Roselli, Charles E
Sexual identity and sexual orientation are independent components of a person's sexual identity. These dimensions are most often in harmony with each other and with an individual's genital sex, but not always. This review discusses the relationship of sexual identity and sexual orientation to prenatal factors that act to shape the development of the brain and the expression of sexual behaviors in animals and humans. One major influence discussed relates to organizational effects that the early hormone environment exerts on both gender identity and sexual orientation. Evidence that gender identity and sexual orientation are masculinized by prenatal exposure to testosterone and feminized in it absence is drawn from basic research in animals, correlations of biometric indices of androgen exposure and studies of clinical conditions associated with disorders in sexual development. There are, however, important exceptions to this theory that have yet to be resolved. Family and twin studies indicate that genes play a role, but no specific candidate genes have been identified. Evidence that relates to the number of older brothers implicates maternal immune responses as a contributing factor for male sexual orientation. It remains speculative how these influences might relate to each other and interact with postnatal socialization. Nonetheless, despite the many challenges to research in this area, existing empirical evidence makes it clear that there is a significant biological contribution to the development of an individual's sexual identity and sexual orientation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Dunn, Merrily; Glassmann, Danny; Garrett, J. Matthew; Badaszewski, Philip; Jones, Ginny; Pierre, Darren; Fresk, Kara; Young, Dallin; Correll-Hughes, Larry
This study examines the experiences of gay-identified college men related to their faith and sexual orientation identity development. The findings suggest that for gay-identified college men, faith and sexual orientation identity development includes examination of one's faith and sexual orientation identity, important relationships, and a desire…
Worthington, Roger L.; Reynolds, Amy L.
The purpose of this investigation was to examine within-group differences among self-identified sexual orientation and identity groups. To understand these within-group differences, 2 types of analysis were conducted. First, a sample of 2,732 participants completed the Sexual Orientation and Identity Scale. Cluster analyses were used to identify 3…
Everett, Bethany G
The terms MSM (men who have sex with men) and WSW (women who have sex with women) have been used with increasing frequency in the public health literature to examine sexual orientation disparities in sexual health. These categories, however, do not allow researchers to examine potential differences in sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk by sexual orientation identity. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, this study investigated the relationship between self-reported STIs and both sexual orientation identity and sexual behaviors. Additionally, this study examined the mediating role of victimization and STI risk behaviors on the relationship between sexual orientation and self-reported STIs. STI risk was found to be elevated among heterosexual-WSW and bisexual women, whether they reported same-sex partners or not, whereas gay-identified WSW were less likely to report an STI compared to heterosexual women with opposite sex relationships only. Among males, heterosexual-identified MSM did not have a greater likelihood of reporting an STI diagnosis; rather, STI risk was concentrated among gay and bisexual identified men who reported both male and female sexual partners. STI risk behaviors mediated the STI disparities among both males and females, and victimization partially mediated STI disparities among female participants. These results suggest that relying solely on behavior-based categories, such as MSM and WSW, may mischaracterize STI disparities by sexual orientation.
Various disciplines can teach sexual orientation and gender identity issues in their context by challenging heteronormativity and highlighting specific LGBTI health concerns, and can do so more successfully with interactive teaching approaches that hold more potential than formalised lectures. Rights-based teaching ...
Duncan, Lauren E; Mincer, Elizabeth; Dunn, Sarah R
Building on psychological theories of motivation for collective action, we introduce a new individual difference measure of queer consciousness, defined as a politicized collective identity around sexual orientation. The Queer Consciousness Scale (QCS) consists of 12 items measuring five aspects of a politicized queer identity: sense of common fate, power discontent, system blame, collective orientation, and cognitive centrality. In four samples of adult women and men of varied sexual orientations, the QCS showed good test-retest and Cronbach's reliability and excellent known-groups and predictive validity. Specifically, the QCS was positively correlated with identification as a member of the LGBTQ community, political liberalism, personal political salience, and LGBTQ activism and negatively correlated with right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. QCS mediated relationships between several individual difference variables and gay rights activism and can be used with both LGBTQ people and allies.
This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.
Gordon, Liahna E; Silva, Tony J
Building on Paula Rust's (1996) concept of a sexual landscape, we propose an interpretive theory of the development of both sexual orientation and sexual identity. We seek to reconcile human agency with active and shifting influences in social context and to recognize the inherent complexity of environmental factors while acknowledging the role that biological potential plays. We ground our model in the insights of three compatible and related theoretical perspectives: social constructionism, symbolic interactionism, and scripting theory. Within this framework, we explain how sexual orientation and sexual identities develop and potentially change.
Fisher, Alessandra D; Ristori, Jiska; Morelli, Girolamo; Maggi, Mario
Differences between males and females are widely represented in nature. There are gender differences in phenotypes, personality traits, behaviors and interests, cognitive performance, and proneness to specific diseases. The most marked difference in humans is represented by sexual orientation and core gender identity, the origins of which are still controversial and far from being understood. Debates continue on whether sexual behavior and gender identity are a result of biological (nature) or cultural (nurture) factors, with biology possibly playing a major role. The main goal of this review is to summarize the studies available to date on the biological factors involved in the development of both sexual orientation and gender identity. A systematic search of published evidence was performed using Medline (from January 1948 to June 2017). Review of the relevant literature was based on authors' expertise. Indeed, different studies have documented the possible role and interaction of neuroanatomic, hormonal and genetic factors. The sexual dimorphic brain is considered the anatomical substrate of psychosexual development, on which genes and gonadal hormones may have a shaping effect. In particular, growing evidence shows that prenatal and pubertal sex hormones permanently affect human behavior. In addition, heritability studies have demonstrated a role of genetic components. However, a convincing candidate gene has not been identified. Future studies (e.i. genome wide studies) are needed to better clarify the complex interaction between genes, anatomy and hormonal influences on psychosexual development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
George, Rita; Stokes, Mark A
Clinical impressions indicate that there is an overrepresentation of gender-dysphoria within the autism spectrum disorder. However, little is presently known about the demographics of gender-identity issues in autism spectrum disorder. Based upon what little is known, we hypothesized that there would be an increased prevalence of gender-dysphoria among those with autism spectrum disorder compared to a typically developing population. We surveyed gender-dysphoria with the Gender-Identity/Gender-Dysphoria Questionnaire among 90 males and 219 females with autism spectrum disorder and compared these rates to those of 103 males and 158 females without autism spectrum disorder. When compared to typically developing individuals, autistic individuals reported a higher number of gender-dysphoric traits. Rates of gender-dysphoria in the group with autism spectrum disorder were significantly higher than reported in the wider population. Mediation analysis found that the relationship between autistic traits and sexual orientation was mediated by gender-dysphoric traits. Results suggest that autism spectrum disorder presents a unique experience to the formation and consolidation of gender identity, and for some autistic individuals, their sexual orientation relates to their gender experience. It is important that clinicians working with autism spectrum disorder are aware of the gender-diversity in this population so that the necessary support for healthy socio-sexual functioning and mental well-being is provided.
Ruben, Mollie A; Blosnich, John R; Dichter, Melissa E; Luscri, Lorry; Shipherd, Jillian C
The Veterans Health Administration does not routinely collect and document sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) data, despite existing health disparities among sexual and gender minority Veterans. Because of the legacy of previous Department of Defense (DoD) policies that prohibited disclosure of sexual or gender minority identities among active duty personnel, Veterans may be reluctant to respond to SOGI questions. This population-based study assesses item nonresponse to SOGI questions by Veteran status. This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based sample of adults in 20 US states that elected to administer a SOGI module in the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. Prevalence of SOGI refusals and responses of "don't know" were compared for Veterans and non-Veterans. Veterans (n=22,587) and non-Veterans (n=146,475) were surveyed. Nearly all Veteran respondents (≥98%) completed the SOGI questions, with 95.4% identifying as heterosexual, 1.2% as gay or lesbian, 1.2% as bisexual, and 0.59% as transgender. A significantly lower proportion of Veterans than non-Veterans refuse to answer sexual orientation (1.5% vs. 1.9%). There was no difference between Veterans and non-Veterans in responses for gender identity. Veterans are just as likely as non-Veterans to complete SOGI items in survey research. Asking Veterans about SOGI is unlikely to yield significant nonresponse. These data suggest that future research should investigate Veterans' perspectives on being asked about SOGI in research settings and as part of routine clinical care.
Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Cellerino, Alessandro; Fisher, Alessandra D; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Carosa, Eleonora; Mollaioli, Daniele; Valenzano, Dario R; Mennucci, Andrea; Bandini, Elisa; Di Stasi, Savino M; Maggi, Mario; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A
Differences in facial preferences between heterosexual men and women are well documented. It is still a matter of debate, however, how variations in sexual identity/sexual orientation may modify the facial preferences. This study aims to investigate the facial preferences of male-to-female (MtF) individuals with gender dysphoria (GD) and the influence of short-term/long-term relationships on facial preference, in comparison with healthy subjects. Eighteen untreated MtF subjects, 30 heterosexual males, 64 heterosexual females, and 42 homosexual males from university students/staff, at gay events, and in Gender Clinics were shown a composite male or female face. The sexual dimorphism of these pictures was stressed or reduced in a continuous fashion through an open-source morphing program with a sequence of 21 pictures of the same face warped from a feminized to a masculinized shape. An open-source morphing program (gtkmorph) based on the X-Morph algorithm. MtF GD subjects and heterosexual females showed the same pattern of preferences: a clear preference for less dimorphic (more feminized) faces for both short- and long-term relationships. Conversely, both heterosexual and homosexual men selected significantly much more dimorphic faces, showing a preference for hyperfeminized and hypermasculinized faces, respectively. These data show that the facial preferences of MtF GD individuals mirror those of the sex congruent with their gender identity. Conversely, heterosexual males trace the facial preferences of homosexual men, indicating that changes in sexual orientation do not substantially affect preference for the most attractive faces. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes can be influenced independently of each other. Sex differences in cognition, gender identity (an individual's perception of their own sexual identity), sexual orientation (heterosexuality, homosexuality or bisexuality), and the risks of developing neuropsychiatric disorders are programmed into our brain during early development. There is no evidence that one's postnatal social environment plays a crucial role in gender identity or sexual orientation. We discuss the relationships between structural and functional sex differences of various brain areas and the way they change along with any changes in the supply of sex hormones on the one hand and sex differences in behavior in health and disease on the other. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
North Carolina law provides virtually no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. No state-wide statute has been enacted in North Carolina to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, little judicial or administrative action surrounding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in the employment context or otherwise appears to exist.
Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D
This article examines (a) variation in rates of sexual harassment across mode (e.g., in-person, online) and type of harassment, (b) the impact of sexual harassment (i.e., distressing vs. non-distressing), and (c) how sexual harassment is similarly and differently experienced across sexual orientation and gender identity groups. Data were collected as part of the Teen Health and Technology online survey of 5,907 13 to 18 year-old Internet users in the United States. Past year sexual harassment was reported by 23-72% of youth, depending upon sexual orientation, with the highest rates reported by lesbian/queer girls (72%), bisexual girls (66%), and gay/queer boys (66%). When examined by gender identity, transgender youth reported the highest rates of sexual harassment - 81%. Overall, the most common modes for sexual harassment were in-person followed by online. Distress in the form of interference with school, family, and/or friends; creating a hostile environment; or being very/extremely upset was reported by about half of the sexually harassed bisexual girls and lesbian/queer girls, 65% of the gender non-conforming/other gender youth, and 63% of the transgender youth. Youth with high social support and self-esteem were less likely to report sexual harassment. Findings point to the great importance of sexual harassment prevention for all adolescents, with particular emphasis on the unique needs and experiences of youth of different sexual orientations and gender identities. Socio-emotional programs that emphasize self-esteem building could be particularly beneficial for reducing the likelihood of victimization and lessen the impact when it occurs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May 4, 2015 ... Social justice and equity are important principles in African health sciences ... Courses that endeavour to develop students' skills in patient-provider .... (sexual and emotional attraction) and gender identity (one's sense of.
Maloch, Janelle K.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.; McAleavey, Andrew A.; Locke, Benjamin D.
This study found that treatment-seeking sexual minority college women evidenced serious eating concerns. Regardless of sexual orientation and compared with those with low levels of eating concerns, women with high levels of eating concerns evidenced increased depression, increased generalized anxiety, and a greater likelihood of experiencing…
Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F
It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the conviction of belonging to the male or female gender) and sexual orientation should be programmed into our brain structures when we are still in the womb. However, since sexual differentiation of the genitals takes place in the first two months of pregnancy and sexual differentiation of the brain starts in the second half of pregnancy, these two processes can be influenced independently, which may result in transsexuality. This also means that in the event of ambiguous sex at birth, the degree of masculinization of the genitals may not reflect the degree of masculinization of the brain. There is no proof that social environment after birth has an effect on gender identity or sexual orientation. Data on genetic and hormone independent influence on gender identity are presently divergent and do not provide convincing information about the underlying etiology. To what extent fetal programming may determine sexual orientation is also a matter of discussion. A number of studies show patterns of sex atypical cerebral dimorphism in homosexual subjects. Although the crucial question, namely how such complex functions as sexual orientation and identity are processed in the brain remains unanswered, emerging data point at a key role of specific neuronal circuits involving the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira
Pennsylvania’s 174,000 LGBT workers are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. While 33 Pennsylvania localities provide some protections, 69 percent of the state’s workforce could suffer discrimination without recourse based on their actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender identity. Pennsylvania teachers, factory workers and law enforcement officers have all faced workplace discrimination based on their sexual orientation or gender identity...
Badgett, M.V. Lee
A federal executive order that would require contractors to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity would protect up to 16.5 million more workers than are already protected by state or private anti-discrimination policies. Currently, state laws or private voluntary policies already protect 61% of federal contractor employees from sexual orientation discrimination and 41% from gender identity discrimination. Research also suggests an executive order would not di...
Kuper, Laura E; Nussbaum, Robin; Mustanski, Brian
Although the term transgender is increasingly used to refer to those whose gender identity or expression diverges from culturally defined categories of sex and gender, less is known about the self-identities of those who fall within this category. Historically, recruitment of transgender populations has also been limited to specialized clinics and support groups. This study was conducted online, with the aim of exploring the gender identities, sexual orientation identities, and surgery and hormonal statuses of those who identify with a gender identity other than, or in addition to, that associated with their birth sex (n = 292). Genderqueer was the most commonly endorsed gender identity, and pansexual and queer were the most commonly endorsed sexual orientation identities. Participants indentified with a mean of 2.5 current gender identities, 1.4 past gender identities, and 2 past sexual orientation identities. The majority of participants either did not desire or were unsure of their desire to take hormones or undergo sexual reassignment surgery. However, birth sex and age were significant predictors of "bottom" surgery and hormone status/desire, along with several identities and orientations. This study explores explanations and implications for these patterns of identification, along with the potential distinctiveness of this sample.
Bosse, Jordon D; Chiodo, Lisa
To explore the variations of sexual orientation and gender identity as well as the intersections of those identities in a sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and questioning youth. Identity development is a key task of adolescence. Among the multiple identities that young people navigate are sexual orientation and gender identity. Challenges with solidifying and integrating aspects of one's identity can contribute to poor physical and mental health outcomes. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample was recruited via collaborations with community organisations and Internet groups who provide information and services for LGBTQ youth under the age of 25. Of the 175 respondents, one-third of the sample reported a gender identity that was not congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Those assigned female sex at birth reported noncongruent gender identities as well as fluid and nonbinary identities such as genderqueer and agender more frequently that respondents assigned male at birth. Individuals with noncongruent gender identities were more likely to identify with a sexual orientation other than lesbian, gay or bisexual than individuals with gender identities congruent with their sex assigned at birth. Adolescent sexual orientation and gender identity are complex and nuanced. Nurse scientists and clinical nurses can contribute to understanding of these identities, their meaning to the young person and the unique health implications by regularly inquiring about sexual orientation and gender identity in their practice. Nurses in clinical practice need to be aware of the sometimes complicated nature of adolescent identity and its related terminology so that they can ask relevant questions and provide culturally safe care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are "coming out" at younger ages, few studies have examined whether early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyzed retrospective data on the timing of sexual…
Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.
This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)
In 1992, the State of Vermont passed a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which is defined as “female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality.” Protection with respect to gender identity was added in May 2007. Vermont’s Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in areas such as employment, housing, and education.
Szymanski, Konrad M; Hensel, Devon J; Wiener, John S; Whittam, Benjamin; Cain, Mark P; Misseri, Rosalia
Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52.0% shunted, 48.5% community ambulators, 42.3% outside United States). Most commonly, men identified as male (96.1%), while 1.3% each described themselves as female, transgender and other. All women reporting sexual identity identified as female (99.2%), 0.8% not providing an answer. Most men reported heterosexual orientation (89.6%), followed by gay (7.8%) and bisexual (2.6%). Most women reported heterosexual orientation (84.9%), followed by bisexual (10.4%), gay/lesbian (2.5%), asexual (0.8%) and other (1.7%). As in the general population, sexual identity typically coincides with biological gender. Sexual orientation of adults with SB mirrors the general population. Due to self-selection, these findings likely do not reflect exact prevalence in the SB population.
Gaither, Thomas W; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Romero, Angelita; Bowers, Marci L; Breyer, Benjamin N
We aim to describe the relationship between sexual orientation identity and medical morbidities in a large sample of male-to-female (MTF) transgender patients. We reviewed medical records of patients presenting for MTF sex reassignment surgery (SRS) by a single, high-volume surgeon from 2011 to 2015. Sexual attraction to men (heterosexual), women (lesbian), or both (bisexual) was asked of each patient. We examined 16 medical morbidities for this analysis. During the study period, 330 MTF transgender patients presented for SRS. The average age at the time of surgery was 38.9 (range 18-76). One hundred and one patients (32%) reported being heterosexual, 110 patients (34%) reported being lesbian, and 108 patients (34%) reported being bisexual. Lesbian patients presented for SRS at older ages (mean = 43 years old) compared with heterosexual patients (mean = 36 years old) and bisexual patients (mean = 37), P sexual orientation identity. Lesbian patients had greater odds of having a history of depression, age-adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-4.40, compared with heterosexual patients. Lesbian patients had higher odds of being married or partnered, aOR = 2.31, 95% CI (1.27-4.19), compared with heterosexual patients. Heterosexual patients had higher odds of having human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), aOR = 9.07, 95% CI (1.08-76.5) compared with lesbian patients. Sexual orientation identity in MTF transgender patients is variable. The majority of medical morbidities are not associated with sexual orientation identity. Although HIV and depression are common morbidities among MTF patients seeking SRS, the prevalence of these morbidities differs by sexual orientation identity, but these findings need replication. Counseling and future research initiatives in transgender care should incorporate sexual orientation identity and associated risk behavior.
Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W
To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay
... Gender Identity; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 15 / Monday, January 24, 2011...--Regardless of Sexual Orientation or Gender Identity AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HUD. ACTION: Proposed... individuals and families regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity. DATES: Comment Due Date: March...
Ott, Miles Q.; Wypij, David; Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Reisner, Sari L.; Gordon, Allegra R.; Austin, S. Bryn
Purpose Previous studies have found that sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) adolescents are at higher risk of substance use than heterosexuals, but few have examined how changes in sexual orientation over time may relate to substance use. We examined the associations between change in sexual orientation identity and marijuana use, tobacco use, and binge drinking in U.S. youth. Methods Prospective data from 10,515 U.S. youth ages 12-27 years in a longitudinal cohort study were analyzed using sexual orientation identity mobility measure M (frequency of change from 0 [no change] to 1 [change at every wave]) in up to five waves of data. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate substance use risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals; interactions by sex and age group were assessed. Results All substance use behaviors varied significantly by sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were at higher risk for all outcomes, excluding binge drinking in males, and mobility score was positively associated with substance use in most cases (p<.05). The association between mobility and substance use remained significant after adjusting for current sexual orientation and varied by sex and age for selected substance use behaviors. This association had a higher positive magnitude in females than males and in adolescents than young adults. Conclusions In both clinical and research settings it is important to assess history of sexual orientation changes. Changes in reported sexual orientation over time may be as important as current sexual orientation for understanding adolescent substance use risk. PMID:23298999
Flentje, Annesa; Bacca, Cristina L; Cochran, Bryan N
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term "substance abuse" and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Participants' sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bacca, Cristina L.; Cochran, Bryan N.
Background Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals are at higher risk for substance use and substance use disorders than heterosexual individuals and are more likely to seek substance use treatment, yet sexual orientation and gender identity are frequently not reported in the research literature. The purpose of this study was to identify if sexual orientation and gender identity are being reported in the recent substance use literature, and if this has changed over time. Method The PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched for articles released in 2007 and 2012 using the term “substance abuse” and 200 articles were randomly selected from each time period and database. Articles were coded for the presence or absence of sexual orientation and gender identity information. Results Participants’ sexual orientation was reported in 3.0% and 4.9% of the 2007 and 2.3% and 6.5% of the 2012 sample, in PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles, respectively, while non-binary gender identity was reported in 0% and 1.0% of the 2007 sample and 2.3% and 1.9% of the 2012 PsycINFO and PubMed sample articles. There were no differences in rates of reporting over time. Conclusions Sexual orientation and gender identity are rarely reported in the substance abuse literature, and there has not been a change in reporting practices between 2007 and 2012. Recommendations for future investigators in reporting sexual orientation and gender identity are included. PMID:25496705
Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Establishment of…
Bradley, Beverly; Kelts, Susan; Robarge, Deb; Davis, Catherine; Delger, Suzey; Compton, Linda
It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses that all students, regardless of their sexual orientation or the sexual orientation of their parents and family members, are entitled to a safe school environment and equal opportunities for a high level of academic achievement and school participation/involvement. Sexual minority persons are those who identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB) or are unsure of their sexual orientation, or those who have had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or both sexes (Kann et al., 2011). Sexual minority is thought to be a more inclusive and neutral term. For the purposes of this statement, the term sexual minority will be used in lieu of LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or questioning).
O'Hanlan, Katherine A; Gordon, Jennifer C; Sullivan, Mackenzie W
Gynecologic Oncologists are sometimes consulted to care for patients who present with diverse gender identities or sexual orientations. Clinicians can create more helpful relationships with their patients if they understand the etiologies of these diverse expressions of sexual humanity. Multidisciplinary evidence reveals that a sexually dimorphic spectrum of somatic and neurologic anatomy, traits and abilities, including sexual orientation and gender identity, are conferred together during the first half of pregnancy due to genetics, epigenetics and the diversity of timing and function of sex chromosomes, sex-determining protein secretion, gonadal hormone secretion, receptor levels, adrenal function, maternally ingested dietary hormones, fetal health, and many other factors. Multiple layers of evidence confirm that sexual orientation and gender identity are as biological, innate and immutable as the other traits conferred during that critical time in gestation. Negative social responses to diverse orientations or gender identities have caused marginalization of these individuals with resultant alienation from medical care, reduced self-care and reduced access to medical care. The increased risks for many diseases, including gynecologic cancers are reviewed. Gynecologic Oncologists can potentially create more effective healthcare relationships with their patients if they have this information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.
de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n?=?675) and general population peers (n?=?8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relation...
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with…
It's hard not to notice how attitudes around sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have changed over the past two decades. In this article, Stewart Rudy compares his time as a public school student to his time as a public school educator. Rudy questions whether improvement in the school system has translated into improved experiences for…
Hughes, Bryce E.
From a social constructivist paradigm I explored the experiences of 7 openly gay engineering students to understand how, if at all, they made sense of the intersections between their engineering and sexual orientation identities. By eliciting stories through individual and focus group interviews, a narrative approach allowed me to capture the…
Watts, Tuesday M.; Holmes, Luke; Raines, Jamie; Orbell, Sheina; Rieger, Gerulf
Childhood gender nonconformity (femininity in males, masculinity in females) predicts a nonstraight (gay, lesbian, or bisexual) sexual orientation in adulthood. In previous work, nonstraight twins reported more childhood gender nonconformity than their genetically identical, but straight, cotwins. However, self-reports could be biased. We…
Dewinter, J.; De Graaf, H.; Begeer, S.
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth.
Calzo, Jerel P.; Antonucci, Toni C.; Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.
Although recent attention has focused on the likelihood that contemporary sexual minority youth (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual [GLB]) are “coming out” at younger ages, few studies have examined if early sexual orientation identity development is also present in older GLB cohorts. We analyze retrospective data on the timing of sexual orientation milestones in a sample of sexual minorities drawn from the California Quality of Life Surveys. Latent profile analysis of 1,260 GLB adults, ages 18-84 years identified three trajectories of development: Early (n = 951, milestones spanning ages 12 to 20), Middle (n = 239, milestones spanning ages 18 to 31), and Late (n = 70, milestones spanning ages 32 to 43). Motivated by previous research on variability in adolescent developmental trajectories, post-hoc analyses of the Early Profile group identified two sub-groups: Child-Onset (n = 284, milestones spanning ages 8 to 18), and Teen-Onset (n = 667, milestones spanning ages 14 to 22). Nearly all patterns of development were identity-centered, with average age of self-identification as GLB preceding average age of first same-sex sexual activity. Overall, younger participants and the majority of older participants were classified to the Early Profile, suggesting that early development is common regardless of age cohort. The additional gender differences observed in the onset and pace of sexual orientation identity development warrant future research. PMID:21942662
A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...
Conron, Kerith J; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Landers, Stewart J
We provide estimates of several leading US adult health indicators by sexual orientation identity and gender to fill gaps in the current literature. We aggregated data from the 2001-2008 Massachusetts Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance surveys (N = 67,359) to examine patterns in self-reported health by sexual orientation identity and gender, using multivariable logistic regression. Compared with heterosexuals, sexual minorities (i.e., gays/lesbians, 2% of sample; bisexuals, 1%) were more likely to report activity limitation, tension or worry, smoking, drug use, asthma, lifetime sexual victimization, and HIV testing, but did not differ on 3-year Papanicolaou tests, lifetime mammography, diabetes, or heart disease. Compared with heterosexuals, bisexuals reported more barriers to health care, current sadness, past-year suicidal ideation, and cardiovascular disease risk. Gay men were less likely to be overweight or obese and to obtain prostate-specific antigen tests, and lesbians were more likely to be obese and to report multiple risks for cardiovascular disease. Binge drinking and lifetime physical intimate partner victimization were more common among bisexual women. Sexual orientation disparities in chronic disease risk, victimization, health care access, mental health, and smoking merit increased attention. More research on heterogeneity in health and health determinants among sexual minorities is needed.
Dealing with self-identity, sexual orientation, and gender identity is often a struggle for minors. The potential negative outcomes minors face when their sexual orientation or gender identity is disclosed to others before they have an opportunity to address it in their own time has become more evident in the media. Because of the intimate nature of the provider-patient relationship, the healthcare provider may be the first person in whom they confide. If a minor receives a positive, nonjudgmental experience from his or her provider, it will often lead to a more positive self-image, whereas a negative, judgmental experience will often result in the opposite. Critical components of their experience are a sense of trust that the provider will keep the information confidential and the healthcare setting being organized in a manner that promotes privacy. Healthcare providers play a key role in developing and projecting a safe, comfortable environment where the minor can discretely discuss issues of sexual orientation and gender identity. Establishing this environment will usually facilitate a positive therapeutic relationship between the minor and the provider. Steps healthcare providers can take to achieve trust from minor patients and ensure confidentiality of sensitive information are understanding privacy laws, making privacy a priority, getting consent, training staff, and demonstrating privacy in the environment. © 2015 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.
Moleiro, Carla; Pinto, Nuno
Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems) with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and the International Classification of Diseases, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i) to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii) to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii) to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.
Full Text Available Numerous controversies and debates have taken place throughout the history of psychopathology (and its main classification systems with regards to sexual orientation and gender identity. These are still reflected on present reformulations of gender dysphoria in both DSM and ICD, and in more or less subtle micro-aggressions experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans patients in mental health care. The present paper critically reviews this history and current controversies. It reveals that this deeply complex field contributes (i to the reflection on the very concept of mental illness; (ii to the focus on subjective distress and person-centered experience of psychopathology; and (iii to the recognition of stigma and discrimination as significant intervening variables. Finally, it argues that sexual orientation and gender identity have been viewed, in the history of the field of psychopathology, between two poles: gender transgression and gender variance/fluidity.
Dewinter, J; De Graaf, H; Begeer, S
This study compared sexual orientation and romantic relationship experience in a large sample of adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 675) and general population peers (n = 8064). Gender identity was explored in the ASD group in relation to assigned gender at birth. Compared to general population peers, more people with ASD, especially women, reported sexual attraction to both same- and opposite-sex partners. About half of the participants with ASD was in a relationship (heterosexual in most cases) and most of them lived with their partner. A notable number of autistic participants, again more women than men, reported gender non-conforming feelings. Attention to gender identity and sexual diversity in education and clinical work with people with ASD is advised.
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
Approximately 6,800 LGBT workers in North Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees has been documented in surveys, legislative testimony, the media, and in reports to community-based organizations. Many corporate employers and public opinion in North Dakota support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, thr...
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
About 8,900 LGBT workers in Wyoming are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Discrimination against LGBT employees in Wyoming has recently been documented in surveys, court cases, and other sources. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, four more complaints would be filed in Wyoming eac...
Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Liebowitz, Sarah
The 160,000 LGBT adults in Missouri would benefit from an expanded state non-discrimination law that includes sexual orientation and gender identity. There is currently no Missouri law protecting LGBT people from discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. A uniform state-wide law would maximize protection for Missouri’s LGBT population, and provide them the same recourse available to their non-LGBT counterparts. Media reports and lawsuits document that a number...
Singh, Devita; McMain, Shelley; Zucker, Kenneth J
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) (and earlier editions), a disturbance in "identity" is one of the defining features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Gender identity, a person's sense of self as a male or a female, constitutes an important aspect of identity formation, but this construct has rarely been examined in patients with BPD. In the present study, the presence of gender identity disorder or confusion was examined in women diagnosed with BPD. We used a validated dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Recalled gender identity and gender role behavior from childhood was also assessed with a validated dimensional measure, and current sexual orientation was assessed by two self-report measures. A consecutive series of 100 clinic-referred women (mean age, 34 years) with BPD participated in the study. The women were diagnosed with BPD using the International Personality Disorder Exam-BPD Section. None of the women with BPD met the criterion for caseness on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria. Women who self-reported either a bisexual or a homosexual sexual orientation had a significantly higher score on the dimensional measure of gender dysphoria than the women who self-reported a heterosexual sexual orientation, and they also recalled significantly more cross-gender behavior during childhood. Results were compared with a previous study on a diagnostically heterogeneous group of women with other clinical problems. The importance of psychosexual assessment in the clinical evaluation of patients with BPD is discussed. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Harper, Gary W; Serrano, Pedro A; Bruce, Douglas; Bauermeister, Jose A
One emerging avenue for the exploration of adolescents' sexual orientation identity development is the Internet, since it allows for varying degrees of anonymity and exploration. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the role of the Internet in facilitating the sexual orientation identity development process of gay and bisexual male adolescents. Qualitative interviews were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of 63 gay/bisexual male adolescents (ages 15-23). Participants reported using a range of Internet applications as they explored and came to accept their sexual orientation identity, with the intended purpose and degree of anonymity desired determining which applications were used. Youth reported that the Internet provided a range of functions with regard to the exploration and acceptance of their sexual orientation identity, including (1) increasing self-awareness of sexual orientation identity, (2) learning about gay/bisexual community life, (3) communicating with other gay/bisexual people, (4) meeting other gay/bisexual people, (5) finding comfort and acceptance with sexual orientation, and (6) facilitating the coming out process. Future research and practice may explore the Internet as a platform for promoting the healthy development of gay and bisexual male adolescents by providing a developmentally and culturally appropriate venue for the exploration and subsequent commitment to an integrated sexual orientation identity. © The Author(s) 2015.
German, Danielle; Kodadek, Lisa; Shields, Ryan; Peterson, Susan; Snyder, Claire; Schneider, Eric; Vail, Laura; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil
To identify patient and provider perspectives concerning collection of sexual orientation and gender identity (SO&GI) information in emergency departments (EDs). Semistructured interviews were conducted during the period of 2014-2015 with a diverse purposive sample of patients across the spectrum of sexual orientation and gender identities (n = 53) and ED nurses, physician assistants, physicians, and registrars (n = 38) in a major metropolitan area. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed by multiple coders using constant comparative methods. Patients were willing to provide SO&GI information if collected safely and appropriately, and staff described willingness to collect SO&GI information to inform understanding of health disparities. Key themes across respondents were as follows: What will be done with the data? How will it be collected? Who will collect it? Is the environment conducive to safe disclosure? Confidentiality and potential sensitivity; standardized collection emphasizing population health; nurse intake and/or nonverbal data collection; and environmental cues and cultural competency promoting comfort for sexual and gender minorities emerged as critical considerations for effective implementation. Staff and patients are amenable to SO&GI data collection in EDs, but data quality and patient and provider comfort may be compromised without attention to specific implementation considerations.
Reisner, Sari L; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Gordon, Allegra; Calzo, Jerel P
We examined associations between adolescents' safety belt use and sexual orientation identity. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 26,468 weighted; mean age = 15.9 years; 35.4% White, 24.7% Black, 23.5% Latino, 16.4% other). We compared lesbian and gay (1.2%), bisexual (3.5%), and unsure (2.6%) youths with heterosexuals (92.7%) on a binary indicator of passenger safety belt use. We stratified weighted multivariable logistic regression models by sex and adjusted for survey wave and sampling design. Overall, 12.6% of high school students reported "rarely" or "never" wearing safety belts. Sexual minority youths had increased odds of reporting nonuse relative to heterosexuals (48% higher for male bisexuals, 85% for lesbians, 46% for female bisexuals, and 51% for female unsure youths; P < .05), after adjustment for demographic (age, race/ethnicity), individual (body mass index, depression, bullying, binge drinking, riding with a drunk driver, academic achievement), and contextual (living in jurisdictions with secondary or primary safety belt laws, percentage below poverty, percentage same-sex households) risk factors. Public health interventions should address sexual orientation identity disparities in safety belt use.
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
About 19,900 LGBT workers in South Dakota are not explicitly protected from discrimination under state or federal laws. Many corporate employers and public opinion in the state support protections for LGBT people in the workplace. If sexual orientation and gender identity were added to existing statewide non-discrimination laws, nine more complaints would be filed in South Dakota each year. The cost of enforcing those complaints would be negligible, and would not require additional court or a...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human sexual orientation is influenced by genetic and non-shared environmental factors as are two important psychological correlates--childhood gender typicality (CGT and adult gender identity (AGI. However, researchers have been unable to resolve the genetic and non-genetic components that contribute to the covariation between these traits, particularly in women. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we performed a multivariate genetic analysis in a large sample of British female twins (N = 4,426 who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attraction, CGT and AGI. Univariate genetic models indicated modest genetic influences on sexual attraction (25%, AGI (11% and CGT (31%. For the multivariate analyses, a common pathway model best fitted the data. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This indicated that a single latent variable influenced by a genetic component and common non-shared environmental component explained the association between the three traits but there was substantial measurement error. These findings highlight common developmental factors affecting differences in sexual orientation.
Rodriguez, Annika W.
Since 2005 Norwegian policy makers have sought to include perspectives on sexual orientation and gender identity in development cooperation. The main objectives of this study has been - To explore how the government and people who work with development cooperation perceive the roles sexual orientation and gender identity may or may not have in development cooperation. - To critically analyse Norway¡¦s development cooperation - its aims, strategies and justification - and explore how sex...
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
LGBT people use sexual orientation and gender identity employment non-discrimination laws as frequently as people of color and women use race and sex non-discrimination laws. This study examines complaints filed based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of people in the workforce most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color and women. Data on discrimination complaints were requested from the 22 states t...
Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Kodadek, Lisa M; Adler, Rachel R; Ranjit, Anju; Torain, Maya; Shields, Ryan Y; Snyder, Claire; Schuur, Jeremiah D; Vail, Laura; German, Danielle; Peterson, Susan; Lau, Brandyn D
The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission recommend routine documentation of patients' sexual orientation in health care settings. Currently, very few health care systems collect these data since patient preferences and health care professionals' support regarding collection of data about patient sexual orientation are unknown. To identify the optimal patient-centered approach to collect sexual orientation data in the emergency department (ED) in the Emergency Department Query for Patient-Centered Approaches to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity study. An exploratory, sequential, mixed-methods design was used first to evaluate qualitative interviews conducted in the Baltimore, Maryland, and Washington, DC, areas. Fifty-three patients and 26 health care professionals participated in the qualitative interviews. Interviews were followed by a national online survey, in which 1516 (potential) patients (244 lesbian, 289 gay, 179 bisexual, and 804 straight) and 429 ED health care professionals (209 physicians and 220 nurses) participated. Survey participants were recruited using random digit dialing and address-based sampling techniques. Qualitative interviews were used to obtain the perspectives of patients and health care professionals on sexual orientation data collection, and a quantitative survey was used to gauge patients' and health care professionals' willingness to provide or obtain sexual orientation information. Mean (SD) age of patient and clinician participants was 49 (16.4) and 51 (9.4) years, respectively. Qualitative interviews suggested that patients were less likely to refuse to provide sexual orientation than providers expected. Nationally, 154 patients (10.3%) reported that they would refuse to provide sexual orientation; however, 333 (77.8%) of all clinicians thought patients would refuse to provide sexual orientation. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, only bisexual patients had increased odds of refusing to provide sexual
Bao, Ai-Min; Swaab, Dick F.
During the intrauterine period a testosterone surge masculinizes the fetal brain, whereas the absence of such a surge results in a feminine brain. As sexual differentiation of the brain takes place at a much later stage in development than sexual differentiation of the genitals, these two processes
Kuprienko, T. P.
The article reviews the evidence of the professional readiness of future educational psychologists to perform professional functions, and consider the levels of general cognitive and psychological aptitude of students at teacher colleges to support people with stigmatized gender identity and sexual orientation. [This article was translated by…
Swaab, D. F.
Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing
Male sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior are thought, on the basis of experiments in rodents, to be caused by androgens, following conversion to estrogens. However, observations in human subjects with genetic and other disorders show that direct effects of testosterone on the developing
Savic, Ivanka; Garcia-Falgueras, Alicia; Swaab, Dick F.
It is believed that during the intrauterine period the fetal brain develops in the male direction through a direct action of testosterone on the developing nerve cells, or in the female direction through the absence of this hormone surge. According to this concept, our gender identity (the
Espelage, Dorothy L
Research focused on sexual orientation and gender identity among youth is scarce in school psychology journals. Graybill and Proctor (2016; this issue) found that across a sample of eight school support personnel journals only .3 to 3.0% of the articles since 2000 included lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-related research. It appears that special issues are a mechanism for publishing LGBT-related scholarship. This commentary includes a call for more research in school psychology and other related disciplines that intentionally addresses experiences of LGBT youth and their families. Two articles in this special section are summarized and critiqued with clear directions for future scholarship. Researchers and practitioners are ethically responsible for engaging in social justice oriented research and that includes assessing gender identity and sexual orientation in their studies and prevention program evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russell, Stephen T.; Day, Jack K.; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B.
Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students’ reports: We examined teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals’ reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3,000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers’ reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers’ assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. PMID:26790701
Russell, Stephen T; Day, Jack K; Ioverno, Salvatore; Toomey, Russell B
Bullying is common in U.S. schools and is linked to emotional, behavioral, and academic risk for school-aged students. School policies and practices focused on sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) have been designed to reduce bullying and show promising results. Most studies have drawn from students' reports: We examined teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools along with their assessments of school safety, combined with principals' reports of SOGI-focused policies and practices. Merging two independent sources of data from over 3000 teachers (California School Climate Survey) and nearly 100 school principals (School Health Profiles) at the school level, we used multi-level models to understand bullying problems in schools. Our results show that SOGI-focused policies reported by principals do not have a strong independent association with teachers' reports of bullying problems in their schools. However, in schools with more SOGI-focused policies, the association between teachers' assessments of school safety and bullying problems is stronger. Recent developments in education law and policy in the United States and their relevance for student well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mereish, Ethan H.; Bradford, Judith B.
Objective: Research has documented that sexual minorities are at greater risk for substance use than heterosexuals. However, there are limited studies and mixed findings when investigating these health disparities among racial and ethnic minority samples. We used an intersectionality framework to examine disparities in lifetime substance use problems between heterosexual and sexual minority men and women and within sexual minority groups among a racially diverse sample. Method: A nonprobability sample of heterosexual (n = 1,091) and sexual minority (n = 1,465) patients from an urban community health center ranged in age from 18 to 72 years. Participants completed a brief patient survey and reported demographic information and history of lifetime substance use problems. Logistic regressions analyses were used to examine interactions between and among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Results: We found a significant three-way interaction among sexual orientation, gender, and race. Sexual minorities had a greater risk of self-reported lifetime substance use problems than heterosexuals, with nuanced gender and racial differences. Of greatest note, sexual minority women of color had greater risks than heterosexual women of color and than White sexual minority women. Sexual minority men of color did not differ in their risk when compared with heterosexual men of color, and they had lower risk than White sexual minority men. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that an intersectionality framework is crucial to clearly identify lifetime substance use disparities between racially diverse sexual minority and heterosexual men and women. Future research, treatment, and policy should use intersectionality approaches when addressing substance use disparities. PMID:24411810
Stein, T S
The very terms of a debate about whether or not sexual orientation is primarily a biological phenomenon fail to consider the complex origins of the phenomenon. Deconstruction of the term "homosexuality" shows that it refers to multiple factors which cannot be studied as or subsumed under a unitary concept. Adequate understanding of sexual orientation must consider the developmental, interpersonal, experiential, and cultural dimensions of sexuality, as well as any biological contributions to sexual attraction, behavior, and identity.
Pachankis, John E; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mirandola, Massimo; Weatherburn, Peter; Berg, Rigmor C; Marcus, Ulrich; Schmidt, Axel J
While the prevalence of sexual identities and behaviors of men who have sex with men (MSM) varies across countries, no study has examined country-level structural stigma toward sexual minorities as a correlate of this variation. Drawing on emerging support for the context-dependent nature of MSM's open sexual self-identification cross-nationally, we examined country-level structural stigma as a key correlate of the geographic variation in MSM's sexual attraction, behavior, and identity, and concordance across these factors. Data come from the European MSM Internet Survey, a multi-national dataset containing a multi-component assessment of sexual orientation administered across 38 European countries (N = 174,209). Country-level stigma was assessed using a combination of national laws and policies affecting sexual minorities and a measure of attitudes toward sexual minorities held by the citizens of each country. Results demonstrate that in more stigmatizing countries, MSM were significantly more likely to report bisexual/heterosexual attractions, behaviors, and identities, and significantly less likely to report concordance across these factors, than in less stigmatizing countries. Settlement size moderated associations between country-level structural stigma and odds of bisexual/heterosexual attraction and behavior, such that MSM living in sparsely populated locales within high-structural stigma countries were the most likely to report bisexual or heterosexual behaviors and attractions. While previous research has demonstrated associations between structural stigma and adverse physical and mental health outcomes among sexual minorities, this study was the first to show that structural stigma was also a key correlate not only of sexual orientation identification, but also of MSM's sexual behavior and even attraction. Findings have implications for understanding the ontology of MSM's sexuality and suggest that a comprehensive picture of MSM's sexuality will come
Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad
To more accurately measure the effect of anti-discrimination laws, this report compares sex, race, and sexual orientation complaint rates through a population-adjusted model. Today, twenty states and the District of Columbia prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Of those, thirteen also prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity. An aggregation of all available state level data reveals that sexual orientation discrimination laws are used at similar freque...
Rowniak, Stefan; Chesla, Catherine
Female-to-male (FTM) transgender persons are often assumed to have been lesbian in sexual orientation prior to transition and to have maintained a primary attraction for women after transition. However, limited research and anecdotal information from clinicians who work with FTM have indicated that many identify as gay men post-transition. This article described the results of a qualitative study that employed interviews with 17 FTM in order to understand their experience of transition and sexual orientation. Of the 17 participants, seven identified as lesbian prior to transition, three as heterosexual, and seven as bisexual or queer. After transition, 10 identified as gay men and the remaining seven identified as bisexual or queer. Four patterns of sexual behavior emerged from the data and were described and discussed. These patterns were named steadfast, aligned, shifted, and fluid. These findings bring additional options to the belief that there are two distinct types of transgender: a homosexual subtype and a nonhomosexual subtype.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sexual Orientation KidsHealth / For Parents / Sexual Orientation What's in this ... orientation is part of that process. What Is Sexual Orientation? The term sexual orientation refers to the gender ( ...
Callahan, Edward J; Sitkin, Nicole; Ton, Hendry; Eidson-Ton, W Suzanne; Weckstein, Julie; Latimore, Darin
Many U.S. populations experience significant health disparities. Increasing health care providers' awareness of and education about sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) diversity could help reduce health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients. The authors share the University of California, Davis, Health System's (UCDHS's) experience as it became the first U.S. academic health center to formally introduce patient SO/GI demographic data into its electronic health record (EHR) as a step toward reducing LGBT health disparities. Adding these data to the EHR initially met with resistance. The authors, members of the UCDHS Task Force for Inclusion of SO/GI in the EHR, viewed this resistance as an invitation to educate leaders, providers, and staff about LGBT health disparities and to expose providers to techniques for discussing SO/GI with patients. They describe the strategies they employed to effect institutional culture change, including involvement of senior leadership, key informant interviews, educational outreach via grand rounds and resident workshops, and creation of a patient safety net through inviting providers to self-identify as welcoming LGBT patients. The ongoing cultural change process has inspired spin-off projects contributing to an improved climate for LGBT individuals at UCDHS, including an employee organization supporting SO/GI diversity, support for and among LGBT medical learners through events and listservs, development and implementation of an LGBT health curriculum, and creation of peer navigator programs for LGBT patients with cancer. The authors reflect on lessons learned and on institutional pride in and commitment to providing quality care for LGBT patients.
Seale, Andy; Bains, Anurita; Avrett, Sam
After almost three decades of work to address HIV and AIDS, resources are still failing to adequately address the needs of the most affected and marginalized groups in many societies. In recognition of this ongoing failure, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) has approved a sexual orientation and gender identities (SOGI) Strategy. The Strategy is designed to help its investments more effectively reach men who have sex with men; transgender populations; male, female, and transgender sex workers; and women who have sex with women. The Global Fund financing model is unique and based on ideas of broad partnership. It emphasizes the importance of country-ownership while ensuring that work is appropriately targeted, evidence-based, and rooted in principles of human rights. The classic international development tension of pursuing a rights-based agenda, while also supporting strong country ownership, has moved the Global Fund into a more substantive technical, advocacy, and policy arena, resulting in the creation of the SOGI Strategy, which emphasizes the needs of marginalized groups. A strong commitment to participation and consultation was crucial during the development stages of the Strategy. Now, as the Strategy goes live, it is clear that progress will only be achieved through continued and strengthened partnership. The diverse partners - in particular the governments and other stakeholders in recipient countries that helped develop the Strategy - must now commit to stronger collaboration on this agenda and must demonstrate bold leadership in overcoming the considerable technical and political challenges of implementation that lie ahead.
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
LGBT people file public accommodations discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusted them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaint...
Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad
LGBT people file housing discrimination complaints based on sexual orientation and gender identity as frequently as people of color and women file complaints based on race and sex. This study examines complaints filed with state enforcement agencies based on sexual orientation or gender identity, race, and sex and adjusts them by the number of adults most likely to experience each type of discrimination – LGBT people, people of color, and women. Data on discrimination complaints were collecte...
Bosse, Jordon D; Leblanc, Raeann G; Jackman, Kasey; Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I
Individuals in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities experience several disparities in physical and mental health (eg, cardiovascular disease and depression), as well as difficulty accessing care that is compassionate and relevant to their unique needs. Access to care is compromised in part due to inadequate information systems that fail to capture identity data. Beginning in January 2018, meaningful use criteria dictate that electronic health records have the capability to collect data related to sexual orientation and gender identity of patients. Nurse informaticists play a vital role in the process of developing new electronic health records that are sensitive to the needs and identities of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Improved collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data will advance the identification of health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. More inclusive electronic health records will allow providers to monitor risk behavior, assess progress toward the reduction of disparities, and provide healthcare that is patient and family centered. Concrete suggestions for the modification of electronic health record systems are presented, as well as how nurse informaticists may be able to bridge gaps in provider knowledge and discomfort through interprofessional collaboration when implementing changes in electronic health records.
Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G
We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.
Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.
Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662
Arístegui, Inés; Radusky, Pablo D; Zalazar, Virginia; Lucas, Mar; Sued, Omar
The stigma related to HIV status, gender identity, and sexual orientation has negative implications for the quality of life of individuals. A qualitative study was conducted to explore the resources that these stigmatized groups recognize as tools to cope with stigma and maintain their psychological well-being. Four focus groups were conducted with gay men and transgender women divided by HIV status. A thematic analysis revealed that individual, interpersonal, and institutional resources are commonly recognized as coping resources. This article discusses the importance of enhancing self-acceptance, social support, and a legal framework that legitimizes these groups as right holders.
Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth; Michie, Susan; Semlyen, Joanna; West, Robert; Meads, Catherine
To assess the association between tobacco and hazardous alcohol use and sexual orientation and whether such an association could be explained by other sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional household survey conducted in 2014-2016. England, UK. Representative English population sample (pooled n=43 866). Sexual orientation identity (lesbian/gay, bisexual, heterosexual, prefer-not-to-say); current tobacco and hazardous alcohol use (defined as Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Score ≥8). All outcomes were self-reported. Due to interactions between sexual orientation and gender for substance use, analyses were stratified by gender. Tobacco use prevalence was significantly higher among lesbian/gay (women: 24.9%, 95% CI 19.2% to 32.6%; men: 25.9%, 95% CI 21.3% to 31.0%) and bisexual participants (women: 32.4%, 95% CI 25.9% to 39.6%; men: 30.7%, 95% CI 23.7% to 30.7%) and significantly lower for prefer-not-to-say participants in women (15.5%, 95% CI 13.5% to 17.8%) but not men (22.7%, 95% CI 20.3% to 25.3%) compared with heterosexual participants (women: 17.5%, 95% CI 17.0% to 18.0%; men: 20.4%, 95% CI 19.9% to 21.0%; psexual orientation groups among both women and men. By contrast, sexual orientation differences in hazardous alcohol use remained even after adjustment among women but not for bisexual and gay men. In England, higher rates of tobacco use among sexual minority men and women appear to be attributable to other sociodemographic factors. Higher rates of hazardous alcohol use among sexual minority men may also be attributable to these factors, whereas this is not the case for sexual minority women. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Burke, Sarah M; Manzouri, Amir H; Savic, Ivanka
Both transgenderism and homosexuality are facets of human biology, believed to derive from different sexual differentiation of the brain. The two phenomena are, however, fundamentally unalike, despite an increased prevalence of homosexuality among transgender populations. Transgenderism is associated with strong feelings of incongruence between one's physical sex and experienced gender, not reported in homosexual persons. The present study searches to find neural correlates for the respective conditions, using fractional anisotropy (FA) as a measure of white matter connections that has consistently shown sex differences. We compared FA in 40 transgender men (female birth-assigned sex) and 27 transgender women (male birth-assigned sex), with both homosexual (29 male, 30 female) and heterosexual (40 male, 40 female) cisgender controls. Previously reported sex differences in FA were reproduced in cis-heterosexual groups, but were not found among the cis-homosexual groups. After controlling for sexual orientation, the transgender groups showed sex-typical FA-values. The only exception was the right inferior fronto-occipital tract, connecting parietal and frontal brain areas that mediate own body perception. Our findings suggest that the neuroanatomical signature of transgenderism is related to brain areas processing the perception of self and body ownership, whereas homosexuality seems to be associated with less cerebral sexual differentiation.
Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our
Rockenbach, Alyssa N.; Riggers-Piehl, Tiffani A.; Garvey, Jason C.; Lo, Marc A.; Mayhew, Matthew J.
This study examined the extent to which LGBT students were oriented toward pluralism and self-authored worldview commitment, as well as the conditional effects of campus climate and interfaith engagement on pluralism and worldview commitment by sexual orientation and gender identity. Drawing on data from 13,776 student respondents to the Campus…
Taziaux, Melanie; Staphorsius, Annemieke S; Ghatei, Mohammad A; Bloom, Stephen R; Swaab, Dick F; Bakker, Julie
Since the discovery of its central role in reproduction, our functional neuroanatomical knowledge of the hypothalamic kisspeptin system is predominantly based on animal studies. Although sex differences in kisspeptin expression have been shown in humans in adulthood, the developmental origin of this sex difference is unknown. Our objectives were to determine the following: 1) when during development the sex difference in kisspeptin expression in the infundibular nucleus would emerge and 2) whether this sex difference is related to sexual orientation or transsexuality. Postmortem hypothalamic tissues were collected by The Netherlands Brain Bank, and sections were stained for kisspeptin by immunohistochemistry. Hypothalami of 43 control subjects were categorized into three periods: infant/prepubertal (six girls, seven boys), adult (11 women, seven men), and elderly (six aged women, six aged men). Eight male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals, three HIV(+) heterosexual men, and five HIV(+) homosexual men were also analyzed. We estimated the total number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons within the infundibular nucleus. Quantitative analysis confirmed that the human infundibular kisspeptin system exhibits a female-dominant sex difference. The number of kisspeptin neurons is significantly greater in the infant/prepubertal and elderly periods compared with the adult period. Finally, in MTF transsexuals, but not homosexual men, a female-typical kisspeptin expression was observed. These findings suggest that infundibular kisspeptin neurons are sensitive to circulating sex steroid hormones throughout life and that the sex reversal observed in MTF transsexuals might reflect, at least partially, an atypical brain sexual differentiation.
Cahill, Sean R; Makadon, Harvey J
The Trump Administration recently removed sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions from a national aging survey, and decided not to add a sexual orientation category and a transgender identity field to a national disability survey as planned. These actions have raised concerns that the major expansion of SOGI data collection on surveys and in clinical settings, which has occurred in recent years, may be under threat. SOGI data collection is essential to understand lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health and the extent to which LGBT people access critical social services, including elder and disability services essential for living in community.
VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Garzon, Luisa C; Zucker, Kenneth J
This study tested predictions regarding two hypothesized maternal immune responses influencing sexual orientation: one affecting homosexual males with high fraternal birth order and another affecting firstborn homosexual individuals whose mothers experience repeated miscarriage after the birth of the first child. Low birth weight was treated as a marker of possible exposure to a maternal immune response during gestation. Birth weight was examined relative to sibship characteristics in a clinical sample of youth (N = 1,722) classified as heterosexual or homosexual based on self-reported or probable sexual orientation. No female sexual orientation differences in birth weight were found. Homosexual, compared to heterosexual, males showed lower birth weight if they had one or more older brothers--and especially two or more older brothers--or if they were an only-child. These findings support the existence of two maternal immune responses influencing male sexual orientation and possibly also cross-gender behavior and identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Storms, Michael D.
Results indicated homosexuals, heterosexuals, and bisexuals did not differ within each sex on measures of masculinity and femininity. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesis that sexual orientation relates primarily to erotic fantasy orientation. (Author/DB)
The UN is increasingly a place where a critical discussion about human rights and sexual orientation and gender identity is taking place. An important institutional component of the UN system of protection of human rights is the creation of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs). The regional
Baldwin, Aleta; Schick, Vanessa R; Dodge, Brian; van Der Pol, Barbara; Herbenick, Debby; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Collecting information on sexual identity is critical to ensuring the visibility of minority populations who face stigmatization and discrimination related to sexual identities. However, it is challenging to capture the nuances of sexual identity with traditional survey research methods. Using a mixed-methods approach, we gathered data on the sexual identities of 80 behaviorally bisexual women in the Midwestern United States through an online survey. When provided different types of measures (e.g., open ended and fixed response) and different contexts in which to identify (e.g., private and public), participants varied in how they reported their sexual identities. Qualitative analysis of participant narratives around identity change finds partitioning and ranking of attraction is a key component in understanding behaviorally bisexual women's identities. We further identify a division regarding the desired outcomes of identity development processes. Given the multiple ways in which participants identified depending upon the type of measure and the context specified, and the variation in identification over time, results support reconsidering the capability of typical measures and methods used in survey research to capture sexual identity information. Additionally, findings highlight the utility of including multiple, context-specific measures of sexual identities in future research.
Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.
Heck, Nicholas C.; Mirabito, Lucas A.; LeMaire, Kelly; Livingston, Nicholas A.; Flentje, Annesa
Objective The current study examined the frequency with which randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioral and psychological interventions for anxiety and depression include data pertaining to participant sexual orientation and non-binary gender identities. Method Using systematic review methodology, the databases PubMed and PsycINFO were searched to identify RCTs published in 2004, 2009, and 2014. Random selections of 400 articles per database per year (2400 articles in total) were considered for inclusion in the review. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were read and coded by the research team to identify whether the trial reported data pertaining to participant sexual orientation and non-binary gender identities. Additional trial characteristics were also identified and indexed in our database (e.g., sample size, funding source etc.). Results Of the 232 articles meeting inclusion criteria, only one reported participants’ sexual orientation and zero articles included non-binary gender identities. A total of 52,769 participants were represented in the trials, 93 of which were conducted in the U.S. and 43 acknowledged the National Institutes of Health as a source of funding. Conclusions Despite known mental health disparities on the basis of sexual orientation and non-binary gender identification, researchers evaluating interventions for anxiety and depression are not reporting on these important demographic characteristics. Reporting practices must change in order to ensure that our interventions generalize to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons. PMID:27845517
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Matthews, Alicia K; Lee, Joseph G L; Veliz, Phil; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J
The purpose of this study is to determine the past-year prevalence estimates of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder based on sexual identity among U.S. adults, and to examine potential variations in these estimates by age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction concordance/discordance. The 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected data via in-person interviews with a cross-sectional nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized adults (response rate=60.1%) and analyses for the present study were conducted in 2017. Any past-year nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder were most prevalent among sexual minority-identified adults compared with heterosexual-identified adults, with notable variations based on sex, age, race/ethnicity, and sexual identity-attraction discordance. Elevated rates of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder among sexual minorities were most prevalent among younger lesbian women and gay men, and all age groups of bisexual men and women. The odds of any nicotine/tobacco use, cigarette smoking, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder were significantly greater among sexual identity-attraction discordant women and significantly lower among sexual identity-attraction discordant men. These findings provide valuable new information about sexual minority subgroups, such as self-identified bisexual older adults and sexual identity-attraction discordant women, that appear to be at higher risk for adverse smoking-related health consequences as a result of their elevated rates of cigarette smoking. Additional attention is warranted to examine these high-risk subpopulations prospectively and, if the results are replicated with larger samples, this information can be used to target smoking-cessation and lung cancer screening efforts. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine
The framework of health and human rights provides for a comprehensive theoretical and practical application of general human rights principles in health care contexts that include the well-being of patients, providers, and other individuals within health care. This is particularly important for sexual and gender minority individuals, who experience historical and contemporary systematical marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination in health care contexts. In this paper, I present two case studies from South Africa to (1) highlight the conflicts that arise when sexual and gender minority individuals seek access to a heteronormative health system; (2) discuss the international, regional, and national human rights legal framework as it pertains to sexual orientation, gender identity, and health; and (3) analyze the gap between legislative frameworks that offer protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and their actual implementation in health service provision. These case studies highlight the complex and intersecting discrimination and marginalization that sexual and gender minority individuals face in health care in this particular context. The issues raised in the case studies are not unique to South Africa, however; and the human rights concerns illustrated therein, particularly around the right to health, have wide resonance in other geographical and social contexts.
Abstract The framework of health and human rights provides for a comprehensive theoretical and practical application of general human rights principles in health care contexts that include the well-being of patients, providers, and other individuals within health care. This is particularly important for sexual and gender minority individuals, who experience historical and contemporary systematical marginalization, exclusion, and discrimination in health care contexts. In this paper, I present two case studies from South Africa to (1) highlight the conflicts that arise when sexual and gender minority individuals seek access to a heteronormative health system; (2) discuss the international, regional, and national human rights legal framework as it pertains to sexual orientation, gender identity, and health; and (3) analyze the gap between legislative frameworks that offer protection from discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity and their actual implementation in health service provision. These case studies highlight the complex and intersecting discrimination and marginalization that sexual and gender minority individuals face in health care in this particular context. The issues raised in the case studies are not unique to South Africa, however; and the human rights concerns illustrated therein, particularly around the right to health, have wide resonance in other geographical and social contexts. PMID:28559686
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions.
Geary, Rebecca S; Tanton, Clare; Erens, Bob; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Wellings, Kaye; Mitchell, Kirstin R; Datta, Jessica; Gravningen, Kirsten; Fuller, Elizabeth; Johnson, Anne M; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H
Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years) undertaken in 2010-2012. A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions.
Rebecca S Geary
Full Text Available Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions.Analyses of data from Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16-74 years undertaken in 2010-2012.A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16-74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual.There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions.
Sexual identity, attraction and behaviour in Britain: The implications of using different dimensions of sexual orientation to estimate the size of sexual minority populations and inform public health interventions
Erens, Bob; Clifton, Soazig; Prah, Philip; Wellings, Kaye; Mitchell, Kirstin R.; Datta, Jessica; Gravningen, Kirsten; Fuller, Elizabeth; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H.
Background Sexual orientation encompasses three dimensions: sexual identity, attraction and behaviour. There is increasing demand for data on sexual orientation to meet equality legislation, monitor potential inequalities and address public health needs. We present estimates of all three dimensions and their overlap in British men and women, and consider the implications for health services, research and the development and evaluation of public health interventions. Methods Analyses of data from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles, a probability sample survey (15,162 people aged 16–74 years) undertaken in 2010–2012. Findings A lesbian, gay or bisexual (LGB) identity was reported by 2·5% of men and 2·4% of women, whilst 6·5% of men and 11·5% of women reported any same-sex attraction and 5·5% of men and 6·1% of women reported ever experience of same-sex sex. This equates to approximately 547,000 men and 546,000 women aged 16–74 in Britain self-identifying as LGB and 1,204,000 men and 1,389,000 women ever having experience of same-sex sex. Of those reporting same-sex sex in the past 5 years, 28% of men and 45% of women identified as heterosexual. Interpretation There is large variation in the size of sexual minority populations depending on the dimension applied, with implications for the design of epidemiological studies, targeting and monitoring of public health interventions and estimating population-based denominators. There is also substantial diversity on an individual level between identity, behaviour and attraction, adding to the complexity of delivering appropriate services and interventions. PMID:29293516
Preciado, Mariana A; Johnson, Kerri L
Most people organize their sexual orientation under a single sexual identity label. However, people may have sexual experiences that are inconsistent with their categorical sexual identity label. A man might identify as heterosexual but still experience some attraction to men; a woman might identify as lesbian yet enter into a romantic relationship with a man. Identity-inconsistent experiences are likely to have consequences. In the present study, we examined lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences for self-perceived sexuality and for social relationships among a sexually diverse sample (N = 283). We found that the perceived consequences of identity-inconsistent experiences for self-perception, for social stigmatization, and for social relationships varied as a function of participant sex, participant sexual identity (heterosexual, gay, lesbian), and experience type (fantasy, attraction, behavior, love). We conclude that not all identity-inconsistent sexual experiences are perceived as equally consequential and that the perceived consequences of such experiences vary predictably as a function of perceiver sex and sexual identity. We discuss the role lay perceptions of the consequences of identity-inconsistent sexual experiences may play in guiding attitudes and behavior.
The taken-for-granted dominance of heteronormativity in contemporary society has been well documented and critiqued in several social science studies. Acutely aware of its fragility and vulnerability (Butler 1991), its proponents constantly seek to reinforce its hegemonic influence through ritualised performances associated with ‘doing’, ‘using’ and performing gender and sexual orientation. The article will provide a theoretical contemplation on whether both the proscriptive an...
Agénor, Madina; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Gordon, Allegra R; Haneuse, Sebastien; Potter, Jennifer E; Austin, S Bryn
Lesbians and bisexual women are at risk for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection from female and male sexual partners. To examine the association between sexual orientation identity and HPV vaccination among U.S. women and girls. Cross-sectional, using 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth data. U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth used stratified cluster sampling to establish a national probability sample of 12,279 U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 44 years. Analyses were restricted to 3253 women and girls aged 15 to 25 years who were asked about HPV vaccination. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain prevalence estimates of HPV vaccine awareness and initiation adjusted for sociodemographic and health care factors for each sexual orientation identity group. Among U.S. women and girls aged 15 to 25 years, 84.4% reported having heard of the HPV vaccine; of these, 28.5% had initiated HPV vaccination. The adjusted prevalence of vaccine awareness was similar among heterosexual, bisexual, and lesbian respondents. After adjustment for covariates, 8.5% (P = 0.007) of lesbians and 33.2% (P = 0.33) of bisexual women and girls who had heard of the vaccine had initiated vaccination compared with 28.4% of their heterosexual counterparts. Self-reported, cross-sectional data, and findings may not be generalizable to periods after 2006 to 2010 or all U.S. lesbians aged 15 to 25 years (because of the small sample size for this group). Adolescent and young adult lesbians may be less likely to initiate HPV vaccination than their heterosexual counterparts. Programs should facilitate access to HPV vaccination services among young lesbians. National Cancer Institute.
Hines, Melissa; Brook, Charles; Conway, Gerard S
We assessed core gender identity, sexual orientation, and recalled childhood gender role behavior in 16 women and 9 men with CAH and in 15 unaffected female and 10 unaffected male relatives, all between the ages of 18 and 44 years. Women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) recalled significantly more male-typical play behavior as children than did unaffected women, whereas men with and without CAH did not differ. Women with CAH also reported significantly less satisfaction with the female sex of assignment and less heterosexual interest than did unaffected women. Again, men with CAH did not differ significantly from unaffected men in these respects. Our results for women with CAH are consistent with numerous prior reports indicating that girls with CAH show increased male-typical play behavior. They also support the hypotheses that these women show reduced heterosexual interest and reduced satisfaction with the female sex of assignment. Our results for males are consistent with most prior reports that boys with CAH do not show a general alteration in childhood play behavior. In addition, they provide initial evidence that core gender identity and sexual orientation are unaffected in men with CAH. Finally, among women with CAH, we found that recalled male-typical play in childhood correlated with reduced satisfaction with the female gender and reduced heterosexual interest in adulthood. Although prospective studies are needed, these results suggest that those girls with CAH who show the greatest alterations in childhood play behavior may be the most likely to develop a bisexual or homosexual orientation as adults and to be dissatisfied with the female sex of assignment.
Alessi, Edward J; Kahn, Sarilee; Chatterji, Sangeeta
Numerous studies demonstrate that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) children and youth are likely to experience abuse by peers, parents, and other adults and that these experiences correlate with a host of mental health problems. However, there is little understanding of the experiences of LGBT children and youth living in countries where social and legal protections for sexual and gender minorities are limited or nonexistent. This qualitative study used thematic analysis to explore the child and adolescent abuse experiences and their impact on the pre-migration mental health of LGBT forced migrants. We analyzed 26 interviews with individuals who obtained refugee or asylee status in the United States or Canada on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Participants originated from countries in Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Analysis revealed the following themes: abuse by parents and caregivers, abuse by peers and school personnel, having nowhere to turn, and dealing with psychological distress. Findings indicate that participants experienced severe verbal, physical, and sexual abuse throughout childhood and adolescence and that this abuse occurred at home, in school, and in the community. Furthermore, there were no resources or sources of protection available to them. Participants linked their abuse to subjective experiences of depression, anxiety, and traumatic stress, as well as suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. We conclude with implications for refugee adjudication practices, mental health care, and international policy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
..., legal aid offices, tenant and fair housing organizations, realtors and their representatives, law school... stereotypes. Interpret Sex Discrimination Under the Fair Housing Act To Reach Discrimination and Harassment of... form of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment is illegal under the Fair Housing Act if the conduct is...
Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P
Two histories of physically normal men with persistent gender issues highlight the major impact played by parental input on the sexual and gender development of children. Both men had been subjected to firm, harsh behavior modification by their parents, particularly their mothers, during childhood in response to effeminate behavior. While both men continue to manifest major gender/sexual issues as adults, their outcomes have been dramatically different. The first man takes female hormones and denies any satisfaction from his sexuality. This individual remains convinced that he has female internal sexual organs and monthly internal menstrual bleeding. Although he has a career, he has become alienated from his family and is a social cripple. The second man has a successful career, lives a heterosexual life with his children and wife of 20 years and is involved in his community. He is visually attracted to men and remains obsessed with male pornography. This individual credits his mother with directing him toward a successful heterosexual life, which he feels has prevented the emotional burden of an active homosexual life. These two cases illustrate the tremendous influence played by environment and parental input on the sexual perspectives of developing children.
Callens, Nina; van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H.; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Dessens, Arianne B.
The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally
Poteat, V. Paul; Rivers, Ian; Vecho, Olivier
Drawing from an ecological framework, there has been growing attention on the role of peers in accounting for adolescents' homophobic behavior. In this study, we considered whether individuals' homophobic behavior could be attributed to their peers' collective levels of aggression, sexual prejudice, and importance placed on their sexual…
van Anders, Sari M
Sexual orientation typically describes people's sexual attractions or desires based on their sex relative to that of a target. Despite its utility, it has been critiqued in part because it fails to account for non-biological gender-related factors, partnered sexualities unrelated to gender or sex, or potential divergences between love and lust. In this article, I propose Sexual Configurations Theory (SCT) as a testable, empirically grounded framework for understanding diverse partnered sexualities, separate from solitary sexualities. I focus on and provide models of two parameters of partnered sexuality--gender/sex and partner number. SCT also delineates individual gender/sex. I discuss a sexual diversity lens as a way to study the particularities and generalities of diverse sexualities without privileging either. I also discuss how sexual identities, orientations, and statuses that are typically seen as misaligned or aligned are more meaningfully conceptualized as branched or co-incident. I map out some existing identities using SCT and detail its applied implications for health and counseling work. I highlight its importance for sexuality in terms of measurement and social neuroendocrinology, and the ways it may be useful for self-knowledge and feminist and queer empowerment and alliance building. I also make a case that SCT changes existing understandings and conceptualizations of sexuality in constructive and generative ways informed by both biology and culture, and that it is a potential starting point for sexual diversity studies and research.
Cahill, Sean; Makadon, Harvey
The Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2011 report on the health of LGBT people pointed out that there are limited health data on these populations and that we need more research. It also described what we do know about LGBT health disparities, including lower rates of cervical cancer screening among lesbians, and mental health issues related to minority stress. Patient disclosure of LGBT identity enables provider-patient conversations about risk factors and can help us reduce and better understand disparities. It is essential to the success of Healthy People 2020's goal of eliminating LGBT health disparities. This is why the IOM's report recommended data collection in clinical settings and on electronic health records (EHRs). The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and the Office of the National Coordinator of Health Information Technology rejected including sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in meaningful use guidelines for EHRs in 2012 but are considering this issue again in 2013. There is overwhelming community support for the routine collection of SOGI data in clinical settings, as evidenced by comments jointly submitted by 145 leading LGBT and HIV/AIDS organizations in January 2013. Gathering SOGI data in EHRs is supported by the 2011 IOM's report on LGBT health, Healthy People 2020, the Affordable Care Act, and the Joint Commission. Data collection has long been central to the quality assurance process. Preventive health care from providers knowledgeable of their patients' SOGI can lead to improved access, quality of care, and outcomes. Medical and nursing schools should expand their attention to LGBT health issues so that all clinicians can appropriately care for LGBT patients.
Cánovas, Ma Rosa; Cimadevilla, José Manuel
The present study aimed at determining the influence of sexual orientation in human spatial learning and memory. Participants performed the Boxes Room, a virtual reality version of the Holeboard. In Experiment I, a reference memory task, the position of the hidden rewards remained constant during the whole experiment. In Experiment II, a working memory task, the position of rewards changed between blocks. Each block consisted of two trials: One trial for acquisition and another for retrieval. The results of Experiment I showed that heterosexual men performed better than homosexual men and heterosexual women. They found the rewarded boxes faster. Moreover, homosexual participants committed more errors than heterosexuals. Experiment II showed that working memory abilities are the same in groups of different sexual orientation. These results suggest that sexual orientation is related to spatial navigation abilities, but mostly in men, and limited to reference memory, which depends more on the function of the hippocampal system.
Full Text Available Now days lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender are abbreviated as LGBT is the most popular word and being sensible in the world, especially in Indonesia. Based on human right principles, any person in the world including in Indonesia is free to express their gender identity and sexual orientation, even the same sex marriage, freely from unlawful discrimination and violations (Office of Personnel Management, 2015; Yogyakarta Principles, 2006. However, because of the culture and religion differences backgrounds, Indonesians have given this issue various responses. In general, Indonesian public opinion on LGBT are split into two different groups, one minority group is proponent to present of LGBT and any things related to it, and another majority groups are opponent. Objective of this editorial is to discuss how sexual orientation develop from prenatal until emerging of clinical manifestation in adulthood, by no mean to support either group. Otherwise, to give more insight about how male and female get their appropriate sexual orientations and why some of them get inappropriate sexual orientations.
Cahill, Sean; Singal, Robbie; Grasso, Chris; King, Dana; Mayer, Kenneth; Baker, Kellan; Makadon, Harvey
Background The Institute of Medicine and The Joint Commission have recommended asking sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) questions in clinical settings and including such data in Electronic Health Records (EHRs). This is increasingly viewed as a critical step toward systematically documenting and addressing health disparities affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. The U.S. government is currently considering whether to include SOGI data collection in the Stage 3 guidelines for the incentive program promoting meaningful use of EHR. However, some have questioned whether acceptable standard measures to collect SOGI data in clinical settings exist. Methods In order to better understand how a diverse group of patients would respond if SOGI questions were asked in primary care settings, 301 randomly selected patients receiving primary care at four health centers across the U.S. were asked SOGI questions and then asked follow-up questions. This sample was mainly heterosexual, racially diverse, and geographically and regionally broad. Results There was a strong consensus among patients surveyed about the importance of asking SOGI questions. Most of the LGBT respondents thought that the questions presented on the survey allowed them to accurately document their SOGI. Most respondents—heterosexual and LGBT—answered the questions, and said that they would answer such questions in the future. While there were some age-related differences, respondents of all ages overwhelmingly expressed support for asking SOGI questions and understood the importance of providers' knowing their patients' SOGI. Conclusions Given current deliberations within national health care regulatory bodies and the government's increased attention to LGBT health disparities, the finding that patients can and will answer SOGI questions has important implications for public policy. This study provides evidence that integrating SOGI data collection into the meaningful
Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Torain, Maya; Adler, Rachel; Schneider, Eric; Ranjit, Anju; Kodadek, Lisa M; Shields, Ryan; German, Danielle; Snyder, Claire; Peterson, Susan; Schuur, Jeremiah; Lau, Brandyn; Haider, Adil H
Research suggests that LGBT populations experience barriers to healthcare. Organizations such as the Institute of Medicine recommend routine documentation of sexual orientation (SO) and gender identity (GI) in healthcare, to reduce LGBT disparities. We explore patient views regarding the importance of SO/GI collection, and patient and provider views on risks and benefits of routine SO/GI collection in various settings. We surveyed LGBT/non-LGBT patients and providers on their views on SO/GI collection. Weighted data were analyzed with descriptive statistics; content analysis was conducted with open-ended responses. One-half of the 1516 patients and 60% of 429 providers were female; 64% of patients and 71% of providers were White. Eighty percent of providers felt that collecting SO data would offend patients, whereas only 11% of patients reported that they would be offended. Patients rated it as more important for primary care providers to know the SO of all patients compared with emergency department (ED) providers knowing the SO of all patients (41.3% vs. 31.6%; P discrimination risk most frequently (49.7%; N = 781), whereas provider comments cited patient discomfort/offense most frequently (54.5%; N = 433). Patients see the importance of SO/GI more in primary care than ED settings. However, many LGBT patients seek ED care due to factors including uninsurance; therefore, the ED may represent an initial point of contact for SO/GI collection. Therefore, patient-centered approaches to collecting SO/GI are needed. Patients and providers differed in perceived risks and benefits to routine SO/GI collection. Provider training in LGBT health may address patients' bias/discrimination concerns, and ultimately reduce LGBT health disparities.
Plug, E.; Webbink, D.; Martin, N.
This article examines whether gay and lesbian workers sort into tolerant occupations. With information on sexual orientation, prejudice, and occupational choice taken from Australian Twin Registers, we find that gays and lesbians shy away from prejudiced occupations. We show that our segregation
Original title: Young people and sexual orientation The Netherlands Institute for Social Research ¦ SCP carries out regular research on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals. In this report, the focus is on young people in the Netherlands. The report addresses two issues:
Lourie, Michael A; Needham, Belinda L
During the course of sexual development, many people experience dissonance between dimensions of sexual orientation, including attraction, behavior, and identity. This study assesses the relationship between sexual orientation discordance and mental health. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 8,915; female = 54.62 %; non-Hispanic black = 18.83 %, Hispanic = 14.91 %, other race (non-white) = 10.79 %). Multivariable linear regression evaluated the correlation between sexual orientation discordance and perceived stress and depressive symptomatology. Models were stratified by sex and sexual identity. Among self-identified heterosexual females and mostly heterosexual males, sexual orientation discordance predicted significantly increased depressive symptomatology. No other subpopulation demonstrated a significant correlation between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology or perceived stress. The association between sexual orientation discordance and depressive symptomatology suggests a link between sexuality, self-concept, and mental health.
Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Reisner, Sari L; Hughto, Jaclyn White; Keo-Meier, Colton L
This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender-nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bimodel methods (online and in person) to complete a one-time, Web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n = 452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n = 205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other nonbinary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, and 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions posttransition, and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people.
Boyer, Carol Anderson
Sexual orientation is an integral part of identity affecting every stage of an individual's development. This literature review examines women's cultural experiences based on sexual orientation and their effect on midlife experience. A developmental model is offered that incorporates sexual orientation as a contextual factor in this developmental…
Riskind, Rachel G; Tornello, Samantha L; Younger, Brendan C; Patterson, Charlotte J
We examined associations between adolescent girls' sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n=6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls' reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services.
Tornello, Samantha L.; Younger, Brendan C.; Patterson, Charlotte J.
Objectives. We examined associations between adolescent girls’ sexual identity and the gender of their sexual partners, on one hand, and their reports of sexual health behaviors and reproductive health outcomes, on the other. Methods. We analyzed weighted data from pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (2005 and 2007) representative of 13 US jurisdictions, focusing on sexually experienced girls in 8th through 12th grade (weighted n = 6879.56). We used logistic regression with hierarchical linear modeling to examine the strength of associations between reports about sexual orientation and sexual and reproductive health. Results. Sexual minority girls consistently reported riskier behaviors than did other girls. Lesbian girls’ reports of risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol) and negative reproductive health outcomes (e.g., pregnancy) were similar to those of bisexual girls. Partner gender and sexual identity were similarly strong predictors of all of the sexual behaviors and reproductive health outcomes we examined. Conclusions. Many sexual minority girls, whether categorized according to sexual identity or partner gender, are vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health risks. Attention to these risks is needed to help sexual minority girls receive necessary services. PMID:25121821
Avery, Patricia G.
Key concepts in political socialization, tolerance, groups, rights and responsibilities can be used to understand the way in which young people struggle with sexual identity issues. Educators may promote greater tolerance for homosexuality among heterosexuals by situating sexual identity issues within a broader discussion of democratic principles.…
Lance, Teresa S.; Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.
The purpose of this study was to advance measurement of sexual identity management for lesbian, gay, and bisexual workers. Psychometric properties of a revised version of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; Anderson, Croteau, Chung, & DiStefano, 2001) were examined on a sample of 64 predominantly White K-12 teachers.…
Bailey, J Michael; Vasey, Paul L; Diamond, Lisa M; Breedlove, S Marc; Vilain, Eric; Epprecht, Marc
SummaryOngoing political controversies around the world exemplify a long-standing and widespread preoccupation with the acceptability of homosexuality. Nonheterosexual people have seen dramatic surges both in their rights and in positive public opinion in many Western countries. In contrast, in much of Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, Oceania, and parts of Asia, homosexual behavior remains illegal and severely punishable, with some countries retaining the death penalty for it. Political controversies about sexual orientation have often overlapped with scientific controversies. That is, participants on both sides of the sociopolitical debates have tended to believe that scientific findings-and scientific truths-about sexual orientation matter a great deal in making political decisions. The most contentious scientific issues have concerned the causes of sexual orientation-that is, why are some people heterosexual, others bisexual, and others homosexual? The actual relevance of these issues to social, political, and ethical decisions is often poorly justified, however. © The Author(s) 2016.
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex...
Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan
The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
The Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian labour legislation and the legislation generally, are inspired in accordance with the non-discrimination principles, objectives and definitions of international acts, promoting and expressing protection of human rights and freedoms in general, and in particular in the field of employment and vocational training. This paper will analyze, if the sexual orientation, is one of the causes of discrimination for employment and vocational training, in Albanian legislation, especially how it is expressed this issue on the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, the Albanian Labour Code, the Albanian law “On the protection against discrimination” ect.
Rule, Nicholas O
People derive considerable amounts of information about each other from minimal nonverbal cues. Apart from characteristics typically regarded as obvious when encountering another person (e.g., age, race, and sex), perceivers can identify many other qualities about a person that are typically rather subtle. One such feature is sexual orientation. Here, I review the literature documenting the accurate perception of sexual orientation from nonverbal cues related to one's adornment, acoustics, actions, and appearance. In addition to chronicling studies that have demonstrated how people express and extract sexual orientation in each of these domains, I discuss some of the basic cognitive and perceptual processes that support these judgments, including how cues to sexual orientation manifest in behavioral (e.g., clothing choices) and structural (e.g., facial morphology) signals. Finally, I attend to boundary conditions in the accurate perception of sexual orientation, such as the states, traits, and group memberships that moderate individuals' ability to reliably decipher others' sexual orientation.
Jepsen, Christopher; Jepsen, Lisa K.
Although many studies document differences by sexual orientation in earnings and other labor-market outcomes, little is known about differences in self-employment. Our study contributes to both the self-employment literature and sexual-orientation literature by analyzing differences in self-employment rates and earnings by sexual orientation. Gay men are less likely to be self-employed than married men, whereas lesbians are equally likely to be self-employed as married women. We find that gay...
Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.
Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women's sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities…
Lyons, Heidi Ann
A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.
Despite increased attention in the area of hate crime research in the past 20 years, sexual orientation bias crimes have rarely been singled out for study. When these types of crimes are looked at, the studies are typically descriptive in nature. This article seeks to increase our knowledge of sexual orientation bias by answering the question:…
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Reisner, Sari L.; White, Jaclyn M.; Keo-Meier, Colton L.
This study characterized sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions in a community-based sample of self-identified transgender and gender nonconforming adults in Massachusetts. Participants were recruited in 2013 using bi-model methods (online and in-person) to complete a one-time web-based quantitative survey that included questions about sexual orientation identity and sexual fluidity. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated Adjusted Risk Ratios (aRR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) to examine the correlates of self-reported changes in attractions ever in lifetime among the whole sample (n=452) and after transition among those who reported social gender transition (n=205). The sample endorsed diverse sexual orientation identities: 42.7% queer, 19.0% other non-binary, 15.7% bisexual, 12.2% straight, 10.4% gay/lesbian. Overall, 58.2% reported having experienced changes in sexual attractions in their lifetime. In adjusted models, trans masculine individuals were more likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity in their lifetime (aRR=1.69; 95% CI=1.34, 2.12). Among those who transitioned, 64.6% reported a change in attractions post-transition and trans masculine individuals were less likely than trans feminine individuals to report sexual fluidity (aRR=0.44; 95% CI=0.28, 0.69). Heterogeneity of sexual orientation identities and sexual fluidity in attractions are the norm rather than the exception among gender minority people. PMID:26156113
Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte
Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds. To examine whether gender expression and sexual orientation are associated with within-sex differences in ischemic pain sensitivity in healthy young women. A convenience sample of 172 females (mean age 21.4 years; range 18 to 30 years of age; 56.0% white, 89% heterosexual) performed an ischemic pain task in counterbalanced order. Desired levels of dispositional femininity for a preferred romantic partner and self-described levels of personal dispositional femininity were measured. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbian and bisexual women reported lower pain intensity ratings early in the discomfort task. Irrespective of sexual orientation, attraction to more feminine romantic partners and dispositional masculinity were correlated with lower pain intensity, and with higher pain thresholds and tolerance levels. These preliminary findings suggest that within-sex differences in sexual orientation and other aspects of identity, irrespective of biological sex, may be important to consider when examining experimental pain performance and clinical pain experiences. Larger investigations of the psychophysiological relationships among sexual orientation, gender expression and pain sensitivity are warranted. These findings may have implications for differences in clinical pain sensitivity of lesbian and bisexual women compared with heterosexual women.
Keith W. Beard; Sandra S. Stroebel; Stephen L. O’Keefe; Karen V. Harper-Dorton; Karen Griffee; Debra H. Young; Sam Swindell; Kerri Steele; Thomas D. Linz; Karla Beth Moore; Megan Lawhon; Natalie M. Campbell
Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs) provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early ...
Gonzalez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Fernández-Rivas, Aranzazu
Nationalist movements are emerging today everywhere in the world. Many of them display a high level of aggression and a negative attitude toward sexuality and especially female sexuality. Along with this, erotic fiction with a sadomasochistic orientation has achieved great success and has hundreds of millions of readers in the world. This collective fantasy allows some integration of aggression in sexual life while questioning liberal morality and its equality in gender roles and conservative morality and its idea of control over passion. Both phenomena may represent different responses to the appearance of a new female sexuality threatening the social structure we know.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Personality traits, namely neuroticism, have been suggested as vulnerability factors for the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction in heterosexual samples. However, no evidence was found regarding homosexual samples. This study aimed to analyze the differences on personality traits between heterosexual and homosexual men and women with and without sexual problems. Participants were 285 individuals (142 men, 143 women) who completed a web-based survey. Participants answered the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the Brief Symptomatology Inventory, and questions regarding sexual problems. The groups of men and women with and without sexual problems were matched for sociodemographic variables. A 2 (Group) × 2 (Sexual Orientation) multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted separately for each gender. Results indicated a significant main effect for group and for sexual orientation in male and female samples. Men with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism, whereas women with sexual problems scored higher on neuroticism and lower on extraversion when compared with healthy controls, regardless of sexual orientation. In addition, gay men scored higher on neuroticism and lesbian women scored higher on conscientiousness compared with the heterosexual groups. The present findings emphasize the central role of neuroticism on sexual problems in both men and women regardless of sexual orientation.
Davis, Lindsey T; Weiss, Nicole H; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Few studies have examined correlates of deliberate self-harm (DSH) among African-Americans. Moreover, most research on the correlates of DSH in general has focused on risk factors rather than protective factors. This study examined differences in perceived social support, religiosity (both spirituality and church attendance) and overall life satisfaction between African-Americans with and without a history of DSH, as well as the moderating roles of gender and sexual orientation in these relations. Participants were 244 African-American university students who completed questionnaires. Participants with (vs. without) DSH reported significantly lower levels of social support. Additionally, rates of DSH were significantly higher among participants who attended church irregularly versus regularly or rarely/never. However, the association between DSH and church attendance was significant only for women (vs. men) and LGBQ (vs. heterosexual) women. Further, gender moderated the relation between DSH and social support from both significant others and friends, with self-harming women (but not men) reporting less support than their non-DSH counterparts. Findings add to the literature on DSH among African-Americans, highlighting both social support and church attendance (depending on regularity) as potential protective factors within this population.
Currier, Glenn W.
: Assessing patients’ sexual orientation in the ED by a three-question approach appeared feasible in the ED and acceptable to ED patients. However, since many patients have sexual experiences not suggested by simple labels, self-report of sexual identity alone may not inform clinicians of health risks inherent in same or opposite gender sexual contact. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:80–84.
Many people believe that sexual orientation (homosexuality vs. heterosexuality) is determined by education and social constraints. There are, however, a large number of studies indicating that prenatal factors have an important influence on this critical feature of human sexuality. Sexual orientation is a sexually differentiated trait (over 90% of men are attracted to women and vice versa). In animals and men, many sexually differentiated characteristics are organized during early life by sex steroids, and one can wonder whether the same mechanism also affects human sexual orientation. Two types of evidence support this notion. First, multiple sexually differentiated behavioral, physiological, or even morphological traits are significantly different in homosexual and heterosexual populations. Because some of these traits are known to be organized by prenatal steroids, including testosterone, these differences suggest that homosexual subjects were, on average, exposed to atypical endocrine conditions during development. Second, clinical conditions associated with significant endocrine changes during embryonic life often result in an increased incidence of homosexuality. It seems therefore that the prenatal endocrine environment has a significant influence on human sexual orientation but a large fraction of the variance in this behavioral characteristic remains unexplained to date. Genetic differences affecting behavior either in a direct manner or by changing embryonic hormone secretion or action may also be involved. How these biological prenatal factors interact with postnatal social factors to determine life-long sexual orientation remains to be determined.
Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt
Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.
Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L; Bostwick, Wendy; Morales, Michele; Boyd, Carol J
Researchers are increasingly recognizing the need to include measures of sexual orientation in health studies. However, relatively little attention has been paid to how sexual identity, the cognitive aspect of sexual orientation, is defined and measured. Our study examined the impact of using two separate sexual identity question formats: a three-category question (response options included heterosexual, bisexual, or lesbian/gay), and a similar question with five response options (only lesbian/gay, mostly lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual, only heterosexual). A large probability-based sample of undergraduate university students was surveyed and a randomly selected subsample of participants was asked both sexual identity questions. Approximately one-third of students who identified as bisexual based on the three-category sexual identity measure chose "mostly heterosexual" or "mostly lesbian/gay" on the five-category measure. In addition to comparing sample proportions of lesbian/gay, bisexual, or heterosexual participants based on the two question formats, rates of alcohol and other drug use were also examined among the participants. Substance use outcomes among the sexual minority subgroups differed based on the sexual identity question format used: bisexual participants showed greater risk of substance use in analyses using the three-category measure whereas "mostly heterosexual" participants were at greater risk when data were analyzed using the five-category measure. Study results have important implications for the study of sexual identity, as well as whether and how to recode responses to questions related to sexual identity.
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B
There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.
Johns, Michelle Marie; Zimmerman, Marc; Bauermeister, Jose A.
Identity-based conceptualizations of sexual orientation may not account adequately for variation in young women’s sexuality. Sexual minorities fare worse in psychosocial markers of wellbeing (i.e., depressive symptoms, anxiety, self esteem, social support) than heterosexual youth; however, it remains unclear whether these health disparities exclusively affect individuals who adopt a sexual minority identity or if it also may be present among heterosexually-identified youth who report same-sex attractions. We examined the relationship between sexual attraction, sexual identity, and psychosocial wellbeing in the female only subsample (weighted, n = 391) of a national sample of emerging adults (age 18–24). Women in this study rated on a scale from 1 (Not at all) to 5 (Extremely) their degree of sexual attraction to males and females, respectively. From these scores, women were divided into 4 groups (low female /low male attraction, low female /high male attraction, high female /low male attraction, or high female /high male attraction). We explored the relationship between experiences of attraction, reported sexual identity, and psychosocial outcomes using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicated sexual attraction to be predictive of women’s psychosocial wellbeing as much as or more than sexual identity measures. We discuss these findings in terms of the diversity found in young women’s sexuality, and how sexual minority status may be experienced by this group. PMID:22847750
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L; Matthews, Alicia K; Lee, Joseph G L; West, Brady T; Boyd, Carol J; Arslanian-Engoren, Cynthia
Differences in tobacco/nicotine use by sexual orientation are well documented. Development of interventions requires attention to the etiology of these differences. This study examined associations among sexual orientation discrimination, cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 tobacco use disorder (TUD) in the U.S. We used data from the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions based on in-person interviews with a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults. Approximately 8.3% of the population reported same-sex sexual attraction, 3.1% reported at least one same-sex sexual partner in the past-year, and 2.8% self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual. Sexual attraction, sexual behavior, and sexual identity were significantly associated with cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 TUD. Risk of all tobacco/nicotine outcomes was most pronounced for bisexual adults across all three sexual orientation dimensions. Approximately half of sexual minorities who identified as lesbian or gay and one-fourth of those who identified as bisexual reported past-year sexual orientation discrimination. Sexual minorities who experienced high levels of past-year sexual orientation discrimination had significantly greater probability of past-year cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and TUD relative to sexual minorities who experienced lower levels of sexual orientation discrimination or no discrimination. Sexual minorities, especially bisexual adults, are at heightened risk of cigarette smoking, any tobacco/nicotine use, and DSM-5 TUD across all three major sexual orientation dimensions. Tobacco prevention and cessation efforts should target bisexual adults and consider the role sexual orientation discrimination plays in cigarette smoking and treatment of TUD. Differences in tobacco/nicotine use by sexual orientation are well documented, but little is known about differences across all three
Mustanski, Brian S; Bailey, J Michael; Kaspar, Sarah
Both handedness and dermatoglyphic asymmetry reflect early, prenatal influences and both have been reported to be associated with male sexual orientation; handedness has been related to female sexual orientation as well. Neurohormonal and developmental perturbation are two competing hypothesis that attempt to explain these connections. We attempted to replicate these associations and to extend dermatoglyphic asymmetry findings to women. Dermatoglyphic directional asymmetry and fluctuating asymmetry were unrelated to sexual orientation. Homosexual women, but not homosexual men, had highly significant increases in non-right-handedness compared with same-sex heterosexual controls. Although this pattern of results does not allow resolution of the two competing models, it does lend additional support to a biological basis of sexual orientation.
Talley, Amelia E; Stevens, Jordan E
The current article describes the adaptation of a measure of sexual orientation self-concept ambiguity (SSA) from an existing measure of general self-concept clarity. Latent "trait" scores of SSA reflect the extent to which a person's beliefs about their own sexual orientation are perceived as inconsistent, unreliable, or incongruent. Sexual minority and heterosexual women ( n = 348), ages 18 to 30, completed a cross-sectional survey. Categorical confirmatory factor analysis guided the selection of items to form a 10-item, self-report measure of SSA. In the current report, we also examine (a) reliability of the 10-item scale score, (b) measurement invariance based on respondents' sexual identity status and age group, and (c) correlations with preexisting surveys that purport to measure similar constructs and theoretical correlates. Evidence for internal reliability, measurement invariance (based on respondent sex), and convergent validity was also investigated in an independent, validation sample. The lowest SSA scores were reported by women who self-ascribed an exclusively heterosexual or exclusively lesbian/gay sexual identity, whereas those who reported a bisexual, mostly lesbian/gay, or mostly heterosexual identity, reported relatively higher SSA scores.
Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil
Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…
Burton, John K; Gilmore, Karen
The treatment of adolescents by gay analysts is uncharted territory regarding the impact of the analyst's sexuality on the analytic process. Since a core challenge of adolescence involves the integration of the adult sexual body, gender role, and reproductive capacities into evolving identity, and since adolescents seek objects in their environment to facilitate both identity formation and the establishment of autonomy from primary objects, the analyst's sexual orientation is arguably a potent influence on the outcome of adolescent development. However, because sexual orientation is a less visible characteristic of the analyst than gender, race, or age, for example, the line between reality and fantasy is less clearly demarcated. This brings up special considerations regarding discovery and disclosure in the treatment. To explore these issues, the case of a late adolescent girl in treatment with a gay male analyst is presented. In this treatment, the question of the analyst's sexual orientation, and the demand by the patient for the analyst's self-disclosure, became a transference nucleus around which the patient's individual dynamics and adolescent dilemmas could be explored and clarified.
Dharma, Christoffer; Bauer, Greta R
Public health research on inequalities in Canada depends heavily on population data sets such as the Canadian Community Health Survey. While sexual orientation has three dimensions - identity, behaviour and attraction - Statistics Canada and public health agencies assess sexual orientation with a single questionnaire item on identity, defined behaviourally. This study aims to evaluate this item, to allow for clearer interpretation of sexual orientation frequencies and inequalities. Through an online convenience sampling of Canadians ≥14 years of age, participants (n = 311) completed the Statistics Canada question and a second set of sexual orientation questions. The single-item question had an 85.8% sensitivity in capturing sexual minorities, broadly defined by their sexual identity, lifetime behaviour and attraction. Kappa statistic for agreement between the single item and sexual identity was 0.89; with past year, lifetime behaviour and attraction were 0.39, 0.48 and 0.57 respectively. The item captured 99.3% of those with a sexual minority identity, 84.2% of those with any lifetime same-sex partners, 98.4% with a past-year same-sex partner, and 97.8% who indicated at least equal attraction to same-sex persons. Findings from Statistics Canada surveys can be best interpreted as applying to those who identify as sexual minorities. Analyses using this measure will underidentify those with same-sex partners or attractions who do not identify as a sexual minority, and should be interpreted accordingly. To understand patterns of sexual minority health in Canada, there is a need to incorporate other dimensions of sexual orientation.
Vigil, Jacob M; Rowell, Lauren N; Lutz, Charlotte
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of literature investigating sex differences with regard to pain, surprisingly little research has been conducted on the influence of various aspects of self-identity, including gender expression and sexual orientation, on pain sensitivity within each sex, particularly among women. In men, dispositional femininity is linked to greater clinical pain and trait masculinity is associated with higher pain thresholds.OBJECTIVES: To examine whether gender expression...
Luk, Jeremy W; Gilman, Stephen E; Haynie, Denise L; Simons-Morton, Bruce G
Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent depressive symptoms are well established, but reasons for these disparities are less well understood. We modeled sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into young adulthood and evaluated family satisfaction, peer support, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs as potential mediators. Data were from waves 2 to 6 of the NEXT Generation Health Study ( n = 2396), a population-based cohort of US adolescents. We used latent growth models to examine sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms in participants aged 17 to 21 years, conduct mediation analyses, and examine sex differences. Relative to heterosexual adolescents, sexual minority adolescents (those who are attracted to the same or both sexes or are questioning; 6.3% of the weighted sample) consistently reported higher depressive symptoms from 11th grade to 3 years after high school. Mediation analyses indicated that sexual minority adolescents reported lower family satisfaction, greater cyberbullying victimization, and increased likelihood of unmet medical needs, all of which were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization was more pronounced among male than female participants. Sexual minority adolescents reported higher depressive symptoms than heterosexual adolescents from late adolescence into young adulthood. Collectively, low family satisfaction, cyberbullying victimization, and unmet medical needs accounted for >45% of differences by sexual orientation. Future clinical research is needed to determine if interventions targeting these psychosocial and health care-related factors would reduce sexual orientation disparities in depressive symptoms and the optimal timing of such interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen M
Depression is a global concern and it is well known that certain segments of the population are at greater risk. Sexual minorities are recognized as being more likely to suffer from depression due to social stigma and prejudice. The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in the Canadian population. The study used the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health data. The sample comprised 24,788 Canadians living in the ten provinces. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of depression and sexual orientation. After adjusting for known risk factors for depression, there was no difference in prevalence of past 12-month or lifetime major depressive episode between sexual minorities and heterosexuals. Bisexuals did have a near significant trend towards higher prevalence of both past 12-month and lifetime depression as a combined group, but there were not clear differences when stratified by sex. This study supports important emerging trends in the relationship between sexual orientation and depression. Research on the mental health of sexual minority people must take into account differences between sexual minority groups and avoid aggregating mental health disorders into broad categories. These findings have implications for public health planning and clinical recommendations.
Sandfort, Theo G M
In this essay, I explore empirical research about the relationship between sexual orientation and gender. Both concepts have multiple meanings, which hinder an unequivocal understanding of the relationship between the two concepts. One of the first studies assumed to establish a relationship between male homosexuality and femininity was conducted by L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles (1936). The study actually gives a much more complicated picture of the relationship. Terman and Miles actually found two groups of homosexual men with, respectively, extremely high masculinity and extremely high femininity scores. Subsequently, various other studies examined the relationship between sexual orientation and gender, introducing the concept of androgyNY. While these studies were executed, major changes took place in the homosexual world, which have been characterized as the masculinization of culture. It is unclear how these changes relate to the masculine and feminine properties of the men involved. Various suggestions are made for further research on the relation between gender and sexual orientation.
Agénor, Madina; Muzny, Christina A; Schick, Vanessa; Austin, Erika L; Potter, Jennifer
Although sexual minority women are at risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical cancer, few nationally representative studies have assessed sexual orientation disparities in sexual health care among women. Using data from the 2011-2013 and 2013-2015 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth, which provide a national probability sample of U.S. women aged 15-44years (N=11,300), we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the associations between sexual behavior and sexual identity (modeled separately) and STI testing in the past year, Pap test use in the last 3years, lifetime HIV testing, and lifetime human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Women with male and female lifetime sexual partners had higher adjusted odds of being tested for STIs ([odds ratio:] 1.61; [95% confidence interval:] 1.37-1.89), HIV (1.66; 1.29-2.14), and HPV (1.79; 1.41-2.25) and similar adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test (0.98; 0.76-1.27) than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Self-identified bisexual women had higher adjusted odds of obtaining an STI (1.43; 1.10-1.86) and HIV (1.69; 1.24-2.30) test but lower adjusted odds of obtaining a Pap test in the last 3years (0.66; 0.47-0.93) than heterosexual-identified women. Women with only female lifetime sexual partners had lower adjusted odds of receiving an STI (0.14; 0.07-0.28) and Pap (0.10; 0.03-0.27) test than women with only male lifetime sexual partners. Results comparing self-identified lesbian and heterosexual women were similar. Health care facilities should monitor and address sexual orientation disparities in women's sexual health care and ensure the provision of high-quality sexual health services to all women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lehavot, Keren; Williams, Emily C; Millard, Steven P; Bradley, Katharine A; Simpson, Tracy L
Sexual minority women report greater alcohol misuse than heterosexual women in the general population, with more pronounced differences found among younger age groups. It is unknown whether these differences exist among women veterans. We evaluated differences in alcohol misuse across two dimensions of sexual orientation (identity and behavior) among women veterans, and examined whether these differences were modified by age. Women veterans were recruited via the internet to participate in an online survey. Participants provided information on their self-reported sexual identity and behavior and responded to the validated 3-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption questionnaire (AUDIT-C). Regression models were used to compare the prevalence of alcohol misuse (AUDIT-C ≥ 3) and severity (AUDIT-C scores) across sexual identity and behavior and to test effect modification by age. Among the 702 participants (36% lesbian/bisexual), prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse varied by both sexual identity and behavior, but there were significant interactions with age. Prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were higher among relatively younger self-identified lesbians compared to heterosexual women. Similarly, both prevalence and severity of alcohol misuse were generally higher among younger women who had any sex with women compared to those who had sex only with men. In this online study of women veterans, younger sexual minority women were more likely to screen positive for alcohol misuse, and they had more severe alcohol misuse, than their heterosexual counterparts. Prevention and treatment efforts focused specifically on sexual minority women veterans may be needed.
Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...
Petterson, Lanna J.; Dixson, Barnaby J.; Little, Anthony C.; Vasey, Paul L.
Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency) measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex) who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine) compared to: (1) Samoan cisge...
Moshtagh, Mozhgan; Mirlashari, Jila; Rafiey, Hassan; Azin, Ali; Farnam, Robert
This qualitative study was conducted to explore the images of personal identity from the perspective of women with sexual addiction. The data required for the study were collected through 31 in-depth interviews. Sensing a threat to personal identity, dissatisfaction with gender identity, dissociation with the continuum of identity, and identity reconstruction in response to threat were four of the experiences that were common among women with sexual addiction. Painful emotional experiences appear to have created a sense of gender and sexual conflict or weakness in these women and thus threatened their personal identity and led to their sexual addiction.
Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M
To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greenberg, A S; Bailey, J M
As we learn more about the causes of sexual orientation, the likelihood increases that parents will one day be able to select the orientation of their children. This possibility (at least that of selecting for heterosexuality) has generated a great deal of concern among supporters of homosexual rights, with such selection being widely condemned as harmful and morally repugnant. Notwithstanding this widespread condemnation, and even assuming, as we do, that homosexuality is entirely acceptable morally, allowing parents, by means morally unproblematic in themselves, to select for heterosexuality would be morally acceptable. This is because allowing parents to select their children's sexual orientation would further parent's freedom to raise the sort of children they wish to raise and because selection for heterosexuality may benefit parents and children and is unlikely to cause significant harm.
Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.
Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong
We examined the relationship between handedness, fraternal birth order, and sexual orientation in a Chinese population, and analyzed the influence of the components assessing sexual orientation and criteria classifying individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A large sample of heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual men and women participated in a web-based survey. Our results showed that homosexual women are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual women, regardless of how sexual orientation was defined, whereas bisexual women are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual women when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction and sexual identity. Bisexual men are more likely to be non-right-handed than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. We found neither a fraternal birth-order effect nor an interaction between sibling sex ratio, handedness, and sexual orientation. The small number of siblings may be the reason why we could not replicate the fraternal birth-order effect in this Chinese population, which highlights the importance of cultural differences in the understanding of handedness, fraternal birth order, and sexual orientation.
Bettcher, Talia Mae
In this article, Bettcher argues that sexual attraction must be reconceptualized in light of transgender experience. In particular, Bettcher defends the theory of "erotic structuralism," which replaces an exclusively other-directed account of gendered attraction with one that includes a gendered eroticization of self as an essential component. This erotic experience of self is necessary for other-directed gendered desire, where the two are bound together and mutually informing. One consequence of the theory is that the controversial notion of "autogynephilia" is rejected. Another consequence is that the distinction between gender identity and sexual orientation is softened.
Kosciw, Joseph G; Palmer, Neal A; Kull, Ryan M
For lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth, coming out (i.e., disclosure of LGBT identity to others) can be a key developmental milestone, one that is associated with better psychological well-being. However, this greater visibility may come with increased risk of peer victimization. Being out, therefore, may reflect resilience and may unfold differently depending on ecological context as some spaces may be more or less supportive of LGBT youth than others. This article explores a model of risk and resilience for outness among LGBT youth, including whether it varies by community context. We tested our hypothesized model with a national dataset of 7,816 LGBT secondary school students using multi-group structural equation modeling. Consistent with our hypotheses, outness was related to higher victimization but also to higher self-esteem and lower depression. Greater victimization was related to negative academic outcomes directly and indirectly via diminished well-being. The increases in victimization associated with outness were larger for rural youth, and benefits to well-being partly compensated for their lower well-being overall. This article suggests that being out reflects resilience in the face of higher risk of victimization, in addition to promoting well-being in other ways. Nonetheless, contextual factors influence how this model operates among LGBT youth.
Keith W. Beard
Full Text Available Anonymous retrospective data were provided by 3,443 adult participants via computer-assisted self-interview. This was the first study focused on determinants of adult sexual orientation to adjust for the effects of same-sex sibling incest. Five measures of adult sexual orientations (ASOs provided evidence consistent with the theory that ASOs result from early sex-specific romantic attachment, conditioning caused by early sexual experiences with partners, and other experiences, such as early masturbation using human images, acting synergistically with critical period learning, and sexual imprinting. Early same-sex crushes were the most powerful predictor of ASOs, and they also increased the likelihood of engaging in early same-sex partnered and masturbation behaviors. Incestuous experiences with same-sex siblings affected the ASOs of the incest participants. And, lesbian, gay, and bisexual participants tended to have an earlier onset of puberty than heterosexual controls within sexes. However, statistical analyses showed that the incest and puberty effects were mathematically explained by the participant’s early sexual experiences with partners and other experiences such as masturbation using human images. Early same-sex crushes were predicted by nuclear family variables implying that same-sex crushes were more likely when the opposite-sex parent modeled an unsatisfactory heterosexual romantic partner.
Fernando Luiz Cardoso
Full Text Available This article discusses some theoretical contributions in the field of sexual orientation, as well as, important concepts and their articulation with on of sexual orientation extremes – the homosexuality. I avoided taking the comfortable posture politically correct when trying to discuss these categories of the sexuality based only on data and evidences, and not only on concepts and unnoticeable fallacious. The purpose of this discussion is to reorganize in Portuguese some theories in order to clarify this subject to guide future researches inside of kinesis science with more explanatory stamp that is going to influence the political perception of bodyness.
Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexu...
Narvaez, Rafael F; Meyer, Ilan H; Kertzner, Robert M; Ouellette, Suzanne C; Gordon, Allegra R
In this paper we report on a new qualitative instrument designed to study the intersection of identities related to sexuality and race/ethnicity, and how people who hold those identities interact with social contexts. Researchers often resort to using separate measures to assess race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, and other target identities. But this approach can miss elements of a self-system that stem from the intersection of identities, the interactions between identities and social contexts, related shifts in identity over time, and related changes in the prominence and valence of identities. Using a small sub-sample, we demonstrate how our instrument can help researchers overcome these limitations. Our instrument was also designed for economy in administration and analysis, so that it could be used as a qualitative complement in large survey research.
Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong
We examined the relationship between 2D:4D digit ratio and sexual orientation in men from China and analyzed the influences of the components used to assess sexual orientation and the criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual on this relationship. A total of 309 male and 110 female participants took part in a web-based survey. Our results showed that heterosexual men had a significantly lower 2D:4D than heterosexual women and exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher left 2D:4D than heterosexual men whereas only exclusively homosexual men had a significantly higher right 2D:4D than heterosexual men when sexual orientation was assessed via sexual attraction. The left 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, and the right 2D:4D showed a significant positive correlation with sexual attraction. The effect sizes for differences in 2D:4D between homosexual and heterosexual men varied according to criteria used to classify individuals as homosexual and sexual orientation components; the more stringent the criteria (scores closer to the homosexual category), the larger the effect sizes; further, sexual attraction yielded the largest effect size. There were no significant effects of age and latitude on Chinese 2D:4D. This study contributes to the current understanding of the relationship between 2D:4D and male sexual orientation.
This research examines the possible discrimination faced by gay men compared to heterosexuals when applying for jobs in the Greek private sector. This issue was addressed through the observation of employer hiring decisions. Mailing pairs of curriculum vitae, distinguished only by the sexual orientation of the applicants, led to the observation that gay men faced a significantly lower chance of receiving an invitation for an interview. However, in cases where employers called applicants back,...
Studies from countries with laws against discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation suggest that gay and lesbian employees report more incidents of harassment and are more likely to report experiencing unfair treatment in the labor market than are heterosexual employees. Gay men are found to earn less than comparably skilled and experienced heterosexual men. For lesbians, the patterns are ambiguous: in some countries they have been found to earn less than their heterosexual counterpart...
Chae, David H; Ayala, George
Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States.
Full Text Available Many studies explore when and how young people make sexual choices but few empirical investigations link their sexual motivations with their inner conceptions about their sexual identities. We used multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis to connect young adult participants’ (N = 128 self-descriptions of twelve identities to their sexual motivations and ideals. Identities clustered along two semantically distinct dimensions: Dimension 1 was anchored by family identities on one side and non-family identities on the other; Dimension 2 was anchored on one side by friend/romantic relationships and achievement-based social identities on the other. Those who cited intimacy (e.g., sex as an expression of love and enhancement (e.g., gratification; to feel good sexual motivations were more likely to describe their sexual identities and gender identities as distinct from other identities, especially for women. Idealizing physically passionate relationships was positively linked to a higher distinction between sexual and non-sexual identities, and between gender and personal identities and family identities. The mental structuring of identities may inform sexual relationship motives, ideals, and expectations.
Talley, Amelia E.; Aranda, Frances; Hughes, Tonda L.; Everett, Bethany; Johnson, Timothy P.
We examined differences between sexual minority women’s (SMW’s) sexual identity and sexual behavior or sexual attraction as potential contributors to hazardous drinking across a 10-year period. Data are from a longitudinal study examining drinking and drinking-related problems in a diverse, community-based sample of self-identified SMW (Wave 1: n = 447; Wave 2: n = 384; Wave 3: n = 354). Longitudinal cross-lagged models showed that SMW who report higher levels of identity-behavior or identity-attraction discordance may be at greater risk of concurrent and subsequent hazardous drinking. Results of multigroup models suggest that sexual orientation discordance is a more potent risk factor for risky drinking outcomes among SMW in older adulthood than in younger adulthood. Findings support that discordance between sexual orientation dimensions may contribute to hazardous drinking among SMW and provide evidence that cognitive-behavioral consistency is important for individuals expressing diverse and fluid sexual identities, attraction, and behavior. PMID:25911224
Wahlert, Lance; Fiester, Autumn
The clinic is a loaded space for LGBTQI persons. Historically a site of pathology and culturally a site of stigma, the contemporary clinic for queer patient populations and their loved ones is an ethically fraught space. This paper, which introduces the featured articles of this special issue of the Journal of Bioethical Inquiry on "Bioethics, Sexuality, and Gender Identity," begins by offering an analysis of scrutiny itself. How do we scrutinize? When is it apt for us to scrutinize? And what are the benefits and perils of clinical and bioethical scrutiny? Bearing in mind these questions, the second half of this paper introduces the feature articles in this special issue in response to such forms of scrutiny. How, why, when, and in what ways to sensitively scrutinize LGBTQI persons in the clinic are the aims of this piece.
Galupo, M Paz; Lomash, Edward; Mitchell, Renae C
Previous qualitative research on traditional measures of sexual orientation raise concerns regarding how well these scales capture sexual minority individuals' experience of sexuality. The present research focused on the critique of two novel scales developed to better capture the way sexual and gender minority individuals conceptualize sexuality. Participants were 179 sexual minority (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, pansexual, queer, asexual) individuals who identified as cisgender (n = 122) and transgender (n = 57). Participants first completed the new scales, then provided qualitative responses regarding how well each scale captured their sexuality. The Sexual-Romantic Scale enabled the measurement of sexual and romantic attraction to each sex independently (same-sex and other-sex). Participants resonated with the way the Sexual-Romantic scale disaggregated sexual and romantic attraction. Although cisgender monosexual (lesbian/gay) individuals positively responded to the separation of same- and other-sex attraction, individuals with either plurisexual (bisexual, pansexual, or fluid) or transgender identities found the binary conceptualization of sex/gender problematic. The Gender-Inclusive Scale incorporated same- and other-sex attraction as well as dimensions of attraction beyond those based on sex (attraction to masculine, feminine, androgynous, and gender non-conforming individuals). The incorporation of dimensions of sexual attraction outside of sex in the Gender-Inclusive Scale was positively regarded by participants of all identities. Findings indicate that the Sexual-Romantic and Gender-Inclusive scales appear to address some of the concerns raised in previous research regarding the measurement of sexual orientation among sexual minority individuals.
Auer, Matthias K; Fuss, Johannes; Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K; Sievers, Caroline
Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM") patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. In total, 32.9% (n = 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10) FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05). In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.
Richters, Juliet; Altman, Dennis; Badcock, Paul B; Smith, Anthony M A; de Visser, Richard O; Grulich, Andrew E; Rissel, Chris; Simpson, Judy M
Background Behavioural and other aspects of sexuality are not always consistent. This study describes the prevalence and overlap of same-sex and other-sex attraction and experience and of different sexual identities in Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were completed by a representative sample of 20094 men and women aged 16-69 years recruited by landline and mobile phone random-digit dialling with a response rate (participation rate among eligible people) of 66.2%. Respondents were asked about their sexual identity ('Do you think of yourself as' heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, bisexual, etc.) and the sex of people with whom they had ever had sexual contact and to whom they had felt sexually attracted. Men and women had different patterns of sexual identity. Although the majority of people identified as heterosexual (97% men, 96% women), women were more likely than men to identify as bisexual. Women were less likely than men to report exclusively other-sex or same-sex attraction and experience; 9% of men and 19% of women had some history of same-sex attraction and/or experience. Sexual attraction and experience did not necessarily correspond. Homosexual/gay identity was more common among men with tertiary education and living in cities and less common among men with blue-collar jobs. Many gay men (53%) and lesbians (76%) had some experience with an other-sex partner. More women identified as lesbian or bisexual than in 2001-02. Similarly, more women reported same-sex experience and same-sex attraction. In Australia, men are more likely than women to report exclusive same-sex attraction and experience, although women are more likely than men to report any non-heterosexual identity, experience and attraction. Whether this is a feature of the plasticity of female sexuality or due to lesser stigma than for men is unknown.
Murrell, Audrey J.; Dietz-Uhler, Beth L.
Examines impact of gender identity and adversarial sexual beliefs as predictors of attitudes toward sexual harassment for 52 female and 55 male college students. Adversarial beliefs and experience with sexual harassment predict less tolerant attitudes toward harassment for males, whereas strong gender group identity and experience with harassment…
... An Overview of 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation About NISVS NISVS is an ongoing, nationally representative ... Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation is the first of its kind to present ...
Rahman, Qazi; Bhanot, Suraj; Emrith-Small, Hanna; Ghafoor, Shilan; Roberts, Steven
The present study explored whether there were relationships among gender nonconformity, intelligence, and sexual orientation. A total of 106 heterosexual men, 115 heterosexual women, and 103 gay men completed measures of demographic variables, recalled childhood gender nonconformity (CGN), and the National Adult Reading Test (NART). NART error scores were used to estimate Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and Verbal IQ (VIQ) scores. Gay men had significantly fewer NART errors than heterosexual men and women (controlling for years of education). In heterosexual men, correlational analysis revealed significant associations between CGN, NART, and FSIQ scores (elevated boyhood femininity correlated with higher IQ scores). In heterosexual women, the direction of the correlations between CGN and all IQ scores was reversed (elevated girlhood femininity correlating with lower IQ scores). There were no significant correlations among these variables in gay men. These data may indicate a "sexuality-specific" effect on general cognitive ability but with limitations. They also support growing evidence that quantitative measures of sex-atypicality are useful in the study of trait sexual orientation.
Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan
The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.
Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L
We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.
Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.
BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167
Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J; Pruessner, Jens C
Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their "coming out"). Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published
Saewyc, E M; Bearinger, L H; Blum, R W; Resnick, M D
Although a limited amount of research has retrospectively explored the childhood and adolescent heterosexual experiences of lesbians, little is known about the prevalence of heterosexual behavior and related risk factors or about pregnancy histories among lesbian and bisexual teenagers. A secondary analysis was conducted using responses from a subsample of 3,816 students who completed the 1987 Minnesota Adolescent Health Survey. Behaviors, risk factors and pregnancy histories were compared among adolescents who identified themselves as lesbian or bisexual, as unsure of their sexual orientation and as heterosexual. Overall, bisexual or lesbian respondents were about as likely as heterosexual women ever to have had intercourse (33% and 29%, respectively), but they had a significantly higher prevalence of pregnancy (12%) and physical or sexual abuse (19-22%) than heterosexual or unsure adolescents. Among sexually experienced respondents, bisexual or lesbian and heterosexual women reported greater use of ineffective contraceptives (12-15% of those who used a method) than unsure adolescents (9%); bisexual or lesbian respondents were the most likely to have frequent intercourse (22%, compared with 15-17% of the other groups). In the sample overall, among those who were sexually experienced and among those who had ever been pregnant, bisexual or lesbian women were the most likely to have engaged in prostitution during the previous year. Providers of reproductive health care and family planning services should not assume that pregnant teenagers are heterosexual or that adolescents who say they are bisexual, lesbian or unsure of their sexual orientation are not in need of family planning counseling. Further research should explore the interactions between adolescent sexual identity development and sexual risk behaviors.
Tomori, Cecilia; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Ridgeway, Kathleen; Solomon, Sunil S; Mehta, Shruti H; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D
Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk for HIV infection. Culturally specific sexual identities, encompassing sexual roles, behavior, and appearance, may shape MSM's experiences of stigmatization and discrimination, and affect their vulnerability to HIV. This multi-site qualitative study (n = 363) encompassing 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) across 15 sites in India investigated sexual identity formation, identity practices, and transitions and their implications for HIV prevention. IDIs and FGDs were transcribed, translated, and underwent thematic analysis. Our findings document heterogeneous sexual identity formation, with MSM who have more gender nonconforming behaviors or appearance reporting greater family- and community-level disapproval, harassment, violence, and exclusion. Concealing feminine aspects of sexual identities was important in daily life, especially for married MSM. Some participants negotiated their identity practices in accordance with socioeconomic and cultural pressures, including taking on identity characteristics to suit consumer demand in sex work and on extended periods of joining communities of hijras (sometimes called TG or transgender women). Participants also reported that some MSM transition toward more feminine and hijra or transgender women identities, motivated by intersecting desires for feminine gender expression and by social exclusion and economic marginalization. Future studies should collect information on gender nonconformity stigma, and any changes in sexual identity practices or plans for transitions to other identities over time, in relation to HIV risk behaviors and outcomes.
Gert Martin Hald, PhD
Hald GM, Stulhofer A, Lange T, et al. Sexual Arousal and Sexually Explicit Media (SEM: Comparing Patterns of Sexual Arousal to SEM and Sexual Self-Evaluations and Satisfaction Across Gender and Sexual Orientation. Sex Med 2018;6:30–38.
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342
Full Text Available Empirical research had initially shown that English listeners are able to identify the speakers' sexual orientation based on voice cues alone. However, the accuracy of this voice-based categorization, as well as its generalizability to other languages (language-dependency and to non-native speakers (language-specificity, has been questioned recently. Consequently, we address these open issues in 5 experiments: First, we tested whether Italian and German listeners are able to correctly identify sexual orientation of same-language male speakers. Then, participants of both nationalities listened to voice samples and rated the sexual orientation of both Italian and German male speakers. We found that listeners were unable to identify the speakers' sexual orientation correctly. However, speakers were consistently categorized as either heterosexual or gay on the basis of how they sounded. Moreover, a similar pattern of results emerged when listeners judged the sexual orientation of speakers of their own and of the foreign language. Overall, this research suggests that voice-based categorization of sexual orientation reflects the listeners' expectations of how gay voices sound rather than being an accurate detector of the speakers' actual sexual identity. Results are discussed with regard to accuracy, acoustic features of voices, language dependency and language specificity.
Kelly, Theresa C.; Erickson, Chris D.
The relationship between gender role identity, sexual self-esteem and sexual coercion was examined through a questionnaire. Participants were 84 undergraduate students from a university in Washington, DC. Contrary to what has been found in the literature, there were weak relationships between sexual coercion and masculinity, and sexual coercion…
Manzouri, Amirhossein; Savic, Ivanka
The neurobiology of sexual orientation is frequently discussed in terms of cerebral sex dimorphism (defining both functional and structural sex differences). Yet, the information about possible cerebral differences between sex-matched homo and heterosexual persons is limited, particularly among women. In this multimodal MRI study, we addressed these issues by investigating possible cerebral differences between homo and heterosexual persons, and by asking whether there is any sex difference in this aspect. Measurements of cortical thickness (Cth), subcortical volumes, and functional and structural resting-state connections among 40 heterosexual males (HeM) and 40 heterosexual females (HeF) were compared with those of 30 homosexual males (HoM) and 30 homosexual females (HoF). Congruent with previous reports, sex differences were detected in heterosexual controls with regard to fractional anisotropy (FA), Cth, and several subcortical volumes. Homosexual groups did not display any sex differences in FA values. Furthermore, their functional connectivity was significantly less pronounced in the mesial prefrontal and precuneus regions. In these two particular regions, HoM also displayed thicker cerebral cortex than other groups, whereas HoF did not differ from HeF. In addition, in HoM the parietal Cth showed "sex-reversed" values, not observed in HoF. Homosexual orientation seems associated with a less pronounced sexual differentiation of white matter tracts and a less pronounced functional connectivity of the self-referential networks compared to heterosexual orientation. Analyses of Cth suggest that male and female homosexuality are not simple analogues of each other and that differences from heterosexual controls are more pronounced in HoM. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Boyd, Carol J.; Hughes, Tonda L.; McCabe, Sean Esteban
Objectives. We used data from a nationally representative sample to examine the associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior), lifetime and past-year mood and anxiety disorders, and sex. Methods. We analyzed data from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results. Mental health outcomes differed by sex, dimension of sexual orientation, and sexual minority group. Whereas a lesbian, gay, or bisexual identity was associated with higher odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both men and women, women reporting only same-sex sexual partners in their lifetime had the lowest rates of most disorders. Higher odds of any lifetime mood or anxiety disorder were more consistent and pronounced among sexual minority men than among sexual minority women. Finally, bisexual behavior conferred the highest odds of any mood or anxiety disorder for both males and females. Conclusions. Findings point to mental health disparities among some, but not all, sexual minority groups and emphasize the importance of including multiple measures of sexual orientation in population-based health studies. PMID:19696380
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Havlíček, Jan
Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions. PMID:24358180
Jaroslava Varella Valentova
Full Text Available Previous research has shown that lay people can accurately assess male sexual orientation based on limited information, such as face, voice, or behavioral display. Gender-atypical traits are thought to serve as cues to sexual orientation. We investigated the presumed mechanisms of sexual orientation attribution using a standardized set of facial and vocal stimuli of Czech men. Both types of stimuli were rated for sexual orientation and masculinity-femininity by non-student heterosexual women and homosexual men. Our data showed that by evaluating vocal stimuli both women and homosexual men can judge sexual orientation of the target men in agreement with their self-reported sexual orientation. Nevertheless, only homosexual men accurately attributed sexual orientation of the two groups from facial images. Interestingly, facial images of homosexual targets were rated as more masculine than heterosexual targets. This indicates that attributions of sexual orientation are affected by stereotyped association between femininity and male homosexuality; however, reliance on such cues can lead to frequent misjudgments as was the case with the female raters. Although our study is based on a community sample recruited in a non-English speaking country, the results are generally consistent with the previous research and thus corroborate the validity of sexual orientation attributions.
Kim, Ji-Su; Kim, Kyunghee; Kwak, Yeunhee
Adolescents in sexual minority groups are known to be at risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases through risky sexual behavior. However, few studies have examined associations between sexual orientation and risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in Korean adolescents. Therefore, this cross-sectional study used raw data from the Tenth Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey to explore these relationships. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations between risky sexual behavior and sexual orientation in adolescents. The participants were 6,884 adolescents who provided data regarding demographic characteristics, sexual orientation, and risky sexual behavior. The proportions of homosexual and bisexual subjects who used condoms, engaged in sexual intercourse after drinking alcohol, and experienced sexually transmitted diseases were higher relative to those of heterosexual subjects. Associations between homosexuality and bisexuality and sexually transmitted diseases and engagement in sexual intercourse after drinking remained after multivariate adjustment. Interventions to prevent risky sexual behavior should target sexual orientation, to improve sexual health and prevent sexually transmitted disease in homosexual and bisexual adolescents.
Marschark, Marc; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper
The notion of the Deaf community as a linguistic-cultural minority has been increasingly recognized and studied over the last two decades. However, significant differences of opinion and perspective within that population typically have been neglected in the literature. Social dominance orientation (SDO), a theoretical construct, typically…
Steensma, Thomas D; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T
Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the prospective studies consisted of clinically referred children. In understanding the extent to which the association applies for the general population, prospective studies using random samples are needed. This prospective study examined the association between childhood gender variance, and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood in the general population. In 1983, we measured childhood gender variance, in 406 boys and 473 girls. In 2007, sexual orientation and gender discomfort were assessed. Childhood gender variance was measured with two items from the Child Behavior Checklist/4-18. Sexual orientation was measured for four parameters of sexual orientation (attraction, fantasy, behavior, and identity). Gender discomfort was assessed by four questions (unhappiness and/or uncertainty about one's gender, wish or desire to be of the other gender, and consideration of living in the role of the other gender). For both men and women, the presence of childhood gender variance was associated with homosexuality for all four parameters of sexual orientation, but not with bisexuality. The report of adulthood homosexuality was 8 to 15 times higher for participants with a history of gender variance (10.2% to 12.2%), compared to participants without a history of gender variance (1.2% to 1.7%). The presence of childhood gender variance was not significantly associated with gender discomfort in adulthood. This study clearly showed a significant association between childhood gender variance and a homosexual sexual orientation in adulthood in the general population. In contrast to the findings in clinically referred gender-variant children, the presence of a homosexual sexual orientation in
English in schools is a productive curriculum space for young people to learn about sexuality, to develop a sense of their identity as sexual beings, and to understand the importance of equality and social justice. Drawing on John Dixon's theory of "personal growth," the author (a British educator) explains how teachers' attitudes about learning…
Carroll, Lynne; Gauler, Andy A.; Relph, Jason; Hutchinson, Kimberly S.
The present investigation explores the impact of counselor self-disclosure of sexual orientation on self-identified heterosexuals. Two hundred and thirty-eight psychology undergraduate students read a short description of a counselor and one of eight versions of a counseling transcript. Transcripts were identical with the exception of the gender…
Meier, S Colton; Pardo, Seth T; Labuski, Christine; Babcock, Julia
The present study examined the sexual orientation classification system that was used in the DSM-IV-TR for categorizing those who met the Gender Identity Disorder diagnostic criteria in order to determine the extent to which female-to-male transgender persons (FTMs) differ on psychological variables as a function of sexual orientation. Participants were 605 self-identified FTMs from 19 different countries (83 % U.S.) who completed an internet survey assessing their sexual orientation, sexual identity, symptoms of depression and anxiety, stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and health related quality of life (SF-36v2 Health Survey). Over half the sample (52 %) reported sexual attractions to both men and women. The most common sexual identity label reported was "queer." Forty percent of FTMs who had begun to transition reported a shift in sexual orientation; this shift was associated with testosterone use. Overall, FTMs ranged from normal to above average on all psychological measures. FTMs did not significantly differ by sexual attraction on any mental health variables, except for anxiety. FTMs attracted to both men and women reported more symptoms of anxiety than those attracted to men only. Results from the present study did not support a sexual orientation classification system in FTMs with regard to psychological well-being.
Everett, Bethany; Talley, Amelia; Hughes, Tonda; Wilsnack, Sharon; Johnson, Timothy P.
Sexual minority identity (bisexual, lesbian) is a known risk factor for depression in women. This study examines a facet of minority stress prevalent among women—sexual identity mobility—as an identity-related contributor to higher levels of depressive symptoms. We used three waves of data from the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women (CHLEW) study, a longitudinal study of sexual minority women (N = 306). Random effects OLS regression models were constructed to examine the effect of sexual-identity changes on depressive symptoms. We found that 25.6% of the sample reported a sexual-identity change between Wave I and Wave II, and 24.91% reported a sexual identity change between Waves II and III. Women who reported a change in sexual identity also reported more depressive symptoms subsequent to identity change. This effect was moderated by the number of years participants’ had reported their baseline identity and by whether the participant had initiated a romantic relationship with a male partner. PMID:27255306
Misener, Terry R.; Sowell, Richard L.; Phillips, Kenneth D.; Harris, Charlotte
Traditional approaches to the development of a culturally aware work force have consistently ignored the importance of gender role and sexual orientation as sources of potential conflict in the workplace. Nursing must end personal and professional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. (JOW)
This article offers an overview of sexual orientation and music education, in particular how sexual orientation--specifically, heterosexuality--has been dominant in the teaching of music in the United States. Scenarios of heterosexual privilege related to music students, music teachers, and instructional content are presented. After acknowledging…
This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…
Bailey, J. Michael; And Others
Examined the sexual orientation of 82 adult sons of 55 gay men. Found that more than 90% of the sons whose sexual orientation could be rated were heterosexual. Gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as length of time they had lived with their fathers. (MDM)
Friedman, M. S. Mark S.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Gold, Melanie A.; Markovic, Nina; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Huggins, James; Sell, Randal L.
Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual…
Oswalt, Sara B; Wyatt, Tammy J
Many studies have examined differences in sexual behavior based on sexual orientation with results often indicating that those with same-sex partners engage in higher risk sexual behavior than people with opposite sex partners. However, few of these studies were large, national sample studies that also include those identifying as unsure. To address that gap, this study examined the relationship of sexual orientation and sexual health outcomes in a national sample of U.S. college students. The Fall 2009 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment was used to examine sexual health related responses from heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and unsure students (N = 25,553). Responses related to sexual behavior, safer sex behaviors, prevention and screening behaviors, and diagnosis of sexual health related conditions were examined. The findings indicated that sexual orientation was significantly associated with engaging in sexual behavior in the last 30 days. Sexual orientation was also significantly associated with the number of sexual partners in the previous 12 months, with unsure men having significantly more partners than gay, bisexual and heterosexual men and heterosexual men having significantly less partners than gay, bisexual and unsure men. Bisexual women had significantly more partners than females reporting other sexual orientations. Results examining the associations between sexual orientation and safer sex, prevention behaviors, and screening behaviors were mixed. Implications for practice, including specific programmatic ideas, were discussed.
Bayne, Hannah Barnhill
This article explores the impact of sexual and religious identity on college student development, examining developmental models and discussing how counselors can assist gay and lesbian students with integrating these 2 personal identities. Treatment approaches are presented, and the article concludes with an examination of ethical and…
Bem, D J
Although biological findings currently dominate the research literature on the determinants of sexual orientation, biological theorizing has not yet spelled out a developmental path by which any of the various biological correlates so far identified might lead to a particular sexual orientation. The Exotic-Becomes-Erotic (EBE) theory of sexual orientation (Bem, 1996) attempts to do just that, by suggesting how biological variables might interact with experiential and sociocultural factors to influence an individual's sexual orientation. Evidence for the theory is reviewed, and a path analysis of data from a large sample of twins is presented which yields preliminary support for the theory's claim that correlations between genetic variables and sexual orientation are mediated by childhood gender nonconformity.
He, Feng-Qin; Zhang, Heng-Rui
Perinatal period and adolescence are critical for brain development, which is the biological basis of an individual's sexual orientation and sexual behavior. In this study, animals were divided into two groups and their sexual orientations were observed: one group experienced drug treatments during the perinatal period, and the other group was castrated at puberty. The results showed that estradiol treatment had no effect on mature male offspring's sexual orientations, but 9 days and 14 days of clomiphene citrate treatment significantly increased the chance of homosexuality and effeminized behavior. In addition, the sexual orientation of mature normal male offspring, which were castrated when they were 21 days old,was not significant different from the control animals. These findings suggest that the inhibition of perinatal estrogen activities could suppress individual male-typical responses, enhance female-typical responses and induce homosexual orientations. Moreover, the masculinizing effects of estrogen were more obvious during perinatal period than adolescence.
Everett, Bethany G; Mollborn, Stefanie
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen's health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexual minorities. The results show that sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual women, but no differences are found between sexual minority and heterosexual men. Moreover, we find a reversal in the gender disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority populations: heterosexual women are less likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual men, whereas sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs compared to sexual minority men. Finally, this work advances Andersen's model by articulating the importance of including social psychological factors for reducing disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation for women.
Everett, Bethany G.; Mollborn, Stefanie
Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 13,810), this study examines disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation identity during young adulthood. We use binary logistic regression and expand Andersen’s health care utilization framework to identify factors that shape disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation. We also investigate whether the well-established gender disparity in health-seeking behaviors among heterosexual persons holds for sexual minorities. The results show that sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual women, but no differences are found between sexual minority and heterosexual men. Moreover, we find a reversal in the gender disparity between heterosexual and sexual minority populations: heterosexual women are less likely to report unmet medical needs than heterosexual men, whereas sexual minority women are more likely to report unmet medical needs compared to sexual minority men. Finally, this work advances Andersen’s model by articulating the importance of including social psychological factors for reducing disparities in unmet medical needs by sexual orientation for women. PMID:25382887
Matthias K Auer
Full Text Available Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known.We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female "MtF" and 45 female-to-male "FtM" patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation.In total, 32.9% (n = 23 MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n = 10 FtM transsexual persons (p = 0.132. Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF and 60% (FtM reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males ( = androphilic, were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p = 0.012. Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p =0.05.In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon.
Parnes, Jamie E; Rahm-Knigge, Ryan L; Conner, Bradley T
Alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana are commonly used by adolescents and linked with harmful health-related outcomes (e.g. injury, dependence). Moreover, heavy episodic (binge) drinking predicts more severe consequences. When examined by sexual orientation, highest rates of substance use have been found among bisexual individuals, with lower use at either end of the spectrum. When examined also by sex, this curvilinear trend is maintained among women but not men. These substance use patterns were identified using group differences (i.e. heterosexual vs. bisexual vs. homosexual). However, evidence suggests that sexual orientation is a continuous, not categorical, variable. This study examined the hypotheses that sexual orientation and commonly used substances (heavy episodic drinking, tobacco, marijuana) would have a quadratic relation among women, but not among men. Six negative binomial regressions tested study hypotheses using data from 7372 participants. Results indicated that sexual orientation had a quadratic relation with heavy episodic drinking, tobacco use, and marijuana use among women, as hypothesized. Additionally, a quadratic relation was found between marijuana use and sexual orientation among men. These findings indicate that women identifying as having mixed sexual orientation are at higher risk than women at either end of the sexual orientation continuum for substance use and related negative outcomes. For men, this is only true for marijuana use and resultant negative consequences. This observed increased use may relate to coping with increased stressors, which has been linked to more problematic use. By better understanding LBG identities and behaviors, clinicians and researchers will be more adept at identifying risk factors and better understanding the nuances across the sexual orientation spectrum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Averett, Paige; Yoon, Intae; Jenkins, Carol L
In response to the very limited and mostly outdated literature on older lesbian sexuality, this exploratory study examined older lesbian sexual identity, romantic relationships, the impact of aging, and experiences of discrimination within these contexts. Utilizing an online survey that recruited via numerous online lesbian communities and snowball sampling, 456 lesbians over the age of 50 responded to closed, Likert scale, and open-ended questions that provided a preliminary understanding of older lesbian sexuality. The results indicated that older lesbians have experienced fluidity in past romantic and sexual relationships, as well as in erotic fantasies, despite strong identification with being lesbian. The findings also indicate a decreased focus on sexuality in the context of relationships, with more focus on stability and continuity. Future research is needed that provides greater specificity and detail about older lesbian conceptions of sexual behavior and sexual identity labels, as well as specific sexual behaviors.
... a national level focusing on these types of interpersonal violence based on the sexual orientation of U.S. ... field, additional efforts could be made to enhance training for domestic violence and sexual assault service providers. ...
Petterson, Lanna J; Dixson, Barnaby J; Little, Anthony C; Vasey, Paul L
Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency) measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex) who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine) compared to: (1) Samoan cisgender men who only engage in sexual interactions with women, and (2) fa'afafine. As expected, both measures indicated that cisgender men who only engaged in sexual interactions with women exhibited a gynephilic pattern of sexual attraction, whereas fa'afafine exhibited an androphilic one. In contrast, both measures indicated that cisgender men who engaged in sexual interactions with fa'afafine demonstrated a bisexual pattern of sexual attraction. Most of the cisgender men who exhibited bisexual viewing times did not engage in sexual activity with both men and women indicating that the manner in which bisexual patterns of sexual attraction manifest behaviorally vary from one culture to the next.
Lanna J Petterson
Full Text Available Androphilia refers to attraction to adult males, whereas gynephilia refers to attraction to adult females. The current study employed self-report and viewing time (response time latency measures of sexual attraction to determine the sexual orientation of Samoan cisgender men (i.e., males whose gender presentation and identity is concordant with their biological sex who engage in sexual interactions with transgender male androphiles (known locally as fa'afafine compared to: (1 Samoan cisgender men who only engage in sexual interactions with women, and (2 fa'afafine. As expected, both measures indicated that cisgender men who only engaged in sexual interactions with women exhibited a gynephilic pattern of sexual attraction, whereas fa'afafine exhibited an androphilic one. In contrast, both measures indicated that cisgender men who engaged in sexual interactions with fa'afafine demonstrated a bisexual pattern of sexual attraction. Most of the cisgender men who exhibited bisexual viewing times did not engage in sexual activity with both men and women indicating that the manner in which bisexual patterns of sexual attraction manifest behaviorally vary from one culture to the next.
Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.
Full Text Available We examined associations among 3 dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior and sleep disturbance among young adults in the United States. Using Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (respondents aged 24–32, N=14,334, we ran multivariate logistic regressions to estimate the probability of reporting trouble falling asleep, trouble staying asleep, and short sleep duration, based on specific sexual orientation categories.Results after controlling for mental health indicate that these categories are more likely to have trouble falling asleep: women who identify as “bisexual” (OR=1.85, CI: 1.21,2.82, women attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.31, CI: 1.00,1.72, women who have had “mostly opposite sex” partners (OR=1.40, CI: 1.10,1.77, and men who have had “mostly same sex” partners (OR=2.28, CI: 1.21,4.31. For trouble staying asleep: women who identify as “bisexual” (OR=1.48, CI: 1.01,2.18, men and women attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.81, CI: 1.12,2.91; OR=1.27, CI: 1.00,1.60, and women who have had “mostly opposite sex partners” (OR=1.38, CI: 1.13,1.69. For short sleep duration: women who identify as “mostly straight” or “mostly gay” (OR=1.27, CI: 1.01,1.60; OR=2.64, CI: 1.36,5.14, men who identify as “bisexual” (OR=2.56, CI: 1.26,5.18, women attracted only to “same sex” (OR=2.42, CI: 1.48,3.96, men attracted to “both sexes” (OR=1.88, CI: 1.21,2.93, and women who have had “mostly same sex” partners (OR=4.90, CI: 2.10,11.46. Given the variation in findings, it is necessary to analyze each sexual orientation dimension and the categories within each dimension to adequately understand sleep disturbances among sexual minority populations.
Coble, Chanelle A; Silver, Ellen J; Chhabra, Rosy
Examination of the association of sexual orientation to the sexual practices and health behaviors of high school girls in New York City (NYC). Data were drawn from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System survey of public high school students in grades 9-12 in NYC. None. Independent variables included sexual orientation and gender of sexual partners. Dependent variables include sexual/health risk behaviors. We used t tests to compare mean ages and χ 2 tests to compare distributions according to sexual orientation, gender of sexual partners, and differences in risk behaviors. The survey was completed by 4643 girls; mean age, 15.5 years; (1103 + 1842)/4254 (69%) black or Latina; 1101/4000 (27.5%) sexually active; 3574/4412 (81%) heterosexual; and (92 + 526)/4412 (14%) sexual minorities; 24.1% were heterosexual, 52.1% lesbian, and 49.4% were bisexual girls and were sexually active; 247 were classified as women who have sex with women (WSW) or WSW and men (WSWM). Of the sexually active girls, (65 + 182)/1081 (23%) were WSW/WSWM. The WSW/WSWM reported earlier sexual debut, more sexual partners, higher pregnancy rate, use of alcohol at last sex, history of intimate partner violence, and less likelihood of having an HIV test. Almost one in four of sexually active high school girls in NYC can be classified as WSW, who are vulnerable to increased sexual and health risk-taking behaviors leading to adverse health outcomes. The discordance between sexual behavior and sexual orientation emphasizes the importance of the provider sharing protective strategies in the sexual health counseling session for their patients who engage in sex with female partners regardless of sexual orientation. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosario, Margaret; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Hunter, Joyce; Levy-Warren, Anna
Research on lesbian and bisexual women has documented various biological and behavioral differences between butch and femme women. However, little research has examined whether differences exist in sexual identity development (i.e., the coming-out process). The present study examined longitudinally potential butch/femme differences in sexual identity formation and integration among an ethnically diverse sample of 76 self-identified lesbian and bisexual young women (ages 14-21 years). A composite measure of butch/femme identity classified 43% as butch and 51% as femme. Initial comparisons found butch/femme differences in sexual identity (i.e., nearly all butches identified as lesbian, but about half of femmes identified as bisexual), suggesting the need to examine this confound. Comparisons of lesbian butches, lesbian femmes, and bisexual femmes found that lesbian butches and femmes generally did not differ on sexual identity formation, but they differed from bisexual femmes. Lesbian butches and femmes had sexual behaviors and a cognitive sexual orientation that were more centered on women than those of bisexual femmes. With respect to sexual identity integration, lesbian butches were involved in more gay social activities, were more comfortable with others knowing about their homosexuality, and were more certain, comfortable, and accepting of their sexual identity than were bisexual femmes. Fewer differences were found between lesbian femmes and bisexual femmes or between lesbian butches and lesbian femmes. The findings suggest that sexual identity formation does not differ between butch or femme women, but differences are linked to sexual identity as lesbian or bisexual. Further, the findings that lesbian femmes sometimes differed from lesbian butches and at other times from bisexual femmes on sexual identity integration suggest that neither sexual identity nor butch/femme alone may explain sexual identity integration. Research examining the intersection between
Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.
Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…
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Skorska, Malvina N; Geniole, Shawn N; Vrysen, Brandon M; McCormick, Cheryl M; Bogaert, Anthony F
Biological models have typically framed sexual orientation in terms of effects of variation in fetal androgen signaling on sexual differentiation, although other biological models exist. Despite marked sex differences in facial structure, the relationship between sexual orientation and facial structure is understudied. A total of 52 lesbian women, 134 heterosexual women, 77 gay men, and 127 heterosexual men were recruited at a Canadian campus and various Canadian Pride and sexuality events. We found that facial structure differed depending on sexual orientation; substantial variation in sexual orientation was predicted using facial metrics computed by a facial modelling program from photographs of White faces. At the univariate level, lesbian and heterosexual women differed in 17 facial features (out of 63) and four were unique multivariate predictors in logistic regression. Gay and heterosexual men differed in 11 facial features at the univariate level, of which three were unique multivariate predictors. Some, but not all, of the facial metrics differed between the sexes. Lesbian women had noses that were more turned up (also more turned up in heterosexual men), mouths that were more puckered, smaller foreheads, and marginally more masculine face shapes (also in heterosexual men) than heterosexual women. Gay men had more convex cheeks, shorter noses (also in heterosexual women), and foreheads that were more tilted back relative to heterosexual men. Principal components analysis and discriminant functions analysis generally corroborated these results. The mechanisms underlying variation in craniofacial structure--both related and unrelated to sexual differentiation--may thus be important in understanding the development of sexual orientation.
Lyons, Minna; Lynch, Aoife; Brewer, Gayle; Bruno, Davide
Although there has been considerable research investigating the ability to identify sexual orientation from static images, or "gaydar," few studies have considered the role of female sexual orientation or sexual interest (for example, sociosexual orientation) in judgment accuracy. In two studies, we investigated the sexuality detection ability, and masculinity and femininity as cues used in judgment. In Study 1, we recruited heterosexual (N = 55) and homosexual (N = 71) women to rate the sexual orientation of homosexual and heterosexual male and female targets (N = 80: 20 heterosexual men, 20 homosexual men, 20 heterosexual women, and 20 homosexual women). We found that detection accuracy was better than chance levels for both male and female targets and that male targets were more likely to be falsely labeled as homosexual than female targets were. Overall, female faces were more accurately identified as heterosexual or homosexual than male faces and homosexual female raters were biased towards labeling targets as homosexual. Sociosexuality did not influence the accuracy with which targets were identified as heterosexual or homosexual. In Study 2, 100 heterosexual and 20 homosexual women rated the stimulus for masculinity and femininity. Heterosexual women were rated as more feminine and less masculine than homosexual women and homosexual men were rated as more feminine and less masculine than heterosexual men. Sexual orientation of the judges did not affect the ratings. The results were discussed with a reference to evolutionary and cultural influences affecting sexual orientation judgment accuracy.
Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G
Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Reinisch, June M.; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A.
Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males...... and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case–control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C21H30O2; MW: 314.46) and no other hormonal...... preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual...
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Both a same-sex sexual orientation and gender nonconformity have been linked with poorer well-being; however, sexual orientation and gender nonconformity are also correlated. It is, therefore, critical to investigate their independent contributions to well-being. Based on survey responses of 230 female and 245 male high school seniors, the present study is one of the first to provide empirical data on this topic. Both childhood and adolescent gender nonconformity were negatively related to well-being. In the same analyses, neither sexual orientation nor biological sex was a significant predictor of well-being. These results suggest that gender-atypical traits may be more relevant for psychological health than a same-sex sexual orientation. Both environmental and biological influences may account for these findings.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Jun, Hee-Jin; Corliss, Heather L; Bryn Austin, S
Although epidemiologic studies have established the existence of large sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use among adolescents and young adults, the determinants of these disparities remain understudied. This study sought to determine whether sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use are potentiated in states that are characterized by high levels of stigma surrounding sexual minorities. State-level structural stigma was coded using a previously established measure based on a 4-item composite index: (1) density of same-sex couples; (2) proportion of Gay-Straight Alliances per public high school; (3) 5 policies related to sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., same-sex marriage, employment non-discrimination); and (4) public opinion toward homosexuality (aggregated responses from 41 national polls). The index was linked to individual-level data from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective community-based study of adolescents (2001-2010). Sexual minorities report greater illicit drug use than their heterosexual peers. However, for both men and women, there were statistically significant interactions between sexual orientation status and structural stigma, such that sexual orientation disparities in marijuana and illicit drug use were more pronounced in high-structural stigma states than in low-structural stigma states, controlling for individual- and state-level confounders. For instance, among men, the risk ratio indicating the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use was 24% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states, and for women it was 28% greater in high- versus low-structural stigma states. Stigma in the form of social policies and attitudes may contribute to sexual orientation disparities in illicit drug use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCABE, SEAN ESTEBAN; HUGHES, TONDA L.; BOSTWICK, WENDY; BOYD, CAROL J.
Objective The present research examines the associations between three distinct dimensions of sexual orientation and substance use in a random sample of undergraduate students. Method A Web-based survey was administered to students attending a large, midwestern research university in the spring of 2003. The sample consisted of 9,161 undergraduate students: 56% female, 68% white, 13% Asian, 6% black, 4% Hispanic and 9% other racial categories. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, several measures of alcohol and other drug use were compared across three dimensions of sexual orientation: sexual identity, sexual attraction and sexual behavior. Results All three dimensions of sexual orientation were associated with substance use, including heavy episodic drinking, cigarette smoking and illicit drug use. Consistent with results of several other recent studies, “nonheterosexual” identity, attraction or behavior was associated with a more pronounced and consistent risk of substance use in women than in men. Conclusions Study findings suggest substantial variability in substance use across the three dimensions of sexual orientation and reinforce the importance of stratifying by gender and using multiple measures to assess sexual orientation. Study results have implications for future research and for interventions aimed at reducing substance use among college students. PMID:16331847
Auer, M.; Fuss, J.; Höhne, N.; Stalla, G.; Sievers, C.
Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition pha...
Stader, David L.; Graca, Thomas J.
Like all teens, sexual minority youths (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) face many challenges, including student-on-student sexual orientation harassment. The authors examine recent research into the relative frequency, the potential impact, and school district responsibility to protect sexual minority youths from ongoing…
Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne
Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.
Recent research into sexuality and education shows that homophobia is particularly prevalent and problematic in schools. However, little of this work has drawn on linguistic frameworks. This article uses the tactics of intersubjectivity framework to examine how a group of LGB-identified young people understand their sexuality identities in…
The intersections of dance and sexuality and sexual identity are part of the critical discourse important to teaching dance appreciation and dance history. This essay presents aspects of my teaching practice, informed by current writings in queer studies, dance studies, education, and sociology. Awareness of potential classroom diversity helps…
Schwartz, Gene; Kim, Rachael M; Kolundzija, Alana B; Rieger, Gerulf; Sanders, Alan R
To better understand sexual orientation from an evolutionary perspective, we investigated whether, compared to heterosexual men, the fewer direct descendants of homosexual men could be counterbalanced by a larger number of other close biological relatives. We also investigated the extent to which three patterns generally studied separately--handedness, number of biological older brothers, and hair-whorl rotation pattern--correlated with each other, and for evidence of replication of previous findings on how each pattern related to sexual orientation. We surveyed at Gay Pride and general community festivals, analyzing data for 894 heterosexual men and 694 homosexual men, both groups predominantly (~80%) white/non-Hispanic. The Kinsey distribution of sexual orientation for men recruited from the general community festivals approximated previous population-based surveys. Compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men had both more relatives, especially paternal relatives, and more homosexual male relatives. We found that the familiality for male sexual orientation decreased with relatedness, i.e., when moving from first-degree to second-degree relatives. We also replicated the fraternal birth order effect. However, we found no significant correlations among handedness, hair whorl rotation pattern, and sexual orientation, and, contrary to some previous research, no evidence that male sexual orientation is transmitted predominantly through the maternal line.
Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM, heterosexual men (heM and heterosexual women (heW. hoM (and heW had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.
Abé, Christoph; Johansson, Emilia; Allzén, Elin; Savic, Ivanka
Previous neuroimaging studies demonstrated sex and also sexual orientation related structural and functional differences in the human brain. Genetic information and effects of sex hormones are assumed to contribute to the male/female differentiation of the brain, and similar effects could play a role in processes influencing human's sexual orientation. However, questions about the origin and development of a person's sexual orientation remain unanswered, and research on sexual orientation related neurobiological characteristics is still very limited. To contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in order to compare regional cortical thickness (Cth) and subcortical volumes of homosexual men (hoM), heterosexual men (heM) and heterosexual women (heW). hoM (and heW) had thinner cortices primarily in visual areas and smaller thalamus volumes than heM, in which hoM and heW did not differ. Our results support previous studies, which suggest cerebral differences between hoM and heM in regions, where sex differences have been reported, which are frequently proposed to underlie biological mechanisms. Thus, our results contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of sexual orientation.
Hald, Gert Martin; Stulhofer, Aleksandar; Lange, Theis
Investigations of patterns of sexual arousal to certain groups of sexually explicit media (SEM) in the general population in non-laboratory settings are rare. Such knowledge could be important to understand more about the relative specificity of sexual arousal in different SEM users. (i) To investigate whether sexual arousal to non-mainstream vs mainstream SEM contents could be categorized across gender and sexual orientation, (ii) to compare levels of SEM-induced sexual arousal, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluated sexual interests and fantasies between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups, and (iii) to explore the validity and predictive accuracy of the Non-Mainstream Pornography Arousal Scale (NPAS). Online cross-sectional survey of 2,035 regular SEM users in Croatia. Patterns of sexual arousal to 27 different SEM themes, sexual satisfaction, and self-evaluations of sexual interests and sexual fantasies. Groups characterized by sexual arousal to non-mainstream SEM could be identified across gender and sexual orientation. These non-mainstream SEM groups reported more SEM use and higher average levels of sexual arousal across the 27 SEM themes assessed compared with mainstream SEM groups. Only few differences were found between non-mainstream and mainstream SEM groups in self-evaluative judgements of sexual interests, sexual fantasies, and sexual satisfaction. The internal validity and predictive accuracy of the NPAS was good across most user groups investigated. The findings suggest that in classified non-mainstream SEM groups, patterns of sexual arousal might be less fixated and category specific than previously assumed. Further, these groups are not more judgmental of their SEM-related sexual arousal patterns than groups characterized by patterns of sexual arousal to more mainstream SEM content. Moreover, accurate identification of non-mainstream SEM group membership is generally possible across gender and sexual orientation using the NPAS. Hald GM
Diamond, Lisa M; Rosky, Clifford J
We review scientific research and legal authorities to argue that the immutability of sexual orientation should no longer be invoked as a foundation for the rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships (i.e., sexual minorities). On the basis of scientific research as well as U.S. legal rulings regarding lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) rights, we make three claims: First, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unscientific, given what we now know from longitudinal, population-based studies of naturally occurring changes in the same-sex attractions of some individuals over time. Second, arguments based on the immutability of sexual orientation are unnecessary, in light of U.S. legal decisions in which courts have used grounds other than immutability to protect the rights of sexual minorities. Third, arguments about the immutability of sexual orientation are unjust, because they imply that same-sex attractions are inferior to other-sex attractions, and because they privilege sexual minorities who experience their sexuality as fixed over those who experience their sexuality as fluid. We conclude that the legal rights of individuals with same-sex attractions and relationships should not be framed as if they depend on a certain pattern of scientific findings regarding sexual orientation.
The potential for conflict or tension between the cultural variables of sexual identity and religious belief for counselors, clients, and counseling students is well-documented by the counseling literature. The tension has existed primarily due to competing religious values for counselors and clients most often with respect to the phenomena of…
Subrahmanyam, K.; Greenfield, P. M.; Tynes, B.
In this article, we propose that adolescents' online interactions are both a literal and a metaphoric screen for representing major adolescent developmental issues, such as sexuality and identity. Because of the public nature of Internet chat rooms, they provide an open window into the expression of adolescent concerns. Our study utilizes this…
Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.
Lehavot, Keren; Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Weitlauf, Julie; Kimerling, Rachel; Wallace, Robert B.; Sadler, Anne G.; Woods, Nancy Fugate; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Mattocks, Kristin; Cirillo, Dominic J.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Simpson, Tracy L.
Abstract Purpose of the Study: To examine differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality by sexual orientation and Veteran status among older women. Design and Methods: Data were from the Women’s Health Initiative, with demographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and health behaviors assessed at baseline (1993–1998) and mortality status from all available data sources through 2014. Women with baseline information on lifetime sexual behavior and Veteran status were included in the analyses ( N = 137,639; 1.4% sexual minority, 2.5% Veteran). The four comparison groups included sexual minority Veterans, sexual minority non-Veterans, heterosexual Veterans, and heterosexual non-Veterans. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate mortality risk adjusted for demographic, psychosocial, and health variables. Results: Sexual minority women had greater all-cause mortality risk than heterosexual women regardless of Veteran status (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.36) and women Veterans had greater all-cause mortality risk than non-Veterans regardless of sexual orientation (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.06–1.22), but the interaction between sexual orientation and Veteran status was not significant. Sexual minority women were also at greater risk than heterosexual women for cancer-specific mortality, with effects stronger among Veterans compared to non-Veterans (sexual minority × Veteran HR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01–2.85). Implications: Postmenopausal sexual minority women in the United States, regardless of Veteran status, may be at higher risk for earlier death compared to heterosexuals. Sexual minority women Veterans may have higher risk of cancer-specific mortality compared to their heterosexual counterparts. Examining social determinants of longevity may be an important step to understanding and reducing these disparities. PMID:26768389
De Preester, Helena
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a specific discipline, its sexual component has been an issue of unclarity and controversy, and its assessment a criterion for distinguishing BIID from apotemnophilia, a paraphilia. Scholars referring to the lived body-a phenomenon primarily discussed in the phenomenological tradition in philosophy-seem willing to exclude the sexual component as inessential, whereas other authors notice important similarities with gender identity disorder or transsexualism, and thus precisely focus attention on the sexual component. This contribution outlines the history of BIID highlighting the vicissitudes of its sexual component, and questions the justification for distinguishing BIID from apotemnophilia and thus for omitting the sexual component as essential. Second, we explain a hardly discussed concept from Maurice Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception (1945a), the sexual schema, and investigate how the sexual schema could function in interaction with the body image in an interpretation of BIID which starts from the lived body while giving the sexual component its due.
Coulter, Robert W S; Marzell, Miesha; Saltz, Robert; Stall, Ron; Mair, Christina
Evidence suggests there are important sexual-orientation differences in alcohol consumption, particularly among women. Little is known about where gay/lesbian and bisexual college students drink or differences in drinking patterns derived from graduated frequency measures between heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and bisexual students. The goal of this analysis was to examine patterns of alcohol consumption-including drinking prevalence, quantity, frequency, and contexts of use-by sexual orientation. Data on sexual identity, gender, drinking behaviors, and drinking contexts were examined from repeated cross-sectional samples of undergraduate students attending 14 public California universities from 2003-2011 (n=58,903). Multivariable statistical techniques were employed to examine sexual-orientation differences stratified by gender. Gay males, lesbians, and bisexual females were significantly more likely to report drinking alcohol in the current semester than their same-gender heterosexual peers (relative risks ranged from 1.07 to 1.10, p-values sexual-orientation differences in drinking patterns and use of drinking contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Russell, Stephen T; Toomey, Russell B
There is strong consensus in the research literature that adolescent and adult men who report same-sex sexual orientations, identities, and behaviors are at higher risk for suicide. Recent studies of general adolescent suicide risk have identified developmental trajectories that peak during the teenage years. Because the adolescent years are characterized by the development and heightened awareness of gender roles and sexual scripts closely tied to dominant cultural ideals of masculinity and heterosexuality, an adolescent-focused developmental trajectory for suicide risk might be particularly relevant for males with adolescent same-sex sexual orientations. We provide the first prospective examination of adolescent-specific risk for suicidality based on adolescent same-sex sexual orientation using data from the United States, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Tracing suicide ideation and attempts across four assessments from adolescence (Wave 1 average age 15.3 years) to young adulthood (Wave 4 average age 28.2), we documented that the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for adolescent same-sex attracted males is developmental in nature. Specifically, the risk for suicidal thoughts and attempts for males with same-sex attractions is largely limited to the adolescent years. These results offer new insights for suicide prevention and intervention for male adolescents and adults with same-sex sexual orientations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Peter A; Houk, Christopher P
Data provided by 24 adult men, 20 heterosexual and four homosexual, concerning parental, religious, geographic and explicit sexual innuendos, comments and childhood experiences are presented and discussed in an attempt to consider some of the multiple factors impacting the development of sexual orientation. All of the study subjects were normally developed males and were presumed to have been exposed to normal male levels of androgens prenatally. Since the experiences and perceptions reported are conditioned by a unique social environment that has been superimposed on a normal male typical prenatal CNS differentiation, the experiences of these men suggest that affirmation of masculinity, and openness in the realm of social and sexual interaction, may enhance the formation of a heterosexual orientation. Conversely, sexually explicit feedback with critical implications occurred commonly among the homosexual men, which they interpreted as implying an insufficient masculinity. Both innate factors and social influences impact sexual orientation; in some instances males appear to have been homosexual from early childhood onward, while in other cases there appears to have been some degree of conditioning and choice in sexual orientation. Regarding the intersexed male, this suggests that social interactions, particularly those provided by parents, have a major influence on the development of sexual orientation in the child, while all persons involved in these children's lives and particularly those who nurture must be prepared for any sexual orientation that develops.
Full Text Available Today, sexuality is considered a matter of public health, and the school is a privileged place for the implementation of public policies that promote children’s and adolescents’ health. Thus, it has been established, in agreement with the National Curriculum Parameters (PCNs, as a transversal theme in order to disseminate itself throughout the whole pedagogical field and to broaden its effects in a wide range of different areas, including Physical Education. This research analyzes the requirements of sexuality in the PCNs with the aim of identifying the use of the sexuality concept, the historical uniqueness of this proposal and its possible effects at schools, more specifically through Physical Education.
Cerwenka, Susanne; Nieder, Timo Ole; Richter-Appelt, Hertha
Diverse partner relationship constellations of gender dysphoric women and men with different sexual orientations are explored in a sample of 93 persons before gender-confirming interventions in persons with female gender identity and male body characteristics (MF) and persons with male gender identity and female body characteristics (FM). While in both gender groups the majority is single, relationship patterns show differences. Apart from working life, FM already live predominantly in the new, male gender role and have partners by whom they are desired as males. In contrast, only a small proportion of MF already conduct their private lives in the new, female gender role, and they often have relationships with partners sexually attracted to males and not to their female gender identity. The findings indicate a need for differing resources for gender dysphoric women and men in the process of a transsexual course of development. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
McCabe, Sean Esteban; Hughes, Tonda L.; Bostwick, Wendy B.; West, Brady T.; Boyd, Carol J.
Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV Version (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 (Wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% Native American or other racial/ethnic categories. Findings Approximately 2% of the sample self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one lifetime same-sex sexual partner, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for prevention and intervention efforts that more effectively target subgroups at greatest
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A
We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.
Reed, Lawrence Ian
How might homosexual orientation have evolved and been maintained? Several adaptationist explanations have been examined in attempt to reconcile the presence of same-sex sexual behaviors with traditional selection-based theory, showing little empirical support. The current paper presents a novel adaptationist explanation for the evolution and maintenance of same-sex sexual behaviors in males, both between- and within-species, related to the evolution of anisogamy. Under conditions of isogamy, sexual reproduction occurs between individuals with gametes of similar morphology. With the evolution of anisogamy came greater specificity on the types of individuals that would produce offspring when mated with (i.e. those with opposing gamete sizes). It is suggested that with this evolutionary change, a specified psychological adaptation orienting individuals primarily towards mating partners with newly opposing gamete sizes was then selected for. It is thus hypothesized that sexual orientation will vary along the anisogamy-isogamy continuum, with homosexual orientation being associated with closer approximations towards isogamy. This hypothesis leads to two specific predictions. First, in comparisons between species, the presence of same-sex sexual behaviors will be more likely to occur as sperm to egg ratios approach 1:1. Second, in comparisons within species, those individuals with greater sperm lengths will be more likely to exhibit same-sex sexual behaviors than those with lesser sperm lengths. Examination of the present hypothesis stands to greatly increase our knowledge of the selective forces shaping both biological and psychological evolution.
Sell, R L; Becker, J B
Without scientifically obtained data and published reports, it is difficult to raise awareness and acquire adequate resources to address the health concerns of lesbian, gay, and bisexual Americans. The Department of Health and Human Services must recognize gaps in its information systems regarding sexual orientation data and take immediate steps to monitor and eliminate health disparities as delineated in Healthy People 2010. A paper supported by funding from the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation explores these concerns and suggests that the department (1) create work groups to examine the collection of sexual orientation data; (2) create a set of guiding principles to govern the process of selecting standard definitions and measures; (3) recognize that racial/ethnic, immigrant-status, age, socioeconomic, and geographic differences must be taken into account when standard measures of sexual orientation are selected; (4) select a minimum set of standard sexual orientation measures; and (5) develop a long-range strategic plan for the collection of sexual orientation data.
das Nair, Roshan
This is the first issue of the Psychology of Sexualities Review. As mentioned in my previous Editorial, this change in name reflects the change made to the Section’s name, following a ballot of the Section’s membership. I trust that the papers in this issue are a testament to the Editorial Team’s promise to continue the legacy of the Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review’s of publishing high quality papers. In this Editorial I focus on the idea of using sexual identity labels, which have served us ...
Breedlove, S Marc
In non-human vertebrate species, sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by androgens such as testosterone organizing the brains of males in a masculine fashion early in life, while the lower levels of androgen in developing females organize their brains in a feminine fashion. These principles may be relevant to the development of sexual orientation in humans, because retrospective markers of prenatal androgen exposure, namely digit ratios and otoacoustic emissions, indicate that lesbians, on average, were exposed to greater prenatal androgen than were straight women. Thus, the even greater levels of prenatal androgen exposure experienced by fetal males may explain why the vast majority of them grow up to be attracted to women. However, the same markers indicate no significant differences between gay and straight men in terms of average prenatal androgen exposure, so the variance in orientation in men cannot be accounted for by variance in prenatal androgen exposure, but may be due to variance in response to prenatal androgens. These data contradict several popular notions about human sexual orientation. Sexual orientation in women is said to be fluid, sometimes implying that only social influences in adulthood are at work, yet the data indicate prenatal influences matter as well. Gay men are widely perceived as under-masculinized, yet the data indicate they are exposed to as much prenatal androgen as straight men. There is growing sentiment to reject "binary" conceptions of human sexual orientations, to emphasize instead a spectrum of orientations. Yet the data indicate that human sexual orientation is sufficiently polarized that groups of lesbians, on average, show evidence of greater prenatal androgen exposure than groups of straight women, while groups of gay men have, on average, a greater proportion of brothers among their older siblings than do straight men.
Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M; Rogge, Ronald D
Using a daily diary methodology, we examined how social environments support or fail to support sexual identity disclosure, and associated mental and physical health outcomes. Results showed that variability in disclosure across the diary period related to greater psychological well-being and fewer physical symptoms, suggesting potential adaptive benefits to selectively disclosing. A multilevel path model indicated that perceiving autonomy support in conversations predicted more disclosure, which in turn predicted more need satisfaction, greater well-being, and fewer physical symptoms that day. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that disclosure and need satisfaction explained why perceiving autonomy support in a conversation predicted greater well-being and fewer physical symptoms. That is, perceiving autonomy support in conversations indirectly predicted greater wellness through sexual orientation disclosure, along with feeling authentic and connected in daily interactions with others. Discussion highlights the role of supportive social contexts and everyday opportunities to disclose in affecting sexual minority mental and physical health.
Wells, J Elisabeth; McGee, Magnus A; Beautrais, Annette L
Sexual orientation consists of multiple components. This study investigated both sexual identity and same-sex sexual behavior. Data came from the New Zealand Mental Health Survey, a nationally representative community sample of New Zealanders aged 16 years or older, interviewed face-to-face (N = 12,992, 48% male). The response rate was 73.3%. Self-reported sexual identity was 98.0% heterosexual, 0.6% bisexual, 0.8% homosexual, 0.3% "Something else," and 0.1% "Not sure." Same-sex sexual behavior with a partner was more common: 3.2% reported same-sex sexual experience only and 1.9% reported both experience and a relationship. For analysis of childhood and lifecourse, five sexuality groups were investigated: homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual divided into those with no same-sex sexual experience, experience only, and experience and relationship. The non-exclusively heterosexual groups were more likely to have experienced adverse events in childhood. Educational achievement and current equivalized household income did not differ systematically across the sexuality groups. Only 9.4% of the exclusively heterosexual lived alone, compared with 16.7% of bisexuals and 19.0% of homosexuals. Heterosexuals were more likely than bisexuals or homosexuals to have ever married or had biological children, with differences more marked for males than for females. Heterosexuals with no same-sex sexual experience were more likely to be currently married than the other two heterosexual groups. Restricting comparisons to heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual identification ignores the diversity within heterosexuals. Differences between the bisexual and homosexual groups were small compared with the differences between these groups and the exclusively heterosexual group, except for sex (80.8% of bisexuals were female).
Bloomfield, Kim; Wicki, Matthias; Wilsnack, Sharon
Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high-volume and risky single-occasion drinking by sexual orientation. Data from 248 gay men and lesbians and 3720 heterosexuals were analyzed in a case-control design. In several countries partnered or recently partnered gay men and lesbians had...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...
Bloomfield, K.; Wicki, M.; Wilsnack, S.
Most research on sexual orientation and alcohol use in the United States has found higher rates of alcohol use and abuse among gay men and lesbians. Studies from other countries have found smaller or no differences between sexual minority and heterosexual women and men. The present study used...... general population survey data from 14 countries to examine high-volume and risky single-occasion drinking by sexual orientation. Data from 248 gay men and lesbians and 3720 heterosexuals were analyzed in a case-control design. In several countries partnered or recently partnered gay men and lesbians had...... no greater risk of heavy drinking or engaging in heavy drinking than heterosexual controls. Only lesbians in North America showed higher risk for both indicators. Future general population health research should include larger samples of gays and lesbians and use more comprehensive measures of sexual...
Numerous psychological, biological, and evolutionary theories have been proposed to explain sexual orientation. For a theory to be valid it must account for the evolutionary or Darwinian paradox of how homosexual behavior seemingly blocking evolutionary fitness could have evolved. Typically it is only evolutionary based theories that attempt to address this issue. All theories proposed to date have limitations, a major one being that they tend to be specific for male or female sexual orientat...
Reinisch, June M; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Sanders, Stephanie A
Prenatal sex hormone levels affect physical and behavioral sexual differentiation in animals and humans. Although prenatal hormones are theorized to influence sexual orientation in humans, evidence is sparse. Sexual orientation variables for 34 prenatally progesterone-exposed subjects (17 males and 17 females) were compared to matched controls (M age = 23.2 years). A case-control double-blind design was used drawing on existing data from the US/Denmark Prenatal Development Project. Index cases were exposed to lutocyclin (bioidentical progesterone = C 21 H 30 O 2 ; M W : 314.46) and no other hormonal preparation. Controls were matched on 14 physical, medical, and socioeconomic variables. A structured interview conducted by a psychologist and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on sexual orientation, self-identification, attraction to the same and other sex, and history of sexual behavior with each sex. Compared to the unexposed, fewer exposed males and females identified as heterosexual and more of them reported histories of same-sex sexual behavior, attraction to the same or both sexes, and scored higher on attraction to males. Measures of heterosexual behavior and scores on attraction to females did not differ significantly by exposure. We conclude that, regardless of sex, exposure appeared to be associated with higher rates of bisexuality. Prenatal progesterone may be an underappreciated epigenetic factor in human sexual and psychosexual development and, in light of the current prevalence of progesterone treatment during pregnancy for a variety of pregnancy complications, warrants further investigation. These data on the effects of prenatal exposure to exogenous progesterone also suggest a potential role for natural early perturbations in progesterone levels in the development of sexual orientation.
Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N
Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility-a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment-based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (52% male, 86% White) participated in an online survey study assessing their experiences of workplace incivility, job stress, job satisfaction, job identity centrality, and demographics. Results showed that sexual minority women reported the highest levels of workplace incivility. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities. These findings point to the resiliency of sexual minorities in the face of interpersonal stressors at work.
Zurbrügg, Lauren; Miner, Kathi N.
Scholars have proposed that interpersonal workplace discrimination toward members of oppressed social groups has become covert and subtle rather than overt and explicit and that such experiences lead to negative outcomes for targets. The present study examined this proposition by examining experiences and consequences of workplace incivility—a seemingly harmless form of interpersonal maltreatment—based on gender, sexual orientation, and their intersection. A sample of 1,300 academic faculty (52% male, 86% White) participated in an online survey study assessing their experiences of workplace incivility, job stress, job satisfaction, job identity centrality, and demographics. Results showed that sexual minority women reported the highest levels of workplace incivility. Findings also revealed that women reported lower job satisfaction than men and that heterosexuals reported higher job stress and lower job identity centrality than sexual minorities with higher levels of incivility. Thus, sexual minority status buffered the negative effects of incivility for sexual minorities. These findings point to the resiliency of sexual minorities in the face of interpersonal stressors at work. PMID:27199804
Bogaert, A F; Hershberger, S
The relation between sexual orientation and penile dimensions in a large sample of men was studied. Subjects were 5122 men interviewed by the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction from 1938 to 1963. They were dichotomously classified as either homosexual (n = 935) or heterosexual (n = 4187). Penile dimensions were assessed using five measures of penile length and circumference from Kinsey's original protocol. On all five measures, homosexual men reported larger penises than did heterosexual men. Explanations for these differences are discussed, including the possibility that these findings provide additional evidence that variations in prenatal hormonal levels (or other biological mechanisms affecting reproductive structures) affect sexual orientation development.
Lee, Debbiesiu L; Harkless, Lynn E; Sheridan, Daniel J; Winakur, Emily; Fowers, Blaine J
Sexual orientation was examined as a moderator in the relation between biological sex and interpersonal problems. Participants were 60 lesbians, 45 heterosexual women, 37 gay men, and 39 heterosexual men, who completed the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex. Sexual orientation was found to moderate one of the eight interpersonal problems under study. Heterosexual women scored significantly higher than lesbian women in Non-assertive. Although hypothesized, gay men did not differ from heterosexual men along the Dominant-Cold quadrant. Implications of these results are discussed.
Sulfridge, Rocky M.
This dissertation explores the website usage of adolescent sexual minorities, examining notions of information seeking and sexual identity development. Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior and is uniquely problematic for young sexual minorities. Utilizing a contemporary gay teen website, this…
Blanchard, R; Watson, M S; Choy, A; Dickey, R; Klassen, P; Kuban, M; Ferren, D J
Intellectual functioning, parental age, and sexual orientation in 991 male sexual offenders were investigated. Sources of data included semistructured interviews, clinical charts, phallometric tests, and self-administered questionnaires. The results suggest two main conclusions: (i) Among pedophiles in general, erotic preference moves away from adult women along two dimensions: age and sex. The extent of this movement is greater, along both dimensions, for pedophiles with lower levels of intellectual functioning. (ii) High maternal age (or some factor it represents) increases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in boys. Intellectual deficiency (or some factor it represents) decreases the likelihood of exclusive sexual interest in girls. These two factors summate, so that a pedophile with both factors is more likely to be sexually interested in boys than a pedophile with only one.
Hequembourg, Amy L; Brallier, Sara A
Despite growing evidence to suggest that gays, lesbians, and bisexuals experience a range of stressors and consequences related to their sexual minority status, no known studies to date have employed focus group discussion to explore and document their perceptions of sexual minority stress. In this exploratory study, we present focus group data on a range of sexual minority stressors as described by 43 gay men, lesbians, and bisexual men and women. We explore gender and sexual identity differences in the respondents' perceptions of heteronormativity, disclosure issues in different social settings, sources of support, and strategies for coping with stress. Respondents reported that women's same-sex relationships were eroticized and distorted to accommodate heterosexual male desire, while men were negatively depicted as sexually promiscuous and deviant. These differing stereotypes held important consequences for disclosure decisions and affected men's and women's social interactions with heterosexual men. Bisexual respondents reported unique strategies to cope with exclusion and isolation associated with misunderstandings about their sexual identities. Directions for future research on sexual minority stress are discussed.
Nelson, Lauren A.; Birkett, Michelle A.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Everett, Bethany
Objectives. We examined purging for weight control, diet pill use, and obesity across sexual orientation identity and ethnicity groups. Methods. Anonymous survey data were analyzed from 24 591 high school students of diverse ethnicities in the federal Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System Survey in 2005 and 2007. Self-reported data were gathered on gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation identity, height, weight, and purging and diet pill use in the past 30 days. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of purging, diet pill use, and obesity associated with sexual orientation identity in gender-stratified models and examined for the presence of interactions between ethnicity and sexual orientation. Results. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity was associated with substantially elevated odds of purging and diet pill use in both girls and boys (odds ratios [OR] range = 1.9–6.8). Bisexual girls and boys were also at elevated odds of obesity compared to same-gender heterosexuals (OR = 2.3 and 2.1, respectively). Conclusions. Interventions to reduce eating disorders and obesity that are appropriate for LGB youths of diverse ethnicities are urgently needed. PMID:23237207
Alexander, Stewart C; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I; Bravender, Terrill; Østbye, Truls; Shields, Cleveland G
Physicians are encouraged to use inclusive language regarding sexuality in order to help all adolescent patients feel accepted. Non-inclusive language by physicians may influence relationships with adolescent patients, especially those with still-developing sexual identities. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of physicians' use of inclusive and non-inclusive language when discussing sexuality. A total of 393 conversations between 393 adolescents and 49 physicians from 11 clinics located throughout the Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, area were audio recorded. Conversations were coded for the use of inclusive talk (language use that avoids the use of specific gender, sex, or sexual orientation language), direct non-inclusive talk (language use that assumes the teenager is heterosexual or exclusively engages in heterosexual sexual activity), and indirect non-inclusive talk (language use that frames talk heterosexually but does not pre-identify the adolescent as heterosexual). Nearly two-thirds (63%, 245) of the visits contained some sexuality talk. Inclusive talk rarely occurred (3.3%) while non-inclusive language was predominant (48.1% direct and 48.6% indirect). There were no significant differences in language use by gender, age, adolescent race, or visit length. These non-significant findings suggest that all adolescents regardless of race, gender, or age are receiving non-inclusive sexuality talk from their providers. Physicians are missing opportunities to create safe environments for teenagers to discuss sexuality. The examples of inclusive talk from this study may provide potentially useful ways to teach providers how to begin sexuality discussions, focusing on sexual attraction or asking about friends' sexual behavior, and maintain these discussions.
Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R
As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn
This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1,235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, men reached milestones earlier than women, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience.
Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S. Bryn
This research examined endorsement and timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones. Participants were 1235 females and 398 males from the Growing Up Today Study, ages 22 to 29 years, who endorsed a sexual minority orientation (lesbian/gay, bisexual, mostly heterosexual) or reported same-gender sexual behavior (heterosexual with same-gender sexual experience). An online survey measured current sexual orientation and endorsement and timing (age first experienced) of five sexual orientation developmental milestones: same-gender attractions, other-gender attractions, same-gender sexual experience, other-gender sexual experience, and sexual minority identification. Descriptive analyses and analyses to test for gender and sexual orientation group differences were conducted. Results indicated that females were more likely than males to endorse same-gender attraction, other-gender attraction, and other-gender sexual experience, with the most gender differences in endorsement among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. In general, males reached milestones earlier than females, with the most gender differences in timing among lesbian and gay individuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. Results suggest that the three sexual minority developmental milestones may best characterize the experiences of lesbians, gay males, and female and male bisexuals. More research is needed to understand sexual orientation development among mostly heterosexuals and heterosexuals with same-gender sexual experience. PMID:27148762
Discusses Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act in terms of their potential legal remedies for victims of sexual-orientation discrimination. Examines several relevant federal appellate and Supreme Court decisions and the role of homosexual teachers. (PKP)
Kort, Daniel N.; Samsa, Gregory P.; McKellar, Mehri S.
Objective: To investigate sexual orientation differences in college men's motivations for HIV testing. Participants: 665 male college students in the Southeastern United States from 2006 to 2014. Methods: Students completed a survey on HIV risk factors and testing motivations. Logistic regressions were conducted to determine the differences…
Daugelli, Anthony R.; Grossman, Arnold H.; Starks, Michael T.
This study used a sample of 293 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth to examine factors that differentiated youth whose parents knew of their sexual orientation from youth whose parents did not know. Earlier awareness and disclosure of same-gender attractions, greater childhood gender atypicality, and less internalized homophobia were characteristic…
Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag
Although lack of sexual attraction was first quantified by Kinsey, large-scale and systematic research on the prevalence and correlates of asexuality has only emerged over the past decade. Several theories have been posited to account for the nature of asexuality. The goal of this review was to consider the evidence for whether asexuality is best classified as a psychiatric syndrome (or a symptom of one), a sexual dysfunction, or a paraphilia. Based on the available science, we believe there is not sufficient evidence to support the categorization of asexuality as a psychiatric condition (or symptom of one) or as a disorder of sexual desire. There is some evidence that a subset of self-identified asexuals have a paraphilia. We also considered evidence supporting the classification of asexuality as a unique sexual orientation. We conclude that asexuality is a heterogeneous entity that likely meets conditions for a sexual orientation, and that researchers should further explore evidence for such a categorization.
de Almeida, Sandra Aparecida; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Torres, Gilson Vasconcelos
This qualitative research aims to analyze how sexual orientation has been incorporated into pedagogic practices through the point of view of educators from public schools of fundamental teaching. Twenty three educators from Cajazeiras, Paralba, Brazil participated in the study. The focus group was elected as technique of investigation, and the empirical data obtained were organized according to the technique of analysis of content. It was realized that there is an effort of the actors to privilege contents related to sexual orientation in the school environment though they demand that a level of informative and subjective character about the "sexuality" be encouraged providing the educators with a space for re-significations of its internality of values. The information directed to self-care must transcend the limits of prevention and hygienisation, incorporating extensive, inclusive and reflective methodologies, which recognize human and social rights and promote the ethical construction of citizenship.
Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R
To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gereige, Jessica D; Zhang, Li; Boehmer, Ulrike
From studies conducted in Western countries (United States, United Kingdom, and Australia), we know that the sexual health of sexual minority women (SMW) differs in key ways from that of heterosexual women (HSW). To date, the sexual health of SMW living in the Middle East and North Africa region has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to compare the sexual health of SMW and HSW living in Lebanon. SMW and HSW living in Lebanon (N = 95) completed an anonymous, self-administered survey. SMW's risk perceptions and health promoting and sexual behaviors were compared to those of HSW. We examined differences by sexual orientation by using t tests and Fisher's exact tests. The 45 SMW and 50 HSW had similar demographic characteristics. Significantly more SMW had heard of human papillomavirus, but only 22% of women from both groups knew of its association with abnormal Papanicolaou tests. Cervical cancer screening rates were similar in SMW and HSW, although remarkably low (42%) compared with rates in Western countries. Significantly more SMW (18%) reported difficulty with access to care than HSW (0%). Forty-four percent of SMW reported discomfort in disclosing their sexual orientation to their healthcare provider and 61% reported that healthcare providers lacked sensitivity toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender needs. Unwanted sexual contact occurred more frequently in SMW (53%) than HSW (23%). The sexual health of women is affected by sociocultural factors. SMW living in Lebanon have unique health needs that should be addressed within their sociocultural context.
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita
Limited research exists on the implications of feeling sexually attractive for various aspects of sexuality and sexual relationships. This article examined associations between self-perceived sexual attractiveness and sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction and amount of sexual experience, among both men and women who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225) or bisexual (n = 651). Results of the study demonstrated that positive self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness predicted greater sexual esteem, greater sexual satisfaction, a higher frequency of sexual activity with others and a larger number of sexual partners among both men and women who identified as heterosexual, gay, lesbian or bisexual. The findings suggest that feeling sexually attractive may have implications for how an individual experiences their sexuality and sexual relationships regardless of their gender or sexual orientation. The importance of considering an individual's self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness when they present with concerns related to their sexual experiences or relationships, and the potential benefits of educational and therapeutic interventions designed to enhance self-perceptions of sexual attractiveness are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.
Santos, Ana Cristina
This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.
Qualls, Lydia R; Hartmann, Kathrin; Paulson, James F
Individuals with higher levels of the broad autism phenotype (BAP) have some symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Like individuals with ASD, people with higher-BAP may have fewer sexual experiences and may experience more same-sex attraction. This study measured BAP traits, sexual experiences, and sexual orientation in typically developing (TD) individuals to see if patterns of sexual behavior and sexual orientation in higher-BAP resemble those in ASD. Although BAP characteristics did not predict sexual experiences, one BAP measure significantly predicted sexual orientation, β = 0.22, t = 2.72, p = .007, controlling for demographic variables (R 2 change = .04, F = 7.41, p = .007), showing individuals with higher-BAP also reported increased same-sex attraction. This finding supports the hypothesis that individuals with higher-BAP resemble ASD individuals in being more likely than TD individuals to experience same-sex attraction.
Abelson, Jeanne; Lambevski, Sasho; Crawford, June; Bartos, Michael; Kippax, Susan
This paper examines factors associated with feeling suicidal in a large sample of urban men in Sydney and Melbourne, aged 18-50, including heterosexual, gay and bisexual men, HIV antibody positive and HIV antibody negative. As in previous research, sexuality (being homosexual or bisexual) was found to be a major predictor of suicidality. The research went some way towards explaining the close relationship between feeling suicidal and sexual orientation. Sexuality interacts with feeling bad in that, once men feel moderately bad/depressed, they are more likely to feel suicidal if they are homosexual or bisexual than if they are heterosexual. In addition, the research found that experience of verbal abuse and physical assault (harassment) increased feeling suicidal for both heterosexual and gay/bisexual men, not just for homosexual men as suggested by previous research, and that social isolation in the form of living alone is a further risk factor. Seeking counseling help and taking sexual risks were also independently associated with feeling suicidal. These actions may result from feeling suicidal rather than the reverse, and their association with feeling suicidal warrants further research. Many of the 46 independent variables examined in the research, including HIV antibody status and closeness to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, were related to feeling suicidal only through their association with being gay/bisexual. Celibacy and general risk taking were not related to feeling suicidal in this study.
Gray, Alistair; Veale, Jaimie F.; Binson, Diane; Sell, Randell L.
Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand's Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens. PMID:23840231
Ragins, Belle Rose; Singh, Romila; Cornwell, John M
Stigma theory was used to examine the fears underlying the disclosure of a gay identity at work. Using a national sample of 534 gay, lesbian, and bisexual employees, this study examined the antecedents that affect the degree of disclosure of a gay identity at work and, for those who had not disclosed, the factors that influence their fears about full disclosure. Employees reported less fear and more disclosure when they worked in a group that was perceived as supportive and sharing their stigma. Perceptions of past experience with sexual orientation discrimination were related to increased fears but to greater disclosure. For those who had not fully disclosed their stigma, the fears associated with disclosure predicted job attitudes, psychological strain, work environment, and career outcomes. However, actual disclosure was unrelated to these variables. The utility of fear of disclosure for understanding processes underlying the disclosure of gay and other invisible stigmatized identities in the workplace is discussed.
Coleman, Eli; Allen, Mariette Pathy; Ford, Jessie V
This article describes the gender identity, gender expression, and sexual orientation of male spirit mediums in Myanmar. Our analysis is based on ethnographic work, field observation, and 10 semi-structured interviews. These observations were conducted from 2010 to 2015, mostly in Mandalay, with some fieldwork in Yangon and Bagan. The focus of this investigation was specifically on achout (gender variant individuals) who were spirit mediums (nat kadaw). Semi-structured interviews explored the ways that participants understood their gender identity, gender expression, and sexuality in relation to their work as spirit mediums and broader social life. Myanmar remains quite a homophobic and transphobic culture but is undergoing rapid economic and social change. Therefore, it provides an interesting context to study how safe spaces are produced for sexual/gender minorities amidst broader social change. We find that, through the animistic belief structure, there is a growing space for gender nonconforming people, gender variant, and same-sex-oriented individuals (achout) to neutralize their stigmatized status and attain a level of respect and economic advantage. Their ability to become nat kadaw (mediums of spirits) mitigates or trumps their stigmatized status.
Mor, Zohar; Davidovich, Udi
Estimating the size of key risk groups susceptible to HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STI) is necessary for establishment of interventions and budget allocation. This study aimed to identify various dimensions of sexual orientation and practices in Israel, and correlate the findings with sexual risk behavior (SRB). It used a random representative sample of the Jewish population aged 18-44 years who completed online questionnaires regarding their self-identified sexual orientation, attraction and practices, and SRB. Concordant heterosexuals were those who self-reported heterosexual identity, were attracted and had sex only with the opposite gender. National estimates regarding prevalence of gay, lesbian, and bisexual men and women were based on the civil census. The sample included 997 men and 1005 women, of whom 11.3 and 15.2 % were attracted to the same-gender, 10.2 and 8.7 % reported lifetime same-gender encounters, while 8.2 and 4.8 % self-identified as gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women, respectively. The estimated population of self-identified Jewish gay or bisexual men and lesbian or bisexual women aged 18-44 in Israel was 94,176, and 57,671, respectively. SRB was more common among self-identified gays or bisexual men and among discordant heterosexual men and women. Those who reported same-gender sexual practices reported greater SRB than those who only had opposite-gender encounters. Interestingly, SRB among discordant heterosexuals was associated with same-sex behavior rather than attraction. Health practitioners should increase their awareness of sexual diversity among their clientele, and should recognize that risk for HIV/STI may exist among self-identified heterosexuals, who may not disclose their actual sexual attraction or practices.
Everett, Bethany G; McCabe, Katharine F; Hughes, Tonda L
Many sexual minority women, regardless of sexual identity, engage in heterosexual behavior across the life course, which provides them opportunities to experience an unintended pregnancy. In addition, sexual minority women are more likely than others to report characteristics that may make them vulnerable to unintended pregnancy. Little research, however, has examined whether the risk of unintended pregnancy is elevated among these women. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth, logistic regression models were fitted to examine sexual orientation disparities in mistimed and unwanted pregnancies among 9,807 women aged 20-45; mixed-effects hazard models assessed disparities in the intention status of 5,238 pregnancies among these women by maternal sexual orientation. Compared with heterosexual women reporting only male partners, heterosexual women who have sex with women had higher odds of reporting a mistimed pregnancy (odds ratio, 1.4), and bisexual women had higher odds of reporting an unwanted pregnancy (1.8). When compared with pregnancies reported by heterosexual women with only male partners, those reported by heterosexual women who have sex with women were more likely to be mistimed (hazard ratio, 1.7), and those reported by bisexual and lesbian women were more likely to be unwanted (1.7-4.4). Compared with heterosexuals who have sex with men only, adult sexual minority women are at equal or greater risk of reporting an unintended pregnancy. More research addressing the reproductive health care needs of sexual minority women is needed to develop strategies to improve family planning for this population. Copyright © 2017 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Bogaert, Anthony F
The most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men is the number of older brothers (fraternal birth order). The mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. In this article, I provide a direct test pitting prenatal against postnatal (e.g., social/rearing) mechanisms. Four samples of homosexual and heterosexual men (total n = 944), including one sample of men raised in nonbiological and blended families (e.g., raised with half- or step-siblings or as adoptees) were studied. Only biological older brothers, and not any other sibling characteristic, including nonbiological older brothers, predicted men's sexual orientation, regardless of the amount of time reared with these siblings. These results strongly suggest a prenatal origin to the fraternal birth-order effect.
Zheng, Lijun; Lippa, Richard A; Zheng, Yong
Using data from an Internet survey, we assessed masculinity-femininity (self-ascribed masculinity-femininity [Self-MF], gender-related interests, instrumentality, expressiveness) and Big Five personality traits in a Chinese sample of 201 heterosexual men, 220 homosexual men, 353 heterosexual women, and 215 homosexual women. Sex differences and sexual orientation differences were largest for gender-related interests and Self-MF. Homosexual-heterosexual differences in emotional stability were opposite for men and women, supporting the "gender shift" over the "social stress" hypothesis. Sex and sexual orientation differences in gender-related interests, Self-MF, and emotional stability observed in China were consistent with those found in other countries, suggesting possible biological influences. In contrast, group differences in other traits were more variable, suggesting possible cultural influences.
Anderson, Mary Z.; Croteau, James M.; DiStefano, Teresa M.; Chung, Y. Barry
Psychometric properties of the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure were tested with 172 professionals. Results suggest it successfully assesses a continuum of lesbian and gay identity management strategies (passing, covering, implicitly out, explicitly out). (Contains 27 references.) (SK)
Dario A. Schirone; Germano Torkan
The company is the dynamic outcome of economic and social forces that influence each other; this idea requires to dedicate effort and attention to managing relational dynamics among its components. This study aims to investigate how protecting the worker also in his sexual orientation may positively influence the economic results of the whole business. The sampling technique used proves to be representative of the conclusions obtained. The survey will be developed trying to understand how thi...
This study investigates the differences in four aspects of job satisfaction between gay men/lesbians and heterosexuals. The analysis results suggest that gay men and lesbians are less satisfied with their jobs, by all job satisfaction measures, than heterosexual employees, all other factors being held constant. Gay men and lesbians who have disclosed their sexual orientation at their present job are more satisfied with their jobs than those who have not. In addition, gay men and lesbians who ...
Dardis, Christina M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Iverson, Katherine M
National estimates suggest intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are equal or higher among lesbian, bisexual, or questioning (LBQ)-identified women than heterosexual-identified women. Women veterans are a population at high risk for IPV, yet the occurrence of lifetime and past-year IPV experiences by sexual orientation have not been examined in this population. Lifetime and past-year IPV experiences and current IPV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed with validated screening measures as part of a 2014 web-based national survey of women veterans. Among 403 respondents, 9.7% (n = 39) identified as LBQ, and 90.3% (n = 364) identified as heterosexual. When controlling for age, LBQ-identified women veterans were significantly more likely to report lifetime sexual and physical IPV and lifetime intimate partner stalking. In the past year, LBQ-identified veterans were twice as likely to endorse emotional mistreatment and physical IPV, and three times more likely to endorse sexual IPV, than were heterosexual-identified women veterans. However, sexual orientation was unrelated to IPV-related PTSD symptoms, when controlling for age, race, and number IPV forms experienced. IPV is prevalent among LBQ-identified women veterans, suggesting the need to understand the potentially unique contextual factors and health-care needs of this group.
HIV prevention discourses concern lives, the protection of bodily rights and people's active involvement in the policies and programmes that affect them. HIV prevention discourses also create lives, relying upon the deployment of normative sexual identities at the same time as they invite complex and fluid youth identities to embody the norms of prevention. This paper examines a particular HIV prevention text that is available to teachers in the Western Cape province of South Africa to support the implementation of the national Life Orientation programme. Rather than considering this text as a neutral 'scaffold' upon which teachers and students add cultural meanings, it is important to interrogate the ways in which texts rely upon and reiterate particular discursive constructions of the youth sexual subject. This paper argues that the text deploys a particular discursive framework in order to construct a 'normal' (and hetero) sexuality that validates, rather than questions, social constructions of masculine privilege within heterosexuality. This is achieved through the deployment of a scientific expertise of sexuality; the mobilisation of a valued hetero/homosexual binary to create a 'safe' heterosexuality; the normalisation of bourgeois sexuality through the ideology of marriage; and the naturalisation of heterosexual masculine and feminine identities.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Bailey et al. (2016) have provided an excellent, state-of-the-art overview that is a major contribution to our understanding of sexual orientation. However, whereas Bailey and his coauthors have examined the physiological, behavioral, and self-report data of sexual orientation and see categories, I see a sexual and romantic continuum. After noting several objections concerning the limitations of the review and methodological shortcomings characteristic of sexual-orientation research in general, I present evidence from research investigating in-between sexualities to support an alternative, continuum-based perspective regarding the nature of sexual orientation for both women and men. A continuum conceptualization has potential implications for investigating the prevalence of nonheterosexuals, sexual-orientation differences in gender nonconformity, causes of sexual orientation, and political issues. © The Author(s) 2016.
Vu, Lung; Choi, Kyung-Hee; Do, Tri
Having a positive attitude toward one's own sexual and ethnic identity can improve psychological well-being and self-efficacy and may reduce vulnerability to HIV infection. We sought to understand factors associated with having greater self-worth about being Asian and Pacific Islander (API), being gay/bisexual, and being both gay/bisexual and API (dual identity). We conducted serial, cross-sectional surveys of 763 API men who have sex with men (MSM) annually from 1999 to 2002 in San Diego, California and Seattle, Washington. We found (a) sexual and ethnic identity were intertwined and mutually influential; (b) a positive attitude toward sexual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and self-identified homosexual orientation (as opposed to "straight/undecided"); (c) a positive dual identity was associated with higher socioeconomic status, greater social support, and levels of acculturation (being United States born and speaking English and another language equally); and (d) a positive sexual identity and dual identity were associated with HIV testing. The findings suggest that targeted programs should address cultural issues at the intersection of sexual and ethnic identity, promote social support and self-acceptance around homosexual identity, and help MSM build a positive sense of self to foster their self-esteem and HIV prevention self-efficacy.
Full Text Available The paper devoted to the age and gender identity among the perpetrators of sexual violence against children and discussed the factors lead to pathogenesis of abnormal sexual behavior against children. We have identified particularities of gender and age identity in perpetrators of violent sexual acts against children. It was noted that patients with a diagnosis of pedophilia have abnormalities mostly in cognitive structure of sexual identity, that is shown in undifferentiated age peculiarities of perception of self-image and gender and role stereotypes. These data allow assessing more accurately the abnormalities of sexual sphere, explaining the deviant behavior, as well as structure of age and sex self-identity in persons with the disorder of sexual desire in the form of pedophilia and take a step closer to understanding the mechanisms of abnormal choice of sexual object.
Bocklandt, S; Hamer, D H
For the past several decades, research on the development of human sexual orientation has focused on the role of pre- or peri-natal androgen levels on brain development. However, there is no evidence that physiologically occurring variations in androgen exposure influence differences in sexual orientation. In this review, we discuss an alternative hypothesis involving genomic imprinting in the regulation of sex specific expression of genes regulating sexually dimorphic traits, including sexual orientation. A possible experiment to test this hypothesis is discussed.
Zhao, Ye; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Li, Feng; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents and sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 295 eligible participants (gay n = 179, bisexual n = 116) were recruited from MSM venues and MSM organizations in Anhui Province, China. Overall, 16.6 % of participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation to parents. Fewer bisexual participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation than gay participants (9.5 vs. 21.2 %, p sexual orientation to parents was positively associated with the number of female sex partners (AOR = 3.40) and with engagement in unprotected anal intercourse with men (AOR = 2.49) among gay MSM, in the past 6 months. Our findings indicated that HIV/AIDS intervention programs should promote the disclosure of sexual orientation and should design interventions specific to gay and bisexual MSM separately.
Savin-Williams, Ritch C; Cash, Brian M; McCormack, Mark; Rieger, Gerulf
This exploratory study assessed physiological, behavioral, and self-report measures of sexual and romantic indicators of sexual orientation identities among young men (mean age = 21.9 years) with predominant same-sex sexual and romantic interests: those who described themselves as bisexual leaning gay (n = 11), mostly gay (n = 17), and gay (n = 47). Although they were not significantly distinguishable based on physiological (pupil dilation) responses to nude stimuli, on behavioral and self-report measures a descending linear trend toward the less preferred sex (female) was significant regarding sexual attraction, fantasy, genital contact, infatuation, romantic relationship, sex appeal, and gazing time to the porn stimuli. Results supported a continuum of sexuality with distinct subgroups only for the self-report measure of sexual attraction. The other behavioral and self-report measures followed the same trend but did not significantly differ between the bisexual leaning gay and mostly gay groups, likely the result of small sample size. Results suggest that romantic indicators are as good as sexual measures in assessing sexual orientation and that a succession of logically following groups from bisexual leaning gay, mostly gay, to gay. Whether these three groups are discrete or overlapping needs further research.
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.
Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A
Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.
Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.
The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…
Reuter, Tyson R; Sharp, Carla; Kalpakci, Allison H; Choi, Hye J; Temple, Jeff R
Empirical literature demonstrates that sexual minorities are at an increased risk of developing psychopathology, including borderline personality disorder (BPD). The specific link between sexual orientation and BPD has received significantly less attention in youth, and it remains unclear what drives this relation. Given that there are higher rates of psychopathology in both sexual minorities and individuals with BPD, the present study aimed to determine if sexual orientation uniquely contributes to borderline personality pathology, controlling for other psychopathology. An ethnically diverse sample of 835 adolescents completed self-report measures of borderline features, depression, anxiety, and sexual orientation. Sexual minorities scored higher on borderline features compared to heterosexual adolescents. When controlling for depression and anxiety, sexual orientation remained significantly associated with borderline features. The relation between sexual orientation and BPD cannot fully be explained by other psychopathology. Future research is necessary to understand potential mechanisms underlying this relation.
Wilkerson, J. Michael; Brooks, Ann K.; Ross, Michael W.
How collegiate gay and bisexual men acquire a sociosexual identity appears to affect their sexual health. Analysis of interview data from 25 self-identified collegiate gay or bisexual men resulted in the development of a collective sexual script for men acquiring a sociosexual identity. Changes in an individual's acting out of a cultural scenario…
Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O
Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by asking 49 individuals to judge the sexual orientations of 78 gay men from photos of their faces. We found that gay men reporting higher levels of internalized homophobia were less likely to have come out of the closet and were, in turn, less likely to be perceived as gay. Thus, internalized homophobia and the concealment of one's sexual minority status can impact perceptions of sexual orientation.
Grzanka, Patrick R; Zeiders, Katharine H; Miles, Joseph R
Previous research on heterosexuals' beliefs about sexual orientation (SO) has been limited in that it has generally examined heterosexuals' beliefs from an essentialist perspective. The recently developed Sexual Orientation Beliefs Scale (SOBS; Arseneau, Grzanka, Miles, & Fassinger, 2013) assesses multifarious "lay beliefs" about SO from essentialist, social constructionist, and constructivist perspectives. This study used the SOBS to explore latent group-based patterns in endorsement of these beliefs in 2 samples of undergraduate students: a mixed-gender sample (n = 379) and an all-women sample (n = 266). While previous research has posited that essentialist beliefs about the innateness of SO predict positive attitudes toward sexual minorities, our research contributes to a growing body of scholarship that suggests that biological essentialism should be considered in the context of other beliefs. Using a person-centered analytic strategy, we found that that college students fell into distinct patterns of SO beliefs that are more different on beliefs about the homogeneity, discreteness, and informativeness of SO categories than on beliefs about the naturalness of SO. Individuals with higher levels of endorsement on all 4 SOBS subscales (a group we named multidimensional essentialism) and those who were highest in discreteness, homogeneity, and informativeness beliefs (i.e., high-DHI) reported higher levels of homonegativity when compared with those who were high only in naturalness beliefs. We discuss the implications of these findings for counseling and psychotherapy about SO, as well educational and social interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Li, Gu; Wong, Wang Ivy
Single-sex schooling has been controversial for decades. The current study investigated the differences in friendships, dating, and past, present, and ideal sexual orientation, between 207 college students who attended single-sex secondary schools and 249 college students who attended coeducational secondary schools in Hong Kong, controlling for personal characteristics such as socioeconomic status. We found that, compared to graduates of coeducational schools, graduates of single-sex schools reported a different gender composition in intimate friendships favoring the same sex, less romantic involvement with other-sex close friends, older age at first date, fewer boyfriends or girlfriends, and more past same-sex sexuality. In contrast, we found no significant differences in the interactions with same-sex versus other-sex friends, most aspects of past or present dating engagement, or self-reported present or ideal sexual orientation. These findings give insight into the interpersonal outcomes of single-sex schooling and fill a gap in previous research which has focused on academic achievement and gender role stereotypes.
Williams, Susan G.
High school students are maturing physically, psychosocially, and sexually. Some may be unsure of their sexual orientation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether students who self-identified as homosexual-lesbian/gay, bisexual (LGB), and unsure of sexual orientation had more stressful life events (SLEs), perceived stress, bullying…
Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng
In this study, we sought to extend the research on self-determination, future orientation, and personal identity construction by integrating the theories on self-determination and future orientation to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the relations between personal identity and the following individual characteristics: Hope, optimism, awareness of self, and perceived choice. 191 university students in China responded surveys in hardcopies on an individual basis. Our SEM results revealed that proximal future orientation influenced the mechanisms through which distal psychological traits affected identity construction. Specifically, hope mediated the effects of self-awareness on the participants' personal identity ratings (b = .45, p identity. This study suggested an extended framework through which we could understand how the interaction between future orientation and self-determination can predict personal identity. The findings have significant implications for interventions in educational settings.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina
The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carrillo, Héctor; Fontdevila, Jorge
The topic of same-sex sexual initiation has generally remained understudied in the literature on sexual identity formation among sexual minority youth. This article analyzes the narratives of same-sex sexual initiation provided by 76 gay and bisexual Mexican immigrant men who participated in interviews for the Trayectos Study, an ethnographic study of sexuality and HIV risk. These participants were raised in a variety of locations throughout Mexico, where they also realized their same-sex attraction and initiated their sexual lives with men. We argue that Mexican male same-sex sexuality is characterized by three distinct patterns of sexual initiation--one heavily-based on gender roles, one based on homosociality, and one based on object choice--which inform the men's interpretations regarding sexual roles, partner preferences, and sexual behaviors. We analyzed the social factors and forms of cultural/sexual socialization that lead sexual minority youth specifically to each of these three patterns of sexual initiation. Our findings confirm the importance of studying same-sex sexual initiation as a topic in its own right, particularly as a tool to gain a greater understanding of the diversity of same-sex sexual experiences and sexual identities within and among ethnic/cultural groups.
Davis, Jessica L.; Gandy, Oscar H., Jr.
Examines the nature of racial group identity in an effort to determine its role in the formation of African-American media evaluations. Views racial identity as one of many forms of individual identity that help to shape our relations with others. Focuses on areas of domestic violence and the image of Black men. (MMU)
Shepler, Dustin; Perrone-McGovern, Kristin
A sample of 791 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years were administered a series of measures to determine their sexual identity development status, global self-esteem, global psychological distress, sexual-esteem and sexual distress. As hypothesized, results indicated no significant difference in terms of psychological distress,…
Full Text Available Variations of sexual-identity development are present in all cultures, as well as in many animal species. Freud, founding father of psychoanalysis, believed that all men have an inherited, bisexual disposition, and that many varieties of love and desire are experienced as alternative pathways to intimacy.In the neuropsychoanalytic model, psychic development starts with the constitutional self. The constitutional self is comprised of the neurobiological factors which contribute to sexual-identity development. These neurobiological factors are focused on biphasic sexual organization in the prenatal phase, based on variations in genes, sex hormones, and brain circuits. This psychosocial construction of sexual identity is determined through contingent mirroring by the parents and peers of the constitutional self. The development of the self—or personal identity—is linked with the development of sexual identity, gender-role identity, and procreative identity. Incongruent mirroring of the constitutional self causes alienation in the development of the self. Such alienation can be treated within the psychoanalytic relationship.This article presents a contemporary, neuropsychoanalytic, developmental theory of male-sexual identity relating to varieties in male-sexual-identity development, with implications for psychoanalytic treatment, and is illustrated with three vugnettes from clinical practice.
Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.
The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…
Lhomond, Brigitte; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Michaels, Stuart
Using data from a large national representative survey on sexual behavior in France (Contexte de la Sexualité en France), this study analyzed the relationship between a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation and psychoactive substance use and depression. The survey was conducted in 2006 by telephone with a random sample of the continental French speaking population between the ages of 18 and 69 years. The sample used for this analysis consisted of the 4,400 men and 5,472 women who were sexually active. A sexual orientation measure was constructed by combining information on three dimensions of sexual orientation: attraction, sexual behavior, and self-definition. Five mutually exclusive groups were defined for men and women: those with only heterosexual behavior were divided in two groups whether or not they declared any same-sex attraction; those with any same-sex partners were divided into three categories derived from their self-definition (heterosexual, bisexual or homosexual). The consumption of alcohol and cannabis, which was higher in the non-exclusively heterosexual groups, was more closely associated with homosexual self-identification for women than for men. Self-defined bisexuals (both male and female) followed by gay men and lesbians had the highest risk of chronic or recent depression. Self-defined heterosexuals who had same-sex partners or attraction had levels of risk between exclusive heterosexuals and self-identified homosexuals and bisexuals. The use of a multidimensional measure of sexual orientation demonstrated variation in substance use and mental health between non-heterosexual subgroups defined in terms of behavior, attraction, and identity.
Martos, Alexander; Nezhad, Sheila; Meyer, Ilan H.
Despite a large body of literature covering sexual identity development milestones, we know little about differences or similarities in patterns of identity development among subgroups of the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) population. For this study, we assessed identity milestones for 396 LGB New Yorkers, ages 18–59. Sexual identity and disclosure milestones, were measured across gender, sexual identity, race/ethnicity, and age cohort subgroups of the LGB sample. Men experienced most sexual identity milestones earlier than women, but they tended to take more time between milestones. LGBs in younger age cohorts experienced sexual identity milestones and disclosure milestones earlier than the older cohorts. Bisexual people experienced sexual identity and disclosure milestones later than gay and lesbian people. Timing of coming out milestones did not differ by race/ethnicity. By comparing differences within subpopulations, the results of this study help build understanding of the varied identity development experiences of people who are often referred to collectively as “the LGB community.” LGB people face unique health and social challenges; a more complete understanding of variations among LGB people allows health professionals and social service providers to provide services that better fit the needs of LGB communities. PMID:27695579
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Dahan, Rachel; Feldman, Rotem; Hermoni, Doron
Gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender (GLBT) patients have unique and different health needs other then those of the heterosexual patient. Although a significant proportion of the population is gay or lesbian, physicians receive little formal training about homosexuality, and the unique health care needs of these patients are often ignored. GLBT patients may have higher rates of depression, suicide attempts, alcoholism, and certain cancers, sexual transmitted and cardiovascular disease. One of the most significant medical risks of these populations is avoidance of routine health care and dissatisfaction due to fear of stigmatization by the medical community. Youth GBLT patients are particularly vulnerable to internal and external pressures, resulting in higher rates of substance and alcohol abuse, suicide, and homelessness. Declining health and loneliness may trouble older GBLT patients, who generally view themselves more positively. Physicians can improve the health care of GBLT patients and their families by maintaining a non-homophobic attitude toward these patients, distinguishing sexual behavior from sexual identity, communicating with gender-neutral terms, and maintaining awareness of how their own attitude affects clinical judgment. Scant research exists with regard to the best ways to teach medical students about the special challenge GBLT patients face. However, the recommendation is to integrate such teaching throughout the entire medical school curriculum. This article includes a summary of the medical literature for the GBLT patients' health care needs and suggests strategies for enhancing the care for this population, as well as incorporating it during the medical education.
Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L
A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.
Gurung, Sitaji; Ventuneac, Ana; Rendina, H Jonathon; Savarese, Elizabeth; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Despite the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell, Don't Pursue (DADT) and the update to the Transgender Policy, there remain concerns about the persistence of military sexual trauma (MST) and sexual orientation discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) service members. A sample of 253 participants (89 women, 164 men) completed an Internet-based survey that assessed the prevalence of sexual orientation discrimination (e.g., offensive speech, physical or discriminatory behaviors) and MST (e.g., sexual harassment and sexual assault). The survey was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. Women and men reported similar levels of sexual orientation discrimination in the military. Participants reported experiencing more threats and intimation, vandalism, and physical assault outside of the military than inside the military ( p sexual harassment and sexual assault) in the military was high among both genders, women were more likely to report experiences of sexual harassment compared to men ( p sexual orientation discrimination among LGBT service members in the military and point to the need for strong accountability and oversight to protect sexual minority persons while they are serving their country.
Herrera, Andrea P
This analysis integrates poststructuralist and symbolic interactionist approaches to the self by incorporating the insights of science and technology studies regarding categorization processes. While the advent of the Internet has freed many individuals from geographical constraints on community formation, the architectures of online platforms produce a technological imperative to name aspects of the self with words. Using sexual identity hashtags on Instagram (e.g., #lesbian) thus performs paradoxical functions: the hashtag both enables the construction of a sexual identity within an affirming community and also reinforces the power relations that compel individuals to name and account for their sexual selves. By illustrating one way sexual identities function in the online lives of young women, this research complicates other scholars' findings that the salience of sexual identity categories is decreasing.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research.
McCormack, Mark; Wignall, Liam
This qualitative research examines the influence of pornography consumption on young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Drawing on 35 in-depth interviews with young men from an elite university in the north-eastern United States, we examine how pornography was experienced as a leisure activity to be consumed in free time. Rather than focusing on the potential harms of pornography, we use an inductive analytic approach to explore the broader range of experiences that participants had, since the time they first consumed pornography. We demonstrate that pornography had educational benefits for these young men, related to their sexual desires, emerging sexual identities and for developing new sexual techniques. This study is part of a growing body of research that seeks to develop a holistic understanding of pornography in society, addressing the absence of the lived experience of the consumer in most pornography research. PMID:28989197
Ponseti, Jorge; Granert, Oliver; Jansen, Olav
in a nonclinical sample of 12 heterosexual men and 14 homosexual men. During fMRI, participants were briefly exposed to pictures of same-sex and opposite-sex genitals. Data analysis involved four steps: (i) differences in the BOLD response to female and male sexual stimuli were calculated for each subject; (ii......) these contrast images were entered into a group analysis to calculate whole-brain difference maps between homosexual and heterosexual participants; (iii) a single expression value was computed for each subject expressing its correspondence to the group result; and (iv) based on these expression values, Fisher...... response patterns of the brain to sexual stimuli contained sufficient information to predict individual sexual orientation with high accuracy. These results suggest that fMRI-based classification methods hold promise for the diagnosis of paraphilic disorders (e.g., pedophilia)....
Kastbom, Åsa A.
Background: Sexual behaviour among schoolchildren and adolescents is a sparsely researched area and there are delicate methodological obstacles and ethical concerns when conducting such research. Still it is a subject that engages both parents and professionals. A sexualized behaviour or an early sexual debut (younger than 14 years) can be a sign of sexual abuse. It is therefore of importance to describe what is common and what is uncommon sexual behaviour among children and what the conseque...
Full Text Available Disabled young people are sexual beings, and deserve equal rights and opportunities to have control over, choices about, and access to their sexuality, sexual expression, and fulfilling relationships throughout their lives. This is critical to their overall physical, emotional, and social health and well-being. However, societal misconceptions of disabled bodies being non-normative, other, or deviant has somewhat shaped how the sexuality of disabled people has been constructed as problematic under the public gaze. The pervasive belief that disabled people are asexual creates barriers to sexual citizenship for disabled young people, thereby causing them to have lower levels of sexual knowledge and inadequate sex education compared to their non-disabled peers. As a consequence, they are more vulnerable to “bad sex”—relationships, which are considered to be exploitative and disempowering in different ways. Access to good sex and relationships education for disabled young people is, therefore, not only important for them to learn about sexual rights, sexual identity, and sexual expression but also about how to ensure their sexual safety. In so doing, it will contribute to the empowerment and societal recognition of disabled people as sexual beings, and also help them resist and report sexual violence. Therefore, it is critical that parents, educationalists, and health and social care professionals are aware and appropriately equipped with knowledge and resources to formally educate disabled young people about sexuality and well-being on par to their non-disabled peers.
Skorska, Malvina N; Bogaert, Anthony F
Studies that have used mostly self-reported height have found that androphilic men and women are shorter than gynephilic men and women, respectively. This study examined whether an objective height difference exists or whether a psychosocial account (e.g., distortion of self-reports) may explain these putative height differences. A total of 863 participants, recruited at a Canadian university, the surrounding region, and through lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) events across Canada, self-reported their height and had their height measured. Androphilic men were shorter, on average, than gynephilic men. There was no objective height difference between gynephilic, ambiphilic, and androphilic women. Self-reported height, statistically controlling for objective height, was not related to sexual orientation. These findings are the first to show an objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. Also, the findings suggest that previous studies using self-reported height found part of a true objective height difference between androphilic and gynephilic men. These findings have implications for existing biological theories of men's sexual orientation development.
Sureerut, Rongruang; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Duangmala, Padoongyot
To determine the prevalence of sexual orientation, identify predictors of being homosexual or bisexual (HB), and assess the association of sexual orientation with sexual risk behaviors among university male students in southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted on third year male university students between June 2008 and February 2009 using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Among 1,101 eligible students, 1,013 (92%) responded The prevalence of heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality among respondents were 90.2%, 6.7%, and 3.1%, respectively giving a prevalence of HB of 9.8%. Significant factors predicting HB included having separated parents. Overall lifetime prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) was 6.3% (2% in heterosexual males and 46.5% among HB males). HB males were more likely to have multiple sex partners and engage in group sex, and less likely to use condoms than were heterosexual males. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among these male students, especially HB, was high.
Full Text Available In this article, I situate the practice of sexual orientation conversion efforts (SOCE, sometimes known as conversion or reparative therapy, within historical, cultural, religious and political attitudes to non-heterosexuality. Using documentary analysis, I investigate the contemporary resistance of two socially conservative organizations: National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH (US and Core Issues Trust (UK, to legal and professional regulation of the sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE which they advocate. A number of themes emerged from the various documentation. The most convincing of these themes is a claim that to provide SOCE is to respect client’s autonomy rights to diminish unwanted sexual attraction, and to live in accordance with the moral principles that they value. I demonstrate that neither NARTH nor Core Issues Trust are consistent in their regard for client autonomy. I suggest that the most plausible reason for these organizations’ emphasis on autonomy and other secular tropes, such as scientific proof and progressive language, is that they provide a smokescreen for conservative Christian values. If we value a world of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Trans rights and recognition, we must counter this backlash against sexual and social justice.
Quinn, Tara L
Research indicates that gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) teens in the care of a northeastern child welfare department do not receive adequate services due to the workers' homophobic attitudes. These teens are at high risk for alcohol and drug abuse, homelessness, prostitution, and suicide. A training module was developed for administrators. Pretest and posttest instruments measured their education and support of GLBTQ issues before and after the training.
Jourian, T. J.
This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.
Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M
When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Ngun, Tuck C; Vilain, Eric
Sexual orientation is one of the largest sex differences in humans. The vast majority of the population is heterosexual, that is, they are attracted to members of the opposite sex. However, a small but significant proportion of people are bisexual or homosexual and experience attraction to members of the same sex. The origins of the phenomenon have long been the subject of scientific study. In this chapter, we will review the evidence that sexual orientation has biological underpinnings and consider the involvement of epigenetic mechanisms. We will first discuss studies that show that sexual orientation has a genetic component. These studies show that sexual orientation is more concordant in monozygotic twins than in dizygotic ones and that male sexual orientation is linked to several regions of the genome. We will then highlight findings that suggest a link between sexual orientation and epigenetic mechanisms. In particular, we will consider the case of women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). These women were exposed to high levels of testosterone in utero and have much higher rates of nonheterosexual orientation compared to non-CAH women. Studies in animal models strongly suggest that the long-term effects of hormonal exposure (such as those experienced by CAH women) are mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. We conclude by describing a hypothetical framework that unifies genetic and epigenetic explanations of sexual orientation and the continued challenges facing sexual orientation research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Yan-hui; Bao, Yu-gang; Chen, Hao; Tan, Hong-zhuan
To explore the relevant factors of the causes of sexual orientations of gay. From March to June 2013, 350 gays were recruited from one music bar and three bath centers where gays frequently visited in Changsha city, by proportional stratified sampling method. Meanwhile, another 332 males who identify themselves as non-homosexuality were also recruited considering the composition of ages, gender and educational background. Questionnaire survey was conducted to all the subjects, with 300 effective ones reclaimed. The questionnaire included the general demographic information, traits of character, the condition of foster in childhood and information of family members. The differences between the gays and non-homosexuality groups were analyzed to explore the causes of the sexual orientations of gays. There were statistical significant differences between gays and non- homosexuality group on following indexes (χ(2) was 59.63, 5.90, 16.01, 84.99, 161.57, 77.77, 112.32, 190.84, 30.10 respectively, all of P books or films about homosexual and experienced sexual pleasure from that before the age of 18. The rate of gays on these indexes was separately 62.3% (187/300), 57.7% (173/300) , 62.3% (187/300) , 63.0% (189/300), 67.3% (202/300) , 62.7% (189/300), 68.0% (204/300), 65.0% (195/300) and the rate on these indexes of non-homosexuality group was separately 21.3% (64/300), 28.0% (84/300) , 25.0% (75/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 31.3% (94/300), 17.7% (53/300) , 12.7% (38/300), 42.7% (128/300) . The rate of gays on these factors:the youngest boy in family, had the father or twin brothers who were homosexual or self identified as gay was 62.7% (188/300), 56.0% (168/300) and 62.0% (18/29) respectively; and the rate was 40.7% (122/300), 4.0% (12/300) and 20.0% (2/10), respectively among non-homosexuality group. The difference showed statistical significance (χ(2) was 34.52, 193.14, 5.27 respectively, all of P gays maybe was family relationship, tend and education since childhood
Thomas, C; Wootten, A C; Robinson, P; Law, P C F; McKenzie, D P
Prostate cancer (PCa) poses a large health burden globally. Research indicates that men experience a range of psychological challenges associated with PCa including changes to identity, self-esteem and body image. The ways in which sexual orientation plays a role in the experience of PCa, and the subsequent impact on quality of life (QoL), body image and self-esteem have only recently been addressed. By addressing treatment modality, where participant numbers were sufficient, we also sought to explore whether gay (homosexual) men diagnosed with PCa (PCaDx) and with a primary treatment modality of surgery would report differences in body image and self-esteem compared with straight (heterosexual) men with PCaDx with a primary treatment modality of surgery, compared with gay and straight men without PCaDx. The results of our study identified overall differences with respect to PCaDx (related to urinary function, sexual function and health evaluation), and sexual orientation (related to self-esteem), rather than interactions between sexual orientation and PCaDx. Gay men with PCaDx exhibited higher levels of urinary functioning than straight men with PCaDx, the difference being reversed for gay and straight men without PCaDx; but this result narrowly failed to achieve statistical significance, suggesting a need for further research, with larger samples. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; August, Elana G
The visibility of a stigmatized identity is central in determining how individuals experience that identity. Sexual minority status (e.g., identifying as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) has traditionally been identified as a concealable stigma, compared with race/ethnicity or physical disability status. This conceptualization fails to recognize, however, the strong link between sexual minority status and a visible stigma: gender nonconformity. Gender nonconformity, or the perception that an individual fails to conform to gendered norms of behavior and appearance, is strongly stigmatized, and is popularly associated with sexual minority status. The hypothesis that harassment due to gender nonconformity mediates the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms was tested. Heterosexual and sexual minority-identified college and university students (N = 251) completed questionnaires regarding their sexual minority identity, experiences of harassment due to gender nonconformity, harassment due to sexual minority status, and depressive symptoms. A mediational model was supported, in which the association between sexual minority identity and depressive symptoms occurred via harassment due to gender nonconformity. Findings highlight harassment due to gender nonconformity as a possible mechanism for exploring variability in depressive symptoms among sexual minorities.
Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel
To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.
Full Text Available Objective. Effectively addressing health disparities experienced by sexual minority populations requires high-quality official data on sexual orientation. We developed a conceptual framework of sexual orientation to improve the quality of sexual orientation data in New Zealand’s Official Statistics System. Methods. We reviewed conceptual and methodological literature, culminating in a draft framework. To improve the framework, we held focus groups and key-informant interviews with sexual minority stakeholders and producers and consumers of official statistics. An advisory board of experts provided additional guidance. Results. The framework proposes working definitions of the sexual orientation topic and measurement concepts, describes dimensions of the measurement concepts, discusses variables framing the measurement concepts, and outlines conceptual grey areas. Conclusion. The framework proposes standard definitions and concepts for the collection of official sexual orientation data in New Zealand. It presents a model for producers of official statistics in other countries, who wish to improve the quality of health data on their citizens.
Pierrehumbert, Janet B.; Bent, Tessa; Munson, Benjamin; Bradlow, Ann R.; Bailey, J. Michael
Vowel production in gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB), and heterosexual speakers was examined. Differences in the acoustic characteristics of vowels were found as a function of sexual orientation. Lesbian and bisexual women produced less fronted /u/ and /opena/ than heterosexual women. Gay men produced a more expanded vowel space than heterosexual men. However, the vowels of GLB speakers were not generally shifted toward vowel patterns typical of the opposite sex. These results are inconsistent with the conjecture that innate biological factors have a broadly feminizing influence on the speech of gay men and a broadly masculinizing influence on the speech of lesbian/bisexual women. They are consistent with the idea that innate biological factors influence GLB speech patterns indirectly by causing selective adoption of certain speech patterns characteristic of the opposite sex. .
Lorenza S Colzato
Full Text Available Homosexuals are believed to have a “sixth sense” for recognizing each other, an ability referred to as gaydar. We considered that being a homosexual might rely on systematic practice of processing relatively specific, local perceptual features, which might lead to a corresponding chronic bias of attentional control. This was tested by comparing male and female homosexuals and heterosexuals--brought up in the same country and culture and matched in terms of race, intelligence, sex, mood, age, personality, religious background, educational style, and socio-economic situation--in their efficiency to process global and local features of hierarchically-constructed visual stimuli. Both homosexuals and heterosexuals showed better performance on global features—the standard global precedence effect. However, this effect was significantly reduced in homosexuals, suggesting a relative preference for detail. Findings are taken to demonstrate chronic, generalized biases in attentional control parameters that reflect the selective reward provided by the respective sexual orientation.
Garcia, Justin R; Lloyd, Elisabeth A; Wallen, Kim; Fisher, Helen E
Despite recent advances in understanding orgasm variation, little is known about ways in which sexual orientation is associated with men's and women's orgasm occurrence. To assess orgasm occurrence during sexual activity across sexual orientation categories. Data were collected by Internet questionnaire from 6,151 men and women (ages 21-65+ years) as part of a nationally representative sample of single individuals in the United States. Analyses were restricted to a subsample of 2,850 singles (1,497 men, 1,353 women) who had experienced sexual activity in the past 12 months. Participants reported their sex/gender, self-identified sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual), and what percentage of the time they experience orgasm when having sex with a familiar partner. Mean occurrence rate for experiencing orgasm during sexual activity with a familiar partner was 62.9% among single women and 85.1% among single men, which was significantly different (F1,2848 = 370.6, P sexual orientation: heterosexual men 85.5%, gay men 84.7%, bisexual men 77.6% (F2,1494 = 2.67, P = 0.07, η(2) = 0.004). For women, however, mean occurrence rate of orgasm varied significantly by sexual orientation: heterosexual women 61.6%, lesbian women 74.7%, bisexual women 58.0% (F2,1350 = 10.95, P sexual orientation, have less predictable, more varied orgasm experiences than do men and that for women, but not men, the likelihood of orgasm varies with sexual orientation. These findings demonstrate the need for further investigations into the comparative sexual experiences and sexual health outcomes of sexual minorities. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun
Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities. © The Author(s) 2014.
Striepe, Meg I; Tolman, Deborah L
Little attention has been given to how femininity and masculinity ideologies impact sexual-identity development. Differentiating violations of conventional femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of an overt process of sexual-identity development in sexual-minority adolescents suggested the possibility of a parallel process among heterosexual adolescents. Based on feminist theory and analysis of heterosexual adolescents narratives about relationships, the importance of negotiating femininity and masculinity ideologies as part of sexual-identity development for all adolescents is described.
Majied, Kamilah F.
This article discusses sexual orientation and gender expression bias as they impact the educational experience of African American students. Sexual orientation and gender expression bias have a unique presentation in Black educational settings. The climate in such settings can be metagrobolized by the combination of distorted notions of Black…
Duryea, Daniel G.; Calleja, Nancy G.; MacDonald, Douglas A.
Results from the 2009 "National College Health Assessment" were analyzed by gender and sexual orientation for college students' nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Male and female students identified as having a minority sexual orientation (gay or bisexual) were significantly more likely to use nonmedical prescription drugs than…
Previous studies have shown that a subset of gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual adults produce distinctive patterns of phonetic variation that allow listeners to detect their sexual orientation from audio-only samples of read speech. The current investigation examined the extent to which judgments of sexual orientation from speech…
Sherwin, Gary; Jennings, Todd
This study examined the coverage of sexual orientation topics within 77 public university secondary teacher preparation programs across seven US states, and represented programs preparing 8,300-11,500 teachers annually. Findings indicated that 40% of programs did not address sexual orientation as a diversity topic. Further, even programs that did…
Hancock, Kristin A.; Gock, Terry S.; Haldeman, Douglas C.
Comments on the original article, "Guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, and bisexual clients," by the American Psychological Association. Guideline 3 of the acknowledges the diversity of human sexual orientation and that "efforts to change sexual orientation have not been shown to be effective or safe" (p. 14). As noted in the…
This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…
Rutter, Tara M; Flentje, Annesa; Dilley, James W; Barakat, Suzanne; Liu, Nancy H; Gross, Margaret S; Muñoz, Ricardo F; Leykin, Yan
Prior research has found higher rates of mental health problems among sexual minority individuals. We examine treatment-seeking for depression, as well as its relationship with sexual orientation, in a large, multilingual, international sample. Participants in an automated, quintilingual internet-based depression screening tool were screened for depression, and completed several background measures, including sexual orientation (with an option to decline to state) and past and current depression treatment seeking. 3695 participants screened positive for current or past depression and responded to the sexual orientation question. Those who declined to state their sexual orientation were far less likely to seek any treatment than individuals endorsing any orientation; they were especially unlikely to seek psychotherapy. Individuals identifying as bisexual sought both psychotherapy and alternative treatments at a higher rate than other groups. An interaction was observed between sexual orientation and gender, such that lesbian women were especially likely to have used psychotherapy. Other variables that emerged as significant predictors of treatment-seeking for depression included age and participant's language. Limitations include possible misinterpretation of translated terms due to regional differences, and possible limits to generalizability due to this study being conducted on the internet. Our results suggest that individuals who decline to state their sexual orientation may be more likely to forgo effective treatments for depression. Further studies of depression service utilization should focus on developing treatment modalities that could better engage sexual minority individuals, especially those who are reluctant to disclose their orientation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…
Meyer, Elizabeth J.
Teacher expression on the subject of sexual orientation is a hotly contested topic that has led to many recent legal challenges in the United States and Canada. The purpose of this article is to offer readers an introduction to Canadian cases regarding teacher expression and sexual orientation and demonstrate how the application of a human rights…
Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon
Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…
Carlos Y Valenzuela
Full Text Available Fraternal birth order (FBO appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1 androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2 non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3 non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4 mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR of older and younger siblings show: (1 a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2 lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3 siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh, where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.
Valenzuela, Carlos Y
Fraternal birth order (FBO) appears as a prenatal cause of 15% of homosexual males (gays) through mnemonic maternal anti-male factors. Non-right-handed men seem to be protected from homosexuality. Four hypotheses are proposed: (1) androgenic factors of non-right-handedness neutralize anti-male factors; (2) non-right-handedness and homosexuality are lethal or produce mental impairment; (3) non-right-handed male embryos are insensitive to anti-male factors; (4) mothers of non-right-handed fetuses do not produce anti-male factors. Studies of the sex ratio (SR) of older and younger siblings show: (1) a significant heterogeneity in the SR of siblings of right or non-right handed heterosexual men and women; (2) lesbians are born among siblings with high SR; (3) siblings of right-handed gays show a higher SR than non-right-handed gays that present a low SR. Based on our discovery of maternal tolerance-rejection processes, associated with genetic systems (ABO, Rh), where zygotes or embryos different from their mother induce better pregnancy and maternal tolerance than do those that share antigens with their mothers, I propose a new explanation for sexual relationships, sexual orientation, handedness and sibling SR. Lesbian embryos could induce tolerance from mothers with anti-female factors. Non-right-handedness could induce maternal tolerance, or change the maternal compatibility of "gay" embryos. Alternatively, gay embryos could be poor inducers of maternal tolerance towards male traits.
This study examined victimisation, substance misuse, relationships, sexual activity, mental health difficulties and suicidal behaviour among adolescents with sexual orientation concerns in comparison to those without such concerns. 1112 Irish students (mean age 14 yrs) in 17 mixed-gender secondary schools completed a self-report questionnaire with standardised scales and measures of psychosocial difficulties. 58 students (5%) reported having concerns regarding their sexual orientation. Compared with their peers, they had higher levels of mental health difficulties and a markedly-increased prevalence of attempted suicide (29% vs. 2%), physical assault (40% vs. 8%), sexual assault (16%vs. 1%) and substance misuse. Almost all those (90%) with sexual orientation concerns reported having had sex compared to just 4% of their peers. These results highlight the significant difficulties associated with sexual orientation concerns in adolescents in Ireland. Early and targeted interventions are essential to address their needs.
Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville
This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…
Boehmer, Ulrike; Glickman, Mark; Winter, Michael
Objective: We conducted a study comparing anxiety and depression by sexual orientation in long-term breast cancer survivors, testing the hypothesis that sexual minority women (e.g., lesbian and bisexual women) have greater levels of anxiety and depression. Method: From a state cancer registry, we recruited 257 heterosexual and 69 sexual minority…
Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana
We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…
Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira; Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva
School has an important role in sexual orientation during adolescence. This study aimed at identifying the knowledge and performance of fundamental and high school's teachers regarding sexuality. Data of this exploratory and descriptive study were obtained though a questionnaire, which was applied to a hundred teachers from the public network school system of the county of Jandira, SP. Results demonstrated that, despite subject relevance for the teachers, they do not have the use of enough knowledge to promote sexual orientation to adolescents, addressing biological issues of sexuality instead of the involving feelings and values. It was concluded that training and education programs about sexuality in adolescence are necessary to this population.
Ghavami, Negin; Katsiaficas, Dalal; Rogers, Leoandra Onnie
Developmental theory and research have often focused on a single social identity category, for example, race or sexual orientation, and examined the consequences of that category on life outcomes. Yet intersectional models of social disadvantage (eg, Cole, 2009; Crenshaw, 1995; King, 1988) suggest that social categories combine to shape the experiences and life outcomes of individuals across life domains. In this chapter, we review empirical research that offers insight into the intersectionality of social identities across three critical developmental periods, namely, middle childhood, adolescence, and emerging adulthood. We also consider the consequences of intersecting identities across several life domains, including intergroup relations and political and civic engagement. Recognizing that the body of work on social identities is expansive, we focus our review on race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and immigrant status. In each developmental stage, we discuss what we know, drawing from the limited empirical literature, and offer suggestions on where we need to go moving forward. We conclude that research that focuses on as a single category and ignores the specific domain of development provides an incomplete and inaccurate picture that will hinder efforts to develop culturally appropriate and clinically effective prevention and intervention programs to meet the needs of our diverse children and youth living in the United States. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media content depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of the personal factor impersonal sex orientation (IS) and the situational factor multitasking in the effect of sexual media content
Boot, I.; Peter, J.; van Oosten, J.M.F.
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether responses to sexual media depend on personal and situational factors. Specifically, we studied the role of sociosexual orientation (i.e., personal factor) and multitasking (i.e., situational factor) in the effects of sexual media content on
Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.
Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic fre...
Viana, Joseph; Grant, David; Cochran, Susan D.; Lee, Annie C.; Ponce, Ninez A.
Objectives. We explored changes in sexual orientation question item completion in a large statewide health survey. Methods. We used 2003 to 2011 California Health Interview Survey data to investigate sexual orientation item nonresponse and sexual minority self-identification trends in a cross-sectional sample representing the noninstitutionalized California household population aged 18 to 70 years (n = 182 812 adults). Results. Asians, Hispanics, limited-English-proficient respondents, and those interviewed in non-English languages showed the greatest declines in sexual orientation item nonresponse. Asian women, regardless of English-proficiency status, had the highest odds of item nonresponse. Spanish interviews produced more nonresponse than English interviews and Asian-language interviews produced less nonresponse when we controlled for demographic factors and survey cycle. Sexual minority self-identification increased in concert with the item nonresponse decline. Conclusions. Sexual orientation nonresponse declines and the increase in sexual minority identification suggest greater acceptability of sexual orientation assessment in surveys. Item nonresponse rate convergence among races/ethnicities, language proficiency groups, and interview languages shows that sexual orientation can be measured in surveys of diverse populations. PMID:25790399
Logie, Carmen H; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Wang, Ying; Kaida, Angela; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Webster, Kath; Conway, Tracey; Loutfy, Mona
Sexual orientation differences in health and wellbeing among women living with HIV (WLH) are underexplored. Limited research available, however, suggests that sexual minority WLH may experience barriers to HIV care. Cross-sectional baseline data was analyzed from a Canadian cohort study with WLH (sexual minority women [SMW]: n = 180; heterosexual women: n = 1240). SMW (median age 38 years, IQR 13) included bisexual (58.9%), lesbian (17.8%) and other sexualities (23.3%). In multivariable analyses adjusting for age, poverty, education, and ethnicity, SMW identity was associated with increased odds of: clinical (80% vs. 100% antiretroviral adherence), intrapersonal (previous/current injection drug use [IDU] vs. no IDU history, depression, lower resilience), interpersonal (childhood abuse, sex work, adulthood abuse), and structural (HIV support services barriers, unstable housing, racial discrimination, gender discrimination) factors in comparison with heterosexual identity. Sexual minority WLH experience social and health disparities relative to heterosexual WLH, highlighting the need for interventions to promote health equity.
Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…
Mosack, Katie E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Petroll, Andrew E
Given extant health disparities among women who belong to the sexual minority, we must understand the ways in which access to and satisfaction with health care contribute to such disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore how sexual minority women's (SMW) health care experiences compared with those of their heterosexually identified counterparts. We also sought to investigate whether there were differences within SMW in this regard. Finally, we explored whether participant satisfaction and comfort with health care providers (HCPs) differed depending upon HCP knowledge of participants' sexual orientation. We administered surveys to 420 women including lesbian, gay, bisexual, or other "queer" identified women (n = 354) and heterosexually identified women (n = 66). Contrary to our expectations, we found that SMW were as likely to have had a recent health care appointment, to have been recommended and to have received similar diagnostic and preventive care, and to feel comfortable discussing their sexual health with their HCPs. They were, however, less likely to report being satisfied with their HCPs. We found no differences between lesbian SMW and non-lesbian SMW with respect to these indicators. We found important differences with respect to sexual orientation disclosure and health care satisfaction, however. Those participants whose HCPs purportedly knew of their minority sexual orientation reported greater satisfaction with their HCPs and greater comfort discussing their sexual health than those whose providers were presumably unaware. We discuss important clinical and research implications of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Sleigh, Adrian
Drawing upon quantitative and qualitative data we explore perspectives on and experiences of sexual lifestyles and relationships among more than 1,750 adolescents aged 17-20 years who reside in urban Chiang Mai, Thailand. We focus on respondents’ representations and understandings of their sexual/gender identities derived mainly from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, supplemented with observations and field notes. Our results show that while many young Thais described themselves as heterosexual males or females others described themselves as gay, kathoey, tom, dii, bisexual or something else. Some were still questioning their own identities. The terms gay, kathoey, tom and dii are commonly used by these Thais to describe a range of sexual/gender identities relating to persons who are sexually or romantically attracted to the same biological sex. We use case studies to illustrate the distinctive characterizations, sexual lifestyles and relationships of each of these identities. We conclude that the sexual lifestyles encountered among Northern Thai non-heterosexual adolescents could lead to negative health consequences and indicated a need for improved relationship education, counselling and sensitive sexual health services. PMID:20665299
Shehadeh, Nancy; McCoy, H Virginia
Migrant workers have been shown to be at a heightened level of risk for HIV, and ethnic identity has been posited to have an impact on engagement in risky sexual behaviors. Our longitudinal study examined associations between baseline and short-term changes in ethnic identity and high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline (n = 431) and 6-month assessment (n = 270) data were obtained from a larger HIV prevention study conducted among African American and Hispanic migrant workers. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of covariance and multiple linear regressions were used. Ethnic identity explore, a subscale of ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of overall sexual risk [F(8, 422) = 6.953, p AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chen, Jen-Hao; Shiu, Cheng-Shi
Sexual minorities often experience poorer health than non-sexual minorities. However, extant knowledge remains limited regarding the sleep characteristics, a risk factor for chronic diseases and excess mortality, of sexual minorities compared with non-sexual minorities at the population level. This study analyzed the 2013-2014 National Health Interview Survey, Adult Sample (n=68,960) to examine the reported sleep duration and sleep disturbances (i.e., not feeling rested, difficulty falling asleep, and waking up at night) by sexual orientation (i.e., homosexual [n=1,149], bisexual [n=515], and other sexual minorities [n=144]). Statistical analysis, conducted in 2015, used multinomial logistic and logistic regressions to estimate the associations between sexual orientation and sleep variables. Adult sexual minorities had higher risks of sleep disturbances than heterosexual adults. Differences in SES and physical and mental health conditions partly explained the gaps. Sexual minority women had greater odds of waking up at night than sexual minority men did, but sexual minority adults who were also racial minorities showed no differences in odds of sleep disturbances compared to white sexual minority adults. Results found that sexual orientation was not associated with an increased risk of short or long sleep duration. This study documented substantial disparities in sleep disturbances between sexual minorities and non-sexual minorities. These gaps cannot simply be explained by social and demographic factors. Interventions that target sexual minorities should pay attention to disparities in sleep and investigate methods to promote sleep health of sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tskhay, Konstantin O; Krendl, Anne C; Rule, Nicholas O
Although studies have shown that sexual orientation can be judged from faces, this research has not considered how age-related differences in perceivers or targets affect such judgments. In the current work, we evaluated whether accuracy differed among young adults (YA) and older adults (OA) for young and old men's faces by recruiting a sample of YA and OA in the lab, a community sample of sexual minority men, and a sample of online participants. We found that OA and YA judged sexual orientation with similar accuracy. Perceptions of gender atypicality mediated the difference in judging older and younger targets' sexual orientation. Although participants used positive affect to correctly discern sexual orientation regardless of target age, perceptions of masculinity were valid only for judgments of YA. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.
Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196
Sanders, G; Wright, M
With each of the tasks in the present studies we expected to find the reported sex difference between heterosexual women and heterosexual men and we predicted a sexual orientation effect with the performance of homosexual men being similar to that of heterosexual women and different from that of heterosexual men. Study 1 aimed to replicate earlier findings by recording the performance of a group of homosexual men on a visuospatial task, the Vincent Mechanical Diagrams Test (VMDT), a dot detection divided visual field measure of functional cerebral asymmetry, and on five subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). For each task the profile of scores obtained for the homosexual men was similar to that of heterosexual women in that they scored lower than heterosexual men on the VMDT, they showed less asymmetry, and they recorded a higher Verbal than Performance IQ on the WAIS. In Study 2, a male-biased targeted throwing task favored heterosexual men while, in contrast, on the female-biased Purdue Pegboard single peg condition heterosexual men were outperformed by heterosexual women and homosexual men. On neither of these two tasks did the performances of homosexual men and heterosexual women differ. One task, manual speed, yielded neither sex nor sexual orientation differences. Another, the Purdue Pegboard assemblies condition, revealed a sex difference but no sexual orientation difference. Failure to obtain a sexual orientation difference in the presence of a sex difference suggests that the sexual orientation effect may be restricted to a subset of sexually dimorphic tasks.
Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fu, Tsung-Chieh Jane; Schick, Vanessa; Reece, Michael; Sanders, Stephanie; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Although a large body of previous research has examined sexual behavior and its relation to risk in men of diverse sexual identities, most studies have relied on convenience sampling. As such, the vast majority of research on the sexual behaviors of gay and bisexual men, in particular, might not be generalizable to the general population of these men in the United States. This is of particular concern because many studies are based on samples of men recruited from relatively "high-risk" venues and environments. To provide nationally representative baseline rates for sexual behavior in heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men in the United States and compare findings on sexual behaviors, relationships, and other variables across subgroups. Data were obtained from the 2012 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior, which involved the administration of an online questionnaire to a nationally representative probability sample of women and men at least 18 years old in the United States, with oversampling of self-identified gay and bisexual men and women. Results from the male participants are included in this article. Measurements include demographic characteristics, particularly sexual identity, and their relations to diverse sexual behaviors, including masturbation, mutual masturbation, oral sex, vaginal sex, and anal sex. Behaviors with male and female partners were examined. Men of all self-identified sexual identities reported engaging in a range of sexual behaviors (solo and partnered). As in previous studies, sexual identity was not always congruent for gender of lifetime and recent sexual partners. Patterns of sexual behaviors and relationships vary among heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Several demographic characteristics, including age, were related to men's sexual behaviors. The results from this probability study highlight the diversity in men's sexual behaviors across sexual identities, and these data allow generalizability to the broader population of
Charlton, Brittany M; Reisner, Sari L; Agénor, Madina; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn
This study sought to examine how human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may differ across sexual orientation groups (e.g., bisexuals compared to heterosexuals)-particularly in boys and men, about whom little is known. Data were from a prospective cohort of 10,663 U.S. females and males enrolled in the Growing Up Today Study followed from 1996 to 2014. Participants were aged 11-24 years when the vaccine was approved for females in 2006 and 14-27 years when approved for males in 2009. In addition to reporting sexual orientation identity/attractions, participants reported sex of lifetime sexual partners. Log-binominal models were used to examine HPV vaccination across sexual orientation groups. Among females, 56% received ≥1 dose. In contrast, 8% of males obtained ≥1 dose; HPV vaccination initiation was especially low among completely heterosexual males. After adjusting for potential confounders, completely heterosexual (risk ratio [RR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.45 [0.30-0.68]) and mostly heterosexual (RR; 95% CI: 0.44 [0.25-0.78]) males were half as likely to have received even a single dose compared to gay males. Compared to lesbians, no differences were observed for completely heterosexual or bisexual females, but mostly heterosexual females were 20% more likely to have received at least one dose. HPV vaccination rates in the U.S. are strikingly low and special attention is needed for boys and men, especially those who do not identify as gay. Vaccinating everyone, regardless of sex/gender and/or sexual orientation, will not only lower that individual's susceptibility but also decrease transmission to partners, females and/or males, to help eradicate HPV through herd immunity.
Oswalt, Sara B.; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea
Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health…
Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don
Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602
Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P; Scherer, Emily A; Sarda, Vishnudas; Austin, S Bryn
Sexual minorities (mostly heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) are more likely than heterosexuals to have adverse mental health, which may be related to minority stress. We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority women and men, aged 22-30 years, from Wave 2010 of the Growing Up Today Study, to examine associations between sexual minority stressors and mental health. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors (earlier timing of sexual orientation developmental milestones categorized into early adolescence, middle adolescence, late adolescence/young adulthood; greater sexual orientation mobility; more bullying victimization) would be positively associated with mental health outcomes (depressive and anxious symptoms). Linear regression models stratified by gender and sexual orientation were fit via generalized estimating equations and controlled for age and race/ethnicity. Models were fit for each stressor predicting each mental health outcome. Reaching sexual minority milestones in early versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive and anxious symptoms among lesbians and gay men. Reaching sexual minority milestones in late adolescence/young adulthood versus middle adolescence was associated with greater depressive symptoms among lesbians, but fewer depressive and anxious symptoms among gay men. Greater sexual orientation mobility was associated with greater depressive symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. More bullying victimization was associated with greater depressive symptoms among bisexual women and with greater anxious symptoms among mostly heterosexual women. Sexual minority stressors are associated with adverse mental health among some sexual minority young adults. More research is needed to understand what may be protecting some subgroups from the mental health effects of sexual minority stressors.
Scott, Roger L; Lasiuk, Gerri; Norris, Colleen
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and depression in a nationally representative population to determine if sexual minorities report higher levels of depression than the remainder of the population. Depression is a highly prevalent and disabling chronic disorder worldwide. Prior research utilizing national population samples have reported that members of sexual minorities are at higher risk for depression when compared to heterosexual people. More recent studies have revealed differences in depression risk based on sexual orientation, sexual activity and sex. There have been significant shifts in societal attitudes towards sexual minorities in recent decades. Continuing research into predictors for reporting depression amongst sexual minorities is needed. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cycles 2005-2012 were used to identify sexual minority status based on declared sexual orientation and presence of same-sex sexual activity. Complex samples logistic and multivariate regression models were used to predict depression adjusted for sexual orientation, sexual activity, age, sex, marital status, education, income, race/ethnicity, employment and health status. Sexual orientation was not a significant independent predictor of depressive symptoms overall. Gay men reported lower levels of depressive symptoms than heterosexual men. In the sex stratified analyses, men who reported having sex with men were five times more likely to report depressive symptomatology compared to men who reported opposite sex partners (2005-2008 adjusted odds ratios: 5·00; 95% confidence interval: 1·44-17·38; 2009-2012 adjusted odds ratios: 5·10; 95% confidence interval: 1·33-19·54) after controlling for sexual orientation. Results of our analyses indicate that homosexually experienced heterosexual men appear to be at highest risk for depression. Furthermore, reported physical health status was a significant independent predictor
Taylor, Oscar; Rapsey, Charlene M; Treharne, Gareth J
To investigate inclusion of sexuality and gender identity content, attitudes and barriers to inclusion of content in preclinical curricula of New Zealand medical schools from the perspective of key teaching staff. Staff responsible for curriculum oversight at New Zealand's two medical schools were invited to complete a mixed-methods survey about sexuality and gender identity content in their modules. Of 24 respondents, the majority included very little content relating to sexuality or gender identity (33%) or none at all (54%). This content was deemed important by most participants (69%), and none believed there should be less such content in their curriculum. Time was reported to be the main barrier limiting inclusion of such content. Our finding of limited content is consistent with international literature. Our findings extend the literature by revealing that barriers to greater inclusion of content are not due to overt negative attitudes. Staff responsible for preclinical medical curriculum oversight have positive attitudes about content relating to sexuality and gender identity but perceive curriculum space to be a limiting barrier. This is important as it informs approaches to change. Future interventions with medical schools should focus on methods to increase diverse content as part of existing teaching, education to increase knowledge of LGBTQI relevant material and potentially incorporate strategies used to address unconscious bias. Addressing the perceived barriers of time constraints and lack of relevance is required to ensure medical students receive training to develop the competencies to provide positive healthcare experiences for all patients regardless of sexuality and gender identity.
Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita P
Research on self-perceived sexual attractiveness has predominantly focused on the importance of physical appearance, overlooking nonphysical traits that may contribute to these self-perceptions. The present study examined and compared the importance of a variety of traits for self-perceived sexual attractiveness. Self-identified heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men (N = 1,801) and heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual women (N = 1,092) completed an online questionnaire examining self-perceived sexual attractiveness, body esteem, sexual esteem, adherence to gender norms, and sexual experience. Body esteem and sexual esteem were significant predictors of self-perceived sexual attractiveness, regardless of gender and sexual orientation. Adhering to a masculine gender norm was a significant predictor among all groups (to varying extents) but heterosexual women. Adhering to a feminine gender norm was a significant predictor among heterosexual men and bisexual women. Finally, sexual experience was a significant predictor for all men and bisexual women. Furthermore, while body esteem was a predictor across all groups, for most individuals it did not appear to be of primary importance, with either sexual esteem or masculinity proving to be of greater importance. These findings suggest the need to consider traits related to both physical and nonphysical factors for improving an individual's self-perceived sexual attractiveness.
Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D
Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.
Hemalatha, Dr K; Sundaresh, Noopura
To understand the complexity of sexual harassment it requires more complex models but the general problem in the models of sexual harassment in the literature today is their over simplicity. The research paper examines three existing models of sexual harassment from the literature- the psychological model, the organizational model, and the socio-cultural model. From the psychological models, the author examines the impact that "attitudes towards women" has upon the presence of sexual harassme...
Lechuga, Julia; Zea, María Cecilia
Individuals who disclose their sexual orientation are more likely to also disclose their HIV status. Disclosure of HIV-serostatus is associated with better health outcomes. The goal of this study was to build and test comprehensive models of sexual orientation that included 8 theory-informed predictors of disclosure to mothers, fathers, and closest friends in a sample of HIV-positive Latino gay and bisexual men. US acculturation, gender non-conformity to hegemonic masculinity in self-presentation, comfort with sexual orientation, gay community involvement, satisfaction with social support, sexual orientation and gender of the closest friend emerged as significant predictors of disclosure of sexual orientation. PMID:22690708
Ivory, Adrienne Holz
This study examines how sexual orientation of couples featured in magazine advertisements affects heterosexual viewers' responses using the elaboration likelihood model as a framework. A 3 × 2 × 2 × 3 experiment tested effects of sexual orientation, argument strength, involvement, and attitudes toward homosexuality on heterosexuals' attitudes toward the couple, advertisement, brand, and product, purchase intentions, and recall. Results indicate that consumers were accepting of ads with lesbian portrayals. Participants showed more negative attitudes toward gay male portrayals, but attitudes toward heterosexual and lesbian ads were similar. This effect was moderated by participants' attitudes toward homosexuals. Low-involvement consumers showed more negative attitudes toward homosexual portrayals than toward heterosexual portrayals, indicating that sexual orientation may have served as a peripheral cue negatively impacting attitudes toward the couple and ad under low elaboration. These effects were not observed for attitudes toward the brand and product, purchase intentions, or recall.
While all mental phenomena must have an ultimate biological substrate, the precise contribution of biological factors to the development of sexual orientation remains to be elucidated. Does biology merely provide the slate of neural circuitry upon which sexual orientation is inscribed by experience? Do biological factors directly wire the brain so that it will support a particular orientation? Or do biological factors influence sexual orientation only indirectly, perhaps by influencing personality variables that in turn influence how one interacts with and shapes the environment as it contributes to the social relationships and experiences that shape sexual orientation as it emerges developmentally? Recent neurostructural and genetic linkage evidence pertaining to sexual orientation must be viewed tentatively until it has been adequately corroborated and integrated with psychological and cultural models. Moreover, even a reliable and robust correlation between a biological marker and sexual orientation would be equally compatible with the second and third possibilities delineated above. Yet if the third possibility more closely approximates reality, the search for predisposing biological factors will result in incomplete and misleading findings until their interactions with environmental factors are taken into account and controlled for in adequate longitudinal studies.
Full Text Available Although some are excited about the possibility of using current scientific research into the biological causes of sexual orientation to ground rights claims, I argue that basing rights claims on this research is unwise because this research, specifically the hormonal, genetic, and structural research, is organized around the inversion assumption, a conceptual scheme within which some aspect of the biology of gay men and lesbians is thought to be inverted along sex lines.While there are many reasons to worry about the use of the inversion assumption, I focus on problems that arise from a further set of claims that must be assumed in order to make the use of the inversion assumption coherent. This further set of assumptions includes the claims (1 that heterosexuality is the standard state and that (2 this standard state is sexually-dimorphic and (3 deterministic. I argue that this set of assumptions is problematic because it results in ideological consequences that are both sexist and heterosexist. Plusieurs militants et militantes croient que la découverte d’un siège biologique de l’homosexualité permettra aux personnes homosexuelles de revendiquer leurs droits. Cependant, nous estimons qu’il est problématique de fonder ces revendications sur des recherches reposant sur certaines hypothèses qui sont implicites. En particulier, la notion d’inversion (inversion assumption joue un rôle clef dans ces recherches. Ce qui veut dire que le schème conceptuel qui cadre cette recherche scientifique suppose que certains traits des hommes et des femmes homosexuelles sont inversés. Donc, les mâles homosexuels jouent le rôle de la femelle et les lesbiennes prennent celui du mâle dans la relation de couple. Pour que ce schème soit cohérent, plusieurs autres suppositions doivent être prises pour acquises et nous discutons trois d’entre-elles. En premier lieu, on suppose que l’hétérosexualité est la norme de base; deuxièmement que
Byron, Reginald A; Lowe, Maria R; Billingsley, Brianna; Tuttle, Nathan
This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how heterosexual, bisexual, and gay students rate and describe a Southern, religiously affiliated university's sexual orientation climate. Using qualitative data, queer theory, and the concept tyranny of sexualized spaces, we explain why non-heterosexual students have more negative perceptions of the university climate than heterosexual male students, in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Although heterosexual students see few problems with the campus sexual orientation climate, bisexual men and women describe being challenged on the authenticity of their orientation, and lesbian and, to a greater extent, gay male students report harassment and exclusion in a number of settings. These distinct processes are influenced by broader heteronormative standards. We also shed much-needed light on how gendered sexual performativity double standards within an important campus microclimate (fraternity parties) contribute to creating a tyrannical sexualized space and negatively affect overall campus climate perceptions.
[The association of bullying with suicide ideation, plan, and attempt among adolescents with GLB or unsure sexual identity, heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior, or heterosexual identity without same-sex attraction or behavior].
Montoro, Richard; Thombs, Brett; Igartua, Karine J
Context Bullying is a known risk factor for suicidality, and suicide is the second leading cause of death for adolescents. Both are increased in sexual minority youth (SMY). As SMY are comprised of youth who self-identify as gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) or who have same-sex attractions or behaviors, our previous finding that different subgroups have different risks for suicidality is understandable. Given that the difference was along sexual identity lines (GLB vs heterosexual SMY), the analysis of bullying data in the same subgroups was felt to be important.Objective To compare the association of bullying and suicide among heterosexual students without same-sex attractions or behaviors, heterosexual students with same-sex attractions and behaviors, and students with gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) or unsure sexual identities.Design The 2004 Quebec Youth Risk Behavior Survey (QYRBS) questionnaire was based on the 2001 Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and included items assessing the three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior), health risk behaviors, experiences of harassment, and suicidal ideation, plans and attempts.Methods A total of 1852 students 14-18 years of age from 14 public and private high schools in Montréal Québec were surveyed anonymously during the 2004-2005 academic year.Main outcome measure Self reports of suicidal ideation, suicidal plan and suicide attempts in the last 12 months.Results In all, 117 students (6.3%) had a non-heterosexual identity (GLB or unsure) and 115 students (6.3%) had a heterosexual identity with same-sex attraction or behavior. Bullying occurred in 24% of heterosexual students without same-sex attraction or behavior, 32% of heterosexual students with same-sex attraction or behavior, and 48% of non-heterosexually identified students. In multivariable analysis, the common risk factors of age, gender, depressed mood, drug use, fighting, physical and sexual abuse, and
Cunningham, George B
Drawing from creative capital theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which sexual orientation diversity and commitment to diversity were predictive of workplaces that fostered creativity. Data were collected from 653 senior level athletic administrators and aggregated to the athletic department level of analysis (n = 199). Moderated regression indicated that sexual orientation diversity did not influence the presence of a creative work environment. There was however, a significant sexual orientation diversity × commitment to diversity interaction. When commitment to diversity was high, there was a positive association between sexual orientation diversity and a creative work environment; on the other hand, when commitment to diversity was low, the aforementioned relationship was negative. Results provide support for the notion that all diversity forms can be a source of enrichment and understanding, thereby benefiting the workplace.
Hegarty, P; Pratto, F
Previous studies which have measured beliefs about sexual orientation with either a single item, or a one-dimensional scale are discussed. In the present study beliefs were observed to vary along two dimensions: the "immutability" of sexual orientation and the "fundamentality" of a categorization of persons as heterosexuals and homosexuals. While conceptually related, these two dimensions were empirically distinct on several counts. They were negatively correlated with each other. Condemning attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were correlated positively with fundamentality but negatively with immutability. Immutability, but not fundamentality, affected the assimilation of a biological determinist argument. The relationship between sexual orientation beliefs and anti-gay prejudice is discussed and suggestions for empirical studies of sexual orientation beliefs are presented.
Mustanski, Brian S; Chivers, Meredith L; Bailey, J Michael
This article provides a comprehensive review and critique of biological research on sexual orientation published over the last decade. We cover research investigating (a) the neurohormonal theory of sexual orientation (psychoneuroendocrinology, prenatal stress, cerebral asymmetry, neuroanatomy, otoacoustic emissions, anthropometrics), (b) genetic influences, (c) fraternal birth-order effects, and (d) a putative role for developmental instability. Despite inconsistent results across both studies and traits, some support for the neurohormonal theory is garnered, but mostly in men. Genetic research using family and twin methodologies has produced consistent evidence that genes influence sexual orientation, but molecular research has not yet produced compelling evidence for specific genes. Although it has been well established that older brothers increase the odds of homosexuality in men, the route by which this occurs has not been resolved. We conclude with an examination of the limitations of biological research on sexual orientation, including measurement issues (paper and pencil, cognitive, and psychophysiological), and lack of research on women.
Conclusion: Our preliminary data showed that sexual orientation influenced the BMI of women with PCOS, but did not affect hyperandrogenism-related clinical or biochemical characteristics. This observation requires further confirmation.
Steensma, T.D.; van den Ende, J..; Verhulst, F.C.; Cohen-Kettenis, P.T.
Introduction. Several retrospective and prospective studies have reported on the association between childhood gender variance and sexual orientation and gender discomfort in adulthood. In most of the retrospective studies, samples were drawn from the general population. The samples in the
Carper, Teresa L Marino; Negy, Charles; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey
The current study explored the relation between sexual orientation, media persuasion, and eating and body image concerns among 78 college men (39 gay; 39 straight). Participants completed measures of sexual orientation, eating disorder symptoms, appearance-related anxiety, perceived importance of physical attractiveness, perceptions of media influence, and media exposure. Gay men scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and body image-related anxiety than their straight counterparts. Additionally, perceptions of media influence were higher for gay men, and significantly mediated the relation between sexual orientation and eating and body image concerns. Sexual orientation also moderated the relation between perceived media influence and beliefs regarding the importance of physical attractiveness, as this relation was significant for gay men, but not straight men. The current findings suggest that gay men's increased vulnerability to media influence partially accounts for the relatively high rate of eating pathology observed in this population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article explores whether sexual orientation, surrogate representation, and political factors affect legislators' work on gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) interests, and whether the latter explains away the influence of sexual orientation. A survey of openly GLB state legislators and their colleagues was conducted to measure legislators' campaign issues, legislative priorities, surrogate representation, and ambition. This information is supplemented with bill introduction and district data. The results indicate that legislators' sexual orientation strongly influences their work on GLB issues and although surrogate representation and electoral considerations also affect GLB work, they do not explain away the importance of sexual orientation. The implications of this for the relationship between descriptive and substantive representation are explored.
Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the associatio...
Mattila, Aino K; Fagerholm, Riitta; Santtila, Pekka; Miettinen, Päivi J; Taskinen, Seppo
Gender identity and gender role orientation were assessed in 24 female assigned patients with disorders of sex development. A total of 16 patients were prenatally exposed to androgens, of whom 15 had congenital adrenal hyperplasia and 1 was virilized due to maternal tumor. Eight patients had 46,XY karyotype, of whom 5 had partial and 3 had complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. Gender identity was measured by the 27-item Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults with 167 female medical students as controls, and gender role was assessed by the femininity and masculinity subscales of the 30-item Bem Sex Role Inventory with 104 female and 64 male medical students as controls. No patient reached the cutoff for gender identity disorder on the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire for Adolescents and Adults. However, patients with 46,XY karyotype demonstrated a somewhat more conflicted gender identity, although the overall differences were relatively small. As to gender role orientation, patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome had high scores on the femininity and masculinity scales of the Bem Sex Role Inventory, which made them the most androgynous group. Our findings, although clinically not clear cut, suggest that patients with disorders of sex development are a heterogeneous group regarding gender identity and gender role outcomes, and that this issue should be discussed with the family when treatment plans are made. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Pécoud, P; Pralong, F; Bauquis, O; Stiefel, F
Gender identity disorder is defined as a permanent desire to relieve one's own sexual features to acquire the sexual features and line to life of the opposite sex. The diagnosis is based on the psychiatric evaluation and treatment on an interdisciplinary approach by endocrinologists, surgeons and psychiatrists, and can be conceptualized into distinct phases: diagnostic evaluation, real life experience, hormonal treatment and surgery. Multiples challenges have to be faced, especially by the psychiatrist who follows the patient during the whole process.
Moe, Jeffry L.; Reicherzer, Stacee; Dupuy, Paula J.
Many frameworks exist to explain and describe the phenomenon of same-sex sexuality as it applies to human development. This conceptual article provides a critical overview and synthesis of previous models to serve as a theoretical bridge for the suggested multiple continua model of sexual and relational orientations. Recommendations for how…
Boladale, Mapayi; Olakunle, Oginni; Olutayo, Aloba; Adesanmi, Akinsulore
Sexual orientation is an individual's pattern of physical and emotional arousal toward members of the same and/or opposite gender. To determine the pattern of sexual orientation and the relationship between sexual orientation and quality of life among a sample of OAU students. A descriptive cross sectional study among 481 students of OAU using a multistage sampling technique. They completed a Socio-demographic data schedule, questions on sexual orientation and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief version (WHO QOL-BREF). 4.9% of the sample self-identified as bisexual while 0.1% self-identified as gay/lesbian. 11.8% of the respondents reported varying degrees of attraction to the opposite gender. The mean age of sexual debut was 17.62 (±4.05). Those who self-identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual had a lower average score on all domains of the WHO QOL-BREF. Same sex sexual attraction and practice occur among young people in Nigeria and this has sexual and reproductive health implications. GLB youth report a lower QOL compared to heterosexual counterparts and this may suggest some distress among this vulnerable group. More studies should be undertaken to explore issues raised in planning interventions and health services that would improve safe sexual practices within this group.
Jennings, Todd; Sherwin, Gary
This investigation is a descriptive study documenting the inclusion of sexual orientation (gay and lesbian) topics in a sample of 65 public university elementary teacher preparation programs across the USA (representing the preparation of 14,000-19,000 new teachers annually). Findings indicate that only 55.6% of programs address sexual orientation…
VanKim, Nicole A; Erickson, Darin J; Eisenberg, Marla E; Lust, Katherine; Rosser, B R Simon; Laska, Melissa N
Examine relationships between weight-related factors and weight status, body dissatisfaction, chronic health conditions, and quality of life across sexual orientation and gender. Two- and four-year college students participated in the College Student Health Survey (n = 28,703; 2009-2013). Risk differences were calculated to estimate relationships between behavioral profiles and weight status, body satisfaction, diagnosis of a chronic condition, and quality of life, stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Four behavioral profiles, characterized as "healthier eating habits, more physically active," "healthier eating habits," "moderate eating habits," and "unhealthy weight control," were utilized based on latent class analyses, estimated from nine weight-related behavioral survey items. Sexual orientation differences in weight and quality of life were identified. For example, sexual minority groups reported significantly poorer quality of life than their heterosexual counterparts (females: 22.5%-38.6% (sexual minority) vs. 19.8% (heterosexual); males: 14.3%-26.7% (sexual minority) vs. 11.8% (heterosexual)). Compared with the "healthier eating habits, more physically active" profile, the "unhealthy weight control" profile was associated with obesity, poor body satisfaction, and poor quality of life in multiple gender/sexual orientation subgroups. Interventions are needed to address obesity, body dissatisfaction, and poor quality of life among sexual minority college students. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Calzo, Jerel P; Austin, S Bryn; Micali, Nadia
Much of the research on sexual orientation disparities in eating disorder behaviors has been conducted in the USA, Canada, and Australia. Data on the associations of sexual orientation and eating disorder symptoms among adolescents in the UK are lacking. Participants were children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a youth cohort born 1991-1992 (n = 5048; 53% female; 12% sexual minority). Sexual orientation was assessed at 16 years. Eating disorder symptoms were assessed at 14 and 16 years. Multivariable regression models (adjusting for BMI, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) examined associations between sexual orientation and (1) odds of past-year purging and binge eating, and (2) mean differences in body dissatisfaction, pressure to increase muscularity (boys only), and Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire subscales. At age 14, gay and bisexual boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater body dissatisfaction than their same-gender heterosexual peers. All sexual minority boys and mostly heterosexual girls reported greater mean dysfunctional eating behaviors than their same-gender heterosexual peers. At age 16, gay and bisexual boys had 12.5 times the odds of heterosexual boys of binge eating; mostly heterosexual boys had over three times the odds of reporting binge eating. Sexual minority girls had over twice the odds of heterosexual girls of purging and binge eating. By mid-adolescence, sexual minority youth in the UK had elevated risk for eating disorder symptoms, suggesting the need for early prevention efforts.
Rahman, Qazi; Newland, Cherie; Smyth, Beatrice Mary
Prior research has demonstrated robust sex and sexual orientation-related differences in object location memory in humans. Here we show that this sexual variation may depend on the spatial position of target objects and the task-specific nature of the spatial array. We tested the recovery of object locations in three object arrays (object…
Helleve, Arnfinn; Flisher, Alan J.; Onya, Hans; Mukoma, Wanjiru; Klepp, Knut-Inge
In this paper we explore the perceived desirable characteristics of South African Life Orientation teachers for teaching sexuality and HIV/AIDS. We also investigate the extent to which these characteristics can be understood as parts of a role script for teaching HIV/AIDS and sexuality. Data were collected from teachers who taught Grade Eight and…
Kole Subir K
Full Text Available Abstract Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.
Kole, Subir K
Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.
Craig, Shelley L.; Iacono, Gio; Paceley, Megan S.; Dentato, Michael P.; Boyle, Kerrie E. H.
Discrimination toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) social work students can negatively affect academic performance and personal and professional identity development. Intersectionality is a conceptual approach that states that social identities interact to form different meanings and experiences from those that could be…
The aim of this research study was to find out how adolescent girls engage in the process of sexual decision making in order to make recommendations for the development and presentation of the current Life Orientation Sexuality Education Programme in South African schools. As the results of this study are aimed at providing guidelines for the development and presentation of this specific programme, a qualitative interpretive descriptive research design was used, because this type of research ...
Corliss, Heather L.; Spiegelman, Donna; Williams, Kerry; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives. To compare changes in self-reported sexual orientation of women living in states with any recognition of same-sex relationships (e.g., hospital visitation, domestic partnerships) with those of women living in states without such recognition. Methods. We calculated the likelihood of women in the Nurses’ Health Study II (n = 69 790) changing their reported sexual orientation between 1995 and 2009. Results. We used data from the Nurses’ Health Study II and found that living in a state with same-sex relationship recognition was associated with changing one’s reported sexual orientation, particularly from heterosexual to sexual minority. Individuals who reported being heterosexual in 1995 were 30% more likely to report a minority orientation (i.e., bisexual or lesbian) in 2009 (risk ratio = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.05, 1.61) if they lived in a state with any recognition of same-sex relationships compared with those who lived in a state without such recognition. Conclusions. Policies recognizing same-sex relationships may encourage women to report a sexual minority orientation. Future research is needed to clarify how other social and legal policies may affect sexual orientation self-reports. PMID:27736213
Bogaert, Anthony F; Blanchard, Ray; Crosthwait, Lesley E
Recent evidence indicates that 2 of the most consistently observed correlates of men's sexual orientation--handedness and older brothers--may be linked interactively in their prediction of men's sexual orientation. In this article, the authors studied the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and men's sexual orientation in the large and historically significant database originally compiled by Alfred C. Kinsey and his colleagues (A. C. Kinsey, W. B. Pomeroy, & C. E. Martin, 1948). The results demonstrated that handedness moderates the relationship between older brothers and sexual orientation. Specifically, older brothers increased the odds of homosexuality in right-handers only; in non-righthanders, older brothers did not affect the odds of homosexuality. These results refine the possible biological explanations reported to underlie both the handedness and older brother relationships to men's sexual orientation. These results also suggest that biological explanations of men's sexual orientation are likely relevant across time, as the Kinsey data comprise an older cohort relative to modern samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).
Distress related to sexual orientation is a common focus in psychotherapy. In some instances the distress is external in nature as with persecution, and in others it is internal as with self-acceptance issues. Complicating matters, sexual orientation is a very complex topic producing a great deal of confusion for both clients and therapists. The current paper provides a four component model-sexual orientation dimensions, activation of these dimensions, the role of erotic fantasy, and social construction of sexual orientation-that in combination provide a comprehensive perspective. Activation of dimensions is a novel contribution not proposed in any other model. With improved understanding of sexual orientation issues, and utilization of this knowledge to guide interventions, psychotherapists can improve outcomes with their clients. Also described is how dimensions of sexual orientation relate to transgender. In addition to improving psychotherapy outcomes, the fourcomponent model presented can help reduce discrimination and persecution, by demonstrating that the capacity for both homoerotic and heteroerotic behavior is universal.
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the rates of childhood victimization among individuals who identify as "mostly heterosexual" (MH in comparison to other sexual orientation groups. For the present study, we utilized a more comprehensive assessment of adverse childhood experiences to extend prior literature by examining if MH individuals' experience of victimization more closely mirrors that of sexual minority individuals or heterosexuals. Heterosexual (n = 422 and LGB (n = 561 and MH (n = 120 participants were recruited online. Respondents completed surveys about their adverse childhood experiences, both maltreatment by adults (e.g., childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction and peer victimization (i.e., verbal and physical bullying. Specifically, MH individuals were 1.47 times more likely than heterosexuals to report childhood victimization experiences perpetrated by adults. These elevated rates were similar to LGB individuals. Results suggest that rates of victimization of MH groups are more similar to the rates found among LGBs, and are significantly higher than heterosexual groups. Our results support prior research that indicates that an MH identity falls within the umbrella of a sexual minority, yet little is known about unique challenges that this group may face in comparison to other sexual minority groups.
Clarysse, Bart; van Boxstael, A.; Humphreys, John
In this study, we analyze how social identification and role identity salience interplay and explain the entrepreneurial goal orientation of founder-owners of professional home nursing practices. First, we show how social identification with particular communities (i.e. professional
Ho, Henry C Y; Yeung, Dannii Y
With the upsurge of older adults still working, the labour force is becoming increasingly diverse in age. Age diversity in an organisation can increase the likelihood of intergenerational conflict. The present study aims to integrate the dual concern model and social identity theory to explain the underlying mechanisms of intergenerational conflict by examining the effects of social identity salience on motivational orientation and conflict strategies. A 2 (subgroup identity salience: low vs. high younger/older group membership) × 2 (superordinate identity salience: low vs. high organisational group membership) factorial design with a structured questionnaire on motivational orientation and conflict strategies in relation to a hypothetical work conflict scenario was implemented among 220 postgraduate university students in Hong Kong. Results revealed that subgroup and superordinate identities had a combined influence on conflict strategies but not in motivational orientation. Subgroup and superordinate identification promoted integrating and compromising strategies, superordinate identification promoted obliging strategy, subgroup identification promoted dominating strategy and no identification promoted avoiding strategy. Age did not moderate these relationships. This study contributes to the development of the integrated model of conflict. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.
Scheitle, Christopher P; Wolf, Julia Kay
Research has shown that cross-sectional estimates of sexual identities overlook fluidity in those identities. Research has also shown that social factors, such as competing identities, can influence sexual identity fluidity. We contributed to this literature in two ways. First, we utilized a representative panel of US adults (N = 1034) surveyed in 2010, 2012, and 2014 by the General Social Survey. The addition of a third observation allowed us to examine more complexity in sexual identity fluidity. We found that 2.40% of US adults reported at least one change in sexual identity across the 4 years, with 1.59% reporting one change and 0.81% reporting two changes. Our second contribution came from examining the role of religion, as past research has suggested that religion can destabilize and prolong sexual identity development. We found that lesbian or gay individuals (N = 17), bisexuals (N = 15), and females (N = 585) showed more sexual identity fluidity compared to heterosexuals (N = 1003) and males (N = 450), respectively. Marital status, age, race, and education did not have significant associations with sexual identity fluidity. Regarding the role of religion, we found that participants identifying as more religious in Wave 1 showed more fluidity in sexual identity across later observations. Further analysis showed that higher levels of religiosity make it more likely that lesbian or gay individuals will be fluid in sexual identity, but this is not the case for heterosexual individuals. This finding reinforces past qualitative research that has suggested that religion can extend or complicate sexual minorities' identity development.
Fassin, Eric; Salcedo, Manuela
Our article is about the new relevance of the category of "the homosexual" in immigration policies. This novelty is paradoxical: while homosexuality had previously been defined exclusively in negative terms, from the point of view of the State, it has now assumed a positive value in the West--since it can be invoked to justify asylum seeking. The argument has two prongs. On the one hand, taking homosexuality into account for immigration control implies a definition of gay identity. On the other, the objects of these policies are also subjects: their own identity is caught up in this transnational process of identification. Fieldwork for this article was conducted in France on bi-national same-sex couples. However, the new categorization of homosexuality extends far beyond--in Europe and throughout the world. We argue that the politics of identity are not just, and not primarily about identity politics; they have to do both with politics in general and policies in particular.
Markin, Rayna D
The goal of this special section is to work toward establishing a common identity for relationally inclined clinicians across proscribed theoretical orientations, facilitating a shared identity among diverse psychotherapists while placing a spotlight on relationship research. This article discusses the need for a more coherent and less polarizing professional identity for psychotherapists and why a more universal relational orientation to psychotherapy is timely given the current state of psychotherapy practice and research. Lastly, common relational themes that run throughout the diverse treatment paradigms presented in this special section are discussed, framing what it means to be a relational psychotherapist while hopefully providing some direction for future research and clinical training. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Krieger, Nancy; Austin, S. Bryn; Haneuse, Sebastien; Gottlieb, Barbara R.
We investigated sexual orientation disparities in Papanicolaou screening among US women aged 21 to 44 years (n = 9581) in the 2006 to 2010 National Survey of Family Growth. The odds ratios for lesbian versus heterosexual women and women with no versus only male sexual partners were 0.40 and 0.32, respectively, and were attenuated after adjustment for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care indicators. Administering Papanicolaou tests through mechanisms other than SRH services would promote cervical cancer screening among all women. PMID:24328650
Ellis, Lee; Lykins, Amy; Hoskin, Anthony; Ratnasingam, Malini
According to neurohormonal theory, prenatal androgens are key determinants of sexual orientation. As a reputed marker for prenatal androgens, the 2D:4D finger length ratio has been used in more than a dozen studies to test the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation. Findings have been very inconsistent. The present study sought to retest the hypothesis that 2D:4D and sexual orientation are related is a manner consistent with neurohormonal theory. A 2D:4D measure (of the right hand) along with four additional somatic markers of androgen exposure (height, physical strength, muscularity, and athletic ability) with samples of college students in Malaysia (N = 2,058) and the United States (N = 2,511). The five androgen measures were factor analyzed, resulting in a two-factor solution: Factor 1 consisted of strength, muscularity, and athletic ability (the muscular coordination factor), and Factor 2 was comprised of the r2D:4D and adult height (the bone growth factor). Sexual orientation was measured by asking each respondent the extent to which they were sexually attracted to males and the extent to which they were sexually attracted to females, both on 11-point scales. When the countries and sexes were analyzed separately, neither the r2D:4D measure nor Factor 2 correlated with sexual orientation to significant degrees. Instead, it was the muscular coordination factor that correlated the best. Support was found for the hypothesis that prenatal androgens influence sexual orientation, but the nature of these influences was more complex than neurohormonal theory predicted. A modified theory is needed and presented to accommodate the results from this study. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Li, Gu; Pollitt, Amanda M; Russell, Stephen T
Sexual minority individuals are at an elevated risk for depression compared to their heterosexual counterparts, yet less is known about how depression status varies across sexual minority subgroups (i.e., mostly heterosexuals, bisexuals, and lesbians and gay men). Moreover, studies on the role of young adult gender nonconformity in the relation between sexual orientation and depression are scarce and have yielded mixed findings. The current study examined the disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals during young adulthood in concurrent depression near the beginning of young adulthood and prospective depression 6 years later, paying attention to the diversity within sexual minority subgroups and the role of gender nonconformity. Drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9421), we found that after accounting for demographics, sampling weight, and sampling design, self-identified mostly heterosexual and bisexual young adults, but not lesbians and gay men, reported significantly higher concurrent depression compared to heterosexuals; moreover, only mostly heterosexual young adults were more depressed than heterosexuals 6 years later. Furthermore, while young adult gender nonconforming behavior was associated with more concurrent depression regardless of sexual orientation, its negative impact on mental health decreased over time. Surprisingly, previous gender nonconformity predicted decreased prospective depression among lesbians and gay men whereas, among heterosexual individuals, increased gender nonconformity was not associated with prospective depression. Together, the results suggested the importance of investigating diversity and the influence of young adult gender nonconformity in future research on the mental health of sexual minorities.
Hill, Ryan M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.
A theoretical model in which perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness were hypothesized to account for the association between sexual orientation and suicidal ideation among college students was tested. Among 198 college students (mean age 21.28 years), gay, lesbian, and bisexual students (n = 50) reported significantly higher levels of…
The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.
Those who self-identified as gay/lesbian/bisexual had a lower average score on all domains of the WHO QOL-BREF. Conclusion: Same sex sexual attraction and practice occur among young people in Nigeria and this has sexual and reproductive health implications. GLB youth report a lower QOL compared to heterosexual ...
Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell
This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…
Grossman, Arnold H.; Foss, Alexander H.; D'Augelli, Anthony R.
This study examined pubertal maturation, pubertal timing and outcomes, and the relationship of puberty and sexual identity developmental milestones among 507 lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. The onset of menarche and spermarche occurred at the mean ages of 12.05 and 12.46, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in…
Johnson, Danielle Marie
Within higher education today, the student population in American colleges and universities is becoming increasingly diverse, relative to students' racial/ethnic, sexual, religion, and gender identities. Specifically, students who identify as Lesbian and gay are more often seeking personal authenticity and opportunities to make meaning of their…
King, Kathleen P.; Biro, Susan C.
This chapter provides a framework to facilitate self-awareness, self-knowledge, diversity training, and cultural awareness and appreciation for all adults, based on understanding the development of sexual identity and workplace issues for LGBTQ adults. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Bolding, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan
This paper addresses how London gay men use the internet to meet sexual partners, or for e-dating. Based on qualitative interviews conducted face-to-face or via the internet, this research develops an account of how information technologies mediate the negotiation of identity and risk in connection with sexual practice. E-dating itself is a bricolage, or heterogeneous DIY practice of internet-based-communication (IBC). A central aspect of IBC is "filtering" in and out prospective e-dates based on the images and texts used to depict sexual identities. Interpretations and depictions of personal HIV risk management approaches in IBC are framed by the meanings of different identities, such as the stigma associated with being HIV positive. This paper argues for a sexualities perspective in a theory of network society. Further, HIV prevention in e-dating can potentially be addressed by considering the interplay of the HIV prevention imperatives associated with different HIV serostatus identities. There is a case for encouraging more explicit IBC about risk in e-dating and incorporating the expertise of e-daters in prevention activity. There is also a need to rethink traditional conceptions of risk management in HIV prevention to make space for the risk management bricolage of network society.
Blashill, Aaron J; Calzo, Jerel P; Griffiths, Scott; Murray, Stuart B
To examine the prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse among US adolescent boys as a function of sexual orientation and race/ethnicity. We analyzed boys from the 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 6248; mean age = 16), a representative sample of US high school students. Lifetime prevalence of anabolic steroid misuse was dichotomized as never versus 1 or more times. Sexual minority boys reported elevated misuse compared with heterosexual boys, within each level of race/ethnicity. Black, Hispanic, and White sexual minority boys reported misuse at approximately 25%, 20%, and 9%, respectively. Sexual orientation health disparities in anabolic steroid misuse disproportionally affect Black and Hispanic sexual minority adolescent boys, but more research is needed to understand the mechanisms driving these disparities.
Same-sex sexual behaviour is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, but its adaptive origins remain a prominent puzzle. Here, I suggest the possibility that same-sex sexual behaviour arises as a consequence of the competition between an evolutionary drive for a wide diversity in traits, which improves the adaptability of a population, and a drive for sexual dichotomization of traits, which promotes opposite-sex attraction and increases the rate of reproduction. This trade-off is explored via a simple mathematical `toy model'. The model exhibits a number of interesting features and suggests a simple mathematical form for describing the sexual orientation continuum.
Full Text Available In today’s changing world, success belongs to the communities and organizations that make a significant relationship between scarce resources and capabilities of management and entrepreneurship of their human resource. In other words, societies and the organizations can move forward in the development path that, with creating the necessary conditions, equip their human resources to productive entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to conduct other organizations and community resources to create value and achieve the development, management. Formation of entrepreneurial identity plays an important role for the development of the entrepreneurial spirit in society. In this paper, given the importance of entrepreneurial identity, the role of entrepreneurial orientations based on Lampkin and Dess (1996 [Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996. Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1, 135-172.] is investigated on entrepreneurial identity of the municipality of Qom using a questionnaire consists of 18 items. The results show entrepreneurial orientation influences significantly on entrepreneurial identity.
Johns, Michelle Marie; Lowry, Richard; Demissie, Zewditu; Robin, Leah
Sexual minority girls (lesbian/bisexual) and girls with overweight/obesity experience high rates of discrimination and mental distress. This study explored whether BMI or perceived weight status might compound sexual minority girls' risk for harassment and mental distress. Data on female students from the national 2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey (n = 7,006) were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in bullying, harassment, and mental distress across sexual identity/BMI groups: heterosexual/normal-weight, heterosexual/overweight, sexual minority/normal-weight, and sexual minority/overweight. Procedures were repeated with four analogous groups created from sexual identity and perceived weight. Across sexual identity/BMI groups, being overweight increased heterosexual females' odds of being bullied or experiencing suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Regardless of weight status, sexual minority females had greater odds for each outcome than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females who perceived themselves as overweight had greater odds of suicidality than all other sexual minority/perceived weight groups. Double jeopardy may exist for sexual minority female students who perceive themselves as overweight. Professional development with school staff on how to create a positive climate for sexual minorities and those with overweight/obesity and addressing positive identity and body image within school-based suicide prevention efforts may be important to the well-being of adolescent girls. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Blom, Rianne M; van der Wal, Sija J; Vulink, Nienke C; Denys, D.
BACKGROUND: Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)-a strong desire for amputation or paralysis-is often accompanied by feelings and cognitions of sexual arousal, although this sexual component has been largely neglected in the recent literature. AIM: To examine the presence of BIID-related sexual
Blom, Rianne M.; van der Wal, Sija J.; Vulink, Nienke C.; Denys, Damiaan
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID)-a strong desire for amputation or paralysis-is often accompanied by feelings and cognitions of sexual arousal, although this sexual component has been largely neglected in the recent literature. To examine the presence of BIID-related sexual arousal in
Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J
Growing evidence documents elevated behavioral risk among sexual-minorities, including gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals; however, tests of biological or psychological indicators of stress as explanations for these disparities have not been conducted. Data were from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and included 9662 participants; 9254 heterosexuals, 153 gays/lesbians and 255 bisexuals. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco, alcohol, substance, and marijuana use, and body mass index, were tested using the chi-square test. Stress, operationalized as depressive symptoms and elevated C-reactive protein, was tested as mediating the association between sexual orientation and behavioral health risks. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for mediation effects, and the Sobel test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the meditating effect. Gays/lesbians and bisexuals were more likely to report current smoking (p sexual orientation and current smoking (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.59, 2.63), lifetime history of substance use (aOR 3.30 95% CI 2.20, 4.96), and lifetime history of marijuana use (aOR 2.90, 95% CI 2.02, 4.16), among bisexuals only. C-reactive protein did not mediate the sexual orientation/behavior relationship. Higher prevalence of current smoking and lifetime history of substance use was observed among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Among bisexuals, depressive symptoms accounted for only 0.9-3% of the reduction in the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use and tobacco use, respectively. More comprehensive assessments of stress are needed to inform explanations of the disparities in behavioral risk observed among sexual minorities.
Mereish, Ethan H; Goldbach, Jeremy T; Burgess, Claire; DiBello, Angelo M
Sexual minority adolescents are more likely than their heterosexual peers to use substances. This study tested factors that contribute to sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially and ethnically diverse adolescents. Specifically, we examined how both minority stress (i.e., homophobic bullying) and social norms (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) may account for sexual orientation disparities in recent and lifetime use of four substances: tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, and prescription drugs. A probability sample of middle and high school students (N=3012; aged 11-18 years old; 71.2% racial and ethnic minorities) using random cluster methods was obtained in a mid-size school district in the Southeastern United States. Sexual minority adolescents were more likely than heterosexual adolescents to use substances, experience homophobic bullying, and report higher descriptive norms for close friends and more permissive injunctive norms for friends and parents. While accounting for sociodemographic characteristics, multiple mediation models concurrently testing all mediators indicated that higher descriptive and more permissive injunctive norms were significant mediators of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of the four substances, whereas homophobic bullying was not a significant mediator of the associations between sexual orientation and recent and lifetime use of any of the substances. Descriptive and injunctive norms, in conjunction with minority stress, are important to consider in explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use among racially diverse adolescents. These results have implications for substance use interventions among sexual minority adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Benau, Erik M; Jenkins, Abigail L; Conner, Bradley T
Being non-heterosexual, particularly bisexual, is associated with high rates of engagement in NSSI amongst young adults. The goal of the present study was to determine if parenting practices, specifically parental monitoring, and sexual orientation moderate engagement with NSSI. Undergraduates (N = 1,353) completed a survey on sexual orientation, non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) acts, and multiple aspects of perceived parental monitoring during high school. Moderation analyses revealed that most facets of parental monitoring were similarly negatively correlated with NSSI for both individuals whose sexual orientation where nearly, or entirely, gay and heterosexual youth. Youth who were neither exclusively heterosexual nor exclusively gay (mixed sexual orientation) reported the most NSSI acts, and no facet of parental monitoring predicted reduced NSSI acts for this group. While previous literature shows that many aspects of parental monitoring may be protective against engagement in health risk behaviors, the present study adds to these findings that similar aspects are negatively associated with self-injurious behavior for some, but not all, individuals. More research is needed to better understand the causes of increased NSSI for individuals with a mixed sexual orientation.
Li, Gu; Kung, Karson T F; Hines, Melissa
Lesbian and gay individuals have been reported to show more interest in other-sex, and/or less interest in same-sex, toys, playmates, and activities in childhood than heterosexual counterparts. Yet, most of the relevant evidence comes from retrospective studies or from prospective studies of clinically referred, extremely gender nonconforming children. In addition, findings are mixed regarding the relation between childhood gender-typed behavior and the later sexual orientation spectrum from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively lesbian/gay. The current study drew a sample (2,428 girls and 2,169 boys) from a population-based longitudinal study, and found that the levels of gender-typed behavior at ages 3.5 and 4.75 years, although less so at age 2.5 years, significantly and consistently predicted adolescents' sexual orientation at age 15 years, both when sexual orientation was conceptualized as 2 groups or as a spectrum. In addition, within-individual change in gender-typed behavior during the preschool years significantly related to adolescent sexual orientation, especially in boys. These results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development. Some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Dagirmanjian, Faedra R; McDaniel, Anne E; Shadick, Richard
Nonmedical use of prescription pain medications, sedatives, and stimulants is a well-documented problem among college students. Research has indicated that students who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual are at elevated risk. However, little is known about students' reasons for use. (1) To replicate findings that sexual minority students report higher nonmedical use than heterosexual students, moving from a campus-specific to a multicampus sample and (2) to test for an association between sexual orientation and reasons for use. The 2015 College Prescription Drug Study surveyed 3389 students from nine 4-year public and private colleges and universities across the United States using an anonymous online survey. Measures assessed demographic information, prevalence of nonmedical use, frequency of use, where the drugs were obtained, reasons for use, and consequences of use. Stepwise logistic regression models were used to determine if sexual orientation predicted use. Chi-square tests of independence were also used to analyze prevalence of use by demographics as well as to assess differences in reasons for use by sexual orientation. Sexual minority students were significantly more likely than heterosexual students to nonmedically use any prescription drug, pain medications, and sedatives. Sexual minority students were also more likely to select that they used pain medications to relieve anxiety, enhance social interactions, and to feel better. Conclusions/Importance: Although sexual minority students are more likely to report nonmedical use, students overall use prescription medications for similar reasons, with the exception of painkillers. Implications and areas for future research are discussed.
This book chapter examines sexual orientation and discrimination experienced by transgender people, using data from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey. This study explores how respondents to the NTDS identified their sexual orientation, how those responses differ based on demographic variables (e.g. age, race, and gender), and how respondents’ experiences of discrimination and outcomes differ based on sexual orientation. The study finds that only 22% of transgender respondents ide...
Doyle, David Matthew; Molix, Lisa
Some past work indicates that sexual minorities may experience impairments in social health, or the perceived and actual availability and quality of one's social relationships, relative to heterosexuals; however, research has been limited in many ways. Furthermore, it is important to investigate etiological factors that may be associated with these disparities, such as self-reported discrimination. The current work tested whether sexual minority adults in the United States reported less positive social health (i.e., loneliness, friendship strain, familial strain, and social capital) relative to heterosexuals and whether self-reported discrimination accounted for these disparities. Participants for the current study (N = 579) were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk, including 365 self-identified heterosexuals (105 women) and 214 sexual minorities (103 women). Consistent with hypotheses, sexual minorities reported impaired social health relative to heterosexuals, with divergent patterns emerging by sexual orientation subgroup (which were generally consistent across sexes). Additionally, self-reported discrimination accounted for disparities across three of four indicators of social health. These findings suggest that sexual minorities may face obstacles related to prejudice and discrimination that impair the functioning of their relationships and overall social health. Moreover, because social health is closely related to psychological and physical health, remediating disparities in social relationships may be necessary to address other health disparities based upon sexual orientation. Expanding upon these results, implications for efforts to build resilience among sexual minorities are discussed.
Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina
Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).
Despite awareness of the importance of psycho-affective factors in the development of sexual problems, there is a lack of studies exploring the relation of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual compulsivity (SC) to sexual functioning. Because sex differences in SSS and SC have been reported, gender identity (GI; an individual's own experience of his or her gender that is unrelated to the actual biological sex) might act as a moderator in this relation. To understand the role of SSS and SC for men and women's sexual functioning and to explore whether these potential associations are moderated by GI. A population-based cross-sectional online survey targeted 279 individuals (69.2% women, 30.8% men; mean age = 32 years). Validated questionnaires, including the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, the Sexual Compulsivity Scale, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool, and the International Index of Erectile Function, were applied. Variations in SSS and SC and their association with sexual functioning were investigated using Spearman rank correlation. Moderation analyses were conducted using regression models in which the interaction terms between SSS and GI and between SCS and GI as predictors of sexual functioning were included. A statistically significant correlation between SSS and SC could be detected in men and women (r = 0.41 and 0.33, respectively; P < .001 for the two comparisons). In women, higher levels of SSS were associated with higher levels of desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm and less sexual pain (P < .05 for all comparisons). No moderating effect of GI could be detected. In men, GI was a significant moderator in the relation between SC and erectile function (β = 0.47; P < .001) and between SSS and erectile and ejaculatory function (β = -0.41 and 0.30; P < .001 for the two comparisons). The present study is the first to show a link between SSS and SC and sexual functioning. The results might have important
Bogaert, Anthony F; Cairney, John
A birth order and sexual orientation relationship has been demonstrated numerous times in men, but a related variable, parental age (i.e. age of parents when the participant was born), has been less studied and has demonstrated contradictory results. In this research, the relations among birth order, parental age and sexual orientation were examined in a national probability sample of the US (Kessler, 1994; Kessler et al., 1994) and in a Canadian sample of homosexual and heterosexual men closely matched on demographic characteristics (Blanchard & Bogaert, 1996a). In both studies, an interaction between birth order and parental age was observed in men, such that there was positive association between number of older siblings and the likelihood of homosexuality, but this association weakened with increasing parental age. No significant effects were observed for women. The results are discussed in relation to recent theories of the birth order/sexual orientation relationship.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W
Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.
Full Text Available Persons with autism can experience severe issues during the puberty and adolescence resulting from the changes that occur in their body. People with autism are sexual beings. They have sexual needs and desires as other people. Sexual development is part of the overall development of their personality.The main objective of this research was to present sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity among persons with autism. Furthermore, we determined the views and opinions of the parents and students, special educators and rehabilitators, about children with autism. Basic tasks of this research were: to determine whether persons with autism have a clear picture and concept of their sexuality, whether the parents discuss this topic with their children, whether and how persons with autism know what sex is, what is contraception, unwanted pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases or intimate parts of the body, whether they show some kind of sexual behavior, and whether the parents and students should be educated regarding the sexual development, behavior, and sexual identity of persons with autism.The survey was conducted over a period of almost 3 months, which included 94 respondents.Obtained data was collected, grouped, tabled, and processed with the standard statistical program Microsoft Office Excel 2003, applying χ2 tests and Fisher's Еxact test. Statistical important difference was at the level of p<0.05.From the analysis and interpretation of the results, we can conclude that in Macedonian families and schools there is a very small extent or no existence of communication between the parents and professionals with persons with autism about sexual development, sexual behavior, and sexual identity. Persons with autism have very little or no general knowledge about sexuality.
Lee, Chien-Ti; Beckert, Troy E; Goodrich, Thane R
In an effort to validate the use of a Western model of adolescent development with Asian youth, 781 urban and rural Taiwanese high school students (56% female) completed questionnaires about their development. Adolescents were first divided into cultural value orientations (i.e. collectivistic, individualistic, or transitional) and compared geographically. There were statistically significant differences in cultural value orientations only for rural youth. Identity statuses and levels of cognitive autonomy were then compared according to cultural value orientations and gender. Adolescents who self-identified as collectivistic were significantly more likely to self-identify as achieved rather than diffused compared to transitional adolescents. Gender, more than cultural value identifications, significantly differentiated these youth in regard to issues of cognitive autonomy measured in this study (i.e. evaluative thinking, voicing opinions, making decisions, self-assessing, and comparative validation). Taken in whole, these findings support the use of a Western model of adolescent development for Taiwanese youth.
Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East and Southeast Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly heterosexual adolescents were more likely to use alcohol, marijuana, or other illicit drugs. Particularly, sexual minority girls were at increased risk fo...
Mepschen, P.; Duyvendak, J.W.; Tonkens, E.H.
Sexuality features prominently in European debates on multiculturalism and in Orientalist discourses on Islam. This article argues that representations of gay emancipation are mobilized to shape narratives in which Muslims are framed as non-modern subjects, a development that can best be understood
Elman, Donald; And Others
Stereotyped impressions of male homosexuals and the underlying importance of sexuality in social attraction and perceptions were investigated. Male (N=80) and female (N=80) college students responded to either an attractive or an unattractive photo of a male stimulus person, who was identified to half of the subjects as a homosexual. Compared to…
Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A
Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual
Mendoza-Pérez, Juan Carlos; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis
In this study, we explored the role of sex as an effect-modifying variable in the association between sexual orientation and mental health in Mexican youth. In addition, we tested if violent experiences in the family and the school and attitudes toward homosexuality could act as mediating variables in such association. Data from three representative surveys performed in 2007, 2009, and 2013 among Mexican high school students were analyzed. Two dimensions of sexual orientation were evaluated: romantic partnership and sexual behavior. The outcomes were negative and positive mood, suicidal ideation and intent, self-concept, and self-esteem. There were differences by gender because in males, there were more disparities in mental health associated with sexual orientation (suicidal ideation and attempt, negative and positive mood, negative self-concept, and family-related self-esteem) than in females (suicidal ideation and negative mood). Experiences of school violence were mediators in the relationship between sexual orientation and most health outcomes in males.
Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Jun, Hee-Jin; Reisner, Sari L; Corliss, Heather L
To estimate longitudinal associations between self-reported sexual orientation and past-year polysubstance use among youth, and test how gender, age and early onset of tobacco and alcohol use contributed to variation in polysubstance use. Longitudinal community-based cohort of US adolescents from the Growing Up Today Study (GUTS 1) (n = 16 873) followed from ages 12-29 years. United States of America. A total of 13 519 individuals (7839 females; 5680 males) who responded to at least one of five self-administered questionnaires from 1999 to 2010. Ninety-three per cent reported their race/ethnicity as non-Hispanic white. Multivariable repeated measures generalized estimating equations estimated relative risks (RRs) of concurrent polysubstance use (i.e. past 12-month use of three or more substances) comparing sexual orientation minority youth [i.e. mostly heterosexual (MH), bisexual (BI), gay/lesbian (GL)] to their same-gender, completely heterosexual (CH) counterparts. Mediation analyses tested whether early onset of tobacco and/or alcohol use explained relationships between sexual orientation and concurrent polysubstance use. Compared with their same-gender CH peers, sexual minorities evidenced higher risk for concurrent polysubstance use over all repeated measures [risk ratios (RRs) for sexual minority subgroups: from 1.63-2.91, P-values: sexual minorities and CHs were larger among females than males (P-values for sexual orientation × gender interactions were sexual orientation × age interactions were Sexual minorities' younger age of smoking and/or drinking initiation contributed to their elevated polysubstance use (% of effect explained was between 9.4-24.3, P-values: 0.04-Sexual minority youth in the United States, and in particular younger females, appear to be at disproportionate risk for concurrent past-year polysubstance use. Early onset of smoking and drinking may contribute to elevated risk of polysubstance use among sexual minorities. © 2016
Grafsky, Erika L
The purpose of this study was to conduct research to understand nonheterosexual youths' decision to disclose their sexual orientation information to their parents. The sample for this study includes 22 youth between the ages of 14 and 21. Constructivist grounded theory guided the qualitative methodology and data analysis. The findings from this study posit an emerging model of sexual orientation disclosure decisions comprised of four interrelated factors that influence the decision to disclose or not disclose, as well as a description of the mechanism through which disclosure either does or does not occur. Clinical implications and recommendations for further research are provided. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Pelts, Michael D; Albright, David L
Explore the mental health differences of student veterans by sexual orientation. Student service members/veterans (N = 702) from the Fall 2011 National College Health Assessment. Descriptive statistics and 2-sample proportion and mean tests were used to compare mental health characteristics. Student veterans who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure had higher levels of mental health symptoms and treatment. Results suggest a need for continued examination of student service members/veterans as related to disparities in mental health by sexual orientation.
Copen, Casey E; Chandra, Anjani; Febo-Vazquez, Isaedmarie
This report provides national estimates of sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation among women and men aged 18-44 in the United States, based on the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). Data for the 2011-2013 NSFG were collected through in-person interviews with 10,416 women and men aged 15-44 in the household population in the United States. In this report, data are shown only for 9,175 adults aged 18-44. The data presented in this report were primarily collected using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing, in which the respondent enters his or her answers into the computer without telling them to an interviewer. The overall response rate for the 2011-2013 NSFG was 72.8%. Regarding opposite-sex sexual behavior, 94.2% of women and 92.0% of men aged 18-44 had ever had vaginal intercourse; 86.2% of women and 87.4% of men had ever had oral sex; and 35.9% of women and 42.3% of men had ever had anal sex. Almost three times as many women (17.4%) reported any same-sex contact in their lifetime compared with men (6.2%) aged 18-44. Feelings of attraction "only to the opposite sex" were more common for men (92.1%) compared with women (81.0%) aged 18-44. Among those aged 18-44, 92.3% of women and 95.1% of men said they were "heterosexual or straight"; 1.3% of women and 1.9% of men said they were "homosexual, gay, or lesbian"; 5.5% of women and 2.0% of men said they were bisexual; and 0.9% of women and 1.0% of men said "don't know" or "refused" (i.e., "did not report") on sexual orientation. Sexual attraction and sexual orientation correlate closely but not completely with reports of sexual behavior. Sexual behavior, sexual attraction, and sexual orientation vary by age, marital or cohabiting status, education, and race and Hispanic origin. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.
Stone, Deborah M; Luo, Feijun; Ouyang, Lijing; Lippy, Caroline; Hertz, Marci F; Crosby, Alex E
We examined the associations between 2 measures of sexual orientation and 4 suicide risk outcomes (SROs) from pooled local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We aggregated data from 5 local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2009. We defined sexual minority youths (SMYs) by sexual identity (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and sex of sexual contacts (same- or both-sex contacts). Survey logistic regression analyses controlled for a wide range of suicide risk factors and sample design effects. Compared with non-SMYs, all SMYs had increased odds of suicide ideation; bisexual youths, gay males, and both-sex contact females had greater odds of suicide planning; all SMYs, except same-sex contact males, had increased odds of suicide attempts; and lesbians, bisexuals, and both-sex contact youths had increased odds of medically serious attempts. Unsure males had increased odds of suicide ideation compared with heterosexual males. Not having sexual contact was protective of most SROs among females and of medically serious attempts among males. Regardless of sexual orientation measure used, most SMY subgroups had increased odds of all SROs. However, many factors are associated with SROs.
Eugene V. Daev
Full Text Available Failure to understand the role of biological and social factors in the formation of some socially important traits in humans can lead to the appearance of undue tension in interpersonal relationships. This is due to a distorted perception of man often unreliable information, its ambiguity due to the uncertainty of the terminology used and, as a consequence, the impossibility of its correct analysis. Using of term “sexual orientation” shows as a genetic understanding of the trait’s formation and data on sex formation control mechanisms may clarify and complement our knowledge on the subject. Under the theme chemocommunicative model is considered and its contribution to the formation of “sexual orientation” in humans.
Sartore, Melanie L.; Cunningham, George B.
The lesbian label exists within sport's heterosexist and heteronormative context as a means to subvert women's status, power, influence, and experiences. As such, there exists a lesbian stigma that contributes to sport's documented gender disparities. While acknowledged that some women may manage their gender and sexual identities to evade…
Petchesky, Rosalind P
In any highly contested political domain, language can be a potent force for change or an obstacle to understanding and coalition building across difference. This is surely the case in the global debates over sexuality and gender, where even those terms themselves have aroused heated conflicts. In this spirit, we want to challenge the uncritical use of the term "sexual minorities", based on a number of historical and conceptual problems with which that term - like the larger thicket of identities and identity politics it signifies - is encumbered. These include: ignoring history, legitimating dubious normativity, fixing biological categories, and recreating exclusions. With this struggle, we seem caught in a modernist dilemma between two desires: to name and honour difference by signifying identities and to avoid exclusivity and hierarchy by reclaiming universals. The insistence of diverse groups on naming themselves and achieving recognition of their distinctness and variety will go on as long as aspirations for democracy exist, because that is the nature and necessity of emancipatory politics. At the same time, our language needs to reflect the fluidity and complexity of sexuality and gender expressions in everyday life and their intricate interweaving with other conditions such as class, race, ethnicity, time and place.
Harden, K. Paige
There are dramatic individual differences among adolescents in how and when they become sexually active adults, and “early” sexual activity is frequently cited as a cause of concern for scientists, policymakers, and the general public. Understanding the causes and developmental impact of adolescent sexual activity can be furthered by considering genes as a source of individual differences. Quantitative behavioral genetics (i.e., twin and family studies) and candidate gene association studies now provide clear evidence for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in adolescent sexual behavior and related phenotypes. Genetic influences on sexual behavior may operate through a variety of direct and indirect mechanisms, including pubertal development, testosterone levels, and dopaminergic systems. Genetic differences may be systematically associated with exposure to environments that are commonly treated as causes of sexual behavior (gene-environment correlation). Possible gene-environment correlations pose a serious challenge for interpreting the results of much behavioral research. Multivariate, genetically-informed research on adolescent sexual behavior compares twins and family members as a form of “quasi-experiment”: How do twins who differ in their sexual experiences differ in their later development? The small but growing body of genetically-informed research has already challenged dominant assumptions regarding the etiology and sequelae of adolescent sexual behavior, with some studies indicating possible positive effects of teenage sexuality. Studies of gene × environment interaction may further elucidate the mechanisms by which genes and environments combine to shape the development of sexual behavior and its psychosocial consequences. Overall, the existence of heritable variation in adolescent sexual behavior has profound implications for environmentally-oriented theory and research. PMID:23855958
McNair, Ruth; Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L
we sought to compare physical and mental health status, health service use, and satisfaction among young Australian women of varying sexual identity; and to explore associations of all of these variables with satisfaction with their general practitioner (GP). data are from the youngest cohort of women in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health surveyed in 2003. The sample included women aged 25 to 30 who identified as exclusively heterosexual (n = 8,083; 91.3%), mainly heterosexual (n = 568; 6.4%), bisexual (n = 100; 1.1%), or lesbian (n = 99; 1.1%). Univariate analyses compared self-reported mental health, physical health, access to GP services, and satisfaction across the four sexual identity groups. Linear regression, controlling for education, income, and residence, was used to identify factors associated with GP satisfaction. sexual minority women (lesbian, bisexual, and mainly heterosexual) were significantly more likely than were heterosexual women to report poorer mental health and to have more frequently used health services; depression was strongly associated with mental health services use. Bisexual and mainly heterosexual women were most likely to report poorer general health, abnormal Pap tests, sexually transmissible infections, urinary tract infections, hepatitis B or C virus infection, and asthma. Lesbians were most likely to have never had a Pap test or be underscreened. All sexual minority women had lower continuity of GP care and lower satisfaction with that care than heterosexual women. underlying social determinants of physical and mental health disparities experienced by sexual minority women require exploration, including the possible effects of discrimination and marginalization on higher levels of risk taking. Lower continuity of care and lower satisfaction with GP services also need further investigation. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming
Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether the composition of social networks contributes to sexual orientation disparities in substance use and misuse. Method: Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of adolescents (N = 20,745). Wave 1 collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories. Results: Same- and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of tobacco use in their peer networks than did opposite-sex–attracted youths, and both-sex–attracted youths had higher frequency/quantity of alcohol use and misuse in their peer networks than opposite-sex–attracted youths. Among same- and both-sex–attracted youths, greater frequency/quantity of tobacco use in one’s social network predicted greater use of cigarettes. In addition, greater frequency/quantity of peers’ drinking and drinking to intoxication predicted more alcohol use and alcohol misuse in the both-sex–attracted group. These social network factors mediated sexual orientation–related disparities in tobacco use for both- and same-sex–attracted youths. Moreover, sexual orientation disparities in alcohol misuse were mediated by social network characteristics for the same-sex and both-sex–attracted youths. Importantly, sexual minority adolescents were no more likely to have other sexual minorities in their social networks than were sexual majority youths, ruling out an alternative explanation for our results. Conclusions: These findings highlight the importance of social networks as correlates of substance use behaviors among sexual minority youths and as potential pathways explaining sexual orientation disparities in substance use outcomes. PMID:25486400
Midoun, Miriam; Shangani, Sylvia; Mbete, Bibi; Babu, Shadrack; Hackman, Melissa; van der Elst, Elise M; Sanders, Eduard J; Smith, Adrian D; Operario, Don
Men who have sex with men are increasingly recognised as one of the most vulnerable HIV risk groups in Kenya. Sex between men is highly stigmatised in Kenya, and efforts to provide sexual health services to men who have sex with men require a deeper understanding of their lived experiences; this includes how such men in Kenya construct their sexual identities and how these constructions affect sexual decision-making. Adult self-identified men who have sex with men (n = 26) in Malindi, Kenya, participated in individual interviews to examine sociocultural processes influencing sexual identity construction and decision-making. Four key themes were identified: (1) tensions between perceptions of 'homosexuality' versus being 'African', (2) gender-stereotyped beliefs about sexual positioning, (3) socioeconomic status and limitations to personal agency and (4) objectification and commodification of non-normative sexualities. Findings from this analysis emphasise the need to conceive of same-sex sexuality and HIV risk as context-dependent social phenomena. Multiple sociocultural axes were found to converge and shape sexual identity and sexual decision-making among this population. These axes and their interactive effects should be considered in the design of future interventions and other public health programmes for men who have sex with men in this region.
Midoun, Miriam; Shangani, Sylvia; Mbete, Bibi; Babu, Shadrack; Hackman, Melissa; van der Elst, Elise; Sanders, Eduard J.; Smith, Adrian; Operario, Don
Men who have sex with men are increasingly recognised as one of the most vulnerable HIV risk groups in Kenya. Se between men is highly stigmatised in Kenya, and efforts to provide sexual health services to men who have sex with men require a deeper understanding of their lived experiences; this includes how suchmen in Kenya construct their sexual identities, and how these constructions affect sexual decision-making. Adult self-identified men who have sex with men (n=26) in Malindi, Kenya participated in individual interviews to examine sociocultural processes influencing sexual identity construction and decision-making. Four key themes were identified: (i) tensions between perceptions of ‘homosexuality’ versus being ‘African’; (ii) gender-stereotyped beliefs about sexual positioning; (iii) socioeconomic status and limitations to personal agency; (iv) objectification and commodification of non-normative sexualities. Findings from this analysis emphasise the need to conceive of same-sex sexuality and HIV risk as context-dependent social phenomena. Multiple sociocultural axes were found to converge and shape sexual identity and sexual decision-making among this population. These axes and their interactive effects should be considered in the design of future interventions and other public health programmes for men who have sex with men in this region. PMID:26551761
... commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. 316.4 Section 316.4 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CAN-SPAM RULE § 316.4 Requirement to place warning labels on commercial electronic mail that contains sexually oriented material. (a) Any...
Popular socio-medical discourses surrounding the sexuality of disabled people have tended to subjugate young people with disabilities as de-gendered and asexual. As a result, very little attention has been given to how young people with disabilities in the African context construct their sexual identities. Based on findings from a participatory research study conducted amongst Zulu-speaking youth with physical and visual disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal, this paper argues that young people with disabilities are similar to other non-disabled youth in the way they construct their sexual identities. Using a post-structural framework, it outlines how the young participants construct discursive truths surrounding disability, culture and gender through their discussions of love and relationships. In this context, it is argued that the sexual identities' of young people with physical and visual disabilities actually emerges within the intersectionality of identity discourses.
Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435
Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.
Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors
Kuyper, L.; Fokkema, C.M.
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are
Bogaert, Anthony F
Two of the most consistent correlates of sexual orientation in men are handedness and fraternal birth order (i.e., number of older brothers). In the present study, the relationship among handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation was studied in 4 samples of heterosexual and gay or bisexual men (N = 944). Unlike previous studies, which have only observed an increased rate of non-right-handedness in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men, an elevated rate of extreme right-handedness was found in gay or bisexual men relative to heterosexual men. The results also demonstrated that older brothers moderate the relationship between handedness and sexual orientation. Specifically, older brothers increase the odds of being gay or bisexual in moderate right-handers only; in both non-right-handers and extreme right-handers, older brothers do not affect (or decrease) the odds of being gay or bisexual. The results have implications for an early neurodevelopmental origin to sexual orientation in men. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved.
Sandfort, T.G.M.; Bakker, F.; Schellevis, F.G.; Vanwesenbeeck, I.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine whether sexual orientation is related to mental and physical health and health behaviors in the general population. METHODS: Data was derived from a health interview survey that was part of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice, carried out in 2001
Research has shown that lay people can perceive sexual orientation better than chance from face stimuli. However, the relation between facial structure and sexual orientation has been scarcely examined. Recently, an extensive morphometric study on a large sample of Canadian people (Skorska, Geniole, Vrysen, McCormick, & Bogaert, 2015) identified three (in men) and four (in women) facial features as unique multivariate predictors of sexual orientation in each sex group. The present study tested the perceptual validity of these facial traits with two experiments based on realistic artificial 3D face models created by manipulating the key parameters and presented to Spanish participants. Experiment 1 included 200 White and Black face models of both sexes. The results showed an overall accuracy (0.74) clearly above chance in a binary hetero/homosexual judgment task and significant differences depending on the race and sex of the face models. Experiment 2 produced five versions of 24 artificial faces of both sexes varying the key parameters in equal steps, and participants had to rate on a 1-7 scale how likely they thought that the depicted person had a homosexual sexual orientation. Rating scores displayed an almost perfect linear regression as a function of the parameter steps. In summary, both experiments demonstrated the perceptual validity of the seven multivariate predictors identified by Skorska et al. and open up new avenues for further research on this issue with artificial face models.
Shelton, Kimber; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
Psychological research has shown the detrimental effects that overt heterosexism have on lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) clients and on the psychotherapeutic relationship. However, the effects of subtle forms of discrimination, specifically sexual orientation microaggressions, have on LGBQ clients and the therapeutic relationship have not…
Pachankis, John E.; Westmaas, J. Lee; Dougherty, Lea R.
Objective: The prevalence of smoking among gay men is considerably higher than in the general population. To investigate possible causes of this health risk disparity, this study used multilevel modeling of daily diary data to examine the temporal relationship between smoking and both sexual orientation concealment and masculine gender role…
Yadavaia, James E.; Hayes, Steven C.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 6 to 10 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for self-stigma around sexual orientation linked to same-sex attraction (what has generally been referred to as internalized homophobia; IH) in a concurrent multiple-baseline across-participants design. Three men and 2 women showed sizeable…
Poteat, V. Paul; Berger, Christian; Dantas, Julio
Victimization based on actual or perceived sexual orientation or gender expression (SOGE) carries significant consequences. In this study, we examined how SOGE-based victimization and contextual factors predicted truancy among 886 Chilean students (M[subscript age] = 16.00, SD = 1.30) in four high schools. Victimization predicted truancy…
Kuyper, Lisette; Fokkema, Tineke
Minority stress is often cited as an explanation for greater mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals than heterosexual individuals. However, studies focusing on sex or sexual orientation differences in level of minority stress and its impact on mental health are scarce, even more so outside the United States.…
DePaul, Jillian; Walsh, Mary E.; Dam, Uma C.
Issues of sexual orientation are relevant to multiple levels of the school community, including students, school professionals, and schools as institutions. School counselors, with their developmental training, systems perspective, and commitment to diversity, are uniquely positioned to be leaders in efforts not only to provide support for…
Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.
The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…