Sneijder, P.W.J.; Te Molder, H.F.M.
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and
Lindeman, M; Sirelius, M
Two studies examined whether everyday food choice motives (FCMs) and abstract values constitute food choice ideologies (FCIs), whether these ideologies reflect the same normativism-humanism polarity as Tomkins' theory suggests to reflect ideologies in general, and whether various dietary groups endorse FCIs in different ways. In Study 1, 82 female participants filled in the Food Choice Questionnaire, a short version of Schwartz's Value Survey, and Tomkins' Polarity Scale. The results reflected four FCIs: ecological ideology (EI), health ideology (HI), pleasure ideology (PI) and convenience ideology (CI). Study 2 (N=144) replicated the results for ecological and health ideologies but not for pleasure and convenience ideologies. In both studies, EI, which was typical for vegetarians, was associated with a humanist view of the world, whereas HI was related to a normative view of the world. The results suggest that food choice has become a new site where one expresses one's philosophy of life.
Sneijder, P.W.J.; Molder, te H.F.M.
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and
Sneijder, Petra; Te Molder, Hedwig
In this paper we use discursive psychology to explore the relation between ideologically based food choice and identity in an online forum on veganism. The discursive psychological perspective underlines the notion of identities being part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes. It is demonstrated that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated--in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, 'ordinariness' helps to construct and protect veganism as an ideology. We point out similarities and differences with other studies on eating or healthy lifestyles and argue, more broadly, that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation package.
Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A
Food choice decisions are frequent, multifaceted, situational, dynamic, and complex and lead to food behaviors where people acquire, prepare, serve, give away, store, eat, and clean up. Many disciplines and fields examine decision making. Several classes of theories are applicable to food decision making, including social behavior, social facts, and social definition perspectives. Each offers some insights but also makes limiting assumptions that prevent fully explaining food choice decisions. We used constructionist social definition perspectives to inductively develop a food choice process model that organizes a broad scope of factors and dynamics involved in food behaviors. This food choice process model includes (1) life course events and experiences that establish a food choice trajectory through transitions, turning points, timing, and contexts; (2) influences on food choices that include cultural ideals, personal factors, resources, social factors, and present contexts; and (3) a personal system that develops food choice values, negotiates and balances values, classifies foods and situations, and forms/revises food choice strategies, scripts, and routines. The parts of the model dynamically interact to make food choice decisions leading to food behaviors. No single theory can fully explain decision making in food behavior. Multiple perspectives are needed, including constructionist thinking.
of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....
10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...
Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.
Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.
Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well ...
This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is “appropriate” male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by
van der Vleuten, Maaike; Jaspers, Eva; Maas, Ineke; van der Lippe, Tanja
This study aims to explain why boys and girls in secondary education choose different educational tracks. We argue that adolescents internalise gender expectations as to what is "appropriate" male and female behaviour in their gender ideology. Gender ideology can affect educational choices by influencing (1) how adolescents evaluate…
Dalenberg, Jelle R; Gutjar, Swetlana; Ter Horst, Gert J; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J; Jager, Gerry
In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Therefore, the focus within recent studies shifted towards using emotion-profiling methods that successfully can discriminate between products that are equally liked. However, it is unclear how well scores from emotion-profiling methods predict actual food choice and/or consumption. To test this, we proposed to decompose emotion scores into valence and arousal scores using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and apply Multinomial Logit Models (MLM) to estimate food choice using liking, valence, and arousal as possible predictors. For this analysis, we used an existing data set comprised of liking and food-evoked emotions scores from 123 participants, who rated 7 unlabeled breakfast drinks. Liking scores were measured using a 100-mm visual analogue scale, while food-evoked emotions were measured using 2 existing emotion-profiling methods: a verbal and a non-verbal method (EsSense Profile and PrEmo, respectively). After 7 days, participants were asked to choose 1 breakfast drink from the experiment to consume during breakfast in a simulated restaurant environment. Cross validation showed that we were able to correctly predict individualized food choice (1 out of 7 products) for over 50% of the participants. This number increased to nearly 80% when looking at the top 2 candidates. Model comparisons showed that evoked emotions better predict food choice than perceived liking alone. However, the strongest predictive strength was achieved by the combination of evoked emotions and liking. Furthermore we showed that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores more accurately predict food choice than verbal food-evoked emotions scores.
Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba; Beuving, Joost; Ruben, Ruerd
This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia.
Chuka Fred Ononye
Full Text Available Media reports on Niger Delta (Henceforth, ND conflicts have reflected a relationship between lexico-stylistic choices and media ideologies. The existing media studies on the discourse have predominantly utilised pragmatic, stylistic and discourse analytical tools in presenting and labelling discourse participants and/or their ideologies, but neglected how media ideologies can be revealed through lexico-stylistic choices made in the reports. This paper therefore examines the lexico-stylistic choices in the reports in order to establish their link to specific ideological goals of the newspapers in relaying the conflict news. Forty reports on ND conflicts, published between 2003 and 2007, sampled from two ND-based (The Tide and Pioneer and two national (The Punch and THISDAY, labelled newspapers, were subjected to stylistic and critical analyses, with insights from structural (relational semantics and aspects of stylistics discourse. Two broad lexical stylistic choices are identified, including paradigmatic (61.8%—indexed by synonymous, antonymous, hyponymous, colloquial, and register items, and coinages and syntagmatic (38.2%—marked by collocations, metaphors, pleonasms, and lexical fields features. The features are utilised for three ideological ends; namely, picking out and framing participants as perpetrators of the violence in the discourse, evaluating specific entities and their roles in the conflicts, and reducing the impact of the activities of the news actors. Although there are overlaps, the evaluative ideology is largely associated with the national newspaper, the impact reduction ideology with the ND-based newspapers, while the framist ideology is observed in the two sets of newspapers. With these findings the study has added the lexical stylistics angle to the existing scholarship on ND conflict news discourse. Thus, the newspaper reports on ND conflicts are motivated by their ideological goals to change the reader’s outlook on
... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... Cut back on high calorie snack foods and desserts. Reduce intake of chips, cookies, cakes, full-fat ...
Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A. H.; Belot, Michele
, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social...
van der Laan, L.N.
Because of the health risks associated with unhealthy eating and overweight, it is important to better understand the motives underlying (un)healthy food choice. Explicit measures, such as questionnaires and focus groups, are suboptimal because they only tap into that specific part of the motive
French, Simone A
Individual dietary choices are primarily influenced by such considerations as taste, cost, convenience and nutritional value of foods. The current obesity epidemic has been linked to excessive consumption of added sugars and fat, as well as to sedentary lifestyles. Fat and sugar provide dietary energy at very low cost. Food pricing and marketing practices are therefore an essential component of the eating environment. Recent studies have applied economic theories to changing dietary behavior. Price reduction strategies promote the choice of targeted foods by lowering their cost relative to alternative food choices. Two community-based intervention studies used price reductions to promote the increased purchase of targeted foods. The first study examined lower prices and point-of-purchase promotion on sales of lower fat vending machine snacks in 12 work sites and 12 secondary schools. Price reductions of 10%, 25% and 50% on lower fat snacks resulted in an increase in sales of 9%, 39% and 93%, respectively, compared with usual price conditions. The second study examined the impact of a 50% price reduction on fresh fruit and baby carrots in two secondary school cafeterias. Compared with usual price conditions, price reductions resulted in a four-fold increase in fresh fruit sales and a two-fold increase in baby carrot sales. Both studies demonstrate that price reductions are an effective strategy to increase the purchase of more healthful foods in community-based settings such as work sites and schools. Results were generalizable across various food types and populations. Reducing prices on healthful foods is a public health strategy that should be implemented through policy initiatives and industry collaborations.
Gagić Snježana; Jovičić Ana; Tešanović Dragan; Kalenjuk Bojana
People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough,...
Gromet, Dena M; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P
This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.
Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.
This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266
Verain, M.C.D.; Dagevos, H.; Antonides, G.
Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors
Leng, Gareth; Adan, Roger A H; Belot, Michele; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; de Graaf, Kees; Dickson, Suzanne L; Hare, Todd; Maier, Silvia; Menzies, John; Preissl, Hubert; Reisch, Lucia A; Rogers, Peter J; Smeets, Paul A M
Health nudge interventions to steer people into healthier lifestyles are increasingly applied by governments worldwide, and it is natural to look to such approaches to improve health by altering what people choose to eat. However, to produce policy recommendations that are likely to be effective, we need to be able to make valid predictions about the consequences of proposed interventions, and for this, we need a better understanding of the determinants of food choice. These determinants include dietary components (e.g. highly palatable foods and alcohol), but also diverse cultural and social pressures, cognitive-affective factors (perceived stress, health attitude, anxiety and depression), and familial, genetic and epigenetic influences on personality characteristics. In addition, our choices are influenced by an array of physiological mechanisms, including signals to the brain from the gastrointestinal tract and adipose tissue, which affect not only our hunger and satiety but also our motivation to eat particular nutrients, and the reward we experience from eating. Thus, to develop the evidence base necessary for effective policies, we need to build bridges across different levels of knowledge and understanding. This requires experimental models that can fill in the gaps in our understanding that are needed to inform policy, translational models that connect mechanistic understanding from laboratory studies to the real life human condition, and formal models that encapsulate scientific knowledge from diverse disciplines, and which embed understanding in a way that enables policy-relevant predictions to be made. Here we review recent developments in these areas.
Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Trijp, van J.C.M.
Consumers' preference for fresh food stores is analyzed. In particular the choice between supermarkets and specialized shops for purchasing fresh food is analyzed. Attention is given to the factors influencing this choice. For this purpose a number of research questions with respect to store choice
Honkanen, P.; Frewer, L.J.
Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers¿ food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the
... Conditions Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and ...
Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M
Time scarcity, the feeling of not having enough time, has been implicated in changes in food consumption patterns such as a decrease in food preparation at home, an increase in the consumption of fast foods, a decrease in family meals, and an increase in the consumption of convenience or ready-prepared foods. These food choices are associated with less healthful diets and may contribute to obesity and chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In spite of the potential importance for health, there has been little study of how time scarcity influences people's food choices. This paper presents an overview of time issues related to food choices and discuss applications of time research for nutrition and health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners interested in food choice.
Brunsø, Karen; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Grunert, Klaus G.
to which the topic has been researched at MAPP. As a general framework for analysing consumer quality perception and choice of food products, MAPP has developed the Total Food Quality Model, which will be used to structure this overview. We start by presenting the Total Food Quality Model and an overview......There is a long tradition of research into consumers' food choice and quality perception. In the last few years, however, these topics have received even more attention due to the intense debate about such issues as ethical considerations in relation to food production and quality, food scandals...... and the resulting food scares among consumers, genetic modification of foods, and animal welfare (or, rather, non-welfare), which has made questions regarding food quality and consumers' supposedly rational or irrational food choices even more urgent. Increased interest in health and quality stands in stark...
Full Text Available People's motives for food choice depend on a number of very complex economic, social and individual factors. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ, an instrument that measures the importance of factors underlying food choice, was used to reveal the Serbian consumers' food choice motives by survey of 450 respondents of different age groups. A conﬁrmatory factor analysis was conducted on the motive items, using 11 factors. Previous research shows that the nutrition in Serbia is not balanced enough, and therefore the analysis of motives for food choice is considered a useful tool for the planning of more efficient public policies and interventions aimed at influencing healthier eating habits. Hence the results can be useful for researchers as well as for public institutions which deal with creating the strategy of public health or businessmen who produce and sell food products, because knowing consumer behaviour is necessary for product success on the market.
Verain, Muriel C D; Dagevos, Hans; Antonides, Gerrit
Food consumption is an important factor in shaping the sustainability of our food supply. The present paper empirically explores different types of sustainable food behaviors. A distinction between sustainable product choices and curtailment behavior has been investigated empirically and predictors of the two types of behavior have been identified. Respondents were classified into four segments based on their sustainable food behaviors: unsustainers, curtailers, product-oriented consumers, and sustainers. Significant differences between the segments were found with regard to food choice motives, personal and social norms, food involvement, subjective knowledge on sustainable food, ability to judge how sustainably a product has been produced and socio-demographics. It is concluded that distinguishing between behavioral strategies toward sustainable food consumption is important as consumer segments can be identified that differ both in their level of sustainable food consumption and in the type of behavior they employ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The UK Government has decided to lift the ban on food irradiation. The proponents of food irradiation claim it is an effective and safe means of preserving food, at minimum risk to the public. However, the prospect of irradiated food being on the shelves has created considerable opposition from environmental, consumer, public health groups and trade unions. The long list of unanswered health and safety questions means the public could be exposed to a whole new range of risks. The consumer is justified as saying ''if food has to be irradiated, what was wrong with it, good food does not need irradiating''. The answer to food contamination is improved hygiene and training in farm, factory and shop. (author)
Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Perez-Cueto, F.J.A.; Wijk, de R.A.
Recent research suggests that non-attentively perceived odours may significantly influence people's food choices. This study's aim was to examine the effects of different types of non-attentively perceived food odours, namely, bread odour and cucumber odour, on subsequent lunch choices in a
Lindeman, M; Väänänen, M
The two studies describe the development of three complementary scales to the Food Choice Questionnaire developed by Steptoe, Pollard & Wardle (1995). The new items address various ethical food choice motives and were derived from previous studies on vegetarianism and ethical food choice. The items were factor analysed in Study 1 (N=281) and the factor solution was confirmed in Study 2 (N=125), in which simple validity criteria were also included. Furthermore, test-retest reliability was assessed with a separate sample of subjects (N=36). The results indicated that the three new scales, Ecological Welfare (including subscales for Animal Welfare and Environment Protection), Political Values and Religion, are reliable and valid instruments for a brief screening of ethical food choice reasons. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu
This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students' food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of v...
Mueller Loose, Simone; Peschel, Anne; Grebitus, Carola
Although seafood is considered to be a healthy food choice, the recommended consumption level of two servings per week is still not reached in most countries. Previous research has identified potential barriers of seafood consumption, including purchase and consumption convenience, but it is still...... participated in an online choice experiment with visual product stimuli to simulate their choice of oysters in a retail store. Considering preference heterogeneity respondents’ choices were analyzed with a scale adjusted latent class model and six different consumer segments differing in their preferences were...
Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,
Huschek, D.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Liefbroer, A.C.
This study explores and compares gender-role behavior of second-generation Turks in six European countries. On the individual level, we study the role of gender ideology and consequences of (transnational) partner choice on four aspects of gender-role behavior; childcare, routine household tasks,
Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Mukherjee, Ashkesh
this type of condensed information will in fact motivate extended information search. Originality/value – This paper contributes to research in marketing on food choice and consumption: a consumption area that is important but difficult to navigate due to an increasing complexity of nutritional information......Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the effect of anxiety on information search during food choice and to test a key moderator of the effect of anxiety on search, namely attitude towards nutritional claims. Design/methodology/approach – By means of qualitative study the paper investigates...... the notion that consumers experience anxiety about health outcomes during food choice. Further, by means of structural equation modelling based on two studies with representative samples of Danish consumers, the paper investigates the effects outlined above. Findings – The authors show that anxiety during...
Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana
The aims of the present work were to study motives underlying Uruguayan consumers' food choice behaviour and to study the consumption frequency of some selected food items. A modification of the Food Choice Questionnaire and a food frequency questionnaire was administered to a group of 200 Uruguayan consumers. Feeling good and safety, sensory appeal and health and nutrient content were rated as the most important factors, while familiarity was rated as the least important. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, three clusters with different choice patterns were identified. Frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, milk and dairy products, and whole cereals, increased as the importance attributed to health and nutrition increased; consumption of fatty foods decreased.
Food choices and diet composition have been studied less often than energy intake in subjects with varying levels of physical activity. The reported effects of exercise on food choices are not fully consistent, especially on the short term. Type of exercise, intensity, duration can affect the results as well as subjects' characteristics (gender, age, previous training and fitness). A crucial role could also be played by psychological (chronic dieting, attitudes toward health and food, long-established food habits and preferences) and social (traditions, food availability, appropriate times and places) factors. In short-term intervention studies, where a meal is ingested a few minutes following a bout of exercise of varying duration and intensity, an increase in CHO intake is most often reported, while increased protein intake is an occasional observation. In long-term (several weeks) training interventions, intake is assessed from dietary records. Again CHO intake is augmented in exercised subjects as compared to controls, while that of saturated fats and cholesterol may also be affected. Epidemiological studies (without dietary or exercise intervention) often report that habitually active persons eat more and ingest more fruits and vegetables than less active peers. It is not known to what extent such food choices are driven by biological needs (e.g. replacement of glycogen) or elicited by social and psychological factors.
This paper investigates the communication of canned foods in Flanders between 1945 and 1960. It forwards the antinomy between convenience and care as theoretical framework, it uses three women's magazines as source material, and it subjects this material to the technique of close reading. The results show that the discursive construction of canned foods differs according to the ideology of the magazines. Whereas the agrarian periodical discarded canned foods as careless convenience that menaced the idea of the good housewife, the socialist and the commercial publications undeniably accepted them as caring convenience that could facilitate the household chores of working women. The analysis, thus, deals with the ideological aspect of convenience food, an aspect that has only rarely been examined. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Consumers' food choices and dietary behaviour can be markedly affected by communication and information. Whether the provided information is processed by the receiver, and thus becomes likely to be effective, depends on numerous factors. The role of selected determinants such as uncertainty, knowledge, involvement, health-related motives and trust, as well as message content variables, are discussed in the present paper based on previous empirical studies. The different studies indicate that: uncertainty about meat quality and safety does not automatically result in more active information search; subjective knowledge about fish is a better predictor of fish consumption than objective knowledge; high subjective knowledge about functional foods as a result of a low trusted information source such as mass media advertising leads to a lower probability of adopting these foods in the diet. Also, evidence of the stronger impact of negative news as compared with messages promoting positive outcomes of food choices is discussed. Finally, three audience-segmentation studies based on consumers' involvement with fresh meat, individuals' health-related-motive orientations and their use of and trust in fish information sources are presented. A clear message from these studies is that communication and information provision strategies targeted to a specific audience's needs, interests or motives stand a higher likelihood of being attended to and processed by the receiving audience, and therefore also stand a higher chance of yielding their envisaged impact in terms of food choice and dietary behaviour.
Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn
Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.
Biedermann, Traci; Garlick, Dennis; Blaisdell, Aaron P
Although food reward plays a large role in learning and behavioral experiments, there have been few studies examining the most motivating food reward for pigeons. Brown (1969) found that pigeons had a tendency to prefer peas, while Killeen et al. (1993) found pigeons to prefer peas and popcorn in Experiment 1A. We looked to further explore these options as well as expand upon the types of foods examined beyond mainly grains and seeds. Pigeons were presented with six novel foods (granulated peanuts, popping corn, freeze-dried mealworms, bread crumbs, split peas, and sunflower hearts) allocated into two sets of three food items. Once the most consumed food from each food set was determined, they were pooled together with sorghum seeds (a familiar food) to form a third set. Sunflower hearts were the most consumed of all the food items, followed by corn and granulated peanuts. We discuss the potential factors mediating consumption choice, including nutritional profile and food particle size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
food choice in order to help people make healthful food and beverage choices .... consumption patterns, lifestyles, health status and the different factors .... relative importance in human eating behaviour: review and preliminary suggestions for.
Jeltema, Melissa; Beckley, Jacqueline; Vahalik, Jennifer
The current paradigm for developing products that will match the marketing messaging is flawed because the drivers of product choice and satisfaction based on texture are misunderstood. Qualitative research across 10 years has led to the thesis explored in this research that individuals have a preferred way to manipulate food in their mouths (i.e., mouth behavior) and that this behavior is a major driver of food choice, satisfaction, and the desire to repurchase. Texture, which is currently thought to be a major driver of product choice, is a secondary factor, and is important only in that it supports the primary driver-mouth behavior. A model for mouth behavior is proposed and the qualitative research supporting the identification of different mouth behaviors is presented. The development of a trademarked typing tool for characterizing mouth behavior is described along with quantitative substantiation of the tool's ability to group individuals by mouth behavior. The use of these four groups to understand textural preferences and the implications for a variety of areas including product design and weight management are explored.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a Diet Quality Index proper for dietary intake studies of Brazilian adults. METHODS: A diet quality index to analyze the incorporation of healthy food choices was associated with a digital food guide. This index includes moderation components, destined to indicate foods that may represent a risk when in excess, and adequacy components that include sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds in order to help individuals meet their nutritional requirements. The diet quality index-digital food guide performance was measured by determining its psychometric properties, namely content and construct validity, as well as internal consistency. RESULTS: The moderation and adequacy components correlated weakly with dietary energy (-0.16 to 0.09. The strongest correlation (0.52 occurred between the component 'sugars and sweets' and the total score. The Cronbach's coefficient alpha for reliability was 0.36. CONCLUSION: Given that diet quality is a complex and multidimensional construct, the Diet Quality Index-Digital Food Guide, whose validity is comparable to those of other indices, is a useful resource for Brazilian dietary studies. However, new studies can provide additional information to improve its reliability.
Baum, William M; Davison, Michael
In studies of operant choice, when one schedule of a concurrent pair is varied while the other is held constant, the constancy of the constant schedule may exert discriminative control over performance. In our earlier experiments, schedules varied reciprocally across components within sessions, so that while food ratio varied food rate remained constant. In the present experiment, we held one variable-interval (VI) schedule constant while varying the concurrent VI schedule within sessions. We studied five conditions, each with a different constant left VI schedule. On the right key, seven different VI schedules were presented in seven different unsignaled components. We analyzed performances at several different time scales. At the longest time scale, across conditions, behavior ratios varied with food ratios as would be expected from the generalized matching law. At shorter time scales, effects due to holding the left VI constant became more and more apparent, the shorter the time scale. In choice relations across components, preference for the left key leveled off as the right key became leaner. Interfood choice approximated strict matching for the varied right key, whereas interfood choice hardly varied at all for the constant left key. At the shortest time scale, visit patterns differed for the left and right keys. Much evidence indicated the development of a fix-and-sample pattern. In sum, the procedural difference made a large difference to performance, except for choice at the longest time scale and the fix-and-sample pattern at the shortest time scale. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Tombrock, M.C.; Verpaalen, I.A.M.; Schmitz, L.I.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.
Many people find it hard to change their dietary choices. Food choice often occurs impulsively, without deliberation, and it has been unclear whether impulsive food choice can be experimentally created. Across 3 exploratory and 2 confirmatory preregistered experiments we examined whether impulsive
Lindeman, M; Stark, K
The clustering of four food choice motives (health, weight concern, pleasure and ideological reasons) and the relationship between personality and the food choice motives were analysed among young and middle-aged women in two studies. The personality variables included personal strivings, magical beliefs about food, awareness and internalization of thinness pressures, appearance and weight dissatisfaction, depression, self-esteem and symptoms of eating disorders. Study 1 was done with 171 young and middle-aged women. In Study 2, with data provided by 118 senior high-school girls, one cluster of girls who did not regard any of the food choice motives as important was found, otherwise the food choice clusters were fairly similar in both studies. They were labelled as health fosterers, gourmets, ideological eaters, health dieters and distressed dieters. Only the second dieter group, distressed dieters, showed low psychological well-being and symptoms of disordered eating. The results also indicated that ideological food choice motives (i.e. expression of one's identity via food) were best predicted by vegetarianism, magical beliefs about food and health, and personal strivings for ecological welfare and for understanding self and the world. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Grunert, Klaus G.
before or during purchase, and then have a quality experience after the purchase. However, an increasing role of credence characteristics in food choice assigns communication a stronger role in understanding food choice, and consumer concern for food production technologies gives prior attitudes...
Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Tombrock, Merel C; Verpaalen, Iris A M; Schmitz, Laura I; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Holland, Rob W
Many people find it hard to change their dietary choices. Food choice often occurs impulsively, without deliberation, and it has been unclear whether impulsive food choice can be experimentally created. Across 3 exploratory and 2 confirmatory preregistered experiments we examined whether impulsive food choice can be trained. Participants were cued to make motor responses upon the presentation of, among others, healthy and sustainable food items. They subsequently selected these food items more often for actual consumption when they needed to make their choices impulsively as a result of time pressure. This effect disappeared when participants were asked to think about their choices, merely received more time to make their choices, or when choosing required attention to alternatives. Participants preferred high to low valued food items under time pressure and without time pressure, suggesting that the impulsive choices reflect valid preferences. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to train impulsive choices for food items while leaving deliberative choices for these items unaffected, and connect research on attention training to dual-process theories of decision making. The present research suggests that attention training may lead to behavioral change only when people behave impulsively. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Gutjar, S.; Graaf, de C.; Palascha, A.; Jager, G.
The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food a...
Birkenhead, Karen L; Slater, Gary
Athletes make food choices on a daily basis that can affect both health and performance. A well planned nutrition strategy that includes the careful timing and selection of appropriate foods and fluids helps to maximize training adaptations and, thus, should be an integral part of the athlete's training programme. Factors that motivate food selection include taste, convenience, nutrition knowledge and beliefs. Food choice is also influenced by physiological, social, psychological and economic factors and varies both within and between individuals and populations. This review highlights the multidimensional nature of food choice and the depth of previous research investigating eating behaviours. Despite numerous studies with general populations, little exploration has been carried out with athletes, yet the energy demands of sport typically require individuals to make more frequent and/or appropriate food choices. While factors that are important to general populations also apply to athletes, it seems likely, given the competitive demands of sport, that performance would be an important factor influencing food choice. It is unclear if athletes place the same degree of importance on these factors or how food choice is influenced by involvement in sport. There is a clear need for further research exploring the food choice motives of athletes, preferably in conjunction with research investigating dietary intake to establish if intent translates into practice.
Mueller Loose, S; Jaeger, S R
Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen by whom, when and where can be helpful for manufacturers, dieticians/health care providers, and health policy makers. A descriptive framework - the food choice kaleidoscope (Jaeger et al., 2011) - was applied to self-reported 24h food recall data from a sample of New Zealand consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors. Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in the form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal specific. Furthermore, this study integrates psychographic variables into the 'person' mirror of the food choice kaleidoscope. A measure of habit in beverage choice was obtained from the inter-participant correlation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh
Background Childrens food choice behaviour is influenced by a number of family and social factors. About 20% to 30% of the population modifies their diet for a suspected adverse reaction to food. Since avoidance is the mainstay of managing food allergy, it can be assumed to significantly affect food choices. It is therefore important to understand if and to what extent food allergy influences the way parents and children make their food choice decisions. Methods The research project has utili...
Allen, Kelly N.; Taylor, Julie Smith; Kuiper, RuthAnne
Adolescent obesity has become a major health concern in the United States. An increased frequency of fast food restaurant dining is associated with higher intake of calories and calories from fat. The purpose of this study was to gain insight as to how food choices in a "simulated" fast food environment might be influenced by nutrition…
Tijskens, L.M.M.; Iztok Ostan, I.; Borut Poljsak, B.; Simcic, M.
The quantity and quality of food needed for reproduction differs from nutritional needs for health and longevity. The choice of food type and amount is driven by our genetic need for growth and reproduction, not for long term health. So, fast digestible food, rich in energy is searched for. We
Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka
By changing individual food consumption patterns, it might be possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with climate change. The aim of the current study was to examine how perceptions of the moral intensity of climate change are related to climate friendly-food choices. The participants were 350 Finnish university students in the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The results indicated that moral perceptions mainly affected the moral evaluation and intentions to make climate-friendly food choices. We suggest that the results can be used to promote climate-friendly food choices, for example, by increasing the recognition of climate change as a moral imperative and by combining environmental motives with other relevant food choice motives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gutjar, Swetlana; de Graaf, Cees; Palascha, Aikaterini; Jager, Gerry
The present study compared how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) product properties influence actual food choice in combination with the concept of product appropriateness in a specific consumption context. Food choice of seven test products was measured in three breakfast sessions within a simulated cafeteria setting with subsequent product consumption. Test products were five breakfast drinks and two dessert products considered as inappropriate for breakfast. One hundred and three participants took part in a blind taste session, after which they chose one out of the seven foods to consume for breakfast. In a second session (familiar package session), the same participants based their choice on the package of the seven foods they tasted in the first session. An additional group of 65 participants took part in a third naïve package session, where they chose just on the basis of package without being previously exposed to the foods. Results showed that food choices in the naïve package session were guided by the package that labelled the products as "breakfast product". Food choices in the blind session were strongly correlated (r = 0.8) with the liking of the products. Food choice in the "familiar package session" lay between the blind and naïve package session. It is concluded that food choice in a simulated cafeteria setting is guided by extrinsic (package) as well as intrinsic (sensory) properties and both can act as a cue for product appropriateness given a specific consumption context. Depending on the salience of either intrinsic or extrinsic properties during the choice moment their impact on choice is stronger. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... foods selected are adequate. Protein sources from the Protein Foods Group for vegetarians include eggs (for ovo-vegetarians), beans and peas, nuts, nut butters, and soy products (tofu, tempeh, ...
In light of contemporary school choice proposals and the 60th anniversary of the Southern Manifesto, the Prince Edward County, Virginia public schools crisis provides interesting historical discussion. Prince Edward County (PEC), a rural community in central Virginia, was one of five school districts represented in the 1954 "Brown v. Board of…
Marcum, Christopher Steven; Goldring, Megan R; McBride, Colleen M; Persky, Susan
Meal construction is largely governed by nonconscious and habit-based processes that can be represented as a collection of in dividual, micro-level food choices that eventually give rise to a final plate. Despite this, dietary behavior intervention research rarely captures these micro-level food choice processes, instead measuring outcomes at aggregated levels. This is due in part to a dearth of analytic techniques to model these dynamic time-series events. The current article addresses this limitation by applying a generalization of the relational event framework to model micro-level food choice behavior following an educational intervention. Relational event modeling was used to model the food choices that 221 mothers made for their child following receipt of an information-based intervention. Participants were randomized to receive either (a) control information; (b) childhood obesity risk information; (c) childhood obesity risk information plus a personalized family history-based risk estimate for their child. Participants then made food choices for their child in a virtual reality-based food buffet simulation. Micro-level aspects of the built environment, such as the ordering of each food in the buffet, were influential. Other dynamic processes such as choice inertia also influenced food selection. Among participants receiving the strongest intervention condition, choice inertia decreased and the overall rate of food selection increased. Modeling food selection processes can elucidate the points at which interventions exert their influence. Researchers can leverage these findings to gain insight into nonconscious and uncontrollable aspects of food selection that influence dietary outcomes, which can ultimately improve the design of dietary interventions.
Wahl, Deborah R; Villinger, Karoline; König, Laura M; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
Research suggests that "healthy" food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across eight days using smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment. Three main findings emerged: First, of 14 different main food categories, vegetables consumption contributed the largest share to eating happiness measured across eight days. Second, sweets on average provided comparable induced eating happiness to "healthy" food choices such as fruits or vegetables. Third, dinner elicited comparable eating happiness to snacking. These findings are discussed within the "food as health" and "food as well-being" perspectives on eating behaviour.
Valentina De Cosmi
Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.
Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B
The present study tested the extent to which age and obesity predicted impulsive choices for food and monetary outcomes and tested how a brief mindful-eating training would alter delay discounting for food and money choices compared with control groups. First, 172 adolescents (M age = 13.13 years) and 176 (M age = 23.33 years) adults completed the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ) as measures of food and money delay discounting, respectively. Then, participants returned to the lab and were randomly assigned to complete a brief mindful-eating training, watch a DVD on nutrition, or serve as a control. Participants completed the FCQ and MCQ again as a postmanipulation measure. Participants with high percent body fat (PBF) were more impulsive for food than those with low PBF. Adults with high PBF were also more impulsive for money compared with adults with low PBF; no PBF-related differences were found for adolescents. Participants in the mindful-eating group exhibited more self-controlled choices for food, but not for money. The control conditions did not exhibit changes. The study suggests that individuals with high PBF make more impulsive food choices relative to those with low PBF, which could increase the risk of obesity over time. It also is the first to demonstrate shifts in choice patterns for food and money using a brief mindful-eating training with adolescents. Mindful eating is a beneficial strategy to reduce impulsive food choice, at least temporarily, that may impede weight gain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the food choice motives of consumers. Preliminary studies were carried out on a group of 96 consumers of juices based on the Food Choice Questionnaire. It is a tool, which enables the systematic measurement of the importance of diff erent food choices. The confi rmatory (CFA and exploratory factor analysis (EFA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA methods were used for analysis of data. The results of factor analysis revealed 12 new groups of factors determining the choice of food. The most important factors infl uencing selection of food were: taste, worth the money and a positive eff ect on external appearance. Using hierarchical cluster analysis three segments of consumer were identifi ed, with diff erent attitudes towards food choices: engaged – enthusiasts of healthy nutrition, indiff erent – not attaching attention to what they eat and practical – focused on the price and availability of products. Segmentation of consumers with similar attitudes towards choice of food can help the producers in precise targeting of marketing messages to a selected group of consumers.
Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen
With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.
Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.
Bruce, Amanda S; Pruitt, Stephen W; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; Cherry, J Bradley C; Smith, Timothy R; Bruce, Jared M; Lim, Seung-Lark
To investigate how food commercials influence children's food choices. Twenty-three children ages 8-14 years provided taste and health ratings for 60 food items. Subsequently, these children were scanned with the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging while making food choices (ie, "eat" or "not eat") after watching food and nonfood television commercials. Our results show that watching food commercials changes the way children consider the importance of taste when making food choices. Children did not use health values for their food choices, indicating children's decisions were largely driven by hedonic, immediate rewards (ie, "tastiness"); however, children placed significantly more importance on taste after watching food commercials compared with nonfood commercials. This change was accompanied by faster decision times during food commercial trials. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a reward valuation brain region, showed increased activity during food choices after watching food commercials compared with after watching nonfood commercials. Overall, our results suggest watching food commercials before making food choices may bias children's decisions based solely on taste, and that food marketing may systematically alter the psychological and neurobiologic mechanisms of children's food decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zoltak, M.J.; Veling, H.P.; Chen, Z.; Holland, R.W.
People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that
Sarah J. Hardcastle
Full Text Available In this Special Issue, entitled “Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective”, three broad themes have been identified: (1 social and environmental influences on food choice; (2 psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3 eating behaviour profiling. The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some “types” of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibition and less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.
Hardcastle, Sarah J; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D
In this Special Issue, entitled "Food choice and Nutrition: A Social Psychological Perspective", three broad themes have been identified: (1) social and environmental influences on food choice; (2) psychological influences on eating behaviour; and (3) eating behaviour profiling.The studies that addressed the social and environmental influences indicated that further research would do well to promote positive food choices rather than reduce negative food choices; promote the reading and interpretation of food labels and find ways to effectively market healthy food choices through accessibility, availability and presentation. The studies on psychological influences found that intentions, perceived behavioural control, and confidence were predictors of healthy eating. Given the importance of psychological factors, such as perceived behavioural control and self-efficacy, healthy eating interventions should reduce barriers to healthy eating and foster perceptions of confidence to consume a healthy diet. The final theme focused on the clustering of individuals according to eating behaviour. Some "types" of individuals reported more frequent consumption of fast foods, ready meals or convenience meals or greater levels of disinhibitiona nd less control over food cravings. Intervention designs which make use of multi-level strategies as advocated by the Ecological Model of Behaviour change that proposes multi-level (combining psychological, social and environmental) strategies are likely to be more effective in reaching and engaging individuals susceptible to unhealthy eating habits than interventions operating on a single level.
Drescher, Larissa S.; Hasselbach, Johanna
It is a known fact that stress negatively affects food choices. Consequentially, this paper analyzes three different research questions using a sample of 330 international students in Germany. Firstly, it is observed if stress affects students’ motivations to eat, i.e. if it triggers changes in the motivation behind food choices. Results show that this is not the case. Secondly, it is tested if social support acts as a buffer on the relationship between stress and healthy eating, similarly to...
Davis-Chervin, Doryn; And Others
Evaluated the effectiveness of a point-of-choice nutrition information program that used a comprehensive set of communication functions in its design. Results indicate that point-of-choice information without direct tangible rewards can (to a moderate degree) modify food-selection behavior of cafeteria patrons. (JN)
In general, people prefer their current situation, even if they would be better off in another situation. This concept is relevant to public policy aimed at changing food habits into healthier food intake in the population. The increasing prevalence of citizens in industrialized countries being
Laustsen, Lasse; Petersen, Michael Bang; A. Klofstad, Casey
Humans are equipped with a psychological system of followership that evolved to regulate choices of leaders based partly on would-be leaders’ physiological features. One such feature is voice pitch, which is determined by the physiology of the throat. Recent studies find that political candidates...... these findings by demonstrating that conservatives and Republicans tend to view the world as much more competitive and threatening than liberals and Democrats. We utilize two existing data sources to show that political candidates with lower-pitched voices are preferred more among conservative Republicans than...
Social network type might affect an individual's food choice because these decisions are often made as a group rather than individually. In this study, the associations between social network type, food choice value, and diet quality in frail older adults with low socioeconomic status were investigated. For this cross-sectional study, 87 frail older adults were recruited from the National Home Healthcare Services in Seoul, South Korea. Social network types, food choice values, and diet quality were assessed using The Practitioner Assessment of Network Type Instrument, The Food Choice Questionnaire, and mean adequacy ratio, respectively. Results showed that frail older adults with close relationships with local family and/or friends and neighbors were less likely to follow their own preferences, such as taste, price, and beliefs regarding food health values. In contrast, frail older adults with a small social network and few community contacts were more likely to be influenced by their food choice values, such as price or healthiness of food. Frail older adults who tend to choose familiar foods were associated with low-quality dietary intake, while older adults who valued healthiness or use of natural ingredients were associated with a high-quality diet. The strength and direction of these associations were dependent on social network type of frail older adults. This study explored the hypothesis that food choice values are associated with a certain type of social network and consequently affect diet quality. While additional research needs to be conducted, community-based intervention intended to improve diet quality of frail older adults must carefully consider individual food choice values as well as social network types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Yu-Hua Christine
This study addresses how various health concerns might influence not only consumers' food choice motives but also consumers' subsequent attitudes toward healthy eating. This study expects that those consumers with greater health concerns would have different food choice motives and better attitudes toward healthy eating. A self-completion questionnaire was used to gather information. Participants, a random sample of 500 undergraduate students from a national university in Taipei, Taiwan, provided a total of 456 usable questionnaires, representing a valid response rate of 91%. The average age of the respondents at the time of the survey was 21 years and 63% of respondents were females. The relationship between health concern and healthy eating attitudes was confirmed. The relationship between health concern of developing diseases and attitudes toward healthy eating was fully mediated by food choice motives. However, the relationship between calorie consumption health concern and healthy eating attitudes was only partially mediated by food choice motives. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Bucher, Tamara; Collins, Clare; Rollo, Megan E; McCaffrey, Tracy A; De Vlieger, Nienke; Van der Bend, Daphne; Truby, Helen; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A
Nudging or 'choice architecture' refers to strategic changes in the environment that are anticipated to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way, without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. Nudging strategies may be used to promote healthy eating behaviour. However, to date, the scientific evidence has not been systematically reviewed to enable practitioners and policymakers to implement, or argue for the implementation of, specific measures to support nudging strategies. This systematic review investigated the effect of positional changes of food placement on food choice. In total, seven scientific databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify interventions that manipulated food position (proximity or order) to generate a change in food selection, sales or consumption, among normal-weight or overweight individuals across any age group. From 2576 identified articles, fifteen articles comprising eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. This review has identified that manipulation of food product order or proximity can influence food choice. Such approaches offer promise in terms of impacting on consumer behaviour. However, there is a need for high-quality studies that quantify the magnitude of positional effects on food choice in conjunction with measuring the impact on food intake, particularly in the longer term. Future studies should use outcome measures such as change in grams of food consumed or energy intake to quantify the impact on dietary intake and potential impacts on nutrition-related health. Research is also needed to evaluate potential compensatory behaviours secondary to such interventions.
In general, people prefer their current situation, even if they would be better off in another situation. This concept is relevant to public policy aimed at changing food habits into healthier food intake in the population. The increasing prevalence of citizens in industrialized countries being overweight or obese in the last 25 years has direct consequences on development of cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some cancers (WHO, 2000). This is often caused by an unbalanced energy managemen...
This study aimed to explore international student food choices in a semirural setting using participatory photovoice techniques. Eighteen international students took photographs over 7-10 days of a typical food week and then attended a workshop where they completed three photography display and captioning tasks. Ten themes emerged linked to the…
Simmonds, J.R.; Webb, G.A.M.
The practical problem in estimating radiation doses due to radioactive contamination of food is the choice of the appropriate food intakes. To ensure compliance or to compare with dose equivalent limits, higher than average intake rates appropriate to critical groups should be used. However for realistic estimates of health detriment in the whole exposed population, average intake rates are more appropriate. (U.K.)
Haws, Kelly L; Liu, Peggy J
Given the prevalence and rising rates of obesity in many countries, including the United States, much food decision-making research ultimately aims at understanding how consumers can make healthier choices. The two predominant choice paradigms used in food decision-making research ask consumers to choose (a) between a "vice" (or unhealthy food) and a "virtue" (or healthy food) or (b) among varying portion sizes of "vice." We propose a new food choice paradigm that encourages consumers to jointly consider both food type(s) choice and food portion size at each decision point. The purpose of this paradigm is two-fold. First, it aims to allow examination of more comprehensive eating behavior (e.g., to examine the overall composition of a plate of food rather than choice of a single food). Second, it aims to shift consumers towards including large proportions of virtues and smaller proportions of vice in their overall consumption portfolios. For this paradigm, we draw upon a recently introduced food product innovation called "vice-virtue bundles" (Liu et al., 2015) that illustrates the basis of this new food choice paradigm, in which food type(s) and portion decisions are made simultaneously. Accordingly, we first discuss relevant findings on vice-virtue bundles as well as the differences between simultaneous and sequential choice of multiple products. Second, we examine the benefits for managing and controlling one's consumption that are provided by vice-virtue bundles and this joint food choice paradigm more generally. Third and finally, we point out opportunities for future research by discussing (a) multiple factors that influence food choices, (b) decision processes affected by food choice paradigms, and (c) issues of generalizability related to the presence of vice-virtue bundles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Anggraini, Roselynne; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Bardosono, Saptawati; Khusun, Helda; Worsley, Anthony
The aim of this study was to examine the associations of food store choice with food consumption among urban slum women. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 188 urban slum women (19-50 years old) in Jakarta, Indonesia. A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food consumption. Associations between food consumption and food store choice were tested by linear regression. This study found that frequencies of buying food from small shops (warung), street food vendors, and modern food stores were significantly associated with consumption of snacks, mixed dishes, and fruit respectively. In addition, buying food from traditional markets and small cafes (warung makan) was not significantly associated with particular types of food consumption. As modern food stores are rarely utilized by these women, small shops (warung) and street food vendors are likely to be important channels to improve slum dwellers' diet. © 2016 APJPH.
Full Text Available This project is about a form of corporate predation that entails both policy influence and cultural legitimation. Neoliberal explanations of the inability of citizens to thrive in the current socio- economic condition typically rest on a combination of victim-blaming and appeals to the individualistic rhetoric that assumes we all enjoy equality of opportunity and freedom of choice. It is common for corporate lobbyists, and politicians under their influence, to argue against consumer protection on the grounds that such efforts are paternalistic, and that they therefore undermine consumer sovereignty. By this logic, illnesses that are highly correlated to diet are problems that consumers can avoid, and it is not the duty of food companies or government to prevent consumers from making “bad choices.” Implicit in this moralistic narrative is that consumers have sufficient knowledge about the alternatives to enable them to make “good choices.” Major food lobbies use their political influence to oppose government regulations of food, based on the reasoning that consumers deserve the right to choose. Food industry groups also will sometimes invest heavily to prevent legal requirements to disclose information that might enable consumers to make informed choices, creating a predatory double-bind. In this essay, I discuss how the rhetoric of choice is employed by the food industry, how it is formulated within the political context of the United States, and how that rhetoric poses threats to food systems globally.
Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique
Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sommer, Isolde; Mackenzie, Heather; Venter, Carina; Dean, Taraneh
Understanding food choice behavior in adolescence is important because many core eating habits may be tracked into adulthood. The food choices of at least 2.3% of teenagers living in the United Kingdom are determined by food allergies. However, the effect of food allergies on eating habits in teenagers has not yet been studied. To provide an understanding of how teenagers with food allergies make food choice decisions and how these differ from those of non-food-allergic teenagers. One focus group discussion with non-food-allergic teenagers (n = 11) and 14 semistructured interviewers (7 with food-allergic and 7 with non-food-allergic teenagers) were performed (age range, 12-18 years). The focus group discussion and interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Teenagers from both groups (food-allergic and non-food-allergic) named sensory characteristics of foods as the main reason for choosing them. Some food-allergic teenagers downplayed their allergy and frequently engaged in risk-taking behavior in terms of their food choices. However, they reported difficulties in trying new foods, especially when away from home. Parental control was experienced as protective by those with food allergies, whereas non-food-allergic teenagers felt the opposite. Most teenagers, including food-allergic ones, expressed the wish to eat similar foods to their friends. Other themes did not vary between the 2 groups. Food-allergic teenagers strive to be able to make similar food choices to their friends, although differences to non-food-allergic teenagers exist. It is important to address these differences to improve their dietary management. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kotler, Jennifer A; Schiffman, Jennifer M; Hanson, Katherine G
Two experiments were conducted to assess the role of media characters in influencing children's food choices; the first focused on children's self-reported preference, whereas the second focused on actual choice. The results of the experiments suggest that popular characters can make a difference in encouraging children to select one food over another. In the first experiment, children were more likely to indicate a preference for one food over another when one was associated with characters that they liked and with whom they were familiar. This effect was particularly strong when a sugary or salty snack branded by a favored character was competing with a healthier option branded by an unknown character or no character. Alternatively, when children were asked to choose between a healthy food and a sugary or salty snack, branding of the healthy food with a favored character did not significantly change appeal of that healthy snack. However, when foods within the same category (i.e., 2 vegetables, 2 fruits, or 2 grains) were asked to compete against each other, character branding strongly influenced children's food choice. Findings from the second experiment suggest that children are more willing to try more pieces of a healthy food if a favored character, in comparison with an unknown character, is promoting that food.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Investigations of the contribution of food costs to socioeconomic inequalities in diet quality may have been limited by the use of estimated (vs. actual) food expenditures, not accounting for where individuals shop, and possible reverse mediation between food expenditures and healthiness of food choices. This study aimed to explore the extent to which food expenditure mediates socioeconomic inequalities in the healthiness of household food choices. Observational panel data on take-home food and beverage purchases, including expenditure, throughout 2010 were obtained for 24,879 UK households stratified by occupational social class. Purchases of (1) fruit and vegetables and (2) less-healthy foods/beverages indicated healthiness of choices. Supermarket choice was determined by whether households ever visited market-defined high-price and/or low-price supermarkets. Results showed that higher occupational social class was significantly associated with greater food expenditure, which was in turn associated with healthier purchasing. In mediation analyses, 63% of the socioeconomic differences in choices of less-healthy foods/beverages were mediated by expenditure, and 36% for fruit and vegetables, but these figures were reduced to 53% and 31% respectively when controlling for supermarket choice. However, reverse mediation analyses were also significant, suggesting that 10% of socioeconomic inequalities in expenditure were mediated by healthiness of choices. Findings suggest that lower food expenditure is likely to be a key contributor to less-healthy food choices among lower socioeconomic groups. However, the potential influence of cost may have been overestimated previously if studies did not account for supermarket choice or explore possible reverse mediation between expenditure and healthiness of choices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Secci, Maria E; Factor, Julie A; Schindler, Charles W; Panlilio, Leigh V
The choice to seek immediate drug effects instead of more meaningful but delayed rewards is a defining feature of addiction. To develop a rodent model of this behavior, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the prescription opioid oxycodone (50 μg/kg) and delayed delivery of palatable food pellets. Rats preferred food at delays up to 30 s, but they chose oxycodone and food equally at 60-s delay and preferred oxycodone over food at 120-s delay. Comparison of food-drug choice, food-only, and drug-only conditions indicated that food availability decreased drug intake, but drug availability increased food intake. In the food-only condition, food was effective as a reinforcer even when delayed by 120 s. Pre-session feeding with chow slowed acquisition of food and drug self-administration, but did not affect choice. To establish procedures for testing potential anti-addiction medications, noncontingent pre-treatment with oxycodone or naltrexone (analogous to substitution and antagonist therapies, respectively) were tested on a baseline in which oxycodone was preferred over delayed food. Naltrexone pre-treatment decreased drug intake and increased food intake. Oxycodone pre-treatment decreased drug intake, but also produced extended periods with no food or drug responding. These findings show that the contingencies that induce preference for drugs over more meaningful but less immediate rewards in humans can be modeled in rodents, and they suggest that the model could be useful for assessing the therapeutic potential of treatments and exploring the underlying behavioral and neural mechanisms involved in addiction.
Laura N Van der Laan
Full Text Available Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation patterns can predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices. More specifically, this was assessed in the context of package-induced binary food choices. Mass-univariate analyses showed that several regions, among which the bilateral striatum, were more strongly activated in response to preferred food packages. Food choices could be predicted with an accuracy of up to 61.2% by activation patterns in brain regions previously found to be involved in healthy food choices (superior frontal gyrus and visual processing (middle occipital gyrus. In conclusion, this study shows that mass-univariate analysis can detect small package-induced differences in product preference and that MVPA can successfully predict realistic low-involvement consumer choices from functional MRI data.
Full Text Available The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function; food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence; on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one; and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting. These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.
Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah
The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults’ perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63–90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants’ food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population. PMID:29584644
Whitelock, Emily; Ensaff, Hannah
The United Kingdom, in common with many countries, has an ageing demographic. Changes accompanying ageing can influence food choice and dietary habits. This study explored older adults' perceptions and practices related to dietary behaviour and the factors influencing their food choice in later life. Semi-structured focus-group discussions were conducted with 30 individuals (aged 63-90 years) in a UK city. An inductive thematic approach was adopted for data analysis, and 4 themes and 12 sub-themes emerged: age-related changes (lower appetite, food changes, declining physical function); food access (food cost, support with food, maintaining independence); on your own (cooking for one, eating alone, shopping for one); and relationship with food (food variety, eating what you want, dieting). These influenced participants' food acquisition, food preparation and cooking, as well as eating habits. Living alone and its substantial influence, as well as associated social isolation and loneliness, were highlighted in many of the discussions. Given the possible implications for nutritional intake, further work is recommended in this area. Likewise, steps should be taken to improve food access, increase opportunities for commensal eating and, fundamentally, address social isolation and loneliness in the older population.
Wahl, Deborah R.; Villinger, Karoline; König, Laura M.; Ziesemer, Katrin; Schupp, Harald T.; Renner, Britta
Research suggests that "healthy" food choices such as eating fruits and vegetables have not only physical but also mental health benefits and might be a long-term investment in future well-being. This view contrasts with the belief that high-caloric foods taste better, make us happy, and alleviate a negative mood. To provide a more comprehensive assessment of food choice and well-being, we investigated in-the-moment eating happiness by assessing complete, real life dietary behaviour across ei...
Markovina, J.; Stewart-Knox, B.J.; Rankin, A.; Gibney, M.; Almeida, M.D.V.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Kuznesof, S.A.; Poínhos, R.; Panzone, L.; Frewer, L.J.
This analysis has been conducted to explore the validity and reliability of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) across 9 European countries. Variation in the factor structure and the perceived importance of food choice motives have been compared cross-nationally. Volunteers (N = 9381) were recruited
Hui, Amy Leung; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Harvey, Dexter; Salamon, Elizabeth
To enhance the dietary education presented to women with gestational diabetes (GDM) by exploring the reasons and experiences that women with GDM reported in making their food-choice decisions after receipt of dietary education from a healthcare professional. Food Choice Map (FCM) semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women with GDM living in the Winnipeg area during their pregnancies. Verbatim transcripts were generated from the interviews. A constant comparative method was used to generate common themes to answer research inquiries. Personal food preferences, hunger and cravings were the main factors affecting food choice decision-making in women with GDM. Although the information from healthcare professionals was 1 factor that affected food choice decision-making for most of the participants, more than half of the women, including all the women who were on insulin, reported difficulties in quick adaptation to dietary management in a limited time period. Information from other sources such as family members, friends, and internet were used to cope with the adaptation. These difficulties led to a sense of decreased control of GDM and were accompanied by frustration, especially for women taking insulin. Food choice decision-making varied for this group of women with GDM. Knowledge and information aided in making healthy food choices and in portion control. However, balancing individual needs and blood glucose control in a short time period was felt to be difficult and created frustration. The findings suggested that dietary consultation needs to be personalized and to be time sensitive to promote confidence in self-control. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Charbonnier, Lisette; van der Laan, Laura N; Viergever, Max A; Smeets, Paul A M
We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI) studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low). Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (pre)cuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.
Full Text Available We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several food choice functional MRI (fMRI studies have been conducted, the effect of energy content on neural responses during food choice has, to our knowledge, not been investigated before. Our objective was to examine brain responses during food choices between equally liked high- and low-calorie foods in the absence of hunger. During a 10-min fMRI scan 19 normal weight volunteers performed a forced-choice task. Food pairs were matched on individual liking but differed in perceived and actual caloric content (high-low. Food choice compared with non-food choice elicited stronger unilateral activation in the left insula, superior temporal sulcus, posterior cingulate gyrus and (precuneus. This suggests that the food stimuli were more salient despite subject's low motivation to eat. The right superior temporal sulcus (STS was the only region that exhibited greater activation for high versus low calorie food choices between foods matched on liking. Together with previous studies, this suggests that STS activation during food evaluation and choice may reflect the food's biological relevance independent of food preference. This novel finding warrants further research into the effects of hunger state and weight status on STS, which may provide a marker of biological relevance.
This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological
Croker, H; Whitaker, K L; Cooke, L; Wardle, J
To evaluate the effect of social norms on intended fruit and vegetable intake. A two-stage design to i) compare the perceived importance of normative influences vs cost and health on dietary choices, and ii) test the prediction that providing information on social norms will increase intended fruit and vegetable consumption in an experimental study. Home-based interviews (N=1083; 46% men, 54% women) were carried out as part of the Office for National Statistics Omnibus Survey in November 2008. The public's perception of the importance of social norms was lower (M=2.1) than the perceived importance of cost (M=2.7) or health (M=3.4) (all p'scost information; none of the interventions affected women's intentions. People have little awareness of the influence of social norms but normative information can have a demonstrable impact on dietary intentions. Health promotion might profit from emphasising how many people are attempting to adopt healthy lifestyles rather than how many have poor diets.
Wordell, Doug; Daratha, Kenn; Mandal, Bidisha; Bindler, Ruth; Butkus, Sue Nicholson
Increasing rates of obesity among children ages 12 to 19 years have led to recommendations to alter the school food environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are associations between an altered school food environment and food choices of middle school students both in and outside of school. In a midsized western city, two of six middle schools allowed only bottled water in vending machines, only milk and fruit on à la carte menus, and offered a seasonal fruit and vegetable bar. Three years after the intervention was initiated, seventh- and eighth-grade students attending the two intervention schools and four control middle schools were surveyed about their food choices. A total of 2,292 surveys were completed. Self-reported frequency of consumption for nine food groups in the survey was low; consumption was higher outside than in school. Boys consumed more milk than girls although girls consumed more fruits and vegetables. Significant socioeconomic differences existed. Compared with students who paid the full lunch fee, students qualifying for free and reduced-price meals consumed more milk and juice in schools but less outside school; more candy and energy drinks in school; and more sweet drinks, candy, pastries, and energy drinks outside school. Students in intervention schools were 24% more likely to consume milk outside school, 27% less likely to consume juice in school, and 56% less likely to consume sweet pastries in school. There were no differences in fruit and vegetable consumption reported by children in control and intervention schools. Overall, there was a positive association between a modified school food environment and student food behavior in and outside school. Policies related to the school food environment are an important strategy to address the obesity epidemic in our country. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.
Krajbich, Ian; Hare, Todd; Bartling, Björn; Morishima, Yosuke; Fehr, Ernst
People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others’ benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making. PMID:26460812
Krajbich, Ian; Hare, Todd; Bartling, Björn; Morishima, Yosuke; Fehr, Ernst
People make numerous decisions every day including perceptual decisions such as walking through a crowd, decisions over primary rewards such as what to eat, and social decisions that require balancing own and others' benefits. The unifying principles behind choices in various domains are, however, still not well understood. Mathematical models that describe choice behavior in specific contexts have provided important insights into the computations that may underlie decision making in the brain. However, a critical and largely unanswered question is whether these models generalize from one choice context to another. Here we show that a model adapted from the perceptual decision-making domain and estimated on choices over food rewards accurately predicts choices and reaction times in four independent sets of subjects making social decisions. The robustness of the model across domains provides behavioral evidence for a common decision-making process in perceptual, primary reward, and social decision making.
Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Niven, Philippa; Chapman, Kathy; Crawford, David; Pratt, Iain S; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria; Morley, Belinda
The present study examined associations between food marketing exposure and adolescents' food choices and reported consumption of energy-dense and nutrient-poor (EDNP) foods. A cross-sectional survey of 12,188 Australian secondary students aged 12-17 years was conducted, using a web-based self-report questionnaire. Measures included students' level of exposure to commercial television and non-broadcast types of food marketing, whether they had tried a new product or requested a product they had seen advertised, and their reported consumption of fast food, sugary drinks and sweet and salty snacks. Results indicated greater exposure to commercial television, print/transport/school food marketing and digital food marketing were all independently associated with students' food choices. High commercial television viewers (>2h/day) were more likely to report higher consumption of EDNP foods (ORs ranged from 1.31 for fast food to 1.91 for sweet snacks). Some associations between digital food marketing exposure and students' eating behaviors were found; however, print/transport/school food marketing was only related to sweet snack consumption. These study results suggest that cumulative exposure to television food advertising and other food marketing sources are positively linked to adolescents' food choices and eating behaviors. Policy changes to restrict food marketing to young people should include both television and non-broadcast media. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanhonacker, Filiep; Van Loo, Ellen J; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim
Intensive agricultural practices and current western consumption patterns are associated with increased ecological pressure. One way to reduce the ecological impact could be a shift to more sustainable food choices. This study investigates consumer opinions towards a series of food choices with a lower ecological impact. The investigated food choices range from well-known meat substitutes to alternatives which are more radical or innovative and that require an adaptation of food habits and cultural patterns. Results are obtained through a survey among 221 Flemish respondents in Spring 2011. Many consumers underestimate the ecological impact of animal production. Well-known alternatives such as organic meat, moderation of meat consumption and sustainable fish are accepted, although willingness to pay is clearly lower than willingness to consume. Consumers are more reluctant to alternatives that (partly) ban or replace meat in the meal. Opportunities of introducing insects currently appear to be non-existent. Five consumer segments were identified based on self-evaluated ecological footprint and personal relevance of the ecological footprint. The segments were termed Conscious, Active, Unwilling, Ignorant and Uncertain. A profile in terms of demographics, attitudinal and behavioral characteristics is developed for each segments, and conclusions with respect to opportunities for sustainable food choices are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russell, Catherine G; Worsley, Anthony; Liem, Djin G
The objective was to investigate parents' motives for selecting foods for their children and the associations between these motives and children's food preferences. Cross-sectional survey. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to assess parents' food choice motives. Parents also reported children's liking/disliking of 176 food and beverage items on 5-point Likert scales. Patterns of food choice motives were examined with exploratory principal component analysis. Associations between motives and children's food preferences were assessed with linear regression while one-way and two-way ANOVA were used to test for sociodemographic differences. Two Australian cities. Parents (n 371) of 2-5-year-old children. Health, nutrition and taste were key motivators for parents, whereas price, political concerns and advertising were among the motives considered least important. The more parents' food choice for their children was driven by what their children wanted, the less children liked vegetables (β =-0·27, Pfoods (r=0·17, Pmotives (vegetables β=0·17, Pmotives bordered on statistical significance as predictors of children's fruit and vegetable preferences. Although parents appear well intentioned in their motives for selecting children's foods, there are gaps to be addressed in the nature of such motives (e.g. selecting foods in line with the child's desires) or the translation of health motives into healthy food choices.
Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian
Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Charbonnier, Lisette; Van Der Laan, Laura N.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M; Tregellas, Jason R.
We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several
Charbonnier, L.; Laan, van der L.N.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.
We are continuously exposed to food and during the day we make many food choices. These choices play an important role in the regulation of food intake and thereby in weight management. Therefore, it is important to obtain more insight into the mechanisms that underlie these choices. While several
Cristina Marreiros; Mitchell Ness
The aim of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for the analysis of consumer behaviour concerning the evaluation and choice of food products. The paper presents a review of theory on the processes of consumers' decision making and quality perception. Following this review, a theoretical framework is proposed that integrates the models of Engel, Blackwell and Miniard (1995), the main constructs of the Total Food Quality model of Grunert (1997), together with additional constructs an...
Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika
To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.
Beerman, K A; Jennings, G; Crawford, S
This study assessed the effect of student residence on food choices and dietary practices of students enrolled in an undergraduate nutrition class at Washington State University. We compared food consumption patterns of students living on campus, off campus, and in Greek housing. We also identified differences between men and women in food consumption and dietary practices. The results suggested that students' residence and sex may influence food choice and dietary practices. Significant differences in food choice related to students' residence were found for 8 of the 27 variables included on a food frequency list. Differences in the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables, beer, fish, unsweetened cereal, white bread, and cookies were identified. In addition, students who lived in Greek housing were found to skip meals less frequently than other students, and men were found to consume significantly more beer, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, meat, and white bread than women students. Men were also more accurate in their perception of their body weight.
Crossley, M L; Khan, S N
Differences in dental decay and disease amongst socioeconomic groups are thought to derive, in part, from variations in dietary practices and differences in education. The aim of this exploratory study was to examine whether differences in motivating factors affecting food choice could be found in a comparison of two groups at very different ends of the social spectrum: dentists and porters/cleaners. A convenience sample of 100 people (51 porters/cleaners and 49 dentists) working in the dental school at a university in the North West of England were approached to interview face-to-face and complete the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), a previously validated measure designed to assess nine main factors relevant to peoples' food choices. A sample size of 100 was chosen because it was adequate to test validity (using a two-group Chi-square test with a 0.050 two sided significance). Findings were analysed using independent sample t-test and multiple linear regression. Results indicated significant differences between porters/cleaners and dentists in terms of their motives for food choice on six of the nine FCQ factors. These included convenience (p motivational factors affecting food choice between different social groups is important to dental practitioners who are being taught to play an increasing role in health promotion. If dental practitioners are to partake meaningfully in such a role, it is necessary for them to be aware not only of their own motives in food selection, but also of the way in which those motives may differ from those of their clients.
Binnerts, W.T.; Hermsen, S.; Kamp, M. van der; Loyens, L.; Ruven, H.J.T.
A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of 131 I, 90 Sr and 137 Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs
Kornelis, M.; Herpen, van E.; Lans, van der I.A.; Aramyan, L.H.
Food companies, governments, and societal organizations use an increasing number of food-choice motives to persuade consumers to buy food products, and the question which combinations of motives matter for which type of consumer has become of central relevance. In this study, we use a concomitant
de Boer, J.; Hoogland, C.; Boersema, J.J.
This paper aims to improve our understanding of food choices that are more sustainable in terms of moral and health aspects of eating. The aim of sustainability may require that people in Western countries choose to eat smaller quantities of meat as well as types of meat that are produced in a more
Onwezen, M.C.; Reinders, M.J.; Verain, M.C.D.; Snoek, H.M.
Based on the multi-item Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) originally developed by Steptoe and colleagues (1995), the current study developed a single-item FCQ that provides an acceptable balance between practical needs and psychometric concerns. Studies 1 (N = 1851) and 2 (2a (N = 3290), 2b (N =
Incollingo Rodriguez, Angela C; Finch, Laura E; Buss, Julia; Guardino, Christine M; Tomiyama, A Janet
Laboratory research has found that individuals will consume more calories and make unhealthy food choices when in the presence of an overweight individual, sometimes even regardless of what that individual is eating. This study expanded these laboratory paradigms to the field to examine how weight salience influences eating in the real world. More specifically, we tested the threshold of the effect of weight salience of food choice to see if a more subtle weight cue (e.g., images) would be sufficient to affect food choice. Attendees (N = 262) at Obesity Week 2013, a weight-salient environment, viewed slideshows containing an image of an overweight individual, an image of a thin individual, or no image (text only), and then selected from complimentary snacks. Results of ordinal logistic regression analysis showed that participants who viewed the image of the overweight individual had higher odds of selecting the higher calorie snack compared to those who viewed the image of the thin individual (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.04, 3.04]), or no image (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = [1.29, 4.54]). Perceiver BMI category did not moderate the influence of image on food choice, as these results occurred regardless of participant BMI. These findings suggest that in the context of societal weight salience, weight-related cues alone may promote unhealthy eating in the general public. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The aim of the study was to evaluate educators' health behaviours regarding dietary intake and physical activity (PA). A survey was undertaken in 517 educators at 83 primary schools in the Western Cape. Food choices (healthy vs. unhealthy), PA levels, and health knowledge were measured by questionnaire. The six most ...
Consequently, we investigated the 50% and 95% kernel density home-range size and overlap as well as food choice of 10 radio-tracked Garden Warblers at Amurum, central Nigeria and Obudu, south-eastern Nigeria. Home-range overlap was estimated using the kernelUD function within the package adehabitat in R. The ...
Eating, drinking and food choices are among the most frequent human behaviours. Although seemingly simple, they are complex behaviours that are determined by many factors and their interactions. The complexity of the research field stresses the necessity to attack problems in an interdisciplinary
The need for more effective interventions to combat the obesity problem has been expressed by many public health experts. While consumer support is important for intervention effectiveness, little is known about why consumers accept or do not accept food choice interventions. The present thesis
Kandiah, Jay; Jones, Charlotte
Investigated the effect of a 3-week school-based nutrition education program on nutrition knowledge and healthy food choices of fifth graders randomly assigned to experimental or control group. Found that the experimental group exhibited a significant increase in nutrition knowledge from pretest to posttest and significant change in compliance in…
Syntesa, Heiner Lehr
The paper reviews patented and non-patented technologies, methods and solutions in the area of food traceability. It pays special attention to the communication of food safety, authenticity and consumer choice. Twenty eight recent patents are reviewed in the areas of (secure) identification, product freshness indicators, meat traceability, (secure) transport of information along the supply chain, country/region/place of origin, automated authentication, supply chain management systems, consumer interaction systems. In addition, solutions and pilot projects are described in the areas of Halal traceability, traceability of bird's nests, cold chain management, general food traceability and other areas.
Pechey, Rachel; Monsivais, Pablo
Both SES and supermarket choice have been associated with diet quality. This study aimed to assess the contributions of supermarket choice and shopping behaviors to the healthfulness of purchases and social patterning in purchases. Observational panel data on purchases of fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages from 2010 were obtained for 24,879 households, stratified by occupational social class (analyzed in 2014). Households' supermarket choice was determined by whether they ever visited market-defined high- or low-price supermarkets. Analyses also explored extent of use within supermarket choice groups. Shopping behaviors included trip frequency, trip size, and number of store chains visited. Households using low-price (and not high-price) supermarkets purchased significantly lower percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables and higher percentages of energy from less-healthy foods/beverages than households using high-price (and not low-price) supermarkets. When controlling for SES and shopping behaviors, the effect of supermarket choice was reduced but remained significant for both fruit and vegetables and less-healthy foods/beverages. The extent of use of low- or high-price supermarkets had limited effects on outcomes. More-frequent trips and fewer small trips were associated with healthier purchasing for both outcomes; visiting more store chains was associated with higher percentages of energy from fruit and vegetables. Although both supermarket choice and shopping behaviors are associated with healthfulness of purchases, neither appears to contribute to socioeconomic differences. Moreover, differences between supermarket environments may not be primary drivers of the relationship between supermarket choice and healthfulness of purchases. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tunstall, Brendan J; Riley, Anthony L; Kearns, David N
Although different classes of drug differ in their mechanisms of reinforcement and effects on behavior, little research has focused on differences in self-administration behaviors maintained by users of these drugs. Persistent drug choice despite available reinforcement alternatives has been proposed to model behavior relevant to addiction. The present study used a within-subjects procedure, where male rats (Long-Evans, N = 16) were given a choice between cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion) and food (a single 45-mg grain pellet) or between heroin (0.02 mg/kg/infusion) and food in separate phases (drug order counterbalanced). All rats were initially trained to self-administer each drug, and the doses used were based on previous studies showing that small subsets of rats tend to prefer drug over food reinforcement. The goal of the present study was to determine whether rats that prefer cocaine would also prefer heroin. Choice sessions consisted of 2 forced-choice trials with each reinforcer, followed by 14 free-choice trials (all trials separated by 10-min intertrial interval). Replicating previous results, small subsets of rats preferred either cocaine (5 of the 16 rats) or heroin (2 of the 16 rats) to the food alternative. Although 1 of the 16 rats demonstrated a preference for both cocaine and heroin to the food alternative, there was no relationship between degree of cocaine and heroin preference in individual rats. The substance-specific pattern of drug preference observed suggests that at least in this animal model, the tendencies to prefer cocaine or heroin in preference to a nondrug alternative are distinct behavioral phenomena.
Brandt, Mark J
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants' ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models that can make specific size predictions for this association. A quantitative model that used the perceived ideology of the target group as the primary predictor of the ideology-prejudice relationship was developed with a representative sample of Americans ( N = 4,940) and tested against models using the perceived status of and choice to belong to the target group as predictors. In four studies (total N = 2,093), ideology-prejudice associations were estimated, and these observed estimates were compared with the models' predictions. The model that was based only on perceived ideology was the most parsimonious with the smallest errors.
Provencher, Véronique; Jacob, Raphaëlle
Healthy eating is an important determinant of health, but adherence to dietary guidelines remains a public health concern. Identifying factors that impact dietary habits is therefore important to facilitate healthy eating. One widely used strategy to help consumers make healthier food choices is nutrition information, such as labeling and claims. Despite the intention of these strategies to improve decision making, they can also be misunderstood or misinterpreted by consumers. The aim of this review is to explore food perceptions by examining how cognitive factors influence perceived healthiness of food, and the impact of perceived healthiness of food on food choices and intake. Overall findings of this review suggest that cognitive factors, such as type of food and branding, significantly contribute to judgmental bias and have an impact on perceived healthiness while not consistently or systematically influencing choice and intake.
Vlaev, Ivo; Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Müller, Ulrich; Robbins, Trevor W
Serotonin has been implicated in promoting self-control, regulation of hunger and physiological homeostasis, and regulation of caloric intake. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of serotonin on caloric intake reflect purely homeostatic mechanisms, or whether serotonin also modulates cognitive processes involved in dietary decision making. We investigated the effects of an acute dose of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on choices between food items that differed along taste and health attributes, compared with placebo and the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine. Twenty-seven participants attended three sessions and received single doses of atomoxetine, citalopram, and placebo in a double-blind randomised cross-over design. Relative to placebo, citalopram increased choices of more healthy foods over less healthy foods. Citalopram also increased the emphasis on health considerations in decisions. Atomoxetine did not affect decision making relative to placebo. The results support the hypothesis that serotonin may influence food choice by enhancing a focus on long-term goals. The findings are relevant for understanding decisions about food consumption and also for treating health conditions such as eating disorders and obesity.
Pelly, Fiona E; Burkhart, Sarah J; Dunn, Peter
Although the nutrient requirements and dietary intake of athletes have been thoroughly investigated, little is known about the influences on their food choice, particularly prior to and during competition. This study sought to investigate factors that influence food selection of athletes at two similar international competition events: the Melbourne 2006 and Delhi 2010 Commonwealth Games. A secondary aim was to explore differences in these factors between at each event given the culturally diverse locations. A survey developed for this study was distributed to athletes in the village dining hall at both events. Athletes scored a selection of factors influencing food choice on a scale of 1 (not important) to 5 (very important). A total of 769 individuals completed the questionnaire in total, with 351 (46%) from Delhi and 418 (54%) from Melbourne. Overall, athletes rated nutrient composition (M = 4.22), stage of competition (M = 4.09), time of day (M = 4.02) and familiarity of the food (M = 4.07) higher than sensory properties (smell M = 3.88; visual appearance M = 3.22) when making a food selection. Visual appearance (p = 0.01), stage of competition (p food (p motives for food section of athletes from a range of sports and cultures is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schickenberg, B; van Assema, P; Brug, J; de Vries, N K
The purpose of this study was to assess whether the availability of a product sample of an unfamiliar low-fat or fruit and vegetable products stimulates choice for this product among food neophobic young adults. The study had a 2 (experimental vs. control group) by 4 (low-fat bread spread, low-fat cheese, fruit juice, fruit and vegetable juice) between subjects design with a pre-and post-experiment questionnaire. The study was conducted in restaurant rooms of several educational institutions in the Netherlands among a convenience sample of 197 food neophobic young adults aged 17-25 years. A small bite or sip-sized sample of the target product was provided as an intervention. The effect measure was choice of either an unfamiliar healthful food product or a traditional food product. Offering a sample of an unfamiliar healthful food product resulted in 51% of the participants in the experimental group choosing this product vs. 36.4% in the control group. Providing food product samples seems to be a promising strategy in healthy diet promotion programs for food neophobic young adults to increase first-time trial of unfamiliar low-fat and fruit and vegetable products. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang
The present study explores whether presenting specific palatable foods in close temporal proximity of stop signals in a go/no-go task decreases subsequent evaluations of such foods among participants with a relatively high appetite. Furthermore, we tested whether any decreased evaluations could mediate subsequent food choice. Participants first received a go/no-go task in which palatable foods were consistently linked to go cues or no-go cues within participants. Next, evaluation of the palatable foods was measured as well as food choice. Replicating previous work, results show that among participants with a relatively high appetite palatable foods associated with no-go cues are less often chosen as snacks compared to when these foods are associated with go cues, whereas this manipulation did not affect participants with a relatively low appetite. Moreover, this effect was completely mediated by decreased evaluation of the palatable foods that had been associated with the no-go cues, whereas evaluation of the foods associated with go cues did not mediate this effect. Results further showed that the devaluation effect of foods associated with no-go cues was independent of the amount of pairings (4 vs. 12 vs. 24) with the no-go cues. The current findings suggest that decreased food evaluation is a mechanism that explains effects of stop signals on food choice. PMID:24324451
Robinson, Eric; Blissett, Jackie; Higgs, Suzanne
Novel ways to increase liking and intake of food are needed to encourage acceptance of healthier food. How enjoyable we remember food to have been is likely to be a significant predictor of food choice. Two studies examined whether remembered enjoyment of eating a food can be increased and whether this makes individuals more likely to eat that food in the future. In Study One, a simple manipulation of instructing participants to rehearse what they found enjoyable about a food immediately after eating it was used to increase remembered enjoyment (relative to controls). In a separate study; Study Two, the effect of increasing remembered enjoyment on food choice was tested by examining whether the manipulation to increase remembered enjoyment resulted in participants choosing to eat more of a food as part of a later buffet lunch. The experimental manipulation increased remembered enjoyment for the food (Study One). A change in remembered enjoyment was shown to have a significant effect on the amount of a food participants chose to eat the following day for lunch (Study Two). The present studies suggest that remembered enjoyment can be increased via a simple act of rehearsal, resulting in a later increase in the amount of food chosen and eaten. Interventions based on altering remembered enjoyment of healthy food choices warrant further investigation.
Bagley, Jared R; Adams, Julia; Bozadjian, Rachel V; Bubalo, Lana; Ploense, Kyle L; Kippin, Tod E
Estradiol modulates the rewarding and reinforcing properties of cocaine in females, including an increase in selection of cocaine over alternative reinforcers. However, the effects of estradiol on male cocaine self-administration behavior are less studied despite equivalent levels of estradiol in the brains of adult males and females, estradiol effects on motivated behaviors in males that share underlying neural substrates with cocaine reinforcement as well as expression of estrogen receptors in the male brain. Therefore, we sought to characterize the effects of estradiol in males on choice between concurrently-available cocaine and food reinforcement as well as responding for cocaine or food in isolation. Male castrated rats (n=46) were treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) (5μg/0.1, S.C.) or vehicle (peanut oil) throughout operant acquisition of cocaine (1mg/kg, IV; FI20 sec) and food (3×45mg; FI20 sec) responding, choice during concurrent access and cocaine and food reinforcement under progressive ratio (PR) schedules. EB increased cocaine choice, both in terms of percent of trials on which cocaine was selected and the proportion of rats exhibiting a cocaine preference as well as increased cocaine, but not food, intake under PR. Additionally, within the EB treated group, cocaine-preferring rats exhibited enhanced acquisition of cocaine, but not food, reinforcement whereas no acquisition differences were observed across preferences in the vehicle treated group. These findings demonstrate that estradiol increases cocaine choice in males similarly to what is observed in females. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zimmerman, Frederick J; Shimoga, Sandhya V
Background Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Methods Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or n...
Nicholson, Jody S; Barton, Jennifer M; Simons, Ali L
To investigate whether preschoolers are able to identify and categorize foods, and whether their ability to classify food as healthy predicts their hypothetical food choice. Structured interviews and body measurements with preschoolers, and teacher reports of classroom performance. Six Head Start centers in a large southeastern region. A total of 235 preschoolers (mean age [SD], 4.73 [0.63] years; 45.4% girls). Teachers implemented a nutrition education intervention across the 2014-2015 school year in which children were taught to identify and categorize food as sometimes (ie, unhealthy) and anytime (ie, healthy). Preschooler responses to a hypothetical snack naming, classifying, and selection scenario. Hierarchical regression analyses to examine predictors of child hypothetical food selection. While controlling for child characteristics and cognitive functioning, preschoolers who were better at categorizing food as healthy or unhealthy were more likely to say they would choose the healthy food. Low-contrast food pairs in which food had to be classified based on multiple dimensions were outside the cognitive abilities of the preschoolers. Nutrition interventions may be more effective in helping children make healthy food choices if developmental limitations in preschoolers' abilities to categorize food is addressed in their curriculum. Classification of food into evaluative categories is challenging for this age group. Categorizing on multiple dimensions is difficult, and dichotomous labeling of food as good or bad is not always accurate in directing children toward making food choices. Future research could evaluate further preschoolers' developmental potential for food categorization and nutrition decision making and consider factors that influence healthy food choices at both snack and mealtime. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zoltak, Michael J; Veling, Harm; Chen, Zhang; Holland, Rob W
People choose high value food items over low value food items, because food choices are guided by the comparison of values placed upon choice alternatives. This value comparison process is also influenced by the amount of attention people allocate to different items. Recent research shows that choices for food items can be increased by training attention toward these items, with a paradigm named cued-approach training (CAT). However, previous work till now has only examined the influence of CAT on choices between two equally valued items. It has remained unclear whether CAT can increase choices for low value items when people choose between a low and high value food item. To address this question in the current study participants were cued to make rapid responses in CAT to certain low and high value items. Next, they made binary choices between low and high value items, where we systematically varied whether the low and high value items were cued or uncued. In two experiments, we found that participants overall preferred high over low value food items for real consumption. More important, their choices for low value items increased when only the low value item had been cued in CAT compared to when both low and high value items had not been cued. Exploratory analyses revealed that this effect was more pronounced for participants with a relatively small value difference between low and high value items. The present research thus suggests that CAT may be used to boost the choice and consumption of low value items via enhanced attention toward these items, as long as the value difference is not too large. Implications for facilitating choices for healthy food are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thorndike, Anne N; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M; Levy, Douglas E
Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Longitudinal pre-post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Large hospital cafeteria with a mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) a longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. After a 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy); yellow (less healthy); or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (pchoice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting that food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.
Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.
Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare)
Food is a focus of social interaction ... the role of other influences on food choice. ... Results indicated statistically significant differences in terms of food choice .... This interpretation would support the argument that ... Gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the .... eating behavior and body weight regulation.
Vigi, V; Fanaro, S
The incidence of allergic diseases appears to be on the increase in industrialized societies. In infants at high risk for atopic diseases prevention in early life seems to be a high priority at this time. However, many questions remain to be answered because, in the absence of breast feeding which should be encouraged in all infants, substitute formula employed for prevention should guarantee the following requisites: optimal nutrition, reduced allergenicity or better hypoallergenicity, good palatability and low cost. Current concepts in the field of prophylaxis and diet therapy of food allergy are reviewed. Special emphasis is given to the biochemical, nutritional and antigenic properties of the different formulas employed in the management of these conditions.
Wang, Ou; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Verbeke, Wim
The demand for European (-style) foods in mainland China has been increasing dramatically during the last decade. Nevertheless, European food producers often appear to be not capable to fully exploit this huge market potential, partially due to the competition with traditional (Chinese) foods. This study examines the determinants of mainland Chinese consumers' choice of traditional food and European food. A web-based survey was administered with 541 consumers from two cities: Shanghai and Xi'an. Thereby, the Food Choice Motives model, predominantly used thus far in a European or developed context, is applied to mainland China in order to address the lack of knowledge on food motives of its consumer market and to detect associations between these motives, attitudes, and purchase intentions. Factor analysis resulted in a new Food Choice Motive construct that is considered more appropriate within the context of mainland Chinese consumers, encompassing six dimensions: Health concern, Time or money saving, Sensory appeal, Availability and familiarity, Mood and Food safety concern. Path analysis demonstrated that Time or money saving was negatively associated with attitude toward traditional food on the one hand and purchase intentions toward European food on the other hand. Availability and familiarity had a positive association with attitude toward traditional food. Mood was a positive factor driving attitude toward European food. For both food types, Sensory appeal and Attitude were positively linked to purchase intentions. Furthermore, Mood was negatively linked to the purchase intention toward traditional food in Shanghai. Food safety concern was positively associated with attitudes toward traditional food in Xi'an. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ensaff, Hannah; Coan, Susan; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Akter, Humaira; McLeod, Helen
A diet dominated by plant foods, with limited amounts of refined processed foods and animal products conveys substantial health benefits. This study sought to explore adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions towards plant-based foods. Semi-structured focus group interviews were conducted with adolescents (age 14–15 years) (n = 29) attending an inner city school in Yorkshire, UK. Using a grounded theory methodology, data analysis provided four main categories and related concepts revolving around adolescents’ perspectives on plant-based foods: food choice parameters; perceived drivers and benefits of plant-based foods; environmental food cues; barriers to plant-based food choice. In the emergent grounded theory, a clear disconnect between plant-based foods and the parameters that adolescents use to make food choices, is highlighted. Further, key barriers to adolescents adopting a plant-based diet are differentiated and considered with respect to practice and policy. The analysis offers a framework to remodel and re-present plant-based foods. In this way, it is proposed that a closer connection is possible, with consequent shifts in adolescents’ dietary behaviour towards a more plant-based diet and associated health benefits. PMID:26066012
Mötteli, Sonja; Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael; Barbey, Jana; Bucher, Tamara
Little is known about laypeople's practical understanding of a healthy diet, although this is important to successfully promote healthy eating. The present study is the first to experimentally examine how consumers define healthy and balanced food choices for an entire day compared with normal choices and compared with dietary guidelines. We used an extensive fake food buffet (FFB) with 179 foods commonly consumed in the Swiss diet. The FFB is a validated method to investigate food choice behaviour in a well-controlled laboratory setting. People from the general population in Switzerland (n 187; 51·9 % females), aged between 18 and 65 years, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the control group, the participants were instructed to serve themselves foods they would eat on a normal day, whereas in the 'healthy' group they were instructed to choose foods representing a healthy diet. Participants chose significantly more healthy foods, with 4·5 g more dietary fibre, 2 % more protein and 2 % less SFA in the 'healthy' group compared with the control group. However, in both experimental conditions, participants served themselves foods containing twice as much sugar and salt than recommended by dietary guidelines. The results suggest that laypeople lack knowledge about the recommended portion sizes and the amounts of critical nutrients in processed food, which has important implications for communicating dietary guidelines. Furthermore, the energy of the food served was substantially correlated with the energy needs of the participants, demonstrating the potential of the fake food buffet method.
Marquis, Marie; Wright, Jessica
The relationships are explored between food choices of school-aged children and eating in the bedroom, while watching television, or in front of the computer. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that 534 subjects completed in class. Participants were ten- to 12-year-old children from Québec. Significant positive correlations were found between the act of eating in the bedroom and eating in front of the television or the computer (peating in the bedroom, or eating in front of the television or the computer, and the consumption of low-density food, foods high in sugar and fat, and foods low in fibre (phabits for boys than for girls (pgender differences.
Full Text Available The modern consumer has become more attentive when taking the decision to purchase food due to the controversies in the food industry, the impact of social media and more intense relationship between consumed products and health. The nutritional information on the label has become an important element guiding the successful choice of food products. Thus, the consumer tries to process this information based on his intellectual and financial resources. This research aims to determine the degree of comprehensibility of the information displayed on food labels, to evaluate its nutritional profile and to highlight a possible antithesis of the perceived favourable image and the nutritional value “de facto” of those goods. In order to implement this approach there were conducted exploratory marketing researches, using the questionnaire and the method SAIN-LIM.
Nørgaard, Maria; Brunsø, Karen
with food‐related conflicts, conflict resolutions or specific influence techniques with a focus on parents and tweens in family decision‐making. This article focuses on parents and tweens’ joint decision processes in evaluation and choice of food, specifically conflicts and conflict resolution. Assumptions......Previous studies on family decision‐making show that not only parents but also children participate actively in and achieve influence on the decision process, for instance during food buying. When decision‐making includes several active participants, conflicts may occur, but not much research deals...
Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B
This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.
Grunert, Klaus G.
Consumer food choice is framed in terms of the formation of quality expectations before and quality experience after the purchase. For the formation of quality expectations, lack of consumer ability to form expectations that will be predictive of later experience is mentioned as a problem......-called credence qualities - qualities which are invisible to the consumer both before and after the purchase. Such qualities provide a challenge for communication about the product, not only to induce consumers to buy the product, but also to reinforce their choice after the purchase. Concerning experienced...... quality after the purchase, the role of home production - turning products into meals - is mentioned as important, but underresearced topic. Finally, differences in consumer behaviour between normal situations and situations of food crises are addressed. Udgivelsesdato: AUG...
Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Guerrero, Luis; Hersleth, Margrethe
This study investigates the association between traditional food consumption and motives for food choice in six European countries. Cross-sectional data were collected through the TRUEFOOD pan-European consumer survey (n = 4828) with samples representative for age, gender and region in Belgium, France, Italy, Norway, Poland and Spain. Importance attached to familiarity with a product is found to be strongly and positively associated with general attitude toward traditional food as well as traditional food consumption. The importance attached to convenience was negatively related to both general attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption, while the importance of weight control negatively influenced the general attitude. Natural content of food was positively associated with the attitude toward traditional food and traditional food consumption. The importance of price when purchasing food failed to be significantly related with general attitude and traditional food consumption both for the pooled sample as well as within each country except in Spain. The proposed model contributes to a better understanding of factors shaping the image and influencing the consumption of traditional foods in Europe. General attitude toward traditional foods, familiarity, and importance of food naturalness emerged as drivers for traditional food consumption. Importance attached to convenience and health acted as direct barriers to traditional food consumption, whereas importance of weight control emerged as an indirect barrier through lowering general attitude toward traditional foods.
Blanck, Heidi M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.; Yi, Sarah L.; Zhang, Jian; Masse, Louise C.
There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch [greater than or equal] 2…
Levy, Douglas E.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Barraclough, Susan J.; Thorndike, Anne N.
Background Effective strategies are needed to address obesity, particularly among minority and low-income individuals. Purpose To test whether a two-phase point-of-purchase intervention improved food choices across racial, socioeconomic (job type) groups. Design A 9-month longitudinal study from 2009 to 2010 assessing person-level changes in purchases of healthy and unhealthy foods following sequentially introduced interventions. Data were analyzed in 2011. Setting/participants Participants were 4642 employees of a large hospital in Boston MA who were regular cafeteria patrons. Interventions The first intervention was a traffic light–style color-coded labeling system encouraging patrons to purchase healthy items (labeled green) and avoid unhealthy items (labeled red). The second intervention manipulated “choice architecture” by physically rearranging certain cafeteria items, making green-labeled items more accessible, red-labeled items less accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of green- (or red-) labeled items purchased by an employee. Subanalyses tracked beverage purchases, including calories and price per beverage. Results Employees self-identified as white (73%), black (10%), Latino (7%), and Asian (10%). Compared to white employees, Latino and black employees purchased a higher proportion of red items at baseline (18%, 28%, and 33%, respectively, p0.05 for interaction between race or job type and intervention). Mean calories per beverage decreased similarly over the study period for all racial groups and job types, with no increase in per-beverage spending. Conclusions Despite baseline differences in healthy food purchases, a simple color-coded labeling and choice architecture intervention improved food and beverage choices among employees from all racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:22898116
Thorndike, Anne N; Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E
We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. At baseline (977,793 items, including 199,513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention.
Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Sonnenberg, Lillian M.; Levy, Douglas E.
Background Preventing obesity requires maintenance of healthy eating behaviors over time. Food labels and strategies that increase visibility and convenience of healthy foods (choice architecture) promote healthier choices, but long-term effectiveness is unknown. Purpose Assess effectiveness of traffic-light labeling and choice architecture cafeteria intervention over 24 months. Design Longitudinal pre–post cohort follow-up study between December 2009 and February 2012. Data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants Large hospital cafeteria with mean of 6511 transactions daily. Cafeteria sales were analyzed for: (1) all cafeteria customers and (2) longitudinal cohort of 2285 hospital employees who used the cafeteria regularly. Intervention After 3-month baseline period, cafeteria items were labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy) or red (unhealthy) and rearranged to make healthy items more accessible. Main outcome measures Proportion of cafeteria sales that were green or red during each 3-month period from baseline to 24 months. Changes in 12- and 24-month sales were compared to baseline for all transactions and transactions by the employee cohort. Results The proportion of sales of red items decreased from 24% at baseline to 20% at 24 months (p<0.001), and green sales increased from 41% to 46% (p<0.001). Red beverages decreased from 26% of beverage sales at baseline to 17% at 24 months (p<0.001); green beverages increased from 52% to 60% (p<0.001). Similar patterns were observed for the cohort of employees, with largest change for red beverages (23% to 14%, p<0.001). Conclusions A traffic-light and choice architecture cafeteria intervention resulted in sustained healthier choices over 2 years, suggesting food environment interventions can promote long-term changes in population eating behaviors. PMID:24439347
Louise Holmberg; John Coveney; Julie Henderson; Samantha Meyer
BackgroundTo identify factors that determine the nature and extent ofyoung consumers trust in food; sources of information whichinfluence young consumer food choices; and how trustimpacts on young people’s food choices.MethodIn-depth qualitative research interviews were conducted withyoung women and men, who are the primary food purchasersin their household (n=8)ResultsFood choices of young adults were generally determined bycost and convenience. The overall perception was thatAustralian food...
Ting, Hiram; Tan, Sharon; Alexandra Nastassia, John
Background: The awareness and trying of ethnic cuisine have increased due to the developing exchange of trade, movement of ethnicities across the globe, and tourist traveling opportunities. More people consume ethnic food for the appreciation of the culture and taste. Although the Dayaks are the largest indigenous group in Malaysia, little is done to date to explicate why Malaysians consume Dayak food. The present study aims to investigate the Dayak food choice of non-Dayak Malaysians and to ...
... Protein 15g Total Amounts To make heart-healthy food choices, look at the totals and cut back on • ... Toolkit No. 8: Protect Your Heart: Make Smart Food Choices • Toolkit No. 9: Protect Your Heart: Choose Fats ...
Nord, Mark; Hopwood, Heather
The cost of “enough food,” estimated from the amount that low- and medium-income households in a geographic area report needing to spend to just meet their food needs, differs substantially across States and among metropolitan areas. In areas with high food costs, many food-stamp recipients are likely to have inadequate food resources to support healthy food choices.
Huskinson, Sally L; Woolverton, William L; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Freeman, Kevin B
Research on delay discounting has focused largely on nondrug reinforcers in an isomorphic context in which choice is between alternatives that involve the same type of reinforcer. Less often, delay discounting has been studied with drug reinforcers in a more ecologically valid allomorphic context where choice is between alternatives involving different types of reinforcers. The present experiment is the first to examine discounting of drug and nondrug reinforcers in both isomorphic and allomorphic situations using a theoretical model (i.e., the hyperbolic discounting function) that allows for comparisons of discounting rates between reinforcer types and amounts. The goal of the current experiment was to examine discounting of a delayed, nondrug reinforcer (food) by male rhesus monkeys when the immediate alternative was either food (isomorphic situation) or cocaine (allomorphic situation). In addition, we sought to determine whether there was a magnitude effect with delayed food in the allomorphic situation. Choice of immediate food and immediate cocaine increased with amount and dose, respectively. Choice functions for immediate food and cocaine generally shifted leftward as delay increased. Compared to isomorphic situations in which food was the immediate alternative, delayed food was discounted more steeply in allomorphic situations where cocaine was the immediate alternative. Notably, discounting was not affected by the magnitude of the delayed reinforcer. These data indicate that how steeply a delayed nondrug reinforcer is discounted may depend more on the qualitative characteristics of the immediate reinforcer and less on the magnitude of the delayed one. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Allirot, Xavier; Maiz, Edurne; Urdaneta, Elena
Involving children in the different steps of meal preparation has been suggested as a strategy for enhancing dietary habits in childhood. It has previously been shown that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct their food choices towards foods containing vegetables. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in food purchasing on food choices, intake, liking and appetite. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 86 children (from 8 to 10 years old). Forty-three children (PURCHASE group) participated in a workshop dedicated to purchasing the necessary ingredients online for the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple and beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. Forty-three children (CONTROL group) participated instead in a creativity workshop. Afterwards, all the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple and beetroot juice, potatoes vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the PURCHASE (0.70 ± 0.14) vs. CONTROL (0.19 ± 0.07) group (P = 0.003). The liking for 1 of the 3 unfamiliar foods was higher in the PURCHASE group (P < 0.05). We did not find any difference between the two groups in food intake estimation and in the levels of subjective appetite. This study demonstrates that involving children in purchasing food can help in directing their food choices towards unfamiliar foods containing vegetables. It highlights the importance of involving children in the different steps of meal preparation for decreasing food neophobia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J
This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stasi, A; Songa, G; Mauri, M; Ciceri, A; Diotallevi, F; Nardone, G; Russo, V
Consumers' food choices are often driven by reasons of which consumers are not fully aware. Decision-making about food is influenced by a complex set of emotions, feelings, attitudes, and values that are impossible to assess simply by asking consumers their opinions. Indeed, traditional techniques, such as self-reports or interviews, mainly allow the measurement of conscious and rational reactions to a product or advertising. Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the multidisciplinary field of "neuromarketing," which takes advantage of neuroscientific techniques to study consumer behavior. This discipline applies neuroscientific methods and tools that allow the measurement of consumers' emotional and spontaneous reactions in a more objective and observable way. The aim of this paper is (a) to describe neuromarketing's underlying assumptions, techniques, and the advantages of this perspective, examining the scientific literature on the use of neuromarketing in food studies; and (b) to suggest best practices to apply this novel approach in the food marketing domain, with a specific focus on non-invasive methods. Finally, although the perception of nutritional elements has already been explored, the health content of labels, the presence of additives, and the evaluation of the information conveyed by food packaging remain other possible elements of interest in future food neuromarketing research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Binnerts, W T; Hermsen, S; Kamp, M van der; Loyens, L; Ruven, H J.T.
A preceding study revealed much difference among a selected number of radioisotopes in the passing of the food chains. The present study confirms the possibility to reduce radioactivity intake by a careful food choice. The physiology of metabolism of /sup 131/I, /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs, and other radionuclides is shortly recapitulated. Discrimination and speciation are seen to be main factors in reduction or enrichment in animal food products. Several calculations are given relating intake of radioactivity and food sources. Risk factors are mentioned, as well as the psychology around them. Although it is not urgent, it seems possible to reduce the intake of radioactivity by individuals, mainly by preference for animal products (except milk during the first weeks of a nuclear incident), and by consumption of refined food instead of 'health products'. For mankind as a whole, the popular conceptions about risk and health food need to be studied first and to be redressed, eventually. 13 refs.; 1 figure; 3 tabs.
Mancino, Lisa; Andrews, Margaret S.
With obesity the most prevalent nutrition problem facing Americans at all economic levels, promoting diets that provide adequate nutrition without too many calories has become an important objective for the Food Stamp Program. Findings from behavioral economics suggest innovative, low-cost ways to improve the diet quality of food stamp participants without restricting their freedom of choice. Unlike more traditional economic interventions, such as changing prices or banning specific foods, th...
Mueller Loose, Simone; Remaud, Hervé
Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims and their ......Purpose - The study assesses the impact of two different corporate social responsibility (CSR) claims, relating to social and environmental dimensions, on consumers’ wine choice across international markets. It is analysed how point of purchase CSR claims compete with other food claims...... Eastcoast, the US Midwest, Anglophone and Francophone Canada. Findings - CSR claims relating to social and environmental responsibility have a similar awareness, penetration and consumer trust, but differ in their impact on consumer choice, where environmental corporate responsibility claims benefit from...... a higher marginal willingness to pay. Consumer valuation of CSR claims significantly differs across international markets, but is consistently lower than for organic claims. Research limitations/implications - The study was limited to wine and future research is required to generalise findings to other...
Previous studies examining food choice from a cross-cultural perspective were based primarily on quantitative research using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). This study suggests ethnography as a complementary research method in cross-cultural food choice studies. While use of the FCQ resulted in findings of cultural differences in food choice processes, within a preliminary motive list, ethnography allows the exploration of new, possibly culture-specific motives for food choice. Moreover, ethnography allows a deeper understanding of the cultural background of food choice processes in a studied culture. Using Japan as a case study, this research demonstrates the use of ethnography to argue that variety is a primary motive for food choice in contemporary Japanese culture. Variety is hence regarded here as a part of a larger food culture attribute, an "adventurous palate," which can also provide a background for previous FCQ findings (Prescott, Young, O'neill, Yau, & Stevens, 2002). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael; van der Horst, Klazine
We examined associations between snack frequency, sociodemographic characteristics, BMI, dietary and eating behaviour. In order to identify whether various subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers exist, we investigated underlying food patterns and lifestyle factors. The data were based on the Swiss Food Panel Questionnaire of 2010, which included an FFQ, questions relating to sociodemographics and lifestyle factors. Data were examined using ANOVA, regression analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Gender differences were also investigated in the analysis of the data. A sample of 6189 adults participating in the Swiss Food Panel filled in a questionnaire (response rate 30%). The sample consisted of both men and women, with a mean age of 54?4 (SD 13?5) years. There was no association between snack frequency and BMI. Consumption frequency of sweets and savouries as well as fruit intake increased with increasing snack frequency. Additionally, three different subgroups of high-frequency snack consumers could be revealed: healthy, moderate and unhealthy dietary-pattern groups. The latter included respondents who were less health-conscious and was characterized by high alcohol consumption frequency, daily breakfast skipping and watching television during the main meal. High snack frequency occurred in the context of healthy as well as unhealthy dietary behaviour and lifestyle patterns. Women made healthier dietary food choices and were more likely to consume fruits as snacks, while men chose unhealthy foods, such as sweets and savouries, more often.
Drewnowski, Adam; Darmon, Nicole
Obesity in the United States is a socioeconomic issue. It is related to limited social and economic resources and may be linked to disparities in access to healthy foods. Added sugars and added fats are far more affordable than are the recommended "healthful" diets based on lean meats, whole grains, and fresh vegetables and fruit. There is an inverse relationship between energy density of foods (kJ/g) and energy cost ($/MJ), such that energy-dense grains, fats, and sweets represent the lowest-cost dietary options to the consumer. Good taste, high convenience, and the low cost of energy-dense foods, in conjunction with large portions and low satiating power, may be the principal reasons for overeating and weight gain. Financial disparities in access to healthier diets may help explain why the highest rates of obesity and diabetes are found among minorities and the working poor. If so, then encouraging low-income households to consume more costly foods is not an effective strategy for public health. What is needed is a comprehensive policy approach that takes behavioral nutrition and the economics of food choice into account.
Boztug, Yasemin; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Elshiewy, Ossama
focus on consumer attention to labels and very few studies concentrate on effects on actual purchase behavior. In this study we report the results from an analysis of scanner data provided by a large UK retailer and the conclusion is that GDA label introduction does not have the expected consequences......Front of pack (FOP) nutrition labeling has received extensive political attention within the last years. The European Commission is proposing to make FOP nutrition labeling mandatory in order to guide consumers to make healthier food choices. Most of the studies of the effects on nutrition labeling...
Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M.
We evaluate the effect of differences in child care and food environments on obesity among children in the age group of four to six years. To address non-random selection of children into different child care settings, we first predict market price of child care and market wages, and then examine how these affect choice of child care settings and the amount of time children spend in different settings. Using panel data models, we analyze the role of care settings on frequency of consumption o...
Hodgkins, Charo E.
Background: Food composition data, front-of-pack nutrition labelling and nutrition and health claims have an important role to play in the development of appropriate policy, regulation and public health interventions ultimately aimed at reducing the burden of diet-related chronic disease. The overarching aim of this thesis is to explore whether the communication of healthier food choice through front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition labelling and health claims can be enhanced by the development of con...
Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès
Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Christina; Dohle, Simone; Siegrist, Michael
A cooking skill scale was developed to measure cooking skills in a European adult population, and the relationship between cooking skills and the frequency of consumption of various food groups were examined. Moreover, it was determined which sociodemographic and psychological variables predict cooking skills. The data used in the present study are based on the first (2010) and second (2011) surveys of a yearly paper-and-pencil questionnaire (Swiss Food Panel). Data from 4436 participants (47.2% males) with a mean age of 55.5 years (SD=14.6, range 21-99) were available for analysis. The cooking skills scale was validated using a test-retest analysis, confirming that this new scale is a reliable and consistent instrument. Cooking enjoyment was the most important predictor for cooking skills, especially for men. Women had higher cooking skills in all age groups. Cooking skills correlated positively with weekly vegetable consumption, but negatively with weekly convenience food consumption frequency, even while holding the effect of health consciousness related to eating constant. In summary, cooking skills may help people to meet nutrition guidelines in their daily nutrition supply. They allow people to make healthier food choices. It is, therefore, important to teach children and teenagers how to cook and to encourage them to develop their cooking skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Methods Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Results Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Conclusions Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks. PMID:24721289
Zimmerman, Frederick J; Shimoga, Sandhya V
Advertising has been implicated in the declining quality of the American diet, but much of the research has been conducted with children rather than adults. This study tested the effects of televised food advertising on adult food choice. Participants (N = 351) were randomized into one of 4 experimental conditions: exposure to food advertising vs. exposure to non-food advertising, and within each of these groups, exposure to a task that was either cognitively demanding or not cognitively demanding. The number of unhealthy snacks chosen was subsequently measured, along with total calories of the snacks chosen. Those exposed to food advertising chose 28% more unhealthy snacks than those exposed to non-food-advertising (95% CI: 7% - 53%), with a total caloric value that was 65 kcal higher (95% CI: 10-121). The effect of advertising was not significant among those assigned to the low-cognitive-load group, but was large and significant among those assigned to the high-cognitive-load group: 43% more unhealthy snacks (95% CI: 11% - 85%) and 94 more total calories (95% CI: 19-169). Televised food advertising has strong effects on individual food choice, and these effects are magnified when individuals are cognitively occupied by other tasks.
Sellitto, Manuela; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe
Nowadays, the increasing incidence of eating disorders due to poor self-control has given rise to increased obesity and other chronic weight problems, and ultimately, to reduced life expectancy. The capacity to refrain from automatic responses is usually high in situations in which making errors is highly likely. The protocol described here aims at reducing imprudent preference in women during hypothetical intertemporal choices about appetitive food by associating it with errors. First, participants undergo an error task where two different edible stimuli are associated with two different error likelihoods (high and low). Second, they make intertemporal choices about the two edible stimuli, separately. As a result, this method decreases the discount rate for future amounts of the edible reward that cued higher error likelihood, selectively. This effect is under the influence of the self-reported hunger level. The present protocol demonstrates that errors, well known as motivationally salient events, can induce the recruitment of cognitive control, thus being ultimately useful in reducing impatient choices for edible commodities.
Lyerly, Jordan E; Reeve, Charlie L
Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine
The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Verain, M.C.D.; Onwezen, M.C.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Dagevos, H.
Understanding consumer food choices is crucial to stimulate sustainable food consumption. Food choice motives are shown to be relevant in understanding consumer food choices. However, there is a focus on product motives, such as price and taste, whereas process motives (i.e. environmental welfare) are understudied. The current study aims to add to the existing literature by investigating the added value of sustainable process motives (environmental welfare, animal welfare and social justice) ...
Sonnenberg, Lillian; Riis, Jason; Barraclough, Susan; Levy, Douglas E.
Objectives. We assessed whether a 2-phase labeling and choice architecture intervention would increase sales of healthy food and beverages in a large hospital cafeteria. Methods. Phase 1 was a 3-month color-coded labeling intervention (red = unhealthy, yellow = less healthy, green = healthy). Phase 2 added a 3-month choice architecture intervention that increased the visibility and convenience of some green items. We compared relative changes in 3-month sales from baseline to phase 1 and from phase 1 to phase 2. Results. At baseline (977 793 items, including 199 513 beverages), 24.9% of sales were red and 42.2% were green. Sales of red items decreased in both phases (P beverages. Red beverages decreased 16.5% during phase 1 (P beverages increased 9.6% in phase 1 (P < .001) and further increased 4.0% in phase 2 (P < .001). Bottled water increased 25.8% during phase 2 (P < .001) but did not increase at 2 on-site comparison cafeterias (P < .001). Conclusions. A color-coded labeling intervention improved sales of healthy items and was enhanced by a choice architecture intervention. PMID:22390518
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. PMID:28231118
Fenko, Anna; Nicolaas, Iris; Galetzka, Mirjam
Visual attention to health labels can indicate a subsequent healthy food choice. This study looked into the relative effects of Choices logos and traffic light labels on consumers’ visual attention and food choice. A field experiment using mobile eye-tracking was conducted in a Dutch university
Heitor, Sara Franco Diniz; Estima, Camilla Chermont Prochnik; das Neves, Fabricia Junqueira; de Aguiar, Aline Silva; Castro, Sybelle de Souza; Ferreira, Julia Elba de Souza
The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) assesses the importance that subjects attribute to nine factors related to food choices: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. This study sought to assess the applicability of the FCQ in Brazil; it describes the translation and cultural adaptation from English into Portuguese of the FCQ via the following steps: independent translations, consensus, back-translation, evaluation by a committee of experts, semantic validation and pre-test. The pre-test was run with a randomly sampled group of 86 male and female college students from different courses with a median age of 19. Slight differences between the versions were observed and adjustments were made. After minor changes in the translation process, the committee of experts considered that the Brazilian Portuguese version was semantically and conceptually equivalent to the English original. Semantic validation showed that the questionnaire is easily understood. The instrument presented a high degree of internal consistency. The study is the first stage in the process of validating an instrument, which consists of face and content validity. Further stages, already underway, are needed before other researchers can use it.
Johnson, Cassandra M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dean, Wesley R.; McIntosh, W. Alex; Kubena, Karen S.
This study aimed to understand mothers’ everyday food choices using one type of visual method-participant-driven photo-elicitation (PDPE). The sample consisted of 12 low/moderate income mothers (26–53 years) living in Bryan/College Station, Texas. Each mother completed a photography activity, where she created photographs of her food experience, and an in-depth interview using the mother’s photographs. Interview transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach and coded using qualitative data analysis software ATLAS.ti. Mothers emphasized their identities related to food and eating as they described food-related decisions and activities. These identities influenced a mother’s food choices for herself and those she made for her children. Analysis revealed that mothers with a more defined health identity made healthier choices for themselves and similar food choices for their children. In addition, they exhibited behaviors that positively influenced their children’s food choices. Mothers who struggled to see themselves as healthy indulged with more junk food and indicated feelings of anxiety and guilt; these mothers’ food choices were more disconnected from their children’s. These findings underscore the importance of understanding how identities related to food and eating can influence food choices. Encouraging mothers to develop and maintain health identities may be one way to improve food and eating habits in families. PMID:21600253
Hillier, Amy; Smith, Tony E.; Whiteman, Eliza D.; Chrisinger, Benjamin W.
Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and hous...
Steptoe, A; Pollard, T M; Wardle, J
A number of factors are thought to influence people's dietary choices, including health, cost, convenience and taste, but there are no measures that address health-related and non-health-related factors in a systematic fashion. This paper describes the development of a multidimensional measure of motives related to food choice. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was developed through factor analysis of responses from a sample of 358 adults ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. Nine factors emerged, and were labelled health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity and ethical concern. The questionnaire structure was verified using confirmatory factor analysis in a second sample (n = 358), and test-retest reliability over a 2- to 3-week period was satisfactory. Convergent validity was investigated by testing associations between FCQ scales and measures of dietary restraint, eating style, the value of health, health locus of control and personality factors. Differences in motives for food choice associated with sex, age and income were found. The potential uses of this measure in health psychology and other areas are discussed.
Boek, Stacey; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Chan, Kenny; Goto, Keiko
Objective: To examine the roles of gender and race in students' determinants of food choices on a college campus. Methods: A total of 405 college students participated in a survey entitled "Campus Food: You Tell Us!" Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine associations between demographics and food choice determinants. Results:…
Veling, H.P.; Aarts, H.A.G.; Stroebe, W.
OBJECTIVE: Exposure to palatable foods in the environment can trigger impulsive reactions to obtain them, which may lead to unhealthy food choices and eating behaviour. Two studies tested the fundamental question whether impulsive unhealthy food choices can be altered by means of linking unhealthy
Hillier, Amy; Smith, Tony E; Whiteman, Eliza D; Chrisinger, Benjamin W
Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS) using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.
Full Text Available Where households across income levels shop for food is of central concern within a growing body of research focused on where people live relative to where they shop, what they purchase and eat, and how those choices influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. We analyzed data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey (FoodAPS using a conditional logit model to determine where participants shop for food to be prepared and eaten at home and how individual and household characteristics of food shoppers interact with store characteristics and distance from home in determining store choice. Store size, whether or not it was a full-service supermarket, and the driving distance from home to the store constituted the three significant main effects on store choice. Overall, participants were more likely to choose larger stores, conventional supermarkets rather than super-centers and other types of stores, and stores closer to home. Interaction effects show that participants receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP were even more likely to choose larger stores. Hispanic participants were more likely than non-Hispanics to choose full-service supermarkets while White participants were more likely to travel further than non-Whites. This study demonstrates the value of explicitly spatial discrete choice models and provides evidence of national trends consistent with previous smaller, local studies.
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to analyze if there is a relationship between health and environmental sustainability concerns in food choices. We used data of 300 Italian consumers collected through a vis-à-vis survey. We performed cross-tabulations and chi-square tests for a selected set of variables measuring both types of concerns, segmenting the sample by age, gender and education. Our results suggest that the association between health and environmental concerns is often statistically significant, though we observe a high variable specificity of the associations. Socio-demographic conditions seem to play a role in determining the association between the two concerns, with middle-aged and/or highly-educated respondents showing a stronger association between health and environmental concerns.
Vilaro, Melissa J; Zhou, Wenjun; Colby, Sarah E; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Riggsbee, Kristin; Olfert, Melissa D; Barnett, Tracey E; Mathews, Anne E
Understanding factors that influence food choice may help improve diet quality. Factors that commonly affect adults' food choices have been described, but measures that identify and assess food choice factors specific to college students are lacking. This study developed and tested the Food Choice Priorities Survey (FCPS) among college students. Thirty-seven undergraduates participated in two focus groups ( n = 19; 11 in the male-only group, 8 in the female-only group) and interviews ( n = 18) regarding typical influences on food choice. Qualitative data informed the development of survey items with a 5-point Likert-type scale (1 = not important, 5 = extremely important). An expert panel rated FCPS items for clarity, relevance, representativeness, and coverage using a content validity form. To establish test-retest reliability, 109 first-year college students completed the 14-item FCPS at two time points, 0-48 days apart ( M = 13.99, SD = 7.44). Using Cohen's weighted κ for responses within 20 days, 11 items demonstrated moderate agreement and 3 items had substantial agreement. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure (9 items). The FCPS is designed for college students and provides a way to determine the factors of greatest importance regarding food choices among this population. From a public health perspective, practical applications include using the FCPS to tailor health communications and behavior change interventions to factors most salient for food choices of college students.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans
This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers’ food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivati...... the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices........ The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when...
Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V
Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. We suggest that health choice, such as food consumption, is based on more than the capacity and volition of individuals to make "healthy" choices, but is dialogic and adaptive. In terms of food consumption, there will always be choice-constrained conditions, along a continuum representing factors over which the individual has little or no control, to those for which they have greater agency. These range from food store geographies and inventories and food availability, logistical considerations such as transportation, food distribution, the structure of equity in food systems, state and non-government food and nutrition programs, to factors where the individual exercises a greater degree of autonomy, such as sociocultural foodways, family and neighborhood shopping strategies, and personal and family food preferences. At any given food decision-making moment, many factors of the continuum are present consciously or unconsciously when the individual makes a decision. These health behavior decision-making moments are mutable, whether from an individual perspective, or within a broader social or policy context. We review the construct of "choice set", the confluence of factors that are temporally weighted by the differentiated and relationally-contextualized importance of certain factors over others in that moment. The choice transition represents an essential shift of the choice set based on the conscious and unconscious weighting of accumulated evidence, such that people can project certain outcomes. Policies and interventions should avoid
Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.
Fotopoulos, Christos; Krystallis, Athanasios; Vassallo, Marco
Recognising the need for a more statistically robust instrument to investigate general food selection determinants, the research validates and confirms Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ's) factorial design, develops ad hoc a more robust FCQ version and tests its ability to discriminate between...... at the subpopulation level based on the enhanced FCQ version bring about an optimistic message for the FCQ's ability to predict food selection behaviour. The paper concludes that some of the basic components of the original FCQ can be used as a basis for a new general food motivation typology. The development...... consumer segments in terms of the importance they assign to the FCQ motivational factors. The original FCQ appears to represent a comprehensive and reliable research instrument. However, the empirical data do not support the robustness of its 9-factorial design. On the other hand, segmentation results...
Green, Anthony; Vryonides, Marios
The rapid modernisation process of Greek Cypriot society has created a cultural environment with an amalgam of traditionalist and modernist ethical attitudes, and antagonisms between them concerning, among other things, social advancement. These have implications for the way individuals and families develop various strategies of choice-making for…
Mehta, Sonya; Melhorn, Susan J; Smeraglio, Anne; Tyagi, Vidhi; Grabowski, Thomas; Schwartz, Michael W; Schur, Ellen A
Neuronal processes that underlie the subjective experience of satiety after a meal are not well defined. We investigated how satiety alters the perception of and neural response to visual food cues. Normal-weight participants (10 men, 13 women) underwent 2 fMRI scans while viewing images of high-calorie food that was previously rated as incompatible with weight loss and "fattening" and low-calorie, "nonfattening" food. After a fasting fMRI scan, participants ate a standardized breakfast and underwent reimaging at a randomly assigned time 15-300 min after breakfast to vary the degree of satiety. Measures of subjective appetite, food appeal, and ad libitum food intake (measured after the second fMRI scan) were correlated with activation by "fattening" (compared with "nonfattening") food cues in a priori regions of interest. Greater hunger correlated with higher appeal ratings of "fattening" (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) but not "nonfattening" (r = -0.20, P = 0.37) foods. Fasting amygdalar activation was negatively associated with fullness (left: r = -0.52; right: r = -0.58; both P ≤ 0.01), whereas postbreakfast fullness was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal striatum (right: r = 0.44; left: r = 0.45; both P foods with higher fat content. Postmeal satiety is shown in regional brain activation by images of high-calorie foods. Regions including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum may alter perception of, and reduce motivation to consume, energy-rich foods, ultimately driving food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01631045.
Dover, Robert V. H.; Lambert, Estelle V.
Objectives Using the nexus between food consumption, food security and obesity, this paper addresses the complexity of health behavior decision-making moments that reflect relational social dynamics in context-specific dialogues, often in choice-constrained conditions. Methods A pragmatic review of literature regarding social determinants of health in relation to food consumption, food security and obesity was used to advance this theoretical model. Results and discussion We suggest that heal...
Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa
The present study sought to determine the feasibility of an experimental research design to investigate the effects of exposure to magazine advertising on children's food choices. Children were randomized to read either a magazine with food advertisements or a magazine with no food advertisements. They then chose two food items from the intervention 'store' to eat after the session. Data were also collected on attitudes to advertising and snack food preferences. Finally, participants' parents were provided with a self-completion survey on food choices and other variables (n 24). Three vacation care centres in regional New South Wales, Australia. Children aged 5-12 years (n 47). Children in the experimental condition were more likely to choose advertised foods than those in the control group. Interestingly, the majority reported taste and healthiness as the most important factors in snack food choices; however, when faced with the actual food choice, they predominantly chose unhealthy foods (eighty-two unhealthy and only twelve healthy items were chosen). This was the first study to assess the effects on children of exposure to food advertising within the context of reading a child-targeted magazine. Importantly, even with the small sample size and venue limitations, we found that exposure to magazine advertising influenced food choices. Children's magazines are an under-researched and poorly regulated medium, with considerable potential to influence children's food choices. The present study shows that the methodology is feasible, and future studies could replicate this with larger samples.
Holsten, Joanna E; Deatrick, Janet A; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Compher, Charlene W
This qualitative descriptive study explored children's food choices in the home with particular attention to environmental influences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11- to 14-year-old children (n=47) from one middle school. A data-driven content analysis using selected principles of grounded theory was performed. Children's food choices in the home emerged as a process that involved three interacting components, the child, the parent, and the food, embedded within the context of time. Children's structured activities throughout the day, week, and year provided an overall context for food choices. Parents affected children's food choices through their presence in the home, time pressure and activity prioritization, incorporation of family members' preferences, food preparation effort and skills, and financial and health concerns. Parents created food options through food purchasing and preparation and indirectly affected children's food choices by setting rules, providing information, and modeling behaviors. Children affected parents' decisions by communicating food preferences. For children, important aspects of the food itself included its availability at home and attributes related to taste, preparation, and cost. Children evaluated potential food options based on their hunger level, food preferences, time pressure and activity prioritization, food preparation effort and skills, and expected physical consequences of food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ares, Gastón; Gámbaro, Adriana
The aims of the present study were to study the effect of different carriers and enrichments on the perceived healthiness and willingness to try functional foods; and to evaluate the effect of age, gender and motives underlying food choice. Participants had to evaluate different functional food concepts and had to answer a food choice questionnaire. Results showed that carrier products had the largest effect on consumers' perception of healthiness and willingness to try of the evaluated functional foods concepts. The highest positive relative utilities were achieved when the enrichment was a functional ingredient inherent in the product. Furthermore, gender, age and motives underlying food choice affected the preference patterns for the evaluated functional foods concepts, but it depended on the carrier and enrichment considered, suggesting that functional foods might not be accepted by all the consumers and that they could be tailored for certain groups.
Yang, Tongyang; Berning, Joshua; Colson, Greg; Smith, Travis A.
As immigrants settle and extend their stay in the U.S., they may be exposed to a food culture and lifestyle that impacts their food choice decisions and health outcomes. This paper focuses on the behavioral changes and acculturation level of different generations of Asian immigrants on food choice decisions employing the 2013 American Time Use Survey. Heckman two-step regression results indicate that the 1st generation immigrants participate or spend more time on eating and drinking, food pre...
Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schulte, Frank P; Maderwald, Stefan; Brand, Matthias
Food labeling is the major health policy strategy to counter rising obesity rates. Based on traditional economic theory, such strategies assume that detailed nutritional information will necessarily help individuals make better, healthier choices. However, in contrast to the well-known utility of labels in food marketing, evidence for the efficacy of nutritional labeling is mixed. Psychological and behavioral economic theories suggest that successful marketing strategies activate automatic decision biases and emotions, which involve implicit emotional brain systems. Accordingly, simple, intuitive food labels that engage these neural systems could represent a promising approach for promoting healthier choices. Here we used functional MRI to investigate this possibility. Healthy, mildly hungry subjects performed a food evaluation task and a food choice task. The main experimental manipulation was to pair identical foods with simple labels that emphasized either taste benefits or health-related food properties. We found that such labels biased food evaluations in the amygdala, a core emotional brain system. When labels biased the amygdala's evaluations towards health-related food properties, the strength of this bias predicted behavioral shifts towards healthier choices. At the time of decision-making, amygdala activity encoded key decision variables, potentially reflecting active amygdala participation in food choice. Our findings underscore the potential utility of food labeling in health policy and indicate a principal role for emotional brain systems when labels guide food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellen Brantlinger's paper, "Using ideology: cases of non-recognition of the politics of research and practice in special education" (Brantlinger, E. 1997. "Using ideology: Cases of nonrecognition of the politics of research and practice in special education." "Review of Educational Research" 67, no. 4: 425-59),…
Chong, Shiau Y; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Lynch, John W; Mittinty, Murthy N; Smithers, Lisa G
Associations of parental feeding techniques with adiposity are mixed and largely rely on cross-sectional studies. We examined associations between parental food-choice control and using food to soothe at 3.5 years on adiposity at 7 and 15 years. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7312). Food-choice control was assessed using the item 'how much choice do you allow him/her in deciding what foods he eats at meals?'. Use of food to soothe was reported by mothers on the item 'how often do you use sweets or other foods to stop his/her crying or fussing?'. BMI at 7 and 15 years was converted to sex- and age-adjusted z-scores. Fat mass was assessed at 15 years using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In fully-adjusted models, children given the least choice had 0.08 lower BMI z-score at age 7 years and 0.12 lower BMI z-score,1.46 kg lower fat mass at 15 years than children with the most choices. There was no evidence of an association between using food to soothe and adiposity. Contrary to some studies, higher parental control over food choice was associated with lower adiposity, but use of food to soothe was not associated with adiposity at ages 7 and 15. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richards, Rickelle; Smith, Chery
In-depth interviews were conducted with homeless children (n=56, aged 6-13 years) in an urban center in Minnesota, USA, to determine factors influencing food choice, food access, and weight status, with interview questions developed using the Social Cognitive Theory. Interview transcripts were coded and then evaluated both collectively and by weight status ( or = 85th percentile=overweight). Forty-five percent of children were overweight. Environmental, parental, and personal factors emerged as common themes influencing food access and choice. Despite children's personal food preferences, homelessness and the shelter environment created restrictive conditions that influenced food choice and access. Shelter rules, lack of adequate storage and cooking facilities, and limited food stores near the shelter, impacted the type and quality of food choices, ultimately affecting hunger, weight status, and perceived health.
Sleenhoff, S.; Osseweijer, P.
With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase
Miller, Carla K.; Branscum, Paul
Objective: To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. Design: A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. Setting and Participants: A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the…
Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; de Vet, E.
Objective: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting
Salmon, S.J.; Fennis, B.M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Vet, de E.
OBJECTIVE: Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting
Goodman, Emily Elizabeth
In my dissertation, I examine the ways that women artists engage with two primary and interrelated themes in their art practice — food and femininity — in an attempt to challenge gender inequality in midcentury American society. As such, I illustrate how these women’s art practices are related to the discourse and political actions of the American feminism during mid-1960s. Recognizing that — despite the unity implied by the commonly employed umbrella terms of “Second Wave Feminism” and the “...
Olsen, Søren Bøye; Meyerhoff, Jürgen; Mørkbak, Morten Raun
is linked with knowledge from a food sociology survey on typical meal times as well as biophysical research linking food intake to blood sugar and mental energy in order to generate a proxy variable for each respondent’s level of mental energy when answering the food choice tasks in the questionnaire......Purpose: Fatigue effects related to answering a sequence of choice tasks have received much scrutiny in the stated choice experiments (SCE) literature. However, decision fatigue related to the time of day when respondents answer questionnaires has been largely overlooked in this literature even...... though time of day related fatigue effects are well known in the psychology literature. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that variations in the time of day when respondents answer an online food choice experiment will translate into observable fatigue effects in the food choices. Design...
Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian
Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A
How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.
Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori
Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.
Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J
Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.
Christiansen, Steen Ledet
; it is a materialisation of an ideological fission which attempts to excise certain ideological constructions, yet paradoxically casting them in a form that is recognizable and familiar. The monstrous metonomy which is used shows us glimpses of a horrid being, intended to vilify the attack on New York City. However......, it is a being which is reminiscent of earlier monsters - from Godzilla to The Blob. It is evident that the Cloverfield monster is a paradoxical construction which attempts to articulate fear and loathing about terrorism, but ends up trapped in an ideological dead-end maze, unable to do anything other than...
Morris, Patricia McGrath
The Food Stamp Program is the U.S. government's primary program to prevent the rural poor from going hungry. Food stamp allotments are set each year based on the cost of the "Thrifty Food Plan" (TFP), a minimally adequate diet defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which sets costs by examining average food prices in urban…
Amy Hillier; Tony Smith; Carolyn C Cannuscio; Allison Karpyn; Karen Glanz
Assessments of access to healthful food frequently use GIS to measure the distance and concentration of food outlets relative to where residents live. These descriptive approaches do not account for food shopping behavior, which may vary based on the attributes of food shoppers and their activity space—places where they live, work, access resources, and socialize. Building on transportation research about accessibility, we reframe the issue of food access and equity from one about ‘what is ne...
Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...
van Herpen, E.; Bosmans, Anick
Food retailers can present specific products in a separate category (e.g., separate section for organic products) or integrated into the mainstream shelf. This study investigates how assortment organization influences consumers’ variety perceptions and product choice. We argue and show that when an
Heard, Amy M; Harris, Jennifer L; Liu, Sai; Schwartz, Marlene B; Li, Xun
Public health interventions must address poor diet among U.S. children, but research is needed to better understand factors influencing children's food choices. Using an online grocery store simulation, this research piloted a novel method to assess children's snack selection in a controlled but naturalistic laboratory setting, evaluate predictors of choice, and experimentally test whether promotions on food packages altered choices. Children (7-12 years, N = 61) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: promotions on healthy products; promotions on unhealthy products; and no promotions (control). They selected from a variety of healthy and unhealthy foods and beverages and rated all products on healthfulness and taste. Promotions on food packaging did not affect snack selection in this study, but findings supported our other hypothesis that perceived taste would be the strongest predictor of food choice. Children accurately rated product healthfulness, but these ratings did not predict healthy snack choices or taste ratings for healthy or unhealthy snacks. These results suggest that interventions to improve children's food choices should focus on increasing availability of healthy options and identifying opportunities to enhance children's liking of healthy options. However, nutrition education alone is unlikely to improve children's diets. Further testing is required, but the simulated online grocery store method shows potential for measuring children's food choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abro, Altaf H.; Treur, Jan; Hirose, Akira; Ozawa, Seiichi; Doya, Kenji; Lee, Minho; Liu, Derong
In this paper a computational model for the decision making process of food choices is presented that takes into account a number of aspects on which a decision can be based, for example, a temptation triggered by the food itself, a desire for food triggered by being hungry, valuing by the expected
Kalich, Karrie A.; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
The preschool years are a critical period for the development of food preferences and lifelong eating habits. Between the ages of 2 and 5, children become increasingly responsive to external cues, such as television commercials that use popular cartoon characters to advertise foods, candy in supermarket checkout aisles, and fast-food restaurants…
Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the issue of consumer agency within the food system as manifested by food secure and food insecure households in an urban neighborhood in the United States. Using a self-administered mail survey this study examines food retailer perception and shopping behaviour of food secure and insecure households in Lansing, Michigan. Food security represents a useful lens through which to examine the issue of agency since food, while a necessary part of life, is nonetheless something that is difficult to access for a large sector of the population. By examining both food secure and food insecure households, light is shed on some of the factors that lead to the relative ability of each group to successfully and reliably obtain food. In particular, this study focuses on the perception and behaviour of consumers in relation to the decision to shop, or not to shop, at various food retailers. Some theories of consumer behaviour tend to focus either on class related cultural elements which determine taste preferences while other theories focus on structural elements of the food system which force a limited selection onto various social groups. While certainly class culture influences taste preference to some extent, results from this study suggest that structural elements of the food system and economic differences between food secure and food insecure households have a larger influence on store choice than cultural preferences. In fact, both food secure and insecure households indicated similar sets of criteria used in determining store choices. However, in examination of actual shopping behaviours, this study found that food insecure households are more likely to shop at deep discounters and more likely to travel farther to obtain food. These results suggest that structural elements such as food retailer locations limit the range of shopping options of food insecure households when compared to food secure households. Keywords: food
Walsh, Audrey; Meagher-Stewart, Donna; Macdonald, Marilyn
Mothers' ability to provide healthy food choices for their children has become more complex in our current obesogenic environment. We conducted a total of 35 interviews with 18 mothers of preschool children. Using constructivist grounded theory methods, we developed a substantive theory of how mothers make food choices for their preschoolers. Our substantive theory, persistent optimizing, consists of three main integrated conceptual categories: (a) acknowledging contextual constraints, (b) stretching boundaries, and (c) strategic positioning. Implications to improve mothers' ability to make healthy food choices that reduce their children's risk of becoming overweight or obese are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available In recent years, a growing interest from consumers to know the origins and contents of foods has put alternative choices, such as organic foods and dietary changes, on the agenda. Dietary choices are important to address, as many studies find that activities related to food production account for nearly 20–30% of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Nonetheless, while GHG emissions are important, often other environmental impact categories are not considered in the assessment of the sustainability of different foods, diets and choices. This study aims to quantify the implications of dietary choices for Swedish food consumption on a broad range of environmental impact categories using life cycle assessment to provide insight into the impacts, and potential tradeoffs, associated with certain food products and dietary choices. Scenarios are used to assess the implications of diets with reduced meat, increased Swedish food consumption, increased organic foods, vegan and semi-vegetarian diets. The results indicate that tradeoffs could be possible with certain dietary choices. Increasing Swedish food production and consumption may lead to lower impacts for all impact categories by reducing imports, although limitations in growing season and availability of foods in Sweden allows only for minor increases. The results also indicate that large reductions of greenhouse gas emissions are possible by reducing meat consumption, i.e., by halving meat consumption and through vegan and vegetarian diets. Nonetheless, an increase in vegetable, legume and fruit products may lead to a potential increase in human and ecosystem toxicity. Diets based on nutritional guidelines, show reductions in all impact categories, as these guidelines call for an increase in vegetables and fruits and a reduction in meat consumption. An increase in organic foods showed no significant change in climate impact, although toxicity potential was reduced significantly
Britten, Patricia; Cleveland, Linda E; Koegel, Kristin L; Kuczynski, Kevin J; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Patterns, released as part of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, are designed to meet nutrient needs without exceeding energy requirements. They identify amounts to consume from each food group and recommend that nutrient-dense forms-lean or low-fat, without added sugars or salt-be consumed. Americans fall short of most food group intake targets and do not consume foods in nutrient-dense forms. Intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars exceed maximum limits by large margins. Our aim was to determine the potential effect on meeting USDA Food Pattern nutrient adequacy and moderation goals if Americans consumed the recommended quantities from each food group, but did not implement the advice to select nutrient-dense forms of food and instead made more typical food choices. Food-pattern modeling analysis using the USDA Food Patterns, which are structured to allow modifications in one or more aspects of the patterns, was used. Nutrient profiles for each food group were modified by replacing each nutrient-dense representative food with a similar but typical choice. Typical nutrient profiles were used to determine the energy and nutrient content of the food patterns. Moderation goals are not met when amounts of food in the USDA Food Patterns are followed and typical rather than nutrient-dense food choices are made. Energy, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium exceed limits in all patterns, often by substantial margins. With typical choices, calories were 15% to 30% (ie, 350 to 450 kcal) above the target calorie level for each pattern. Adequacy goals were not substantially affected by the use of typical food choices. If consumers consume the recommended quantities from each food group and subgroup, but fail to choose foods in low-fat, no-added-sugars, and low-sodium forms, they will not meet the USDA Food Patterns moderation goals or the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Copyright © 2012 Academy of
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.
Salmon, Stefanie J; Fennis, Bob M; de Ridder, Denise T D; Adriaanse, Marieke A; de Vet, Emely
Food choices are often made mindlessly, when individuals are not able or willing to exert self-control. Under low self-control, individuals have difficulties to resist palatable but unhealthy food products. In contrast to previous research aiming to foster healthy choices by promoting high self-control, this study exploits situations of low self-control, by strategically using the tendency under these conditions to rely on heuristics (simple decision rules) as quick guides to action. More specifically, the authors associated healthy food products with the social proof heuristic (i.e., normative cues that convey majority endorsement for those products). One hundred seventy-seven students (119 men), with an average age of 20.47 years (SD = 2.25) participated in the experiment. This study used a 2 (low vs. high self-control) × 2 (social proof vs. no heuristic) × 2 (trade-off vs. control choice) design, with the latter as within-subjects factor. The dependent variable was the number of healthy food choices in a food-choice task. In line with previous studies, people made fewer healthy food choices under low self-control. However, this negative effect of low self-control on food choice was reversed when the healthy option was associated with the social proof heuristic. In that case, people made more healthy choices under conditions of low self-control. Low self-control may be even more beneficial for healthy food choices than high self-control in the presence of a heuristic. Exploiting situations of low self-control is a new and promising method to promote health on impulse. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
choice was made between one and two times a day. The frequency of .... with the development/prevention/management of obesity, diabetes ..... undertakes is whether sport is offered at the ..... Uhlaba Usamila – The South African Youth Risk.
Pachucki, Mark C.
The knowledge of how our taste preferences in food are shaped by our social lives has largely developed without attention to the roles played by relationships with other people. While the well-known sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu highlights the relationship of economic, cultural, and social capital with food consumption, very little scholarship concerned with food has given explicit empirical attention to social network connectivity as a form of social capital. To bridge this gap, this investigation utilizes data from a prospective cohort study of health in which both the food choices of several thousand individuals and their social ties with peers are examined. Comparing the relative social connectedness of individuals and their common food choices provides a new perspective on taste formation and maintenance and provides new evidence of how interpersonal mechanisms play a role in food choice and taste preferences. PMID:27226654
Pachucki, Mark C
The knowledge of how our taste preferences in food are shaped by our social lives has largely developed without attention to the roles played by relationships with other people. While the well-known sociological work of Pierre Bourdieu highlights the relationship of economic, cultural, and social capital with food consumption, very little scholarship concerned with food has given explicit empirical attention to social network connectivity as a form of social capital. To bridge this gap, this investigation utilizes data from a prospective cohort study of health in which both the food choices of several thousand individuals and their social ties with peers are examined. Comparing the relative social connectedness of individuals and their common food choices provides a new perspective on taste formation and maintenance and provides new evidence of how interpersonal mechanisms play a role in food choice and taste preferences.
Keith, Jill F; Stastny, Sherri; Brunt, Ardith; Agnew, Wanda
American Indian and Alaskan Native individuals experience disproportionate levels of chronic health conditions such as type 2 diabetes and overweight and obesity that are influenced by dietary patterns and food choices. Understanding factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students can enrich education and programs that target dietary intake. To build an understanding of factors that influence healthy food choices among tribal college students at increased risk for college attrition. A nonexperimental cohort design was used for qualitative descriptive analysis. Participants (N=20) were purposively sampled, newly enrolled, academically underprepared tribal college students enrolled in a culturally relevant life skills course at an upper Midwest tribal college between September 2013 and May 2015. Participant demographic characteristics included various tribal affiliations, ages, and number of dependents. Participant responses to qualitative research questions about dietary intake, food choices, self-efficacy for healthy food choices, psychosocial determinants, and barriers to healthy food choices during telephone interviews were used as measures. Qualitative analysis included prestudy identification of researcher bias/assumptions, audiorecording and transcription, initial analysis (coding), secondary analysis (sorting and identifying meaning), and verification (comparative pattern analysis). Qualitative analysis revealed a variety of themes and subthemes about healthy food choices. Main themes related to barriers included taste, food gathering and preparation, and difficulty clarifying healthy food choices. Main themes related to strategies included taste, cultural traditions and practices, and personal motivation factors. Qualitative analysis identified barrier and strategy themes that may assist nutrition and dietetics practitioners working with tribal/indigenous communities, tribal college educators and health specialists, and tribal
Huskinson, Sally L; Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Rowlett, James K; Woolverton, William L; Freeman, Kevin B
Huskinson et al. (2015) recently examined delay discounting in monkeys choosing between an immediate drug (cocaine) reinforcer and a delayed nondrug (food) reinforcer. The present experiment examined the reverse situation: choice between immediate nondrug (food) and delayed drug (cocaine) reinforcers. Whereas the former choice situation exemplifies drug abuse from a delay-discounting perspective, our interest in the latter choice situation is derived from the observation that drug abusers, who characteristically are associated with impulsive choice, typically must devote considerable time to procuring drugs, often at the expense of immediate nondrug alternatives. Accordingly, we analyzed 3 male rhesus monkeys' choices between immediate food and delayed cocaine (0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg/injection) using a hyperbolic model that allowed us to compare discounting rates between qualitatively different reinforcers. Choice of immediate food increased with food amount, and choice functions generally shifted leftward as delay to cocaine increased, indicating a decrease in the subjective value of cocaine. Compared with our previous delay-discounting experiment with immediate cocaine versus delayed food, both doses of delayed cocaine were discounted at a shallow rate. The present results demonstrate that rhesus monkeys will tolerate relatively long delays in an immediate-food versus delayed-drug situation, suggesting that in intertemporal choices between cocaine and food, the subjective value of cocaine is less affected by the delay until reinforcement than is the subjective value of delayed food. More generally, the present findings suggest that although drug abusers may choose impulsively when immediate drug reinforcement is available, they exercise self-control in the acquisition of a highly preferred, delayed drug reinforcer. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Bucher, Tamara; Keller, Carmen
To date, no data exist on the agreement of food choice measured using an online tool with subsequent actual consumption. This needs to be shown before food choice, measured by means of an online tool, is used as a dependent variable to examine intake in the general population. A 'web-buffet' was developed to assess food choice. Choice was measured as planned meal composition from photographic material; respondents chose preferred foods and proportions for a main meal (out of a possible 144 combinations) online and the validity was assessed by comparison of a meal composed from a web-buffet with actual food intake 24-48 h later. Furthermore, correlations of food preferences, energy needs and health interest with meals chosen from the web-buffet were analysed. Students: n 106 (Study I), n 32 (Study II). Meals chosen from the web-buffet (mean = 2998 kJ, SD = 471 kJ) agreed with actual consumption (rs = 0.63, P choice in the web-buffet agrees sufficiently well with actual intake to measure food choice as a dependent variable in online surveys. However, we found an average underestimation of subsequent consumption. High correlations of preferences with chosen amounts and an inverse association of health interest with total energy further indicate the validity of the tool. Applications in behavioural nutrition research are discussed.
Janssen, Lieneke K; Duif, Iris; van Loon, Ilke; Wegman, Joost; de Vries, Jeanne H M; Cools, Roshan; Aarts, Esther
Loss of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC)-mediated attentional control may explain the automatic tendency to eat in the face of food. Here, we investigate the neurocognitive mechanism underlying attentional bias to food words and its association with obesity using a food Stroop task. We tested 76 healthy human subjects with a wide body mass index (BMI) range (19-35kg/m 2 ) using fMRI. As a measure of obesity we calculated individual obesity scores based on BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio using principal component analyses. To investigate the automatic tendency to overeat directly, the same subjects performed a separate behavioral outcome devaluation task measuring the degree of goal-directed versus automatic food choices. We observed that increased obesity scores were associated with diminished lPFC responses during food attentional bias. This was accompanied by decreased goal-directed control of food choices following outcome devaluation. Together these findings suggest that deficient control of both food-directed attention and choice may contribute to obesity, particularly given our obesogenic environment with food cues everywhere, and the choice to ignore or indulge despite satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Gestel, L.C.; Kroese, F.M.; de Ridder, D.T.D.
Objective The current study is a longitudinal conceptual replication and aimed to investigate the effect of a food repositioning nudge on healthy food choice in a kiosk. Design During eight weeks, sales data were collected. The former four weeks formed the baseline phase and the latter four weeks
Claims are gaining in importance as a tool of communication in the growing sector of health-related foods. In order to target the right consumers, it is crucial to determine their key characteristics. A realistically designed choice experiment aims at analysing the role of various determinants...... of choice for foods with claims. Logistic regression reveals that while product-involvement plays only a minor role, health-related food-involvement appears to be a better explanatory factor than e.g. sociodemographic variables. It is concluded that items measuring the latter type of involvement might...... be helpful for practical market research in the area of health-related foods....
Hansen, Thea Toft; Jakobsen, Tine Anette; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard
It has been suggested that a shift in food choices leading to a diet with a lower energy density plays an important role in successful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. A decreased hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods may explain these changes in eating behavio...... to consume highly palatable foods. Still, in order to fully understand the complexity of these changes, we need studies combining sociological and psychological approaches with objective measures of actual food choices examining different measures of hedonic drive....
B. Wierenga (Berend)
textabstractThis paper considers the problem of a consumer purchasing a food product within a certain product class (e. g. meat, bread, vegetables, soft drinks, cheese) and making a choice from the different alternatives that are available.
Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda
Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.
Bargiota, Alexandra; Pelekanou, Maria; Tsitouras, Andreas; Koukoulis, Georgios N
To establish factors that affect food choices among adolescents living in rural areas and to identify their food choices. A random sample of adolescents living in a Greek rural area (n=382) aged 12-18 years were individually interviewed. Food consumption was assessed by a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and adherence to the Mediterranean diet was evaluated using the KIDMED questionnaire. Information was collected regarding self-perceived body size, dieting, dietary knowledge, parental control, meal and snack frequency, eating out of home, eating takeaways and precooked meals, eating from the school canteen. Body image concerns, dieting, education about food, parental control, maternal education level and eating with family and peers are factors that were found to affect food choices in this group of Greek adolescents. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was low (KIDMED index was 4.5±2.7). Regular family meals at home were frequent in this group and 99% of the adolescents ate lunch daily at home. Eating out with peers and eating from the school canteen was related with higher consumption of 'junk type of food'. Girls and younger adolescents and those whose mothers had a higher education level seem to make healthier choices. Factors such as personal issues, family and peer pressure significantly affect food choices among adolescents living in a Greek rural area and highlight the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to promote healthy eating among adolescents.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Grunert, Klaus G; van Trijp, Hans C M; Bialkova, Svetlana; Raats, Monique M; Hodgkins, Charo; Wasowicz-Kirylo, Grazyna; Koenigstorfer, Joerg
This study aims to find out whether front-of-pack nutrition label formats influence the healthfulness of consumers' food choices and important predictors of healthful choices, depending on the size of the choice set that is made available to consumers. The predictors explored were health motivation and perceived capability of making healthful choices. One thousand German and Polish consumers participated in the study that manipulated the format of nutrition labels. All labels referred to the content of calories and four negative nutrients and were presented on savoury and sweet snacks. The different formats included the percentage of guideline daily amount, colour coding schemes, and text describing low, medium and high content of each nutrient. Participants first chose from a set of 10 products and then from a set of 20 products, which was, on average, more healthful than the first choice set. The results showed that food choices were more healthful in the extended 20-product (vs. 10-product) choice set and that this effect is stronger than a random choice would produce. The formats colour coding and texts, particularly colour coding in Germany, increased the healthfulness of product choices when consumers were asked to choose a healthful product, but not when they were asked to choose according to their preferences. The formats did not influence consumers' motivation to choose healthful foods. Colour coding, however, increased consumers' perceived capability of making healthful choices. While the results revealed no consistent differences in the effects between the formats, they indicate that manipulating choice sets by including healthier options is an effective strategy to increase the healthfulness of food choices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steinglass, Joanna; Foerde, Karin; Kostro, Katrina; Shohamy, Daphna; Walsh, B Timothy
Inadequate intake and preference for low-calorie foods are salient behavioral features of Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The neurocognitive mechanisms underlying pathological food choice have not been characterized. This study aimed to develop a new paradigm for experimentally modeling maladaptive food choice in AN. Individuals with AN (n = 22) and healthy controls (HC, n = 20) participated in a computer-based Food Choice Task, adapted for individuals with eating disorders. Participants first rated 43 food images (including high-fat and low-fat items) for Healthiness and Tastiness; an item rated neutral on both blocks was then selected as the Reference item. On each of 42 subsequent trials participants were asked to choose between the food item presented and the Reference item. The AN group was less likely to choose high-fat foods relative to HC, as evidenced both in multilevel logistic regression (z = 2.59, p = .009) and ANOVA (F(1,39) = 7.80, p = .008) analyses. Health ratings influenced choice significantly more in AN relative to HC (z = 2.7, p = .006), and were more related to Taste among AN (χ(2) = 4.10, p = .04). Additionally, taste ratings declined with duration of illness (r = -.50, p = .02). The Food Choice Task captures the preference for low-fat foods among individuals with AN. The findings suggest that the experience of tastiness changes over time and may contribute to perpetuation of illness. By providing an experimental quantitative measure of food restriction, this task opens the door to new experimental investigations into the cognitive, affective, and neural factors contributing to maladaptive food choices characteristic of AN. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Gutjar, Swetlana; de Graaf, Cees; Kooijman, Valesca; de Wijk, Rene A.; Nys, Alexia; ter Horst, Gert J.; Jager, Gerry
Consumer liking ratings of food products often fail to predict market success. In addition to sensory tests, it is thought that food-evoked emotions provide a sensitive measure to describe products in a way that adds to information from liking. In this study two different tools were used to measure
Leenaars, Cathalijn H C; Klinkenberg, Inge P M; Aussems, Audrey; Borger, Nedim; Faatz, Vivian; Hak, Anneloes; Houben, Ellen; Ramackers, Joyce; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, A.
BACKGROUND: The increased risk of obesity among short sleepers is most likely explained by increased energy intake. However, food intake could not only be altered quantitavely but also qualitatively. Therefore, we performed a correlational analysis on self-reported food intake and sleep in 51
Leenaars, Cathalijn H. C.; Klinkenberg, Inge P. M.; Aussems, Audrey; Borger, Nedim; Faatz, Vivian; Hak, Anneloes; Houben, Ellen; Ramackers, Joyce; Snackers, Daphne; Kalsbeek, Andries
The increased risk of obesity among short sleepers is most likely explained by increased energy intake. However, food intake could not only be altered quantitavely but also qualitatively. Therefore, we performed a correlational analysis on self-reported food intake and sleep in 51 students from
Indian Health Service (PHS/HSA), Rockville, MD.
Written for American Indians who have diabetes, this folder explains diabetes and outlines a weight control program and diet. The folder discusses the five things diabetics can do to help control their disease: lose weight, watch the amount and kind of fat eaten, eat more food with fiber, avoid sugar, and avoid alcohol. Charts for foods containing…
The discourse about traceability in food chains focused on traceability as means towards the end of managing health risks. This discourse witnessed a call to broaden traceability to accommodate consumer concerns about foods that are not related to health. This call envisions the development of
The discourse about traceability in food chains focused on traceability as means towards the end of managing health risks. This discourse witnessed a call to broaden traceability to accommodate consumer concerns about foods that are not related to health. This call envisions the development of
Pohjanheimo, Terhi; Paasovaara, Rami; Luomala, Harri; Sandell, Mari
This study addresses the effect of personal values on consumers' food choice motives and on the liking of bread. A total of 224 consumers participated in the study in three groups: traditional and hedonistic consumers, who presented opposite value types according to the Schwartz value theory, and a control group. Three different rye breads were evaluated for liking and their sensory profiles were determined. The consumer groups' values, food choice motives measured with the Food Choice Questionnaire and a Concern scale, and liking of the breads differed significantly according to the analysis of variance and a partial least squares regression analysis. For hedonistic consumers, rye bread characterized by a soft and porous texture influenced liking positively, and food choice motives "mood" and "price" correlated positively with their values. Traditional consumers were more positive toward different types of rye bread, and food choice motives "natural content", "familiarity" and "health concern" were more important to them than to hedonists. Overall, this study demonstrated that values are connected to food choice motives and, to some extent liking and, thus, values can be utilized both in product development and in advertising. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pula, Kacy; Parks, Craig D; Ross, Carolyn F
The authors tested the robustness of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) with a U.S. sample and examined the relationship between individual differences in regulatory focus and everyday food choice motives. Although a popular measure in cross-culture research, the FCQ has seen limited use with U.S. samples, and its psychometric properties have not been tested in this population. American participants (n = 408) completed the Regulatory Focus Questionnaire and a measure of food choice motives. The data did not support the nine-factor FCQ structure. An ad hoc revised measure of food choice motives showed complete measurement invariance (loadings, intercepts, and residuals) across regulatory focus. Regarding everyday food choices, participants with a prevention focus placed greater importance on mood, convenience, and familiarity than participants with a promotion focus. There were no significant differences regarding the importance of health, environmental protection, impression management, natural content, price, and sensory appeal. Several food choice motives were positively correlated. Compared with the promotion-focused participants, the prevention-focused participants more strongly associated the importance of sensory appeal with the importance of natural content and the importance of price. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This research report compares alternative approaches to analyzing the complex factors that influence teenagers' food choice. Specifically, a multi-method approach-which involves the integration of the qualitative and quantitative research methodoligies, data and analysis-is compared to a single methodological approach, which involves use of either a quantitative or qualitative methodology.
Psychophysical, physiological and behavioural aspects of taste perception and food choice were examined cross-culturally between Chinese people living in China (n=25), Chinese people living in Denmark (n=16) and Danish people living in Denmark (n=28). Groups were subdivided by males (n=26...... were found on average in each group with a mean diameter at 0.66mm for the Chinese and 0.72mm for the Danish. A questionnaire including general demographic questions, food frequency questions and the Food Choice Questionnaire (Steptoe et al., 1995) were completed by all subjects (n=69). The Danish...... subjects had a higher intake of sweets, tea and coffee and Chinese subject living in China had a higher intake of spicy food. All subject groups rated Sensory Appeal, Health and Price as very important food choice factors while dissimilarities between the groups were shown in rating the factors Mood...
Pliner, Patricia; Mann, Nikki
In two parallel studies, we examined the effect of social influence and palatability on amount consumed and on food choice. In Experiment 1, which looked at amount consumed, participants were provided with either palatable or unpalatable food; they were also given information about how much previous participants had eaten (large or small amounts) or were given no information. In the case of palatable food, participants ate more when led to believe that prior participants had eaten a great deal than when led to believe that prior participants had eaten small amounts or when provided with no information. This social-influence effect was not present when participants received unpalatable food. In Experiment 2, which looked at food choice, some participants learned that prior participants had chosen the palatable food, others learned that prior participants had chosen the unpalatable food, while still others received no information about prior participants' choices. The social-influence manipulation had no effect on participants' food choices; nearly all of them chose the palatable food. The results were discussed in the context of Churchfield's (1995) distinction between judgments about matters of fact and judgments about preferences. The results were also used to illustrate the importance of palatability as a determinant of eating behavior.
Robinson, Eric; Higgs, Suzanne
Eating with others has been shown to influence the amount of food eaten in a meal or snack. We examined whether choosing food in the presence of another person who is choosing either predominantly low-energy-dense or high-energy-dense foods affects food choices. A between-subjects laboratory-based study was used. A group of 100 young females selected a lunch-time meal from a buffet consisting of a range of high-energy-dense and low-energy-dense foods, in the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly high-energy-dense foods) or a 'healthy' eating partner (who chose predominantly low-energy-dense foods) or when alone. Participants in the 'unhealthy' eating partner condition were significantly less likely to choose and consume a low-energy-dense food item (carrots), than when choosing alone or in the presence of a 'healthy' eater. Choice of high-energy-dense food did not differ across the conditions, nor did the total energy consumed. These data suggest that social influences on food choice are limited in this context but the presence of an 'unhealthy' eating partner may undermine intentions to consume low-energy-dense foods.
Roberto, Christina A; Bragg, Marie A; Livingston, Kara A; Harris, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jackie M; Seamans, Marissa J; Brownell, Kelly D
The 'Smart Choices' programme was an industry-driven, front-of-package (FOP) nutritional labelling system introduced in the USA in August 2009, ostensibly to help consumers select healthier options during food shopping. Its nutritional criteria were developed by members of the food industry in collaboration with nutrition and public health experts and government officials. The aim of the present study was to test the extent to which products labelled as 'Smart Choices' could be classified as healthy choices on the basis of the Nutrient Profile Model (NPM), a non-industry-developed, validated nutritional standard. A total of 100 packaged products that qualified for a 'Smart Choices' designation were sampled from eight food and beverage categories. All products were evaluated using the NPM method. In all, 64 % of the products deemed 'Smart Choices' did not meet the NPM standard for a healthy product. Within each 'Smart Choices' category, 0 % of condiments, 8·70 % of fats and oils, 15·63 % of cereals and 31·58 % of snacks and sweets met NPM thresholds. All sampled soups, beverages, desserts and grains deemed 'Smart Choices' were considered healthy according to the NPM standard. The 'Smart Choices' programme is an example of industries' attempts at self-regulation. More than 60 % of foods that received the 'Smart Choices' label did not meet standard nutritional criteria for a 'healthy' food choice, suggesting that industries' involvement in designing labelling systems should be scrutinized. The NPM system may be a good option as the basis for establishing FOP labelling criteria, although more comparisons with other systems are needed.
McGale, Lauren Sophie; Halford, Jason Christian Grovenor; Harrold, Joanne Alison; Boyland, Emma Jane
To assess the influence of brand equity characters displayed on food packaging on children's food preferences and choices, 2 studies were conducted. Brand equity characters are developed specifically to represent a particular brand or product. Despite existing literature suggesting that promotional characters influence children's food choices, to date, no research has assessed the influence of brand equity characters specifically. We recruited 209 children 4-8 years of age from schools and childcare centers in the UK. In a mixed-measures design, the children were asked to rate their taste preferences and preferred snack choice for 3 matched food pairs, presented either with or without a brand equity character displayed on packaging. Study 1 addressed congruent food-character associations and study 2 addressed incongruent associations. Participants were also asked to rate their recognition and liking of characters used. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and χ(2) analyses were used where appropriate. Children were significantly more likely to show a preference for foods with a brand equity character displayed on the packaging compared with a matched food without a brand equity character, for both congruent and incongruent food-character associations. The presence of a brand equity character also significantly influenced the children's within-pair preferences, within-pair choices, and overall snack choice (congruent associations only). Displaying brand equity characters promotes unhealthy food choices in children. The findings are consistent with those of studies exploring other types of promotional characters. In the context of a childhood obesity epidemic, the use of brand equity characters in the promotion of foods high in fat, salt, and sugar to children should be restricted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahma, Nina; Niva, Mari; Helakorpi, Satu; Jallinoja, Piia
In recent years studies on cultural consumption have experienced a Bourdieusian renaissance. This is indicated by a growing body of research analysing distinctions in different areas of culture, and numerous studies on the homology thesis applying the concepts of distinction, field and capital. Concurrently, however, it has been argued that instead of distinctive tastes, distinction and class status are increasingly manifested by cultural omnivorousness. For a good part studies focussing on distinction in food have analysed eating out and stylization through restaurant preferences, rather than everyday food choices. In this article we investigate everyday food choices from the perspective of distinction and omnivorousness. Our analysis draws on cross-sectional quantitative data collected in 2012 among 15-64-year-old Finns (N = 2601). The article maps out the relationship between food choice frequencies, dispositions and social background with Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). The results show that the consumption of fruit and vegetables, ready-meals and convenience foods were among the most divisive food choices. The first structuring dimension juxtaposed processed, fatty and sugared foods with unprocessed foods and fresh ingredients. This dimension was associated with healthiness and weight control as dispositions. On the second structuring dimension there were differences in the valuation of taste, pleasure and sociability, and a contrast between moderate and restrictive choices. Particularly the first dimension was associated with educational, occupational, and gender differences. Distinction within everyday food choices was manifested in the use of healthy and unprocessed foods and 'moderate hedonism' in contrast to more restrictive tastes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Trendel, Olivier; Werle, Carolina O C
Eating behaviors largely result from automatic processes. Yet, in existing research, automatic or implicit attitudes toward food often fail to predict eating behaviors. Applying findings in cognitive neuroscience research, we propose and find that a central reason why implicit attitudes toward food are not good predictors of eating behaviors is that implicit attitudes are driven by two distinct constructs that often have diverging evaluative consequences: the automatic affective reactions to food (e.g., tastiness; the affective basis of implicit attitudes) and the automatic cognitive reactions to food (e.g., healthiness; the cognitive basis of implicit attitudes). More importantly, we find that the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes directly and uniquely influence actual food choices under different conditions. While the affective basis of implicit attitude is the main driver of food choices, it is the only driver when cognitive resources during choice are limited. The cognitive basis of implicit attitudes uniquely influences food choices when cognitive resources during choice are plentiful but only for participants low in impulsivity. Researchers interested in automatic processes in eating behaviors could thus benefit by distinguishing between the affective and cognitive bases of implicit attitudes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laan, van der L.N.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.
Neuro-imaging holds great potential for predicting choice behavior from brain responses. In this study we used both traditional mass-univariate and state-of-the-art multivariate pattern analysis to establish which brain regions respond to preferred packages and to what extent neural activation
Loureiro, Maria L; Rahmani, Djamel
In order to test the effect of calorie information on fast food choices, we conducted a questionnaire employing two types of stated preferences methods (the best-worst-scaling and intentional questions) and a follow-up randomized field experiment in a sample of 119 participants. This combined approach allowed us to test the internal validity of preferences for fast food meals across elicitation scenarios. The results showed that calorie information reduces the probability of selecting high calorie meals only in the questionnaire, while it did not have any significant impact on actual purchasing behavior in the field experiment. Thus, the findings show that there is a clear difference between the role of calorie information on immediate stated preference choices, and the relatively low level of responsiveness in real choices in a restaurant. We believe that the current results are quite suggestive, indicating the limits of predicting actual fast food behavior, and may open the way to using data sources that combine stated methods with field experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ozturk, Orgul D; McInnes, Melayne M; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A; Jones, Sonya J
The objective of this study is to develop a structured observational method for the systematic assessment of the food-choice architecture that can be used to identify key points for behavioral economic intervention intended to improve the health quality of children's diets. We use an ethnographic approach with observations at twelve elementary schools to construct our survey instrument. Elements of the structured observational method include decision environment, salience, accessibility/convenience, defaults/verbal prompts, number of choices, serving ware/method/packaging, and social/physical eating environment. Our survey reveals important "nudgeable" components of the elementary school food-choice architecture, including precommitment and default options on the lunch line.
Kellershohn, J.; Walley, K.; Vriesekoop, F.
Purpose\\ud The purpose of this paper is to investigate the use of pricing (incentive and deterrent) to shift the purchase decision intent of parents when they order food for their child in a fast food restaurant.\\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud A financial incentive and a deterrent pricing tactic was tested using an online quantitative approach with a sample of 400 Canadian parents, representative of the Canadian population based on geography, household income and education level.\\ud Findin...
Risvik, E; Issanchou, S; Shepherd, R; Tuorila, H
A changing European food market demands insight into consumer attitudes and their influence on food choice and acceptability. This multidisciplinary area needs to bring together scientists from all regions of Europe and with very different scientific backgrounds. The primary objectives of this concerted action have been: to establish a base with state of the art methods for measurements of consumer attitudes; to review and test existing methods in practical applications in collaboration with European food industries; to perform comparative studies between laboratories on food products, where attitudes play different roles for consumer behaviour in the community countries, such as transgenic foods, irradiated foods, foods with different additives, declarations and process technologies, foods with different origin declarations, ecological foods and foods with strong health connotations (such as high-fat foods). The members of the action have published more than 130 publications related to aspects of how consumer attitudes can be measured and how food choice behaviour is related to acceptability, during the last four years. Studies have been conducted in relation to methodological aspects as well as particular studies related to specific food items and regions for food production. The paper will give a brief selection of relevant results from experiments reported through the action. During 2001 a textbook called "Food, People and Society, in a European Perspective", will be published. The book was initiated during the action and is later supported with additional authors. Altogether 29 chapters will cover the whole spectrum of topics from consumer food choice and acceptability to market perspectives and risk analysis.
Beer, Natalya J; Dimmock, James A; Jackson, Ben; Guelfi, Kym J
The benefits of regular exercise for health are well established; however, certain behaviors after exercise, such as unhealthy or excessive food consumption, can counteract some of these benefits. To investigate the effect of autonomy support (through the provision of choice) in exercise-relative to a no-choice condition with matched energy expenditure-on appetite and subsequent energy intake. Fifty-eight men and women (body mass index, 22.9 ± 2.3 kg·m; peak oxygen consumption, 52.7 ± 6.4 mL·kg·min) completed one familiarization session and one experimental trial, in which they were randomized to either a choice or no-choice exercise condition using a between-subjects yoked design. Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after exercise, together with perceptions of mood, perceived choice, enjoyment, and value. Despite similar ratings of perceived appetite across conditions (P > 0.05), energy intake was significantly higher after exercise performed under the no-choice condition (2456 ± 1410 kJ) compared with the choice condition (1668 ± 1215 kJ; P = 0.026; d = 0.60). In particular, the proportion of energy intake from unhealthy foods was significantly greater after exercise in the no-choice condition (1412 ± 1304 kJ) compared with the choice condition (790 ± 861 kJ; P = 0.037, d = 0.56). Participants in the choice condition also reported higher perceptions of choice (P 0.05). A lack of choice in exercise is associated with greater energy intake from "unhealthy" foods in recovery. This finding highlights the importance of facilitating an autonomy supportive environment during exercise prescription and instruction.
Jaeger, Sara R; Bava, Christina M; Worch, Thierry; Dawson, John; Marshall, David W
Despite a wide range of research approaches already being used to study eating and drinking, this complex aspect of human activity lacks conceptualisation and methodology for structured description of food choices. This paper introduces a metaphoric framework--the food choice kaleidoscope--as an approach to such inquiry. It conceptualises individual food choice events (or eating occasions) as being shaped by three main factors--product, person and place--and provides a descriptive approach through which patterns and variability in food choice events can be observed. The factors can be studied separately or in combination to reveal the joint influence of product, place and/or person factors. The approach is 'data hungry' and requires information about large numbers of eating occasions obtained for a variety of foods/beverage in a variety of situations. Using information about ∼5800 eating occasions obtained from 25 New Zealand women who self-completed 24-h recall diaries, the kaleidoscopic approach is illustrated. The data are analysed in relation to 30 food/beverage categories and 37 contextual (or 'place') variables, and at the level of individual participants. Results are presented that document: product-to-product variability in who eats/drinks what and where/how it is consumed; place-to-place variation in what is consumed and by whom; and person-to-person variability in what is consumed and where/how it is consumed. The most significant insight to emerge is the considerable heterogeneity that is hidden beneath the average patterns, and that average values may be inappropriate/irrelevant for this type of data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moeller, Scott J; Couto, Lizette; Cohen, Vanessa; Lalazar, Yelena; Makotkine, Iouri; Williams, Nia; Yehuda, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Geer, Eliza B
The mechanisms by which glucocorticoids regulate food intake and resulting body mass in humans are not well-understood. One potential mechanism could involve modulation of reward processing, but human stress models examining effects of glucocorticoids on behavior contain important confounds. Here, we studied individuals with Cushing's syndrome, a rare endocrine disorder characterized by chronic excess endogenous glucocorticoids. Twenty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome (13 with active disease; 10 with disease in remission) and 15 controls with a comparably high body mass index (BMI) completed two simulated food-choice tasks (one with "explicit" task contingencies and one with "probabilistic" task contingencies), during which they indicated their objective preference for viewing high calorie food images vs. standardized pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images. All participants also completed measures of food craving, and approximately half of the participants provided 24-h urine samples for assessment of cortisol and cortisone concentrations. Results showed that on the explicit task (but not the probabilistic task), participants with active Cushing's syndrome made fewer food-related choices than participants with Cushing's syndrome in remission, who in turn made fewer food-related choices than overweight controls. Corroborating this group effect, higher urine cortisone was negatively correlated with food-related choice in the subsample of all participants for whom these data were available. On the probabilistic task, despite a lack of group differences, higher food-related choice correlated with higher state and trait food craving in active Cushing's patients. Taken together, relative to overweight controls, Cushing's patients, particularly those with active disease, displayed a reduced vigor of responding for food rewards that was presumably attributable to glucocorticoid abnormalities. Beyond Cushing's, these results may have relevance for elucidating
Rankin, Audrey; Bunting, Brendan P.; Poínhos, Rui; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Fischer, Arnout R.H.; Kuznesof, Sharron; Almeida, M.D.V.; Markovina, Jerko; Frewer, Lynn J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.
Objective: The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns. Design/Setting: A survey was administered online which included the Food
van der Laan, Laura N.; Barendse, Marjolein E. A.; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A. M.
Impulsivity is a personality trait that is linked to unhealthy eating and overweight. A few studies assessed how impulsivity relates to neural responses to anticipating and tasting food, but it is unknown how impulsivity relates to neural responses during food choice. Although impulsivity is a
Yeh, Ming-Chin; Matsumori, Brandy; Obenchain, Janel; Viladrich, Anahi; Das, Dhiman; Navder, Khursheed
Objective: This paper presents the reliability and validity of a "competing food choice" construct designed to assess whether factors related to consumption of less-healthful food were perceived to be barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption in college freshmen. Design: Cross-sectional, self-administered survey. Setting: An urban public college…
Zandstra, Elizabeth H.; Carvalho, Álvaro H.P.; Herpen, Van Erica
Social norms refer to what most people do or approve of. Perceived social norms can influence food choice and intake behaviour. However, whether social norms can increase liking and taste perception of food products has not been studied so far. Across two studies, we investigated the impact of
Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka
The aim of the study was to examine how young adults in Finland perceive barriers to climate-friendly food choices and how these barriers are associated with their choices. The participants were 350 university students of the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The study found that the barriers the participants perceived as being the most relevant were different from those that were associated with the omission of climate-friendly food choices. High prices were perceived as the most relevant barrier, but were only weakly associated with the participants' food choices. Instead, habit and disbelief in the effects of food consumption on the climate were found to be the barriers that had the greatest association with climate-friendly choices. Moreover, women considered high prices and poor supply more important compared to men, whereas men considered disbelief and habit more important. In addition, vegetarians perceived fewer barriers than those who followed other diets. The findings increase our understanding of young adults' perceptions of barriers to climate-friendly food choices, as well as their effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Zielke, Stephan; Thøgersen, John
From the barriers said to potentially hamper the further development of the sector, the consumer demand side and herein the high prices are handled as crucial. We reviewed the literature since 2000 regarding the role of perceived price and income. We find that self-report based studies nearly unequivocally find price is the primary barrier to choice, deviations from this appear to occur when researching organic consumers and developed organic markets. There are mixed findings regarding income...
Tunstall, Brendan J; Kearns, David N
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the tendency to sign-track to a food cue was predictive of rats' choice of cocaine over food. First, rats were trained on a procedure where insertion of a retractable lever was paired with food. A sub-group of rats - sign-trackers - primarily approached and contacted the lever, while another sub-group - goal-trackers - approached the site of food delivery. Rats were then trained on a choice task where they could choose between an infusion of cocaine (1.0 mg/kg) and a food pellet (45 mg). Sign-trackers chose cocaine over food significantly more often than did goal-trackers. These results support the incentive-salience theory of addiction and add to a growing number of studies which suggest that sign-trackers may model an addiction-prone phenotype. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hansen, Thea Toft; Jakobsen, Tine Anette; Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Sjödin, Anders; Le Roux, Carel W; Schmidt, Julie Berg
It has been suggested that a shift in food choices leading to a diet with a lower energy density plays an important role in successful weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. A decreased hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods may explain these changes in eating behavior. Here, we review the literature examining postoperative changes in mechanisms contributing to hedonic drive (food preferences, reinforcing value of food, dopamine signaling, and activity reward-related brain regions). The majority of studies reviewed support that RYGB decrease the hedonic drive to consume highly palatable foods. Still, in order to fully understand the complexity of these changes, we need studies combining sociological and psychological approaches with objective measures of actual food choices examining different measures of hedonic drive.
Bacon, Linda; Krpan, Dario
Previous research has shown that restaurant menu design can influence food choices. However, it remains unknown whether such contextual effects on food selection are dependent on people's past behavior. In the present study, we focused on vegetarian food choices, given their important implications for the environment, and investigated whether the influence of different restaurant menus on the likelihood of selecting a vegetarian dish is moderated by the number of days on which people reported eating only vegetarian food during the previous week. In an online scenario, participants were randomly assigned to four different restaurant menu conditions-control (all dishes presented in the same manner), recommendation (vegetarian dish presented as chef's recommendation), descriptive (more appealing description of vegetarian dish), and vegetarian (vegetarian dishes placed in a separate section)-and ordered a dish for dinner. The results showed that the recommendation and descriptive menus increased the likelihood of vegetarian dish choices for infrequent eaters of vegetarian foods, whereas these effects tended to reverse for those who ate vegetarian meals more often. The vegetarian menu had no impact on the infrequent vegetarian eaters' choice but backfired for the frequent vegetarian eaters and made them less likely to order a vegetarian dish. These findings indicate that people's past behavior is an important determinant of the impact of nudging on food choices, and that achieving sustainable eating may require more personalized interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lambert, Michelle; Chivers, Paola; Farringdon, Fiona
University students generally make independent decisions regarding food choices. Current research about knowledge of Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG), sources of nutrition information and influences on food choices for this group is scarce. Qualitative data was collected from gender separated focus groups comprising four female (n=31) and four male (n=18) to identify: knowledge of ADG, sources of nutrition information; factors that influence food choices; perceived relevant nutrition messages and how best to deliver them. Gaps in knowledge were identified particularly regarding number of serves and serving size for food groups. Social media was the most commonly reported source of knowledge. Social media was also a major influence on food choice due to its impact on body ideals. Current health promotion nutrition messages were perceived irrelevant given the focus on long-term health risks. Health and adhering to the ADG were not identified as important. The desire to look a particular way was the major influence on food choices. SO WHAT?: While there is an awareness of ADG, our participants made a deliberate decision not to follow them. This provides a challenge for developing relevant preventive health messages for this target audience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Christensen, Tove; Mørkbak, Morten; Denver, Sigrid
Food quality attributes such as food safety and animal welfare are increasingly influencing consumers' choices of food products. These attributes are not readily traded in the markets. Hence, stated preference methods have proven to be valuable tools for eliciting preferences for such non......-traded attributes. A discrete choice experiment is employed, and the results indicate that consumers in general are willing to pay a premium for campylobacter-free chicken and for improved animal welfare; and they are willing to pay an additional premium for a product containing both attributes. Further, we find...
Aparicio, Carlos F; Baum, William M; Hughes, Christine E; Pitts, Raymond C
Studies of choice holding food-amount ratio constant while varying food-rate ratio within sessions showed that local changes in preference depend on relative amount of food. The present study investigated whether sensitivity of choice to food-rate ratio and sensitivity to food-amount ratio are independent of one another when food-rate ratios are varied across sessions and food-amount ratios are varied within sessions. Food deliveries for rats' presses on the left and right levers were scheduled according to three different food-rate ratios of 1:1, 9:1, and 1:9; each food-rate ratio lasted for 106 sessions and was arranged independently of seven food-amount ratios (7:1, 6:2, 5:3, 4:4, 3:5, 2:6, and 1:7 food pellets) occurring within sessions in random sequence. Each amount ratio lasted for 10 food deliveries and was separated from another by a 60-s blackout. Sensitivity to rate ratio was high (1.0) across food deliveries. Sensitivity to amount ratio was low when food rates were equal across alternatives, but was high when rate ratio and amount ratio opposed one another. When rate ratio and amount ratio went in the same direction, choice ratio reached an elevenfold limit which reduced sensitivity to approximately zero. We conclude that three factors affect sensitivity to amount: (1) the limit to preference, (2) the equal effect on preference of amounts greater than four pellets, and (3) the absence of differential effects of switches in amount in the equal-rates (1:1) condition. Taken together, these findings indicate that rate and amount only sometimes combine independently as additive variables to determine preference when amount ratios vary frequently within sessions. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Bucher Tamara; Collins Clare; Rollo Megan E.; McCaffrey Tracy A.; De Vlieger Nienke; Van der Bend Daphne; Truby Helen; Perez-Cueto Federico J. A.
Nudging or 'choice architecture' refers to strategic changes in the environment that are anticipated to alter people's behaviour in a predictable way without forbidding any options or significantly changing their economic incentives. Nudging strategies may be used to promote healthy eating behaviour. However to date the scientific evidence has not been systematically reviewed to enable practitioners and policymakers to implement or argue for the implementation of specific measures to support ...
All?s, B.; P?neau, S.; Kesse-Guyot, E.; Baudry, J.; Hercberg, S.; M?jean, C.
Background Sustainability has become a greater concern among consumers that may influence their dietary intake. Only a few studies investigated the relationship between sustainable food choice motives and diet and they focused on specific food groups. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the associations between food choice motives during purchasing, with a focus on sustainability, and dietary patterns in a large sample of French adults. Design Food choice motives were collect...
Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl
Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational...... attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women...... of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about...
Roosen, Jutta; Kottl, Barbara; Hasselbach, Johanna
Due to growth and changing distribution channels for organic food in Germany, there is some concern that organic food will lose against local food in the competition for conscious consumers. In this paper we will present the results of a survey in Bavaria searching for consumer motives and label recognition. A choice experiment using different prices, brands and labels is conducted for bread, beer and milk. Results show the importance of local production to the surveyed consumers, similarly f...
Blake, Christine E.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.
This study aimed to understand parents’ evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisf...
Achananuparp, Palakorn; Lim, Ee-Peng; Abhishek, Vibhanshu
Past research has shown the benefits of food journaling in promoting mindful eating and healthier food choices. However, the links between journaling and healthy eating have not been thoroughly examined. Beyond caloric restriction, do journalers consistently and sufficiently consume healthful diets? How different are their eating habits compared to those of average consumers who tend to be less conscious about health? In this study, we analyze the healthy eating behaviors of active food journ...
Whitelock, Victoria; Nouwen, Arie; van den Akker, Olga; Higgs, Suzanne
Evidence suggests a role for self-reported working memory (WM) in self-reported food intake, but it is not known which WM sub-components are involved. It is also important to consider how individual differences in dietary restraint and disinhibition influence WM and the impact of this on food choice. The current study assessed the relationship between WM sub-components and food choice, using computerised measures of WM sub-components and a direct assessment of food intake. The role of dieting success (measured by restraint and disinhibition) as a distal predictor of food choice that influences food choices via WM, and the role of WM more generally in dieting success were investigated. Female undergraduate students (N = 117, mean age: 18.9 years, mean BMI: 21.6 kg/m 2 ) completed computer tasks assessing three components of WM (updating, phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad) and a snack food taste-test. Greater visuospatial WM span was associated with a higher (lower) percentage of food intake that was low (high) energy dense. It was also found that unsuccessful dieters (high restraint, high disinhibition) had poorer visuospatial WM span and consumed a lower (higher) percentage of low (high) energy dense food. Visuospatial WM span significantly mediated the relationship between dieting success and percentage of low energy dense food intake. Further, dietary restraint was associated with poorer updating ability, irrespective of disinhibition. These findings suggest that better visuospatial WM is associated with a greater (reduced) preference for low (high) energy dense foods, and that deficits in visuospatial WM may undermine dieting attempts. Future work should assess whether the ability to deal with food cravings mediates the relationship between visuospatial WM and dieting success and investigate how WM may influence the mechanisms underlying behavioural control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kollipara, Usha K; Mo, Vivian; Toto, Kathleen H; Nelson, Lauren L; Schneider, Ruth A; Neily, Jennifer B; Drazner, Mark H
Sodium restriction is important in the management of heart failure (HF). Although many low-sodium educational resources are available, few are directed specifically at urban African Americans. A registered dietitian prospectively interviewed 50 African-American and 25 white patients in an urban public hospital (derivation cohort) in Dallas, TX, using a food-frequency instrument that listed 146 food choices. Foods >300 mg sodium/serving consumed at least weekly by 50% of an ethnic group were classified as being a high-sodium core food for that group. Classification of foods (core or not core) was validated in a second African-American cohort (n = 144). Five high-sodium food choices were classified as core food in both the derivation and validation African-American cohorts (salt in cooking, canned vegetables, cheese, processed meats, and cold cereal) and another 3 when the derivation and validation cohorts were combined (fast food, fried chicken, and corn bread). Four of these 8 foods were not classified as core foods in whites. Eight high-sodium foods were frequently consumed by southern, urban African Americans with heart failure. Several of these foods were not commonly consumed by whites, emphasizing the need to be sensitive to ethnic differences in dietary habits when educating patients about sodium intake.
Allirot, Xavier; da Quinta, Noelia; Chokupermal, Krithika; Urdaneta, Elena
Involving children in cooking has been suggested as a strategy to improve dietary habits in childhood. Interventions in schools including cooking, gardening and tasting activities have showed promising results. Several cross-sectional surveys demonstrated associations between frequency of involvement in food preparation and better diet quality. However, experimental studies confirming the beneficial effect of cooking on food choices in children are missing from the literature. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of involving children in cooking on their willingness to taste novel foods, food intake, liking and hunger. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 137 children between 7 and 11 years old. 69 children (COOK group) participated in the preparation of three unfamiliar foods containing vegetables: apple/beetroot juice, zucchini tortilla sandwich and spinach cookies. 68 children (CONTROL group) participated, instead, in a creative workshop. Afterwards, the children were invited to choose, for an afternoon snack, between three familiar vs. unfamiliar foods: orange vs. apple/beetroot juice, potato vs. zucchini tortilla sandwich and chocolate vs. spinach cookie. The mean number of unfamiliar foods chosen per child was higher in the COOK vs. CONTROL group (P = 0.037). The overall willingness to taste the unfamiliar foods was also higher in the COOK group (P = 0.011). The liking for the whole afternoon snack (P = 0.034), for 2 of 3 unfamiliar foods and for 1 of 3 familiar foods was higher in the COOK group (P food intake and hunger/satiety scores. This study demonstrated that involving children in cooking can increase their willingness to taste novel foods and direct food choices towards foods containing vegetables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BackgroundTo identify factors that determine the nature and extent ofyoung consumers trust in food; sources of information whichinfluence young consumer food choices; and how trustimpacts on young people’s food choices.MethodIn-depth qualitative research interviews were conducted withyoung women and men, who are the primary food purchasersin their household (n=8ResultsFood choices of young adults were generally determined bycost and convenience. The overall perception was thatAustralian food regulation was effective and therefore, foodsafety need not be questioned. Health including long termhealth, although considered, was not central in food choicebehaviour. Trustworthy nutrition information sourcesincluded family and friends. While food labels were used theywere considered scientific and complex. The media and thefood industry were deemed to be untrustworthy informationsources.ConclusionCost and convenience were major determinants of foodchoice in this group of young people who generally lacked areflexive capacity with regards to food safety and health. Afailure to prioritise health raises questions regarding theengagement of young people in public health initiatives, andshould be of interest to primary health care practitioners.These data suggest that general practitioners should beaware that cost and convenience may take priority overhealth issues for young people. Further research isrequired to confirm the findings of this small study, withfuture studies aiming to include young people fromvarying socio-demographic backgrounds in order to gain amore comprehensive view of young people’s trust infood.
Berg, M Christina; Jonsson, Inger; Conner, Mark T; Lissner, Lauren
To investigate dietary knowledge and beliefs of schoolchildren, in relationship to breakfast choices, with specific attention to fat and fiber content. Food choice and perceptions were studied by interviews using the "stacking box methodology". Youth (n = 181) aged 11-15 years were instructed to select food items among photographs of breakfast foods. In addition to choosing their own typical breakfasts, they were asked to exchange foods in hypothetical breakfasts to create meals with less fat and more fiber. The interview also dealt with recent changes in breakfast habits, and perceptions of healthy breakfasts, dietary fat, and foods rich in fiber. Data were analyzed by logistic regression. Knowledge concerning sources and health attributes of dietary fiber was associated with usual consumption of bread and breakfast cereals rich in fiber. In a similar way, a positive attitude toward limited fat intake predicted consumption of reduced-fat milk products. However, no association was observed between food choices and knowledge of a food-packaging symbol indicating low-fat and fiber-enriched foods. Lack of awareness of, and knowledge about, healthy eating may be important barriers to the development of health promoting food habits by schoolchildren.
De Jong, A.; Kuijer, S.C.; Rydell, T.
Within user-centred design and topics such as persuasive design, pleasurable products, and design for sustainable behaviour, there is a danger of over-determining, pacifying or reducing people’s diversity. Taking the case of sustainable food, we have looked into the social aspects of cooking at
König, Laura M; Giese, Helge; Schupp, Harald T; Renner, Britta
Studies show that implicit and explicit attitudes influence food choice. However, precursors of food choice often are investigated using tasks offering a very limited number of options despite the comparably complex environment surrounding real life food choice. In the present study, we investigated how the assortment impacts the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes and food choice (confectionery and fruit), assuming that a more complex choice architecture is more taxing on cognitive resources. Specifically, a binary and a multiple option choice task based on the same stimulus set (fake food items) were presented to ninety-seven participants. Path modeling revealed that both explicit and implicit attitudes were associated with relative food choice (confectionery vs. fruit) in both tasks. In the binary option choice task, both explicit and implicit attitudes were significant precursors of food choice, with explicit attitudes having a greater impact. Conversely, in the multiple option choice task, the additive impact of explicit and implicit attitudes was qualified by an interaction indicating that, even if explicit and implicit attitudes toward confectionery were inconsistent, more confectionery was chosen than fruit if either was positive. This compensatory 'one is sufficient'-effect indicates that the structure of the choice environment modulates the relationship between attitudes and choice. The study highlights that environmental constraints, such as the number of choice options, are an important boundary condition that need to be included when investigating the relationship between psychological precursors and behavior.
Tórtora, Giuliana; Ares, Gastón
Time orientation can influence health-related behaviors, including food consumption. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of time orientation on food choice, using cookie labels as case study. A choice-conjoint task was designed using labels differing in type of cookie (chocolate chips vs. granola), front-of-pack nutrition information (nutritional warnings vs. Facts Up Front system) and nutritional claim (no claim vs. "0% cholesterol. 0% trans fat"). An online study was conducted, in which 155 participants evaluated 8 pairs of cookie labels and selected the one they would buy if they were in the supermarket. Then, they were asked to complete a consideration of future consequences scale (CFC) adapted to eating habits, as well as a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics. Time orientation influenced participants' choices of cookies labels; particularly the importance attached to type of cookie. Participants with greater consideration of future consequences preferred the granola cookies, associated with health, while those who prioritized immediate consequences preferred chocolate chip cookies. In addition, nutritional warnings discouraged choice regardless of participants' time orientation. Results from the present work provide additional evidence of the influence of time preferences on food choices and suggest that strategies to stimulate and generate a more future-oriented perspective on eating habits could contribute to more healthful food choices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Caine, S Barak
We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0-1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Thomsen, Morgane; Barrett, Andrew C.; Negus, S. Stevens; Caine, S. Barak
We have adapted a nonhuman primate model of cocaine versus food choice to the rat species. To evaluate the procedure, we tested cocaine versus food choice under a variety of environmental manipulations as well as pharmacological pretreatments. Complete cocaine-choice dose-effect curves (0–1.0 mg/kg/infusion) were obtained for each condition under concurrent fixed ratio schedules of reinforcement. Percentage of responding emitted on the cocaine-reinforced lever was not affected significantly by removal of cocaine-associated visual or auditory cues, but it was decreased after removal of response-contingent or response-independent cocaine infusions. Cocaine choice was sensitive to the magnitude and fixed ratio requirement of both the cocaine and food reinforcers. We also tested the effects of acute (0.32, 0.56, 1.0, 1.8 mg/kg) and chronic (0.1, 0.32 mg/kg/hr) d-amphetamine treatment on cocaine choice. Acute and chronic d-amphetamine had opposite effects, with acute increasing and chronic decreasing cocaine choice, similar to observations in humans and in nonhuman primates. The results suggest feasibility and utility of the choice procedure in rats and support its comparability to similar procedures used in humans and monkeys. PMID:23319458
Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen
The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hendrickson, Kelsie L; Rasmussen, Erin B; Lawyer, Steven R
The present study established a brief measure of delay discounting for food, the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), and compared it to another more established measure of food discounting that uses the adjusting amount (AA) procedure. One hundred forty-four undergraduate participants completed either two measures of hypothetical food discounting (a computerized food AA procedure or the FCQ) or two measures of hypothetical money discounting [a computerized monetary AA procedure or the Monetary Choice questionnaire (MCQ)]. The money condition was used as a replication of previous work. Results indicated that the FCQ yielded consistent data that strongly correlated with the AA food discounting task. Moreover, a magnitude effect was found with the FCQ, such that smaller amounts of food were discounted more steeply than larger amounts. In addition, individuals with higher percent body fat (PBF) discounted food more steeply than individuals with lower PBF. The MCQ, which also produced a magnitude effect, and the monetary adjusting amount procedure yielded data that were orderly, consistent, and correlated strongly with one another, replicating previous literature. This study is the first to show that a novel measure of food discounting (the FCQ) yields consistent data strongly correlated with an established measure of food discounting and is sensitive to PBF. Moreover, the FCQ is easier and quicker to administer than the AA procedure, which may interest researchers who use discounting tasks in food-related research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Okoro, Chioma Sylvia; Musonda, Innocent; Agumba, Justus
Nutritional knowledge as well as economic, social, biological, and cultural factors have been known to determine an individual's food choices. Despite the existence of research on the factors which influence nutrition globally, there is little known about the extent to which these factors influence the food choices of construction workers, which in turn influence their health and safety during construction activities. The present article investigates the extent to which construction workers' nutrition is influenced by nutritional knowledge, as well as economic, environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. A field questionnaire survey was conducted on site construction workers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that consumption of foods termed alternative foods including dairy products, eggs, nuts, fish, and cereals, was influenced by nutritional knowledge and resources. Foods termed traditional core foods were influenced by cultural background; foods termed secondary core foods comprising fruits and vegetables were influenced by economic factors, resources, and cultural background; while foods termed core foods were mostly influenced by nutritional knowledge. By providing evidence of the factors which most influence selection and consumption of certain foods by construction workers, relevant nutrition interventions will be designed and implemented, taking cognizance of these factors.
Sushma, R; Vanamala, N; Nagabhushana, D; Maurya, M; Sunitha, S; Reddy, Cvk
In pursuit of a more "holistic" dentistry and an increasing focus on promoting oral health, dental students are increasingly being trained to take a more active part in health promotion and education. In particular, this incorporates an emphasis on diet and educating people to eat in more healthy ways. This paper works from the premise that if dental students are to engage in oral health promotion, they will do so more effectively if they have first explored their own food choice motivations. A descriptive, cross-sectional questionnaire study. The food choice questionnaire (FCQ) was distributed to a comparative group of 1(st) and 5(th) year dental students in timetabled lecture slots. The FCQ is a previously validated measure designed to assess ten main factors relevant to peoples" food choices. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 18.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) using descriptive statistics and independent sample t-test. Nearly 77% (122/159) students responded. Findings were analyzed using independent sample t-test. Results indicated statistically significant differences in terms of food choice motivations between male and female students of 1(st) and 5(th) year. Awareness and an understanding of the differences in motivational factors affecting food choice between dental students is important as they are increasingly taught to play an active role in oral health promotion.
Full Text Available This study identified the major options adopted by households in the rangelands of Uganda to meet their food needs, the factors that affect their choices and barriers to making use of various choices. A cross-sectional survey using semi-structured questionnaires was administered among 180 pastoral households in selected rangeland area of Uganda. The options identified include restocking animals, changing planting dates, soil conservation, harnessing new technologies, planting trees and buying food stuffs. Analysis of results from the multinomial logistic model indicated that age, level of education, size of household, years in current location, farm income, non-farm income, livestock ownership, access to extension services and climate and weather information were key determinants of farmers’ choice of options to realize household food security. The major perceived barriers to choice options were lack of information on alternative options, poor technologies, climate variability, inadequate land, high food prices and low income. The analysis of choice of options to meet household food security suggests a number of different policy options such as strengthening production facilitation options available to pastoral communities including among others access to affordable credit, investing in yield-increasing technologies, introduction of livestock species that are better suited to drier conditions, raising awareness on climate related variations, creating opportunities for off-farm employment, encouraging pastoralists to grow more crops, and investing in irrigation.
Davidson, Maria del Guadalupe
This paper explores how opposite sides of the abortion debate employ a discourse of endangerment to mobilise political support for their ideologies about black women's bodies. I examine the role of black women within that rhetorical strategy through various rhetorical artefacts. To analyse these artefacts, I employ the theoretical framework of…
Popkin, Barry M; Duffey, Kiyah; Gordon-Larsen, Penny
In this paper, the environment is defined as the macro- and community-level factors, including physical, legal and policy factors, that influence household and individual decisions. Thus, environment is conceived as the external context in which household and individual decisions are made. This paper reviews the literature on the ways the environment affects diet, physical activity, and obesity. Other key environmental factors discussed include economic, legal, and policy factors. Behind the major changes in diet and physical activity in the US and globally lie large shifts in food production, processing, and distribution systems as well as food shopping and eating options, resulting in the increase in availability of energy-dense foods. Similarly, the ways we move at home, work, leisure, and travel have shifted markedly, resulting in substantial reductions in energy expenditure. Many small area studies have linked environmental shifts with diet and activity changes. This paper begins with a review of environmental influences on diet and physical activity, and includes the discussion of two case studies on environmental influences on physical activity in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. The case studies illustrate the important role of physical activity resources and the inequitable distribution of such activity-related facilities and resources, with high minority, low educated populations at strong disadvantage. Further, the research shows a significant association of such facilities with individual-level health behavior. The inequity in environmental supports for physical activity may underlie health disparities in the US population.
Petit, Olivia; Merunka, Dwight; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Spence, Charles; Cheok, Adrian David; Raccah, Denis; Oullier, Olivier
Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched. PMID:27428267
Adedokun, Omolola A; Plonski, Paula; Jenkins-Howard, Brooke; Cotterill, Debra B; Vail, Ann
To evaluate the impact of the University of Kentucky's Healthy Choices for Every Body (HCEB) adult nutrition education curriculum on participants' food resource management (FRM) skills and food safety practices. A quasi-experimental design was employed using propensity score matching to pair 8 intervention counties with 8 comparison counties. Independent-samples t tests and ANCOVA models compared gains in FRM skills and food safety practices between the intervention and comparison groups (n = 413 and 113, respectively). Propensity score matching analysis showed a statistical balance and similarities between the comparison and intervention groups. Food resource management and food safety gain scores were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group (P food safety practices of participants. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wallen, Anna; Brandt, Nils; Wennersten, Ronald
Consumer's choice of food can influence the environment. In Sweden, in common with many other countries, consumers need to be given information so they can make environmentally informed shopping choices. However, what is the most advantageous dietary choice to lower greenhouse emissions? This study investigates the greenhouse gas emissions associated with food production for food consumed in Sweden annually. Specifically, this study compares greenhouse gas emissions associated with a nutritionally and environmentally sustainable diet with the average consumption of food in Sweden 1999. The study concludes that the change in energy use and greenhouse gas emission associated with this change of diet is negligible. Lowering greenhouse gas emissions by changing food production processes results in more profound changes than teaching consumers to make environmentally correct choices. There is a basic need for a reduction or a replacement of the use of fossil fuels to produce and distribute our food in order to reach any significant reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. Swedish agricultural policy does not provide ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In Sweden therefore there is an immediate need to design policy instruments with the primary aim of reducing the greenhouse effect
Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children
Snoek, H.M.; Sessink, N.Y.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
The following study compared the food choices made by overweight and non-overweight preschoolers while role-playing a mother who bought food for a family, and examined the influence of maternal restriction on food choice. After screening 619 children for height and weight, 56 overweight children
Devine, Carol M; Connors, Margaret M; Sobal, Jeffery; Bisogni, Carole A
Lower status jobs, high workloads and lack of control at work have been associated with less healthful diets, but the ways through which work is connected to food choices are not well understood. This analysis was an examination of workers' experience of the relationship of their jobs to their food choices. Fifty-one multi-ethnic, urban, low- and moderate-income adults living in Upstate New York in 1995 participated in a qualitative interview study of fruit and vegetable choices and discussed employment and food choices. The workers who participated in this study described a dynamic relationship between work and food choices that they experienced in the context of their other roles and values. These workers presented a relationship that was characterized by positive and negative spillover between their jobs and their ability to fulfill family roles and promote personal health, linked by a spectrum of food choice strategies. Participants' narratives fit into three different domains: characterizations of work and their resources for food choice, strategies used to manage food choices within the constraints of work, and affect related to the negative and positive spillover of these strategies on family roles and on personal food choices. Characterizations of work as demanding and limiting or demanding and manageable differentiated participants who experienced their food choice strategies as a source of guilt and dissatisfaction (negative spillover) from those who experienced food choices as a source of pride and satisfaction (positive spillover). Ideals and values related to food choice and health were balanced against other values for family closeness and nurturing and personal achievement. Some participants found work unproblematic. These findings direct attention to a broad conceptualization of the relationship of work to food choices in which the demands and resources of the work role are viewed as they spill over into the social and temporal context of other
Alblas, Eva; Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; van 't Riet, Jonathan; Granic, Isabela; Ketelaar, Paul; Buijzen, Moniek
Improving diets by stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption might be beneficial, in particular when they substitute energy-dense products. The aim of present study was to investigate whether a health game can be used to positively affect healthy implicit attitudes (IAs) towards food and subsequent food choice behaviour of young adults. A 2 (Time: baseline vs. post-test) x 2 (Condition: health game vs. control game) x 2 (Baseline IAs: healthy IAs vs. less healthy IAs) mixed-subjects design was used with 125 participants (age: M = 20.17, SD = 1.88). IAs towards food were assessed at baseline and post-test using an Implicit Association Test (IAT). Additionally, food choice behaviour was assessed after game play. At baseline, the majority of participants had healthy IAs (i.e., favouring fruit over chocolate snacks). At post-test, significantly less healthy IAs were observed in the control condition, while this reduction was not significant in the health game condition. Regarding food choice behaviour, participants with healthy baseline IAs were more likely to select fruit in the health game condition than participants with healthy baseline IAs in the control game condition. However, participants with less healthy baseline IAs were less likely to select fruit in the health game condition than in the control condition. We found tentative support that health games can be used to influence IAs towards food and positively affect food choice behaviour. However, this influence was only observed for those with healthy baseline IAs. The current version of the health game would primarily benefit those already healthy and could negatively affect those that need the intervention most, so modifications are recommendable. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Bruce, Amanda S; Lim, Seung-Lark; Smith, Timothy Ryan; Cherry, J Bradley C; Black, William R; Davis, Ann M; Bruce, Jared M
The goal of this concise narrative review is to examine the current literature regarding endogenous and exogenous influences on youth food choices. Specifically, we discuss internal factors such as interoception (self-awareness) of pain and hunger, and neural mechanisms (neurofunctional aspects) of food motivation. We also explore external factors such as early life feeding experiences (including parenting), social influences (peers), and food marketing (advertising). We conclude with a discussion of the overlap of these realms and future directions for the field of pediatric food decision science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M
Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help.
Burns, Rachel J; Rothman, Alexander J
Providing a variety of food generally increases consumption and enjoyment. This effect is typically associated with unhealthy behavior (e.g., overindulgence at a buffet) and studied during a single meal. Two studies tested whether this effect can be leveraged in a subtle, simple manipulation to promote healthy food choices over the course of a day. In Studies 1 and 2, 188 and 187 participants, respectively, chose between a sweet and a piece of fruit in the afternoon. The fruit was either the same as or different from fruit that was selected in the morning; choice was not given in the morning. Study 1 tested this effect in the domain of expressed preferences and Study 2 examined actual choice. In both studies, a second piece of fruit was more likely to be selected in the afternoon if it was different from fruit that was selected in the morning. These results illustrate how a robust effect that is typically associated with unhealthy outcomes can be harnessed to promote healthy food choices and underscore the importance of conceptualizing eating as a series of interrelated behavioral decisions. This work has implications for applied settings, such as cafeterias, and is distinguished from other simple structural manipulations by its focus on sustaining healthy food choice over the course of the day. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Gwozdz, W; Reisch, L A
The aim of this report was to present methodological aspects of assessing the effects of advertising on children's food choices and preferences. Two instruments have been used: first, a choice experiment on children's food knowledge and preferences, and second, a questionnaire on children's knowledge about and attitudes towards advertising. The choice experiment employed 10 matched pairs of food items, each represented in two magazines, one that tested knowledge and the other food preferences. The children's questionnaire contained four dimensions that tested children's credibility and suspiciousness of, as well as entertainment by, advertising. Although based on already developed tools, both instruments were modified to suit the young target group and ensure cross-cultural comparability. The questionnaire was validated via Cronbach's alpha and factor analysis. A total of 393 children aged 5-11 years from seven European countries participated in the study. Both instruments proved to be valid and reliable to analyse the food knowledge and preferences of children, as well as knowledge about and attitudes towards advertising. While 92.2% of the children predominantly recognised the healthier food, only 33.2% also preferred the healthier food. The Cronbach's alpha values for the dimensions were 0.470 for credibility, 0.409 for suspiciousness and 0.295 for entertainment factor. The gathered data revealed that children are rather critical and suspicious of advertising and only moderately entertained. Both instruments are applicable for the 5- to 11-year-old age group in different European countries. Descriptive results indicate additional insights into the effects of advertising on children's food knowledge, preferences and food choice.
Miller, Carla K; Branscum, Paul
To determine the effect of an economic recession on food choice behaviors. A qualitative study using semistructured, in-depth interviews followed by completion of a nutrition knowledge questionnaire and the Food Choice Questionnaire was conducted. A convenience sample from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Women with children younger than 18 years in the household who had experienced unemployment, underemployment, or loss of a house because of foreclosure in the previous year participated (n = 25). Reported behaviors for food choices when grocery shopping and dining out and educational resources requested to inform nutrition education programs. Interviews were coded with a matrix derived from participant statements. Common behaviors were grouped and broad themes were identified. Numerous shopping strategies were recently used to save money (eg, buying only sale items, using coupons). Participants believed a healthful diet included a variety of foods with less sugar, salt, and fat. Recipes and menus that required little cost or preparation time and resources to track food expenditures were desired. Nutrition education should include money-saving shopping strategies, facilitate menu planning and cooking skills, and address food resource management to enable participants to acquire sufficient, acceptable, and nutritionally adequate food. Copyright Â© 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maulida, Rizka; Nanishi, Keiko; Green, Joseph; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine
The aims of the present study were to assess the reliability and validity of the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and to determine the factors associated with food-choice motives in public junior-high-school students in Jakarta, Indonesia. Cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Trained research assistants measured height and weight of the participants on the day of the data collection. Settings Fourteen randomly selected public junior-high schools in East Jakarta, Indonesia. Public junior-high-school students (n 681) in grades 7 and 8, aged 13-14 years (377 girls and 304 boys). Three food-choice motives (subscales) were obtained from factor analysis and reliability testing: (i) comfort; (ii) convenience and price; and (iii) health. The subscale with the greatest mean value was health. Family affluence was inversely associated with the convenience and price subscale (β=-0·05, P=0·01) and with the health subscale (β=-0·04; P=0·02). Females were less likely than males to consider health when choosing foods (β=-0·16; P=0·03). While its factor structure differed from those found in previous studies of adults, the FCQ can provide reliable measures of food-choice motives among these adolescents. Students from less affluent families placed more importance on food's convenience and price, but more affluent students did not necessarily make healthier choices. Compared with females, males were more likely to choose healthy foods. Future interventions should be tailored based on the socio-economic status of the target group.
Conclusion: Hence, it is imperative that Dayak food is promoted among the local people first. Only when Dayak food is appreciated and accepted by the local people could the food be further promoted to the tourists. This would have a positive impact on the food business and tourism industry in Sarawak and Malaysia.
Vakili, Mahdis; Abedi, Parvin; Afshari, Poorandokht; Kaboli, Nayereh Esmael
Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups). Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc.,) were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week). The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.
Full Text Available Introduction: Central adiposity and metabolic syndrome are quite common among postmenopausal women. Dietary diversity and healthy food choices have essential role in health and also in prevention of obesity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of mobile phone short messaging system on healthy food choices among Iranian postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in which 100 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited and assigned to two groups (50 each in the intervention and control groups. Food frequency consumption was measured using a questionnaire. A total of 16 text messages including information about modification of food selection (healthy choices, benefits, methods, etc., were sent to participants in the intervention group during 4 months follow-up (1/week. The Chi-square and independent t-test used for data analysis. Ninety-two women completed the study. Results: The consumption of Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables significantly increased in the intervention group compared to the control group (P < 0.001. More women in the intervention group consumed fish after intervention (P = 0.02. The consumption of green leafy vegetables showed a nonsignificant increase in the intervention group. Conclusion: Using mobile phone short messaging system can improve the healthy food choices regarding Vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables and fish among postmenopausal women.
Bos, Colin; Van der Lans, Ivo A; Van Rijnsoever, Frank J; Van Trijp, Hans C M
The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified.
Background The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity poses a major threat to public health. Intervention strategies for healthy food choices potentially reduce obesity rates. Reviews of the effectiveness of interventions, however, show mixed results. To maximise effectiveness, interventions need to be accepted by consumers. The aim of the present study is to explore consumer acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie food choices. Beliefs that are associated with consumer acceptance are identified. Methods Data was collected in the Netherlands in 8 semi-structured interviews and 4 focus group discussions (N = 39). Nine archetypical strategies representing educational, marketing and legal interventions served as reference points. Verbatim transcriptions were coded both inductively and deductively with the framework approach. Results We found that three beliefs are related to consumer acceptance: 1) general beliefs regarding obesity, such as who is responsible for food choice; 2) the perceived effectiveness of interventions; and 3) the perceived fairness of interventions. Furthermore, the different aspects underlying these general and intervention-specific beliefs were identified. Conclusions General and intervention-specific beliefs are associated with consumer acceptance of interventions for low-calorie food choices. Policymakers in the food domain can use the findings to negotiate the development of interventions and to assess the feasibility of interventions. With respect to future research, we recommend that segments of consumers based on perceptions of intervention strategies are identified. PMID:24225034
Bittner, Jenny V; Kulesz, Micaela M
We investigated whether social presence cues encourage consumers to self-regulate and select healthier food products. In the first experiment, workers completed food choices in an e-commerce environment. After the activation of health-related goals, they saw a social presence cue and were asked to choose between healthy and unhealthy food options. The analyses revealed main effects of social presence and health goal activation on food choices. These effects were additive, such that the combination of social presence and health goals induced significantly healthier choices compared with the control group. The second experiment further examined social presence cues that were presented on a menu. The results showed significant effects on food choices and on the perceived self-regulatory success in dieting. These findings indicate that social presence cues could be employed to increase healthful eating and, furthermore, that it may be useful to co-activate multiple cues in health promotion messages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asma, A; Nawalyah, A G; Rokiah, M Y; Mohd Nasir, M T
The main objective of this study was to determine the motives underlying the selection of foods between husbands and wives in an urban community. Thiscross-sectional study was carried out in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia among 150 married couples aged 20 and above, who voluntarily agreed to participate and were not on any special diet. Data were collected using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) which measured the health-related and non health related factor that influence people's food choices. It consisted of 36 items designed to assess the reported importance of nine factors: health, mood, convenience, sensory appeal, natural content, price, weight control, familiarity, and ethical concern. In this study, the FCQ was adapted and a new factor, religion (religious guidelines), was included. Demographic characteristics including age, occupation, education, household income and household size were also collected. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 40.7% of husbands (mean age= 43.33 + 11.16 years) and 55.3% of wives (mean age= 41.28 + 10.93 years) perceived themselves as the main food shopper while 12.0% of the husbands and 85.3% of the wives perceived themselves as the main meal planner. Husbands rated religion as the most prominent factor in food choice motives with a mean average rating of 4.56 + 0.59 on a 5-point rating scale, followed by health and convenience factor. Meanwhile, the wives rated health as the most essential factor with mean average rating of 4.49 + 0.58, followed by religion and convenience factor. Sensory appeal, ethical concerns and familiarity were rated as the bottom three factors of food choice motives among these two groups. Price of foods was not considered as an important factor in making food choices for the subjects in this study. In conclusion, the husbands and wives of this urban community rated religion, health and convenience as the three most important food choice motives in food selection.
Márquez, Cristina; Rennie, Scott M; Costa, Diana F; Moita, Marta A
Animals often are prosocial, displaying behaviors that result in a benefit to one another [1-15] even in the absence of self-benefit [16-21] (but see [22-25]). Several factors have been proposed to modulate these behaviors, namely familiarity [6, 13, 18, 20] or display of seeking behavior [16, 21]. Rats have been recently shown to be prosocial under distress [17, 18] (but see [26-29]); however, what drives prosociality in these animals remains unclear. To address this issue, we developed a two-choice task in which prosocial behavior did not yield a benefit or a cost to the focal rat. We used a double T-maze in which only the focal rat controlled access to the food-baited arms of its own and the recipient rat's maze. In this task, the focal rat could choose between one side of the maze, which yielded food only to itself (selfish choice), and the opposite side, which yielded food to itself and the recipient rat (prosocial choice). Rats showed a high proportion of prosocial choices. By manipulating reward delivery to the recipient and its ability to display a preference for the baited arm, we found that the display of food-seeking behavior leading to reward was necessary to drive prosocial choices. In addition, we found that there was more social investigation between rats in selfish trials than in prosocial trials, which may have influenced the focals' choices. This study shows that rats provide access to food to others in the absence of added direct self-benefit, bringing new insights into the factors that drive prosociality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moerke, Megan J; Banks, Matthew L; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Negus, S Stevens
Cocaine use disorder remains a significant public health issue for which there are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies. Amphetamine maintenance reduces cocaine use in preclinical and clinical studies, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Previous studies indicate a role for endogenous opioid release and subsequent opioid receptor activation in some amphetamine effects; therefore, the current study examined the role of mu-opioid receptor activation in d-amphetamine treatment effects in an assay of cocaine-vs-food choice. Adult male rhesus monkeys with double-lumen intravenous catheters responded for concurrently available food pellets and cocaine injections (0-0.1mg/kg/injection) during daily sessions. Cocaine choice and overall reinforcement rates were evaluated during 7-day treatments with saline or test drugs. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine-vs.-food choice. The mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine (0.032-0.32mg/kg/h) dose-dependently increased cocaine choice and decreased rates of reinforcement. A dose of the mu-selective opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (0.0032mg/kg/h) that completely blocked morphine effects had no effect on cocaine choice when it was administered alone, but it enhanced the effectiveness of a threshold dose of 0.032mg/kg/h amphetamine to decrease cocaine choice without also enhancing nonselective behavioral disruption by this dose of amphetamine. Conversely, the kappa-selective opioid antagonist norbinalorphimine did not enhance amphetamine effects on cocaine choice. These results suggest that amphetamine maintenance produces mu opioid-receptor mediated effects that oppose its anti-cocaine effects. Co-administration of naltrexone may selectively enhance amphetamine potency to decrease cocaine choice without increasing amphetamine potency to produce general behavioral disruption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Boomhower, Steven R; Rasmussen, Erin B; Doherty, Tiffany S
Behavioral-economic studies have shown that differences between lean and obese Zuckers in food consumption depend on the response requirement for food. Since a response requirement inherently increases the delay to reinforcement, differences in sensitivity to delay may also be a relevant mechanism of food consumption in the obese Zucker rat. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid neurotransmitter system has been implicated in impulsivity, but studies that attempt to characterize the effects of cannabinoid drugs (e.g., rimonabant) on impulsive choice may be limited by floor effects. The present study aimed to characterize impulsive-choice patterns for sucrose using an adjusting-delay procedure in genetically lean and obese Zuckers. Ten lean and ten obese Zucker rats chose between one lever that resulted in one pellet after a standard delay (either 1 s or 5 s) and a second lever that resulted in two or three pellets after an adjusting delay. After behavior stabilized under baseline, rimonabant (0-10 mg/kg) was administered prior to some choice sessions in the two-pellet condition. Under baseline, obese Zuckers made more impulsive choices than leans in three of the four standard-delay/pellet conditions. Additionally, in the 2-pellet condition, rimonabant increased impulsive choice in lean rats in the 1-s standard-delay condition; however, rimonabant decreased impulsive choice in obese rats in the 1-s and 5-s standard-delay conditions. These data suggest that genetic factors that influence impulsive choice are stronger in some choice conditions than others, and that the endocannabinoid system may be a relevant neuromechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruddock, Helen K; Hardman, Charlotte A
Despite being widely debated throughout the scientific community, the concept of food addiction remains a popular explanation for overeating and obesity amongst the lay public. Overeating is often accompanied by feelings of guilt and dietary concern, and this may lead people to attribute their eating to an addiction in order to minimise personal responsibility. Research also indicates that food addiction attributions and dietary concern may lead people to limit their exposure to tempting foods. To test these ideas, we examined the effect of perceived overeating on food addiction attributions and snack choice. Subjective ratings of guilt and dietary concern were indirectly manipulated by leading female participants (N=90) to believe they had eaten more than (overeating condition), less than (undereating condition), or roughly the same (control condition) amount of palatable foods in relation to their own estimated consumption and to previous participants. Participants then rated the relative importance of a list of explanations for their eating (including "the foods were really addictive") and selected a snack to take home with them. Ratings of guilt and dietary concern were highest in the overeating condition, and lowest in the undereating condition, indicating that the manipulation had been successful. However, findings revealed no effect of condition on food addiction attributions. As predicted, participants in the overeating condition selected less tempting snacks than in the undereating condition. However, this effect was not mediated by guilt/dietary concern. There was also no association between food-addiction attributions and snack choice. These findings suggest that perceived overeating affects snack choice but not food addiction attributions. Future research should investigate whether food addiction attributions may be driven by feelings of guilt and dietary concern following longer-term disinhibited eating patterns. Copyright © 2017 The Authors
Shaping children's healthy eating habits with food placements? Food placements of high and low nutritional value in cartoons, Children's BMI, food-related parental mediation strategies, and food choice
Naderer, B.; Matthes, J.; Binder, A.; Marquart, F.; Mayrhofer, M.; Obereder, A.; Spielvogel, I.
Research on media induced food choices of children has not sufficiently investigated whether food placements of snacks high in nutritional value can strengthen children's healthy eating behavior. Furthermore, we lack knowledge about the moderating role of children's individual characteristics such
Boek, Stacey; Bianco-Simeral, Stephanie; Chan, Kenny; Goto, Keiko
To examine the roles of gender and race in students' determinants of food choices on a college campus. A total of 405 college students participated in a survey entitled "Campus Food: You Tell Us!" Chi-square and logistic regression were used to examine associations between demographics and food choice determinants. Gender and race appeared to play a significant role in determinants of students' food dislikes. Males were significantly more likely to choose cost, taste, and poor quality over poor nutrition as determinants. White students were significantly less likely to choose cost, inconvenience, and taste over poor nutrition than students of other races. Gender was also a significant factor associated with student preferences for campus dining location and determinants of unhealthful food. Future marketing may be more effective if tailored to gender and race. Nutrition educators should consider addressing taste and convenience when attempting to influence students' food choices. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J
The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika
Continual exposure to food cues in the environment contributes to unhealthy eating behaviour. According to dual-process models, such behaviour is partly determined by automatic processing of unhealthy food cues (e.g., approach bias), which fails to be regulated by controlled processing (e.g., inhibitory control). The current study aimed to investigate the effect of combined avoidance and control training on implicit evaluation (liking), choice, and consumption of unhealthy snack food. Participants were 240 undergraduate women who were randomly allocated to one of four experimental conditions of a 2 (avoidance training: training versus control) x 2 (control training: training versus control) between-subjects design. The combined training group had a more negative implicit evaluation of unhealthy food than either of the two training conditions alone or the control condition. In addition, participants trained to avoid unhealthy food cues subsequently made fewer unhealthy snack food choices. No significant group differences were found for food intake. Participants were women generally of a healthy weight. Overweight or obese individuals may derive greater benefit from combined training. Results lend support to the theoretical predictions of dual-process models, as the combined training reduced implicit liking of unhealthy food. At a practical level, the findings have implications for the effectiveness of interventions targeting unhealthy eating behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wansink, B; Shimizu, M; Camps, G
Fast food patronage is a frequent reality for many children and their parents. Although there are increasingly healthier alternatives for popular menu items (apple slices instead of French fries), they are infrequently selected. We investigated whether either of two priming tactics - the priming of a role model's food choices or the priming of healthy foods - could influence children to make healthier fast food choices. In the priming model condition, 22 children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) were presented with 12 photos of 6 admirable and 6 less admirable models and asked, 'Would this person order apple fries or French fries?' In the health prime condition, the same children were shown 12 photos of 6 healthy foods and 6 less healthy foods and asked to indicate if each food was healthy or unhealthy. When children were asked what various admirable people - such as Batman or Spiderman - would eat, 45% chose apple slices over French fries, which was higher than the health prime (P < 0.001) or the control condition (P < 0.001). Advising a parent to ask their child 'What would Batman (or another admired character or person) eat?' might be an easy step to take in what could be a healthier fast food world. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia
With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.
Picker, M; Poling, A
Previous investigations have shown that rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response are somewhat insensitive measures of the strength of autoshaped responding. In the present studies, these measures were contrasted with the allocation of responding during simultaneous choice tests, a measure of response strength frequently used in operant paradigms. In two experiments, nine pigeons were exposed to a forward pairing autoshaping procedure. Training sessions consisted of the successive presentation of three stimuli, each followed by food on either 100%, 50%, or 0% of the trials. Choice testing involved the simultaneous presentation of the three stimuli. In Experiment I, all pigeons consistently directed their initial choice responses and the majority of subsequent responses to the stimulus always followed by food, despite the fact that during training sessions the response rates of most birds were highest in the presence of the stimulus followed by food on 50% of the trials. In Experiment II, rate, latency, and percentage of trials with at least one response did not change appreciably as a function of duration of feeder presentations. However, choice responding was lawfully affected by duration of feeder presentations. These data suggest that choice is perhaps a more sensitive measure of the strength of autoshaped responding than other, more commonly employed, indices. PMID:7097152
Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542
Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung
The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.
Birch, Leann Lipps
The influence of peer models' food selections and eating behaviors on preschoolers' food preferences was investigated. Thirty-nine preschool children's preferences for vegetables were assessed. (Author/MP)
Oemichen, Megan; Smith, Chery
Investigate food choice, food access, and food insecurity among seniors. Eight focus groups were conducted in 2 counties with high and low Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation rates. A total of 62 seniors (aged ≥ 60 years) were recruited and each attended 1 focus group at a community center. The sample was 79% female and most were Caucasian (91%), similar to state demographics. The focus group themes of how seniors make food choices and access food, and food insecurity perceptions among this population were identified based on discussion commonalities. For quantitative data, P seniors, but SNAP use was considered unacceptable by some seniors living in county 1 because of the negative stigma attached to the program or because they lacked program knowledge about income criteria. More effort needs to be made to educate seniors about SNAP. It is important to gain insight into how food insecurity affects their food choices. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bellisle, France; France, Bellisle
In the Western world, consumers have only recently learned to discriminate the Umami taste, although they have enjoyed its contribution to the palatability of traditional dishes for centuries. The flavor enhancing properties of MSG have been scientifically investigated in European subjects. By adding MSG to such foods as soups, their content in sodium can be decreased without altering palatability, thus favoring a net decrease in sodium intake. Consumers presented with a novel food often have to get accustomed to the new taste before they acquire a preference for the food. A study showed that when such novel foods are added with some appropriate amount of MSG, consumers acquire a preference for them more rapidly. In elderly persons, the addition of MSG to nutritionally valuable foods (soups, vegetables, starches) did induce an increase of intake of MSG-added foods. Total meal size, however, was not affected, since the increased intake of MSG-containing foods was followed by a decreased consumption of foods served later in the meal, such as desserts. The same observations were repeated in hospitalized diabetic patients. Again, the patients ingested more healthy MSG-containing foods and less of other foods, with the same total meal energy intake. These two studies suggested that MSG could be used to stimulate appropriate food choices in certain populations.
Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Michael; Sohn, Matthias; de Bellis, Emanuel; Martin, Nathalie; Hertwig, Ralph
The predominant, but largely untested, assumption in research on food choice is that people obey the classic commandments of rational behavior: they carefully look up every piece of relevant information, weight each piece according to subjective importance, and then combine them into a judgment or choice. In real world situations, however, the available time, motivation, and computational resources may simply not suffice to keep these commandments. Indeed, there is a large body of research suggesting that human choice is often better accommodated by heuristics-simple rules that enable decision making on the basis of a few, but important, pieces of information. We investigated the prevalence of such heuristics in a computerized experiment that engaged participants in a series of choices between two lunch dishes. Employing MouselabWeb, a process-tracing technique, we found that simple heuristics described an overwhelmingly large proportion of choices, whereas strategies traditionally deemed rational were barely apparent in our data. Replicating previous findings, we also observed that visual stimulus segments received a much larger proportion of attention than any nutritional values did. Our results suggest that, consistent with human behavior in other domains, people make their food choices on the basis of simple and informationally frugal heuristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D
BACKGROUND: Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This
Pearcey, Sharon M; Zhan, Ginny Q
Previous cross-cultural research has examined college students' food choice decisions in different countries. The current study aimed to add to the literature by examining similarities and differences in motives for food choice between American (N = 328) and Chinese (N = 333) college students. The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) was used to measure the participants' motives for food choice. Students' perceptions on the importance of diet and on their body satisfaction were also obtained. Results show that, while there are many similarities between the two cultural groups on the FCQ items, there are also significant differences. Specifically, the two groups view sensory appeal, weight, health, mood, and familiarity in a similar way, but the American participants score higher on price and convenience whereas the Chinese score higher on natural content and ethical concerns. We believe contextual cultural factors of each country may be related to these results. Women view sensory appeal and weight as significantly more important than men. Interactions between culture and gender are also found. For example, American women score significantly higher than American men on mood whereas there is no gender difference in the Chinese group; on the other hand, Chinese men score significantly higher on price than Chinese women whereas there is no gender difference in the American group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Januszewska, Renata; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Verbeke, Wim
This study focuses on the implementation of the food choice questionnaire (FCQ) across four countries. The first objective is to examine the degree to which the factor structure of the FCQ is invariant across different populations. The second objective is to analyse the motives for food choice in different countries. The cross-sectional sample of 1420 consumers consisted of Belgians (N=458), Hungarians (N=401), Romanians (N=229) and Filipinos (N=332). Data analyses included estimation of five multi-group confirmatory factor analysis models; calculation of mean importance ratings for each food choice factor across countries; ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests; and a rank order test of most to least important factors within each country. The results confirm that the factorial structure of the FCQ is invariant with respect to factor configuration, factor loadings and item intercept. Sensory appeal is the most important factor among all European consumers, while health, convenience and price were all among the five most important factors shaping food choice in Belgium, Hungary and Romania. For Filipinos, the most important were health, price and mood. Sensory appeal ranked on the fourth place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rankin, Audrey; Bunting, Brendan P; Poínhos, Rui; van der Lans, Ivo A; Fischer, Arnout Rh; Kuznesof, Sharron; Almeida, Mdv; Markovina, Jerko; Frewer, Lynn J; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J
The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns.Design/SettingA survey was administered online which included the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and items assessing attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Nationally representative samples were recruited in nine EU countries (n 9381). Structural equation modelling indicated that the food choice motives 'weight control', 'mood', 'health' and 'ethical concern' had a positive association and 'price' had a negative association with attitude towards, and intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. 'Health' was positively associated and 'familiarity' negatively associated with attitude towards personalised nutrition. The effects of 'weight control', 'ethical concern', 'mood' and 'price' on intention to adopt personalised nutrition were partially mediated by attitude. The effects of 'health' and 'familiarity' were fully mediated by attitude. 'Sensory appeal' was negatively and directly associated with intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Personalised nutrition providers may benefit from taking into consideration the importance of underlying determinants of food choice in potential users, particularly weight control, mood and price, when promoting services and in tailoring communications that are motivationally relevant.
van Holst, R.J.; van der Cruijsen, L.; van Mierlo, P.; Lammers, G.J.; Cools, R.; Overeem, S.; Aarts, E.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and
van Holst, R.J.; van der Cruijsen, L.; van Mierlo, P.; Lammers, G.J.; Cools, R.; Overeem, S.; Aarts, E.
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and
van Holst, Ruth Janke; van der Cruijsen, Lisa; van Mierlo, Petra; Lammers, Gert Jan; Cools, Roshan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Aarts, Esther
Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in
Swanson, Mark; Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Davis, Rian; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Kaye
Objective: Patterns of overweight and obesity have an unequal geographic distribution, and there are elevated rates in Appalachia. Perceptions of Appalachian youth toward healthful eating and influences on food choice were examined as part of formative research to address these disparities. Methods: Eleven focus groups, averaging 6 youth (n = 68)…
Freedman, Marjorie R.; Rubinstein, Rebecca J.
Objective: In order to address increasing health care costs associated with obesity, this study sought to determine prevalence of overweight and obesity and examine eating behaviors, food choices, health beliefs, and attitudes of university employees. Participants and Methods: An online survey was distributed to greater than 3,800 faculty and…
Cartwright, Luke; Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Blackburn, Chrissie; Glover, Lesley
People with intellectual disabilities experience a range of health inequalities. It is important to investigate possible contributory factors that may lead to these inequalities. This qualitative study identified some difficulties for healthy eating in day centres. (1) Service users and their family carers were aware of healthy food choices but…
Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.
Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…
McEvoy, C. T.; Lawton, J.; Kee, F.; Young, I. S.; Woodside, J. V.; McBratney, J.; McKinley, M. C.
Using rewards may be an effective method to positively influence adolescent eating behaviour, but evidence regarding this approach is limited. The aim of this study was to explore young adolescent views about a proposed reward intervention associated with food choice in school canteens. Focus groups were held in 10 schools located in lower…
Bokhorst, S.F.; Ronfort, C.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Convey, P.; Aerts, R.A.M.
Antarctic soil ecosystems are amongst the most simplified on Earth and include only few soil arthropod species, generally believed to be opportunistic omnivorous feeders. Using stable isotopic analyses, we investigated the food choice of two common and widely distributed Antarctic soil arthropod
To internalize climate-related external costs from agricultural production and food consumption Pigou taxes and carbon credits increase private costs for food. Voluntary consumer choices for carbon-neutral food can be advantageous over such policy measures since they avoid higher food prices for the poor. We empirically analyze consumers’ willingness-to-pay for hypothetical carbon-reduced as well as carbon-neutral milk and apple juice. Data are collected in Discrete Choice Experiments in a Ge...
Primavesi, Laura; Caccavelli, Giovanna; Ciliberto, Alessandra; Pauze, Emmanuel
Promotion of healthy eating can no longer be postponed as a priority, given the alarming growth rate of chronic degenerative diseases in Western countries. We elaborated a nutrieconomic model to assess and identify the most nutritious and affordable food choices. Seventy-one food items representing the main food categories were included and their nationally representative prices monitored. Food composition was determined using CRA-NUT (Centro di Ricerca per gli Alimenti e la Nutrizione) and IEO (Istituto Europeo di Oncologia) databases. To define food nutritional quality, the mean adequacy ratio and mean excess ratio were combined. Both prices and nutritional quality were normalised for the edible food content and for the recommended serving sizes for the Italian adult population. Stores located in different provinces throughout Italy. Not applicable. Cereals and legumes presented very similar nutritional qualities and prices per serving. Seasonal fruits and vegetables presented differentiated nutritional qualities and almost equal prices. Products of animal origin showed similar nutritional qualities and varied prices: the best nutrieconomic choices were milk, oily fish and poultry for the dairy products, fish and meat groups, respectively. Analysing two balanced weekly menus, our nutrieconomic model was able to note a significant decrease in cost of approximately 30 % by varying animal-protein sources without affecting nutritional quality. Healthy eating does not necessarily imply spending large amounts of money but rather being able to make nutritionally optimal choices. The nutrieconomic model is an innovative and practical way to help consumers make correct food choices and nutritionists increase the compliance of their patients.
Objective The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals’ food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study’s aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. Methods In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. Results 1) Food venue availability within activity space – no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice – Shopping at farmers’ markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers’ markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store – those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95
Gustafson, Alison; Christian, Jay W; Lewis, Sarah; Moore, Kate; Jilcott, Stephanie
The retail food environment may be one important determinant of dietary intake. However, limited research focuses on individuals' food shopping behavior and activity within the retail food environment. This study's aims were to determine the association between six various dietary indicators and 1) food venue availability; 2) food venue choice and frequency; and 3) availability of healthy food within food venue. In Fall, 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults (n=121) age 18 years and over in Lexington, Kentucky. Participants wore a global position system (GPS) data logger for 3-days (2 weekdays and 1 weekend day) to track their daily activity space, which was used to assess food activity space. They completed a survey to assess demographics, food shopping behaviors, and dietary outcomes. Food store audits were conducted using the Nutrition Environment Measurement Survey-Store Rudd (NEMS-S) in stores where respondents reported purchasing food (n=22). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine associations between six dietary variables with food venue availability within activity space; food venue choice; frequency of shopping; and availability of food within food venue. 1) Food venue availability within activity space - no significant associations. 2) Food Venue Choice - Shopping at farmers' markets or specialty grocery stores reported higher odds of consuming fruits and vegetables (OR 1.60 95% CI [1.21, 2.79]). Frequency of shopping - Shopping at a farmers' markets and specialty stores at least once a week reported higher odds of consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR 1.55 95% CI [1.08, 2.23]). Yet, shopping frequently at a super market had higher odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 1.39 95% CI [1.03, 1.86]). 3) Availability of food within store - those who shop in supermarkets with high availability of healthy food has lower odds of consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (OR 0.65 95% CI [0.14, 0.83]). Interventions aimed at
Gatou, Tarsitsa; Mamai-Homata, Eleni; Koletsi-Kounari, Haroula; Polychronopoulou, Argy
To investigate the short-term influence of the advertising of cariogenic foods on children's dietary preferences, and the possible moderating effect of several factors on this influence. One-hundred and eighty-three children, 11-12 years of age, were exposed to advertisements showing sugary food and non-food items, in a within-subject counterbalanced design. Their preferences for unhealthy and healthy foods, and their ability to recall or recognise the advertisements, were measured following both sessions. Information on their dietary habits, leisure activities and sociodemographic details were obtained through a questionnaire completed by their parents. Their decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, body weight and height were also recorded. A generalised linear mixed model was used to examine the differences in food preferences between experimental conditions, and the associations between children's preferences and the other factors assessed. Exposure to food advertisements significantly decreased the selection of healthy foods. Children with a higher DMFT index chose a higher percentage of unhealthy foods, and children who spent more time watching television chose an increased number of healthy foods, after their exposure to food advertisements. Regardless of condition, girls selected fewer foods than boys. Children with a higher DMFT index selected more unhealthy foods than children with a lower DMFT index. Obese children chose an increased number of healthy foods than those who were overweight and normal weight. Food advertisements can divert, for a short time, children's preference over healthy food choices, and could lead to changes in their eating habits, which may put them at higher risk of dental diseases and obesity. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina; Oliveira, Lorraine P; Dovey, Terence M
Food advert exposure has been shown to influence calorie intake and food choice in 9-11 year olds. However, little is known about the effect of food advertisements on feeding behaviour in younger children. Therefore, we conducted a study with 93 children aged 5-7 years, 28 of whom were over weight or obese. The children were exposed to 10 non-food adverts and 10 food adverts in a repeated measures design. Their consumption of sweet and savoury, high and low fat snack foods, and fruit were measured following both sessions. Food advert exposure produced a significant increase in total food intake in young children. The collection of recognition data was incomplete. These data replicate previous findings in that exposure to food adverts increases food intake in all children, but recognition of food adverts is related to body mass index (BMI). Beyond their effects on brand choice, exposure to food advertisements (commercials) promotes over-consumption in younger children.
Van Gestel, L C; Kroese, F M; De Ridder, D T D
Objective The current study is a longitudinal conceptual replication and aimed to investigate the effect of a food repositioning nudge on healthy food choice in a kiosk. Design During eight weeks, sales data were collected. The former four weeks formed the baseline phase and the latter four weeks formed the nudge phase where healthy food products were repositioned at the checkout counter display, while unhealthy alternatives remained available elsewhere in the store. Main Outcome Measures The main variable of interest was the proportion of healthy food products (selected to be repositioned) sold per day. Also exit interviews were administered to gather individual level data about purchases, and awareness and opinions of the nudge. Results Results showed that the proportion of selected healthy food products in total food sales was higher in all four nudge weeks than in all four baseline weeks. Individual level data showed that more customers had bought a selected healthy food product in the nudge phase and that customers generally approved of the nudge. Conclusion The current study strengthened the empirical evidence base of repositioning healthy food products as an effective and well-accepted nudge.
Gaillet-Torrent, M; Sulmont-Rossé, C; Issanchou, S; Chabanet, C; Chambaron, S
Current research in psychology suggests that unconscious processes influence a significant proportion of choices and decisions. To study the impact of a non-attentively perceived odour on food choices, we used a priming paradigm. We had previously shown that non-attentively perceived fruity odours could impact food choice intentions (on a menu card), guiding participants toward items containing more fruit and/or vegetables. The present study was designed to extend these findings, in a real-life consumption setting. One hundred and fifteen participants took part in this study, and were assigned randomly to either a control or a scented condition. On arrival in the laboratory, they were seated in a waiting room. For the scented condition, they were unobtrusively exposed to a pear odour, while under the control condition the waiting room was non-odorised. Following this waiting period, all participants moved into a non-odorised test room where they were asked to choose, from dishes served buffet-style, the starter, main course and dessert that they would actually eat for lunch. The results showed that participants subjected to the scented condition chose to consume the 'fruity' dessert (compote) more frequently than those who had waited under the control condition, who chose more frequently the dessert without fruit (brownie). In line with the findings of our previous study, these results confirm the idea of priming effects 'specific to the food cue'. To conclude, a non-attentively perceived fruity odour was shown to influence actual food choices, guiding individuals towards more fruity desserts. The involvement of implicit processes in food choices should be taken into account in guidelines and strategies designed to promote healthy eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pollard, T M; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J
The Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), which measures the reported importance to a given individual of nine factors underlying food choice, and a food frequency questionnaire, were administered to 241 participants, who were also required to classify their diet as either 'standard', 'low in red meat' or 'vegetarian'. Respondents describing their diet as low in red meat attributed greater importance to health, natural content, weight control and ethical concern in their food choice than did those who described their diets as standard, whereas vegetarians differed significantly from those with a standard diet only on the score for ethical concern. Differences between men and women and between students and non-students in the frequency of consumption of a number of foods were shown to be mediated by differences in the importance attached to FCQ factors. Thus the generally healthier diets of women compared to men appeared to be accounted for by the greater importance attributed by women to weight control, natural content and ethical concerns.
Cuevas, Rosa Paula; de Guia, Annalyn; Demont, Matty
Nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients require a thorough understanding of the drivers of food choice, which are embedded in local context and culture. We developed a framework of "gastronomic systems research" (GSR) to understand culture-specific consumer food choice, and contextualise it to a target population of urban, middle- to high-income Filipino consumers to assess the domestic niche market potential of traditional rice varieties in the Philippines. The GSR framework was contextualised through expert elicitation involving chefs and nutritionists, and validated through a consumer survey conducted during a food exposition. Using the GSR framework, we determined indicative rice consumption patterns of the target population and the specific rice quality attributes they require for specific rice-based dishes and rice consumption occasions. The GSR framework also reveals possible entry points for nutritional and dietary interventions and the introduction of novel food products and ingredients. The GSR framework, therefore, has the potential to aid policymakers and food value chain stakeholders in designing culture-sensitive and context-appropriate interventions not only to help consumers improve their diets, but also to help farmers access niche markets for novel food products and ingredients and thereby improve their livelihoods and preserve cultural heritage.
Full Text Available Closing the health gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians relies, in part, on addressing the poor levels of nutrition in remote Indigenous communities (RIC. This article identifies and maps key influencers of food choice at the point-of-purchase (POP in Australian RIC and identifies gaps in our knowledge. It is based on a narrative review of the literature pertaining to food in RIC from a range of disciplinary perspectives including nutrition, ethnography, public health, anthropology, and remote health to map POP drivers of food choice. In particular, the role of habit is identified as a key factor that has previously not been discussed in the literature. The conceptual framework can be used as a basis for future POP research in RIC and provides guidance for social marketers, public health, nutrition, and policy workers operating in this field.
Buttet, Sebastien; Dolar, Veronika
We propose a calibrated dynamic model of food consumption choices and body weight to study changes in daily caloric intake, weight, and the away-from-home share of calories consumed by adult men and women in the U.S. during the period between 1971 and 2006. Calibration reveals substantial preference heterogeneity between men and women. For example, utility losses stemming from weight gains are ten times greater for women compared to men. Counterfactual experiments show that changes in food prices and household income account for half of the increase in weight of adult men, but only a small fraction of women's weight. We argue that quantitative models of food consumption choices and body weight have a unique role to play in future research in the economics of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery
The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panlilio, Leigh V; Secci, Maria E; Schindler, Charles W; Bradberry, Charles W
Addiction involves maladaptive choice behavior in which immediate drug effects are valued more than delayed nondrug rewards. To model this behavior and extend our earlier work with the prescription opioid oxycodone, we allowed rats to choose between immediate intravenous delivery of the short-acting opioid remifentanil and delayed delivery of highly palatable food pellets. Treatment drugs were tested on a baseline where remifentanil was preferred over food. Treatment with a high dose of the opioid antagonist naltrexone decreased but did not reverse the preference for remifentanil. Treatment with the serotonin 5-HT 2C agonist lorcaserin decreased remifentanil and food self-administration nonselectively. Across conditions in which the alternative to delayed food was either a moderate dose of oxycodone, a moderate or high dose of remifentanil, a smaller more immediate delivery of food, or timeout with no primary reinforcement, choice was determined by both the length of the delay and the nature of the alternative option. Delayed food was discounted most steeply when the alternative was a high dose of remifentanil, which was preferred over food when food was delayed by 30 s or more. Within-subject comparisons showed no evidence for trait-like impulsivity or sensitivity to delay across these conditions. Choice was determined more by the current contingencies of reinforcement than by innate individual differences. This finding suggests that people might develop steep delay-discounting functions because of the contingencies in their environment, and it supports the use of contingency management to enhance the relative value of delayed nondrug reinforcers.
Privitera, Gregory J; Phillips, Taylor E; Zuraikat, Faris M; Paque, Robert
Health literacy, the ability to acquire health-related knowledge and make appropriate health-related decisions, is regarded as a key barrier to meaningfully convey health information to children and can impact food choice. Emolabeling is an image-based labeling strategy aimed at addressing this problem by conveying health information using emotional correlates of health using emoticons (happy = healthy; sad = not healthy). To test the utility of such a method to promote healthy food choices among children, 64 children (59% girls, foods in each of 2 aisles structured to mimic a grocery aisle - there were 12 identical foods placed in the same location in each aisle with half being low calorie and half high calorie snacks. Foods were emolabeled in one aisle; no emolabels were used in the other aisle; the order that children were brought in each aisle was counterbalanced. Results showed that adding emolabels increased the number (M ± SD) of healthy foods chosen (3.6 ± 0.7 with vs. 2.3 ± 1.1 without emolabels present [95% CI 1.0, 1.5], R(2) = .67) and reduced the total calories (M ± SD) of foods chosen (193.5 ± 88.5 Cal with vs. 374.3 ± 152.6 Cal without emolabels present [95% CI -212.6, -149.0], R(2) = .70). Hence, adding emolabels was associated with healthier food choices among children, thereby demonstrating one possible strategy to effectively overcome health literacy barriers at these ages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jensen, Melissa L; Frongillo, Edward A; Leroy, Jef L; Blake, Christine E
Food assistance programs may alter food choices, but factors determining households' decisions regarding food acquisition, preparation, and consumption in the context of food aid are not well understood. This study aimed to understand how the Programa Comunitario Materno Infantil de Diversificación Alimentaria (Mother-Child Community Food Diversification Program; PROCOMIDA), a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition program in rural Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, altered household food choices. We conducted semistructured interviews and focus groups with 63 households in 3 participating (n = 32 households) and 3 control (n = 31) villages. A last-day food recall (without estimating quantities) and food-frequency questionnaire that used food cards assessed dietary choices. Qualitative analysis used thematic a priori and emergent coding; food group consumption frequencies were analyzed by using 2-level, logistic, mixed modeling, and chi-square testing while accounting for community clustering. Compared with control households, PROCOMIDA changed household food choices through a combination of providing food resources (with monthly food rations) and new knowledge and skills related to health and food (in the program's behavior change communication component) while reinforcing existing knowledge and beliefs. PROCOMIDA families consumed rice, red beans, and oil more frequently than did control families (differences of 2.20 (P foods were in the rations. PROCOMIDA families also ate chicken, local plants, and some vegetables more frequently. The importance of these foods was emphasized in the behavioral change communication component; these foods may have been more accessible because provision of food rations freed resources. Our findings suggest that if a program provides food free of cost to rural indigenous families in the context of a maternal and child nutrition and health program, it may be important to include a well-designed behavioral change communication
Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R
Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children . However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children's and adolescents' fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald's, Burger King, Wendy's and Kentucky Fried Chicken. A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1-17 years, who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population.
Elbel, B; Gyamfi, J; Kersh, R
Objective Obesity is an enormous public health problem and children have been particularly highlighted for intervention. Of notable concern is the fast-food consumption of children. However, we know very little about how children or their parents make fast-food choices, including how they respond to mandatory calorie labeling. We examined children’s and adolescents’ fast-food choice and the influence of calorie labels in low-income communities in New York City (NYC) and in a comparison city (Newark, NJ). Design Natural experiment: Survey and receipt data were collected from low-income areas in NYC, and Newark, NJ (as a comparison city), before and after mandatory labeling began in NYC. Study restaurants included four of the largest chains located in NYC and Newark: McDonald’s, Burger King, Wendy’s and Kentucky Fried Chicken. Subjects A total of 349 children and adolescents aged 1–17 years who visited the restaurants with their parents (69%) or alone (31%) before or after labeling was introduced. In total, 90% were from racial or ethnic minority groups. Results We found no statistically significant differences in calories purchased before and after labeling; many adolescents reported noticing calorie labels after their introduction (57% in NYC) and a few considered the information when ordering (9%). Approximately 35% of adolescents ate fast food six or more times per week and 72% of adolescents reported that taste was the most important factor in their meal selection. Adolescents in our sample reported that parents have some influence on their meal selection. Conclusions Adolescents in low-income communities notice calorie information at similar rates as adults, although they report being slightly less responsive to it than adults. We did not find evidence that labeling influenced adolescent food choice or parental food choices for children in this population. PMID:21326209
Hardcastle, Sarah J; Blake, Nicola
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes that underlie food choices, and, the impact of a school-based healthy eating intervention in mothers from an economically-disadvantaged community. The aim of the intervention was to educate children to act as 'health messengers' to their families. Sixteen semi-structured phone interviews were conducted with mothers with four receiving a second interview. Interviews were conducted following their child's participation in a six-week after school healthy cooking intervention. Thematic content analysis revealed four main themes: Cost and budget influence on food choices, diversity in household rules controlling food, role of socialisation on diet, and improved cooking skills and confidence to make homemade meals. The interview findings demonstrated the positive influence of the after-school cooking intervention on children and their families in cooking skills, promoting healthier cooking methods and increasing confidence to prepare homemade meals. The findings demonstrated the wider economic and social influences on food choices and eating practices. Socialisation into, and strong cultural norms around, eating habits were significant influences on family diet and on parental decisions underpinning food choices and attitudes towards the control of food within the family. The intervention was perceived to be successful in terms of improving nutritional knowledge, cooking skills and increasing confidence to make healthy and tasty homemade meals. The study demonstrates the importance of parental involvement in school-based interventions if improvements in healthy eating are to be evidenced at the family level and maintained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Sonya; Melhorn, Susan J; Smeraglio, Anne; Tyagi, Vidhi; Grabowski, Thomas; Schwartz, Michael W
Background: Neuronal processes that underlie the subjective experience of satiety after a meal are not well defined. Objective: We investigated how satiety alters the perception of and neural response to visual food cues. Design: Normal-weight participants (10 men, 13 women) underwent 2 fMRI scans while viewing images of high-calorie food that was previously rated as incompatible with weight loss and “fattening” and low-calorie, “nonfattening” food. After a fasting fMRI scan, participants ate a standardized breakfast and underwent reimaging at a randomly assigned time 15–300 min after breakfast to vary the degree of satiety. Measures of subjective appetite, food appeal, and ad libitum food intake (measured after the second fMRI scan) were correlated with activation by “fattening” (compared with “nonfattening”) food cues in a priori regions of interest. Results: Greater hunger correlated with higher appeal ratings of “fattening” (r = 0.46, P = 0.03) but not “nonfattening” (r = −0.20, P = 0.37) foods. Fasting amygdalar activation was negatively associated with fullness (left: r = −0.52; right: r = −0.58; both P ≤ 0.01), whereas postbreakfast fullness was positively correlated with activation in the dorsal striatum (right: r = 0.44; left: r = 0.45; both P foods with higher fat content. Conclusions: Postmeal satiety is shown in regional brain activation by images of high-calorie foods. Regions including the amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum may alter perception of, and reduce motivation to consume, energy-rich foods, ultimately driving food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01631045. PMID:22990034
de Boer, J.; Schösler, H.; Boersema, J.J.
The recently developed Food Choice Motives (FCMs) questionnaire was used in a survey among a sample from the general population in the Netherlands (n= 1083) to examine the relationship between motivational differences in food orientation and the choice of snacks made from environmentally-friendly
Halford, Jason Cg; Boyland, Emma J; Hughes, Georgina M; Stacey, Leanne; McKean, Sarah; Dovey, Terence M
To investigate the effect of television food advertising on children's food intake, specifically whether childhood obesity is related to a greater susceptibility to food promotion. The study was a within-subject, counterbalanced design. The children were tested on two occasions separated by two weeks. One condition involved the children viewing food advertisements followed by a cartoon, in the other condition the children viewed non-food adverts followed by the same cartoon. Following the cartoon, their food intake and choice was assessed in a standard paradigm. The study was conducted in Liverpool, UK. Fifty-nine children (32 male, 27 female) aged 9-11 years were recruited from a UK school to participate in the study. Thirty-three children were normal-weight (NW), 15 overweight (OW) and 11 obese (OB). Exposure to food adverts produced substantial and significant increases in energy intake in all children (P energy-dense snacks in response to the adverts (P energy-dense snacks.
Full Text Available ObjectiveFood cues are omnipresent in the daily environment and may influence eating behavior even non-consciously. An increased reactivity to food cues, such as food odors, has been shown to be correlated with obesity in children. The objective of this study is to investigate whether the non-conscious influence of food odors on children’s food choices varies by their weight status.MethodsSeventy-four children, of whom 29 were obese, took part in this study. The children performed a food choice intention task presented as a computer game in which 30 pairs of food images (a fatty-sweet food picture vs. a fruit picture successively appeared on the screen. The children had to choose the item “they most wanted to eat at the present moment” for each pair. While performing this task, the children wore a headset in which the microphone foam was odorized with a fruity odor, a fatty-sweet odor or no odor. They performed the intention task three times, one time for each olfactory condition. The odors were non-attentively perceived, i.e., none of the children were aware of the odorization of the microphone foams. The modeled probability is the probability to choose a fruit.ResultsIn children with obesity, the fruity odor increased the likelihood of a fruit to be chosen compared to the no-odor condition [OR (95% CL = 1.42 (1.13–1.78, P = 0.0028], while the fatty-sweet odor had no effect on food choice [OR (95% CL = 1.07 (0.85–1.36, P = 0.55]. In children without obesity, both the fruity and the fatty-sweet odors decreased the likelihood to choose a fruit compared to the no-odor condition [OR (95% CL = 0.76 (0.64–0.90, P = 0.0015, for the fruity odor and OR (95% CL = 0.79 (0.66–0.93, P = 0.0062, for the fatty-sweet odor].ConclusionThe different patterns of results obtained in both groups of children suggest differences in the mental representations activated by non-attentively perceived olfactory cues based on
Tarabashkina, L; Quester, P; Crouch, R
To investigate the role of product evaluations, nutritional and persuasion knowledge on children's food choices conducted because of limited evidence about the role of product evaluations on consumer choices in conjunction with cognitive defences. A randomised controlled 2 × 2 factorial experiment with an exposure to a food and a control (toy) advertisement conducted in a non-laboratory setting at an annual event traditionally visited by families. Children aged 7-13 years with biometric/weight data representative of the general Australian population. Height and weight (converted into body mass index z-scores) measured in addition to children's nutritional and persuasion knowledge, product evaluations, age and gender. The factors that undermine children's cognitive defences relate to taste, social appeal of foods and low nutritional and persuasion knowledge. An interplay between the above-mentioned factors was also observed, identifying four groups among young consumers, alluding to a complex and at times impulsive nature of children's decisions: (1) knowledgeable children with less positive product evaluations choosing a healthy snack; (2) knowledgeable but hedonism-oriented children seeking peer conformity choosing an advertised product; (3) knowledgeable children who chose a snack belonging to the same product category; and (4) less knowledgeable children with positive product evaluations and low nutritional knowledge choosing snacks from the advertised product category. Obese children were more likely to belong to a cluster of less knowledgeable and hedonism-oriented children. The problem of consumption of less healthy foods is complex and multiple factors need to be considered by health practitioners, social marketers and parents to address the issue of childhood obesity. Nutritional knowledge alone is not sufficient to ensure children make healthier food choices and emphasis should also be placed on persuasion knowledge education, targeting of peer norms
Full Text Available Abstract: Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.
Ares, Gastón; Machín, Leandro; Girona, Alejandra; Curutchet, María Rosa; Giménez, Ana
Interventions aimed at changing dietary patterns should be designed based on the main motives underlying the food choices of specific target populations. The aim of the present study was to identify motives underlying food choice and barriers to healthy eating among consumers in two socioeconomic levels in Uruguay. Eleven focus groups were carried out with a total of 76 participants. Six of the groups involved low income participants and the others were conducted with middle income participants. Discussions were held around frequently consumed products, motives underlying food choices and barriers to healthy eating. Results confirmed the strong influence of income level on motives underlying food choice and barriers to the adoption of healthy eating. Low income participants described their choices as mainly driven by economic factors and satiety, whereas convenience was the main determinant of food selection for middle income participants. Implications for the design of public policies targeted at each group are discussed.
McDermott, Máirtín S; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev
The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to examine the association between TPB variables and discrete food choice behaviours. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Calculation of the pooled mean effect size (r(+)) was conducted using inverse-variance weighted, random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity across studies was assessed using the Q- and I(2)-statistics. Meta-regression was used to test the impact of moderator variables: type of food choice behaviour; participants' age and gender. A total of 42 journal articles and four unpublished dissertations met the inclusion criteria. TPB variables were found to have medium to large associations with both intention and behaviour. Attitudes had the strongest association with intention (r(+) = 0.54) followed by perceived behavioural control (PBC, r(+) = 0.42) and subjective norm (SN, r(+) = 0.37). The association between intention and behaviour was r(+) = 0.45 and between PBC and behaviour was r(+) = 0.27. Moderator analyses revealed the complex nature of dietary behaviour and the factors that underpin individual food choices. Significantly higher PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health compromising compared to health promoting foods. Significantly higher intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour associations were found for choosing health promoting foods compared to avoiding health compromising foods. Participant characteristics were also found to moderate associations within the model. Higher
Jeffery Robert W; Story Mary T; Oakes J Michael; French Simone A; Harnack Lisa J; Rydell Sarah A
Abstract Background Although point-of-purchase calorie labeling at restaurants has been proposed as a strategy for improving consumer food choices, a limited number of studies have evaluated this approach. Likewise, little research has been conducted to evaluate the influence of value size pricing on restaurant meal choices. Methods To examine the effect of point-of-purchase calorie information and value size pricing on fast food meal choices a randomized 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conduc...
Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E
Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds:...
Soyer, Meral Turk; Ergin, Isil; Gursoy, Safak Taner
To present data that contributes to understanding factors that influence food choice and skipping meals in adolescents. A cross sectional study is carried in selected high schools in Bornova. Study sample compromises of 527 students chosen randomly by class from a population of 2410 first year in high school students. Self-administered questionnaires containing sociodemographic determinants, self reported weight and height, food choices and meal patterns were used. A psychosocial factor that affects almost all of the students is the "taste and sensory perception of food". The second noticable factor is the "health and nutritious value of food". The time conserved and the convenience in the preparation of food is one of the lifestyle factors that affect more than half of the students. The cost of the food was also found to have an effect. Among the third group of factors categorized as "media", the leading factor is advertisement, effective in one third of the students. Among boys and girls, there was no statistical difference in the type of meal skipped. Living in Izmir for more than 10 years compared to less than ten years, being in a nuclear family to extended family, and belonging to the "owner" social class to "wage laborer" class also do not statistically differ with regard to skipping meals. However, the mother's and father's education level and having a working mother are associated with skipping meals. These results provide important evidence to support opportunities to positively influence the adoption of healthful eating.
Blake, Christine E; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A
This study aimed to understand parents' evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisfaction limited to work, family life, or daily schedule. Evaluation criteria differed by gender. Mothers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to balance work and family demands through flexible home and work conditions, while striving to provide healthy meals for their families. Fathers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to achieve schedule stability and participate in family meals, while meeting expectations to contribute to food preparation. Household, and especially work structural conditions, often served as sizeable barriers to parents fulfilling valued family food roles. These relationships highlight the critical need to consider the intersecting influences of gender and social structure as influences on adults' food choices and dietary intake and to address the challenges of work and family integration among low income employed parents as a way to promote family nutrition in a vulnerable population.
Wetherill, Marianna S; Williams, Mary B; Hartwell, Micah L; Salvatore, Alicia L; Jacob, Tvli; Cannady, Tamela K; Standridge, Joy; Fox, Jill; Spiegel, Jennifer; Anderson, Natia; Jernigan, Valarie Blue Bird
In rural American Indian (AI) communities, access to affordable, healthy foods is often limited. Understanding AI food choice considerations when selecting foods, such as sensory appeal, cost, or health, is an important yet understudied topic for eliminating persistent AI health disparities. In partnership with the Chickasaw Nation and Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, we administered a modified version of the Food Choice Values (FCV) Questionnaire to a cross-sectional sample of 83 AI patrons shopping at tribally-owned convenience stores ≥3 times per week. The FCV Questionnaire uses 25 items to assess eight FCV subscales related to buying and eating food, including sensory appeal; safety; accessibility; convenience; health/weight control; organic; tradition; and comfort. We compared mean scores for each FCV subscale by demographic groups using t-tests and ANOVA. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to examine how well the data from this population fit FCV subscale constructs. We then used cluster analysis, MANOVA, and discriminant analysis to characterize distinct segments of the population based on patterns of FCV endorsement. Appeal, safety, and access FCVs were most strongly endorsed across the sample. Prioritization of FCVs varied by age, gender, income, and education. Our cluster analysis identified four groups, or segments, each with distinct patterns of FCV endorsement: limited endorsement of any FCVs (23.3%); safety and sensory appeal (32.9%); health/weight control (17.8%); and broad endorsement of FCVs (26.0%). These groups varied by age and employment status. Findings from this analysis informed the design and implementation of a healthy retail intervention comprised of new healthful foods and beverages, product placement and marketing strategies within four tribally-owned and operated convenience stores. Public health interventions aimed at reducing nutrition-related disparities in rural AI populations may benefit from assessing food choice
Minaya, Dulce M; Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly L
We have shown previously that mice given access to four discrete feeding opportunities (FOs) per day show a characteristic sequence of sizes across ordinal FOs. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the relative contributions of external and internal factors on the sequencing of FO size. The external factors were the light:dark Zeitgeber and the cost of food, imposed via different fixed unit prices (FUP) in a closed operant economy, and the internal factors were signals relating to energy status including time since last food and weight loss. In the first experiment, mice were given 4 FOs spaced 4-h apart, but with the timing of the FOs relative to the Zeitgeber altered by a 4-h Zeitgeber advance or delay of the cycle. Food intake, and associated body weight, declined as price increased, but the temporal order of FO size was invariant within a Zeitgeber condition. The Zeitgeber advanced group showed clear evidence of a shift in meal sequence relating to the light:dark cycle. Thus, external factors seem to be a more important determinant of total intake and sequencing than internal factors. In the second experiment, mice were given the choice between continuous costly (CC) and intermittent inexpensive (II) food. II food was available for four-15min intervals every 4-h, and the timing of the 15min intervals was varied relative to the Zeitgeber cycle. In spite of a 20-fold difference in price between CC and II food, mice took approximately equal amounts from each, and all food intake took place during the dark phase. Mice consumed II food only if it was available during the dark phase. Food intake was strongly linked to the light:dark cycle, largely independent of food cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Homenko, Daria R.; Morin, Philip C.; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Teresi, Jeanne A.; Weinstock, Ruth S.
Objective: To evaluate differences between rural older adults with diabetes reporting the presence or absence of food insecurity with respect to meal planning, preparation, shopping, obesity, and glycemic control after receiving nutrition counseling through telemedicine. Methods: Food insecurity data were obtained by telephone survey (n = 74).…
Gutjar, Swetlana; Dalenberg, Jelle R.; de Graaf, Cees; de Wijk, Rene A.; Palascha, Aikaterini; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers' emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
Gutjar, S.; Dalenberg, J.R.; Graaf, de C.; Wijk, de R.A.; Palascha, A.; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, G.
Food-evoked emotions provide information that goes beyond the information from traditional hedonic ratings. The objectives of our study were: (i) to investigate how intrinsic (sensory) and extrinsic (packaging) cues affect consumers’ emotional responses to foods, and (ii) to explore whether
Yeong S. Tey
Full Text Available Background: Ethnic cuisines are increasingly popular in global food markets. This study identifies the personal values underlying Malaysian consumers' decision making with respect to Japanese food. Methods: A total of 134 Malaysian consumers were interviewed and analyzed using means-end chain methodology. Results: Our findings indicate that Japanese food is chosen for the values that the attribute “tasty” can help achieve, not for that attribute per se. Conclusion: Identified values primarily related to longevity, meaningful life-style and sense of accomplishment. The identification of these connections is an important step in understanding why a particular ethnic food is favored by foreign consumers. Our findings could be helpful to restaurateurs in meeting marketing strategies with consumer values and policymakers when designing health campaigns. Keywords: Attributes, Japanese food, Means-end chain, Personal values, Product attributes, Cognition
Grubliauskiene, Aiste; Verhoeven, Maxime; Dewitte, Siegfried
This study investigated how a combination of tangible and non-tangible rewards can alter health-related decisions made by children. Children chose between an unhealthy food option (a bowl of potato crisps) and a healthy food option (a bowl of grapes) on two occasions. In the first round, we manipulated the expected tangible reward and praise. The tangible reward was manipulated by means of a game that the child received upon choosing the healthy product, and the praise was manipulated by means of the teacher's applause and smiles if the child selected the healthy option. The second trial occurred three days after the first trial using the same food item options. Neither tangible rewards nor praise influenced the children's choices by themselves, but combining the two substantially increased the children's likelihood of selecting the healthy food choice. The data were consistent with a reattribution process akin to social labelling. Although initially externally motivated to select the healthy option, the children who received praise appeared to interpret their choice as internally motivated and therefore continued to select the healthy option even in the absence of reward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M
To examine the impact of presenting images of foods paired with images of positive and negative health consequences of their consumption on food choice and attitudes. Participants (N = 711) were randomly allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design (Food Type × Affective Valence) to 1 of 6 conditioning procedures that paired images of either energy-dense snack foods or fruit, with (a) images of negative health outcomes, (b) images of positive health outcomes, or (c) a no image control. The primary outcome was food choice assessed postintervention with a behavioral choice task. Secondary outcomes were implicit attitudes (assessed pre- and postintervention) and explicit attitudes (assessed postintervention). Presenting images of negative health outcomes led to more healthy food choices relative to control and positive image conditions, irrespective of whether they were paired with images of energy-dense snack foods or fruit. This relationship was partially mediated by changes in implicit and explicit attitudes. Images of positive health outcomes did not alter food choices. This study replicates and extends previous research showing that presenting images of negative health consequences increases healthy food choices. Because effects were elicited by manipulating affective valence irrespective of paired food type, these results appear more consistent with an explanation based on priming than on evaluative conditioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Harding, I H; Andrews, Z B; Mata, F; Orlandea, S; Martínez-Zalacaín, I; Soriano-Mas, C; Stice, E; Verdejo-Garcia, A
Unhealthy dietary choices are a major contributor to harmful weight gain and obesity. This study interrogated the brain substrates of unhealthy versus healthy food choices in vivo, and evaluated the influence of hunger state and body mass index (BMI) on brain activation and connectivity. Thirty adults (BMI: 18-38 kg m -2 ) performed a food-choice task involving preference-based selection between beverage pairs consisting of high-calorie (unhealthy) or low-calorie (healthy) options, concurrent with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Selected food stimuli were delivered to participants using an MRI-compatible gustometer. fMRI scans were performed both after 10-h fasting and when sated. Brain activation and hypothalamic functional connectivity were assessed when selecting between unhealthy-healthy beverage pairings, relative to unhealthy-unhealthy and healthy-healthy options. Results were considered significant at cluster-based family-wise error corrected Pfoods elicited significant activation in the hypothalamus, the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, the anterior insula and the posterior cingulate. Hunger was associated with higher activation within the ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, as well as lower connectivity between the hypothalamus and both the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Critically, people with higher BMI showed lower activation of the hypothalamus-regardless of hunger state-and higher activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex when hungry. People who are overweight and obese have weaker activation of brain regions involved in energy regulation and greater activation of reward valuation regions while making choices between unhealthy and healthy foods. These results provide evidence for a shift towards hedonic-based, and away from energy-based, food selection in obesity.
Schonberg, Tom; Bakkour, Akram; Hover, Ashleigh M; Mumford, Jeanette A; Poldrack, Russell A
To overcome unhealthy behaviors, one must be able to make better choices. Changing food preferences is an important strategy in addressing the obesity epidemic and its accompanying public health risks. However, little is known about how food preferences can be effectively affected and what neural systems support such changes. In this study, we investigated a novel extensive training paradigm where participants chose from specific pairs of palatable junk food items and were rewarded for choosing the items with lower subjective value over higher value ones. In a later probe phase, when choices were made for real consumption, participants chose the lower-valued item more often in the trained pairs compared with untrained pairs. We replicated the behavioral results in an independent sample of participants while they were scanned with fMRI. We found that, as training progressed, there was decreased recruitment of regions that have been previously associated with cognitive control, specifically the left dorsolateral pFC and bilateral parietal cortices. Furthermore, we found that connectivity of the left dorsolateral pFC was greater with primary motor regions by the end of training for choices of lower-valued items that required exertion of self-control, suggesting a formation of a stronger stimulus-response association. These findings demonstrate that it is possible to influence food choices through training and that this training is associated with a decreasing need for top-down frontoparietal control. The results suggest that training paradigms may be promising as the basis for interventions to influence real-world food preferences.
Thorndike, Anne N.; Riis, Jason; Levy, Douglas E.
Population-level strategies to improve healthy food choices are needed for obesity prevention. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of 2,672 employees at Massachusetts General Hospital who were regular customers of the hospital cafeteria with all items labeled green (healthy), yellow (less healthy), or red (unhealthy) to determine if social norm (peer-comparison) feedback with or without financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices. Participants were randomized in 2012 to three arms: 1) monthly letter with social norm feedback about healthy food purchases, comparing employee to “all” and to “healthiest” customers (feedback-only); 2) monthly letter with social norm feedback plus small financial incentive for increasing green purchases (feedback-incentive); or 3) no contact (control). The main outcome was change in proportion of green-labeled purchases at end of 3-month intervention. Post-hoc analyses examined linear trends. At baseline, the proportion of green-labeled purchases (50%) did not differ between arms. At end of the 3-month intervention, the percentage increase in green-labeled purchases was larger in the feedback-incentive arm compared to control (2.2% vs. 0.1%, P=0.03), but the two intervention arms were not different. The rate of increase in green-labeled purchases was higher in both feedback-only (P=0.04) and feedback-incentive arms (P=0.004) compared to control. At end of a 3-month wash-out, there were no differences between control and intervention arms. Social norms plus small financial incentives increased employees’ healthy food choices over the short-term. Future research will be needed to assess the impact of this relatively low-cost intervention on employees’ food choices and weight over the long-term. Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01604499 PMID:26827617
Barton, Maria; Kearney, John; Stewart-Knox, Barbara J.
Objective: Understand food choice, from the perspective of people residing in socioeconomically deprived rural neighborhoods. Methods: Focus groups (n = 7) were undertaken within a community setting involving 42 adults (2 males and 40 females) recruited through voluntary action groups. Data were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content…
Marquis, Marie; Shatenstein, Bryna
To determine the health and social benefits of the family mealtime, we examined the contribution of immigrant mothers' food motives to the importance placed on family meals, and cultural differences in mothers' food motives and the importance ascribed to family meals. Data were taken from a study on food choice factors among ten- to 12-year-old children from three cultural communities in Montreal. A 24-item, self-administered questionnaire was used to explore food choice motives. Each mother was also asked how important it was for her family to take the time to eat together, and if the child enjoyed sharing meals with his or her family. In all, 209 of the 653 questionnaires distributed were valid; 68 were from Haitian, 75 from Portuguese, and 66 from Vietnamese mothers. Five factors emerging from factor analyses explained 61.67% of the variance. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences between mothers' countries of origin for the importance placed on health, pleasure, familiarity, and ingredient properties (pmotivations emerged as the only significant predictor of the importance given to family meals, whereas for Vietnamese mothers, both health and eating familiar foods were predictors (p<0.05).
Kroese, Floor M; Marchiori, David R; de Ridder, Denise T D
Recognizing the mindless nature of many food decisions, it has been suggested that attempts to increase healthy eating should not focus on convincing people what is 'right' but rather aim to adjust the environment such that people are automatically directed toward healthy choices. This study investigated a nudge aiming to promote healthy food choices in train station snack shops. The nudge involved a repositioning of food products: healthy foods were placed at the cash register desk, while keeping unhealthy products available elsewhere in the shop. Three snack shops were included: a control condition; a nudge condition repositioning healthy products and a nudge + disclosure condition employing the same nudge together with an explanatory sign. Next to examining its effectiveness during 1 week, the study assessed customers' acceptance of the nudge. Controlling for a baseline week, more healthy (but not fewer unhealthy) products were sold in both nudge conditions, with no difference between the nudge and the nudge + disclosure condition. A majority of customers reported positive attitudes toward the nudge. Repositioning healthy foods is a simple, effective and well-accepted nudge to increase healthy purchases. Moreover, disclosing its purpose does not impact on effectiveness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
List, John A; Samek, Anya Savikhin
We leverage behavioral economics to explore new approaches to tackling child food choice and consumption. Using a field experiment with >1500 children, we report several key insights. We find that incentives have large influences: in the control, 17% of children prefer the healthy snack, whereas introduction of small incentives increases take-up of the healthy snack to ∼75%. There is some evidence that the effects continue post-treatment, consistent with a model of habit formation. We find little evidence that the framing of incentives (loss vs. gain) matters. Educational messaging alone has little effect, but we observe a combined effect of messaging and incentives: together they provide an important influence on food choice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Holst, Ruth Janke; van der Cruijsen, Lisa; van Mierlo, Petra; Lammers, Gert Jan; Cools, Roshan; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Aarts, Esther
Besides influencing vigilance, orexin neurotransmission serves a variety of functions, including reward, motivation, and appetite regulation. As obesity is an important symptom in orexin-deficient narcolepsy, we explored the effects of satiety on food-related choices and spontaneous snack intake in patients with narcolepsy type 1 (n = 24) compared with healthy matched controls (n = 19). In additional analyses, we also included patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (n = 14) to assess sleepiness-related influences. Participants were first trained on a choice task to earn salty and sweet snacks. Next, one of the snack outcomes was devalued by having participants consume it until satiation (i.e., sensory-specific satiety). We then measured the selective reduction in choices for the devalued snack outcome. Finally, we assessed the number of calories that participants consumed spontaneously from ad libitum available snacks afterwards. After satiety, all participants reported reduced hunger and less wanting for the devalued snack. However, while controls and idiopathic hypersomnia patients chose the devalued snack less often in the choice task, patients with narcolepsy still chose the devalued snack as often as before satiety. Subsequently, narcolepsy patients spontaneously consumed almost 4 times more calories during ad libitum snack intake. We show that the manipulation of food-specific satiety has reduced effects on food choices and caloric intake in narcolepsy type 1 patients. These mechanisms may contribute to their obesity, and suggest an important functional role for orexin in human eating behavior. Study registered at Netherlands Trial Register. URL: www.trialregister.nl. Trial ID: NTR4508. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
Pisani, Elise; Works in Progress Seminars Series
A talk organised in the Works in Progress Seminars Series about cookery books and Maltese national ideology. The talk is given by Elise Billiard Pisani. Cookery books can become powerful tools for promoting national ideology in the hands of some food amateurs. In this paper she will explain how popular gastronomy has become a subject of national pride and a large number of cookery books have constructed a particular image of Maltese food.
Watson, P; Wiers, R W; Hommel, B; Ridderinkhof, K R; de Wit, S
Adolescents and children are the targets of much food advertising, the majority of which is for unhealthy snacks. Although the effects of advertising on food preferences and consummatory behavior are well documented, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms is still limited. The present study investigates an associative (ideomotor) mechanism by which exposure to rewarding (snack) outcomes may activate behavior that previously resulted in these rewards. Specifically, we used a computerized task to investigate whether exposing adolescents to food pictures directly, or to Pavlovian cues predictive of those food pictures, would bias their subsequent responses towards the presented/signaled food. Furthermore, we assessed whether this effect was particularly pronounced with palatable, high-calorie snacks (crisps and chocolate) relative to low-calorie snacks (tomatoes and cucumber). In two experiments, adolescents learnt that certain key presses would yield particular food pictures - some high calorie and others low calorie - before learning Pavlovian associations between cues (cartoon monsters) and these same food pictures. Subsequently, in a response-priming test, we examined the extent to which the food pictures and Pavlovian cues spontaneously primed the previously associated response. The results show that we replicated, in adolescents, previous demonstrations of ideomotor response priming in adults: food pictures biased responding towards the response that previously yielded them, and this effect transferred to the Pavlovian cues. Furthermore, the priming effect was significantly stronger for high-calorie rewards than for low-calorie. These findings indicate that the ideomotor mechanism plays an important role in the detrimental effect of our obesogenic environment, with its plethora of unhealthy food reminders, on adolescents' food-related choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoolohan, C.; Berners-Lee, M.; McKinstry-West, J.; Hewitt, C.N.
The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embodied in 66 different food categories together with self-reported dietary information are used to show how consumer choices surrounding food might lead to reductions in food-related GHG emissions. The current UK-average diet is found to embody 8.8 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 . This figure includes both food eaten and food wasted (post-purchase). By far the largest potential reduction in GHG emissions is achieved by eliminating meat from the diet (35% reduction), followed by changing from carbon-intensive lamb and beef to less carbon-intensive pork and chicken (18% reduction). Cutting out all avoidable waste delivers an emissions saving of 12%. Not eating foods grown in hot-houses or air-freighted to the UK offers a 5% reduction in emissions. We show how combinations of consumer actions can easily lead to reductions of 25% in food related GHG emissions. If such changes were adopted by the entire UK population this would be equivalent to a 71% reduction in the exhaust pipe emissions of CO 2 from the entire UK passenger car fleet (which totalled 71 Mt CO 2 e year −1 in 2009). - Highlights: • UK-average diet embodies 8.8 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 (including avoidable waste). • Eliminating meat from the diet reduces food-related GHG emissions by 35%. • Changing from GHG-intensive meats to less intensive meats reduces emissions by 18%. • Cutting out all avoidable food waste reduces emissions by 12%. • Avoiding hot-housed food or food air-freighted to the UK reduces emissions by 5%
McDermott, M?irt?n S.; Oliver, Madalyn; Svenson, Alexander; Simnadis, Thomas; Beck, Eleanor J.; Coltman, Tim; Iverson, Don; Caputi, Peter; Sharma, Rajeev
The combination of economic and social costs associated with non-communicable diseases provide a compelling argument for developing strategies that can influence modifiable risk factors, such as discrete food choices. Models of behaviour, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) provide conceptual order that allows program designers and policy makers to identify the substantive elements that drive behaviour and design effective interventions. The primary aim of the current review was to ...
Nørnberg, Trine; Skov, Laurits Rohden; Houlby, Louise
This study addressed attitudes of using nudging-like measures in community schools to promote healthy food choices among Danish adolescents. Data were successfully collected for 408 respondents. The next step was to prepare descriptive statistics and conduct factor analysis and structural equatio...... it to be acceptable for the school to attempt to intervene with their health-related behavior, but respondents saw it as neither the school's obligation nor responsibility. School-based health promotion could benefit from these findings....
Peschel, Anne O; Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele
This paper examines consumers' knowledge and lifestyle profiles and preferences regarding two environmentally labeled food staples, potatoes and ground beef. Data from online choice experiments conducted in Canada and Germany are analyzed through latent class choice modeling to identify the influence of consumer knowledge (subjective and objective knowledge as well as usage experience) on environmentally sustainable choices. We find that irrespective of product or country under investigation, high subjective and objective knowledge levels drive environmentally sustainable food choices. Subjective knowledge was found to be more important in this context. Usage experience had relatively little impact on environmentally sustainable choices. Our results suggest that about 20% of consumers in both countries are ready to adopt footprint labels in their food choices. Another 10-20% could be targeted by enhancing subjective knowledge, for example through targeted marketing campaigns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parikh, K S; Srinivasan, T N
This paper presents a mathematical model for all matter-energy processing subsystems at the level of the society, specifically India. It explores India's choices in the food and energy sectors over the coming decades. Alternative land intensive, irrigation energy intensive, and fertilizer intensive techniques of food production are identified using a nonlinear programming model. The land saved is devoted to growing firewood. The optimum combination of railway (steam, diesel, and electric traction) and road (automobiles, diesel trucks, and diesel and gasoline buses) transport is determined. For the oil sector, two alternative sources of supply of crude oil and petroleum products are included, namely, domestic production and imports. The optimum choice is determined through a linear programming model. While the model is basically a static one, designed to determine the optimal choice for the target year of 2000-2001, certain intertemporal detail is incorporated for electricity generation. The model minimizes the costs of meeting the needs for food, transport in terms of passenger kilometers and goods per ton per kilometer, energy needs for domestic cooking and lighting, and the energy needs of the rest of the economy.
Clark, Michael; Tilman, David
Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.
Keller, Carmen; Siegrist, Michael
In a random sample (N = 951) from the general population, direct and indirect effects of the Big Five personality traits on eating styles and food choices were examined. Path models revealed that high openness to experience were associated with higher fruit, vegetable and salad and lower meat and soft drink consumption. High agreeableness was associated with low meat consumption. Neuroticism, conscientiousness and extraversion significantly and directly influenced eating styles and significantly indirectly influenced food choices. Conscientiousness mainly promoted fruit consumption by promoting restrained eating and prevented meat consumption by reducing external eating. Conscientiousness prevented consumption of sweet and savory foods, and of sugar-sweetened soft drinks by promoting restrained eating and reducing external eating, and consumption of sweet and savory foods also by reducing emotional eating. Neuroticism promoted consumption of sweet and savory foods by promoting emotional and external eating. Extraversion promoted sweet and savory, meat and soft drink consumption via promoting external eating. Results suggest that neurotic and emotionally unstable individuals seem to adopt counter-regulatory external or emotional eating and eat high-energy dense sweet and savory foods. Highly conscientious individuals adopt regulatory dietary restraint and practice counter-regulatory emotional or external eating less, resulting in more consumption of recommended and less consumption of not recommended food. The higher sociability of extraverted people, which is basically a health beneficial psychological resource, seems to have health-averse effects. Personality traits are stable; however, the resulting more proximal, counter-regulatory eating styles such as emotional or external eating might be more successfully addressed in interventions to prevent overeating and overweight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beheshti, Rahmatollah; Jones-Smith, Jessica C; Igusa, Takeru
Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1) quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2) simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs), or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP). Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.
Full Text Available Computational models have gained popularity as a predictive tool for assessing proposed policy changes affecting dietary choice. Specifically, they have been used for modeling dietary changes in response to economic interventions, such as price and income changes. Herein, we present a novel addition to this type of model by incorporating habitual behaviors that drive individuals to maintain or conform to prior eating patterns. We examine our method in a simulated case study of food choice behaviors of low-income adults in the US. We use data from several national datasets, including the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and the USDA, to parameterize our model and develop predictive capabilities in 1 quantifying the influence of prior diet preferences when food budgets are increased and 2 simulating the income elasticities of demand for four food categories. Food budgets can increase because of greater affordability (due to food aid and other nutritional assistance programs, or because of higher income. Our model predictions indicate that low-income adults consume unhealthy diets when they have highly constrained budgets, but that even after budget constraints are relaxed, these unhealthy eating behaviors are maintained. Specifically, diets in this population, before and after changes in food budgets, are characterized by relatively low consumption of fruits and vegetables and high consumption of fat. The model results for income elasticities also show almost no change in consumption of fruit and fat in response to changes in income, which is in agreement with data from the World Bank's International Comparison Program (ICP. Hence, the proposed method can be used in assessing the influences of habitual dietary patterns on the effectiveness of food policies.
van Buul, Vincent J; Bolman, Catherine A W; Brouns, Fred J P H; Lechner, Lilian
People are increasingly aware of the positive effects of a healthy diet. Concurrently, daily food consumption decisions - choices about both the quality and quantity of food that is ingested - are steered more by what consumers consider healthy. Despite the increased aim to eat healthier, however, consumers often do not read or incorrectly interpret on-pack nutrition information, resulting in suboptimal food choices in terms of health. This study aims to unravel the determinants of such inadvertent food choices from these consumers. In an online process-tracking study, we measured the actual usage of available back-of-pack nutrition information during substitutive food choices made by 240 participants who had the intention to eat healthy. Using mouse-tracking software in a computerized task in which participants had to make dichotomous food choices (e.g., coconut oil or olive oil for baking), we measured the frequency and time of nutritional information considered. Combined with demographic and psychosocial data, including information on the level of intention, action planning, self-efficacy, and nutrition literacy, we were able to model the determinants of inadvertent unhealthy substitutive food choices in a sequential multiple regression (R 2 = 0.40). In these consumers who intended to eat healthy, the quantity of obtained nutrition information significantly contributed as an associative factor of the percentage of healthy food choices made. Moreover, the level of correct answers in a nutrition literacy test, as well as taste preferences, significantly predicted the percentage of healthier choices. We discuss that common psychosocial determinants of healthy behavior, such as intention, action planning, and self-efficacy, need to be augmented with a person's actual reading and understanding of nutrition information to better explain the variance in healthy food choice behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calegari, L P; Barbosa, J; Marodin, G A; Fettermann, D C
the availability of information about food products may be an essential factor in the consumer's value perception in their purchasing decision. As the food product becomes personalized, the customization of this information becomes complex due to the possible combinations of product components. The use of smart technology in devices is one way to provide customers with customized food information. In the following research five attributes were identified in the composition of these devices: (A) portability; (B) precision; (C) diet customization; (D) food quality analysis; and (E) price. This study aims to identify the appropriate combination of possible functionalities or attributes that must be present in a device in order to detect the food composition of customized foods and their relation to market characteristics. One experiment used fractional factorial project to present the attributes in the form of scenarios following the Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis (CBCA) method. The data collection was done using survey methodology, through online questionnaire, with some 303 Brazilian respondents. So, the Logistic Regression was applied to data analysis. The moderating variables-gender, age, gluten restriction, lactose restriction and other restrictions-were also added to verify potential interactions with the primary attributes. From the results obtained, it was possible to observe higher significance for the primary attributes of diet personalization and quality food analyzes function. Our study contributes to the literature by enhancing the understanding about what the attributes should be in a technological device that has the purpose of recognizing food characteristics and is capable of generating information about customized food products. Furthermore, this device can enabler the production of mass customized food with the nutritional labels for each possible combination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oellingrath, Inger M; Hersleth, Margrethe; Svendsen, Martin V
To determine (i) the importance of parents’ motives for everyday family food choices; and (ii) the relationship between parental food choice motives and eating patterns of 12- to 13-year-old children. Cross-sectional study. A modified version of the Food Choice Questionnaire was used to determine parental motives for food choices. The children’s food and drink intake was reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Eating patterns were derived using principal component analysis. The association between food choice motives and eating patterns was examined using multiple linear regression analysis. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. In total, 1095 children aged 12–13 years and their parents. The parental motive ‘sensory appeal’ was the most important for food choice, followed by ‘health’, ‘convenience’, ‘natural content’ and ‘weight control’. The food choice motives were associated with the eating patterns of the children, independent of background variables. The motive ‘health’ was most strongly associated with a ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern, representing a diverse diet and regular meals, while the motive ‘convenience’ appeared to be the most important barrier to this eating pattern. ‘Weight control’ was not associated with the ‘varied Norwegian’ eating pattern. To encourage parents to make healthy food choices for their children, health promotion activities should focus on the health benefits of a diverse diet and regular meals, rather than weight control. Recommended food products should be made more convenient and easily available for families with children.
Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B
Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pchoice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kerins, Claire; Cunningham, Katie; Finucane, Francis M; Gibson, Irene; Jones, Jenni; Kelly, Colette
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer buying behaviour. This quasi-experimental study recruited a convenience sample of eight food service establishments, all with at least one menu item meeting the heart healthy criteria. Data from sales of all menu items sold over an 8-week period were collated 4 weeks prior to and 4 weeks during the display of information icons related to healthy food choices on menus. The absolute change in menu item sales showed a non-significant trend towards an increase in healthier menu item selections. Furthermore, there was no association between the type of food service establishment and the percentage change in labelled menu item sales. The study did not find a statistically significant influence of the icon-based menu labels on consumer food choice. Given the limited amount of research that examines alternative menu labelling formats in real-world settings, more studies are necessary to confirm these results. Further research is needed to identify the optimal format, content and impact of menu labels on consumer behaviour.
Marty, Lucile; Miguet, Maud; Bournez, Marie; Nicklaus, Sophie; Chambaron, Stéphanie; Monnery-Patris, Sandrine
Implicit and explicit attitudes are potential precursors of food choices and combine affective and cognitive components that can vary in their relative dominance. Yet, the affective and cognitive components of attitudes toward food can lead to distinct predisposition toward a food item and potentially to different food choices. In the food domain, the affective component pertains to the hedonic tone of consumption, while the cognitive component encompasses nutritional value or health consequences of food. The present study investigated whether hedonic- versus nutrition-based implicit and/or explicit attitudes toward food predicts children's healthy versus unhealthy food choices. A total of 63 children (age range = 6.3-11.5) participated in a 90-min session at 5 pm (i.e., afterschool snack time in France). The children were asked to choose five food items from a buffet featuring five healthy and five unhealthy sweet foods pretested as being highly liked. Children ate what they had chosen. Moreover, their implicit attitudes were assessed with a pairing task in which children were presented with 10 food triplets and asked to choose two food items that "best go together". For each triplet, foods could be paired according to their hedonic or nutritional characteristics. Explicit attitudes were assessed with a task in which children placed each of 48 food items into one of the following categories: "yummy", "yucky" (i.e., hedonic categories), "makes you strong", or "makes you fat" (i.e., nutritional categories). Both implicit and explicit attitudes significantly influenced children's food choices. We observed that children with more hedonic-based implicit or explicit attitudes toward food were more likely to choose healthy food options from the buffet. Conversely, children with both implicit and explicit nutrition-based attitudes chose less healthy foods. Hedonic-based attitudes toward food seem to drive healthier food choices in children compared with nutrition
de Graaf, Cees; Kramer, F Matthew; Meiselman, Herbert L; Lesher, Larry L; Baker-Fulco, Carol; Hirsch, Edward S; Warber, John
Laboratory data with single exposures showed that palatability has a positive relationship with food intake. The question addressed in this study is whether this relationship also holds over repeated exposures in non-laboratory contexts in more natural environments. The data were collected in four field studies, lasting 4-11 days with 307 US Army men and 119 Army women, and comprised 5791 main meals and 8831 snacks in total. Acceptability was rated on the nine point hedonic scale, and intake was registered in units of 1/4, 1/2, 3/4, or 1 or more times of the provided portion size. Correlation coefficients between individual acceptability ratings and intakes varied from 0.22 to 0.62 for the main meals (n=193-2267), and between 0.13 and 0.56 for the snacks (n=304-2967). The likelihood of choosing a meal for the second time was positively related to the acceptability rating of the meal when it was consumed for the first time. The results reinforce the importance of liking in food choice and food intake/choice behavior. However, the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between acceptability ratings and food intake suggest that environmental factors also have an important role in determining intake and choice.
de Wijk René A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromas have been associated with physiological, psychological affective and behavioral effects. We tested whether effects of low-level exposure to two ambient food-related aromas (citrus and vanilla could be measured with small numbers of subjects, low-cost physiological sensors and semi-real life settings. Tests included physiological (heart rate, physical activity and response times, psychological (emotions and mood and behavioral (food choice measures in a semi-real life environment for 22 participants. Results Exposure to ambient citrus aroma increased physical activity (P P P P P Conclusions The test battery used in this study demonstrated aroma-specific physiological, psychological and behavioral effects of aromas with similar appeal and intensities, and similar food-related origins. These effects could be measured in (semi- real life environments for freely moving subjects using relatively inexpensive commercially available physiological sensors.
Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E
Preclinical and human laboratory choice procedures have been invaluable in improving our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms of drug reinforcement and in the drug development process for candidate medications to treat drug addiction. However, little is known about the neuropharmacological mechanisms of methamphetamine vs food choice. The aims of this study were to develop a methamphetamine vs food choice procedure and determine treatment effects with two clinically relevant compounds: the monoamine uptake inhibitor bupropion and the dopamine antagonist risperidone. Rhesus monkeys (n=6) responded under a concurrent schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio (FR) 100 schedule) and intravenous methamphetamine injections (0-0.32 mg/kg/injection, FR10 schedule) during 7-day bupropion (0.32-1.8 mg/kg/h) and risperidone (0.001-0.0056 mg/kg/h) treatment periods. For comparison, effects of removing food pellets or methamphetamine injections and FR response requirement manipulations were also examined. Under saline treatment conditions, food was preferred over no methamphetamine or small unit methamphetamine doses (0.01-0.032 mg/kg/injection). Larger methamphetamine doses resulted in greater methamphetamine preference and 0.32 mg/kg/injection methamphetamine maintained near exclusive preference. Removing food availability increased methamphetamine choice, whereas removing methamphetamine availability decreased methamphetamine choice. Methamphetamine choice was not significantly altered when the FR response requirements for food and drug were the same (FR100:FR100 or FR10:FR10). Risperidone treatment increased methamphetamine choice, whereas bupropion treatment did not alter methamphetamine choice up to doses that decreased rates of operant behavior. Overall, these negative results with bupropion and risperidone are concordant with previous human laboratory and clinical trials and support the potential validity of this preclinical methamphetamine vs food
Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Njike, Valentine; Treu, Judith A; Reynolds, Jesse; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine
The present study directly compared prices of more and less nutritious foods within given categories in US supermarkets. Foods selected from six supermarkets in Jackson County were categorized using the five criteria of the Nutrition Detectives™ (ND) programme and an item-to-item cost comparison was made using posted prices. The nutritional quality of foods was distinguished using the clues of the ND nutrition education programme for elementary-school children and validated using the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. Supermarkets in Jackson County, MO, USA. Not applicable. The average price of the item for more nutritious foods did not differ significantly from that of less nutritious foods overall ($US 2·89 (sd $US 0·74) v. $US 2·85 (sd $0·68), P = 0·76). More nutritious breads cost more than less nutritious breads ($US 3·36 (sd $ US 0·28) v. $US 2·56 (sd $US 0·80, P = 0·03), whereas more nutritious cereals ($US 2·46 (sd $US 0·69) v. $US 3·50 (sd $US 0·30), P cost less. Our findings indicate that it is possible to choose more nutritious foods within many common categories without spending more money and suggest that making small improvements in dietary choices does not invariably cost more.
Gibson, Peter R; Shepherd, Susan J
Recognition of food components that induce functional gut symptoms in patient's functional bowel disorders (FBD) has been challenging. Food directly or indirectly provides considerable afferent input into the enteric nervous system. There is an altered relationship between the afferent input and perception/efferent response in FBD. Defining the nature of food-related stimuli may provide a means of minimizing such an input and gut symptoms. Using this premise, reducing the intake of FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, and mono-saccharides and polyols)--poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that, by virtue of their small molecular size and rapid fermentability, will distend the intestinal lumen with liquid and gas--improves symptoms in the majority of patients. Well-developed methodologies to deliver the diet via dietician-led education are available. Another abundant source of afferent input is natural and added food chemicals (such as salicylates, amines, and glutamates). Studies are needed to assess the efficacy of the low food chemical dietary approach. A recent placebo-controlled trial of FODMAP-poor gluten provided the first valid evidence that non-celiac gluten intolerance might actually exist, but its prevalence and underlying mechanisms require elucidation. Food choice via the low FODMAP and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for functional gut symptoms.
Appelhans, Bradley M; French, Simone A; Olinger, Tamara; Bogucki, Michael; Janssen, Imke; Avery-Mamer, Elizabeth F; Powell, Lisa M
Delay discounting, the tendency to choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is theorized to promote consumption of immediately rewarding but unhealthy foods at the expense of long-term weight maintenance and nutritional health. An untested implication of delay discounting models of decision-making is that selectively delaying access to less healthy foods may promote selection of healthier (immediately available) alternatives, even if they may be less desirable. The current study tested this hypothesis by measuring healthy versus regular vending machine snack purchasing before and during the implementation of a 25-s time delay on the delivery of regular snacks. Purchasing was also examined under a $0.25 discount on healthy snacks, a $0.25 tax on regular snacks, and the combination of both pricing interventions with the 25-s time delay. Across 32,019 vending sales from three separate vending locations, the 25-s time delay increased healthy snack purchasing from 40.1% to 42.5%, which was comparable to the impact of a $0.25 discount (43.0%). Combining the delay and the discount had a roughly additive effect (46.0%). However, the strongest effects were seen under the $0.25 tax on regular snacks (53.7%) and the combination of the delay and the tax (50.2%). Intervention effects varied substantially between vending locations. Importantly, time delays did not harm overall vending sales or revenue, which is relevant to the real-world feasibility of this intervention. More investigation is needed to better understand how the impact of time delays on food choice varies across populations, evaluate the effects of time delays on beverage vending choices, and extend this approach to food choices in contexts other than vending machines. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02359916. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bielser, Marie-Laure; Crézé, Camille; Murray, Micah M; Toepel, Ulrike
How food valuation and decision-making influence the perception of food is of major interest to better understand food intake behavior and, by extension, body weight management. Our study investigated behavioral responses and spatio-temporal brain dynamics by means of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in twenty-two normal-weight participants when viewing pairs of food photographs. Participants rated how much they liked each food item (valuation) and subsequently chose between the two alternative food images. Unsurprisingly, strongly liked foods were also chosen most often. Foods were rated faster as strongly liked than as mildly liked or disliked irrespective of whether they were subsequently chosen over an alternative. Moreover, strongly liked foods were subsequently also chosen faster than the less liked alternatives. Response times during valuation and choice were positively correlated, but only when foods were liked; the faster participants rated foods as strongly liked, the faster they were in choosing the food item over an alternative. VEP modulations by the level of liking attributed as well as the subsequent choice were found as early as 135-180ms after food image onset. Analyses of neural source activity patterns over this time interval revealed an interaction between liking and the subsequent choice within the insula, dorsal frontal and superior parietal regions. The neural responses to food viewing were found to be modulated by the attributed level of liking only when foods were chosen, not when they were dismissed for an alternative. Therein, the responses to disliked foods were generally greater than those to foods that were liked more. Moreover, the responses to disliked but chosen foods were greater than responses to disliked foods which were subsequently dismissed for an alternative offer. Our findings show that the spatio-temporal brain dynamics to food viewing are immediately influenced both by how much foods are liked and by choices taken on them
Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K
On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and
Kostyra, Eliza; Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Śniegocka, Katarzyna; Piotrowska, Anna
The number of visually impaired and blind people is rising worldwide due to ageing of the global population, but research regarding the impact of visual impairment on the ability of a person to choose food and to prepare meals is scarce. The aim of this study was threefold: to investigate factors determining the choices of food products in people with various levels of impaired vision; to identify obstacles they face while purchasing food, preparing meals and eating out; and to determine what would help them in the areas of food shopping and meal preparation. The data was collected from 250 blind and visually impaired subjects, recruited with the support of the National Association of the Blind. The study revealed that majority of the visually impaired make food purchases at a supermarket or local grocery and they tend to favour shopping for food via the Internet. Direct sale channels like farmers markets were rarely used by the visually impaired. The most frequently mentioned factors that facilitated their food shopping decisions were the assistance of salespersons, product labelling in Braille, scanners that enable the reading of labels and a permanent place for products on the shop shelves. Meal preparation, particularly peeling, slicing and frying, posed many challenges to the visually impaired. More than half of the respondents ate meals outside the home, mainly with family or friends. The helpfulness of the staff and a menu in Braille were crucial for them to have a positive dining out experience. The results of the study provide valuable insights into the food choices and eating experiences of visually impaired people, and also suggest some practical implications to improve their independence and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Velazquez, Cayley E; Pasch, Keryn E
The purpose of this study was to examine how objective measures of attention to food/beverage advertising were associated with the unhealthy food/beverage preferences and choices of children and adolescents. A self-report survey and eye-tracking session were completed by 102 youth (mean age=11.6 years; 56.4% were white; 43.1% were female) between April and November 2010. Participants viewed 40 food/beverage advertisements on a computer and their eye movements were recorded. Objective attention measures included total viewing time, fixation length (time spent viewing characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items), and fixation count (number of times an individual stops to examine characters/logos, unhealthy food/beverage items). Food/beverage preferences and choices were measured by self-report. The preferences index summed responses to 12 questions measuring snack food and sugar-sweetened beverage preferences and the choices index summed responses to eight questions measuring consumption of snack foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Regression models examined whether attention to food/beverage advertising was associated with food preferences and choices, controlling for sex, age, and body mass index z score. The length of time and number of times participants looked at unhealthy food and beverage items within advertisements were each significantly associated with unhealthy food/beverage preferences of youth (Ppurchase requests, given the important role of parents in the decision-making process surrounding food choice. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse if there is a diffused interest among consumers about the environmental impacts of their food choices, and try to capture the different types of attitudes of Italian consumers with respect to environmental sustainability of food products. The analysis builds on a survey based on vis-a-vis interviews with 240 consumers in Milan, and on a cluster analysis. The results highlight a high level of stated concern about environmental issues and about possible impacts of personal food consumption choices on the environment. Nevertheless, when investigating their actions during everyday shopping we have identified four groups of consumers: (1 those who take into consideration the environmental information on labels and do not require additional information; (2 those for which environmental information on labels does not have a great effect on purchase, but would like to receive more information; (3 those for which the presence of environmental information directs product selection and would also like to receive more; (4 those that do not take into account environmental issues when purchasing and are not interested in receiving more information about the impacts of the products.
Rosenfeld, Daniel L; Burrow, Anthony L
By departing from social norms regarding food behaviors, vegetarians acquire membership in a distinct social group and can develop a salient vegetarian identity. However, vegetarian identities are diverse, multidimensional, and unique to each individual. Much research has identified fundamental psychological aspects of vegetarianism, and an identity framework that unifies these findings into common constructs and conceptually defines variables is needed. Integrating psychological theories of identity with research on food choices and vegetarianism, this paper proposes a conceptual model for studying vegetarianism: The Unified Model of Vegetarian Identity (UMVI). The UMVI encompasses ten dimensions-organized into three levels (contextual, internalized, and externalized)-that capture the role of vegetarianism in an individual's self-concept. Contextual dimensions situate vegetarianism within contexts; internalized dimensions outline self-evaluations; and externalized dimensions describe enactments of identity through behavior. Together, these dimensions form a coherent vegetarian identity, characterizing one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding being vegetarian. By unifying dimensions that capture psychological constructs universally, the UMVI can prevent discrepancies in operationalization, capture the inherent diversity of vegetarian identities, and enable future research to generate greater insight into how people understand themselves and their food choices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Helfer, Peter; Shultz, Thomas R
The widespread availability of calorie-dense food is believed to be a contributing cause of an epidemic of obesity and associated diseases throughout the world. One possible countermeasure is to empower consumers to make healthier food choices with useful nutrition labeling. An important part of this endeavor is to determine the usability of existing and proposed labeling schemes. Here, we report an experiment on how four different labeling schemes affect the speed and nutritional value of food choices. We then apply decision field theory, a leading computational model of human decision making, to simulate the experimental results. The psychology experiment shows that quantitative, single-attribute labeling schemes have greater usability than multiattribute and binary ones, and that they remain effective under moderate time pressure. The computational model simulates these psychological results and provides explanatory insights into them. This work shows how experimental psychology and computational modeling can contribute to the evaluation and improvement of nutrition-labeling schemes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Zhang, Qi; Tang, Chuanyi; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Diggs, Leigh
The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) often allows participants to redeem food benefits for various brands at different costs. To aid the program’s food cost containment efforts, it is important to understand the individual and store characteristics associated with brand choices. This study used the WIC Electronic Benefit Transfer (EBT) data for 239,062 Virginia WIC participants’ brand choices in infant fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) and whole gra...
Barker, M.; Lawrence, W. T.; Skinner, T. C.
Objective: Women of lower educational attainment have less balanced and varied diets than women of higher educational attainment. The diets of women are vital to the long-term health of their offspring. The present study aimed to identify factors that influence the food choices of women with lower...... educational attainment and how women could be helped to improve those choices. Design: We conducted eight focus group discussions with women of lower educational attainment to identify these factors. We contrasted the results of these discussions with those from three focus group discussions with women...... of higher educational attainment. Setting: Southampton, UK. Subjects: Forty-two white Caucasian women of lower educational attainment and fourteen of higher educational attainment aged 18 to 44 years. Results: The dominant theme in discussions with women of lower educational attainment was their sense...
Antoñanzas, Fernando; Rodríguez-Ibeas, Roberto
In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis of the strategic choice made by firms regarding the type of food they market when they face consumers who care about the healthy/unhealthy attributes of the product but incur in emotional/health costs when the food they consume has unhealthy attributes. We consider a two-stage game. In the first stage, one of the firms chooses the unhealthy content of its product. In the second stage, both firms simultaneously decide their prices. We find that, depending on the parameters of the model, product differentiation can be maximal or less than maximal. The firm that produces the unhealthy food charges a higher price and obtains a larger share of the market unless the emotional/health costs and the unhealthy food production costs are relatively high. We also find that educational campaigns will not always reduce the demand for the unhealthy food or the degree of the unhealthy attribute.JEL Classification:I10, I18, L11.
Obesity in the United States does not affect all segments of the population equally. It is more prevalent in deprived neighborhoods and among groups with lower education and incomes. Inequitable access to healthy foods is one mechanism by which socioeconomic factors can influence food choice behaviors, overall diet quality, and bodyweight. Having a supermarket in the immediate neighborhood has been linked to better diets and to lower obesity rates. However, the affordability of healthy foods may have more of an impact on food patterns than does distance to the nearest store. Grains, added sugars, and added fats are inexpensive, good-tasting, and convenient. Their consumption has been linked to lower quality diets, lower diet costs, and lower socioeconomic status. By contrast, the recommended healthier diets not only cost more but were consumed by more affluent groups. New techniques of spatial analysis are a promising approach to mapping obesity rates and linking them with measures of socioeconomic status based on diverse social and economic aspects of the built environment. Low residential property values predicted bodyweights of women better than did either education or incomes. Shopping in low-cost supermarkets was another powerful predictor of bodyweight. Bodyweight gain may be best predicted not by any one nutrient, food or beverage but by low diet cost. Higher obesity rates in poor neighborhoods may be the toxic consequence of economic insecurity. Alleviating poverty may be the best, if not the only, way to stop the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Perry, B D; Grace, D C
Many societies are spoiled for choice when they purchase meat and other livestock products, and around the globe food choice has grown dramatically in the last two decades. What is more, besides the cost and obvious health concerns influencing commodity section, an increasing proportion of choices is made to contribute to the achievement of certain ideals, such as natural resource management, climate change mitigation, animal welfare concerns and personal lifestyle. At the same time, human health considerations are becoming more important for consumption choices as richer societies, and increasingly the urban poor in low- and middle-income countries, face an unprecedented epidemic of over-consumption and associated diet-related non-communicable diseases. Animal source foods are considered significant contributors to this trend. This paper reviews this complicated arena, and explores the range of considerations that influence consumers' preferences for meat and other animal source foods. This paper also argues that deeper drivers of consumption behaviour of many foods may act in opposition to the articulated preferences for choices around animal source food consumption. We review how the returns to different causes are being valued, how emerging metrics are helping to manage and influence consumption behaviours, and draw conclusions regarding options which influence food choice.
Smith, Hayden; Michelsen, Niall
Utilizing a web-based simulation Statecraft, we explore the relative influence of ideology (realism and idealism) on student behavior and learning. By placing students into ideologically cohesive groups, we are able to demonstrate the effect of their ideology on the goals they pursue and identify the constraints imposed on the system by the…
Hoefling, Atilla; Strack, Fritz
The present work was to examine the influence of food deprivation on food choice. For this purpose hungry versus satiated subjects were presented with a series of choices between two snacks in a complete block design of pairwise comparisons. Snacks systematically varied with respect to subjects' idiosyncratic taste preferences (preferred versus un-preferred snack), portion size (large portion versus very small portion), and availability in terms of time (immediately available versus available only after a substantial time delay). Food choices were analyzed with a conjoint analysis which corroborated the assumption that food deprivation decreases the relative importance of taste preference and increases the importance of immediate availability of food. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haghighian Roudsari, Arezoo; Vedadhir, Abouali; Amiri, Parisa; Kalantari, Naser; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Hani Sadati, Seyed Mohammad
Objective: Food choice is a process through which people think, feel, and eat food. It does not only influence individuals' health and well-being, families and communities, but also it has an effect on regional, national, and global levels. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perceptions and lived experiences of Tehran adult residents on psychological, social and cultural determinants of food choice. Method: In this qualitative design, we recruited 33 adults aged 30 to 64 years from various districts of Tehran, capital of Iran, and we explored how people make decisions about food choice in practice and shape their perception, attitude, and eating practices. An individual in-depth semi-structured interview guide included major questions with follow-up probes was used to explore participants' current and past eating habits from childhood to adulthood, dietary change at different life courses, and effective psychological state on food selection in different seasons. Results: This study revealed that food choice in the studied adults (30-64 years old) was widely influenced by psychological, social, and cultural determinants, which can be categorized into 5 main themes: cultural context and patterns; social Structure and norms; information resources and media; household and family structure; and nutrition transition. Conclusion: The findings clarified the importance of social and cultural contexts, which influence the food choice of adults in a metropolis like Tehran. Many of these concepts are contextualized from childhood. These findings could serve as guideline to design socio-culturally appropriate strategies and improve dietary behaviors of Iranians.
O'Brien, Orna A; Lindsay, Karen L; McCarthy, Mary; McGloin, Aileen F; Kennelly, Maria; Scully, Helena A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M
to qualitatively explore influences identified by overweight/obese pregnant women on food choices and physical activity (PA) behaviours; to determine the impact of pregnancy on these factors; and to inform development of future lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. cross-sectional interview study. maternity hospital, Ireland. pregnant women (n=22), early pregnancy Body Mass Index > 25kg/m 2 MEASURES: barriers to and facilitators of healthy eating and PA in overweight/obese pregnancy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. overweight/obese women perceived the following factors to influence their food choices and PA behaviours: personal (e.g. age, enjoyment, health, aesthetic appearance, and response to fatigue); social (e.g. social support, food modelling, social facilitation and weight bias) and environmental (e.g. food salience and the obesogenic environment). These factors affected PA and food choice trajectories differently according to socio-economic and socio-cultural context. personal, social and environmental factors affect food choices and PA behaviours. Pregnancy is a powerful stimulus for positive changes in food choices particularly. This change is driven by desire for healthy pregnancy outcome, and is not intrinsically motivated. Healthy lifestyle interventions should aim to sustain positive changes beyond pregnancy through: empowerment, intrinsic motivation, family-centred approach, and behavioural goals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Background: Poor dietary behaviors are risk factors for developing chronic diseases that plague public health. Purpose: This study sought to determine the differences in pre and post food label and food choice scores among first-year college students at the beginning and end of the semester. Case analyses were conducted to evaluate individualized…
Bissonnette, M M; Contento, I R
The objective of this study was to investigate adolescents' perspectives about the environmental impacts of food production practices and whether these perspectives are related to their food choice. Food choice was operationalized as consumption and purchase of organic foods and locally grown foods. A survey questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of adolescents and analyzed for descriptive information and relationships among variables. Subjects were 651 ethnically diverse, urban and suburban high school senior students in a major metropolitan area. Variables of an Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior were measured including beliefs, attitudes, perceived social influences, motivation to comply, perceived behavioral control, self-identity, perceived responsibility, behavioral intention, and behavior. Descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used. Surveyed adolescents did not have strong or consistent beliefs or attitudes about the environmental impact of food production practices. Cognitive-motivational processes were at work, however, since their perspectives were significantly correlated with behavioral intentions and food choice behaviors. Behavioral intention was best accounted for by attitudes and perceived social influences (and perceived responsibility for organic food), and behavior was best accounted for by behavioral intentions, beliefs, and perceived social influences (and self-identity for local food). There is a need to make salient to adolescents the environmental impact of food production practices through both cognitive and experiential approaches.
Stöckli, Sabrina; Stämpfli, Aline E; Messner, Claude; Brunner, Thomas A
Environmental cues can affect food decisions. There is growing evidence that environmental cues influence how much one consumes. This article demonstrates that environmental cues can similarly impact the healthiness of consumers' food choices. Two field studies examined this effect with consumers of vending machine foods who were exposed to different posters. In field study 1, consumers with a health-evoking nature poster compared to a pleasure-evoking fun fair poster or no poster in their visual sight were more likely to opt for healthy snacks. Consumers were also more likely to buy healthy snacks when primed by an activity poster than when exposed to the fun fair poster. In field study 2, this consumer pattern recurred with a poster of skinny Giacometti sculptures. Overall, the results extend the mainly laboratory-based evidence by demonstrating the health-relevant impact of environmental cues on food decisions in the field. Results are discussed in light of priming literature emphasizing the relevance of preexisting associations, mental concepts and goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wildhaber, Mark L.; Lamberson, Peter J.
Various mechanisms of habitat choice in fishes based on food and/or temperature have been proposed: optimal foraging for food alone; behavioral thermoregulation for temperature alone; and behavioral energetics and discounted matching for food and temperature combined. Along with development of habitat choice mechanisms, there has been a major push to develop and apply to fish populations individual-based models that incorporate various forms of these mechanisms. However, it is not known how the wide variation in observed and hypothesized mechanisms of fish habitat choice could alter fish population predictions (e.g. growth, size distributions, etc.). We used spatially explicit, individual-based modeling to compare predicted fish populations using different submodels of patch choice behavior under various food and temperature distributions. We compared predicted growth, temperature experience, food consumption, and final spatial distribution using the different models. Our results demonstrated that the habitat choice mechanism assumed in fish population modeling simulations was critical to predictions of fish distribution and growth rates. Hence, resource managers who use modeling results to predict fish population trends should be very aware of and understand the underlying patch choice mechanisms used in their models to assure that those mechanisms correctly represent the fish populations being modeled.
Wise, Nancy J
Healthy eating among pregnant adolescents is essential for the well-being of developing adolescent females and their fetuses, as well as for the prevention of adult chronic illness. Understanding factors that influence and prohibit healthy eating, along with preferences for nutrition education in the pregnant adolescent population, is critical when designing and implementing appropriate nutrition education programs. The purpose of this study was to collect individual viewpoints of pregnant adolescents to facilitate the development of a nutrition intervention. This qualitative study using focus group methodology was conducted among pregnant adolescents. Participants (N = 14) were recruited through and teen parenting programs in the Mid-Atlantic region. Focus groups were guided by 6 open-ended questions that were developed based on implications from a previous study that surveyed eating habits of pregnant adolescents. Data were analyzed and coded using verbatim transcripts. Transcripts were read carefully for overall content and identification of major categories and then compared for similar and contrasting data. Four recurring themes emerged that described beliefs about healthy eating, influences on food choices, and nutrition education preferences: 1) pregnant adolescents demonstrate overall knowledge of healthy foods but are unwilling to give up unhealthy foods; 2) parents, offspring, and pregnancy influence healthy eating habits; 3) pregnant adolescents choose foods based on appearance and taste, cravings, convenience, and cost; and 4) pregnancy alters eating habits. Nutrition education in this population should be peer- and adolescent-focused and incorporate preferred methods of learning and favored incentives. Pregnant adolescents are more likely to attend educational programs that are population-specific and peer-focused, and include incentives that make cooking easier, more convenient, and affordable. Program content should be available to potential
Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees
The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rowson, J; Yoxall, A
Society is ageing and sadly that ageing leads to a host of issues, not least a society in which the majority are likely to have some loss of strength and dexterity. This can lead to complications in undertaking everyday tasks such as using transport, bathing or even handling and opening food. Packaging has to provide a multitude of services; to protect and preserve the product, to provide information to the consumer and not least to allow access to the contents. This access to packaging--or 'openability'--has become a significant issue for designers and manufacturers with the change in demographics as described above. Understanding the choices consumers make in how they manipulate packaging can help designers produce packaging that is more able to meet the requirements of modern society. Studies previously undertaken by the authors showed that consumers did use different grips when opening packaging and that certain grips were theoretically more comfortable and stronger than others. This paper outlines a further study whereby consumers were asked to apply the most common grips to a specially designed torque measuring device. Details were taken about the consumers: age, gender, occupation, hand size, plus their preferred grip choice for packaging of this type. The study showed that typically women chose a grip that maximised their opportunity of opening the closure and that this grip choice was more limited than that available for men. This has implications for inclusive design of many everyday products. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Mehta, Viral Vijay; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun; Nayak, Vijayendranath
Parents influence children's eating behaviours by making some foods available than others and by acting as models of eating behaviour. Food selected by parents influence general and oral health of their children. Aim of this study was to assess oral health parameters among primary school children and motives for food choice among their parents in Mangalore. A total of 759 primary school children aged 5-10 years, and their parents participated in this study. Motives for food choice among parents of children were evaluated by using Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). Oral health status of students was assessed by using World Health Organisation (WHO) Basic Oral Health Assessment Form. Data pertaining to dietary habits and demographics was also collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics along with Pearson's correlation and Binary logistic regression were executed for the present study and level of significance was fixed at pfood choice motives positively influenced dietary patterns and caries experience of their children. Caries experience was less in children whose parents reported higher scores on FCQ. Understanding the barriers, identification of risk factors for poor food choices and targeting interventions might formulate ways by which the desired behaviour can be achieved.
Baudry, Julia; P?neau, Sandrine; All?s, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Jos?phe; Lairon, Denis; M?jean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Sante study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "...
Baudry , Julia; Péneau , Sandrine; Allès , Benjamin; Touvier , Mathilde; Hercberg , Serge; Galan , Pilar; Amiot , Marie-Josèphe; LAIRON , Denis; Méjean , Caroline; Kesse-Guyot , Emmanuelle
International audience; The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: " absence of contaminants " , " avoidance for environmental reasons " , " ethics and environ...
Lawrence, Wendy; Skinner, Chas; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Barker, David; Cooper, Cyrus; Jackson, Alan; Barker, Mary
Women of lower educational attainment are more likely to eat unhealthy diets than women of higher educational attainment. To identify influences on the food choices of women with lower educational attainment, 11 focus groups (eight with women of lower, and three with women of higher educational attainment) were held. Using a semi-structured discussion guide, environmental, social, historical and psychological factors known to be associated with food choice were explored. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Compared to women of higher educational attainment, women of lower educational attainment had less control over their families' food choices, less support for attempts to eat healthily, fewer opportunities to observe and learn good food-related practices, more negative affect, more perceived environmental constraints and more ambiguous beliefs about the consequences of eating a nutritious diet. These findings provide a starting point for taking forward the design of an intervention to improve the diets of young women.
Higginbottom Gina MA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Facilitating the provision of appropriate health care for immigrant and Aboriginal populations in Canada is critical for maximizing health potential and well-being. Numerous reports describe heightened risks of poor maternal and birth outcomes for immigrant and Aboriginal women. Many of these outcomes may relate to food consumption/practices and thus may be obviated through provision of resources which suit the women's ethnocultural preferences. This project aims to understand ethnocultural food and health practices of Aboriginal and immigrant women, and how these intersect with respect to the legacy of Aboriginal colonialism and to the social contexts of cultural adaptation and adjustment of immigrants. The findings will inform the development of visual tools for health promotion by practitioners. Methods/Design This four-phase study employs a case study design allowing for multiple means of data collection and different units of analysis. Phase 1 consists of a scoping review of the literature. Phases 2 and 3 incorporate pictorial representations of food choices (photovoice in Phase 2 with semi-structured photo-elicited interviews (in Phase 3. The findings from Phases 1-3 and consultations with key stakeholders will generate key understandings for Phase 4, the production of culturally appropriate visual tools. For the scoping review, an emerging methodological framework will be utilized in addition to systematic review guidelines. A research librarian will assist with the search strategy and retrieval of literature. For Phases 2 and 3, recruitment of 20-24 women will be facilitated by team member affiliations at perinatal clinics in one of the city's most diverse neighbourhoods. The interviews will reveal culturally normative practices surrounding maternal food choices and consumption, including how women negotiate these practices within their own worldview and experiences. A structured and comprehensive integrated knowledge
Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R
Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.
Glassman, Michael; Karno, Donna
Comments on the article by J. T. Jost, which argued that the end-of-ideology claims that emerged in the aftermath of World War II were both incorrect and detrimental to the field of political psychology. M. Glassman and D. Karno make three critical points. First, Jost objectified ideology as a grand strategy implemented at the individual level, rather than as an instrument used for a specific purpose in activity. In doing so, he set ideology up as an "object" that guides human behavior rather than as a rational part of human experience. Second, they take issue with the idea that, because somebody acts in a manner that can be categorized as ideological, there actually is such a thing as ideology separate from that event and/or political experience and that psychologists ought to understand the meaning of ideology in order to understand future human activities as outside observers. Third, Jost seems to see this objective ideology as a unidirectional, causal mechanism for activity, a mechanism that assumes individuals act according to ideology, which eclipses the possibility that immediate ideological positions are the residue of purposeful activity. Glassman and Karno suggest that it may be better to take a pluralistic view of ideology in human action. Where ideology does exist, it is as a purposeful instrument--part of a logically based action to meet some ends-in-view--a mixture of immediate goals tied to secondary belief systems (which have been integrated to serve the material purposes of the purveyors of these ideologies). So if we are to understand ideology, we can only understand it through its use in human activity. (Copyright) 2007 APA.
Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Vlot, Jessica A; Wulp, Anouk; Hogenes, Meefa G; Looije, Danielle H; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C
A front-of-pack nutrition logo on products with relatively favourable product compositions might help consumers to make more healthful choices. Studies investigating actual nutrition label use in point-of-purchase settings are scarce. The present study investigates the use of the 'Choices' nutrition logo in Dutch supermarkets. Adults were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about motivation for food choice and their purchased products were scored for the Choices logo after they had done their shopping. Nine supermarkets in The Netherlands. A total of 404 respondents participated. Of the respondents, 62 % reported familiarity with the logo. The motivations for food choice that were positively associated with actually purchasing products with the logo were attention to 'weight control' and 'product information'. The food choice motive 'hedonism' was negatively associated with purchasing products with the logo. This is the first study to investigate actual use of the Choices logo. In order to stimulate consumers to purchase more products with a favourable product composition, extra attention should be paid to hedonistic aspects such as the tastefulness and the image of healthy products.
Hampson, Sarah E.; Tonstad, Serena; Irgens, Lorentz M.; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Vollrath, Margarete
Objective To investigate whether maternal negative affectivity assessed in pregnancy is related to subsequent infant food choices. Design Cohort study. Subjects Mothers (N = 37, 919) and their infants participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Measurements Maternal negative affectivity assessed pre-partum (SCL-5 at week 17 and 30 of pregnancy), introduction of solid foods by month 3, and feeding of sweet drinks by month 6 (by mothers’ reports). Results Mothers with higher negative affectivity were 64% more likely (95% CI 1.5–1.8) to feed sweet drinks by month 6, and 79% more likely (95% CI 1.6–2.0) to introduce solid foods by month 3. These odds decreased to 41% and 30%, respectively, after adjusting for mother’s age, body mass index, and education. Conclusion The maternal trait of negative affectivity is an independent predictor of infant feeding practices that may be related to childhood weight gain, overweight, and obesity. PMID:19918247
Jayne, Julianna M; Frongillo, Edward A; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Dawn M; Glover, Saundra H; Blake, Christine E
Promoting healthy eating among Soldiers is a priority to the Army due to the link between nutrition and performance. The Army typically uses nutrition education to encourage Soldiers to make healthier food choices with low emphasis on other psychosocial determinants of food choice behaviors. Drill Sergeant Candidates (n = 575) completed surveys assessing nutrition knowledge, eating identity type, and food choice behaviors including fruit and vegetable intake, skipping meals, and eating out frequency. In multiple linear regression models using full-information maximum likelihood estimation while controlling for race/ethnicity, education, and marital status, we examined relationships between nutrition knowledge, a healthy eating identity, and Soldiers' food choice behaviors. The study was approved by the Department of Defense and University of South Carolina's Institutional Review Boards. A healthy eating identity was positively associated with greater fruit and vegetable consumption (p eating out frequency (p healthy eating identity may be more effective for promoting healthy food choice behaviors than nutrition education alone. Determining if various points in a Soldier's career could be leveraged to influence a healthy eating identity and behaviors could be an important strategy to improve compliance with health promotion programs.
Walsh, Aaron M; Crispie, Fiona; O'Sullivan, Orla; Finnegan, Laura; Claesson, Marcus J; Cotter, Paul D
The use of shotgun metagenomics to analyse low-complexity microbial communities in foods has the potential to be of considerable fundamental and applied value. However, there is currently no consensus with respect to choice of species classification tool, platform, or sequencing depth. Here, we benchmarked the performances of three high-throughput short-read sequencing platforms, the Illumina MiSeq, NextSeq 500, and Ion Proton, for shotgun metagenomics of food microbiota. Briefly, we sequenced six kefir DNA samples and a mock community DNA sample, the latter constructed by evenly mixing genomic DNA from 13 food-related bacterial species. A variety of bioinformatic tools were used to analyse the data generated, and the effects of sequencing depth on these analyses were tested by randomly subsampling reads. Compositional analysis results were consistent between the platforms at divergent sequencing depths. However, we observed pronounced differences in the predictions from species classification tools. Indeed, PERMANOVA indicated that there was no significant differences between the compositional results generated by the different sequencers (p = 0.693, R 2 = 0.011), but there was a significant difference between the results predicted by the species classifiers (p = 0.01, R 2 = 0.127). The relative abundances predicted by the classifiers, apart from MetaPhlAn2, were apparently biased by reference genome sizes. Additionally, we observed varying false-positive rates among the classifiers. MetaPhlAn2 had the lowest false-positive rate, whereas SLIMM had the greatest false-positive rate. Strain-level analysis results were also similar across platforms. Each platform correctly identified the strains present in the mock community, but accuracy was improved slightly with greater sequencing depth. Notably, PanPhlAn detected the dominant strains in each kefir sample above 500,000 reads per sample. Again, the outputs from functional profiling analysis using
King, Lorraine; Hill, Andrew J
The marketing of foods to children has been criticised by parents and academics alike and the control of such advertising is being considered by politicians. Much of the current research focuses on TV advertising. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exposure to printed advertisements for healthy, less healthy and non-food products on children's mood, hunger, food choice and product recall. Accordingly, 309 children (mean age 9.7 years) received booklets in a quasi-random order. Each booklet contained one of the three types of adverts, ratings of current self-perception and a food choice measure. The booklets were presented as a school-based media literacy exercise. Body weight, height and body satisfaction were assessed 1 week later. The three groups did not differ in the effect on current state or end of session food choice. However, children recalled more of the less healthy food products, even when accounting for recent exposure. Greater product recall of less healthy foods is relevant to future consumption but has a number of possible interpretations. The further exploration of non-TV food marketing is warranted at a time when marketing through these channels is increasing, not least as a result of greater TV advertising regulations.
Using an automated shuttlebox system, we conducted patch choice experiments with 32, 8–12 g bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test a behavioral energetics hypothesis of habitat choice. When patch temperature and food levels were held constant within patches but different between patches, we expected bluegill to choose patches that maximized growth based on the bioenergetic integration of food and temperature as predicted by a bioenergetics model. Alternative hypotheses were that bluegill may choose patches based only on food (optimal foraging) or temperature (behavioral thermoregulation). The behavioral energetics hypothesis was not a good predictor of short-term (from minutes to weeks) patch choice by bluegill; the behavioral thermoregulation hypothesis was the best predictor. In the short-term, food and temperature appeared to affect patch choice hierarchically; temperature was more important, although food can alter temperature preference during feeding periods. Over a 19-d experiment, mean temperatures occupied by fish offered low rations did decline as predicted by the behavioral energetics hypothesis, but the decline was less than 1.0 °C as opposed to a possible 5 °C decline. A short-term, bioenergetic response to food and temperature may be precluded by physiological costs of acclimation not considered explicitly in the behavioral energetics hypothesis.
McKinnon, Loretta; Giskes, Katrina; Turrell, Gavin
To assess socio-economic differences in three components of nutrition knowledge, i.e. knowledge of (i) the relationship between diet and disease, (ii) the nutrient content of foods and (iii) dietary guideline recommendations; furthermore, to determine if socio-economic differences in nutrition knowledge contribute to inequalities in food purchasing choices. The cross-sectional study considered household food purchasing, nutrition knowledge, socio-economic and demographic information. Household food purchasing choices were summarised by three indices, based on self-reported purchasing of sixteen groceries, nineteen fruits and twenty-one vegetables. Socio-economic position (SEP) was measured by household income and education. Associations between SEP, nutrition knowledge and food purchasing were examined using general linear models adjusted for age, gender, household type and household size. Brisbane, Australia in 2000. Main household food shoppers (n 1003, response rate 66·4 %), located in fifty small areas (Census Collectors Districts). Shoppers in households of low SEP made food purchasing choices that were less consistent with dietary guideline recommendations: they were more likely to purchase grocery foods comparatively higher in salt, sugar and fat, and lower in fibre, and they purchased a narrower range of fruits and vegetables. Those of higher SEP had greater nutrition knowledge and this factor attenuated most associations between SEP and food purchasing choices. Among nutrition knowledge factors, knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease made the greatest and most consistent contribution to explaining socio-economic differences in food purchasing. Addressing inequalities in nutrition knowledge is likely to reduce socio-economic differences in compliance with dietary guidelines. Improving knowledge of the relationship between diet and disease appears to be a particularly relevant focus for health promotion aimed to reduce socio
Md Shakeel Anjum
Full Text Available Introduction: Children choose sweet, energy dense foods in preference to more nutritious options. Despite being aware about healthy food, mothers regularly purchase, prepare and allow their children to eat unhealthy food. Aims: To explore the association between the knowledge of mothers of preschool children about making food choices and oral health of their children and to assess the association with their children′s sugar consumption and caries status. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 358 mother and child pairs from preschools and Anganwadi centers in the Vikarabad town of Ranga Reddy district in Telangana using simple random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire filled by their mothers who gathered their views on choices about food; a 3-day diet chart and clinical assessment of the children′s caries status. Chi-square, t-test and ANOVA were used. Results: Majority of mothers were motivated by their child′s preferences (51%, availability and accessibility of food products (19% and affordability (15% when making food choices for their children. Though, mothers had a favorable knowledge regarding food choices for their children and about oral health, it was not found to be associated with caries status of their children. However, the association between the sweet scores of the children and their caries status was significant. Conclusion:Though the mothers had favorable knowledge about providing healthy foods to their children, it did not reflect in their behavior when choosing foods. Higher sugar consumption of the children was associated with more dental caries.
Baudry, Julia; Péneau, Sandrine; Allès, Benjamin; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Lairon, Denis; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle
The purpose of this study was to examine food choice motives associated with various organic and conventional dietary patterns among 22,366 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study. Dietary intakes were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Food choice motives were assessed using a validated 63-item-questionnaire gathered into nine food choice motive dimension scores: "absence of contaminants", "avoidance for environmental reasons", "ethics and environment", "taste", "innovation", "local and traditional production", "price", "health" and "convenience". Five consumers' clusters were identified: "standard conventional food small eaters", "unhealthy conventional food big eaters", "standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters". Relationships between food choice motive dimension scores and consumers' clusters were assessed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models adjusted for sociodemographic factors. "Green organic food eaters" had the highest mean score for the "health" dimension, while "unhealthy conventional food big eaters" obtained the lowest mean score for the "absence of contaminants" dimension. "Standard organic food small eaters", "green organic food eaters" and "hedonist moderate organic food eaters" had comparable scores for the "taste" dimension. "Unhealthy conventional food big eaters" had the highest mean score for the "price" dimension while "green organic food eaters" had the lowest mean scores for the "innovation" and "convenience" dimensions. These results provide new insights into the food choice motives of diverse consumers' profiles including "green" and "hedonist" eaters.
Harnack, Lisa J; French, Simone A
Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only) were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.
French Simone A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Eating away from home has increased in prevalence among US adults and now comprises about 50% of food expenditures. Calorie labeling on chain restaurant menus is one specific policy that has been proposed to help consumers make better food choices at restaurants. The present review evaluates the available empirical literature on the effects of calorie information on food choices in restaurant and cafeteria settings. Methods Computer-assisted searches were conducted using the PUBMED database and the Google Scholar world wide web search engine to identify studies published in peer-review journals that evaluated calorie labeling of cafeteria or restaurant menu items. Studies that evaluated labeling only some menu items (e.g. low calorie foods only were excluded from the review since the influence of selective labeling may be different from that which may be expected from comprehensive labeling. Results Six studies were identified that met the selection criteria for this review. Results from five of these studies provide some evidence consistent with the hypothesis that calorie information may influence food choices in a cafeteria or restaurant setting. However, results from most of these studies suggest the effect may be weak or inconsistent. One study found no evidence of an effect of calorie labeling on food choices. Each of the studies had at least one major methodological shortcoming, pointing toward the need for better designed studies to more rigorously evaluate the influence of point-of-purchase calorie labeling on food choices. Conclusion More research is needed that meets minimum standards of methodological quality. Studies need to include behavioral outcomes such as food purchase and eating behaviors. Also, studies need to be implemented in realistic settings such as restaurants and cafeterias.
Macchi, Rosemarie; MacKew, Laura; Davis, Caroline
To test the prediction that poor decision-making would predict poor eating-related behaviours, which in turn would relate to elevated body mass index (BMI) percentile. Associations among decision-making ability, eating behaviours, and BMI percentile were examined in a sample of 311 healthy male and female adolescents, aged 14-18 years. Structural equation modelling was used to test the proposed relationships. The predicted model was a good fit to the data and all paths between latent and indicator variables were significant. Impulsive responding significantly predicted poor food choice and overeating. No significant relationships emerged between eating-related variables and BMI percentile. Findings from this study extend the existing research in adults and offer a more comprehensive understanding of factors that may contribute to eating behaviours and weight status in teenagers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This variation, by its very nature, makes it somewhat difficult to identify overarching patterns in how terrorist ideologies might motivate individuals and sympathetic communities on a global level...
Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N
Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Magnusson, Maria K; Arvola, Anne; Hursti, Ulla Kaisa Koivisto; Aberg, Lars; Sjödén, Per-Olow
We designed a questionnaire concerned with attitudes and behaviour towards organic foods, environmentally friendly behaviour (EFB), and perceived consequences of organic food choice in terms of human health, the environment and animal welfare. It was mailed in 1998 to a random nation-wide sample of 2000 Swedish citizens, ages 18-65 years, and 1154 (58%) responded. Self-reported purchase of organic foods was most strongly related to perceived benefit for human health. Performance of EFBs such as refraining from car driving was also a good predictor of purchase frequency. The results indicate that egoistic motives are better predictors of the purchase of organic foods than are altruistic motives.
Risso, Davide S; Giuliani, Cristina; Antinucci, Marco; Morini, Gabriella; Garagnani, Paolo; Tofanelli, Sergio; Luiselli, Donata
The study of food choice, one of the most complex human traits, requires an integrated approach that takes into account environmental, socio-cultural and biological diversity. We recruited 183 volunteers from four geo-linguistic groups and highly diversified in terms of both genetic background and food habits from whom we collected genotypes and phenotypes tightly linked to taste perception. We confirmed previous genetic associations, in particular with stevioside perception, and noted significant differences in food consumption: in particular, broccoli, mustard and beer consumption scores were significantly higher (Adjusted P = 0.02, Adjusted P diversity and cultural aspects in taste perception and food consumption. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
The ideological and ethical foundations of population theory are examined in the light of the supposed eithical neutrality of scientific enquiry. The works of Malthus, Ricardo, and Marx are contrasted and it is shown that their theories of population resulted in each case from the adoption of a particular kind of method--empiricism in Malthus, normative analytic "model building" in Ricardo, and dialectical materialism in Marx. It is shown that a Malthusian or neo-Malthusian view of the population problem is inevitable if enquiry is founded in empiricism or in normative analytics. The well-known disagreement between Malthusian and Marxian viewpoints therefore has its foundation in method. Most modern enquiry into the population-resources problem is dominated by empirical and analytic (including systems theory) approaches and consequently arrives at neo-Malthusian conclusions. The final section analyses the consequences of adopting a neo-Malthusian view, and it is shown that in a world dominated by an elite, this can frequently bring about the political, social, and economic repression of a non-elite. It is concluded that the choice of scientific method does not produce unbiased results and that the dominance of a certain conception of scientific method leads to the scientific support of a viewpoint used to justify repression of the underprivileged in society.
Full Text Available The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (disincentives, and restricting choice. We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.
Bos, Colin; Van Der Lans, Ivo; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers’ freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions. PMID:26389949
Bos, Colin; Lans, Ivo Van Der; Van Rijnsoever, Frank; Van Trijp, Hans
The present study investigates acceptance of intervention strategies for low-calorie snack choices that vary regarding the effect they have on consumers' freedom of choice (providing information, guiding choice through (dis)incentives, and restricting choice). We examine the mediating effects of perceived effectiveness and perceived fairness, and the moderating effects of barriers to choose low-calorie snacks and perceived responsibility for food choice. Data was collected through an online survey, involving three waves that were completed over a seven week timespan. Information was collected on barriers and perceived responsibility, and evaluations of a total of 128 intervention strategies with varying levels of intrusiveness that were further systematically varied in terms of source, location, approach/avoidance, type, and severity. A total of 1173 respondents completed all three waves. We found that the effect of intervention intrusiveness on acceptance was mediated by the perceived personal- and societal effectiveness, and the perceived fairness of interventions. For barriers and perceived responsibility, only main effects on intervention-specific beliefs were found. Government interventions were accepted less than interventions by food manufacturers. In conclusion, the present study shows that acceptance of interventions depends on perceptions of personal- and societal effectiveness and fairness, thereby providing novel starting points for increasing acceptance of both existing and new food choice interventions.
Born, J M; Lemmens, S G T; Rutters, F; Nieuwenhuizen, A G; Formisano, E; Goebel, R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S
Stress results in eating in the absence of hunger, possibly related to food reward perception. Stress decreases food reward perception. Determine the effect of acute stress on food choice and food choice reward-related brain activity. Nine females (BMI = 21.5 + or - 2.2 kg/m(2), age = 24.3 + or - 3.5 years). Fasted subjects came twice to randomly complete either a rest or stress condition. Per session, two functional MRI scans were made, wherein the subjects chose the subsequent meal (food images). The rewarding value of the food was measured as liking and wanting. Food characteristics (for example, crispiness, fullness of taste and so on), energy intake, amount of each macronutrient chosen, plasma cortisol and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) hunger and satiety were measured. Fasted state was confirmed by high hunger (80 + or - 5 mm VAS). Breakfast energy intake (3 + or - 1 MJ) and liking were similar in all conditions. Wanting was lower postprandially (Delta = -0.3 items/category, Phunger (-42 mm VAS, Pchoice for crispiness and fullness of taste (Pfood choice for more crispiness and fullness of taste. The changes in putamen activation may reflect specifically decreased reward prediction sensitivity.
Leitão-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Carvalho-Santos, Zita; Francisco, Ana Patrícia; Fioreze, Gabriela Tondolo; Anjos, Margarida; Baltazar, Célia; Elias, Ana Paula; Itskov, Pavel M; Piper, Matthew D W; Ribeiro, Carlos
Choosing the right nutrients to consume is essential to health and wellbeing across species. However, the factors that influence these decisions are poorly understood. This is particularly true for dietary proteins, which are important determinants of lifespan and reproduction. We show that in Drosophila melanogaster, essential amino acids (eAAs) and the concerted action of the commensal bacteria Acetobacter pomorum and Lactobacilli are critical modulators of food choice. Using a chemically defined diet, we show that the absence of any single eAA from the diet is sufficient to elicit specific appetites for amino acid (AA)-rich food. Furthermore, commensal bacteria buffer the animal from the lack of dietary eAAs: both increased yeast appetite and decreased reproduction induced by eAA deprivation are rescued by the presence of commensals. Surprisingly, these effects do not seem to be due to changes in AA titers, suggesting that gut bacteria act through a different mechanism to change behavior and reproduction. Thus, eAAs and commensal bacteria are potent modulators of feeding decisions and reproductive output. This demonstrates how the interaction of specific nutrients with the microbiome can shape behavioral decisions and life history traits.
Marrin, D. L.
As the global demand for water and food escalates, the emphasis is on supply side factors rather than demand side factors such as consumers, whose personal water footprints are dominated (>90%) by food. Personal footprints include the water embedded in foods that are produced locally as well as those imported, raising the question of whether local shifts in people's food choices and habits could assist in addressing local water shortages. The current situation in California is interesting in that drought has affected an agriculturally productive region where a substantial portion of its food products are consumed by the state's large population. Unlike most agricultural regions where green water is the primary source of water for crops, California's arid climate demands an enormous volume of blue water as irrigation from its dwindling surface and ground water resources. Although California exports many of its food products, enough is consumed in-state so that residents making relatively minor shifts their food choices could save as much local blue water as their implementing more drastic reductions in household water use (comprising food group on both a caloric and gravimetric basis. Another change is wasting less food, which is a shared responsibility among consumers, producers and retailers; however, consumers' actions and preferences ultimately drive much of the waste. Personal water footprints suggest a role for individuals in conserving local water resources that is neither readily obvious nor a major focus of most conservation programs.
Wander, Philip C.
"Whither ideology?" is an intriguing question, to which the author's immediate response is: Nowhere! Has its moment passed, at least in relation to the way that people ordinarily think of it? Not because the end of ideology has finally come, but because the emergence of the concept in American academic work, as an expression of political…
A major shortcoming of current models of ideological prejudice is that although they can anticipate the direction of the association between participants’ ideology and their prejudice against a range of target groups, they cannot predict the size of this association. I developed and tested models
Berg Johansen, Christina; De Cock, Christian
are ideologically marked. This ideological dimension offers a common sense frame that is structured around a perceived inevitability of capitalism, a market economy as the basic organizational structure of the social and economic order, and an assumption of confident access to the future. Managers envisage...
Wiig, Kristen; Smith, Chery
Amidst a hunger-obesity paradox, the purpose of the present study was to examine the grocery shopping behaviour and food stamp usage of low-income women with children to identify factors influencing their food choices on a limited budget. Focus groups, which included questions based on Social Cognitive Theory constructs, examined food choice in the context of personal, behavioural and environmental factors. A quantitative grocery shopping activity required participants to prioritize food purchases from a 177-item list on a budget of $US 50 for a one-week period, an amount chosen based on the average household food stamp allotment in 2005. Ninety-two low-income women, with at least one child aged 9-13 years in their household, residing in the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. Participants' mean age was 37 years, and 76% were overweight or obese (BMI> or =25.0 kg/m2). Key findings suggest that their food choices and grocery shopping behaviour were shaped by not only individual and family preferences, but also their economic and environmental situation. Transportation and store accessibility were major determinants of shopping frequency, and they used various strategies to make their food dollars stretch (e.g. shopping based on prices, in-store specials). Generally, meat was the most important food group for purchase and consumption, according to both the qualitative and quantitative data. Efforts to improve food budgeting skills, increase nutrition knowledge, and develop meal preparation strategies involving less meat and more fruits and vegetables, could be valuable in helping low-income families nutritionally make the best use of their food dollars.
Voorend, Carlijn G N; Norris, Shane A; Griffiths, Paula L; Sedibe, Modiehi H; Westerman, Marjan J; Doak, Colleen M
To explore if and how female adolescents engage in shared eating and joint food choices with best friends within the context of living in urban Soweto, South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, multiple case study was conducted using semi-structured duo interviews of best friend pairs to ascertain their eating patterns, friendship and social interactions around dietary habits. Participants were recruited from three high schools in the urban township of Soweto, South Africa. Fifty-eight female adolescents (twenty-nine friend pairs) still in high school (mean age of 18 years) were enrolled. Although overweight rates were high, no association between friends was found; neither did friends share dieting behaviours. Both at school and during visits to the shopping mall, foods were commonly shared and money pooled together by friends to make joint purchases. Some friends carefully planned expenditures together. Foods often bought at school were mostly unhealthy. Availability, price and quality were reported to affect choice of foods purchased at school. Preference shaped joint choices within the shopping mall environment. Food sharing practices should be investigated in other settings so as to identify specific behaviours and contexts for targeted and tailored obesity prevention interventions. School-based interventions focusing on price and portion size should be considered. In the Sowetan context, larger portions of healthy food may improve dietary intake of fruit and vegetables where friends are likely to share portions.
Full Text Available The 2013 revelations concerning global surveillance programmes demonstrate in unprecedented clarity the need for Critical Theory of information and communication technologies (ICTs to address the mechanisms and implications of increasingly global, ubiquitous surveillance. This is all the more urgent because of the dominance of the “surveillance ideology” (the promise of security through surveillance that supports the political economy of surveillance. This paper asks which theoretical arguments and concepts can be useful for philosophically grounding a critique of this surveillance ideology. It begins by examining how the surveillance ideology works through language and introduces the concept of the ‘ideological packaging’ of ICTs to show how rhetoric surrounding the implementation of surveillance technologies reinforces the surveillance ideology. It then raises the problem of how ideology-critique can work if it relies on language itself and argues that Martin Heidegger’s philosophy can make a useful contribution to existing critical approaches to language.
Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Onneweer, A.F.