in figurine production of the copper age settlement of Pietrele (Romania are discussed. The bone figurines are seen as an ideological innovation of the Early Copper Age system in the Eastern Balkans.
In recent decades, premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality have become increasingly visible in China, leading scholars to claim that a national "sex revolution" is under way. However, China's internal sociocultural diversity calls this nation-level generalization into question. How do sex ideologies vary across China's distinct provinces? To what extent are interprovince variations in sex ideologies associated with distinct macrolevel social factors in China? In this research, data from the 2010 China General Social Survey and the 2011 Chinese Statistics Yearbook were analyzed using multilevel models to test four contending theories of interprovince differences in sex ideologies in China: modernization, Westernization, deindustrialization, and the "rice theory." The modernization theory was unsupported by the results, as socioeconomic development is not significantly associated with sex ideologies. Higher levels of deindustrialization and Westernization were associated with less traditional sex ideologies, but the strength of association varied across the domains of premarital sex, extramarital sex, and homosexuality. The rice theory was consistently supported, as the distinction between rice and wheat agriculture explained up to 30% of the province-level variance in sex ideologies. The findings underline the roles of both long-standing geographic differences and recent social changes in shaping China's ideational landscape of sex.
Carlson, Daniel L; Lynch, Jamie L
Nearly all quantitative studies examining the association between the division of housework and gender ideology have found that gender egalitarianism results in less housework for wives, more for husbands, and more equal sharing of housework by couples. However, a few studies suggest housework has a nontrivial influence on gender ideology. An overreliance on single-direction, single-equation regression models and cross-sectional data has limited past research from making strong claims about the causal relationship between gender ideology and housework. We use data on married couples from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households and nonrecursive simultaneous equation models to assess the causal relationship between housework and gender ideology. Results show a mutual and reciprocal relationship between the division of housework and gender ideology for both husbands' and wives'. Reciprocity is strongest for husbands while for wives the relationship is partially indirect and mediated through their husbands' gender ideologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter
Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Crawford, Jarret T; Brandt, Mark J; Inbar, Yoel; Chambers, John R; Motyl, Matt
Liberals and conservatives both express prejudice toward ideologically dissimilar others (Brandt et al., 2014). Previous work on ideological prejudice did not take advantage of evidence showing that ideology is multidimensional, with social and economic ideologies representing related but separable belief systems. In 5 studies (total N = 4912), we test 3 competing hypotheses of a multidimensional account of ideological prejudice. The dimension-specific symmetry hypothesis predicts that social and economic ideologies differentially predict prejudice against targets who are perceived to vary on the social and economic political dimensions, respectively. The social primacy hypothesis predicts that such ideological worldview conflict is experienced more strongly along the social than economic dimension. The social-specific asymmetry hypothesis predicts that social conservatives will be more prejudiced than social liberals, with no specific hypotheses for the economic dimension. Using multiple target groups, multiple prejudice measures (e.g., global evaluations, behavior), and multiple social and economic ideology measures (self-placement, issue positions), we found relatively consistent support for the dimension-specific symmetry and social primacy hypotheses, and no support for the social-specific asymmetry hypothesis. These results suggest that worldview conflict and negative intergroup attitudes and behaviors are dimension-specific, but that the social dimension appears to inspire more political conflict than the economic dimension. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available As theories of mass culture that focus on empowerment, use value and utopian bribes have become increasingly popular, Althusser's groundbreaking work on structural causality and ideology has been left aside because of its alleged inability to account for social resistance. This is unfortunate because such Althusserian concepts still provide the most productive foundation for a Marxist approach to mass culture that avoids both unwitting apologetics and facile, ethical critiques. Nevertheless, many of Althusser's theoretical claims are in need of revision. As the film Ferris Bueller's Day Off implicitly suggests, Althusser's distinction between ideology and the aesthetic no longer holds in consumer-oriented capitalism. In addition, the film undermines Althusser's assertion that the schools are the most powerful ISA under capitalism, suggesting instead that mass culture now fulfills this function under late capitalism. Moreover, this reshuffling of the ideological hierarchy necessarily produces a fresh set of concrete, historically specific contradictions. These contradictions, in turn, provide new possibilities for resistance and social change.
This paper addresses the importance of the concept of ideology in community work. The implications of a Marxist approach to ideology in community practice are analyzed in terms of the concepts of problematization (P. Freire, 1979) and consciousness-raising (J. Barreiro, 1976), illustrating the point with some examples. The traditional Marxist perspective is also examined in relation to the perspectives of social constructionism (I. Ibáñez, 1996), cultural studies (A. McRobbie, 1992), post-Marxism (E. Laclau & C. Mouffe, 1985), and feminism (D. Haraway, 1991). It is argued that the concepts of hegemony and habitus (P. Bourdieu, 1985) can be useful to community social psychology theory and practice. A "situated perspective"--in which it is possible to dialogue from different "subject positions," and articulate transformation and political action--is argued. The implications of this shifting in the concept of ideology by means of theoretical developments outside social communitypsychology can help to define the external (outside) agent's position in community practice.
Settle, Jaime E; Dawes, Christopher T; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H
Scholars in many fields have long noted the importance of social context in the development of political ideology. Recent work suggests that political ideology also has a heritable component, but no specific gene variant or combination of variants associated with political ideology have so far been identified. Here, we hypothesize that individuals with a genetic predisposition toward seeking out new experiences will tend to be more liberal, but only if they are embedded in a social context that provides them with multiple points of view. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we test this hypothesis by investigating an association between self-reported political ideology and the 7R variant of the dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4), which has previously been associated with novelty seeking. Among those with DRD4-7R, we find that the number of friendships a person has in adolescence is significantly associated with liberal political ideology. Among those without the gene variant, there is no association. This is the first study to elaborate a specific gene-environment interaction that contributes to ideological self-identification, and it highlights the importance of incorporating both nature and nurture into the study of political preferences.
Dan M. Kahan
Full Text Available Decision scientists have identified various plausible sources of ideological polarization over climate change, gun violence, national security, and like issues that turn on empirical evidence. This paper describes a study of three of them: the predominance of heuristic-driven information processing by members of the public; ideologically motivated reasoning; and the cognitive-style correlates of political conservativism. The study generated both observational and experimental data inconsistent with the hypothesis that political conservatism is distinctively associated with either unreflective thinking or motivated reasoning. Conservatives did no better or worse than liberals on the Cognitive Reflection Test (Frederick, 2005, an objective measure of information-processing dispositions associated with cognitive biases. In addition, the study found that ideologically motivated reasoning is not a consequence of over-reliance on heuristic or intuitive forms of reasoning generally. On the contrary, subjects who scored highest in cognitive reflection were the most likely to display ideologically motivated cognition. These findings corroborated an alternative hypothesis, which identifies ideologically motivated cognition as a form of information processing that promotes individuals' interests in forming and maintaining beliefs that signify their loyalty to important affinity groups. The paper discusses the practical significance of these findings, including the need to develop science communication strategies that shield policy-relevant facts from the influences that turn them into divisive symbols of political identity.
Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas
This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...
Summary:Counsellor act as the backbone effect in students’ ideological and political work, who specialized in students’Ideological education and behavior management, and they are important component in teaching staff.
Full Text Available The author deals with the relationships among ideology, the public and 'third place', or coffeehouses in the broadest sense. While the 'first place' devoted to secrecy or semi secrecy of family life, 'second place' devoted controlled productivity in the sphere of work, 'third places' are spaces on the margins of political and media publics and concealed bourgeois family life. The author stresses that there are very strong historical and social ties in the simultaneous genesis of public opinion and civil liberties, ideology (as a Weltanschauung of the social world that can be altered by human intervention and social and political mobilization, critical public of the private citizens, free individuals (who publicly reasoning and 'third places' as some of the key factors in the onset of generative modern civil society. It emphasizes a strong fit among communication revolution, print media and the role of 'third places' in the development of ideology and critical public. It is noticed that the age of ideology is broader concept than the public - the public opinion, and that it is 18th and 19th century spreading an ideology that is specifically associated with the communication revolution - the emergence and spreading of printing, printing technology, print media and the rapid production of printed materials. As well as the classical authors (Gouldner, Sennett, Habermas and Coser here discusses the historical, social, cultural and political forces of the modern era, which are summarized in a cluster of conditions that generate a new order of meanings of the social world, and when it was not possible to bypass the 'third places' in which the discourse of a new type of public was shaped in critical thinking of free, equal and private individuals on artificial and changeable nature of social reality. So, 'third place', it was not just a place separate from your family and family privacy, or labor and production requirements, where they temporarily
van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Krouwel, André P. M.; Emmer, Julia
The 2016 European Union (EU) refugee crisis exposed a fundamental distinction in political attitudes between the political left and right. Previous findings suggest, however, that besides political orientation, ideological strength (i.e., political extremism) is also relevant to understand such distinctive attitudes. Our study reveals that the political right is more anxious, and the political left experiences more self-efficacy, about the refugee crisis. At the same time, the political extremes—at both sides of the spectrum—are more likely than moderates to believe that the solution to this societal problem is simple. Furthermore, both extremes experience more judgmental certainty about their domain-specific knowledge of the refugee crisis, independent of their actual knowledge. Finally, belief in simple solutions mediated the relationship between ideology and judgmental certainty, but only among political extremists. We conclude that both ideological orientation and strength matter to understand citizens’ reactions to the refugee crisis. PMID:29593852
A. I. Amosov
Full Text Available In article the author’s formulation of national idea is given. Necessity of transition to the new ideology reflecting interests of all stratum of a society, providing education of new generations, observance moral and moral standards in private life and in public relationships is shown.The special attention is given to influence of ideology on crisis of a primary cell of a society – families. Problems of a choice of new strategy of construction of the family which decision demands scale transformations of all real sector of economy are considered.
This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...
Mainstream economists claim that economics is an objective and empirically tested science – contrary to the humanities and soft social sciences. According to this view, economics is beyond the influence of ideology. It represents the rational way of analysing economic welfare – not influenced...... is not neutral. It cannot be separated from the vision and the fundamental assumptions which lay behind the economic model employed when policies are decided upon. The so-called general equilibrium model is firmly relying on market theory and ordo-/neoliberal ideology....
Hall, Naomi M.; Applewhite, Sheldon
This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included. PMID:25525415
Hall, Naomi M; Applewhite, Sheldon
This study examines the relationship between masculine ideology, adherence to norms, and HIV prevention among young Black heterosexual and gay men on the campus of a historically Black college/university. The data from four focus groups and nine individual interviews (N = 35) were aggregated and two recurring themes emerged: sexual communication, and mate availability. Additional themes related to HIV prevention were stigma, protection, and testing. The importance of investigating masculinity with young men is highlighted and implications for professionals working with college students to prevent the transmission of HIV are included.
Kroska, Amy; Elman, Cheryl
Using a sample of continuously-married individuals (793 women and 847 men) and their spouses drawn from the first two waves of the NSFH, we examine change in individuals' attitudes about mothers' employment. We investigate hypotheses derived from three models of attitude change: the exposure model, the interest-based model, and the control model. We find support for hypotheses derived from all three. Consistent with exposure hypotheses, the adoption of fundamentalist beliefs reduces egalitarianism, while spouses' egalitarianism and spouses' education are positively related to individuals' own egalitarianism. As predicted in both exposure and interest hypotheses, women's entry into employment is positively related to women's egalitarianism, while wives' occupational prestige is positively related to men's egalitarianism. Congruent with the interest model, the presence of a young child is positively associated with women's egalitarianism. Consistent with the exposure model, the number of children in the home reduces men's egalitarianism, and a traditional division of housework decreases women's egalitarianism. Finally, consistent with the gender ideology discrepancy hypothesis, derived from the control model, individuals whose background, work, and family life are inconsistent with their gender ideology at wave 1 shift their gender ideology at wave 2 in a direction that is more compatible with their background, work, and family life: egalitarians with traditional life patterns at wave 1 are more traditional in their gender ideology at wave 2, and traditionals with egalitarian life patterns at wave 1 are more egalitarian at wave 2. We discuss the implications of these patterns for larger scale change in gender ideology.
Riggs, Damien W; Treharne, Gareth J
To date, research that has drawn on Meyer's (2003) minority stress model has largely taken for granted the premises underpinning it. In this article we provide a close reading of how "stress" is conceptualized in the model and suggest that aspects of the model do not attend to the institutionalized nature of stressors experienced by people with marginalized identities, particularly lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals. As a counter to this, we highlight the importance of a focus on the effects of ideology and social norms in terms of stress, and we argue why an intersectional approach is necessary to ensure recognition of multiple axes of marginalization and privilege. The article then outlines the concept of decompensation and suggests that it may offer one way to reconsider the effects of ideology and social norms. The decompensation approach centers on the need for social change rather than solely relying on individuals to be resilient.
Full Text Available This article explores the complicated historical relationship between ideology and utopia in European thought, and what this relationship can teach us when faced with the exuberant promises and hype that characterise new media technologies. The article is structured in two parts. The first develops a detailed account of how this pairing of ideology and utopia has been theorised in the influential (if contentious earlier work of Karl Mannheim, and how the work and ideas of Mannheim have been taken up (and critiqued by more recent critics, including Paul Ricoeur and others. The second examines the use of media technologies associated with the so-called ‘Arab Spring’. The article concludes by considering the ongoing merit of, but challenges we face in, engaging critically with these twin ideas of ideology and utopia in unison, and in relation to media technologies and cultures.
Huijts, T.H.M.; Perkins, J.M.; Subramanian, S.V.
Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined
Huijts, T.; Perkins, J.M; Subramanian, S.V.
Background: Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined
Kay, Aaron; Brandt, M.J.
The authors propose that two guiding frameworks characterize psychological research on the relation between ideology and inequality. The first, called the product approach, focuses on ideologies directly concerned with intergroup relations, in which beliefs about inequality can be considered a
The courts have long established that nurses are in a duty situation and owe a duty of care to their patients (Kent v Griffiths ). Traditionally, the profession set the standard of care and nurses were required to act in accordance with a practice accepted by a responsible body of their peers (Bolam v Friern HMC ).The introduction of the Human Rights Act 1998 gave rise to a positive obligation on government to ensure that laws, policies and procedures are in place to protect violations of human rights. Nurses must now inform their practice with relevant statute law, common law and professional standards in order to properly discharge their duty of care. Richard Griffith considers the law that now underpins a nurse's duty of care and uses a recent report from the Health Service Ombudsman for England to illustrate the obligations that underpin the nurse-patient relationship.
This paper addresses whether neoclassical economics can provide the intellectual underpinning for a theory of reform. I examine whether the neoclassical model satisfies an essential condition to qualify for this role: does it give us a satisfactory explanation for the vast differences in performance between capitalist and socialist economic systems? First, I focus on the theoretical arguments that have traditionally been used to examine the comparative properties of central planning and marke...
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Chamberlain, Sam
Gambling disorder affects 0.4 to 1.6% of adults worldwide, and is highly comorbid with other mental health disorders. This article provides a concise primer on the neural and psychological underpinnings of gambling disorder based on a selective review of the literature. Gambling disorder is associated with dysfunction across multiple cognitive domains which can be considered in terms of impulsivity and compulsivity. Neuroimaging data suggest structural and functional abnormalities of networks...
Robbins, Philip; Shields, Kenneth
Hibbing et al. contend that individual differences in political ideology can be substantially accounted for in terms of differences in a single psychological factor, namely, strength of negativity bias. We argue that, given the multidimensional structure of ideology, a better explanation of ideological variation will take into account both individual differences in negativity bias and differences in empathic concern.
The notion that embedded meanings exist within media, and are informed by particular ideologies, is far from new. Analyses of curriculum, however, rarely examine empirically the role of these ideologies or the context of production. Instead, the ideologies are attributed to a "producer" representing particular power relationships or…
Arizona is the site of many explicit language policies as well as ongoing scholarly discussions of related language ideologies--beliefs about the role of language in society. This study adds a critical piece to the investigation of the role of ideologies in language policy processes by thoroughly documenting language ideologies expressed by a…
Camargo, Jorge E.
Abstract Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed. PMID:28080152
Correa, Juan C; Camargo, Jorge E
Propagation of political ideologies in social networks has shown a substantial impact on voting behavior. Both the contents of the messages (the ideology) and the politicians' influence on their online audiences (their followers) have been associated with such an impact. In this study we evaluate which of these factors exerted a major role in deciding electoral results of the 2015 Colombian regional elections by evaluating the linguistic similarity of political ideologies and their influence on the Twitter sphere. The electoral results proved to be strongly associated with tweets and retweets and not with the linguistic content of their ideologies or politicians' followers in Twitter. Finally, suggestions for new ways to analyze electoral processes are discussed.
Abstract. This article seeks to provide a critique on various ideological misconceptions regarding the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) and African languages in higher education. It further seeks to provide insight into various ICT localisation opportunities within the higher education domain.
Mortensen, Janus; Fabricius, Anne
This chapter presents a qualitative analysis of attitudes towards different forms of English held by four students at an international study programme in Denmark. The students belong to a transient multilingual community in which historically-accrued language ideologies cannot necessarily be assu...... ideologies that favour ‘native’ English varieties and accents over other kinds of English. This could be seen as a contradiction between practice and ideology, but we argue that the contradiction is only apparent.......This chapter presents a qualitative analysis of attitudes towards different forms of English held by four students at an international study programme in Denmark. The students belong to a transient multilingual community in which historically-accrued language ideologies cannot necessarily...... be assumed to be shared by all members. Our analysis suggests that the students see competence and effectiveness as important parameters in their evaluation of different forms of English in the university context, irrespective of the provenance of the speaker, but they also subscribe to familiar language...
This paper provides an exposition and interpretation of the language policies of two African universities, namely the University of Yaoundé 1 in Cameroon and the University of the Western ... Keywords: Language Ideologies, Language Attitudes, Language Policy, University of the Western Cape, University of Yaoundé 1 ...
Language can act as ideology in 2 possible ways: 1) as a major source and embodiment of a group's world view, sanctioning certain forms of behavior and interpretation; and 2) as a symbol of group identity virtually command a group action. (Author)
A relationship exists between agrarian thought and the practice of formal schooling in the rural Midwest. Three traditions have shaped agrarian thinking about democracy and its application to social institutions, especially education. Fundamentalism, localism, and pastoralism have combined to form the ideological base for rural resistance to…
Full Text Available This paper describes an understanding born in the occupied country, namely Indonesia (Dutch East Indies to oppose colonialism, capitalism and imperialism in the early twentieth century. Marhaenisme, Sukarno call that ideology. The purpose of this paper is to provide an understanding of the political ideology that developed early days of the movement of the twentieth century. Until now Marhaenism still interesting to be studied and understood even applied in the life of the nation. Writings using the historical method is descriptive-analysis. Sources of data obtained from the literature, library materials, and writings by Sukarno as the originator of this ideology. Marhaenism an ideology of opposition against colonialism and foreign imperialism. With the spirit of Sukarno hoped Marhaen colonized people will soon emerge from the downturn. Then able to process, enjoy the fruits of his labors without having to submit to someone else. Marhaenism not just a symbol of resurrection of the wong cilik but a spirit of all the people of Indonesia that is free from physical and mental colonization coming from the outside.
issue of religious ideology/conflict from Achebe through Ngugi to Adichie. It attempts to .... what stretch of the imagination can any truly informed mind compare Muthoni with. Lot's unnamed ... on him the human rights award. Yet in his home ...
It is contended that much of present-day applied linguistics for language teaching (ALLT) fails to mediate effectively, primarily because an ideological construction, emanating from a critical theory perspective, is too often imposed on everyday pedagogical practices. This has resulted in an exaggerated level of concern about the power imbalances…
H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); O.H. Swank (Otto)
textabstractands. The time series analysis, covering the period 1953–1993, allows for different types of government spending. In general, spending is inspired by ideological and opportunistic motives: all government expenditure categories show an upward drift during election times and the partisan
We attempt to tease out the imaginary conceptions that make lending through Kiva, an emergent microfinance charity, meaningful to its creators and supporters. A combination of interpretive methods (analysis of consumer narratives, brand genealogy) is used to outline and dissect Kiva’s innovative ...... ideology of entrepreneurial charity....
data,reduction, clarification, and verification. Characteristic of Awan Voice music is music touch by beatbox acapella format. In each performance, they sometimes intersperse singing with jokes that draw the audience’s attention Awan Voice composition dynamic development and work arrangements can be seen form the aspects of song title, song composition, structure, melody, harmony, market share and song motif. While the orientation toward Indonesia Awan Voice market ideology is using melodies that are easy to remember, flexible to play, easy to sing and meaningful. The harmony used is not too grandiose. It can be combined with the instrument or type of music that is not as common as classic, blues and others. Their work adopted to the time and place or to its target market share, and profitability.
Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo; Yago, Carmen
This study tests the direct relevance of justifications and social comparisons (predictors of perceptions of fairness) on different types of household labour distribution, and the importance of masculinity ideology and neosexism on these variables. The participants were heterosexual dual-earner couples. Our results showed that both men and women use more justifications when their housework distribution is not equal, but only women use social comparisons associated with the ways of distributing domestic work. In addition, we observe that, in both men and women, justifications are related to a traditional masculine ideology, but a different model appears in relation to comparisons which are associated with neosexism in men and with traditional masculine ideology in women. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Zolotukhin, Vladimir; Zolotukhina, Natalia; Yazevich, Maria; Rodionov, Alexey; Kozyreva, Marina
The work presents the analysis of the influence of the ideological paradigms of technology in solving environmental problems in the conditions of modernization of production, where a significant role is given to the protection and preservation of the natural environment and the protection of the rights of a citizen to a favourable environment. The attention is focused on the fact that in a civilized society, the needs of the individual and society are formed within the right social and cultural fields. The main importance of the regulation of everyday reality allotted to the phenomenon of law as a certain ideological paradigm. Stressed that at different stages in the coexistence of ideology and power detected General forms and principles of their influence on social practices, and on consciousness. The article substantiates the position that any interaction of subjects of economic activities leads to the existence of "constructive tension".
Slone, Michelle; Shur, Lia; Gilady, Ayelet
The present review examines the moderating role of ideology on the effects of war, armed conflict, and terrorism on youth. Ideology is an important factor given the central role played by religio-political ideology and nationalism in present-day conflicts. Ideologies or worldviews represent cognitive frameworks that imbue the traumatic situation with meaning and order. Analysis of the pool of studies identified three categories of ideologically based moderating factors, each representing an aspect of social construction of traumatic events, namely, religion, political ideology, and self-concept. The two closely related categories of religion and politico-religious beliefs showed both positive and negative effects on psychological and psychiatric outcomes among youth. The third category of different aspects of self-concept yielded consistently positive moderating effects. The mechanisms by which each category of ideology moderates effects of exposure to war, armed conflict, and terrorism are discussed, and research and clinical implications are presented.
This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…
Karimzad, Farzad; Sibgatullina, Gulnaz
Adopting an online ethnographic approach, we examine the linguistic/semiotic practices and ideologies of "purism" among Tatar and Iranian Azerbaijani Facebook users. We argue that purification practices can be understood as identity work, the outcome of which is often not an etymologically "purer" language but a (perceived)…
Abou Hashish, Ebtsam Aly; Ali Awad, Nadia Hassan
Ascertaining the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision among academic nurse educators at work appears to be a challenge particularly in situations when they are faced with a need to solve an ethical problem and make a moral decision. This study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical ideology, moral judgment, and ethical decision as perceived by academic nurse educators. A descriptive correlational research design was conducted at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. All academic nurse educators were included in the study (N = 220). Ethical Position Questionnaire and Questionnaire of Moral Judgment and Ethical Decisions were proved reliable to measure study variables. Ethical considerations: Approval was obtained from Ethics Committee at Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University. Privacy and confidentiality of data were maintained and assured by obtaining subjects' informed consent. This study reveals a significant positive moderate correlation between idealism construct of ethical ideology and moral judgment in terms of recognition of the behavior as an ethical issue and the magnitude of emotional consequences of the ethical situation (p relativism construct of ethical ideology and overall moral judgment (p = 0.010). Approximately 3.5% of the explained variance of overall moral judgment is predicted by idealism together with relativism. The findings suggest that variations in ethical position and ideology are associated with moral judgment and ethical decision. Organizations of academic nursing education should provide a supportive work environment to help their academic staff to develop their self-awareness and knowledge of their ethical position and promoting their ethical ideologies and, in turn, enhance their moral judgment as well as develop ethical reasoning and decision-making capability of nursing students. More emphasis in nursing curricula is needed on ethical concepts for developing nursing
Oleksandr V. Krasnokutsky
Full Text Available The purpose of the work. Investigate the specificity of manifestations of the interrelation political and legal consciousness, and, at the same time, the development of the ideology of state-building as a particular species of theoretically informed practical consciousness, which was used by the creators of state forms in the times of the Ancient East. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics, historicism, formational and civilizational approaches. The scientific novelty. The obtained results of a study that summarize the scientific novelty can be formulated in the form of abstracts: a identified two lines of ideological interaction on state building in the East in ancient times; b formed a theoretical model of ideological matrix of state-building of the Ancient Orient; c revealed, that the motility of this ideological matrix is consistent with the development of power in the state of those times. Conclusions. Specificity of manifestations of the interrelation political and legal consciousness and development ideology of state-building in the times of the Ancient East – is the existence of two lines of ideological interaction in the field of state-building in a state-organized society: the first line – the unilateral influence of political consciousness on the legal consciousness; the second line – the asymmetric inverse influence of legal consciousness on political consciousness. These two lines of ideological interaction (the unilateral influence of political consciousness on the legal consciousness and the asymmetric inverse influence of legal consciousness on political consciousness have created original ideological matrix of state-building. Within this ideological matrix of state-building in the times of the Ancient East formed corresponding view ideological phenomenon – the ideology of state-building of oriental slave state.
Bruno Marinoni Marinoni
Full Text Available The television channel number 10 of Fortaleza (current TV Verdes Mares, during the 1960 decade, passed through the ideological filter of the Military Dictatorship, when the channel was taken from its owner and given to the businessman Edson Queiroz. The filter had consequences in the next decade with the channel affiliation to the biggest network broadcasting of the country, the Rede Globo, which was also protected by the Military Regime. Based on those two facts, it is intended to discuss some aspects of the exploration models of communication that occurs in the country since the specified period, emphasizing the ideology transmitted by the TV channel which has the biggest audience ratings in Ceará.
Iranian political strategy wants to be presented as a political break, with a Pan-Islamic vocation. Brought about by Ayatollah Khomeyni, this political philosophy has produced the intended effects, as seen with the return of more moderate policies. Khomeyni's death confronted the Islamic Republic with a choice: Hachemi Rasfandjani put Iran back into the international scene by conciliating pragmatism with ideological values. In 2005, M. Ahmadinejad came to power. His declarations concerning the Hebrew State and his position on nuclear weapons pose the question as to whether or not Iran is reverting to an export policy of revolution. It is important to place these elements in the historical context of the Islamic Republic so as to see if Iranian foreign policy is again taking an ideological turn or if it is continuing down the lane of pragmatism
Full Text Available Marriage is defined as a social, religious and legal community of a husband and wife, and the quality of this relationship is very important for spouses, children and the society in the widest sense. According to the definition of marriage itself it is clear that a suitable gender ideology and the attitudes towards native roles have the significant role in many aspects of the marital and family dynamics. What is more, it is considered that native roles have the leading role in the determination of the quality of marital relations by determining what people expect from their partners and marriage. The role of women and the attitudes towards their role have undergone many changes in the last few decades under the influence of particular social changes, primarily thanks to the higher employment rate of women, and consequently different gender division of labor between men and women, both at work and in families. This paper analyses how the employment of women and the change in the traditional division of labor influence the quality of marital relationships. First of all, we have indicated the significant positive, as well as negative implications which the change in the marital division of labor has to the quality of marital relations. In the end, we have tried to point out that the adopted gender ideology, traditional or egalitarian/feminist acts as an important and essential mediator in the relation between the division of labor and perceived quality of marital relationship.
McCright, Aaron M.; Dentzman, Katherine; Charters, Meghan; Dietz, Thomas
In recent years, some scholars, journalists, and science advocates have promoted broad claims that ‘conservatives distrust science’ or ‘conservatives oppose science’. We argue that such claims may oversimplify in ways that lead to empirical inaccuracies. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis suggests a more nuanced examination of how political ideology influences views about science. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis hypothesizes that some sectors of society mobilize to defend the industrial capitalist order from the claims of environmentalists and some environmental scientists that the current economic system causes serious ecological and public health problems. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis expects that conservatives will report significantly less trust in, and support for, science that identifies environmental and public health impacts of economic production (i.e., impact science) than liberals. It also expects that conservatives will report a similar or greater level of trust in, and support for, science that provides new inventions or innovations for economic production (i.e., production science) than liberals. Analyzing data from a recent survey experiment with 798 adults recruited from the US general public, our results confirm the expectations of the Anti-Reflexivity Thesis. Conservatives report less trust in impact scientists but greater trust in production scientists than their liberal counterparts. We argue that further work that increases the accuracy and depth of our understanding of the relationship between political ideology and views about science is likely crucial for addressing the politicized science-based issues of our age.
McCright, Aaron M; Dentzman, Katherine; Charters, Meghan; Dietz, Thomas
In recent years, some scholars, journalists, and science advocates have promoted broad claims that ‘conservatives distrust science’ or ‘conservatives oppose science’. We argue that such claims may oversimplify in ways that lead to empirical inaccuracies. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis suggests a more nuanced examination of how political ideology influences views about science. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis hypothesizes that some sectors of society mobilize to defend the industrial capitalist order from the claims of environmentalists and some environmental scientists that the current economic system causes serious ecological and public health problems. The Anti-Reflexivity Thesis expects that conservatives will report significantly less trust in, and support for, science that identifies environmental and public health impacts of economic production (i.e., impact science) than liberals. It also expects that conservatives will report a similar or greater level of trust in, and support for, science that provides new inventions or innovations for economic production (i.e., production science) than liberals. Analyzing data from a recent survey experiment with 798 adults recruited from the US general public, our results confirm the expectations of the Anti-Reflexivity Thesis. Conservatives report less trust in impact scientists but greater trust in production scientists than their liberal counterparts. We argue that further work that increases the accuracy and depth of our understanding of the relationship between political ideology and views about science is likely crucial for addressing the politicized science-based issues of our age. (letter)
culture in terms of lists of domain-general, stable traits, such as individualist - collectivist value orientations li7J Researchers operating within this...Estabrooke, ONR Code 30 14. ABSTRACT Two cultural studies were conducted to clarify the ideological characteristics that serve as enablers for...rich source of cultural information that provides important clues as to the beliefs, attitudes and values of group members. Documents and postings from
Full Text Available Parallel or tacit agreement with the European cultural model, union political projects have evolved over time from imperial ambitions in the global democratic principles. The current project of European integration, initiated by Pan Europe manifesto as an philosophical-political alternative centered on the individual, personality and freedom ideas has a striking table normative component, for both theoretical and ideological initiatives are under the sign of moral imperative, i.e. the soteriological peaceful shade.
Al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent GWOT Global War on Terror ISIS Islamic State of Iraq and Syria IS Islamic State MENA Middle East and North... MENA ). Al-Qaeda was officially established in 1988, and since that time it has engaged in multiple campaigns against Western targets that it had...Qaeda and global jihadi ideology in general.51 This was not to be however. The violence and political turmoil in MENA did not subside, and the
Midford, Richard; Munro, Geoffrey; McBride, Nyanda; Snow, Pamela; Ladzinski, Ursula
This study identifies the conceptual underpinnings of effective school-based drug education practice in light of contemporary research evidence and the practical experience of a broad range of drug education stakeholders. The research involved a review of the literature, a national survey of 210 Australian teachers and others involved in drug education, and structured interviews with 22 key Australian drug education policy stakeholders. The findings from this research have been distilled and presented as a list of 16 principles that underpin effective drug education. In broad terms, drug education should be evidence-based, developmentally appropriate, sequential, and contextual. Programs should be initiated before drug use commences. Strategies should be linked to goals and should incorporate harm minimization. Teaching should be interactive and use peer leaders. The role of the classroom teacher is central. Certain program content is important, as is social and resistance skills training. Community values, the social context of use, and the nature of drug harm have to be addressed. Coverage needs to be adequate and supported by follow-up. It is envisaged that these principles will provide all those involved in the drug education field with a set of up-to-date, research-based guidelines against which to reference decisions on program design, selection, implementation, and evaluation.
Kerta Adhi Made
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the forms and the factors leading to the contestation of cultural ideology in National Examination. This research utilized Qualitative Research method and the approach of Cultural Studies. Based on the analysis, it was found that the forms of ideological contestation, specifically, centralistic, prioritizing on the result of cognitive domain, and imaging. The factors which caused consisted of political of education, state policies, and socio-cultural. The implications of this research were (1 There was shifting of educational values into capitalism, (2 The meaning of learning became limited in which it was just purposed at facing National Examination, (3 Educational services have shifted from humanist public services to commodification of education, with the result that honesty was marginalized. Eventhough the government has developed sophisticated system and very tight supervision, if the character of the subjects are not formed and cultured, accordingly, the National Examination stated honest and achievement oriented will be just a slogan. Therefore, the education system needs to be improved. The education paradigm which is more emphasized on the increasing of intellectual intelligence by multiple choice tests and scores needs to be deconstructed by adjusting with Indonesian cultural values based on “Pancasila” as ideological foundation and developing character education to the children from early age.
Sameer M. Al-Shraah
Full Text Available Deconstructing colonization and the colonizing discourse is a long and continuing process. Many intellectuals participated, and still participate, in this noble mission. However, "Waiting for the Barbarians" is a literary work that resists the colonial ideology through raising the colonizer's, and consequently the reader's, awareness of the pervasive ideology of dehumanization; it is this ideology that makes possible the severe torture of the prisoners without the torturers' feeling or awareness of their criminal deeds. This ideology of dehumanization and the struggle against its domination is manifested by the character of the protagonist who, as a representative of the colonizer, experiences a gradual process of confusion, introspection, and remorse that enables the reader to experience closely, rather than merely witness from a distance, an exemplary process of self-questioning. This theme of self-questioning is one of the main themes of Coetzee's Waiting for the Barbarians. The novel creates in us an ability to question the different ideologies that enslaved us unconsciously, especially at our modern time when It seems that we became so obsessed with materialism and our existential needs that risking one's physical safety or financial security to stand up for one's principles will never be an issue for most people, especially those living in what was known as colonizing countries or, in modern terminology, the developed or first world. Thus, the aim of this paper is to investigate how the novel creates in its reader a revival of a moral and ultimately political sensibility that is usually inhibited by the ideology of dehumanization.
Jost, John T; Federico, Christopher M; Napier, Jaime L
Ideology has re-emerged as an important topic of inquiry among social, personality, and political psychologists. In this review, we examine recent theory and research concerning the structure, contents, and functions of ideological belief systems. We begin by defining the construct and placing it in historical and philosophical context. We then examine different perspectives on how many (and what types of) dimensions individuals use to organize their political opinions. We investigate (a) how and to what extent individuals acquire the discursive contents associated with various ideologies, and (b) the social-psychological functions that these ideologies serve for those who adopt them. Our review highlights "elective affinities" between situational and dispositional needs of individuals and groups and the structure and contents of specific ideologies. Finally, we consider the consequences of ideology, especially with respect to attitudes, evaluations, and processes of system justification.
Devitt, Aleea L.; Schacter, Daniel L.
As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. PMID:27592332
Low, Felicia M; Gluckman, Peter D; Hanson, Mark A
The importance of developmental factors in influencing the risk of later-life disease has a strong evidence base derived from multiple epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies in animals and humans. During early life, an organism is able to adjust its phenotypic development in response to environmental cues. Such developmentally plastic responses evolved as a fitness-maximizing strategy to cope with variable environments. There are now increasing data that these responses are, at least partially, underpinned by epigenetic mechanisms. A mismatch between the early and later-life environments may lead to inappropriate early life-course epigenomic changes that manifest in later life as increased vulnerability to disease. There is also growing evidence for the transgenerational transmission of epigenetic marks. This article reviews the evidence that susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular disease in humans is linked to changes in epigenetic marks induced by early-life environmental cues, and discusses the clinical, public health and therapeutic implications that arise.
This paper reviews the somewhat disconnected studies on the introductory level economics textbooks. First, specifying the best-sellers, it is argued that there is visible standardization and concentration in the textbook market. Second, studies focusing on the rhetorical and ideological aspects of economics textbooks are reviewed. While the heterodoxy, with determination, asserts that economics is inherently political and ideological, the mainstream, understandably, tends to deny the ideologi...
Vasić Aleksandar N.
Full Text Available It is worth noting that the important journal of the history of Serbian literature and music, the Serbian Literary Magazine (1901 - 1914, 1920 1941, became more Yugoslav-oriented within a relatively short period following its inception. From its early beginning to 1906, the Magazine’s musical critics did not actively express its Yugoslav ideology. But from 1907 there was an increase of interest in both the music and the musicians from Croatia and Slovenia. In 1911 the Croatian Opera spent almost two weeks in Belgrade performing; the composer and musicologist, Miloje Milojević began to develop the idea of union with Slavs from the South in a critical analysis he rendered of their performance. Until the end of the first/old series, SLM highlighted a noticeable number of texts about Croatians and Slovenians: critical reviews of Croatian musical books, concerts of Slovenian artists in Belgrade, score editions of Slovenian music performances of instrument soloists from Zagreb in Belgrade - as well as notes about the musical work of Croatian Academy (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb. Echoes of rare tours of Serbian musicians in South Slavs cultural centers did not go unheard, either. In the older series of the journal, lasting and two-fold relations had already begun to lean towards Yugoslav ideology. From one side, even before World War I, Yugoslav ideology in the Magazine was accepted as a program objective of Serbian political and cultural elite. On the other, the journal does not appear to have negotiated any of its aesthetic criterion when estimating musical events that came from Zagreb and Ljubljana to Belgrade - at least not "in the name of Yugoslav ideology". In later series of SLM, the Yugoslav platform was being represented as official ideological statehood of newly created Kingdoms of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (1918, i.e., the Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1929. At that time, the Magazine had occasional literary cooperation from
.... This document contains articles about economics, politics and ideology. Some topics discussed are energy, nuclear nonproliferation, foreign policy, conservation, political science, labor, and book reviews of political books...
Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.; Ausloos, Marcel
A model for ideological struggles is formulated. The underlying set is a closed one, like a country but in which the population size is variable in time. The dynamics of the struggle is described by model equations of Verhulst-Lotka-Volterra kind. Several “ideologies” compete to increase their number of adepts. Such followers can be either converted from one ideology to another or become followers of an ideology though being previously ideologically-free. A reverse process is also allowed. Two kinds of conversions are considered: unitary conversion, e.g. by means of mass communication tools, or binary conversion, e.g. by means of interactions between people. It is found that the steady state, when it exists, depends on the number of ideologies. Moreover when the number of ideologies increases some tension arises between them. This tension can change in the course of time. We propose to measure the ideology tensions through an appropriately defined scale index. Finally it is shown that a slight change in the conditions of the environment can prevent the extinction of some ideology; after almost collapsing the ideology can spread again and can affect a significant part of the country’s population. Two kinds of such resurrection effects are described as phoenix effects.
Psychoanalysis is in crisis. Its prestige with the public has plummeted, as well as its economic viability and even its population. There are fewer analytic candidates and fewer patients, less insurance coverage, less presence in departments of psychiatry, and less prestige among the traditional academic disciplines. Analysts are getting older, and there are fewer and fewer young ones to replace us. A once-fascinated public now distrusts analysts as unscientific, deluded, authoritarian, reactionary, arrogant, sexist, and/or passé. This paper examines some causes of this decline within psychoanalysis itself as well as possibilities for reform. The status of psychoanalysis as a science is in question, although Freud considered it as an empirical science, and modified his theories to fit new facts. In reality, however, transmission of psychoanalytic knowledge in the training analyst system has led to its perpetuation as an ideology, rather than a science, and to the formation of oligarchies in the structure of psychoanalytic organizations and some institutes. Psychoanalysis is nothing if not an exploratory endeavor, and it thrives in an open environment. Psychoanalytic theory becomes ideology when exploration, testing, and challenge are suppressed. There are many analysts for whom psychoanalysis is neither ideology or theology, but an intellectually stimulating and emotionally rewarding human and humane endeavor, where convention is enlivened by creative challenge, and innovation is disciplined by tradition. In that form, it is too valuable to lose. It is time for us to step back and reclaim our citizenship in the larger intellectual world of curiosity, creativity, and freedom.
Sweden has a long tradition of social democracy and corporate cooperation. Social problems are treated as technological questions that always should be solved through rational and neutral means. Today Sweden faces a crisis of economy as well as a crisis of medicine. In the spirit of consensus, th...... system of primary care and prevention. However, in the context of the current economic crisis, the struggle against health hazards and cuts in public spending has intensified and the gap between the ideology of technological rationalism and reality has widened....
Full Text Available As Mosco (2005 observed, every new wave of media technology has carried contrasting sentiments, frequently approaching in popular discourse hyperbolic messianic and apocalyptic manifestations. In the specific case of digital media, on the one hand, they are considered as democratic sears, rescuers of the public sphere, prophets of the digital economy, which can potentially make of every spectator, an actor and an author. On the other hand, they have been accused of jeopardizing face-to-face communication, deepening the level of commodification of our private lives and of exploiting user-generated generate content.
Full Text Available As a Crusades epic, the film Kingdom of Heaven revives the 12th century history in the critical city of Jerusalem. The story surrounds a French blacksmith Balian who defends Jerusalem and contends with the Islamic leader Saladin who attempts to seize back the holy city from the Christians. Through the special themes in region, religion and war, Kingdom of Heaven seems to indicate the conflicts between the East and the West. Furthermore, the outbreaks of 9/11 and the Iraq War definitely make this film’s release more controversial. Kingdom of Heaven, being a film, an essential medium of mass communication, the style in which it expresses its story and ideology is worth considering in depth. By exploring this Hollywood film which lacks of the typical Hollywood style, this paper discusses the significance in making Kingdom of Heaven in the wake of 9/11 and how the critical debate surrounding the film is a reflection of contemporary ideologies.
Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov
Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.
Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L
As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nisbet, Heather, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Clinical Oncology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, Oxon OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Matthews, Sara [Department of Clinical Oncology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Headington, Oxford, Oxon OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)
The introduction of VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) into radiotherapy departments across England was in response to the National Radiotherapy Advisory Group's (NRAG) recommendation to the Department of Health that it may assist in enhancing the clinical learning experience of student radiotherapy radiographers. It was suggested that this may help to reduce the high attrition rate of students currently experienced, particularly in the first year of training. This paper investigates how VERT may be used in the clinical setting to develop the skills of students, in order to meet this vision. We argue that using an epistemological approach, i.e. using the theory of knowledge, to support the design of the learning resource, is key to enabling the educator to fulfil these expectations. We describe the design of a generic VERT workbook for use in the clinical departments that train students for the University of Hertfordshire. The use of educational theory to underpin the aims and inform the development of the workbook is examined. We then discuss the alignment of the workbook with the curriculum in order to enhance the students' learning experience and nurture their clinical competence. Finally, we will consider the teaching strategies used during the delivered sessions and discuss how we believe they will allow us to achieve these aims.
Read, Betsy A; Kegel, Jessica; Klute, Mary J; Kuo, Alan; Lefebvre, Stephane C; Maumus, Florian; Mayer, Christoph; Miller, John; Monier, Adam; Salamov, Asaf; Young, Jeremy; Aguilar, Maria; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Frickenhaus, Stephan; Gonzalez, Karina; Herman, Emily K; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Napier, Johnathan; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Sarno, Analissa F; Shmutz, Jeremy; Schroeder, Declan; de Vargas, Colomban; Verret, Frederic; von Dassow, Peter; Valentin, Klaus; Van de Peer, Yves; Wheeler, Glen; Dacks, Joel B; Delwiche, Charles F; Dyhrman, Sonya T; Glöckner, Gernot; John, Uwe; Richards, Thomas; Worden, Alexandra Z; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Grigoriev, Igor V
Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
Nisbet, Heather; Matthews, Sara
The introduction of VERT (Virtual Environment for Radiotherapy Training) into radiotherapy departments across England was in response to the National Radiotherapy Advisory Group's (NRAG) recommendation to the Department of Health that it may assist in enhancing the clinical learning experience of student radiotherapy radiographers. It was suggested that this may help to reduce the high attrition rate of students currently experienced, particularly in the first year of training. This paper investigates how VERT may be used in the clinical setting to develop the skills of students, in order to meet this vision. We argue that using an epistemological approach, i.e. using the theory of knowledge, to support the design of the learning resource, is key to enabling the educator to fulfil these expectations. We describe the design of a generic VERT workbook for use in the clinical departments that train students for the University of Hertfordshire. The use of educational theory to underpin the aims and inform the development of the workbook is examined. We then discuss the alignment of the workbook with the curriculum in order to enhance the students' learning experience and nurture their clinical competence. Finally, we will consider the teaching strategies used during the delivered sessions and discuss how we believe they will allow us to achieve these aims.
Infield, D G
The UK Energy Research Centre (UKERC) in it's submission to the DTI's 2006 Energy Review reminded us that the 'UK has abundant wind, wave and tidal resources available; its mild climate lends itself to bio-energy production, and solar radiation levels are sufficient to sustain a viable solar industry'. These technologies are at different stages of development but they all draw on basic and applied Science and Engineering. The paper will briefly review the renewable energy technologies and their potential for contributing to a sustainable energy supply. Three research topics will be highlighted that bridge the gap between the physics underpinning the energy conversion, and the engineering aspects of development and deployment; all three are highly relevant to the Government's programme on micro-generation. Two are these are taken from field of thin film photovoltaics (PV), one related to novel device development and the other to a measurement technique for assessing the manufacturing quality of PV modules and their performance. The third topic concerns the development of small building integrated wind turbines and examines the complex flow associated with such applications. The paper will conclude by listing key research challenges that are central to the search for efficient and cost-effective renewable energy generation
Jäncke, Lutz; Leipold, Simon; Burkhard, Anja
Most studies examining the neural underpinnings of music listening have no specific instruction on how to process the presented musical pieces. In this study, we explicitly manipulated the participants' focus of attention while they listened to the musical pieces. We used an ecologically valid experimental setting by presenting the musical stimuli simultaneously with naturalistic film sequences. In one condition, the participants were instructed to focus their attention on the musical piece (attentive listening), whereas in the second condition, the participants directed their attention to the film sequence (passive listening). We used two instrumental musical pieces: an electronic pop song, which was a major hit at the time of testing, and a classical musical piece. During music presentation, we measured electroencephalographic oscillations and responses from the autonomic nervous system (heart rate and high-frequency heart rate variability). During passive listening to the pop song, we found strong event-related synchronizations in all analyzed frequency bands (theta, lower alpha, upper alpha, lower beta, and upper beta). The neurophysiological responses during attentive listening to the pop song were similar to those of the classical musical piece during both listening conditions. Thus, the focus of attention had a strong influence on the neurophysiological responses to the pop song, but not on the responses to the classical musical piece. The electroencephalographic responses during passive listening to the pop song are interpreted as a neurophysiological and psychological state typically observed when the participants are 'drawn into the music'.
Read, Betsy A. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Kegel, Jessica [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Klute, Mary J. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kuo, Alan [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lefebvre, Stephane C. [J. Craig Venter Inst., San Diego, CA (United States); Maumus, Florian [National Institute of Agricultural Research, Versailles (France); Mayer, Christoph [Alexander Koenig Research Museum, Bonn (Germany); Ruhr Univ., Bochum (Germany); Miller, John [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Monier, Adam [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Salamov, Asaf [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Young, Jeremy [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Aguilar, Maria [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Claverie, Jean-Michel [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Frickenhaus, Stephan [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Univ. of Bremerhaven (Germany); Gonzalez, Karina [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Herman, Emily K. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lin, Yao-Cheng [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Napier, Johnathan [Rothamstead Research, Harpenden (United Kingdom); Ogata, Hiroyuki [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); Sarno, Analissa F. [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Schmutz, Jeremy [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Schroeder, Declan [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); de Vargas, Columban [CNRS. Univ. Pierre and Marie Curie (France).; Verret, Frederic [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); von Dassow, Peter [Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Chile); Valentin, Klaus [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Van de Peer, Yves [Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Wheeler, Glen [Marine Biological Association of the UK, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Plymouth Marine Lab. (United Kingdom); Annotation Consortium, Emiliania huxleyi; Dacks, Joel B. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Delwiche, Charles F. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Dyhrman, Sonya T. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst., MA (United States); Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States); Glockner, Gernot [Univ. of Cologne (Germany); John, Uwe [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Richards, Thomas [National History Museum, London (United Kingdom); Worden, Alexandra Z. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Zhang, Xiaoyu [California State Univ. (CalState), San Marcos, CA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor V. [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)
Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering themvisible fromspace3.Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate thatE. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
Walsh, Joseph A.
Studied 33 community mental health centers to determine what types of organizational variables and ideological factors might affect whether a community health center conducted prevention programs. Results indicated organizational support and ideological support of mental health professionals were critical variables for prevention programs.…
Bulanda, Ronald E.
Although prior social science research has established the ability of gender ideologies to influence the domestic division of labor, it has neglected to disentangle their potentially unique influence on paternal involvement with children. Past research examining the influence of gender ideology on parenting behaviors does not acknowledge potential…
Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Qu, Xiaoyuan Doris
This article explores the ideological complex in a Hong Kong primary school where a large number of immigrant mainland Chinese students study by examining the interview data from teachers and immigrant students. Drawing on the notions of monoglot ideology and misrecognition, this study indicates that disqualifications of some linguistic resources…
Showstack, Rachel E.
Drawing on linguistic anthropological notions of language ideologies and sociolinguistic approaches to stance, this study examines the meaning-making resources through which Spanish heritage language (HL) learners orient toward ideological perspectives on language value and linguistic expertise in classroom interaction. Part of a larger…
Resulting from the differences in ideas, goals and principles in such a society, one ideological group is classified from the other. Consequently, talking about the organization of some Western societies namely, the United Kingdom, there are some diverse but sometimes competing ideological schools. Typically, we have the ...
The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between elementary teachers' student control ideologies and their perceived burnout levels and to determine to what extent teachers' student control ideologies predict their burnout. Three hundred and seventy-six teachers from 12 elementary schools in Nigde, Turkey participated in the study.…
Subramanian, S.V.; Huijts, T.H.M.; Perkins, J.M.
Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse
Reexamines critical theory as a response to Marxism and repositions ideology critique as a crucial adult learning process. Argues that a critical theory of adult learning should focus on how adults learn to recognize and challenge ideological domination and manipulation. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)
Gunn, Joshua; Treat, Shaun
In order to help frame a current theoretical impasse, in this essay we forward the figure of the zombie in Western cinema as an allegory for the reception of the concept of ideology by communication scholars. After noting parallels between (a) an early academic caricature of ideology and the laboring zombie, and (b) the subject of ideological…
The relatively limited consideration of ideology in mainstream theory and research of English language teaching (ELT) has arguably prevented the problematization of many taken-for-granted perceptions and practices in the field. This article brings part of this marginalised body of scholarship on issues of ideology in the area of ELT together to…
Gallo, Sarah; Link, Holly; Allard, Elaine; Wortham, Stanton; Mortimer, Katherine
This article explores how language ideologies--beliefs about immigrant students' language use--carry conflicting images of Spanish speakers in one New Latino Diaspora town. We describe how teachers and students encounter, negotiate, and appropriate divergent ideologies about immigrant students' language use during routine schooling practices, and…
Subramanian, S.V.; Huijts, T.; Perkins, J.M.
Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an
Martin, Michael J.; Kitchel, Tracy
The traditions of the National FFA Organization (FFA) are grounded in agrarianism. This ideology focuses on the ability of farming and nature to develop citizens and integrity within people. Agrarianism has been an important thread of American rhetoric since the founding of country. The ideology has morphed over the last two centuries as the…
Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris
Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…
Full Text Available The goal of the study was to examine the political ideology and perceptions of bias among the faculty in a university in the southeast U.S.A. Findings regarding the overall dominance of a liberal political ideology as well as ideological differences among disciplines are consistent with previous research. Respondents did distinguish between political dominance and political bias and were relatively accurate in their perceptions of a liberal dominance. Reports of bias were much lower overall but all groups were more likely to report a bias against conservatives than against Liberal and Moderates. Reports of bias against conservatives were quite high among conservatives themselves (48.7%. Conservatives were more likely to report a need to conceal their political beliefs, while Moderates and Liberals were slightly more likely to report harassment or attacks for their political beliefs. The gender differences in political ideology show that women are significantly more likely to hold a liberal political ideology.
Religious and political ideologies serve as primary lenses through which people interpret information and education related to the climate system, climate change, and climate impacts upon human and environmental systems. Consequently, ideologies strongly affect (1) the levels of receptivity that people express toward communication messages and educational efforts related to climate topics, and (2) the amount of knowledge and understanding that people obtain from those messages and efforts. This paper begins with a brief overview of research that establishes a theoretical framework for understanding the role of ideology in communication and educational efforts. It then describes the ideological filtering of climate and environmental information that occurs in a substantial and powerful public in American society - the socially conservative, evangelical Christian population. Approaches are then offered for navigating the ideological filters of this specific population in order to improve understanding of climate related topics. More general principles also emerge that can apply across other populations
Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.
Subramanian, S V; Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M
Studies have largely examined the association between political ideology and health at the aggregate/ecological level. Using individual-level data from 29 European countries, we investigated whether self-reports of political ideology and health are associated. In adjusted models, we found an inverse association between political ideology and self-rated poor health; for a unit increase in the political ideology scale (towards right) the odds ratio (OR) for reporting poor health decreased (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.96). Although political ideology per se is unlikely to have a causal link to health, it could be a marker for health-promoting latent attitudes, values and beliefs.
Thøgersen, Jacob Martin; Östman, Jan Ola
This article discusses the rise and the current standing of “Norden” (the Nordic societies) as an imagined community (Anderson, Imagined communities, Verso, 1991). The ideology of Norden as a coherent community rests on the one hand on the perceived mutual intelligibility of the Scandinavian...... languages, used as mother tongue or as lingua franca. On the other hand the ideology of Norden rests on a sense of historical unity. Historically, the ideology of the Nordic grew out of the era of national romanticism. The present study therefore addresses the pertinent question of how the ideology...... of the Nordic fares in late modernity where ideology is under threat from more “rational”, e.g., financial lines of thinking....
Pedersen, Søren Hviid
The history of modern political history has been a history on how to escape the fallacies and wrongs of human existence in both its existential, ethical and political dimensions. In order to escape this confinement of unhappy worldly existence and alienation various forms of ideologies have emerged...... of this disregard of the transcendental. Their ultimate goal is the emancipation of mankind in the hope of leaping into the realm of freedom. My argument is that this leap is doomed to failure and will only result in mass murderer and tyranny. The reason for this is that the various emancipation ideologies...... disregard the transcendental foundation of human existence and therefore indulge in ideological fantasies and myths of earthly paradise. In this regard there is no difference between ideological politics trying to install a political utopia or the so-called post-ideological attempts to unmask all previous...
Georgiou, Andrew; Magrabi, Farah; Hypponen, Hannele; Wong, Zoie Shui-Yee; Nykänen, Pirkko; Scott, Philip J; Ammenwerth, Elske; Rigby, Michael
The paper draws attention to: i) key considerations involving the confidentiality, privacy, and security of shared data; and ii) the requirements needed to build collaborative arrangements encompassing all stakeholders with the goal of ensuring safe, secure, and quality use of shared data. A narrative review of existing research and policy approaches along with expert perspectives drawn from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development in Health Care and the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Working Group for Assessment of Health Information Systems. The technological ability to merge, link, re-use, and exchange data has outpaced the establishment of policies, procedures, and processes to monitor the ethics and legality of shared use of data. Questions remain about how to guarantee the security of shared data, and how to establish and maintain public trust across large-scale shared data enterprises. This paper identifies the importance of data governance frameworks (incorporating engagement with all stakeholders) to underpin the management of the ethics and legality of shared data use. The paper also provides some key considerations for the establishment of national approaches and measures to monitor compliance with best practice. Data sharing endeavours can help to underpin new collaborative models of health care which provide shared information, engagement, and accountability amongst all stakeholders. We believe that commitment to rigorous evaluation and stakeholder engagement will be critical to delivering health data benefits and the establishment of collaborative models of health care into the future. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.
Carlos Alfonso Garduño Comparán
Full Text Available AbstractHannah Arendt’s work is an important reference for Paul Ricœur. Her definition of power as the free action in concert of individuals within a community of equals, guaranteed by institutions, allows Ricœur to ground his reflection on the political dimension of recognition and justice. However, as I will show in this paper, such a definition is problematic, particularly because of the relation that Arendt establishes between power and authority, her decision to separate the social and the political, and her understanding of ideology, philosophy, and common sense in politics.After describing Arendt’s account of the relation between power and authority, I argue that, without rejecting the spirit of her political thought or her basic concepts, Ricœur’s reflections on the functions of ideology in his Lectures on Ideology and Utopia offer a broader but complementary vision that allows us to understand the issues that remain obscure in Arendt’s approach.Keywords: Arendt, Ideology, Authority, Power, Social.RésuméL’œuvre de Hannah Arendt constitue une référence importante pour Paul Ricœur. La définition arendtienne du pouvoir comme agir ensemble des individus au sein d’une communauté d’égaux garantie par des institutions, fournit en effet à Ricœur les bases de sa réflexion sur la dimension politique de la reconnaissance et de la justice. Cependant, cet article s’efforce de montrer qu’une telle définition est problématique, non seulement en raison de la relation qu’Arendt établit entre le pouvoir et l’autorité, mais aussi en ce qui concerne sa distinction du social et du politique, sa compréhension de l’idéologie, ainsi que sa conception de la philosophie et du sens commun dans le domaine politique.Après une analyse des thèses d’Arendt sur la relation entre le pouvoir et l’autorité, cet article soutient que, sans rejeter l’esprit de la pensée politique arendtienne et ses concepts de base, la
Zia, Asim; Todd, Anne Marie
While ideology can have a strong effect on citizen understanding of science, it is unclear how ideology interacts with other complicating factors, such as college education, which influence citizens' comprehension of information. We focus on public understanding of climate change science and test the hypotheses: [H1] as citizens' ideology shifts from liberal to conservative, concern for global warming decreases; [H2] citizens with college education and higher general science literacy tend to have higher concern for global warming; and [H3] college education does not increase global warming concern for conservative ideologues. We implemented a survey instrument in California's San Francisco Bay Area, and employed regression models to test the effects of ideology and other socio-demographic variables on citizen concern about global warming, terrorism, the economy, health care and poverty. We are able to confirm H1 and H3, but reject H2. Various strategies are discussed to improve the communication of climate change science across ideological divides.
Davi Machado Perez
Full Text Available This essay is the fruit of bibliographic research and offers reflections about the Marxist concepts of method, ideology and state, to question the idea that there is an economic determinism in the work of Karl Marx. It then dialogs with current Marxist authors who address the state in the era of monopoly capitalism, reaffirming Marx’s legacy as an essential starting point for the development of studies about the modern and contemporary state.
This paper analyzes how Latin American historiography has addressed the issue of "the ideological origins of the revolution of independence," and how the formulation of that topic implies assumptions proper to the tradition of the history of ideas and leads to anachronistic conceptual transpositions. Halperín Donghi's work models a different approach, illuminating how a series of meaningful torsions within traditional languages provided the ideological framework for a result incompatible with those languages. This paradox forces a break with the frameworks of the history of ideas and the set of antinomies intrinsic to them, such as that between "tradition" and "modernity."
Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki
of semiotic ideology – sign users’ understandings of the means and ends of their sign systems. How do the views held by comedians shape their work and their engagement with audience reactions? While Finland is a small and somewhat marginal country in relation to the current political upheavals, local politics...... reflect global issues, and Finland is, of course, affected by international issues. Current stand-up comedy in Finland is engaging more and more with political issues and cultural critique. Examples include comedy clubs with specific themes such as feminism, and posts by comedians on social media...... realized, and how are they met by audiences? How do ‘humor ideologies’ enable and restrict the effects of humor, for both comedians and audiences? If semiotic ideologies shape our views and practices of using signs, how does sign use affect the ideologies? Humor has at times been labeled as not capable...
Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene
Although individuals with schizophrenia show a lifetime prevalence of 50% for suffering from a comorbid substance use disorder, substance abuse usually represents an exclusion criterion for studies on schizophrenia. This implies that surprisingly little is known about a large group of patients who are particularly difficult to treat. The aim of the present work is to provide a brief and non-exhaustive overview of the current knowledgebase about neurobiological and cognitive underpinnings for dual diagnosis schizophrenia patients. Studies published within the last 20 years were considered using computerized search engines. The focus was on nicotine, caffeine, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine being among the most common substances of abuse. All drugs of abuse target dopaminergic, glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission which are also involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Current literature suggests that neurocognitive function might beless disrupted in substance-abusing compared to non-abusing schizophrenia patients, but in particular the neuroimaging database on this topic is sparse. Detrimental effects on brain structure and function were shown for patients for whom alcohol is the main substance of abuse. It is as yet unclear whether this finding might be an artifact of age differences of patient subgroups with different substance abuse patterns. More research is warranted on the specific neurocognitive underpinnings of schizophrenia patients abusing distinct psychoactive substances. Treatment programs might either benefit from preserved cognitive function as a resource or specifically target cognitive impairment in different subgroups of addicted schizophrenia patients. © 2013 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2013 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
O. I. Parkhomenko
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of theoretical and methodological principles and key provisions of the discourse of gender inequality in feminine sociology. It has been stated by the author that the analysis of the ideological aspects of gender discourse, which appeared at the XXI century, is oriented to the search of contemporary gender ideology of egalitarianism and tolerance that would take root in the mentality of different societies. Analysis of ideas of different ideologies and cultures suggests that any ideology can only perform a positive function when it is based on the values of the culture. Otherwise it does not receive social support. The study of the ideological aspects of gender discourse in feminist sociology has shown that in the process of gender socialization man and woman should pass pre-ideological (before adulthood and post-ideological stages. In such situation, gender orientation values are formed in several ways (legal, economic, religious, gender norms influence the assimilation and evaluation, and only subsequently change the gender behavior and gender acquiring competence. It has been stipulated in the article that the modern world is characterized by multivariate cultures and patterns of gender socialization. In feminist sociology it has been decided to allocate three basic types of gender ideologies and their corresponding patterns of gender socialization: a patriarchal gender ideology and socialization, which are characterized by a lack of awareness, significant changes, a sense of continuity of life, self-mastery behaviors that meet all standards of culture; b modernist gender ideology and socialization, characterized by such prevailing model of behavior as the adoption of new norms of behavior, activity and independence in women’s behavior, adults can learn from children, children try to develop their own style of behavior that is different from the behavior of their parents, conflict of generations, lots of
Nurse education is dominated by the humanist perspective and the educational theory that it generates. Following a brief description of the perspective's phenomenological foundations and definition of humanist ideology, humanist educational theory is illustrated in an outline of the key contributions of John Dewey, Carl Rogers, Malcolm Knowles and Paulo Freire. The article concludes by noting Freire's sociological challenge to the individualism of the humanist perspective. This challenge recognizes the ideological and social control role of education in securing the reproduction of power relations and leads to questioning the function of individualism and the interests that humanist ideology may serve.
Loza, Wagdy; Abd-el-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie
The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated the reliability and validity of the BDS, thus suggesting that the BDS could be used as an objective tool to measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies. Results also supported the hypothesis of prevalence of Middle Eastern extremist ideologies around different parts of the world.
Warriner, Doris S.
Ideologies of language (and language learning)--in concert with discourses of individualism and meritocracy that characterize neoliberalism--shape pedagogical policies and practices in ways that are consequential for multilingual students all over the developing and developed world. To investigate how such intersections and influences work in…
Madsen, Aase Mygind; Judd, Dawn; Boeckh, Jürgen
As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms then this converge......As welfare states confront massive changes, these are often explained as inevitable by-products of the global economic crisis. However, many of the shifts in welfare ideology pre-date the crisis. As increasing numbers of European welfare states move towards neoliberal paradigms...... then this convergence is, in turn, having a marked impact on social work education and practice. Today it would appear that, to varying degrees, European social workers are driven by ever-growing managerialist objectives. Juxtaposed is the shift towards consumerism and individualism, which is manifested through various...
Guttman, N; Nelson, M S; Zimmerman, D R
It is estimated that more than half of pediatric hospital emergency department (ED) visits are medically nonurgent. Anecdotal impressions suggest that ED providers castigate medically nonurgent visits, yet studies on such visits are scarce. This study explored the perspectives of 26 providers working in the EDs of two urban hospitals regarding medically nonurgent pediatric ED visits and advising parents or guardians on appropriate ED use. Three provider ideologies regarding the appropriateness of medically nonurgent ED use were identified and found to be linked to particular communication strategies that providers employed with ED users: restrictive, pragmatic, and all-inclusive. The analysis resulted in the development of a typology of provider ideological orientations toward ED use, distinguished according to different orientations toward professional dominance.
Mgter. Mariana Gómez
Full Text Available In this work a reading of the Argentinean period is presented denominated "menemismo" from two axes: the ideology concept, starting from the contributions of Voloshinov, Althusser and Zizek and from the lacanian notion of "enjoyment". A style where the law absence, as consequence of the trasgresión of government's system, a society that doesn't find a significant anchorage easily takes place. At the same time, it is analyzed how this produces a society that doesn't find a significant to give cohesion to its symbolical and identified universe, ending to organize at themselves around of consume objets. From this place it is thinks about the consumption objects as objects fetishes starting from the categories Marxist and Freudian and concludes in that the corruption like means to exercise the government should not only be seen as an ethical topic but also, as an institutional and ideological topic.
This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Although standard language ideologies have been well researched and theorized, the practices that lead to the reproduction and enactment of these ideologies deserve attention. Specifically, there remains a need to study language that both reveals reliance on standard language ideologies and perpetuates these ideologies within the field of writing…
Full Text Available The paper discusses a case study based on Lodz as an industrial city and a biography of a female textile worker who worked in one of textile factories in Lodz between 1975 -1998. In order to analyse the case I have also used other materials – works of historians and sociological research carried out by Hanna Świda-Ziemba in late 1940′s in Lodz. I place the analysed biography in both chronological and social context in order to reconstruct a complete image of Lodz and the world of female textile workers. Lodz, as the industrial city which had not been damaged during World War two became – from the point of view of authorities – the place where main assumptions of the new political deal could come true. Conversely the analyses of empirical data disclose the paradoxes of the system related to the asymmetry between the powerful ideological definition of workers as a leading class and the reality of their lives represented in analysed material.
Full Text Available Especially in Germany, a vivid public debate about “industry 4.0” has developed in recent years. It advances the argument that industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution that follows on from technological revolutions brought about by water and steam power (industrial revolution 1.0, electric power (industrial revolution 2.0, and computing/computerised automation (industrial revolution 3.0. In 1845/46, Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology. 170 years later, we live in the time of digital capitalism that has its own peculiar forms of ideology. This paper argues that “industry 4.0” is the new German ideology, the digital German ideology. Image: By ChristophRoser, AllAboutLean.com, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons
Lee, William, Jr
.... This research will be a qualitative study using a combined approach of historical and context analysis of literary artifacts for drawing inferences to explore the evolutionary changes in content management ideology...
Bauer, John W
This thesis is a case study on ethics within war. The 13th century Albigensian Crusade was a war against a heretical religious ideology known as Catharism whose tenets threatened the social order of Europe...
Baber, Lorenzo DuBois
Despite traditional notions of meritocracy, higher education has a long history of exclusionary practices. This chapter explores connections between such practices and racial ideology in the United States, including the recent concept of "post-racialism."
Full Text Available Male-dominated work environments often possess masculine cultures that are unwelcoming to women. The present work investigated whether male-dominated academic environments were characterized by gender ideologies with negative implications for women. A survey of 2622 undergraduates across a variety of academic majors examined how gender imbalance within the major corresponded with students’ gender ideologies. We hypothesized that men in male-dominated domains might justify their dominance and prototypical status by adopting gender ideologies and stereotypes that denigrate women and treat men as the normative and superior group. Confirming this hypothesis, men in increasingly male-dominated academic majors were more likely to endorse Assimilationism—that women should adapt and conform to masculine work norms in order to succeed—and Segregationism—that men and women should pursue traditional social roles and careers. Moreover, they were less likely to endorse Gender Blindness—that attention to gender should be minimized. They were also more likely to agree with the gender-science stereotype that men do better in math and science than women. In contrast, gender imbalance in the major did not influence women’s gender ideologies, and women in increasingly male-dominated majors were significantly less likely to endorse the gender-science stereotype.
Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents' gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children's development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers' and fathers' behaviors were better predictors of children's gender-role attitudes than parents' ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons' and daughters' acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children's gender development in the family context-particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children's acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents' gender ideologies, parents' gendered behaviors, and children's gender-role attitudes.
Elena Zubieta; Gisela Delfino; Omar Fernández
Social Dominance Theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) stress that systematic inter group discrimination is related to social ideologies that contribute to coordinate institutions and individuals behaviors. The acceptance of inequity legitimating ideologies is partially determined for individuals general desire of group based domination. This desire is captured by Social Orientation Domination construct -SDO. Pursuing the objective of exploring SDO levels and its relationship with variables su...
nation’s security efforts and sustain CT campaign against violent extremists Source: Developed by author based on data from the U.S. CT Strategy dated... franchise , establishing associations with kindred groups, providing various levels of support. This organization reflects a global plight rather than a...violent extremism as a violent movement fueled and sustained by Islamist extremism and jihadist ideology. The ideological movement serves as validation
Huijts, T.; Perkins, J.M; Subramanian, S.V.
Background: Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political r...
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the contestation commodification and mass media Muhammadiyah ideology. Television media industry is a capital intensive industry types. This compares with the strength to build a perception in society, resulting in the attraction of various interests disana.Pada generally a television station is affected by the strength of the owner, the advertising, and rating. One local TV station, ADiTV, has the additional element that also affects the identity tayangannya Muhammadiyah, as its founder. In this study, using a qualitative descriptive. Through descriptive method will be able to explain the phenomenon in detail and presents a more detailed analysis that can not afford revealed by quantitative methods. The identity of a television media is very important to determine the standard of impressions and development of the company in the long term. Ambiguity status Muhammadiyah TV ADiTV whether or not can be detrimental for both parties ADiTV either alone or Muhammadiyah. ADiTV losses include the whole range ADiTV can not freely determine the policy, especially pertaining to the propaganda value of Muhammadiyah
Full Text Available This study examines the discursive practices of media “transition” from Romania 80’s and early 90’s in order to identify a pattern of the ideological discourse of transition. The pragmatic analysis is in line with recent studies that discuss media discourses in post-communist countries or “in transition” which led to new approaches and nuances of classical theories of the public sphere which we consider very important in the context of contemporary Romanian social discourse. The analysis of how to make the transition from “wooden language” to “informative discourse” of the Romanian media discourse focuses on intentionality describe in text linguistic as discursive component able to realize thematic choices, media discourse and attitude of media instances during the media process production. We also consider intentionality because it introduces in the discourse the component of journalist personality, with all that this may include: attitudes, training, professional conscience, and moral values. Understanding the mechanisms of intentionality in the media discourse production can lead to a more nuanced an complex understanding of the role of media in the production of meanings and the role of the journalist’s personality in media production
Full Text Available In our globalizing world, audiovisual products are understandably considered tools that advertise their original language and culture. Most societies do not stand any interference from the outside, especially if it considerably opposes the socio-cultural norms. Translation is a practice of cross-cultural communication which most often complies with the socio-cultural guidelines and norms of the recipient society. However, translated products might face resistance as they can be regarded threatening and hostile by the ruling gatekeepers. Given the dramatic disparities between most languages and cultures, translators are not the only decision-makers and other agents have pivotal roles in the process of adapting the translated product to the dominant conventions and socio-cultural norms. This paper aims at shedding some light on the role which agents play in the process of dubbing, both for public access national television and for private home distribution. The study explores the effects of preliminary and operational norms, and cultural appropriation conducted at both textual and visual levels through a method including interview data and textual analysis. The results show that foreign movies dubbed into Persian in the religious context of the contemporary Iran are strictly controlled both before the process of dubbing and during and after the process of dubbing due to a number of socio-cultural, political, and ideological considerations.
Full Text Available Purpose –The purpose of this paper is to identify the link between political ideology and the management of tourism in countries. The authors stipulate that the predominant political ideology in the country influences the nature and logic of state interventions in the tourism industry. Design/methodology/approach – The paper elaborates several case studies from various countries – Bulgaria, Cyprus, Scandinavia, Russia, USA, China, Japan, Indonesia, and North Korea. Findings – Countries with predominant (neoliberal ideology do not typically interfere in tourism regulation, while nationalism leads governments to stimulate inbound and domestic tourism. Communist ideological approaches tend to be burdensome, inhibiting growth while stressing the promotion of the socialist achievements of a country. Countries that are traditionally thought of as social democratic have been evolving in recent years to regulate tourism in ways that are more liberal in nature than social democratic. Practical implications – Political ideologies shape the acceptability of government support for private tourist companies, legislation in field of tourism, limitation/stimulation of inbound/outbound tourist flows. For the future the authors expect greater politicisation of tourism, active tourism “wars” between countries, greater control of governments on populations, thriving nationalism, “aggressive” environmentalism. Originality/value – This is one of the first papers to discuss the impact of the political ideology on the management of tourism at the national level.
Ni Gst Nym Suci Murni
Full Text Available The environment is increasingly occupying important issues in all aspects of life including the tourism business that is often highlighted to ignore the environment. Because it is so crucial, it is constantly discoursed not only in local and national contexts but more globally. In these evolving discourses, it turns out that there are a number of ideologies that show the interests of those who discoursing them. This research uses qualitative approach, and scientifi cultural studies paradigm. The purpose of this research is to know the ideologies of global, national and local environmental discourse. Research results show that based on the global ideology of sustainable development, there are ecological sustainability, economic sustainability, and social sustainability. Ideology of national environmental discourse which is a transformation from developmentalism ideology (modernization can also hegemonize company industry, society, with legitimizing by law and regulations issued about tourism and environment, so that the sustainability of development can be achieved. The ideology of local environmental discourse there are various local knowledge (local genius related to the environment that has been practiced by certain countries, especially the developing countries, where tourist destination areas such as Bali have run it through religious ritual, as well as through the daily life of the community .
Myhre, S. E.
There is an urgent need for the geoscience community to participate as trusted brokers of information in the partisan landscape of science communication. In the current moment of political engagement, academic-industry partnerships, and social justice organizing, the most immediate, inexpensive, and effective change to facilitate public trust-building is through changing the paradigm of professional science communication. Scientists must own the public trust of their intellectual station - and to do so effectively requires a concerted effort to professionally divest from personal ideological positions. Transparency and ideological divestment are hallmarks of public leadership, and yet these values often do not percolate into the existing cannon of communication best practices. However, it is likely that even seasoned communicators rely on a handful of values-based reframing messages to scaffold their science communication in public. Without clear examination of such values, these reframing messages often can function as communicative "tells" or ideological signals, and such signal will actively backfire by disenfranchising audiences with alternate or oppositional ideology. Therefore, it behooves science communicators to actively examine their personal and political ideology, and to build communicative strategies that do not include ideological tells. This practice, while potentially uncomfortable, will strengthen scientists' capacities to communicate evidence and scientific consensus across partisan and rhetorical chasms.
Xiang, Huadong; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; van Oort, Erik; Norris, David G.; Hagoort, Peter
In this article, we report the results of a study on the relationship between individual differences in language learning aptitude and the structural connectivity of language pathways in the adult brain, the first of its kind. We measured four components of language aptitude ("vocabulary learning"; "sound recognition"; "sound-symbol…
Xiang, H.; Dediu, D.; Roberts, M.J.; Oort, E.S.B. van; Norris, D.; Hagoort, P.
In this article, we report the results of a study on the relationship between individual differences in language learning aptitude and the structural connectivity of language pathways in the adult brain, the first of its kind. We measured four components of language aptitude (vocabulary learning;
Geldorp, B. van; Parra, M.A.; Kessels, R.P.C.
The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven
Full Text Available Este texto busca a compreensão da ideología em sua relação com a fé na teologia latinoamericana a partir da concepção de fé antropológica na obra de Juan Luis Segundo. Acreditamos que a questão da ideología, e sua relação com a fé, continua sendo urna questão atual no pensamento cristão, face aos velhos e novos problemas humanos que o novo sáculo vem apresentando. Concentramos nossa análise nos escritos de Juan Luis Segundo, um dos principáis representantes dessa teologia, por ser este teólogo que, ao nosso ver, mais trabalhou, de forma explícita, a questão da ideología e sua relação com a fé no contexto latinoamericanoThis text searchs the understanding of the ideology in its relation with the faith in the Latin American theology from the conception of antropology faith in the workmanship of Juan Luis Segundo. We believe that the question of the ideology, and its relation with the faith, continue being a current question in the Christian thought, face to the old and new human problems that the new century comes presenting. We concentrate our analysis on the writings of Juan Luis Segundo, one of the main representatives of this theology, for being this theologian who, to ours to see, more worked, of explicit form, the question of the ideology and its relation with the faith in the Latin American context
Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang
Precautionary models of political ideology suggest that people on the right are motivated by needs to neutralize threats in everyday life more than those on the left. This article examines whether this ideological difference extends to a psychological scale that directly captures the need to engage...... of threat in everyday life? Using a communication experiment, we find that exposure to real-world policy assurances from the Republican Party (i.e., the US conservative party) provides a small, most likely short-lived reduction in obsessive-compulsive symptoms among Americans. We discuss how these findings...... shed light on the key paradox about the psychology of right-wing ideology: how right-wing ideology can function to reduce insecurity while people on the right still have higher levels of insecurity....
Osmundsen, Mathias; Petersen, Michael Bang
Precautionary models of political ideology suggest that people on the right are motivated by needs to neutralize threats in everyday life more than those on the left. This article examines whether this ideological difference extends to a psychological scale that directly captures the need to engage...... in everyday precautionary actions to reduce feelings of threat: a scale of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Across four samples (including a nationally representative sample), we find that stronger obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with more right-wing ideological preferences, particularly for social...... rather than economic issues. Most importantly, we use the scale of obsessive-compulsive symptoms to examine a crucial feature of the precautionary model of political ideology that has been left underexplored: does the promotion of right-wing policies serve a palliative function to reduce feelings...
Beninato, A.; Emery, T.; Baglio, S.; Andò, B.; Bulsara, A. R.; Jenkins, C.; Palkar, V.
Multiferroic (MF) composites, in which magnetic and ferroelectric orders coexist, represent a very attractive class of materials with promising applications in areas, such as spintronics, memories, and sensors. One of the most important multiferroics is the perovskite phase of bismuth ferrite, which exhibits weak magnetoelectric properties at room temperature; its properties can be enhanced by doping with other elements such as dysprosium. A recent paper has demonstrated that a thin film of Bi0.7Dy0.3FeO3 shows good magnetoelectric coupling. In separate work it has been shown that a carefully crafted ring connection of N (N odd and N ≥ 3) ferroelectric capacitors yields, past a critical point, nonlinear oscillations that can be exploited for electric (E) field sensing. These two results represent the starting point of our work. In this paper the (electrical) hysteresis, experimentally measured in the MF material Bi0.7Dy0.3FeO3, is characterized with the applied magnetic field (B) taken as a control parameter. This yields a "blueprint" for a magnetic (B) field sensor: a ring-oscillator coupling of N = 3 Sawyer-Tower circuits each underpinned by a mutliferroic element. In this configuration, the changes induced in the ferroelectric behavior by the external or "target" B-field are quantified, thus providing a pathway for very low power and high sensitivity B-field sensing.
Jorge Andrés López Rivera.
Full Text Available As a modern ideology, utilitarian liberalism emerges under the act of establishing objective criteria of secular morality. The greatest happiness principle is taken as the main principle for guiding action; nevertheless, its expression and application differs into versions of utilitarian liberalism. Hence, in this text, the author presents how different epistemological proposals, which intent to give background to moral objective principles and to interpret social relations, affect utilitarian liberalism as an ideology. In other words, in a wide sense, utilitarianism is taken as a coherent set of values and ideas that constitutes sense of social reality. Consequently, and taking the works of Mill and Bentham, an analysis of modern utilitarianism is done. According to it, the author argues that Bentham´s formulation embeds an aporia due to unilateral use of instrumental rationality, which restricts its capacity to constitute sense. The aporia can only be overcome by the introduction of ethical principles, as Mill does, that allows the validation of utilitarian liberalism as an ideology.
O'Donohue, Wayne; Nelson, Lindsay
This study explores whether there is evidence of an ideological component in the psychological contracts of professional employees, as well as evidence of credible supporting commitments by their employer. Fundamental changes in the employment context have prompted many individuals to seek a closer alignment between themselves and their work, as well as with the organizational and broader societal contexts. For many professional employees identification with their professional ideology is a significant factor in producing such an alignment. The study uses an exploratory qualitative approach to analyse interview data collected from a sample of registered nurses employed in an Australian public hospital. The analysis identifies psychological contract terms best understood by reference to an ideological currency. It also suggests that the organization is perceived as obligated to provide credible support for that professional contribution, and the perceived lack of such support has significant impacts. The findings raise doubts about the utility of the concept of a psychological contract that recognizes only economic and socio-emotional exchanges for understanding the psychological contracts of professional employees.
Full Text Available The ideology of ageism was first institutionalized in the West in the 1980s as a result of the neoliberal onslaught against the capitalist types of (minimal or moderate welfare state. The article argues that the emergence and the spreading of the ideology of ageism in postsocialist countries such as Slovenia is structurally intertwined with the imposition of capitalist social relations after 1991, and with the dismantling of the last vestiges of the socialist welfare system, followed by its privatization at the turn of the 21st century. The declining rate of employers’ contributions and the flexibilizing of labour are two key elements that have steadily contributed to the depletion of the public pension coffers since the early 1990s. The article demonstrates that the demographic scare acts as a diversionary tactic, intended to obscure these processes. The article argues against the academic mainstream’s superficial dealing with the ideology of ageism as a mere reflection of individual prejudice, and calls instead for a systemic analysis and contextual understanding of the origin and the workings of institutionally sanctioned ageism.
Lieberman, Lisa D; Fagen, Michael C; Neiger, Brad L
There are important practical and ethical considerations for organizations in conducting their own, or commissioning external, evaluations and for both practitioners and evaluators, when assessing programs built on strongly held ideological or philosophical approaches. Assessing whether programs "work" has strong political, financial, and/or moral implications, particularly when expending public dollars, and may challenge objectivity about a particular program or approach. Using a case study of the evaluation of a school-based abstinence-until-marriage program, this article discusses the challenges, lessons learned, and ethical responsibilities regarding decisions about evaluation, specifically associated with ideologically driven programs. Organizations should consider various stakeholders and views associated with their program to help identify potential pitfalls in evaluation. Once identified, the program or agency needs to carefully consider its answers to two key questions: Do they want the answer and are they willing to modify the program? Having decided to evaluate, the choice of evaluator is critical to assuring that ethical principles are maintained and potential skepticism or criticism of findings can be addressed appropriately. The relationship between program and evaluator, including agreements about ownership and eventual publication and/or promotion of data, should be addressed at the outset. Programs and organizations should consider, at the outset, their ethical responsibility when findings are not expected or desired. Ultimately, agencies, organizations, and programs have an ethical responsibility to use their data to provide health promotion programs, whether ideologically founded or not, that appropriately and effectively address the problems they seek to solve.
The basic position of the modern ideology of earthquake engineering is based on the idea that a structure should be designed so that it suffers almost no damage at an earthquake, the occurrence of which is most probable in the given area during the lifetime of the structure. This statement is essentially based on the so-called Performance Based Design, the ideology of the 21 s t century. In the article at tenton is focused on the fact that the modern ideology of earthquake engineering assigns structures to a dangerous zone in which their behavior is defined by processes of damage and destruction of materials, which is a nonequilibrium process and demands application of special refined methods of research. In such conditions use of ratios that correspond to static conditions of loading to describe the process of damage of materials appears to be unfounded. The article raises the question of the necessity of working out a new mathematical model of behavior of materials and structures at rapid intensive impact. (authors)
Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva
High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences.
Full Text Available The short films of Cinico tv, directed by Ciprì and Maresco, shooted during the 90's and settled in Palermo, show an unclear comedy. Many people consider them an unfair way to humiliate the poor characters that are victim of poverty and ignorance. Nevertheless, even if the sorrow is object of a pitiless survey, it is radically 'dramatized' up to the point that we can consider the clips as a parody of the kitch representation of television. How do the mechanism of parody and of irony work in our humoristic era, that is to say when the retoric tool of understatement has become a fundamental feature of the ideological representatiopn of medias? Is it a well founded accusation the one that consider Cinico tv an attempt against morality? We'll try to answer these questions, trying to figure out witch kind of comedy is the Cinico's one through the analisys of formal and thematic features of several clips and being aware of the critic of ironic society by Slavoj Zizek.
Rosenwald, Mitchell; Wiener, Diane R.; Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Smith, Christine M.
This article examines political ideology and its implications as a newer diversity variable within social work education. Responding to internal assessments and external critiques of social work education, the dynamics of how diverse political ideologies might manifest in 5 core course concentrations--human behavior in the social environment,…
O. V. Krasnokutskyi
Full Text Available The Purpose is to investigate the legal cultural phenomenon in the riches of the contours of its essence, raising the level of this phenomenon as part of the system of determinants of the optimization of ideology of state-building in modern Ukraine. Methodology. The study is based on the principles of materialist dialectics and the principles of historicism, social determinism, complexity. The scientific novelty. The cultural and legal factors of optimization of the ideology of state-building are conceptually considered for the first time in modern Ukraine; three methodological points that should be targeted in the definition of «legal culture» are outlined; the definition of legal culture is improved; a working template program of improvement and increase of the level of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is developed; four key conceptual areas of the program are outlined. Conclusions. Legal culture can be defined as a separate category to mark the legal system which was historically formed and the institutions of a state-organized society that are correlated with it, and also the legal knowledge and motives, forms, techniques and methods of legal activities, values, estimates with the necessity inherent to every people, class, nation, community groups, to the individual person at a certain stage of their development. Rise of the level of legal awareness is one of the leading systematic factors, cultural and code keys to optimizing the development of state-building ideology in the conditions of today's Ukraine. The program for the improvement and enhancement of legal culture in contemporary Ukrainian society is composed of four major conceptual areas: the growth of basic legal literacy; the rise of their legal awareness; the increase of theoretical justification of the existing legal reality, the prospects for its future development, the increase of the efficiency of the legal theory; progressive formation of legal ideology.
Fox, Ashley M; Feng, Wenhui; Yumkham, Rakesh
Anti-smoking campaigns are widely viewed as a success case in public health policy. However, smoking rates continue to vary widely across U.S. states and the success of anti-smoking campaigns is contingent upon states' adoption of anti-smoking policies. Though state anti-smoking policy is a product of a political process, studies of the effect of policies on smoking prevalence have largely ignored how politics shapes policy adoption, which, in turn, impact state health outcomes. Policies may also have different effects in different political contexts. This study tests how state politics affects smoking prevalence both through the policies that states adopt (with policies playing a mediating role on health outcomes) or as an effect modifier of behavior (tobacco control policies may work differently in states in which the public is more or less receptive to them). The study uses publicly available data to construct a time-series cross-section dataset of state smoking prevalence, state political context, cigarette excise taxes, indoor smoking policies, and demographic characteristics from 1995 to 2013. Political ideology is measured using a validated indicator of the ideology of state legislatures and of the citizens of a state. We assess the relationship between state political context and state smoking prevalence rates adjusting for demographic characteristics and accounting for the mediating/moderating role of state policies with time and state fixed effects. We find that more liberal state ideology predicts lower adult smoking rates, but that the relationship between state ideology and adult smoking prevalence is only partly explained by state anti-smoking policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article conceptualizes “algorithmic ideology” as a valuable tool to understand and critique corporate search engines in the context of wider socio-political developments. Drawing on critical theory it shows how capitalist value-systems manifest in search technology, how they spread through algorithmic logics and how they are stabilized in society. Following philosophers like Althusser, Marx and Gramsci it elaborates how content providers and users contribute to Google’s capital accumulation cycle and exploitation schemes that come along with it. In line with contemporary mass media and neoliberal politics they appear to be fostering capitalism and its “commodity fetishism” (Marx. It further reveals that the capitalist hegemony has to be constantly negotiated and renewed. This dynamic notion of ideology opens up the view for moments of struggle and counter-actions. “Organic intellectuals” (Gramsci can play a central role in challenging powerful actors like Google and their algorithmic ideology. To pave the way towards more democratic information technology, however, requires more than single organic intellectuals. Additional obstacles need to be conquered, as I finally discuss.
Costa, I G; Gomes, E L
This paper makes a reflection on the knowledge and ideologies present in the nursing practice within a hospital context, based on theoretical references used by the sociologist Noemia da Glória Mendes Lopes in her MS dissertation in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1994. In this dissertation she analyzes the work of nurses within hospital contexts. The author observed that within the professional context of nursing there are many social practices of work indicating different strategies of valuing and revaluating the profession. It was concluded from this reflection that there are better possibilities of performing such strategies in specialized services than in medical clinic services.
Adam James Fenton
Full Text Available The “Islamisation” of Indonesia has exerted a transformative force on every aspect of Indonesian society. That process continues today. It has created streams of change and continuity in thoughts, ideologies and practices, of enormous complexity. Strict doctrinal interpretation of Koranic text is not a new phenomenon, contrary to what some reports in the mass media might suggest. Its roots stretch back at least as far as the 1800s with the outbreak of violent conflicts between those urging a stricter, scripturalist application of Islam, and those adhering to traditionalist and colonialist ideologies --culminating in the Padri war of West Sumatra of 1821-38. Indicating an ostensible continuity of ideology, modern extremist ideologues, such as Abu Bakar Bashir, urge their followers toward violent conflict and terrorist actions based on an ideology of strict “Middle Eastern” interpretation of fundamental Islamic tenets. This paper argues that the strategies of those carrying out radical and violent ideologies are undergoing change, as are the strategies of the authorities tasked with combating them. Radical groups have displayed a shift away from large-scale, attacks on symbolic foreign targets towards low-level violence primarily aimed at law enforcement authorities. Authorities, on the other hand, have shown a greater tendency to shoot dead those suspected of involvement with violent radical groups. This paper will examine the changing strategies of violent radical groups and the continuity, and evolution, of the underlying Islamic ideology that provides religious justification for their violent acts. The paper will argue that engaging Indonesia’s politically active youth in an ideological dialogue on Islamism and democracy provides the best prospect for disengagement from, and breaking the cycle of recruitment for, radical violence and terrorism.[Proses panjang Islamisasi di Indonesia telah menghasilkan kekuatan transformatif di
Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.
.... The evidence is clear that the rule of law must underpin the construction of democracy, that the path to the rule of law is comprehensive legal reform, and that the police in a formerly authoritarian...
Lindeman, M; Sirelius, M
Two studies examined whether everyday food choice motives (FCMs) and abstract values constitute food choice ideologies (FCIs), whether these ideologies reflect the same normativism-humanism polarity as Tomkins' theory suggests to reflect ideologies in general, and whether various dietary groups endorse FCIs in different ways. In Study 1, 82 female participants filled in the Food Choice Questionnaire, a short version of Schwartz's Value Survey, and Tomkins' Polarity Scale. The results reflected four FCIs: ecological ideology (EI), health ideology (HI), pleasure ideology (PI) and convenience ideology (CI). Study 2 (N=144) replicated the results for ecological and health ideologies but not for pleasure and convenience ideologies. In both studies, EI, which was typical for vegetarians, was associated with a humanist view of the world, whereas HI was related to a normative view of the world. The results suggest that food choice has become a new site where one expresses one's philosophy of life.
, misuse, and disuse—this spectrum of available ‘choice’ dysfunctionally contracts, and our capacity to safely disperse the mechanical ‘stress’ of running progressively diminishes. Now the running work burden falls increasingly on reduced populations of collaborating components. Accordingly our capacity to effectively manage, dissipate and accommodate running-imposed stress diminishes, and vulnerability to Overuse syndromes escalates. Awareness of the deep underpinnings of running coordination enhances conceptual clarity, thereby informing training and rehabilitation insights designed to offset the legacy of excessive or progressively accumulating exposure to running-imposed mechanical stress.
Zhanat Kundakbayeva; Kamshat Rustem
This paper examines how, under the control of strong censorship, some of Gabit Musrepov’s literary works were published despite their seditious nature. The authors argue that although G. Musrepov was a reputable Soviet writer, the materials presented in the article prove that he worked at the meeting point of resistance and subjugation: resistance to ideology, subjugation to language. The literary analysis of Musrepov’s three short stories shows that under the strictest control and actively e...
This paper is based on Canguilhem's text on the concept of scientific ideology, which he introduced in 1969. We describe Canguilhem's attempts at designing a methodological framework for the history of science including the status of kinds of knowledge related to science, like scientific ideologies preceding particular scientific domains (like ideologies about inheritance before Mendel, or Spencer's universal evolutionary laws preceding Darwin). This attempt at picturing the relationships between science and ideology is compared with Jürgen Habermas's book Technology and Science as 'Ideology' in 1968. The philosphical issue of human normativity provides the framework of this discussion.
Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles
Community participation as a strategy in health aims to increase the role of citizens in health decision-making which are contextualised within the institutions of democracy. Electoral representation as the dominant model of democracy globally is based on the elite theory of democracy that sees political decision-making a prerogative of political elites. Such political elitism is counter to the idea of democratic participation. Neoliberalism together with elitism in political sphere have worsened social inequities by undermining working class interests. Latin America has seen adverse consequences of these social inequities. In response, social movements representing collective struggles of organised citizens arose in the region. This paper explores the theoretical underpinnings of democratic participation in contemporary Latin American context at the nexus of emerging social movement activism and policy responses. The paper will use empirical examples to highlight how such democratic practices at the societal level evolved while demanding political inclusion. These societal democratic practices in Latin America are redefining democracy, which continues to be seen in the political sphere only. Health reforms promoting participatory democracy in several Latin American countries have demonstrated that establishing institutions and mechanisms of democratic participation facilitate collective participation by the organised citizenry in state affairs.
Full Text Available Empirical research and theoretical accounts have traditionally emphasized the function of the hippocampus in episodic memory. Here we draw attention to the importance of the hippocampus to generalization, and focus on the neural representations and computations that might underpin its role in tasks such as the paired associate inference paradigm. We make a principal distinction between two different mechanisms by which the hippocampus may support generalization: an encoding-based mechanism that creates overlapping representations that capture higher-order relationships between different items (e.g. TCM – and a retrieval-based model (REMERGE that effectively computes these relationships at the point of retrieval, through a recurrent mechanism that allows the dynamic interaction of multiple pattern separated episodic codes. We also discuss what we refer to as transfer effects - a more abstract example of generalization that has also been linked to the function of the hippocampus. We consider how this phenomenon poses inherent challenges for models such as TCM and REMERGE, and outline the potential applicability of a separate class of models - hierarchical bayesian models (HBMs in this context. Our hope is that this article will provide a basic framework within which to consider the theoretical mechanisms underlying the role of the hippocampus in generalization, and at a minimum serve as a stimulus for future work addressing issues that go to the heart of the function of the hippocampus.
Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Hogan, Caitlin M; Chow, Rosalind M
The authors propose that the content of certain sociopolitical ideologies can be shaped by individuals in ways that satisfy their social motivations. This notion was tested in the context of color-blind ideology. Color blindness, when construed as a principle of distributive justice, is an egalitarian stance concerned with reducing discrepancies between groups' outcomes; as a principle of procedural justice, however, color blindness can function as a legitimizing ideology that entrenches existing inequalities. In Study 1, White people high in antiegalitarian sentiment were found to shift their construal of color blindness from a distributive to a procedural principle when exposed to intergroup threat. In Studies 2, 3A, and 3B, the authors used manipulations and a measure of threat to show that antiegalitarian White people endorse color blindness to legitimize the racial status quo. In Study 3B, participants' endorsement of color-blind ideology was mediated by increases in their preference for equal treatment (i.e., procedural justice) as a response to threat. In the Discussion section, the authors examine implications of the present perspective for understanding the manner in which individuals compete over the meaning of crucial ideologies. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available Social Dominance Theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999 stress that systematic inter group discrimination is related to social ideologies that contribute to coordinate institutions and individuals behaviors. The acceptance of inequity legitimating ideologies is partially determined for individuals general desire of group based domination. This desire is captured by Social Orientation Domination construct -SDO. Pursuing the objective of exploring SDO levels and its relationship with variables such ideological positioning and values, a descriptive correlation study, with a non experimental design, was carried out based on a convenience sample composed by 254 college students from Buenos Aires city surroundings . Results show that SDO is positively associated with Power and Achievement values and negatively with Benevolence and Universalism. SDO is stronger in participants right side ideologically positioned. Participants show a low SDO, emphasize self- trascendence and openness to change values and tend to a left side ideological positioning. Age, participant’s quality of “students” and prevailed career orientation can be seen as factors conditioning a more hierarchies attenuating believes and behaviors.
Robison, Shea K
Epigenetics, which is just beginning to attract public attention and policy discussion, challenges conventional understanding of gene-environment interaction and intergenerational inheritance and perhaps much more besides. Does epigenetics challenge modern political ideologies? I analyzed the narratives of obesity and epigenetics recently published in the more liberal New York Times and the more conservative Wall Street Journal. For the years 2010 through 2014, 50 articles on obesity and 29 articles on epigenetics were identified, and elements in their causal narratives were quantitatively analyzed using a well described narrative policy framework. The narratives on obesity aligned with the two newspapers' reputed ideologies. However, the narratives on epigenetics aligned with neither ideology but freely mixed liberal and conservative elements. This small study may serve as a starting point for broader studies of epigenetics as it comes to affect political ideologies and, in turn, public policies. The narrative mix reported here could yet prove vulnerable to ideological capture, or, more optimistically, could portend the emergence of a "third-way" narrative using epigenetics to question atomistic individualism and allowing for less divisiveness in public-health domains such as obesity.
Heiphetz, Larisa; Spelke, Elizabeth S; Harris, Paul L; Banaji, Mahzarin R
The beliefs people hold about the social and physical world are central to self-definition and social interaction. The current research analyzes reasoning about three kinds of beliefs: those that concern matters of fact (e.g., dinosaurs are extinct), preference (e.g., green is the prettiest color), and ideology (e.g., there is only one God). The domain of ideology is of unique interest because it is hypothesized to contain elements of both facts and preferences. If adults' distinct reasoning about ideological beliefs is the result of prolonged experience with the physical and social world, children and adults should reveal distinct patterns of differentiating kinds of beliefs, and this difference should be particularly pronounced with respect to ideological beliefs. On the other hand, if adults' reasoning about beliefs is a basic component of social cognition, children and adults should demonstrate similar belief representations and patterns of belief differentiation. Two experiments demonstrate that 5-10 year old children and adults similarly judged religious beliefs to be intermediate between factual beliefs (where two disagreeing people cannot both be right) and preferences (where they can). From the age of 5 years and continuing into adulthood, individuals distinguished ideological beliefs from other types of mental states and demonstrated limited tolerance for belief-based disagreements.
Potter, Tracey C S; Bryce, Nessa V; Hartley, Catherine A
Reinforcement learning theory distinguishes "model-free" learning, which fosters reflexive repetition of previously rewarded actions, from "model-based" learning, which recruits a mental model of the environment to flexibly select goal-directed actions. Whereas model-free learning is evident across development, recruitment of model-based learning appears to increase with age. However, the cognitive processes underlying the development of model-based learning remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined whether age-related differences in cognitive processes underlying the construction and flexible recruitment of mental models predict developmental increases in model-based choice. In a cohort of participants aged 9-25, we examined whether the abilities to infer sequential regularities in the environment ("statistical learning"), maintain information in an active state ("working memory") and integrate distant concepts to solve problems ("fluid reasoning") predicted age-related improvements in model-based choice. We found that age-related improvements in statistical learning performance did not mediate the relationship between age and model-based choice. Ceiling performance on our working memory assay prevented examination of its contribution to model-based learning. However, age-related improvements in fluid reasoning statistically mediated the developmental increase in the recruitment of a model-based strategy. These findings suggest that gradual development of fluid reasoning may be a critical component process underlying the emergence of model-based learning. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Schrecker, Ted; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Aguilera, Mariajosé
A systematic and theoretically informed analysis of how extractive industries affect health outcomes and health inequities is overdue. Informed by the work of Saskia Sassen on "logics of extraction," we adopt an expansive definition of extractive industries to include (for example) large-scale foreign acquisitions of agricultural land for export production. To ground our analysis in concrete place-based evidence, we begin with a brief review of four case examples of major extractive activities. We then analyze the political economy of extractivism, focusing on the societal structures, processes, and relationships of power that drive and enable extraction. Next, we examine how this global order shapes and interacts with politics, institutions, and policies at the state/national level contextualizing extractive activity. Having provided necessary context, we posit a set of pathways that link the global political economy and national politics and institutional practices surrounding extraction to health outcomes and their distribution. These pathways involve both direct health effects, such as toxic work and environmental exposures and assassination of activists, and indirect effects, including sustained impoverishment, water insecurity, and stress-related ailments. We conclude with some reflections on the need for future research on the health and health equity implications of the global extractive order. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fidel Martínez Álvarez
Full Text Available El debate filosófico sobre los temas centrales de la relación modernidad - postmodernidad no ha perdido vigencia y más bien se ha desplazado hacia sus connotaciones gnoseológica y epistemológica, es decir, hacia las polémicas referidas a la relación Filosofía - Ciencia, dentro de la cual ocupa un lugar especial el tema de la ideología. En esta primera década del tercer milenio se recrudece la labor desideologizadora del imperialismo como parte de su política hegemónica fundada en la globalización neoliberal. Ante la desenfrenada carrera por el dominio del mundo y las crecientes calamidades sociales y ambientales generadas por el capitalismo salvaje, se precisa de una verdadera y profunda revolución en las ideas, Como modesta contribución a esta batalla se presenta este trabajo con el objetivo de sistematizar los diversos enfoques del concepto de ideología y su expresión en el contexto del debate filosófico de lo moderno y lo postmodernoThe philosophical debate on the central topics of the relationship modernity - post modernity has not lost validity and rather it has moved toward its epistemologically connotations, that is to say, toward the polemics referred to the relationship Philosophy - Science, inside which occupies a special place the topic of the ideology. In this first decade of the third millennium the imperialism recrudesces their political has been founded in the neoliberal globalization. Before the wild career for the domain of the world and the growing social and environmental calamities generated by the wild capitalism, it is necessary of a true and deep revolution in the ideas, As modest contribution to this battle this work is presented with the objective of systematizing the diverse focuses of the ideology concept and its expression in the context of the philosophical debate of the modern thing and the postmodern thing.
Press, Melea; Arnould, Eric; Murray, Jeff
orientations may be thought of as ideologies; and second, that such ideologies are likely to contend with each other. Taking such a perspective may be helpful in thinking about why transitioning to more sustainable strategic orientations is challenging even in the presence of financial incentives to make......Why do some firms not change their strategic orientation despite economic incentives to do so? Most current literature on changing strategic orientations focuses on an antecedents and outcomes approach to business orientations. Intimated, but rarely addressed is, first, the idea that strategic...... such changes. In assessing the transition to organic production and marketing in a commodity agriculture context we find that contending ideologies restrict its adoption. In addition, we suggest that strategic orientations are not adopted or contested solely within firms but also among them. We find...
Gordillo Álvarez-Valdés, Lourdes
This article is about the ethics of the will that is caused by modern ideology of our century. The will, becomes desire, turns on itself to increase its own power. The ethics of the will is based on the decision of an individual, which prioritizes its will over reason and find many obstacles to act freely. Kant to avoid the moral limits of an arbitrary will, distinguishes the empirical subject, determined by their appetites, from the moral or rational subject, with a free will of conditioning. The ethics of the will is a reflection of Kant's empirical subject and current ideologies. Against ideologies the classical tradition is proposed, an ethic that reflects on human life and the realization of man in the world.
Ahmad Nur Fuad
Full Text Available This article deals with the interrelation between Islamic fundamentalism and other ideological orientations of contemporary Islamist movements, such as Islamism, revivalism, radicalism, salafism, and political Islam. It tries to explore the similarities in their characteristics as well as their differences in the focuses and strategies of the movements. This articles argues that these Islamist movements express their ideological aspirations in different ways: some try to build an Islamic state or even a universal Islamic caliphate (political Islam, while others emphasize much more on the implementation of shari’ah in the level of individuals and society, apart from state (salafis. However, they did not succeed yet in transforming the political landscape of the Muslim world in accordance with their ideological framework.
Morton, Rebecca; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland
personality traits by far dominate the direct effects of gender. They also dominate other potential differences between the sexes like income or education as explanatory factors. Our findings suggest that women tend to be more leftist than men mainly because they have different personalities, which, in turn......What explains the gender gap in ideology, i.e. the observation that women tend to be more leftist than men? We provide new evidence showing that personality traits play a key role. Using a novel high-quality data set, we show that the mediating (i.e. indirect) effects of gender operating through......, shape their expressed ideology. Taking such mediating effects of personality traits into account explains over three quarters of the observed gender gap in general ideological preferences....
Full Text Available How universal are men and women’s attitudes toward the expression of emotion? How similar are the emotions that men and women from various ethnic groups experience and express in their close love relationships? In this study, 144 men and 307 women of European, Chinese, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry were asked about their ideologies as to how people ought to deal with strong emotions in close relationships, how often they themselves felt a variety of emotions, and how they dealt with such feelings in close relationships. Finally, they were asked how satisfied they were with their close relationships. Men and women appeared to possess different emotional ideologies. Women tended to favor direct expression of emotion; men to favor emotional management. People of Chinese, European, Filipino, Hawaiian, and Japanese ancestry also possessed different ideologies as to how people ought to deal with strong emotions in intimate relationships.
Clarkson, Joshua J; Chambers, John R; Hirt, Edward R; Otto, Ashley S; Kardes, Frank R; Leone, Christopher
Evidence from three studies reveals a critical difference in self-control as a function of political ideology. Specifically, greater endorsement of political conservatism (versus liberalism) was associated with greater attention regulation and task persistence. Moreover, this relationship is shown to stem from varying beliefs in freewill; specifically, the association between political ideology and self-control is mediated by differences in the extent to which belief in freewill is endorsed, is independent of task performance or motivation, and is reversed when freewill is perceived to impede (rather than enhance) self-control. Collectively, these findings offer insight into the self-control consequences of political ideology by detailing conditions under which conservatives and liberals are better suited to engage in self-control and outlining the role of freewill beliefs in determining these conditions.
Purkis, Mary Ellen; Herringer, Barbara; Stevenson, Lynn; Styles, Laureen; Van Neste-Kenny, Jocelyne
Vancouver Island lies just off the southwest coast of Canada. Separated from the large urban area of Greater Vancouver (estimated population 2.17 million) by the Georgia Strait, this geographical location poses unique challenges in delivering health care to a mixed urban, rural and remote population of approximately 730,000 people living on the main island and the surrounding Gulf Islands. These challenges are offset by opportunities for the Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA) to collaborate with four publicly funded post-secondary institutions in planning and implementing responses to existing and emerging health care workforce needs. In this commentary, we outline strategies we have found successful in aligning health education and training with local health needs in ways that demonstrate socially accountable outcomes. Challenges encountered through this process (i.e. regulatory reform, post-secondary policy reform, impacts of an ageing population, impact of private, for-profit educational institutions) have placed demands on us to establish and build on open and collaborative working relationships. Some of our successes can be attributed to evidence-informed decision-making. Other successes result from less tangible but no less important factors. We argue that both rational and "accidental" factors are significant--and that strategic use of "accidental" features may prove most significant in our efforts to ensure the delivery of high-quality health care to our communities.
Everton, C.; Floyd, R.
The fundamental purpose of IAEA safeguards is to maintain confidence in the international community of the compliance of States with their respective non-proliferation commitments. The safeguards system for ensuring this compliance produces the most important output, the IAEA's compliance findings. Confidence in the findings of any compliance verification system requires some basic elements such as independence, accountability, transparency, and quality management systems. Quality management systems are an internal set of documents and procedures that, while clearly important, need to incorporate an external communication component in order to engender confidence as to how compliance is being managed and ensured. This paper will explore the importance of these fundamentals to confidence in IAEA safeguards compliance conclusions, with a focus on the external communication elements of accountability and transparency. Accountability and transparency will be considered with different communication channels through which safeguards implementation matters are explained and reported and at different levels, facility, State, regional, and the IAEA. This will include communications by: the IAEA and State authorities to the general public; State authorities to peers in other national safeguards authorities (regional and beyond); and, the IAEA and State authorities to the international community as represented through the Board of Governors and General Conference. Examples will be presented of good practices in these areas to encourage greater accountability and transparency in the work of safeguards. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Vancouver Island lies just off the southwest coast of Canada. Separated from the large urban area of Greater Vancouver (estimated population 2.17 million by the Georgia Strait, this geographical location poses unique challenges in delivering health care to a mixed urban, rural and remote population of approximately 730 000 people living on the main island and the surrounding Gulf Islands. These challenges are offset by opportunities for the Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA to collaborate with four publicly funded post-secondary institutions in planning and implementing responses to existing and emerging health care workforce needs. In this commentary, we outline strategies we have found successful in aligning health education and training with local health needs in ways that demonstrate socially accountable outcomes. Challenges encountered through this process (i.e. regulatory reform, post-secondary policy reform, impacts of an ageing population, impact of private, for-profit educational institutions have placed demands on us to establish and build on open and collaborative working relationships. Some of our successes can be attributed to evidence-informed decision-making. Other successes result from less tangible but no less important factors. We argue that both rational and "accidental" factors are significant – and that strategic use of "accidental" features may prove most significant in our efforts to ensure the delivery of high-quality health care to our communities.
Björkman, Ingeborg K; Bernsten, Cecilia B; Sanner, Margareta A
Different ways to practice pharmaceutical care have been developed. One expression of this fact is the existence of many different classification systems to document drug-related problems (DRPs). Evidence suggests that classification systems have different characteristics and that these characteristics reflect different conceptions of pharmaceutical care. To increase the understanding of conceptions of pharmaceutical care, underlying values and beliefs (ideologies) can be explored. To explore various conceptions of pharmaceutical care to identify the care ideologies on which these conceptions are based. Representatives of 4 selected conceptions of pharmaceutical care were interviewed in face-to-face meetings. During the interviews, 4 basic questions were asked. Three were focused on pharmaceutical care and 1 on DRPs. Interview transcripts were analyzed by an inductive method inspired by grounded theory. The conceptions studied were Strand, Granada-II, PCNE v5.0, and Apoteket. In Strand, patients are given a more active role in the pharmaceutical care process, as compared to Granada-II, PCNE v5.0, and Apoteket. Pharmacists in all the conceptions of pharmaceutical care assume they have special knowledge that patients benefit from. However, they use their knowledge in different ways in the various pharmaceutical care conceptions. In Strand, individual goals of drug therapy are established together with the patient, whereas in Granada-II, PCNE, and Apoteket goals are not explicitly discussed. The identified differences correspond to different care ideologies. The pharmaceutical care conceptions are based on different care ideologies. The ideology is expressed in how therapy goals are set and patient needs defined. Strand is based on a patient-centered ideology; patient therapy goals and needs are defined by the patient together with the practitioners. Granada-II, PCNE, and Apoteket are based on an evidence-based medicine approach; patient therapy goals and needs are
Subramanian, S V; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Perkins, Jessica M; Koyabu, Akio; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu
Recent studies from the USA and Europe suggest an association between an individual's political ideology and their health status, with those claiming to be conservatives reporting better health. The presence of this association is examined in Japan. Individual-level data from the 2000-3, 2005 and 2006 Japan General Social Survey were analysed. The outcomes of interest were self-rated poor health and smoking status. The independent variable of interest was reported political beliefs on a 5-point 'left'-to-'right' scale. Covariates included age, sex, education, income, occupational status and fixed effects for survey periods. Logistic regression models were estimated. There was an inverse association between political ideology (left to right) and self-rated poor health as well as between ideology and smoking status even after adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status and fixed effects for survey periods. Compared with those who identified as 'left', the OR for reporting poor health and smoking among those who identified as 'right' was 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.91), respectively. Health differences by political ideology have typically been interpreted as reflecting socioeconomic differences. The results from Japan corroborate the previous findings from the USA and Europe that socioeconomic differences do not account for health differences by political ideologies. Political ideology is likely to be a marker of several latent values and attitudes (eg, religiosity, individual responsibility and/or community participation) that might be beneficial for health at the individual level.
Marvel, Seth A; Hong, Hyunsuk; Papush, Anna; Strogatz, Steven H
Some of the most pivotal moments in intellectual history occur when a new ideology sweeps through a society, supplanting an established system of beliefs in a rapid revolution of thought. Yet in many cases the new ideology is as extreme as the old. Why is it then that moderate positions so rarely prevail? Here, in the context of a simple model of opinion spreading, we test seven plausible strategies for deradicalizing a society and find that only one of them significantly expands the moderate subpopulation without risking its extinction in the process.
Dr. José Manuel Azcona-Pastor
Full Text Available In this article there is an analyses on the birth of the facist ideoloy in Argenina, and how it is going to form an ideological entiry, based on the political dogma structured by Mussolini in Itlay and the concept of hispanity created by Primo de Rivera in Spain. This ideology will penetrate deeply in the conservative elements of the Argentinian society, and above all in the army, causing the 1976 military dictatorship. Juan Domingo Perón will be a key character in this process.Keywords: fascism, Argentina, peronism, dictatorship, nationalism.
Tomás Pérez Vejo
Full Text Available In Mexico, the celebration of the independence’s hundredth anniversary was accompanied by a complex historical-political-ideological debate on the nature of the nation, the balance of a hundred years of independent life, and the problems and challenges for the future. This work analyzes, mainly through journalistic sources, this debate’s characteristics, as well as its interpretative keys and its relevance within the process of Mexican national construction.
Simone Gibran Nogueira
Full Text Available This article is a literature review on how the ideology of white racial supremacy dehumanizes and colonizes the minds of Whites and Blacks in Brazil. For this aim I use critical references about whiteness to highlight dehumanization processes in Whites, and I make use of critical references of Black and African studies to examine specific dehumanization processes of the Black population. Furthermore, the work seeks to reflect on possibilities of mental humanization and de-colonization in both groups considering current policies of Affirmative Action in Education in Brazil.
Full Text Available The Music Herald was the first music magazine to appear in Belgrade after WWI. It was published monthly, for a year (January - December 1922. Its editor-in-chief was Petar Krstić, a composer. Other members of the editorial staff were Božidar Joksimović, Stevan Hristić, Kosta Manojlović (composers Vladimir R. Đorđević (an ethnomusicologist and Jovan Zorko (a violinist. Over 200 articles were published in the magazine. It dealt with different genres of music writings, such as articles, treatises, documents on the history of Serbian / Yugoslav music, music criticism, polemics, necrologies and bibliographies. Twenty-four compositions by native composers were published in the musical supplement of The Music Herald, among them the works of its editors as well as those of other Yugoslav musicians. The Music Herald dealt with three fields of interest: music historiography, ethnomusicology and the current topics of its epoch. When the magazine started, Serbian musicology was in its initial stage so the editors were trying to foster its development. They published numerous biographies of Serbian 19th century musicians, as well as documents on Serbian music culture during the reign of Prince Miloš Obrenović. Music folklore was also very often the subject of interest in the magazine. The Music Herald was interested in current topics and covered the Yugoslav music school system, opera houses, military music music associations, etc. It was especially interested in choral societies which in the course of the 19th century took up not only an artistic, but also a political and patriotic role in the liberation movement. After WWI choral societies entered a period of crisis. Their political raison d'être was lost, so they were faced with the challenge of achieving higher professional standards. This study deals with two aspects of 'The Music Herald': aesthetic and ideological aspects. In terms of ideology, the magazine was strongly in favor of the
Kostić Milena M.
Full Text Available Due to prioritizing Machiavellian power-craving aspirations over the inner voice of conscience, the majority of Shakespeare's rulers from the history plays suffers from the tragic 'dissociation of -sensibility' (Eliot 1921: 64, 66. Since the process of giving priority to public obligations instead to private inclinations is easily detected in the contemporary political scene, especially in the form of the imposed choice between legalism and morality, valuable ideas of the 20th century humanist critics (Kantorowicz, Rubenstein, Bauman, -Eliade, Hamvas are problematized in the paper. Their contemporary insights have been combined with the humanist philosophical and ethic tradition in the works of Ovid, Ficino, Mirandola, Bruno, More. The Renaissance spokesperson of this humanist tradition was Shakespeare; through the chronological survey of his history plays, the paper aims at revealing the author's criticism of the dominant Tudor ideology and neccessity for its subversion. Thus, the attitude presented by the representatives of the new historicist critical school, particularly Stephen Greenblatt, that the renaissance social institutions shaped, restricted and controlled an individual's conduct, whereby every attempt at subverting the dominant system was doomed to failure, is strongly criticized. The importance of 'the -historical sense' (Eliot 1963: 34, the concept relying on the permanent bond between the past and present, for the sake of creating a more humane future, has been recognized in Shakespeare's history plays, apart from the already mentioned 20th century humanist thinkers, also by the presentist critics at the beginning of the 21st -century, particularly Hughes Grady and Terence Hawkes (2007, who tirelessly claim, like Jan Kott before them (1990, that Shakespeare is our contemporary.
This article explores language ideologies and language uses in a multilingual university in Hong Kong by exploring the voices and experiences of both mainland Chinese and Hong Kong students. Drawing on the notions of language ideologies, separate multilingualism, and translanguaging, the research illustrates how students' linguistic ideologies are…
This book presents a study of educational institutions in Manitoba (Canada) agriculture before 1925, the dominant ideologies that resided there, and the impact of those ideologies on the agrarian movement. The first chapter overviews a variety of ideologies, state structures, and agrarian movements in North America during the late 19th and early…
Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth
Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing on…
This study examined how a Korean family with temporary immigrant status in the United States employed ideological discourses on languages to make sense of their experiences. The parents initially accepted but later rejected ideologies on children's learning of English. English-as-a-legitimate-language ideology in the United States and…
Attitudes are complex and little research in the field of linguistics has focused on language attitudes. This article deals with attitudes toward sign languages and those who use them--attitudes that are influenced by ideological constructions. The article reviews five categories of such constructions and discusses examples in each one.
Tseronis, A.; Iordanidou, A.; Georgakopoulou, A.; Silk, M.
In this paper, we propose an analysis and evaluation of the four most recent and authoritative general monolingual dictionaries of Greek as texts produced by an identifiable agent and addressed to an identifiable public, that contribute to the ideology of standardization. Our claim is that we can
In many multicultural democracies, education has a Christian history. However, teaching religion has ideological variation. Progressives teach about many religions, while conservatives favor (often exclusive) instruction into one tradition. Australian secular education controversially prioritizes faith-forming instruction (mostly Christian). In…
Nieborg, D.B.; Sihvonen, T.
This paper will contextualize the occupational ideology of game journalism by providing a brief introduction to the political economy of game publications. The role of various industry actors (e.g. game publishers, PR agents and brand managers) will be positioned against those of the peripheral
Plazek, David J.
It has long been lamented that Americans do not comprehend conservative and liberal ideologies and the associated policy preferences for each perspective (and the reasoning behind the associations). This research seeks to contribute to the teaching of conservatism and liberalism by creating a heuristic outlining six general characteristics for…
Hoffman, Diane M.
Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.
Cobb, Jessica S.
This paper examines how public school teachers take up, modify, or resist the dominant ideology of color-blind racism. This examination is based on in-depth interviews with 60 teachers at three segregated schools: one was race/class privileged and two were disadvantaged. Inductive coding revealed that teachers at each school articulated a shared…
Burnett, Judith A.; Panchal, Krishna
This article describes the influence of ideological values on couples' experience of infertility. Contextual issues are considered in terms of how they influence medical decision making as well as emotional factors. Strength-based counseling interventions that attend to couples' diverse values are described. Last, implications for counselors,…
Pimentel, Ellen Efron
This article analyzes gender attitudes and behaviors of husbands and wives across three urban Chinese cohorts. While women remain egalitarian in gender ideology across cohorts, the percentage of men who hold egalitarian gender attitudes declines significantly across cohorts. At the same time, the division of household labor has become somewhat…
Chan, Joseph Man; Lee, Chin-Chuan
Surveys the entire Chinese journalist population of Hong Kong to determine how news organizations in the highly politicized environment of Hong Kong exercise institutional control on recruitment and newswork. Finds that press ideology is a major determinant of its organizational control. (MS)
Mansoor, Asma; Malik, Samina
With post-colonial Pakistan inheriting the British colonial ideological and governmental apparatus, the English literature curriculum implemented at the university level in Pakistan carried the interpellatory baggage of its colonial past. Our interdisciplinary exploration focuses on using deconstructive pedagogy to demystify and subvert the…
Kimura, Goro Christoph
Explores whether a particular humanistic ideology is imminent in Esperanto on the basis of evidence drawn from discussions in Esperanto between Japanese and Koreans about reconciliation between their respective countries. Concludes that, while the convictions of the language's initiative are not universally shared among Esperanto speakers, one may…
in the procurement of meat, especially venison. The uncontrolled and, at first, legally unregu- lated hunting for otter, whale , seal, walrus and...considering the crises in bourgeois ideology and morals and the spread of crime and drug addiction to be somewhow derivative of the reformist theories
The worsening economic fortunes of many African countries, poor and corrupt leadership, increase in ethnic nationalism, oppression of the minority by dominant powers and ideologies and the quest for freedom, external influences from extremist (Islamic & Christian) groups among others have been suggested as likely ...
Sneijder, P.W.J.; Te Molder, H.F.M.
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and
Collin, Ross; Street, Brian V.
In this exchange, Street and Collin debate the merits of the interaction model of literacy that Collin outlined in a recent issue of Reading Research Quarterly. Built as a complement and a counter to Street's ideological model of literacy, Collin's interaction model defines literacies as technologies that coevolve with sociocultural…
... as subjects, with the eventual emergence of Kambili to self-knowledge and condition of social responsibility. The aim of this is to examine how Adichie's Purple Hibiscus is typical of how the Nigerian novel engages itself in issues of ideology and how these issues, in turn, crystallize the challenges of nation-ness in Nigeria.
Buzzanell, Patrice M.; Goldzwig, Steven R.
Examines the linear or bureaucratic career models (dominant in career research, metaphors, paradigms, and ideologies) which maintain career myths of flexibility and individualized routes to success in organizations incapable of offering such versatility. Describes nonlinear career models which offer suggestive metaphors for re-visioning careers…
Pace, Judith L.
Draws on an interpretive study of classroom authority relations in a U.S. metropolitan high school to describe and analyze the character of these relations and their connection to social theory and educational ideologies. Results reveal that conservative, bureaucratic, progressive, and radical positions all contribute to commonsense…
Maguire, Mary H.; Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan
This article focuses on the identity accounts of a group of Chinese children who attend a heritage language school. Bakhtin's concepts of ideological becoming, and authoritative and internally persuasive discourse, frame our exploration. Taking a dialogic view of language and learning raises questions about schools as socializing spaces and…
Palmieri, Patricia Ann
The ideology of higher education for women at Wellesley College in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is discussed in the context of feminism and the women's suffrage movement. "Symmetrical womanhood," a concept emphasizing balance of traditional roles and intellectual and community involvement, was a goal of Wellesley faculty of…
In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…
Yang, Song; Stening, Bruce W.
This study examines the role of cultural values and political ideologies in the development of materialism, and the impact of materialism on subjective well-being, in the Chinese context. A survey was conducted of 487 persons in two cities in China and the results analyzed using structural equation modeling. The findings show that China's…
Wiese, Rasmus; Jong-A-Pin, Richard
We test the theory of expressive voting in relation to political ideology in a laboratory experiment. After deriving our hypotheses from a decision theoretic model, we examine voting decisions in an experiment in which we use the size of the electorate as the treatment variable. Using a Heckman
Morgan, G Scott; Skitka, Linda J; Wisneski, Daniel C
Hibbing et al. argue that the liberal-conservative continuum is (a) universal and (b) grounded in psychological differences in sensitivity to negative stimuli. Our commentary argues that both claims overlook the importance of context. We review evidence that the liberal-conservative continuum is far from universal and that ideological differences are contextually flexible rather than fixed.
Austin, Andrew; Wilcox, N. T.
-, č. 238 (2004), s. 1-45 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK8002119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : ideology * double auction * economic and political attitudes Subject RIV: AH - Economics
... flood the public sphere with ideological mechanisms of public mediation for the ... This article, which seeks to develop a theory that explains the operation of the ... The aim is to show how governance is mediated by the alienating role of an ...
Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
This article discusses the current self-confidence and apparent success—at least by market/popularity measures—of leadership studies (LS) in general and transformational leadership (TFL) in particular. An alternative interpretation is offered, suggesting that it is the ideological character...
Gilbert, Michael J.
This study investigates the relationship between pupil control ideology and academic optimism. Information was generated through responses to a questionnaire emailed to teachers in two school districts in Central New Jersey. The districts were categorized GH, as determined by the State's district factor grouping. The research concludes that there…
Agung Eko Budiwaspada
Full Text Available This study tries to uncover the existence of ideological values that are present in the global advertisement in Indonesia, by focusing on how these ideological values are present in the communication ideas of global advertisements. It is aimed to respond to the whole factual problem using a series of analysis. At first, the meaningful expression of objects are identified, especially those that are related to the thoughts, perceptions, concepts, and objectives of global expressions in the advertisements. The interpretation norm of semiotic approach was employed to identify the ideological values of those global advertisements in Indonesia. Results indicate that global advertisements in Indonesia are loaded with ideological values. It is reflected in the appearances of those advertisements, including the swinging values of consumerism, cultural imperialism, stereotyping global lifestyles, perfectionism, and decontextualism. Although these embedded values are-somewhat-contradicting Indonesian values, they may emerge through dis-culturation, inculturation, and acculturation processes as there are no adequate efforts to make the public aware. This may lead to a big sacrifice that we all have to endure, and that is the emergence of high-cost culture.
Loza, Wagdy; Abd-El-Fatah, Youssef; Prinsloo, Johan; Hesselink-Louw, Anni; Seidler, Katie
The Belief Diversity Scale (BDS) was administered to Australian, Canadian, Egyptian, and South African participants of different religious backgrounds. The BDS is a 33-item, six subscale instrument that is designed to quantitatively measure Middle Eastern extremist ideologies on risk areas that are reported in the literature. Results demonstrated…
litate equality of the sexes in the South African society (and education ... gest ideologies in cultures world-wide, and in the context of modern. Western culture, it ..... traditional African women are forced to be submissive in marriage (cf. Coetzee ...
Jones, Paul; Garner, Arthur E.
Compares pupil control ideology--discipline policy--of middle school classroom teachers with the intent of finding what attributes are needed for middle school teachers and the particular type classroom environment that facilitates optimum learning conditions for middle school children. (Author/RK)
Auteur is the French word for author. ... Francois Truffaut titled, A certain Tendency of French Cinema published in ... suppose that since film is a product of culture, it is ideological ..... eat. On his birthday, Kashi demanded for a plate of food with ...
Linvill, Darren L.; Boatwright, Brandon C.; Grant, Will J.
In this content analysis, we explored how students address instructor ideology in the university classroom through the social media platform Twitter. We employed Boolean search operators through Salesforce Marketing Cloud Radian6 software to gather tweets and identified English language tweets by how students referenced their instructor's…
Garcia, Richard A.
The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…
... to Maliki thought in the light of the multifarious ways of practicing Islam as exemplified in Pakistan,Indonesia and Malaysia. The study finally examines the effects of the discussed ideological mindsets on Nigerian nation building. Keywords: Maliki Jurisprudence, Boko Haram, National Development, Islamic Law, Nigeria ...
John Oko Ameh
Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria is often cited in the international media in connection with corruption and other unethical practices. The professionals in the Nigerian building industry are not immune from the national trend in ethical erosion. Moral philosophy or ethical ideology has been used to explain individuals’ reasoning about moral issues and consequent behaviour. This study examines building industry professionals’ ethical ideologies with a view to understanding their ethical behaviour in professional practice. In carrying out this investigation, building professionals in clients’ organisations, contracting and consultancy organisations within the industry were asked to respond to the Ethics Position Questionnaire (EPQ designed by Forsyth in order to determine their idealism and relativism level. Subsequently, they were classified into one of four groups, representing different ethical ideologies. The result indicates that the dominant ethical ideology of building industry professionals is situationism. The study predicts that the attitude of building industry professionals in practice, given the current socio-political and economic situation of Nigeria would possibly be unethical because of the extreme influence situational factors have on their behaviour. This finding is a bold step and necessary benchmark for resolving ethical issues within the industry and should be of interest to policy makers. It is also useful for intra professional ethical comparison.
Nye, Judith; Forsyth, Donelson R.
To examine the impact of ethical ideology, i.e., situationism (high relativism and idealism), subjectivism (high relativism/low idealism), absolutism (low relativism/high idealism), and exceptionism (low relativism and idealism), as well as the saliency of moral norms, and the situational consequences on moral behavior, 112 male and female college…
Ahn, Woo-Young; Kishida, Kenneth T; Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Harvey, Ann; Alford, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Yaffe, Gideon; Hibbing, John R; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P Read
Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and private behavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found to be deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated food or physical threats) should be highly predictive of abstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion). We applied a machine-learning method to fMRI data to test the hypotheses that brain responses to emotionally evocative images predict individual scores on a standard political ideology assay. Disgusting images, especially those related to animal-reminder disgust (e.g., mutilated body), generate neural responses that are highly predictive of political orientation even though these neural predictors do not agree with participants' conscious rating of the stimuli. Images from other affective categories do not support such predictions. Remarkably, brain responses to a single disgusting stimulus were sufficient to make accurate predictions about an individual subject's political ideology. These results provide strong support for the idea that fundamental neural processing differences that emerge under the challenge of emotionally evocative stimuli may serve to structure political beliefs in ways formerly unappreciated. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
South Africa has had a number of curriculum reforms since 1994 which have been based on both political and education grounds. However, there is a dearth of knowledge about the nature of the envisioned graduates, especially with respect to social challenges. This can be addressed by exploring the curriculum ideology which outlines the vision of…
Perry, Kristen H.; Shaw, Donita M.; Ivanyuk, Lyudmyla; Tham, Yuen San Sarah
We used metastudy and metasynthesis techniques to conduct a discursive review of 101 recent publications on the topic of adult functional literacy (FL). Our purpose was to understand the ideologies shaping current definitions and conceptualizations of FL, as well as how and why FL is researched and assessed as it is. Using discursive review…
Kamel Boulos, Maged N; Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P
Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes-children/adolescents and adults-from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs-children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria.
Gammon, Shauna; Dixon, Mavis C; MacRury, Sandra M; Fergusson, Michael J; Miranda Rodrigues, Francisco; Mourinho Baptista, Telmo; Yang, Stephen P
Digital games are an important class of eHealth interventions in diabetes, made possible by the Internet and a good range of affordable mobile devices (eg, mobile phones and tablets) available to consumers these days. Gamifying disease management can help children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes to better cope with their lifelong condition. Gamification and social in-game components are used to motivate players/patients and positively change their behavior and lifestyle. In this paper, we start by presenting the main challenges facing people with diabetes—children/adolescents and adults—from a clinical perspective, followed by three short illustrative examples of mobile and desktop game apps and platforms designed by Ayogo Health, Inc. (Vancouver, BC, Canada) for type 1 diabetes (one example) and type 2 diabetes (two examples). The games target different age groups with different needs—children with type 1 diabetes versus adults with type 2 diabetes. The paper is not meant to be an exhaustive review of all digital game offerings available for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but rather to serve as a taster of a few of the game genres on offer today for both types of diabetes, with a brief discussion of (1) some of the underpinning psychological mechanisms of gamified digital interventions and platforms as self-management adherence tools, and more, in diabetes, and (2) some of the hypothesized potential benefits that might be gained from their routine use by people with diabetes. More research evidence from full-scale evaluation studies is needed and expected in the near future that will quantify, qualify, and establish the evidence base concerning this gamification potential, such as what works in each age group/patient type, what does not, and under which settings and criteria. PMID:25791276
Benbouriche, M; Renaud, P; Pelletier, J-F; De Loor, P
Forensic psychiatry is the field whose expertise is the assessment and treatment of offending behaviours, in particular when offenses are related to mental illness. An underlying question for all etiological models concerns the manner in which an individual's behaviours are organized. Specifically, it becomes crucial to understand how certain individuals come to display maladaptive behaviours in a given environment, especially when considering issues such as offenders' responsibility and their ability to change their behaviours. Thanks to its ability to generate specific environments, associated with a high experimental control on generated simulations, virtual reality is gaining recognition in forensic psychiatry. Virtual reality has generated promising research data and may turn out to be a remarkable clinical tool in the near future. While research has increased, a conceptual work about its theoretical underpinnings is still lacking. However, no important benefit should be expected from the introduction of a new tool (as innovative as virtual reality) without an explicit and heuristic theoretical framework capable of clarifying its benefits in forensic psychiatry. Our paper introduces self-regulation perspective as the most suitable theoretical framework for virtual reality in forensic psychiatry. It will be argued that virtual reality does not solely help to increase ecological validity. However, it does allow one to grant access to an improved understanding of violent offending behaviours by probing into the underlying mechanisms involved in the self-regulation of behaviours in a dynamical environment. Illustrations are given as well as a discussion regarding perspectives in the use of virtual reality in forensic psychiatry. Copyright Â© 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Allington, Ruth; Fernandez-Fuentes, Isabel
There is consensus that reliable ground models, based on a sound understanding of the geology and surface processes are vital as a basis for natural hazard identification and risk assessment, and there is a great deal of skill and experience in the geoscience community with mapping, modelling and predicting natural hazards and their likely impacts. This presentation will highlight the contributions of geology and geomorphology in the identification of natural hazards and mitigation of their impacts. It will then consider a range of "professional skills" that are needed by geoscientists working with other specialists and non-specialists (e.g. engineers, emergency services, land-use planners, architects responsible for building codes, politicians, regulators, the public etc) alongside technical and scientific excellence. It will argue that development and application of both scientific/technical and professional skills is essential to ensure that the maps, models and other data relevant to natural hazards and environmental change are used to provide effective public protection through communication, land-use planning and planning for resilience. The professional skills of particular importance include interdisciplinary collaboration; project management; cost-benefit analysis; effective communication with specialists and non specialists (especially the public); and facilitative skills. All the technical, scientific and professional skills need to be applied competently and with the highest standards of ethical underpinning. The contribution will consider how this can be achieved (or at least facilitated) through professional training, award of professional titles, licensure etc, drawing on international examples of best practice in professional codes of conduct and regulation directed to the protection of the public.
José Manuel Bermejo Laguna
Full Text Available Recently started the new millennium, the West is witness a conflict between two ideologies that converge to use Islam as a weapon of choice with which declared opponents. To Islamophobia, that joins large sectors of the Western population and whose strategy involves systematically revile the Islamic civilization, with the purpose of ratting as Muslim enemies to men and women who reside in Western societies, opposes the Western phobia which is monopolized by native radical ideologies of the Islamic world. Identified these two philosophies, the aim of this research pursues the separately analysis from both to come to conclude as necessary the alteration of the foundations that are supporting, to avoid being affected as sensitive areas as the personal and social safety. The methodology, consisting in the exposition of causes that may be indicative of the mutual resentment that his followers profess themselves, comes to demostrate the impact that those speeches have the time to build an enemy; fed, on the one hand, of imaginary fears, the rejection of all meaning of multicultural theory of modern societies, and therefore, negative cultural concessions to people who do not promote them in their societies of origin. The Western phobia, sponsored by the Islamist ideology, comes to introduce Islam in the early stages as the resource with which to face the Western supremacy, and from there to promote violence against those who have usurped their land, and are reproaching their lano interest in addressing proposals for modern political, social or family. Only proposals of intercultural harmony and rejection of the discourses that make Islam a political and military ideology may prevent that these ideologies continue gaining accessions.
Full Text Available After the formation of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY, the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY has organized large work and youth actions aimed at rebuilding the country after the Second World War. The main hypothesis of this paper is that in Yugoslavia there was no participation in the true sense, but that there were mechanisms which represented the ideology of participation. Work actions had huge impact on rebuilding the land, but they were not voluntary - which is a basic requirement of modern theory of participation. Likewise, the term participation is further explained in this paper, in order to further explain the thesis of formal participation in the former Yugoslavia. Student protests in 1968 were not an isolated case of revolt against the system, the basic characteristics of popular revolt that had its roots back in the early sixties. The aim of this paper is theoretical analysis of the theory of participation and the basic characteristics of Yugoslavia, in order to show that the participation of the people in the exercise of power was just an illusion, ie. formal. Case Study about films of the sixties and seventies in Yugoslavia illustrates the processes of censorship and imposition of ideology of participation.
Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M.; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr.; Sala, Eeva
High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called “Hjalli model”, and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the “Hjalli model”) experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the “Hjalli model” preschool and fewer “Hjalli model” teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than “Hjalli model” teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences. PMID:26356370
Salman Saleh, N.
Full Text Available As one of the prominent ideologies of the nineteenth-century— in a complex interrelation with other contemporary ideological discourses particularly femininity and marriage—religion adopts a critical stance in Hardy’s presentation of characters. Breaching the religio-conventional image of femininity as “Angel in the House” and “Cow Woman,” Hardy’s Jude the Obscure (1895 is indeed deemed to be his milestone in presenting his anti-Christian attitudes towards the contemporary religion. This study aims to present Hardy’s outright hostility towards the nineteenth-century Christianity through his creation of non-conformist characters, necessitating a parallel study with other contemporary discourses regarding marriage and femininity, and conflict with the religion of the time. Hardy’s magnum opus, the work on which he was to stake his final reputation as a novelist, was clearly Jude the Obscure which as a noticeable socio-religious experimentation of the late nineteenth-century, reveals Hardy’s perception of new ideas about femininity and marriage by presenting the hot contemporary issues of “New Woman” and “Free Union” through the development and presentation of Sue Bridehead and her free union with Jude, respectively. Hardy’s presentation of Sue Bridehead as a “New Woman,” and employing the “Free Union” in marked contrast with the nineteenth-century convention of marriage as a “Bonded Pair” is Hardy’s closing upshot of his final novelistic attempt. The non-conformist Jude and Sue are presented as figures touching the Victorian Christian standards of morality, while, the final tragic destiny of Jude and Sue’s helplessness attest to the writer’s substantial contribution as a Victorian male novelist to the ideologies circulating at the time.
Full Text Available In the thesis named "The Savage against Civilization: the Sociolinguistic Analysis of Images of Native Americans in Western" is given a specific approach to research of the ideological and stylistic characteristics of images of the Indians and Indian wars in classical and contemporary Western, as well as their connections with appropriate social conditions. Besides the analysis of the chosen movies, this research required: 1 an insight into a historical causality of given images and into their genealogy; 2 an insight into their function in the context of a popular movie genre; 3 the review of a sociolinguistic theory of Basil Bernstein and of its anthropological application in the work of Mary Douglas; 4 finding a way of using a sociolinguistic theory on the film language. The basic concepts of Bernstein’s theory – studies about the two speech codes (restricted and elaborated, which are conditioned by different social circumstances and are conducive to different ideologies – here are applied on mostly mutually opposing views of Indians-whites conflicts in classical and contemporary Western. As examples for classical Western I used those from John Ford’s movies (Stagecoach, Rio Grande, Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, The Searchers, Cheyenne Autumn, and for those from contemporary Western, after the precursors from fifties (Broken Arrow, Apache I took revisionist movies from 1970 (Little Big Man, Soldier Blue and post-revisionist Western Dances with Wolves. The thematic and sociolinguistic analysis of images from these movies confirmed a rule which can be also seen in some images from the past centuries: a noble savage and a bad savage persist as opposition to Western civilization throughout different periods of the genre, changing some of their characteristics in accordance with the historical context. Furthermore, the assumption about the crucial importance of the style usage in shaping of different ideological views was confirmed
Ruthven, Jessica S
In South Africa, health promotion related to HIV/AIDS has been characterised as a component of public health prevention. It has heavily utilised global health ideology to construct promotional messages that rely on neoliberal models of individual, responsible health citizenship. However, after nearly 30 years of public health messaging, there have been only minor shifts in the country's HIV prevalence rates; it has become apparent that there is disconnect between policy, programmes, and target audiences. Debates about where this disconnect occurs tend to focus on the role of problems in biomedical knowledge translation or with structural inequalities that lead to health inequity. As debates increase, artists involved in health have emerged to address an additional reason: audience interpellation. In this article, I interrogate relationships between health promotion ideology and processes of interpellation. I suggest that disconnect between the two has roots in the tone of programming, the ways sociality is constructed within health promotion, and the kind of subject which global prevention programmes seek to constitute. Using a case study, I illustrate how public health ideology is made actionable through arts practice. While conventional health promotion programmes address populations in a way that allows individuals to distance themselves, members of South Africa's arts sector have worked to integrate prevention and care in a way that bolsters interpellation through making messages personal. The case study presents one performance but is informed by my broader research with over 20 theatrical groups conducted during 18 months of fieldwork. Analysis of the production reveals that artists act as mediators between population-level public health messages and individuals through the embodied technologies of applied theatre. However, I argue that artists also create space for participants to reimagine configurations of care, responsibility, and intimacy within health
Xu, Jin; Chu, Biao
To promote diversified integration and integrated use of practical teaching resources in ideological and political education in colleges and universities is helpful to extend the ideological and political teaching activities in colleges and universities, to update and supplement ideological and political knowledge, to build a harmonious learning environment for students and to comprehensively improve their ideological and political accomplishments. This article will analyze of ideological and political practical teaching resources diversified integration and the integration of programs by examples, and put forward personal opinions.
Bengtsson, Mattias; Berglund, Tomas; Oskarson, Maria
Studies of the relationship between class position and political outlooks still only have a limited understanding of the class-related mechanisms that matter for ideological orientations. This article presents a comprehensive analysis of the mechanisms that link class position and left/right and authoritarian/libertarian orientations. Besides main factors such as income, career prospects, job security, education, class origin and class identification, the significance of work-related factors such as work autonomy, working in a team, a physically demanding job and a mentally demanding job is studied. The findings are based on a survey specifically designed for this purpose and collected in Sweden in 2008/2009. A great deal of the association between class position and left/right orientations is explained by socio-economic conditions; different classes sympathize with policies that will benefit them economically. Another important factor is class identification. Work-related factors also have relevance, but the effect of class position on left/right orientations works mainly through the remuneration system. Class position is also related to authoritarian/libertarian orientations. However, this relationship is less explained by socio-economic position per se, but is rather an effect of the educational system and its allocation of the workforce into different class positions. It also turns out that work-related factors do not explain the class effects; however, a physically demanding job shows a unique effect. Overall, our findings suggest that besides factors such as class position, income, education and class identification, we need to consider work-related aspects to derive a more complete understanding of the distribution of ideological orientations in Western societies. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.
Paul Halpern, Hillary; Perry-Jenkins, Maureen
The current study utilized longitudinal, self-report data from a sample of 109 dual-earner, working-class couples and their 6-year-old children living in the northeastern United States. Research questions addressed the roles of parents’ gender ideology and gendered behaviors in predicting children’s development of gender-role attitudes. It was hypothesized that parents' behavior would be more influential than their ideology in the development of their children's attitudes about gender roles. Parents responded to questionnaires assessing their global beliefs about women's and men's "rightful" roles in society, work preferences for mothers, division of household and childcare tasks, division of paid work hours, and job traditionality. These data were collected at multiple time points across the first year of parenthood, and during a 6-year follow-up. At the final time point, children completed the Sex Roles Learning Inventory (SERLI), an interactive measure that assesses gender-role attitudes. Overall, mothers’ and fathers’ behaviors were better predictors of children’s gender-role attitudes than parents’ ideology. In addition, mothers and fathers played unique roles in their sons’ and daughters’ acquisition of knowledge about gender stereotypes. Findings from the current study fill gaps in the literature on children’s gender development in the family context—particularly by examining the understudied role of fathers in children’s acquisition of knowledge regarding gender stereotypes and through its longitudinal exploration of the relationship between parents’ gender ideologies, parents’ gendered behaviors, and children’s gender-role attitudes. PMID:27445431
American higher education is facing another major transition with escalating costs, an influx of diverse students, and an over all question about the return on investment for higher education. Within these complexities, this essay will consider the practical history and theoretical underpinning which inform the experience for students with complex…
Vera-Estay, E.; Dooley, J. J.; Beauchamp, M. H.
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by intense changes, which impact the interaction between individuals and their environments. Moral reasoning (MR) is an important skill during adolescence because it guides social decisions between right and wrong. Identifying the cognitive underpinnings of MR is essential to understanding the…
Heaney, C A; Burke, A C
Ideologies of care, or systems of beliefs about the importance of particular goals and activities, help guide how care is provided. One currently pervasive ideology of care is that of normalization. In this paper, the ideologies of care of both house managers and direct care staff in group homes are contrasted. Results indicate that the ideology of direct care staff is less differentiated than that of the house managers. In addition, house managers are more likely to subscribe to a normalization ideology and less likely to subscribe to a family orientation ideology than are direct care staff. Ideological differences between house managers and direct care staff are only partially explained by differences in the demographic composition of the two groups.
Mills, Frederick B.
Critiques recent welfare reform proposals and recommends social work practices that humanize Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The critique deconstructs the labels "dependent,""addict," and "illegitimate" as they are applied to AFDC mothers and explores the reproduction of stigma through social work…
Conducted a content analysis of 10 years of feminine hygiene advertisements in "Seventeen" and "Teen" magazines. Finds that advertising copy in these magazines works to dispel myths about menstruation but that few black models are shown. Discusses advertising as an element of socialization for adolescent girls. (SLD)
Annamma, Subini A.; Boelé, Amy L.; Moore, Brooke A.; Klingner, Janette
In this article, we build on Brantlinger's work to critique the binary of normal and abnormal applied in US schools that create inequities in education. Operating from a critical perspective, we draw from Critical Race Theory, Disability Studies in Education, and Cultural/Historical Activity Theory to build a conceptual framework for…
Fusheini, Adam; Eyles, John
Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major goal for health care delivery in the post-2015 development agenda. It is viewed as a solution to health care needs in low and middle countries with growing enthusiasm at both national and global levels. Throughout the world, however, the paths of countries to UHC have differed. South Africa is currently reforming its health system with UHC through developing a national health insurance (NHI) program. This will be practically achieved through a decentralized approach, the district health system, the main vehicle for delivering services since democracy. We utilize a review of relevant documents, conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 of district health systems (DHS) and UHC and their ideological underpinnings, to explore the opportunities and challenges, of the district health system in achieving UHC in South Africa. Review of data from the NHI pilot districts suggests that as South Africa embarks on reforms toward UHC, there is a need for a minimal universal coverage and emphasis on district particularity and positive discrimination so as to bridge health inequities. The disparities across districts in relation to health profiles/demographics, health delivery performance, management of health institutions or district management capacity, income levels/socio-economic status and social determinants of health, compliance with quality standards and above all the burden of disease can only be minimised through positive discrimination by paying more attention to underserved and disadavantaged communities. We conclude that in South Africa the DHS is pivotal to health reform and UHC may be best achieved through minimal universal coverage with positive discrimination to ensure disparities across districts in relation to disease burden, human resources, financing and investment, administration and management capacity, service readiness and availability and the health access inequalities are consciously
As soon as Adolf Hitler came to into power in 1933, four laws on racial segregation and race protection were edicted between 1934 and 1935. Schizophrenia, manic-depressive psychoses, epilepsy and alcoholism were regarded as hereditary mental illnesses. These laws were responsible for the sterilisation of 350,000 individuals who were thought to be at the source of the propagation of hereditary illnesses which might endanger the health and the future of the Aryan Germans. On September 1, 1939, Action T4 was launched: it required that all the mentally ill be exterminated. This action, which was run by the highest level of the Reich's chancellery with the help of psychiatrists coming from all backgrounds including university professors, was supposed to grant a serene death to all the mentally ill considered as untreatable. The death sentences were carried out by the medical staff in psychiatric hospitals specially equipped with gas chambers. Following protests, Action T4 was officially stopped on August 24, 1941, but, in reality, continued until the end of the war. The death sentences were carried out using either lethal doses of medication or food deprivation. One hundred and fifty thousand individuals fell victim to that therapeutic extermination which played an economic role as important as the one deemed to social protection. Many German academics, researchers, psychiatrists, geneticians and anthropologists played and active part in these murders which were carried out in the name of Nazi ideology based upon the supremacy of the Northern Germanic race and the necessity to protect it from miscegenation, especially from Jews. In the final part of this paper, the author gives an explanation of the perversion of ethics carried out by German psychiatrists.
Armstrong, Timothy Currie
Ideology can be understood as a guide to action, and therefore, language ideology can be viewed as a link between language ability on the one hand, and language use on the other. In this respect, language ideology plays a central role in the success of language revitalization movements. In an effort to understand how new language ideologies are…
Full Text Available The paper is focused on ideological and political conflicts about popular music in Serbia, as a good example of wrong and confused searching for identity. Basic conflict that author is analyzing is about oriental elements (such as asymmetric rhythmic patterns and melismatic singing and the question if they are legitimate parts of Serbian musical heritage or not. Author is making an analysis of three periods in twentieth century, in which absolutely the same arguments were used, and he's paying special attention to contemporary conflicts, trying to explain why all of the theories are ideologically based. Author is insisting on role market played in development and modernization of popular music in Serbia. The article is ending with some recommendations for better understanding of cultural identity in Serbia, and for recognizing popular music as specific field of interest and research.
Full Text Available There isn’t one or the best definition of design, because design can be defined from various perspectives. Design has long been considered as a closed and individualistic discipline, which is astonishing compared to its interdisciplinary and domains that it covers. The paper does not answer the question about the design, rather it try to position design in the current theoretical practices. By asking a series of questions about areas that integrate the design itself (visual culture, visual grammar, visual communication, visual rhetoric and the rhetoric of images, design and cultural representation, design ideology, the ideology of designers, historical setting and the effects of artistic movements, creative industries, the social dimension, innovations and practices, communication I will try to prove that design is creative principle of visual culture.
Cockerham, William C; Hinote, Brian P; Cockerham, Geoffrey B; Abbott, Pamela
This paper examines the association of political ideology with health lifestyle practices and self-rated health in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The political trajectory of post-Soviet societies has taken two divergent paths, either toward democracy or autocracy. The health trajectory has followed the same pattern with the more autocratic states continuing to experience a mortality crisis, while those former socialist countries that have embraced democracy and moved closer to the West have escaped this crisis. This paper investigates whether political ideology in three post-Soviet countries that are firmly (Belarus), increasingly (Russia), or recently (Ukraine) autocratic is related to health lifestyles and health self-ratings. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews (N = 8406) with a representative national sample of the adult population. The results show that respondents who are against restoring communism have healthier lifestyles and rate their health better than respondents who wish to see communism return.
Full Text Available This article questions one of the central postulates of institutional economic theory, i.e., that of the sustainability and purely evolutionary changes of informal institutions. To study the phenomenon of the destruction of informal institutions and its consequences, we use the tools of sociological theory, which acknowledge that a period of intensive urbanization is characterized by anomie, i.e., a lack of norms, in which traditional institutions are destroyed, while new urban institutions have not yet taken shape. We reviewed the possible reactions of communities and individuals to the conditions of anomie, including the compensatory mechanisms of ideologies. In the case of the Dagestan Republic, we show how the proliferation of fundamentalist Islamic ideology is associated with the state of anomie and the consequences to which it could lead from an institutional point of view. The analysis of the situation in Dagestan is based on long-term field research conducted in the region.
Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas
What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...
Full Text Available In social psychological literature, ideology is typically conceived as a relatively stable and organized set of general orientations that include interrelated attitudes grouped according to various sources of constraint, such as psychological disposition, general values, or ideological traditions. The paper reviews social-psychological literature on the organization of social attitudes. Research on this topic started nearly eight decades ago, inspired by the research on the structure of intellectual abilities. Since then, a large body of literature has been generated, which has not been systematically reviewed. Despite the long tradition, this literature has not resulted in proportional cumulative scientific development. The review should help improving this situation by listing the relevant studies, examining the research methodology and the main findings. The review ends with the critical summary of the man findings and methodological problems, and recommendations for the future research.
Full Text Available Historically speaking, metal music has always been about provoking a strong reaction. Depending on the characteristics of different sub-genres, one can focus on the sound, technique, visual appearance, and furthermore, the ideologies and ideas that are the foundation for each of the sub-genres. Although the majority of the metal community rejects accusations of being racially intolerant, some ideologies of extreme sub-genres (such as black metal are in fact formed around the ideas of self-conscious elitism expressed through interest in pagan mythology, racism, Nazism and fascism. There has been much interest in the Nazi era within the extreme metal scene thus influencing other sub-genres and artists. The aim of this paper is to examine various appearances of extreme narratives such as Nazism and racism in different sub-genres of metal, bearing in mind variations dependent on geographical, political, and other factors.
L Hoyt, Crystal; Goldin, Aleah
In this research we demonstrate the powerful role of ingroup favoritism, rather than hostility, in American intergroup biases. Specifically, we take a novel perspective to understanding the relationship between political ideology and discrimination against ethnic-minority Americans by focusing on the role of patriotism. Across three studies, we show that political ideology is a strong predictor of resource allocation biases, and this effect is mediated by American patriotism and not by prejudice or nationalism. Conservatives report greater levels of patriotism than liberals, and patriotism is associated with donating more to American, as opposed to ethnic-minority American, organizations. We further show that the link between patriotism and partiality to the national group is mediated by stronger "American = White" associations. These findings have important implications for intergroup relations and diversity-related policy issues in the United States.
Maria Joana Casagrande Soares-Correia
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the imaginary and the ideology of female bodies and beauty, through the eyes of the media. We analyzed the covers and editorials of the magazine Trip para Mulheres (TPM, by Trip Publishing house. The clipping time was from May 2012 to August 2013, due to the TPM Manifesto, described as a move against women stereotypes and cliches. We carried out an exploratory, bibliographical and documentar research, with image analysis, in order to achieve this goal. The study of the magazine covers in this paper were based on the iconographic analysis and iconological interpretation proposed by Panofsky (2009. The work is also based on the precepts of Cultural Studies and (visual culture visuality, by Hall & Eagleton and Belting, CatalàDomènech and Baitello Jr.; on the imagery and media imagery, proposed by Durand, Morin and Contrera; and, finally, on the understandings of consumption by Haug, Baudrillard and Barbosa, and Campbell. Thus, we observed that the TPM magazine and its TPM Manifesto see themselves as splendid and feminist; however, the images (and even some texts of the covers are not consistent with their argument, which led us to infer that, although commendable, the TPM Manifesto proposal did not pull away from the imaginary and current ideologies about female body and beauty.
Rubén Díez García
Full Text Available The broad aim of this paper is to look into the implications of applying two different methods of research and analytical assumptions to the study of social movements. In order to develop and discuss this aim, I focus my analysis on the emergence of a social movement that impacted Spanish society in 2011: the ‘indignados’ movement 15M. Particularly, in this case, I confront the main conclusions of two different methodological approaches that analyze the emergence of the movement, focusing my interest in the ideological roots of its collective identity. The first approach is mainly based on ethnographic data (Laraña & Díez, 2012a; 2012b and the second one consists of a statistical macro-analysis. Whereas in the two first works we highlighted the most micro and intersubjective aspects of the social action, through ethnographic techniques, that allowed us to study how the activists organize the actions of the movement, spread their frames and construct its collective identity, this paper mainly focuses on macro statistical data in order to: i analyze the ideological bases of the movement, ii compare the results obtained regarding this issue from the both aforementioned approaches, and iii look at their complementarities.
Keene, J M; Stimson, G V
This paper is derived from an evaluative study of HIV prevention programs for drug injectors across Wales. It considers how different professional territories and ideologies, concepts of drug misuse and models of HIV prevention may influence policy development. The research involved monitoring the introduction and development of agency and community based syringe exchange schemes and initiatives taken by community pharmacists. Interviews with staff, managers and administrators, and descriptions of service history, development and delivery inform the discussion. HIV prevention varied in different areas of Wales depending on the particular professional group involved, local ideologies regarding drug use treatment, and the extent to which HIV prevention was seen either as a specialist area of expertise and specific remit of drug workers or a generic health care task. Drug agencies with an abstinence policy rejected syringe exchange; instead, prevention in those areas developed in ad hoc ways as health care workers and pharmacists attempted to develop a community based service. Drug agencies with a pre-existing harm minimisation model easily integrated syringe exchange into their work and played the major part in establishing the service, but there was difficulty in extending it beyond their professional caseloads. As there were disincentives to use treatment agencies, and their catchment areas were limited, these factors influenced effective service provision.
Rothman, S.; Lichter, S.R.
We now have the capacity to injure much larger populations than ever before, and that power is growing exponentially. Expectations have also grown. Many Americans believe that it should be possible to eliminate environmental risk without lowering living standards. Further, scientific advances have enabled us to detect smaller traces of potentially toxic substances, and research permits us to measure ever-smaller effects of those substances and to extrapolate to possible disaster. However, this study indicates that ideological factors also have played a significant role in changing perceptions of risk. The argument has three hypotheses: (1) expressed concerns about the risks of new technologies on the part of some leadership groups are at least partly a function of their political ideology; (2) some groups, due to their key roles in communicating information, have persuaded a significant segment of the public that their perceptions of risks are accurate; and (3) the concern of leadership groups with the risks of new technologies is a substitute for more-fundamental criticisms of the American economic and political system. The authors examine these hypotheses, concentrating on nuclear energy. However, they strongly suspect that the same factors are at work in other areas of environmental concern as well. 49 references, 6 tables
Denne artikel har tre formål. For det første er det hensigten at udrede forbindelserne mellem begreberne retfærdiggørelse, ideologi og kritik, som de foreligger hos Luc Boltanski og Ève Chiapello i Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme (1999) (NEC i det følgende) og denne bogs forudsætninger. For det...
Cronk, Bradley; Not applicable.
Problem definition and research questions\\ud \\ud The determinants of ethical consumption behaviour are largely unknown. This research explores the effectiveness of political ideology as a predictor of ethical consumption. Increasing the understanding of ethical consumption will create opportunities for organisations to supply consumer segments with products that address the ethical consumption issues that are most important to them. The issues that form overall ethical consumption include: (1...
This chapter at hand applies and extends Friedland and Alford's model of institutional logics to the case of birth practises focusing on a number of interrelated topics, namely, identity, trust, and ideology. It draws on Giddens's theory of modernity to "bring society back in," as Friedland and A...... data is based on participant observation, qualitative interviews with midwives and obstetricians, and a review of magazines and television material concerning birth and parenting....
Denne artikel har tre formål. For det første er det hensigten at udrede forbindelserne mellem begreberne retfærdiggørelse, ideologi og kritik, som de foreligger hos Luc Boltanski og Ève Chiapello i Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme (1999) (NEC i det følgende) og denne bogs forudsætninger. For det ...
Full Text Available : Key words: Comics (despite its history dating back to the end of 19 century is still a medium undervalued and underestimated. However, in comics one may discover role models important for the readers, who shape their own understanding of family, aims of family life or proper forms of its realization by accepting, negating or reinterpreting those role models. The aim of comics is the creation (within one piece of a language understood by as many readers as possible. Popularity of comic books, specificity of its forms of expression and relatively low cost of “production” made possible attempts of the use of this for ideological goals since its very beginnings. Those attempts have been made by both groups at power as well as those who tried to resist their pressure. Ideological entanglement is not only observed in the case of comics consciously used for spreading a specific agenda. It also exists in comics, which, according to their authors, “only tell a story”. Those entanglements arise from the worldview of the creators or references to other comics, which were in any way ideologically entangled. One of the features of the comics portrayal of family is that family usually is a part of the background, not the main theme. There are two main kinds of family portrayal in comics: criticism and affirmation. Even though family is not one of the main themes of comics it may be considered the “litmus paper” of comics ideological entanglement. Family is the oldest human institution, being both a and . It can be thus stated, that one's relation to the family is one's relation to the traditional world.
Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L
A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.
I Nyoman Chaya
Full Text Available Mabarung (competition of performing art is a cultural heritage in North Bali and has highly contributed to the development of the Balinese art and culture. The tradition of mabarung of performing art which was created in Buleleng Regency constitutes the competitive arena of life in which every pebarung (the player who is involved does his best to perform the best by optimally presenting the quality of his performance. Based on what was described above, it was necessary to reveal the tradition of mabarung of performing art in Buleleng Regency. The present study focused on the meaningfulness of the implied ideology of the mabarung of performing art in Buleleng Regency. The result of the study showed that the cultural representation, which was actualized into the mabarung of performing art appeared from the ideas of the grass- root. The government interfered in the mabarung of performing art and a change took place; the mabarung of performing art which used to be freely performed was then performed as a festival/competition, causing the ideology it contained to change. The phenomenon of the mabarung of performing art reflected a self image; the players felt embarrassed if they lost ‘majengah-jengahan’, performed differently from others, and felt too proud of themselves ‘ajum’. In relation to that, it could be identified that the cultural representation which created the tradition of mabarung of performing art in Buleleng Regency was inspired by the ideology of freedom and self existence.
Full Text Available Cross Culture Understanding (CCU course is described as the process by which students acquire knowledge and skills of aspects of culture of subjective nature such as norms, values and perceptions; of objective nature such as cultural artifacts and ways of life of people of certain cultural backgrounds. This is revealed through analyzing various discourses of oral, written, visual and other media. Learners of this course are exposed to activities of conceptualizing ideas, discussing forms of social phenomena realization and building cultural relativity through which learners grow attitude of appreciation and toleration and eventually build cross cultural communication with people of different backgrounds. A film perpetuating ideology of certain social class in America is discussed by learners in class to reveal prevailing value of being white Anglo-Saxon protestant. Then this is examined in relation to the existing American Dream as people‘s philosophy. The class reports the findings after studying their own national ideology and makes comparison and contradiction between the two ideologies. Learners report the findings in their weekly log book to document the data for further use and to be uploaded in an on-line academic-scientific journal. A qualitative textual analysis method is done to formulate a meaning interpretively. Textual analysis is an appropriate method for analyzing film as it emphasizes on genre of organizational style.
Chan, Eugene Y
Some prior research has suggested that exposure to the American flag tilts Americans towards Republicanism, while others have proffered that it brings outs a common 'together' perspective instead. We explore a third possibility - that it may actually polarize Americans' political ideology. It is generally accepted that exposure to an environmental cue can shift attitudes and behaviours, at least partly or temporarily, in a manner that is consistent with that cue. Yet, the same cue can mean different things to different people. In the same vein, given how national identity and political ideology are intertwined in the United States, we hypothesize that the American flag should heighten different political beliefs depending on individuals' political ideology. To Democrats, being American is to support Democratic values, but to Republicans, being American is to support Republican values. The American flag thus should heighten Democrats of their Democratic identity, and it should heighten Republicans of their Republican one. The results of an experiment with 752 American respondents who were representative of the US population supported this polarizing effect of the American flag. The theoretical and policy implications of the findings are offered. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Jost, John T; Nosek, Brian A; Gosling, Samuel D
We trace the rise, fall, and resurgence of political ideology as a topic of research in social, personality, and political psychology. For over 200 years, political belief systems have been classified usefully according to a single left-right (or liberal-conservative) dimension that, we believe, possesses two core aspects: (a) advocating versus resisting social change and (b) rejecting versus accepting inequality. There have been many skeptics of the notion that most people are ideologically inclined, but recent psychological evidence suggests that left-right differences are pronounced in many life domains. Implicit as well as explicit preferences for tradition, conformity, order, stability, traditional values, and hierarchy-versus those for progress, rebelliousness, chaos, flexibility, feminism, and equality-are associated with conservatism and liberalism, respectively. Conservatives score consistently higher than liberals on measures of system justification. Furthermore, there are personality and lifestyle differences between liberals and conservatives as well as situational variables that induce either liberal or conservative shifts in political opinions. Our thesis is that ideological belief systems may be structured according to a left-right dimension for largely psychological reasons linked to variability in the needs to reduce uncertainty and threat. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.
Eric D Knowles
Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.
Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly; Kohfeldt, Danielle
Sexual education plays an essential role in preventing unplanned pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). School-based sexual education programs, in particular, may be well positioned to address social factors that are empirically linked to negative sexual health outcomes, such as traditional social norms surrounding gender and sexuality. However, youth are seldom granted access to sexual education programs that explicitly address these issues. This study presents findings from a pretest-posttest survey of a sexual education program that did. It was designed for eighth graders (N=95) in the context of a school-community collaboration. The study assessed the links between several components of sexual empowerment, including gender ideology, sexual knowledge, and contraceptive beliefs. Findings link participation in the sexual education program to more progressive attitudes toward girls and women, less agreement with hegemonic masculinity ideology, and increases in sexual health and resource knowledge. Structural equation models suggest that traditional attitudes toward women were significantly related to hegemonic masculinity ideology among both boys and girls, which was in turn negatively related to safer contraceptive beliefs.
Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.
The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630
Dietz, Hans Peter; Exton, Lynda
Natural childbirth ideology has become dominant across much of the developed world. This ideology increasingly clashes with the reality of modern obstetrics, which is dealing with a demographic that is getting older and more obese, hence more complicated, and it has become a danger to the health of women and babies. The most visible expression of these trends is the focus on caesarean section rates which have become a key performance indicator of obstetric services. This trend is resulting in increasingly obvious negative consequences for morbidity and mortality, as chronicled in the Morecambe Bay Report, published in the UK last year. At the same time, there is mounting emphasis on patient autonomy in obstetric decision-making, which mandates informed consent. A 2015 Supreme Court decision in the UK (Montgomery vs Lanarkshire) is likely to impact on obstetric management in Australia and New Zealand. The 'paternalism in a skirt' of natural childbirth ideology is already exposing obstetricians and services to an ever-increasing degree of medicolegal risk. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Yan, Xin; Gouissem, Afif; Guduru, Pradeep R.; Sharma, Pradeep
Amorphous lithium-silicon (a-Li-Si), especially in nanostructure form, is an attractive high-capacity anode material for next-generation Li-ion batteries. During cycles of charging and discharging, a-Li-Si undergoes substantive inelastic deformation and exhibits microcracking. The mechanical response to repeated lithiation-delithiation eventually results in the loss of electrical contact and consequent decrease of capacity, thus underscoring the importance of studying the plasticity of a-Li-Si nanostructures. In recent years, a variety of phenomenological continuum theories have been introduced that purport to model plasticity and the electro-chemo-mechanical behavior of a-Li-Si. Unfortunately, the micromechanisms and atomistic considerations underlying plasticity in Li-Si material are not yet fully understood and this impedes the development of physics-based constitutive models. Conventional molecular dynamics, although extensively used to study this material, is grossly inadequate to resolve this matter. As is well known, conventional molecular dynamics simulations can only address phenomena with characteristic time scales of (at most) a microsecond. Accordingly, in such simulations, the mechanical behavior is deduced under conditions of very high strain rates (usually, 108s-1 or even higher). This limitation severely impacts a realistic assessment of rate-dependent effects. In this work, we attempt to circumvent the time-scale bottleneck of conventional molecular dynamics and provide novel insights into the mechanisms underpinning plastic deformation of Li-Si nanostructures. We utilize an approach that allows imposition of slow strain rates and involves the employment of a new and recently developed potential energy surface sampling method—the so-called autonomous basin climbing—to identify the local minima in the potential energy surface. Combined with other techniques, such as nudged elastic band, kinetic Monte Carlo and transition state theory, we assess
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M.; Subramanian, S. V.
Background Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Methodology/Principal Findings Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime. PMID:20661433
Huijts, Tim; Perkins, Jessica M; Subramanian, S V
Studies on political ideology and health have found associations between individual ideology and health as well as between ecological measures of political ideology and health. Individual ideology and aggregate measures such as political regimes, however, were never examined simultaneously. Using adjusted logistic multilevel models to analyze data on individuals from 29 European countries and Israel, we found that individual ideology and political regime are independently associated with self-rated health. Individuals with rightwing ideologies report better health than leftwing individuals. Respondents from Eastern Europe and former Soviet republics report poorer health than individuals from social democratic, liberal, Christian conservative, and former Mediterranean dictatorship countries. In contrast to individual ideology and political regimes, country level aggregations of individual ideology are not related to reporting poor health. This study shows that although both individual political ideology and contextual political regime are independently associated with individuals' self-rated health, individual political ideology appears to be more strongly associated with self-rated health than political regime.
Full Text Available In recent decades, forests across the world have undergone a significant process of recognition and transference of tenure rights to local communities or individuals, referred to here as forest tenure reforms. Among developing regions, Latin America has seen the most important recognition and transference of these tenure rights to forest dwelling and forest dependent communities. This paper examines the process in Guatemala, where the state has recognised and transferred rights to organised local groups-establishing a community concession system in the multiple use zone of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. We analyse the evolution of claims over forest uses, and focus on the legitimacy elements underpinning the process of a claim becoming a right. The results indicate that in order to sustain this forest tenure reform process over time, it is important to understand how tenure arrangements are transferred and distributed among rights-receivers, and how this process is influenced by the elements that underpin legitimation as well as those that define authority. Understanding the underpinnings of the legitimacy behind forest tenure reforms is central to identifying ways in which these processes can work, and also becomes important for developing more sound policy frameworks that fill gaps and resolve incongruence in governmental systems for forest management.
Full Text Available In this article the role of different ideological viewpoints concerning corpus development within the Manx revival movement in the second half of the twentieth century is explored. In particular, the work of two prominent figures is examined: the Celtic scholar Robert L. Thomson, who published extensively especially on Manx language and literature, and also contributed to the revival, particularly as editor of several pedagogical resources and as a member of the translation committee Coonceil ny Gaelgey, and Douglas Fargher, a tireless activist and compiler of an English-Manx Dictionary (1979. Broadly speaking, Thomson was of a more preservationist bent, cautious in adapting the native resources of the language and wary of straying too far from attested usage of the traditional language, while Fargher was more radical and open especially to borrowing from Irish and Scottish sources. Both were concerned, in somewhat different ways, to remove perceived impurities or corruptions from the language, and were influenced by the assumptions of existing scholarship. A close reading of the work of these scholar-activists sheds light on the tensions within the revival movement regarding its response to the trauma of language death and the questions of legitimacy and authenticity in the revived variety. Particular space is devoted to an analysis of the preface of Fargher’s dictionary, as well as certain features of the body of the work itself, since this volume is probably the most widely consulted guide to the use of the language today. Finally, it is argued that the Manx language movement today would benefit from a reassessment and discussion of the ideological currents of the past and present, and a judicious evaluation of both the strengths and weaknesses of existing reference works.
Seyyed Ali Kazemi
Full Text Available This study intended to investigate the imposition of values and ideological patterns of particular societies affecting learners' identity as a result of globalization and linguistic imperialism in the internationally distributed textbooks which are developed to meet the English language needs of international learners and are broadly used in Islamic countries like Iran. It was important to work out whether violation of standards and ideological patterns of certain societies could be detected. For that reason, critical discourse analysis (CDA with its theory and procedures, as developed by Fairclough (1989, used in conversations, illustrations and reading passages in Interchange, Four Corners, Top Notch and American English File series and three meaning dimensions– the textbooks content, the social relations of the characters in the textbooks, and their subject positions– were classified and analyzed statistically. Overall, the findings of this study represented that these ELT books are by some means unfair and inclined to signify a specific discourse type, that is, the Western culture discourse, ideological patterns, and consumer societies, which can impose the Western view and have different effects on students' identity in Islamic countries.
Kearns, PJ; Williams-Burnett, N; Skinner, H
Overall participation rates in physical activity across the UK have remained relatively static since the mid 1980s, with attendant causes for concern about the inequality of participation rates amongst various target groups that may be worthy of specific investigation. Behaviour change models from the fields of leisure studies, consumer behaviour and social psychology offer conceptualisation of a notion of exchange underpinning the expectancy-value process, noting that, in order to facilitate...
Toms, S; Shepherd, A
We demonstrate that social movements can use accounting for progressive purposes, and that such outcomes can be promoted where they are aligned with the material interests of key fractions of capital. Such fractionalization is a function of technology and labour process, underpinned by adopted ideology. Alignment with social movement objectives overcomes the class belongingness of accounting that limits its progressive role in normal circumstances. We illustrate the role of accounting in achi...
P. J. Watson
Full Text Available According to the Religious Openness Hypothesis, the religious and psychological openness of American Christians is obscured by a defensive ghettoization of thought associated with a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround and can be discovered instead within a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround. A test of this claim examined Religious Fundamentalism, Biblical Foundationalism, Quest, and Multidimensional Quest Scales in 432 undergraduates. Christian Religious Reflection, Religious Schema, and Religious Orientation measures clarified these two ideological surrounds. Partial correlations controlling for Biblical Foundationalism described a Religious Fundamentalist Ideological Surround that more strongly rejected Quest and that more generally displayed a failure to integrate faith with intellect. Partial correlations controlling for Religious Fundamentalism revealed a Biblical Foundationalist Ideological Surround that was more open to Quest and that offered numerous demonstrations of an ability to unite faith with intellect. These data supplemented previous investigations in demonstrating that Christianity and other traditional religions have ideological resources for promoting a faithful intellect.
为帮助人们更加清晰而正确地把握当前教育农民的问题，应在以下方面加深认识：深入细致的思想政治工作、农民思想政治工作是一个长期复杂的过程，生活实践是农民思想政治工作的重要途径，教育农民关键在于讲“理”，农民思想政治工作的效果应处于动态平衡之中。以此克服农民思想政治工作中的种种认识误区。%Aiming at all kinds of misunderstandings in practice of ideological and political education of farmers, five aspects are clarified. People should recognize that the social media can’t replace the in-depth and meticulous ideological and political work. The ideological and political work of farmers is a long-term and complex process. The life practice is very important for the ideological and political work of farmers. The key lies in the education of farmers should be“rational”. The result of ideological and political work is in a dynamic balance so that people can grasp the current education of farmers’ problems clearly and correctly.
indigenous approaches, local socio-economic conditions and cultural underpinnings would ... practice. The definition stresses that use of theories and recognition of .... management, hospital social work, rural and urban development planning,.
Iacob, Andrea Ioana; Kuada, John; Lawson, Lartey Godwin
The present study seeks to empirically test the relationship between ideological orientation, consumer ethnocentrism, brand perception, and demographic factors in Romania. Since previous studies have not empirically examined these relationships, the present study therefore contributes to filling...... this research gap. The results show a strong link between communist ideology and consumer ethnocentrism and between the ethnocentric tendency of the Romanian consumers and their brand perception. Furthermore, demographic characteristics, like gender, age and education, seem to moderate the ideological...
Wei He; Ke Liang
WeChat, a new instant messaging software, has been popularized nowadays. In order for WeChat to have the maximum impact on the ideological and political education areas, we need to have a deep understanding of the characteristics and regulars which attract students in the communication process, and combine WeChat platform with ideological and political education to attract students motivated to learn the content of ideological politics. This article, starting with college students, aims to un...
Feldman, Stanley; Huddy, Leonie
At odds with Hibbing et al., we argue that political ideology is best explained by at least two dimensions linked to economic and social ideology. In addition, Hibbing et al's claim that conservatism is grounded in a heightened sensitivity to negative outcomes, something closely tied to the personality trait of neuroticism, does not fit with the established personality correlates of political ideology. Conscientiousness and a lack of openness to experience are linked to conservatism but there is no established connection to neuroticism.
Full Text Available WeChat, a new instant messaging software, has been popularized nowadays. In order for WeChat to have the maximum impact on the ideological and political education areas, we need to have a deep understanding of the characteristics and regulars which attract students in the communication process, and combine WeChat platform with ideological and political education to attract students motivated to learn the content of ideological politics. This article, starting with college students, aims to understand their thinking and use of WeChat, and pertinently use WeChat platform to enhance the attractiveness and effectiveness of ideological and political education.
This dissertation traces the complicated interrelationships between ideology and interest within the civilian nuclear power controversy. The first chapter introduces the topic. The second chapter provides a social-political-economic overview of the context in which the conflicting ideologies arose. Factors looked at are the ascendancy of the physical sciences, the development of nuclear energy, the disenchantment with science and technology and the consequent rise of an anti-nuclear ideology. Chapter III uses the theories of Alvin Gouldner to understand the structure of ideology. The chapter defines ideology's similarities to and differences from scientific discourse. Chapter IV examines the ideological discourse of a selected sample of scientists who have spoken for and against civilian nuclear power. In parallel to chapter IV, chapter V examines a scientific controversy among the sample of experts. It shows how scientific disagreement can be produced and how ideology is most closely linked to science. Chapter VI examines the social interests of the scientists and experts to discover ways that interests have shaped the ideological and scientific positions for and against civilian nuclear energy. Based on the foregoing, chapter VII concludes that the introduction of science and experts into a controversy cannot be expected to end disagreement over policy because of the link between science and ideology
Mario Domínguez Sánchez
Full Text Available The key of the implied model of the present educational restructuring is based on the correlation between a postmodern epistemology which questions all of the epistemological roots, the new management of the organizational culture, the reconceptualization of the educational work by means of a new professionalization and at least, by the discourse of the quality and excellence which proportionate an ideological covering for all this process. The funding of the demand which has transformed the Universities in PYME's, which are forced to reduce its costs in order to achieve the self-funding and even to obtain benefits, it closes in neoliberal terms the location of higher universities in an economical model of knowledge which is situated outside of the educational institutions.
The study investigates the influences of women’s attitudes about gender and couples’ housework allocation patterns on women’s employment status and work hours across the life course. The influence of these factors on the employment characteristics of continuously married women is investigated at four time points: 1977, 1980, 1985, and 1993. Data come from the Intergenerational Panel Study of Parents and Children and the analysis sample includes 556 continuously married women. Findings from structural equation, fixed effects, and tobit models offer consistent evidence of long-term positive influences of women’s egalitarian gender ideology and men’s participation in routine housework on women’s labor force participation. The results provide support for hypotheses based on the notion of lagged adaptation. PMID:19255608
Alberto José LENA ORDÓÑEZ
Full Text Available This article analyses David O. Selznick’s 1957 adaptation of Ernest Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms. In trying to shed light on the historical and ideological context of Selznick’s production, it shall be placed emphasis upon the influence of Frank Borzage’s previous adaptation of Hemingway’s work. This essay will also stress Selznick’s ambitions, that is, the fact that he wanted to emulate and improve the former adaptation of the novel. In spite of this, the comparison between both films reveals that the melodramatic structure of Selznick’s remake stems from the structure of Borzage’s film. Moreover, Selznick’s production could be seen as a case in point of the role played by deshistorization in cinematic remake.
The acceptance of the peaceful use of nuclear power in society - that is the top of the icemountain of the problem of high technology acceptance at all. Facts like the further growing number of human beings and the call for compatibility with environment make it necessary to use progressive technologies and especially to use nuclear power. Social, psychological and moral factors as fear and special value scales act against this aim. We think of value scales which are correlated to archaic behaviour modes but which are present in modern society in form of socalled green-alternative ideologies. The results of the study are that offensive public relation work is necessary which includes not only information but also overcoming scare, formation of trust and confidence and 'ethical argumentation' in dialog and communication in the field of value scales. In this way a new and broad consensus about nuclear power could be reached. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available Although Audiovisual Translation has received considerable attention in recent years, evidence suggests that there is a paucity of empirical research carried out on the topic of ideological constraints in audiovisual translation from English into Arabic. This is despite the fact that subtitling and dubbing Western animation into Arabic has been on the increase ever since television sets entered Arab homes; which is why several authority figures are calling for tighter control and moral screening of what is aired on television sets, in particular that which is aimed at children. This study aims to add some understanding of the problems facing practitioners in the dubbing industry, such as the reasons for their alleged reality distortion and how these problems are dealt with by the dubbing agencies. This is achieved by exploring the extent ideological norms, as well as other agents, shape the outcome of dubbed English animations/films when rendered into Arabic by manipulation, subversion and/or appropriation. Fifty-two dubbed episodes of The Simpsons were selected for this study. The Simpsons was chosen due to its universal appeal and influence. It addresses many sensitive issues, such as sex, drugs, religion, politics, racial and gender stereotypes, with a bluntness and boldness rarely seen before, and goes beyond passive entertainment and school education. Therefore, it is looked at with suspicion and vigilance in the Arab World. The contrastive analysis of the English and Arabic versions of The Simpsons yielded interesting results; it established that the translation process is marred by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors either exercised by the translator or imposed upon him. Ideological and socio-cultural factors are the chief culprits in the case of translating The Simpsons into Arabic.
Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Sharpe, Donald; Fuchs-Lacelle, Shannon
The ethical ideologies of psychologists (who provide health services) and physicians were compared using the Ethics Position Questionnaire. The findings reveal that psychologists tend to be less relativistic than physicians. Further, we explored the degree to which physicians and psychologists report being influenced by a variety of factors (e.g., family views) in their ethical decision making. Psychologists were more influenced by their code of ethics and less influenced by family views, religious background, and peer attitudes than were physicians. We argue that these differences reflect the varied professional cultures in which practitioners are trained and socialized.
innovations, thus shaping the value of technologies as cultural resources sustaining consumer identities. In its urge to shed light on these aspects, CCT tends to reinforce the gaps and asymmetries between the “socio-cultural” and the “techno-material”, leaving plenty of room for further study. The authors......Consumer culture theory helps us take note of the cultural forces and dynamics in which technology consumption is entangled. It enables people to articulate the cultural processes (ideological, mythic, ritualistic, etc.) through which cultural meanings become granted to or denied to technological...
The present article contributes to the debate on how historians and social scientists perceive and understand relations between ideology and science, which are often seen as realms belonging to rival kingdoms. Following an analysis and critical positioning vis-à-vis Cabralian studies, the text examines how scholars of Cabral have portrayed his agronomic activities. It then undertakes a genealogical analysis of the Cabralian concept of people and suggests that the emergence of this concept in Cabral's discourse derives from the intersection of the development of anti-colonial nationalist thought in the former Portuguese Empire and the development of agrarian studies in metropolitan Portugal.
Zolotukhin, V. M.; Gogolin, V. A.; Yazevich, M. Yu; Baumgarten, M. I.; Dyagileva, A. V.
The article presents an analysis of the ontological and methodological principles of environmental management. These principles form the united ideology of natural resource rational use as the environment preservation basis. Consideration of environmental issues from the environmental management point of view is stipulated by the concern of the scientific community about the existence of mankind and the sphere of its inhabiting. The need to overcome the stereotypes existing in mass consciousness about safe and environmentally friendly consumption is stressed. The process of forming environmental management policy should contribute to the stabilization (balancing) of the consumers’ expectations and collective decision-making based on a public ecological consensus.
Megan Johnson Shen
Full Text Available Political rhetoric surrounding Universal Health Care in the United States typically deals only with differences in political ideology. Research on symbolic racism, however, indicates that subtle racial prejudice may also predict attitudes toward policies like universal health care that are assumed to benefit racial minorities. This subtle racial prejudice hypothesis was supported across three studies conducted in the U.S. A measure of attitudes toward universal health care was found to be a reliable, single-dimension measure associated with political ideology (Pilot Study. Subtle racial prejudice (as measured by the Modern Racism Scale predicted opposition to universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and attitudes toward the poor (Study 1. Moreover, reading about a Black individual (compared to a White individual receiving universal health care benefits reduced support for universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and right-wing authoritarianism (Study 2. Being a person who takes advantage of the system (e.g., free rides was a significant predictor of universal health care attitudes while race was not (Study 3. This work demonstrates that subtle racial prejudice plays a critical role in predicting universal health care attitudes among U.S. citizens, reflecting a long-standing history of associations between subtle racial prejudice and opposition to governmental assistance programs in the U.S.
Jana S. Rošker
Full Text Available The article introduces the ideological background of the new Confucian revival, which appeared in the P.R. China during the last two decades. Through the analysis of classical Confucianism and through the presentation of essential differences between Confucianism as a socio-ethical philosophy, which is based upon communitarian principles on the one hand, and Confucianism in the function of the official state doctrine on the other, the author clearly shows that the Confucian revival in the P.R. China is to a high degree ideologically conditioned. The article introduces two different currents within the so-called Modern Confucianism, which represents the theoretical background of this revival that has been shaped in China at the threshold of the 20th century. Whereas this stream of thought has been silenced in China already in the early 1950s, its representatives in Hong Kong and Taiwan have been further developing and upgrading the philosophical bases of this system, which is based upon various attempts to synthesize Western and traditional Chinese ideas. Only during the last two decades we could also witness a revitalization of this philosophy in the P.R. China. This revitalization, however, rests upon different foundations.
The aim of this paper is to review UK public health policy, with a specific reference to housing as a key health determinant, since its inception in the Victorian era to contemporary times. This paper reviews the role of social and private housing policy in the development of the UK public health movement, tracing its initial medical routes through to the current socio-economic model of public health. The paper establishes five distinct ideologically and philosophically driven eras, placing public health and housing within liberal (Victorian era), state interventionist (post World War 1; post World War 2), neoliberal (post 1979) and "Third Way" (post 1997) models, showing the political perspective of policy interventions and overviewing their impact on public health. The paper particularly focuses on the contemporary model of public health since the Acheson Report, and how its recommendations have found their way into policy, also the impact on housing practice. Public health is closely related to political ideology, whether driven by the State, individual or partnership arrangements. The current political system, the Third Way, seeks to promote a sustainable "social contract" between citizens and the State, public, private and voluntary organizations in delivering community-based change in areas where health inequalities can be most progressively and successfully addressed.
Hibbing, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R
Disputes between those holding differing political views are ubiquitous and deep-seated, and they often follow common, recognizable lines. The supporters of tradition and stability, sometimes referred to as conservatives, do battle with the supporters of innovation and reform, sometimes referred to as liberals. Understanding the correlates of those distinct political orientations is probably a prerequisite for managing political disputes, which are a source of social conflict that can lead to frustration and even bloodshed. A rapidly growing body of empirical evidence documents a multitude of ways in which liberals and conservatives differ from each other in purviews of life with little direct connection to politics, from tastes in art to desire for closure and from disgust sensitivity to the tendency to pursue new information, but the central theme of the differences is a matter of debate. In this article, we argue that one organizing element of the many differences between liberals and conservatives is the nature of their physiological and psychological responses to features of the environment that are negative. Compared with liberals, conservatives tend to register greater physiological responses to such stimuli and also to devote more psychological resources to them. Operating from this point of departure, we suggest approaches for refining understanding of the broad relationship between political views and response to the negative. We conclude with a discussion of normative implications, stressing that identifying differences across ideological groups is not tantamount to declaring one ideology superior to another.
National Socialist ideology was comprised of various "set pieces" taken from the racial doctrines in vogue in the 19th century, which were then combined with Social Darwinism. The specifically National Socialist input resided in instrumentalizing these ideas for political purposes. Since the 18th century, the conviction, based on characteristics determined by scientific research, that humans were genetically dissimilar and therefore of differing value, had gained widespread credence. In the theory put forth by Gobineau for example, external characteristics were seen as determining an individual's intelligence and character, a view that simultaneously legitimized the imperialism and colonialism of a reputably superior "white" race. Out of this conglomerate emerged the idea of racial purity, which found specific expression in eugenics. "Selection" and "eradication" were leading concepts of this movement and at the same time methods for differentiating between the "Aryan" and inferior races. Hans F. K. Günther propagated and popularized these principles of Nazi racial ideology in The Racial Elements of European History. Renouncing their right to be part of the Volksgemeinschaft, this signaled the prelude to the war of extermination waged against allegedly inferior peoples.
Monteiro, Christopher A; Pfeiler, Tamara M; Patterson, Marcus D; Milburn, Michael A
Beliefs surrounding the practice of eating animals are widely held, and have been argued to constitute an ideology named carnism (Joy, 2009). We developed and validated the novel Carnism Inventory to measure two positively related components of carnistic beliefs: carnistic defense and carnistic domination. We anticipated that carnistic defense would legitimate the practice of eating animals, while carnistic domination would support the killing of animals for their meat. The Carnism Inventory showed the hypothesized two-dimensional structure as well as good internal consistencies and stability (N = 302, Study 1). We also demonstrated the convergent and discriminant validity of the Carnism Inventory (N = 781, Study 2a). As expected, carnistic defense predicted meat consumption, while carnistic domination was a significant predictor of having slaughtered an animal (N = 478, Study 2b). Both scales were significantly related to sociopolitical beliefs, including right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation, but only carnistic domination was related to symbolic racism and sexism (N = 373, Study 3). Taken together, our findings highlight the utility of the two-dimensional conceptualization and measurement of carnistic beliefs and offer new insights into one of the most common human behaviors: Eating animals is not only a gustatory behavior, as widely believed, but also an ideological one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nikisianis, Nikos; Stamou, Georgios P
The representation of a complex but stable, self-regulated and, finally, harmonious nature penetrates the whole history of Ecology, thus contradicting the core of the Darwinian evolution. Originated in the pre-Darwinian Natural History, this representation defined theoretically the various schools of early ecology and, in the context of the cybernetic synthesis of the 1950s, it assumed a typical mathematical form on account of α positive correlation between species diversity and community stability. After 1960, these two aforementioned concepts and their positive correlation were proposed as environmental management tools, in the face of the ecological crisis arising at the time. In the early 1970s, and particularly after May's evolutionary arguments, the consensus around this positive correlation collapsed for a while, only to be promptly restored for the purpose of attaching an ecological value on biodiversity. In this paper, we explore the history of the diversity-stability hypothesis and we review the successive terms that have been used to express community stability. We argue that this hypothesis has been motivated by the nodal ideological presuppositions of order and harmony and that the scientific developments in this field largely correspond to external social pressures. We conclude that the conflict about the diversity-stability relationship is in fact an ideological debate, referring mostly to the way we see nature and society rather than to an autonomous scientific question. From this point of view, we may understand why Ecology's concepts and perceptions may decline and return again and again, forming a pluralistic scientific history.
Suhay, Elizabeth; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Conventional wisdom suggests that political conservatives are more likely than liberals to endorse genetic explanations for many human characteristics and behaviors. Whether and to what extent this is true has received surprisingly limited systematic attention. We examine evidence from a large U.S. public opinion survey that measured the extent to which respondents believed genetic explanations account for a variety of differences among individuals as well as groups in society. We find that conservatives were indeed more likely than liberals to endorse genetic explanations for perceived race and class differences in characteristics often associated with socioeconomic inequality (intelligence, math skills, drive, and violence). Different ideological divisions emerged, however, with respect to respondents’ explanations for sexual orientation. Here, liberals were more likely than conservatives to say that sexual orientation is due to genes and less likely to say that it is due to choice or the environment. These patterns suggest that conservative and liberal ideologues will tend to endorse genetic explanations where their policy positions are bolstered by “naturalizing” human differences. That said, debates over genetic influence may be more politicized with respect to race, class, and sexual orientation than population differences generally: We find that left/right political ideology was not significantly associated with genetic (or other) attributions for individual differences in intelligence, math skills, drive, or violence. We conclude that conceptions of the proper role of government are closely intertwined with assumptions about the causes of human difference, but that this relationship is a complex one. PMID:26379311
Loyal, D; Sutter Dallay, A-L; Rascle, N
The aim of this pilot study was to adapt the intensive mothering ideology concept in a French sample and to get an assessment tool. First, the Intensive Parenting Attitudes Questionnaire (IPAQ), a U.S. scale comprising 25 items, was translated and submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=250). Structural validity was tested through confirmatory factor analysis with poor results. Secondly, to increase the cultural validity of a new tool, new items were derived from French women speech. French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=22) were asked about their views regarding motherhood and childcare (semi-structured interviews). A thematic content analysis was performed with good inter-judge agreement (0.53-0.86) and 27 items were created. Finally, the total set of 52 items was submitted online to French mothers and mothers-to-be (n=474). The structure was tested through exploratory factor analysis. A new tool called the Measure of Intensive Mothering Ideology (MIMI) was obtained. This 21 items scale with 6 dimensions (Essentialism, Consuming Fulfillment, Child-centrism, Challenge, Sacrifice and Stimulation) explains 59.75% of variance. Internal consistencies were satisfactory (0.61-0.83) and most dimensions were positively and moderately correlated (0.17-0.38). The MIMI is the first French-language scale assessing IMI and offers interesting research avenues notably regarding perinatal parental adaptation. Copyright © 2017 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Presents an international perspective on Cochran-Smith and Fries' recent analysis of the ways that two competing ideologies (deregulation and professionalization) are being employed in the United States to support teacher education reform, noting important differences between the United States and England in how these ideologies have been advanced…
Phyak, Prem; Bui, Thuy Thi Ngoc
This paper explores language policy and planning from the perspectives of global ideologies, national agendas, and local transformation in two Asian countries, Vietnam and Nepal. Through engaged ethnography, we not only unravel complex ideological contestations of neoliberal and nationalistic agendas, but also portray language policy resistance…
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.
Michael Apple's "Ideology and Curriculum", published in 1979, helped initiate a broad turn in the field of education in the United States to Marxist thought as a lens through which to analyze the relationship between school and society. This classic text continues to inform scholarship in the field. While "Ideology" has…
This paper takes language policing as an ideospace, a space where multiple language ideologies are constructed and contested. Drawing on critical language policy and linguistic anthropology, it unravels how participants in a Nepalese Facebook group construct and reproduce language ideologies that both challenge and impose homogeneity and…
Williams, Ashley M.
This paper examines how the interconnected aspects of the stance triangle (Du Bois 2007) allow speakers to tap into multiple ideological layers as they take a stance and reveal intra-ethnic group tensions. Using a detailed interaction analysis of a Chinese American family's multilingual interaction, the paper explores how such ideological dynamics…
This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed…
Lopez, Minda Morren
This study explores the language ideologies of young children in a Spanish/English dual language programme in the USA. Recent studies of language ideologies in education have centred primarily on adults or older students, but this study focuses on young children from varied language backgrounds. By analysing discussions centred on children's…
This study explores language ideologies of English at a Korean university where English has been adopted as an official language. This study draws on ethnographic data in order to understand how speakers respond to and experience the institutional language policy. The findings show that language ideologies in this university represent the…
Kiss, Attila Gyula
This article is a contribution to the hitherto scant literature on learning a historical minority language and on language ideologies in the context of a study abroad program in Hungary, Debrecen. I analyse the language ideologies of the decision makers in Hungary and in the Debrecen Summer School in relation to the teaching of Hungarian to the…
Hosein, Anesa; Rao, Namrata
Undergraduate students sometimes pursue degrees that are aimed at allied jobs. This research examines how students in one allied professional degree, education studies, conceptualise their pre-professional ideology and how these ideologies relate to their intended career trajectory. The research draws upon a year-long qualitative survey of over 70…
The prevailing scholarship on Indians' beliefs about English has, with few exceptions, largely failed to capture ideological resistance. Given the supremacy of English within the hierarchically ordered and unequal linguistic landscape in India, this study intervenes within this limited area of research. This investigation excavates ideologies of…
Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy
Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data—in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of
Park, Joseph Sung-Yul; Bae, Sohee
This paper discusses the connection between language ideologies and educational migration. South Korea is experiencing a boom in short-term migration among pre-university students, a phenomenon known as "jogi yuhak." This trend is driven in part by ideologies that link valorized forms of English with specific geographical locations; but…
This paper will explore ideologies of nature including the "Garden of Eden" and "wildernesses." It locates these ideologies as morphing to accommodate the later trajectory of the Enlightenment Project and its endorsement of modern Western scientific and technological principles. Beginning with the premise that nature is…
Fiala, Thomas J.; Owens, Deborah Duncan
The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of neoliberal ideology, and in particular, the economic and social theories of Milton Friedman on education policy. The paper takes a critical theoretical approach in that ultimately the paper is an ideological critique of conservative thought and action that impacts twenty-first century education…
Melton, James Douglas
Both spatial theories of voting and our intuitions lead us to expect that political parties' ideological positions should affect individuals' turnout decisions. Contrary to these expectations, existing research finds that neither feelings of alienation--that no party adequately represents an individual's ideological position--nor…
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is “appropriate” male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by
Knowles, Ryan T.
This quantitative study uses survey data to test connections between 735 teachers' civic education ideology (CivID) and their self-reported instructional practices. Analysis demonstrates teachers' beliefs in relation to conservative, liberal, and critical civic education ideology as well as preference for instructional strategies, such as…
Vetter, Amy; Myers, Joy; Hester, Madison
More research needs to examine how novice teachers successfully negotiate multiple ideologies with others in ways that allow them to construct preferred teaching identities. This qualitative study addressed that need by investigating how one high school English teacher negotiated contradictory ideologies related to writing instruction at her…
Petersen, Michael Bang; Aarøe, Lene
We apply error management theory to the analysis of individual differences in the negativity bias and political ideology. Using principles from evolutionary psychology, we propose a coherent theoretical framework for understanding (1) why individuals differ in their political ideology and (2) the conditions under which these individual differences influence and fail to influence the political choices people make.
Responses of urban school teachers to the Pupil Control Ideology questionnaire were studied using Latent Class Analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that the best fitting model to the data is a two-cluster solution. In particular, the pupil control ideology of the sample delineates into two clusters of teachers, those with humanistic and…
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is "appropriate" male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by influencing (1) how adolescents evaluate…
Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D
Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.
Rudnick, Dennis L.
Background/Context: Teacher education students in the U.S., regardless of their personal beliefs, knowledge, and levels of awareness, are racially positioned to participate in an education system and society embedded in colorblind ideology. More research is needed that describes the ways in which colorblind ideology informs how teacher education…
Toker Gokce, Asiye
This paper aimed to examine whistleblowing in point of individual level. Three sets of hypotheses were developed concerning the relationships between (1) religiosity and ethical ideology, (2) ethical ideology and intentions to different modes of whistleblowing, and (3) religiosity and intentions to different modes of whistleblowing. Descriptive…
Christie, Michael; de Graaff, Erik
In this paper the authors draw on three sequential keynote addresses that they gave at Active Learning in Engineering Education (ALE) workshops in Copenhagen (2012), Caxias do Sol (2014) and San Sebastian (2015). Active Learning in Engineering Education is an informal international network of engineering educators dedicated to improving engineering education through active learning (http://www.ale-net.org/). The paper reiterates themes from those keynotes, namely, the philosophical and pedagogical underpinnings of Active Learning in Engineering Education, the scholarly questions that inspire engineering educators to go on improving their practice and exemplary models designed to activate the learning of engineering students. This paper aims to uncover the bedrock of established educational philosophies and theories that define and support active learning. The paper does not claim to present any new or innovative educational theory. There is already a surfeit of them. Rather, the aim is to assist Engineering Educators who wish to research how they can best activate the learning of their students by providing a readable, reasonable and solid underpinning for best practice in this field.
Crawford, Jarret T; Mallinas, Stephanie R; Furman, Bryan J
We introduce the balanced ideological antipathy (BIA) model, which challenges assumptions that right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) and social dominance orientation (SDO) predict inter-group antipathy per se. Rather, the effects of RWA and SDO on antipathy should depend on the target's political orientation and political objectives, the specific components of RWA, and the type of antipathy expressed. Consistent with the model, two studies (N = 585) showed that the Traditionalism component of RWA positively and negatively predicted both political intolerance and prejudice toward tradition-threatening and -reaffirming groups, respectively, whereas SDO positively and negatively predicted prejudice (and to some extent political intolerance) toward hierarchy-attenuating and -enhancing groups, respectively. Critically, the Conservatism component of RWA positively predicted political intolerance (but not prejudice) toward each type of target group, suggesting it captures the anti-democratic impulse at the heart of authoritarianism. Recommendations for future research on the relationship between ideological attitudes and inter-group antipathy are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Full Text Available The Uniqueness and characteristics of Clothing, two of the fashion categories have created the under¬standing of fashion as an ideology, which ensures the functioning of dominant and dominance systems in a social order. Through the analysis of qualitative descriptive research will be known the visual ideology of a clothing product formed by producers in the eyes of consumers. In the end it is capable of forming the product positioning concerned. The results of of this research reveals the emergence of Ideology in clothing, based on the ideals of the creator of the clothing products. The formation of these ideals cannot be separated from the role of the community as a medium that supports the absorption of the ideology as the characteristic of a particular group. It reveals that visual ideology is one of the important factors that establishes the positioning of a product, which is created because of the existence of product differentiation that supports it.
Rutjens, Bastiaan T.; Sutton, Robbie M.; van der Lee, Romy
Many topics that scientists investigate speak to people’s ideological worldviews. We report three studies—including an analysis of large-scale survey data—in which we systematically investigate the ideological antecedents of general faith in science and willingness to support science, as well as of science skepticism of climate change, vaccination, and genetic modification (GM). The main predictors are religiosity and political orientation, morality, and science understanding. Overall, science understanding is associated with vaccine and GM food acceptance, but not climate change acceptance. Importantly, different ideological predictors are related to the acceptance of different scientific findings. Political conservatism best predicts climate change skepticism. Religiosity, alongside moral purity concerns, best predicts vaccination skepticism. GM food skepticism is not fueled by religious or political ideology. Finally, religious conservatives consistently display a low faith in science and an unwillingness to support science. Thus, science acceptance and rejection have different ideological roots, depending on the topic of investigation. PMID:29191107
Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava; Levine, Stephen Z
This study aims to examine competing explanations of the relationship between religious and political ideology commitment with posttraumatic growth. Subjects were Israeli youth who were exposed to terror (n = 2,999) aged 13-15. Measures included: posttraumatic growth inventory, religious orientation, ideological commitment, objective and subjective exposure to terror. Both religiosity and political ideology mediated the effects of exposure and fear on growth. Political ideology but not religiosity, had a moderating effect, such that subjective fear was positively associated with growth only among those with stronger ideologies. Results support the contention of Terror Management Theory that cultural beliefs have beneficial effects on well being in the face of adversity and emphasize the role of cultural world as effecting growth, beyond trauma.
Shechner, Tomer; Slone, Michelle; Bialik, Gadi
This study examined the moderating role of political ideology on psychological outcomes for Israeli soldiers participating in the forced evacuation of Jewish settlements from Gaza. Change in psychopathology and well-being was assessed for 3 concurrent mission groups differing in their political ideological contentiousness--forced evacuation, Gaza security, and Northern border security. After soldiers in each mission group were classified on the basis of relatively left- or right-wing political ideological tendencies, the authors examined differential impact of each mission on soldiers of differing political ideology. Results confirmed strong moderation effects of political ideology on psychological outcomes in these extreme contexts. Implications for research, prevention, and treatment are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved
O'Brien, Laurie T; Mars, Dustin E; Eccleston, Collette
The present study examines the relationship between system-justifying ideologies and academic outcomes among 78 first-year Latino college students (21 men, 57 women, mean age = 18.1 years) attending a moderately selective West Coast university. Endorsement of system-justifying ideologies was negatively associated with grade point average (GPA); however it was positively associated with feelings of belonging at the university. In addition, system-justifying ideologies were negatively associated with perceptions of personal discrimination. In contrast, ethnic identity centrality was unrelated to GPA, feelings of belonging, and perceptions of personal discrimination once the relationship between system-justifying ideologies and these outcomes was statistically taken into account. The results of the present study suggest that endorsement of system-justifying ideologies may be a double-edged sword for Latino college students, involving trade-offs between academic success and feelings of belonging.
Wyborn, Lesley; Car, Nicholas; Evans, Benjamin; Klump, Jens
procedures require that a persistent identifier (DOI) be provided for the dataset that underpins the publication. Being able to produce these for data extracts from the NCI data node using only DOIs is proving difficult: preserving a copy of each data extract is not possible due to data scale. A proposal is for researchers to use workflows that capture the provenance of each data extraction, including metadata (e.g., version of the dataset used, the query and time of extraction). In parallel, NCI is now working with the NERDIP dataset providers to ensure that the provenance of data publication is also captured in provenance systems including references to previous versions and a history of data appended or modified. This proposed solution would require an enhancement to new scholarly publication procedures whereby the reference to underlying dataset to a scholarly publication would be the persistent identifier of the provenance workflow that created the data extract. In turn, the provenance workflow would itself link to a series of persistent identifiers that, at a minimum, provide complete dataset production transparency and, if required, would facilitate reconstruction of the dataset. Such a solution will require strict adherence to design patterns for provenance representation to ensure that the provenance representation of the workflow does indeed contain information required to deliver dataset generation transparency and a pathway to reconstruction.
Marques Pereira, B
This work examines the ideology of the general interest as it is expressed in 2 opposing legislative proposals regarding abortion put forth in Belgium in the early 1980s. The Flemish Liberal proposal deposed in the Senate by Lucienne Herman-Michielsens represents a possible compromise for the Social Christians because it would retain the principle of penal prohibition of all abortions except those considered therapeutic, while the proposal deposed in the Chamber by Leona Detiege calls for decriminalization of voluntary abortions and recognition of the decision-making autonomy of the woman. Legislative reforms express more than agreements of ideologic and political forces; they manifest compromises, negotiations, confrontations, and even insults between social groups and classes. The discourse of general interest is often used to legitimize the demands of specific groups. Herman-Michielsens' proposal would permit abortion only if continuation of the pregnancy posed a grave threat to the life or health of the mother, and only in a hospital by a gynecologist aided by a committee consisting of gynecologists, a specially trained psychologist or psychiatrist, a social nurse, and a jurist. Modalities of control over the sexuality of women would thus be involved, with power exercised through refusal of the right to dispose of their own bodies to women, censure expressed by mandatory committees reviewing each case, and penal sanctions against abortions not deemed therapeutic. The argument in favor of penal sanctions invokes the general interest in the sense of the social order; use of the notion of abortion as an offense against the social order disguises the exercise of social control over sexuality. In the view of this proposal, the dissociation of sexuality and procreation constitutes a peril that must be fought with coercive measures. The proposal is based on an ideological conservatism characterized by a paternalistic attitude toward women and a view of freedom which
Robertson, Leena Helavaara; Hill, Dave
In this article we begin by discussing "ideology" as a theoretical construct, and the interconnections between policy and ideology in the education system in England. We analyse the main principles of education policies that can be broadly defined from Left to Right, according to the following ideologies: Marxism/Socialism/Radical…
Full Text Available The presence of post-reformation religious organizations has influenced students’ ideology and movements. Thus, this study explains the processes of Muslim students’ ideological fragmentation and its implications to the future of students’ post-reformation movements. This study is conducted through observations and interviews to extracurricular organizational activists in Purwokerto. Reflective analysis is then conducted using primary and secondary data. Islamic ideology has many important roles, such as guidance, values, beliefs, and directions for da’wa (Islamic missionaryactivities. In its operation, Islamic ideology is fragmented into fundamental, modernist, liberal, and traditional ideology. The ideological processes are influenced by several factors, such as organization historical background, ideological relationship with social organizations, development of Islamic transnational organizations, students’ increasing demands and needs in modern era, as well as the presence of massive information media. The Implications of ideological fragmentation influence post-reformation activities performed by those Muslim students. They donot only perform religious activities by mentoring as previously performed in the new order, but also doing debate activities onIslamic theology, politics, community empowerment, global awareness,issues on humanities, and responses to the development of science and technology.The presence of ideological fragmentation may not be negatively faced andconsolidated in a single view. The most important one is how to critically and constructively maintain and develop the ideology. Munculnya berbagai organisasi keagamaan pasca reformasi memiliki dampak pada ideologi dan gerakan mahasiswa. Oleh karena itu, pada tulisan ini akan diuraikan tentang proses terjadinya fragmentasi ideologi pada mahasiswa muslim dan implikasinya terhadap masa depan gerakan mahasiswa muslim pasca reformasi. Kajian dilakukan dengan cara
Full Text Available The term ′moderated modernism′ has been current for quite some time in Serbian music historiography, but there have been only a few attempts to define it. I shall try to define the term, introduce some of its key concepts and features and demonstrate its applicability. Although moderated modernism was an international phenomenon which had divergent manifestations in various periods before and after the Second World War throughout Europe, my aim is to focus on the period between the decline of Socialist Realism and the ascent of post-modernism (roughly 1950 to 1980 in socialist Serbia, and to discuss the discourses and ideologies surrounding moderated modernism then and there.
Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David
Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cunningham, William A; Nezlek, John B; Banaji, Mahzarin R
Two studies investigated relationships among individual differences in implicit and explicit prejudice, right-wing ideology, and rigidity in thinking. The first study examined these relationships focusing on White Americans' prejudice toward Black Americans. The second study provided the first test of implicit ethnocentrism and its relationship to explicit ethnocentrism by studying the relationship between attitudes toward five social groups. Factor analyses found support for both implicit and explicit ethnocentrism. In both studies, mean explicit attitudes toward out groups were positive, whereas implicit attitudes were negative, suggesting that implicit and explicit prejudices are distinct; however, in both studies, implicit and explicit attitudes were related (r = .37, .47). Latent variable modeling indicates a simple structure within this ethnocentric system, with variables organized in order of specificity. These results lead to the conclusion that (a) implicit ethnocentrism exists and (b) it is related to and distinct from explicit ethnocentrism.
Full Text Available Denne artikel af Marcha Kinder er allerede en klassiker. I næsten al litteratur om musikvideoer henvises der til den - også herhjemme. Det er især hendes typologi over musikvideoerne, som der refereres til, mens artiklens percep- tionspsykologiske sammenligninger mellem musikvideoer og drømme næsten ikke har været inddraget i debatten. Marcha Kinder har arbejdet med medier i en årrække og udgav sammen med Beverle Houston "Self and Cinema A Transformalist Perspective" /(Redgrave Publishing Vompany i 1980. Artiklen "Musikvideo og tilskuer" er oversat i sin helhed fra "Music Video and the Spectator": Television, Ideology and Dream, Film Quarterly, vol. XXXVIII, no. I 1984 af Jim Høyer.