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Sample records for identity sexism homophobia

  1. Religious Identity and Cultural Diversity: Exploring the Relationships between Religious Identity, Sexism, Homophobia, and Multicultural Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the results from a national study investigating the relationships between religious identity, sexism, homophobia, and multicultural competence. Participants were 111 randomly sampled counseling professionals and graduate students. The results indicated a relationship between religious identity and various…

  2. Changing the Game: Homophobia, Sexism, and Lesbians in Sport.

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    Griffin, Pat

    1992-01-01

    A feminist discussion of the interconnected nature of homophobia and sexism in women's sport examines the origins of the lesbian stereotype, political functions of homophobia in a sexist culture, manifestations of homophobia in women's sport, and suggestions for confronting homophobia in women's sport. (SM)

  3. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

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    Breiding Junior Bernuy Castromonte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive - correlational and a sample of 406 students between males and females from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. As a measure they were evaluated with the Scale of Detection of Sexism of Ramos, Cuadrado and Recio (2007 adaptation of Acosta (2010 and the scale of modern homophobia of Raja and Stokes (2005 adaptation of Paredes (2013. The results of the research reflect a very significant, direct and strong relationship that indicates that the more sexism in adolescents, the more homophobic attitudes they can show. For hostile sexism and homophobia towards gay, a correlation of (r =.641 ** p <.01 and for lesbians (r =. 658 ** p <.01 was obtained; between gay sexism and homophobia towards gay (r =.574 ** p <.01 and towards lesbians (r =.646 ** p <.01. Levels of sexism by gender are identified as a high level of hostile and benevolent sexism for the male population with 14.1% and 15.7% respectively. There are also levels of homophobia according to gender in adolescents to gay and lesbian people with 35.3% and 25.3%

  4. Sexism and Homophobia in Adolescents of a Public Educational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuy Castromonte, Breiding Junior; Noé Grijalva, Hugo Martín

    2017-01-01

    The research explores the relationship between sexism and homophobia in adolescents of a public educational institution in Chimbote. The research design was descriptive-correlational with a sample of 406 students, including boys and girls, from 1st to 5th level of secondary education. They were evaluated using the Acosta's Adaptation (2010) of the…

  5. Bullying among Spanish Secondary Education Students: The Role of Gender Traits, Sexism, and Homophobia

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    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying,…

  6. Bullying among Spanish secondary education students: the role of gender traits, sexism, and homophobia.

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    Carrera-Fernández, María-Victoria; Lameiras-Fernández, María; Rodríguez-Castro, Yolanda; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the combined influence of gender stereotypes, sexism, and homophobia on attitudes toward bullying and bullying behavior. A total of 1,500 Spanish adolescents between 12 and 18 years of age (49.3% girls and 50.7% boys) completed a questionnaire that included measures of bullying, attitudes toward bullying, gender-stereotyped personality traits (instrumentality and expressiveness), hostile and benevolent sexism, and attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. First, the findings demonstrated that boys scored significantly higher on all the variables assessed except on benevolent sexism. Two similar models were obtained for both sexes. Benevolent sexism and, in boys, more positive attitudes toward gay men predicted more negative attitudes toward bullying when mediated by more expressive gender traits. An inverse pattern was also observed: Hostile sexism predicted more favorable attitudes toward bullying when mediated by instrumental gender traits. Attitudes toward bullying were highly correlated with bullying behavior. The five-predictor variables (including attitudes toward bullying) explained 58% of the variance of bullying behavior in girls and 37% of such variance in boys.

  7. Death qualification and prejudice: the effect of implicit racism, sexism, and homophobia on capital defendants' right to due process.

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    Butler, Brooke

    2007-01-01

    Two hundred venirepersons from the 12th Judicial Circuit in Bradenton, Florida completed the following measures: (1) one question that measured their level of support for the death penalty; (2) one question that categorized their death-qualification status; (3) 23 questions that measured their attitudes toward the death penalty (ATDP); (4) 22 questions that assessed their attitudes toward women (ATW); (5) 25 questions that measured their level of homophobia (H); (6) seven questions that assessed their level of modern racism (MR); (7) eight questions that measured their level of modern sexism (MS); and (8) standard demographic questions. Results indicated that as death-penalty support increased participants exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty, more negative attitudes toward women, and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Findings also suggested that death-qualified venirepersons exhibited more positive attitudes toward the death penalty and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Finally, more positive attitudes toward the death penalty were correlated with more negative attitudes toward women and higher levels of homophobia, modern racism, and modern sexism. Legal implications are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Homophobia or sexism? A systematic review of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation in Brazil.

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    Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Peroni, Rodrigo Oliva; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel; Nardi, Henrique Caetano

    2013-01-01

    Since it was coined in the 1970s, in the United States, the term "homophobia" has been invoked to define the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation. Besides the US, the phenomenon has been detected in many contemporary societies, including Brazil. Prejudice against nonheterosexual orientation is strongly associated with the historical and social contexts in which it is embedded, which means that the term should not be used without a clear definition of its local specificities. This applies to the recent debate around homophobia in the Brazilian context. In an attempt to identify existing studies of prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations in Brazil, a systematic review was conducted in SciELO indexes, PubMed, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. The articles were collected using the keyword "homophobia" and related terms, and "Brazil", in the languages of the databases. The search returned 355 articles. Of these, 247 were removed because they were duplicates. The abstracts of 109 studies published between 1973 and 2011were analyzed. Thirty-one articles were identified as relevant. The reviewed studies indicate that prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations is an evident and widespread phenomenon that is prevalent in various populations and contexts. Nevertheless, prejudice in Brazil is not homogeneous, and particular attention is necessary to the inequality of gender relations (sexism) and prejudice against gender nonconformity, which seem to explain, if not cause, most of the prejudice against nonheterosexual orientations. Although theoretically there is a clear distinction between sexual orientation and gender expression, from the standpoint of manifestation of prejudice that distinction seems to be more tenuous.

  9. Correlates of homophobia, transphobia, and internalized homophobia in gay or lesbian and heterosexual samples.

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    Warriner, Katrina; Nagoshi, Craig T; Nagoshi, Julie L

    2013-01-01

    This research assessed the correlates of homophobia and transphobia in heterosexual and homosexual individuals, based on a theory of different sources of perceived symbolic threat to social status. Compared to 310 heterosexual college students, a sample of 30 gay male and 30 lesbian college students scored lower on homophobia, transphobia, and religious fundamentalism. Mean gender differences were smaller for gay men and lesbians for homophobia, aggressiveness, benevolent sexism, masculinity, and femininity. Fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostile and benevolent sexism were correlated only with homophobia in lesbians, whereas fundamentalism and authoritarianism were correlated only with transphobia in gay men. Correlates of internalized homophobia were different than those found for homophobia and transphobia, which was discussed in terms of gender differences in threats to status based on sexual orientation versus gender identity.

  10. Internalized homophobia, lesbian identity development, and self-esteem in undergraduate women.

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    Peterson, Trica L; Gerrity, Deborah A

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between internalized homophobia, self-esteem, and lesbian identity development in 35 undergraduate women. Results indicated evidence of a strong relationship between the two identity development measures, the Stage Allocation Measure (SAM; Cass, 1984) and the Gay Identity Questionnaire (GIQ; Brady & Busse, 1994), and moderate relationships between identity development and internalized homophobia, between identity development and self-esteem, and between internalized homophobia and self-esteem. Implications for research and clinical practice are discussed.

  11. Reducing Racism, Sexism, and Homophobia in College Students by Completing a Psychology of Prejudice Course

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    Pettijohn, Terry F., II; Walzer, Amy S.

    2008-01-01

    Students enrolled in Psychology of Prejudice and Introductory Psychology courses completed measures of racism, sexism, and attitudes toward homosexuals at the beginning and end of the term. We predicted that those who took part in the Psychology of Prejudice class would have significantly reduced prejudice as a result of the course experience. We…

  12. Beyond Homophobia: How Do Jamaican Men Who Have Sex with Men Build Communities, Affirm Identity, and Mitigate Homophobia?

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    Harris, Orlando O; Jarrett, Sharlene

    2018-03-14

    Jamaican men who have sex with men (MSM) have experienced widespread stigma and discrimination. Much of the research on Jamaican MSM has focused on HIV risk behaviors. We examined the social and romantic relationships of Jamaican MSM and how these factors fostered a sense of community in an antihomosexual environment. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 MSM ages 18 to 29 years. Women and familial matriarchal figures were more likely to accept someone identified as homosexual and provide protection against homophobia. Jamaican MSM affirmed their identity by providing emotional support and safe spaces, which aided in building a sense of community. Relationships with friends and intimate partners were a source of love and validation as opposed to simply sexual gratification. The social and romantic relationships of Jamaican MSM transcended the social boundaries of homophobia, affirmed sexual identity and orientation, and served as facilitators across most general societal and cultural interactions. Copyright © 2018 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining the Relationship between Male Rape Myth Acceptance, Female Rape Myth Acceptance, Victim Blame, Homophobia, Gender Roles, and Ambivalent Sexism

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    Davies, Michelle; Gilston, Jennifer; Rogers, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between male rape myth acceptance, female rape myth acceptance, attitudes toward gay men, a series of gender role and sexism measures, victim blame and assault severity were investigated. It was predicted that men would display more negative, stereotypical attitudes than women and that male rape myth endorsement would be related…

  14. College Women's Feminist Identity: A Multidimensional Analysis with Implications for Coping with Sexism.

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    Leaper, Campbell; Arias, Diana M

    2011-04-01

    This study examined components of women's feminist identity and possible relations to their reported coping responses to sexism. A sample of 169 undergraduate women (M = 19.4 y, SD = 1.2) from diverse ethnic backgrounds completed surveys assessing their experiences and gender-related views. The first set of analyses revealed that women's social gender identity, exposure to feminism, and gender-egalitarian attitudes independently contributed to feminist identification; moreover, non-stereotyping of feminists further predicted feminist self-identification. A second set of analyses tested the relative contribution of feminist identity components to women's cognitive appraisals of coping responses to sexual harassment. Seeking social support was predicted by self-identification as a feminist (for White European American women only). Confronting was predicted by social gender identity, non-stereotyping of feminists, and public identification as a feminist. Findings highlight possible components of women's feminist identity and their possible impact on coping responses to sexism.

  15. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience

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    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women’s actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women’s decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants (N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner’s remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women’s perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ’s website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index. PMID:29051685

  16. Perceiving and Confronting Sexism: The Causal Role of Gender Identity Salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Katie; Dovidio, John F

    2017-03-01

    Although many researchers have explored the relations among gender identification, discriminatory attributions, and intentions to challenge discrimination, few have examined the causal impact of gender identity salience on women's actual responses to a sexist encounter. In the current study, we addressed this question by experimentally manipulating the salience of gender identity and assessing its impact on women's decision to confront a sexist comment in a simulated online interaction. Female participants ( N = 114) were randomly assigned to complete a short measure of either personal or collective self-esteem, which was designed to increase the salience of personal versus gender identity. They were then given the opportunity to confront a male interaction partner who expressed sexist views. Compared to those who were primed to focus on their personal identity, participants who were primed to focus on their gender identity perceived the interaction partner's remarks as more sexist and were more likely to engage in confrontation. By highlighting the powerful role of subtle contextual cues in shaping women's perceptions of, and responses to, sexism, our findings have important implications for the understanding of gender identity salience as an antecedent of prejudice confrontation. Online slides for instructors who want to use this article for teaching are available on PWQ's website at http://journals.sagepub.com/page/pwq/suppl/index.

  17. Shame, internalized homophobia, identity formation, attachment style, and the connection to relationship status in gay men.

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    Brown, Jac; Trevethan, Robert

    2010-09-01

    This study reports on a survey of 166 gay men in Sydney, Australia, that explores the links between internalized shame, internalized homophobia, and attachment style. These variables were linked to the age of coming out, family and peer acceptance of their sexuality, relationship status, and previous marriage. Findings suggest a strong relationship between shame, internalized homophobia, and anxious and avoidant attachment style. Shame was predicted by internalized homophobia and anxious and avoidant attachment style. A significant proportion of gay men reported that they were not easily accepted when they first came out. There was a significant relationship between coming out and internalized homophobia but not with shame and attachment style. Furthermore, men who had never come out to family and friends reported higher levels of internalized homophobia but not higher levels of shame and attachment style. Of particular significance was the connection between previous marriage and higher levels of shame and internalized homophobia. Finally, gay men who were not currently in a relationship reported higher levels of shame anxious and avoidant attachment style. These findings are related to therapeutic work with gay men who have previously been married and those who are concerned with their current single status.

  18. Globalizing queer? AIDS, homophobia and the politics of sexual identity in India

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    Kole Subir K

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.

  19. Globalizing queer? AIDS, homophobia and the politics of sexual identity in India.

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    Kole, Subir K

    2007-07-11

    Queerness is now global. Many emerging economies of the global South are experiencing queer mobilization and sexual identity politics raising fundamental questions of citizenship and human rights on the one hand; and discourses of nationalism, cultural identity, imperialism, tradition and family-values on the other. While some researchers argue that with economic globalization in the developing world, a Western, hegemonic notion of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) identity has been exported to traditional societies thereby destroying indigenous sexual cultures and diversities, other scholars do not consider globalization as a significant factor in global queer mobilization and sexual identity politics. This paper aims at exploring the debate around globalization and contemporary queer politics in developing world with special reference to India. After briefly tracing the history of sexual identity politics, this paper examines the process of queer mobilization in relation to emergence of HIV/AIDS epidemic and forces of neoliberal globalization. I argue that the twin-process of globalization and AIDS epidemic has significantly influenced the mobilization of queer communities, while simultaneously strengthening right wing "homophobic" discourses of heterosexist nationalism in India.

  20. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Fedi; Chiara Rollero

    2016-01-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women ? Study 1 ? and men ? Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with...

  1. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women – Study 1 – and men – Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men (N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration. PMID:27872665

  2. If Stigmatized, Self-Esteem Is not Enough: Effects of Sexism, Self-Esteem and Social Identity on Leadership Aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedi, Angela; Rollero, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Ambivalent sexism has many pernicious consequences. Since gender stereotypes also affect leadership roles, the present research investigated the effects of ambivalent sexism on envisioning oneself as a leader. Our studies tested the influence of sexist attitudes (toward women - Study 1 - and men - Study 2) on leadership aspiration, taking into account the interaction among ambivalent attitudes, personal characteristics (e.g. self-esteem), and group processes (e.g. level of identification with gender). Specifically, the current study used a 3 (sexism: hostile, benevolent, control) x 2 (social identification: high, low) x 2 (self-esteem: high, low) factorial design. 178 women participated in Study 1. Results showed that, although sexism was not recognised as a form of prejudice and did not trigger negative emotions, in sexist conditions high-identified women increase their leadership aspiration. In Study 2 men ( N = 184) showed to recognise hostility as a form of prejudice, to experience more negative emotions, but to be not influenced in leadership aspiration. For both men and women self-esteem had a significant main effect on leadership aspiration.

  3. Everyday sexism

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    Bates, Laura

    2014-01-01

    'If Caitlin Moran's How To Be A Womanis the fun-filled manual for female survival in the 21st century, everyday sexism is its more politicised sister' (Independent on Sunday). After experiencing a series of escalating sexist incidents, Laura Bates started theeveryday sexism projectand has gone on to write 'a pioneering analysis of modern day misogyny' (Telegraph). After an astounding response from the wide range of stories that came pouring in from all over the world, the project quickly became one of the biggest social media success stories of the internet. From being harassed and wolf-whistled at on the street, to discrimination in the workplace and serious sexual assault, it is clear that sexism had become normalised. But Bates inspires women to lead a real change and writes this 'extremely powerful book that could, and should, win hearts and minds right across the spectrum' (Financial Times). Often shocking, sometimes amusing and always poignant, everyday sexism is a protest against inequality and a manif...

  4. Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by heteronormativity

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    Yolanda Dreyer

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to focus on hegemony as it relates to the issue of sexuality and the trauma imposed on sexual minorities. A point of departure is that social identity theories can shed light on homophobia. The article argues that an empathic approach to those traumatised by internalised homophobia calls for a gay-friendly psychotherapy/analysis. The article reflects particularly on how heteronormativity maintains homophobia. It also illustrates the relationship between homophobia and social scientific insights regarding personality types and gender. The concepts homophobia and the internalisation of homophobia are discussed by focusing on aspects such as personality types and violence. The article finds that blind submission to heteronormativity, an outdated social construct, traumatises those who do not conform to the hetero norm, in two ways: hegemony is one consequence, and internalised homophobia is another.

  5. Gender Identities in Class: the use of movies on combat against homophobia in schools of Brasília – Federal District of Brazil

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    Edlene Oliveira Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the cinema is a broadcasting place of negative images of homosexuality, as it reinforces stereotypes and prejudices about sexual and gender identities non-heteronormative. Yet, for its global reach, the movies can be used as a privileged way in the confrontation of homophobia and in debates about homosexuality at school. This paper analyses a pedagogical intervention in a public elementary school of Federal District of Brazil from the exhibition of the short-film “I don’t want to go back alone”, directed by Daniel Ribeiro (2010. In this work, our goal is understand in three stages the imaginary and social practices that instruct the student’s social representation of gender relations and homosexuality: the first is a chat session with the students, than a collective reading of texts about sexuality and gender relations, and then the use of the chosen movie. During this investigation, it was possible to identify proper teaching knowledge to the treatment of this subject under the suggested activities with the usage of the film and the gender and homosexuality conception, sometimes conservative, sometimes transgressive, branding the students discourses.

  6. Hegemony and the internalisation of homophobia caused by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the article is to focus on hegemony as it relates to the issue of sexuality and the trauma imposed on sexual minorities. A point of departure is that social identity theories can shed light on homophobia. The article argues that an empathic approach to those traumatised by internalised homophobia calls for a gay- ...

  7. [Homophobia among nursing students].

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    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Cogollo, Zuleima

    2010-09-01

    Homophobia is defined as a general negative attitude towards homosexual persons, with implications on public health. This fact has been less investigated among nursing students. The objective of this review was to learn about the prevalence of homophobia and its associated variables among nursing students. A systematic review was performed on original articles published in EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid, and ProQuest, including articles published between 1998 and 2008 in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Keywords used were homophobia, homosexuality, and nursing students. Descriptive analysis was performed. Eight studies were analyzed. The incidence of homophobia in nursing students is between 7% and 16%. Homophobia is more common among males and religious conservatism people. Homophobia is quite frequent in nursing students. This negative attitude toward homosexuality may affect services and care giving by nursing professions and could have negative implications in nursing practice.

  8. Homophobia in physical education and sport: the role of physical/sporting identity and attributes, authoritarian aggression, and social dominance orientation.

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    O'Brien, Kerry S; Shovelton, Heather; Latner, Janet D

    2013-01-01

    We examined levels of, and reasons for, anti-gay and anti-lesbian prejudice (homophobia) in pre-service physical education (PE) and non-physical education (non-PE) university students. Participants (N = 409; 66% female; N = 199 pre-service physical educators) completed questionnaires assessing anti-gay and lesbian prejudice, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation (SDO), physical/athletic identity and self-concept, and physical attributes. ANCOVAs revealed that PE students had higher levels of anti-gay (p = .004) and lesbian prejudice than non-PE students (p = .008), respectively. Males reported greater anti-gay prejudice (p anti-lesbian prejudice, than females. Authoritarian aggression was positively associated with greater anti-gay (β = .49) and lesbian prejudice (β = .37) among male participants. Among females, higher authoritarian aggression and SDO was associated with greater anti-gay (β = .34 and β = .25, respectively) and lesbian (β = .26 and β = .16, respectively) prejudice. The physical identity-related constructs of athletic self-concept (β = .-15) and perceived upper body strength (β = .39) were associated with anti-gay attitudes among male participants. Physical attractiveness (β = -.29) and upper body strength (β = .29) were also associated with male participants' anti-lesbian prejudice. Regression analyses showed that the differences between PE and non-PE students in anti-gay and lesbian prejudice were largely mediated by authoritarianism and SDO. The present study is the first to examine the relationship between investment in physical/sporting identity and attributes and anti-gay and lesbian prejudice in PE/sport participants. In the present sample, anti-gay and lesbian prejudice was greater in pre-service PE students than non-PE students, but these differences appear to be explained by differences in conservative ideological traits. Additionally, physical identity and

  9. Homophobia: A New Challenge.

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    Gramick, Jeannine

    1983-01-01

    Gives a history of attitudes toward homosexuality and discusses the consequences of homophobia, an irrational fear of homosexuality. Stresses that social workers must understand that feelings and fantasies about same-sex behavior are natural before they can help clients cope with the social problems engendered by homophobia. (Author/JAC)

  10. Sexism in schools.

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    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2014-01-01

    Sexism is gender-based prejudice or discrimination. As with other forms of prejudice and discrimination, it functions to maintain status and power differences between groups in society. One manifestation of sexism involves prejudice and discrimination against girls and women who seek to achieve in prestigious fields traditionally associated with males. Another manifestation of sexism, however, occurs when pressures are placed on boys and men to conform to traditional conceptions of masculinity. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of developmental and educational psychologists have become concerned about sexism directed toward children and adolescents in school contexts. Our chapter reviews the research on this topic. After providing an overview of different processes related to sexism, we examine how it is manifested in school contexts. Sexism is seen through gender-stereotyped biases against girls and boys in academic and athletic achievement. Also, it occurs through sexual harassment in social interactions. We also address factors related to children's awareness of sexism and coping responses to sexism. Finally, we consider possible ways to reduce sexism and foster effective coping in schools.

  11. Ambivalent Sexism Revisited

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    Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    It is close to 20 years since the authors began the collaboration that led to ambivalent sexism theory and its associated measure, both reviewed in their 1997 "Psychology of Women Quarterly" article, "Hostile and Benevolent Sexism: Measuring Ambivalent Sexist Attitudes Toward Women." This article reports the development and validation of the…

  12. Prejudice, homophobia and the Christian faith community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Dreyer

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to illustrate that prejudice differs fundamentally from legitimate presuppositions that come into play when people interpret the Bible or reflect theologically on contemporary issues such as homosexuality. It is argued that prejudice leads to the theologically untenable phenomenon of homophobia. Though the rejection of prejudicial attitudes does not mean that �anything goes�, it is a theological necessity to expose harmful attitudes and behaviours regarding sexuality. To this end the article investigates the labels �homosexual�, �gay� and �queer� that, on the one hand, express and perpetuate homophobia and on the other hand represent a search for authentic identity on the part of sexual minorities. The� article reflects on the effect of underlying social identity theories on homophobia. Such theories include nominialism with its focus on �sameness� and essentialism that focuses on �difference�, as well as primordialism with its emphasis on the immutability of social identity formation and constructionism that highlights change.

  13. Internalized homophobia in Russia

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    Alexander A. Yanykin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The goal of this study was to empirically verify that the combination of negative attitudes of LGB people towards homosexuality in general and to their own personal characteristics associated with a gay orientation has a negative impact on their self-esteem. Design. To test this hypothesis we adapted and standardized the Russian version of the personal homonegativity scale (Mayfield, 2001. Using the adapted measure, we studied how personal homonegativity affects the self-esteem of LGB people. We explored the reliability and validity of the adapted measure with 92 gay respondents aged over 21. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a two-scale structure — the method was proved. The modified measure includes ten statements divided into two scales: Homonegativity (internalized homophobia; Cronbach’s alpha =0.96 and Acceptance of one’s own homosexuality (Cronbach alpha’s = 0.88. The results indicated that the adapted measure was suitable for assessing internalized homonegativity among gay individuals in Russia. Results. More than a half of the respondents (55.4 % had a rather low level of internalized homophobia which was related to fewer neurotic symptoms and emotional discomfort in comparison with other respondents. However, a higher level of internalized homophobia in remaining respondents (44.6 % was related to a more positive emotional acceptance of their own homosexuality and to a higher level of self-esteem. Conclusion. The results of the analyses of the original hypothesis were confirmed only partially. Internalized homophobia of LGB people appeared to adversely affect the severity of neurotic symptoms and subjective well-being.

  14. Mapping Homophobia in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Flood, Michael Gaston; Flood, Michael; Flood, C.; Hamilton, Clive

    2008-01-01

    One-third of the Australian population believe that 'homosexuality is immoral', and this belief is spread in distinct ways across the nation. Using data from a survey of nearly 25,000 Australians, we can 'map' homophobia in Australia. Homophobic attitudes are worst in country areas of Queensland and Tasmania. Men are far more likely than women to feel that homosexuality does not have moral legitimacy, and this gender gap in attitudes persists across age, socioeconomic, educational, and region...

  15. Sexism in the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli Mingo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion of performativity was introduced to the feminist debate by Judith Butler, who states that gender is a symbolic production conducted through significance acts. In this article, we aim to analyze sexism in daily life at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México as a phenomenon occurring in communication processes that are carried out in face to face interactions such as speech acts and performances.  The mechanism of production and reproduction of these processes is ritualized staging. We analyze four instances of sexism to see what is at stake in cases aimed at "putting someone into her place", claiming male supremacy or reifying women as sex objects.

  16. Sexism and attitudes towards sexual diversity in mexican students of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis-Manuel Rodríguez-Otero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sexism and hostile attitudes towards people who differ from heteronormative model (gay, lesbian, bisexual, transsexual, transgender and intersex are the result of socio-cultural phenomena such as patriarchy and heterocentrism. The draft of such attitudes in Social Work is a positive element in the revictimization of users. Since there is no research to analyze jointly homophobia, biphobia and Transphobia student of Social Work quantitative research arises in order to identify whether there are such attitudes in students in this discipline in Mexico. And identify whether these attitudes are related to each other and to the ambivalent sexism. To this end, various scales have been applied in analyzing paths liket format attitudes to 120 students from the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. The results show average levels of sexism, homophobia, and transphobia biphobia, being decisive variables related to sex, age, religion and education level. Based on these results it is considered necessary to include content on gender and sexual diversity in the training plans of the degree of Social Work.

  17. Men as Allies Against Sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Cihangir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexism is often expressed in subtle and ambiguous ways, causing targets to doubt their own capabilities or to show stereotype-confirming behavior. This research examines whether the self-confidence and stereotype (dis-confirming behavior of targets of sexism can be bolstered when other male versus female sources suggest that sexism may have played a role. Both Study 1 (N = 78 and Study 2 (N = 90 show that a suggestion of sexism has more beneficial effects when it is made by male sources than when it is made by female sources. When males suggested that sexism had taken place, targets reported more self-confidence (less self-handicapping and higher personal performance state self-esteem and showed less stereotype confirmation (less self-stereotyping and better task performance than when sexism was suggested by a female source. Study 2 additionally revealed that targets are more likely to file a complaint when men suggest that sexism took place than when this same suggestion was made by women. These results indicate that men can constitute important allies against sexism if they speak out when sexist treatment takes place.

  18. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  19. Internalizing sexism within close relationships: Perceptions of intimate partners' benevolent sexism promote women's endorsement of benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Examining the impact of sexism on evaluations of social scientific evidence in discrimination litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anita; Tidwell, Natasha

    2014-12-01

    The present 2 studies involved undergraduate participants and investigated whether various types of sexism and other correlated predictors, such as political conservatism and scientific discounting, can predict people's evaluations of social science research on sex stereotypes, sexism, and sex discrimination. In Study 1, participants high in hostile sexism, scientific discounting, and/or political conservatism were more critical of scientific studies that provided evidence for sexism than identical studies showing null results. Study 2 showed that participants high in modern sexism, hostile sexism, and political conservatism evaluated social scientific studies more negatively; in addition, assessments of social scientific evidence quality mediated the effect of modern sexism on admissibility ratings (b = -0.15, z = -4.16, p = .00). Overall, these results suggest that sexist beliefs can bias one's judgments of social scientific evidence. Future research should explore whether the same psychological processes operate for judges and jurors as they evaluate the admissibility of evidence and examine ways to attenuate the effect of sexism on evaluations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Sexism in the Library Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Ella Gaines

    1979-01-01

    Explores the extent of sexism among top library administrators. Career prejudice against women in libraries is revealed in terms of money, position, female and male stereotypes, influence of the women's movement, and the special problems of Black women. (SW)

  2. Internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness of gay/bisexual men from Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenjian; Zheng, Lijun; Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2017-02-17

    Social attitudes toward male homosexuality in China so far are still not optimistic. Sexual minorities in China have reported high levels of internalized homophobia. This Internet-based study examined the associations among internalized homophobia, mental health, sexual behaviors, and outness among 435 gay/bisexual men in Southwest China from 2014 to 2015. Latent profile analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, univariate logistic regression, and separate multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. This descriptive study found the Internalized Homophobia Scale to be suitable for use in China. The sample demonstrated a high prevalence of internalized homophobia. Latent profile analysis suggested a 2-class solution as optimal, and a high level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with greater psychological distress (Wald = 6.49, AOR = 1.66), transactional sex during the previous 6 months (Wald = 5.23, AOR = 2.77), more sexual compulsions (Wald = 14.05, AOR = 2.12), and the concealment of sexual identity from others (Wald = 30.70, AOR = 0.30) and parents (Wald = 6.72, AOR = 0.49). These findings contribute to our understanding of internalized homophobia in China, and highlight the need to decrease gay-related psychological stress/distress and improve public health services.

  3. Stigma and self-esteem across societies: avoiding blanket psychological responses to gay men experiencing homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Lyons, Evanthia; Dinos, Sokratis

    2015-08-01

    Aims and method The relationship between homophobia (varying from actual and perceived to internalised) and measures of well-being is well documented. A study in Athens, Greece and London, UK attempted to examine this relationship in two cities with potentially different levels of homophobia. One-hundred and eighty-eight men who have sex with men (MSM) living in London and 173 MSM living in Athens completed a survey investigating their views on their sexuality, perceptions of local homophobia and their identity evaluation in terms of global self-esteem. Results The results confirmed a negative association between homophobia and self-esteem within each city sample. However, Athens MSM, despite perceiving significantly higher levels of local homophobia than London MSM, did not differ on most indicators of internalised homophobia and scored higher on global self-esteem than London MSM. The city context had a significant impact on the relationship. Clinical implications The findings are discussed in relation to the implications they pose for mental health professionals dealing with MSM from communities experiencing variable societal stigmatisation and its effect on a positive sense of self.

  4. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  5. A systematic literature review on ambivalent sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Svetek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Manifestations of sexism are under the constant influence of social changes and changes in gender relations. This paper presents modern forms of sexism, with an emphasis on the ambivalent sexism theory (Glick and Fiske, 1996. Ambivalent sexism theory addresses sexism not only on societal but also on interpersonal and personal level. In addition, this article provides a comprehensive review of the empirical findings in the field of benevolent and hostile sexism and their effect on close relations, sexual violence, beauty ideals and practices, women’s self-esteem, and their career decisions and aspirations. Finally, I place ambivalent sexism theory into the broader societal and psychological context and discuss the possibilities of surmounting current sexist ideologies and practices.

  6. Exploring Homophobia in Tbilisi, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestvirishvili, Maia; Zurabishvili, Tinatin; Iakobidze, Tamar; Mestvirishvili, Natia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine statistical predictors of homophobic attitudes among the residents of Tbilisi, Georgia. We analyze 2013 survey data from a representative sample of the Tbilisi adult population. Residents were asked about their attitudes, beliefs, and political and social values in the context of the May 17, 2013 attack on LGBT activists on the International Day Against Homophobia and Transphobia (IDAHOT). Findings show that homophobia is significantly predicted by male gender, lower levels of education, acceptance of social inequality, nonliberal attitudes, and perceiving homosexuals as a "threat to national security." However, psychological perceptions and personal experiences also indirectly influence homophobic attitudes: the findings suggest that males report homophobic attitudes more often than females do and tend to be even more homophobic when they believe that homosexuality is inborn rather than acquired. The study also found that people without liberal attitudes tend to be more homophobic when they have personal contacts with homosexuals. This article highlights the need for a more comprehensive approach to education and the promotion of liberal values as well as legal equality for LGBTQ individuals to decrease the level of homophobia in Georgian society and, specifically, in Tbilisi.

  7. hegemony of heteronormativity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    assumption that social identity theories underlie homophobia. Empathy with .... hating, sexual orientationalism (along with racism, sexism, etc) and heterosexism .... consequences of homophobia whilst sets of statistics on 'gay-bashing' and.

  8. Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.

  9. Uncovering the Secrets: Homophobia in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvazo, Shiri; Sutherland, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Studies examining the discourse on issues related to sexual orientation in physical education reveal that the physical education setting is an environment where heterosexism, heteronormativity, and homophobia subsist fervently. The purpose of this article is to review the growing research that has been conducted on homophobia in physical education…

  10. Homophobia and perceptions about homosexuality among students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Nigeria.2 Discrimination by reason of sexual orientation, termed homophobia, embraces prejudices against LGBT individuals. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of homophobia, explore the perception about homosexuality and associations ...

  11. Predictors of Homophobia in Female College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Johnson, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how self-esteem, self-discrepancy, and gender-attribute importance related to homophobia in predominantly white college women, noting sex role attitudes, authoritarian attitudes, and extent of contact with homosexuals. The only significant predictor of homophobia was authoritarian attitudes. Other correlations included belief in sex…

  12. Queer theory, late capitalism, and internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Max

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of queer theory represents a transformation in the approach to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgendered peoples. It has claimed new ground for treating sexuality and gender as worthy subjects in their own rights, rather than offshoots of gay and lesbian studies or of general cultural theory. The author contends, however, that it is doubtful that this approach can lead to social change. Queer theory has dismissed the usefulness of the disciplines that were the foundation of the social movements that initiated gay and lesbian studies, such as political economy, and in doing so, it has surreptitiously mirrored the social relations of reproduction that constitute late capitalism. This mirroring has had unseen consequences for the individual in society, and with queer theory's insistence on the relativity of experience and the dismissal of identity, has set the stage for a benign reinforcement of internalized homophobia. The author argues that this approach can be mediated by recognizing that identity is fluid, and that by focusing on identifying with social movements rather than centering analyses on the problems associated with identifying as a particular category of status and being, we can refocus our energies on the building and maintenance of mutual support and collective recognition that can lead to resolving the stagnation now dominating attempts to develop coalitions around issues that matter.

  13. Levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lung; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Nel, Dawie

    2012-04-01

    This study examines levels and correlates of internalized homophobia among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Pretoria, South Africa. Using respondent-driven sampling, we recruited 324 MSM from February to August 2009. Results were adjusted using RDSAT analysis to yield population-based estimates. High levels of internalized homophobia exist among South African MSM: 10-15% reported "often/very often" and over 20% reported "sometimes" having feelings of internalized homophobia. A greater level of internalized homophobia was significantly associated with a lower level of education [Adjusted Odds Ratio = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.1-4.9], a higher level of HIV misinformation [AOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.3-5.3], bisexual identity (vs. homosexual) [AOR = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.5-12.0], and HIV-related conspiracy beliefs [AOR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02-5.8]. These findings contribute valuable information to our understanding of internalized homophobia in South Africa, highlighting the need to empower the gay community, promote self-acceptance of homosexual identity, and address conspiracy beliefs among MSM to reduce internalized homophobia and increase access to HIV prevention interventions.

  14. Homophobia in an intercultural context Homophobia in an intercultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David William Foster

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade, na teoria queer, de discriminar diferenças leva ao devido estudo da relatividade de conceitos tais como sexo, gênero, desejo e atos sexuais. Contudo, o mesmo esforço analítico não vem sendo direcionado para o conceito de homofobia. O presente estudo propõe alguns dos parâmetros necessários para empreender diferenças analíticas fundamentais. Esses parâmetros são aqui ilustrados e discutidos com base no filme cubano, Fresa y chocolate, em três romances detetivescos do chicano Michael Nava. Palavras-chaves: Homofobia; diferença; teoria queer. The need to distinguish differences within queer theory leads to the study of the relativity of such concepts as those of sex, gender, desire, and sexual acts. However, this effort on which analysis depends has not been geared toward the concept of homophobia. The purpose of this paper is to propose strategic parameters for conceptualizing homophobia in order to enable fundamental analytical differences. Such parameters are herein illustrated based on the Cuban film Fresa y chocolate, and on three detective novels by U.S.-Chicano writer Michael Nava.

  15. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  16. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  17. SEXISM IN CONSUMERS AND THEIR SEXIST ASESSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the relationship between the score for consumers of television media in Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, Glick and Fiske, 1996. Adapt. Expósito et al., 1998 and they valuation around level of sexism than 14 television commercials broadcast in the national channels. The study was conducted with 100 participants, of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years of strata 4, 5, 6, consumers of television media. It is an ex post facto study, a prospective with single independent variable (Montero & Leon, 2007. The level of ambivalent sexism is the independent variable by classification and the valuation of commercial is the dependent variable. The main findings show an interaction statistically significant between level of ambivalent sexism in the component of gender differentiation and the perception of sexism in advertising, but without a statistically significant effect with gender, age and other demo-graphic variables.

  18. Homophobia, stigma and HIV in Jamaican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Figueroa, J Peter; Kerrigan, Deanna; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2011-02-01

    Success in addressing HIV and AIDS among men who have sex with men, a key population in the global epidemic, is impeded by homophobia. Homophobia as a barrier to HIV prevention and AIDS treatment is a particularly acute problem in the prison setting. In this qualitative study, we explore HIV and AIDS, stigma and homosexuality in the largest all male prison in Jamaica by conducting iterative in-depth interviews with 25 inmates. Participant narratives unveil a purposeful manipulation of beliefs related to homosexuality that impedes an effective response to HIV and AIDS both in prison and wider society. Findings indicate that homophobia is both a social construction and a tangible tool used to leverage power and a sense of solidarity in a larger political and economic landscape. This use of homophobia may not be unique to Jamaica and is an important issue to address in other low- and middle-income post-colonialist societies.

  19. Psychosexual Outcome Among Iranian Individuals With 5α-Reductase Deficiency Type 2 and Its Relationship With Parental Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorashad, Behzad S; Aghili, Zahra; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Hiradfar, Mehran; Roshan, Ghasem M; Afkhamizadeh, Mozhgan; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Ghaemi, Nosrat; Khazai, Behnaz; Cohen-Kettenis, P T

    2016-11-01

    Few studies exist on the psychosexual outcome of homogeneous groups of individuals with 5α-reductase deficiency type 2 (5α-RD-2) and the relation between gender changes and parental hostile and benevolent sexism, which are two components of ambivalent sexism that assume a stereotypical approach toward women in an overtly negative way or a chivalrous, seemingly positive way. To report on the psychosexual outcome of individuals with 5α-RD-2 and to investigate its relation to the level of parental sexism in a relatively large sample of Iranians with 5α-RD-2. Twenty participants (mean age = 19.5 years, SD = 6.345) with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of 5α-RD-2 who were assigned the female gender at birth and raised as female were included in the study. Participants and their parents were interviewed and their medical records were assessed. Parents also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), which includes hostile and benevolent sexism subscales. Psychosexual outcome and parental hostile and benevolent sexism measurements. Twelve of 20 participants (60%) were diagnosed with gender identity disorder not otherwise specified (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision). Ten of these transitioned to the male gender. The other 10 participants (50%), including the two diagnosed with gender identity disorder not otherwise specified, continued living in a female gender role. When comparing the ASI subscale scores between families of participants who changed their gender and those who did not, no significant difference was found for ASI total and hostile sexism scores, but there was a difference for benevolent sexism (P = .049): those whose daughters had changed their gender had higher benevolent sexism scores. The high prevalence of gender change and gender dysphoria reported in the literature was confirmed in this relatively large and homogeneous sample of Iranians with 5-α-RD-2 raised as female. Prenatal exposure

  20. [Intergenerational connection of sexism: influence of family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is three-fold: 1) to analyze the relations between parents' hostile sexism (HS), benevolent sexism (BS), and ambivalent sexism (AS) and that of their sons-daughters; 2) to study the relation between the mothers' and the fathers' sexism; and 3) to appraise whether the family socio-economic level-cultural is related to sexism. The sample included 2,867 participants, 1,455 adolescents (768 girls, 687 boys) and their parents (764 mothers, 648 fathers). The results revealed positive correlations between the mothers' sexism (HS-BS-AS) and the BS of their sons, and with the HS, BS, and AS of their daughters. Positive correlations were found between the fathers' sexism (BS-AS) and their sons' sexism (HS-BS-AS-Neosexism); however, no relation was found with their daughters' sexism. The intergenerational connection of sexism in the family was confirmed: from mothers to sons and daughters and from fathers to sons. The mother emerged as a very influential figure, although a higher connection was confirmed between the mothers' and the daughters' sexism and between the fathers' and the sons' sexism. Positive correlations were also found between both parents' sexism, and negative correlations between the socio-economic-cultural level of the family and sexism in the parents and in the adolescents.

  1. Homophobia in Registered Nurses: Impact on LGB Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Christopher W.; Kiehl, Ermalynn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined registered nurses' overall attitudes and homophobia towards gays and lesbians in the workplace. Homophobia scores, represented by the Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men (ATLG) Scale, was the dependent variable. Overall homophobia scores were assessed among a randomized stratified sample of registered nurses licensed in the…

  2. Homophobia in Medical Students of the University of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, R. W. M.; Au, K. P.; Chan, W. K.; Cheung, L. W. M.; Lam, C. Y. Y.; Liu, H. H. W.; Ng, L. Y.; Wong, M. Y.; Wong, W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Homosexuality is now accepted as a normal variant of human sexuality, but homophobia among healthcare professionals is well documented. Establishment of trustful doctor-patient relationships is impossible in the presence of homophobia. We were interested to examine the extent of homophobia among medical students, the future doctors. This article…

  3. “We’d Be Free”: Narratives of Life Without Homophobia, Racism, or Sexism

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Ilan H.; Ouellette, Suzanne C.; Haile, Rahwa; McFarlane, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to everyday experiences of inequality. It finds that stigma and social inequality can increase stress and reduce well-being for LGB people,  even in the absence of major traumatic events such as hate crimes and discrimination. The study, funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, used qualitative analysis with 57 sexual minority men and women to identify aspects of stigma that are difficult to identify.  Subjects reported estrangement from f...

  4. Gender, Bullying, and Harassment: Strategies to End Sexism and Homophobia in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    While there have been countless studies of bullying and harassment in schools, none have examined the key gender issues related to these behaviors. In her new book, Meyer does just that and offers readers tangible and flexible suggestions to help them positively transform the culture of their school and reduce the incidences of gendered…

  5. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory: Adaptation to Basque Population and Sexism as a Risk Factor of Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Arnoso, Ainara; Elgorriaga, Edurne

    2016-11-15

    There is currently a consensus that sexism is one of the most important causes of intimate partner violence, but this has yet to be empirically demonstrated conclusively. The key objective of the study was to adapt Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and to validate it to the Basque language. It also aims to analyze the prevalence of violence in dating relationships and verify if ambivalent sexism in young men and women is a valid predictor of perpetration and/or victimization in their dating relationships. Ambivalent Sexism Inventory and Dating Relationship Questionnaire were administered to 1378 undergraduate students (66% women and 45% Basque), aged between 17 and 30. The psychometric properties of the Basque and Spanish versions of the ASI are deemed to be acceptable. Sufficient guarantees are provided to be used as an instrument for measuring ambivalent sexism in adult Basque speakers. Ambivalent sexism among young men and women are both positively associated with the perpetration of violence and victimization in their dating relationships. However, ambivalent sexism or two sub-types of sexism (hostile and benevolent) are not relevant risk factors to be perpetrator or victim of violence in dating relationships, due to accounting for 3% or less of variance in dating violence.

  6. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  7. Homophobia, heteronormativity, and slash fan fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April S. Callis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available I analyze the relationship between homophobia/heteronormativity and slash fan fiction. Through reading and coding almost 6,000 pages of Kirk/Spock fan fiction written from 1978 to 2014, I illuminate shifts in how normative gender and sexuality are portrayed by K/S authors. Writers of K/S, while ostensibly writing about the 23rd century, consciously or unconsciously include cultural norms from the 20th and 21st centuries. Thus, slash becomes a lens through which readers can view a decrease in both homophobia and heteronormativity in US culture over the past several decades.

  8. Factors Related to Homophobia Among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowniak, Stefan R

    2015-01-01

    A convenience sample of 90 nursing students participated in an online survey measuring homophobia or sexual prejudice. Significantly higher scores were seen among those who endorsed the belief that being gay was a matter of personal choice, did not have a friend or family member who was gay or lesbian, and endorsed religiosity. A significantly higher level of sexual prejudice was seen among those who identified as non-Catholic Christians when compared to other religions. Asian/Pacific Islanders showed significantly higher scores on the scales compared to non-Hispanic Caucasian students. Nursing education should focus on those aspects of homophobia amenable to change.

  9. Exposure to sexism can decrease implicit gender stereotype bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Miguel R.; Barreto, Manuela; Ellemers, Naomi; Moya, Miguel; Ferreira, Lucia; Calanchini, Jimmy

    Two studies examined the effect of exposure to sexism on implicit gender bias, focusing specifically on stereotypes of men as competent and women as warm. Male and female participants were exposed to sexism or no sexism. In both Experiment 1 (Implicit Association Task; N = 115) and Experiment 2

  10. Determinants of perceived sexism and their role on the association of sexism with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Katherine; Pérez, Glòria; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Rohlfs, Izabella

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study sought to compare the socioeconomic factors related to perceived sexism in employed and non-employed Spanish women and to examine whether the relationship of perceived sexism with mental health outcomes is reduced when such factors are taken into account. Data were taken from the 2006 Spanish Health Survey, including women aged 20-64 years (n=10,927). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the independent relationships between socioeconomic variables and perceived sexism and also between perceived sexism and poor mental health. In this latter case, socioeconomic variables were included by blocks in the logistic models. Perceived sexism was higher among employed women (3.9% vs. 2.8% among non-employed) and mainly among those in a managerial position (11.35%; adjusted OR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.30-5.67) and having irregular working hours (5.5%; adjusted OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.10-2.34). Socioeconomic and family characteristics were associated with perceived sexism among women. Perceived sexism was associated with poor mental health, and this remained the case when different independent variables were taken into account. These results highlight the importance of taking into account gender discrimination in different aspects of our society, such as work and family organization, and in planning mental health interventions.

  11. “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Couzens

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting. Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.

  12. "It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay": The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.

  13. “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Berenice; Wilkinson, Dean

    2017-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia. PMID:28674508

  14. THE PREDICTIVE POWER OF RELIGIOUS ORIENTATION TYPES ON AMBIVALENT SEXISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ozdemir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to predict ambivalent sexism (including hostile sexism and benevolent sexism with religious orientation types as intrinsic religiosity, extrinsic religiosity and quest religiosity. In addition, the effect of demographic variables (including age, gender, education on sexist attitudes was tested. 583 (N_female= 318; N_male= 265 university students who study in different universities of Ankara/Turkey (M_age= 22.10; SD = 2.33 completed Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, and Religious Orientation Scale. Findings indicated significant gender differences on study variables and significant associations between ambivalent sexism and religious orientation types within university students sample in Turkey.

  15. Internalized Homophobia Scale for Gay Chinese Men: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengjia; Hood, Ralph W

    2018-04-01

    This study reports the development of an inventory to assess the perceived internalized homophobia of gay men in a collectivistic Chinese cultural context. The results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses using two samples suggested the viability and stability of a three-factor model: internalized heteronormativity (IHN), family-oriented identity (FOI), and socially oriented identity (SOI). The 11-item internalized homophobia inventory demonstrated good internal consistency and construct validity. Internalized homophobia was related positively to the extent of a sense of loneliness and negatively to self-evaluation and the discrepancy in self-identification as a gay man. In addition, the participants' internalized SOI consistently predicted their coming out choices in their social surroundings, while their FOI predicted their decisions to enter into heterosexual marriages. The findings suggest that sexual self-prejudice was correlated with IHN, family values, and social norms. The present research demonstrates that a culturally sensitive scale is necessary to understand the cultural and family-oriented values that influence gay Chinese men's everyday lives, self-constructs, and behavioral choices.

  16. Judgments of Sexism: A Comparison of the Subtlety of Sexism Measures and Sources of Variability in Judgments of Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swim, Janet K.; Mallett, Robyn; Russo-Devosa, Yvonne; Stangor, Charles

    2005-01-01

    We compared the subtlety of four measures of sexism and sources of variation in male and female psychology students' judgments that beliefs from these scales and everyday behaviors were sexist. Participants judged traditional gender role and hostile sexist beliefs as more sexist than benevolent and modern sexist beliefs, indicating the latter were…

  17. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-09-01

    The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self-reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back into the English language. A psychologist and sexologist checked the translated items from a clinical point of view. We recruited 100 subjects aged18-65 for the Italian validation of the HS. The Pearson coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were performed to test the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. A sociodemographic questionnaire including the main information as age, geographic distribution, partnership status, education, religious orientation, and sex orientation was administrated together with the translated version of HS. The analysis of the internal consistency showed an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.92. In the four domains, the Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90 in behavior/negative affect, 0.94 in affect/behavioral aggression, and 0.92 in negative cognition, whereas in the total score was 0.86. The test-retest reliability showed the following results: the HS total score was r = 0.93 (P cognition was r = 0.75 (P validation of the HS revealed the use of this self-report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior.

  18. Understanding and Addressing Homophobia in Schools: A View from Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia

    2012-01-01

    South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group…

  19. Prevalence of Internalized Homophobia and HIV Associated Risks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score ...

  20. Homophobia, Transphobia, Young People and the Question of Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Sanjakdar, Fida; Allen, Louisa; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Bromdal, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Young people may face conflicting and confusing messages about what it means to respond well in relation to homophobia and transphobia. Consequently, we ask--What might it mean to respond well to homophobia and transphobia? This strategy, inspired by Anika Thiem and Judith Butler, is recognition of the ambivalent conditions which structure…

  1. Gender Expression and Homophobia: A Motor Development and Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Clersida

    2011-01-01

    Homosexuality and homophobia are rarely discussed in schools, yet they are relevant in motor-development and motor-learning settings because people hold gender-stereotyped beliefs about movement and about lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgendered individuals. This article addresses homophobia and related stereotypes in physical education settings…

  2. Substance use by same sex attracted young people: Prevalence, perceptions and homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John; Davis, Cassandra; Schlesinger, Carla

    2015-07-01

    Research highlights that lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people use alcohol and drugs (AOD) more than heterosexual people; however, the incidence of AOD use by LGBT youth is less understood. The purpose of the current study was to ascertain AOD prevalence rates for LGBT youth compared with the Australian youth population; perceptions of AOD use within the LGBT community; and the impact of homophobia on AOD use. The study surveyed a cross-sectional sample of LGBT youth (13-24 years) (n = 161) who attended a LGBT festival in Brisbane, Australia, in 2012. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and Drug Check Assessment Tool were utilised to examine patterns of AOD use, with items developed to explore perceptions of AOD use and homophobia. AOD use was common among the LGBT sample, with higher prevalence rates compared with the general Australian youth population (2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey). AOD use by under 18-year-olds, and gender diverse youth was markedly higher. The majority misperceived AOD use to be the same in the LGBT and heterosexual communities. Those who believed homophobia impacted on AOD use were significantly more likely to use AOD. The higher prevalence of AOD use strongly suggests the need for AOD agencies to better respond to LGBT youth by not only screening sexuality and gender identity but also exploring young people's perceptions of AOD use in the LGBT community and their experiences of homophobia in order to provide effective AOD clinical treatment. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Goal preference shapes confrontations of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Robyn K; Melchiori, Kala J

    2014-05-01

    Although most women assume they would confront sexism, assertive responses are rare. We test whether women's preference for respect or liking during interpersonal interactions explains this surprising tendency. Women report preferring respect relative to liking after being asked sexist, compared with inappropriate, questions during a virtual job interview (Study 1, n = 149). Women's responses to sexism increase in assertiveness along with their preference for being respected, and a respect-preference mediates the relation between the type of questions and response assertiveness (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2 (n = 105), women's responses to sexist questions are more assertive when the sense of belonging is enhanced with a belonging manipulation. Moreover, preference for respect mediates the effect of the type of questions on response assertiveness, but only when belonging needs are met. Thus the likelihood of confrontation depends on the goal to be respected outweighing the goal to be liked.

  4. Benevolent sexism alters executive brain responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardenne, Benoit; Dumont, Muriel; Sarlet, Marie; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Salmon, Eric; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

    2013-07-10

    Benevolence is widespread in our societies. It is defined as considering a subordinate group nicely but condescendingly, that is, with charity. Deleterious consequences for the target have been reported in the literature. In this experiment, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify whether being the target of (sexist) benevolence induces changes in brain activity associated with a working memory task. Participants were confronted by benevolent, hostile, or neutral comments before and while performing a reading span test in an fMRI environment. fMRI data showed that brain regions associated previously with intrusive thought suppression (bilateral, dorsolateral, prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex) reacted specifically to benevolent sexism compared with hostile sexism and neutral conditions during the performance of the task. These findings indicate that, despite being subjectively positive, benevolence modifies task-related brain networks by recruiting supplementary areas likely to impede optimal cognitive performance.

  5. Ambivalent Sexism and Religion: Connected Through Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sexist attitudes do not exist in a limbo; they are embedded in larger belief systems associated with specific hierarchies of values. In particular, manifestations of benevolent sexism (Glick and Fiske 1996, 1997, 2001) can be perceived as a social boon, not a social ill, both because they are experienced as positive, and because they reward behaviors that maintain social stability. One of the strongest social institutions that create and justify specific hierarchies of values is religion. In this paper, we examine how the values inherent in religious beliefs (perhaps inadvertently) propagate an unequal status quo between men and women through endorsement of ideologies linked to benevolent sexism. In a survey with a convenience sample of train passengers in Southern and Eastern Poland ( N  = 180), we investigated the relationship between Catholic religiosity and sexist attitudes. In line with previous findings (Gaunt 2012; Glick et al. 2002a; Taşdemir and Sakallı-Uğurlu 2010), results suggest that religiosity can be linked to endorsement of benevolent sexism. This relationship was mediated in our study by the values of conservatism and openness to change (Schwartz 1992): religious individuals appear to value the societal status quo, tradition, and conformity, which leads them to perceive women through the lens of traditional social roles. Adhering to the teachings of a religion that promotes family values in general seems to have as its byproduct an espousal of prejudicial attitudes toward specific members of the family.

  6. Parental Rejection Following Sexual Orientation Disclosure: Impact on Internalized Homophobia, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Julia A; Woodward, Eva N; Mereish, Ethan H; Pantalone, David W

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority individuals face unique stressors because of their sexual identity. We explored associations between parental reactions to children's coming out, internalized homophobia (IH), social support, and mental health in a sample of 257 sexual minority adults. Path analyses revealed that higher IH and lower social support mediated the association between past parental rejection and current psychological distress. Mental health providers may benefit clients by utilizing interventions that challenge internalized stereotypes about homosexuality, increase social support, and process parental rejection, as well as focusing on how certain crucial experiences of rejection may impact clients' IH and mental health.

  7. Polyculturalism and Sexist Attitudes: Believing Cultures are Dynamic Relates to Lower Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Levy, Sheri R; Militano, Maria

    2014-12-01

    In cultural contexts in which sexist beliefs are considered traditional, shifts toward gender equality represent an example of cultural change. Polyculturalism is defined as the belief that cultures change constantly through different racial and ethnic groups' interactions, influences, and exchanges with each other and, therefore, are dynamic and socially constructed rather than static. Thus, polyculturalism may involve openness to cultural change and, thereby, would be expected to be associated with lower sexist attitudes. Four studies (both cross-sectional and longitudinal) with undergraduate and community samples in the Northeastern United States tested whether endorsement of polyculturalism is inversely associated with sexism, above and beyond potentially confounding belief systems. Across studies, for both women and men, endorsement of polyculturalism was associated with lower sexist attitudes for two classes of sexism measures: (a) attitudes toward the rights and roles of women and (b) ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Associations remained significant while controlling for potentially confounding variables (colorblindness, conservatism, egalitarianism, gender and ethnic identity, gender and race essentialism, multiculturalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and social dominance orientation). Greater openness to criticizing one's culture mediated polyculturalism's association with attitudes toward the rights and roles of women but not with ambivalent sexist attitudes toward women. Studying polyculturalism may provide unique insights into sexism, and more work is needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  8. Semantic Polarization as a Measure of Sexism in Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    Sexism is a social issue in the U.S. which is suggested both by the popular press and the scholarly world. Teachers of English, psychologists, publishers, the U.S. government, the legal field, dictionaries, and especially the women's movement have commented upon and have been involved in the study of sexism, and in the advocacy of change toward…

  9. Social Justice and Lesbian Feminism: Two Theories Applied to Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise L. Levy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Trends in contemporary social work include the use of an eclectic theory base. In an effort to incorporate multiple theories, this article will examine the social problem of homophobia using two different theoretical perspectives: John Rawls’ theory of social justice and lesbian feminist theory.Homophobia, a current social problem, can be defined as “dislike or hatred toward homosexuals, including both cultural and personal biases against homosexuals” (Sullivan, 2003, p. 2. Rawls’ theory of justice and lesbian feminist theory are especially relevant to the issue of homophobia and provide a useful lens to understanding this social problem. In this article, these two theories will be summarized, applied to the issue of homophobia, and compared and contrasted based on their utility.

  10. The Power of Affirming Group Values: Group Affirmation Buffers the Self-Esteem of Women Exposed to Blatant Sexism

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 be...

  11. [Discrimination and homophobia associated to the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Núñez, Emanuel; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Ruiz-Larios, José Arturo; Sucilla-Pérez, Héctor; García-Cerde, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a political mapping on discrimination and homophobia associated to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of public institutions in Mexico. The political mapping was conducted in six Mexican states. Stakeholders who were involved in HIV actions from public and private sectors were included. Semistructured interviews were applied to explore homophobia and discrimination associated with HIV. Information was systematized using the Policy Maker software, which is a good support for analyzing health policies. Discriminatory and homophobic practices in the public domain occurred, damaging people´s integrity via insults, derision and hate crimes. Most stakeholders expressed a supportive position to prevent discrimination and homophobia and some of them had great influence on policy-making decisions. It was found that state policy frameworks are less specific in addressing these issues. Homophobia and discrimination associated to HIV are still considered problematic in Mexico. Homophobia is a very sensitive issue that requires further attention. Also, an actual execution of governmental authority requires greater enforcement of laws against discrimination and homophobia.

  12. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Ambivalent sexism: a tool for understanding and improving gender relations in organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrisson, Ingrid; Anderzén, Marie; Lenell, Fredrik; Sandelin, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    This study tested predictions regarding ambivalent sexism, previously studied cross-culturally, here "within-culturally", between groups from different organizational settings. Based on three samples (334 adults in general, 744 industrial employees, and 189 high school students), completing a Swedish version of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI), the results revealed that men scored higher on hostile and benevolent sexism than women, and high school students scored higher than both adult samples on both forms of sexism. The results generally confirmed the predictions; the gender gap in benevolent sexism decreased as a function of increasing levels of general sexism and the correlation between hostile and benevolent sexism decreased with higher levels of general sexism. In fact, the groups scoring highest on general sexism displayed significant negative correlations indicating a polarized ideology of women among these groups. Implications, both theoretical and practical, derived from these results are discussed. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. Teachers Reflect on Homophobia in the Cypriot Education System: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshilou, Panayiota A.; Vasiliou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    A review of the academic and lay literature concerning Cyprus reveals that homophobia is prevalent throughout society. This research aimed to investigate homophobia through the narratives of educators. Twenty-three teachers were randomly selected out of the pool of volunteers in a training project. Aspects of homophobia previously reported in…

  15. Sex differences in cardiovascular health: does sexism influence women's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and cardiovascular disease, but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of 2 types of sexism (ie, hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be used to assess cognitive, behavioral and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences.

  16. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Artazcoz, Lucia; Gil-González, Diana; Pérez, Glòria; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine

    2010-04-01

    The goals of the present study are to explore the association between perceived sexism and self-perceived health, health-related behaviors, and unmet medical care needs among women in Spain; to analyze whether higher levels of discrimination are associated with higher prevalence of poor health indicators and to examine whether these relationships are modified by country of origin and social class. The study is based on a cross-sectional design using data from the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. We included women aged 20-64 years (n = 10,927). Six dependent variables were examined: four of health (self-perceived health, mental health, hypertension, and having had an injury during the previous year), one health behavior (smoking), and another related to the use of the health services (unmet need for medical care). Perceived sexism was the main independent variable. Social class and country of origin were considered as effect modifiers. We obtained the prevalence of perceived sexism. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were fitted to study the association between sexism and poor health outcomes. The prevalence of perceived sexism was 3.4%. Perceived sexism showed positive and consistent associations with four poor health outcomes (poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, injuries in the last 12 months, and smoking). The strength of these associations increased with increased scores for perceived sexism, and the patterns were found to be modified by country of origin and social class. This study shows a consistent association between perceived sexism and poor health outcomes in a country of southern Europe with a strong patriarchal tradition.

  17. Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    of which are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely one to be...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: TOWARD CONCEPTUAL CLARITY Dr. Richard Harris Department of Social Work and Center for Policy...00-2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sexism, Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault: Toward Conceptual Clarity 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Genetic Variance in Homophobia: Evidence from Self- and Peer Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapko-Willmes, Alexandra; Kandler, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The present twin study combined self- and peer assessments of twins' general homophobia targeting gay men in order to replicate previous behavior genetic findings across different rater perspectives and to disentangle self-rater-specific variance from common variance in self- and peer-reported homophobia (i.e., rater-consistent variance). We hypothesized rater-consistent variance in homophobia to be attributable to genetic and nonshared environmental effects, and self-rater-specific variance to be partially accounted for by genetic influences. A sample of 869 twins and 1329 peer raters completed a seven item scale containing cognitive, affective, and discriminatory homophobic tendencies. After correction for age and sex differences, we found most of the genetic contributions (62%) and significant nonshared environmental contributions (16%) to individual differences in self-reports on homophobia to be also reflected in peer-reported homophobia. A significant genetic component, however, was self-report-specific (38%), suggesting that self-assessments alone produce inflated heritability estimates to some degree. Different explanations are discussed.

  19. Understanding and addressing homophobia in schools: a view from teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deevia Bhana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available South African schools have been found to be homophobic. Teachers can play an important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal claim to equality on the basis of sexual orientation. Currently there is a dearth of educational research about how teachers understand and address homophobia. By drawing upon focus-group interviews with teachers based atfive schools, this paper shows dominant teaching views which contribute to homophobia, although this is not the only view. Informed by theoretical framings that seek to uncover heterosexual domination, the analysis shows three interrelated discursive constructions through which homophobia is both produced and resisted by teachers. Silencing homosexuality, denying its existence in the curriculum, and religious prohibitions were found to be dominant. It must be understood however that teachers are working in a context without any intervention and support. Their views also show potentialfor working against the climate of homophobia. Recommendations for such work are indicated in the conclusion of the paper.

  20. Ambivalent Sexism, Alcohol Use, and Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, Claire M; Lynch, Kellie R; DeWall, C Nathan

    2015-09-09

    Research on risk factors for men's perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) has shown a high correlation with problem alcohol use. Additional studies, however, indicate that the alcohol-IPV link is neither simple nor necessarily direct and that a range of factors may moderate this relationship. Using a national, community-based sample of 255 men, the present study examined the moderating effects of ambivalent sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between alcohol use and IPV perpetration. The findings show that both greater alcohol consumption and high hostile sexism are positively associated with IPV perpetration, and that hostile sexism moderates the alcohol-IPV relationship for perpetration of physical IPV, but not for psychological IPV. Moreover, high levels of alcohol consumption have a greater impact on physical IPV perpetration for men low in hostile sexism than for men high in hostile sexism, lending support to the multiple threshold model of the alcohol-IPV link. Implications of the findings for prevention, intervention, and future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Gender symmetry, sexism, and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T; Swan, Suzanne C; Raghavan, Chitra

    2009-11-01

    This study of a predominantly Hispanic sample of 92 male and 140 female college students examines both gender symmetry in intimate partner violence (IPV) and inconsistent relationships found in previous studies between sexist attitudes and IPV. Results indicate that although comparable numbers of men and women perpetrate and are victimized in their relationships with intimate partners, the path models suggest that women's violence tends to be in reaction to male violence, whereas men tend to initiate violence and then their partners respond with violence. Benevolent sexism was shown to have a protective effect against men's violence toward partners. Findings highlight the importance of studying women's violence not only in the context of men's violence but also within a broader sociocultural context.

  2. Homophobia in Marlowe’s Edward II Homophobia in Marlowe’s Edward II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelson Peres de Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on queer theory, this essay demonstrates how homophobia motivates the plot of usurpation in Edward II, by Chistopher Marlowe (1564-1593, a play in which complex power relations can be verified. The main characters, King Edward II, Pierce of Gaveston, Mortimer Junior, Mortimer Senior and Queen Isabella, together with the nobles and the clerics, interact in a world of fierce political dispute. Power relations are at the core of the play and involve, on the one hand, the characters who envy and dispute Edward II’s royal power. On the other hand, the king suffers the effects of the power of his own homosexual drive and affective ties with Gaveston. Drawing on queer theory, this essay demonstrates how homophobia motivates the plot of usurpation in Edward II, by Chistopher Marlowe (1564-1593, a play in which complex power relations can be verified. The main characters, King Edward II, Pierce of Gaveston, Mortimer Junior, Mortimer Senior and Queen Isabella, together with the nobles and the clerics, interact in a world of fierce political dispute. Power relations are at the core of the play and involve, on the one hand, the characters who envy and dispute Edward II’s royal power. On the other hand, the king suffers the effects of the power of his own homosexual drive and affective ties with Gaveston.

  3. Approach to the concept of emotionality. The emotional stereotype of sexism

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Carretero-Bermejo; Alberto Nolasco-Hernández

    2017-01-01

    This work has two main objectives: The first one is to understand the emotional stereotype of sexism, or what is the same, to know the expectations and beliefs that sexism shows about what should be the emotional behavior in women and men from this ideological position. The second objective is to propose a first approach and definition of the emotional dimension of sexism within the framework of the theory of Ambivalent Sexism, that we will call emotionality. For the development of this work ...

  4. Using Experiential Learning to Increase the Recognition of Everyday Sexism as Harmful: The WAGES Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Cundiff, JL; Zawadzki, MJ; Danube, CL; Shields, SA

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. The harms of subtle sexism tend to be minimized despite negative cumulative effects, thus people may be less motivated to address subtle sexism. We tested the effectiveness of an experiential learning intervention, WAGES-Academic (Workshop Activity for Gender Equity Simulation-Academic), to educate about the harms of subtle sexism in the academic workplace. Across two studies, WAGES increased the recognition of everyday sexism a...

  5. Identity's identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    -specialized language in which it also serves a number of functions – some of which are quite fundamental to society as such. In other words, the lexeme identity is a polysemic word and has multiple, well, identities. Given that it appears to have a number of functions in a variety of registers, including terminologies...... in Academic English and more everyday-based English, identity as a lexeme is definitely worth having a look at. This paper presents a lexicological study of identity in which some of its senses are identified and their behaviors in actual discourse are observed. Drawing on data from the 2011 section...... of the Corpus of Contemporary American English, a behavioral profile of the distributional characteristics of identity is set up. Behavioral profiling is a lexicographical method developed by the corpus linguist Stefan Th. Gries which, by applying semantic ID tagging and statistical analysis, provides a fine...

  6. An Ambivalent Alliance: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism as Complementary Justifications for Gender Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.

    2001-01-01

    Review recent theory and empirical research on hostile and benevolent sexism, discussing the nature of sexism; why benevolent prejudices matter; hostile and benevolent sexism as universal prejudices; polarized images of women; how sexist benevolence may play a significant role in justifying gender inequality; women's acceptance of sexist…

  7. Beyond prejudice as simple antipathy: Hostile and benevolent sexism across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glick, P.; Fiske, S.T.; Mladinic, A.; Saiz, J.L.; Abrams, D.; Masser, B.; Adetoun, B.; Osagie, J.E.; Akande, A.; Alao, A.; Annetje, B.; Willemsen, T.M.; Chipeta, K.; Dardenne, B.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Eckes, T.; Six-Materna, I.; Expósito, F.; Moya, M.; Foddy, M.; Kim, H.J.; Lameiras, M.; Sotelo, M.J.; Mucchi-Faina, A.; Romani, M.; Sakalli, N.; Udegbe, B.; Yamamoto, M.; Ui, M.; Ferreira, M.C.; López, W.

    2000-01-01

    The authors argue that complementary hostile and benevolent components of sexism exist across cultures. Male dominance creates hostile sexism (HS), but men's dependence on women fosters benevolent sexism (BS)--subjectively positive attitudes that put women on a pedestal but reinforce their

  8. Why Is Benevolent Sexism Appealing?: Associations with System Justification and Life Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Kathleen; Heesacker, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that benevolent sexism is an ideology that perpetuates gender inequality. But despite its negative consequences, benevolent sexism is a prevalent ideology that some even find attractive. To better understand why women and men alike might be motivated to adopt benevolent sexism, the current study tested system…

  9. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  10. Gender Discrimination in Physics and Astronomy: Graduate Student Experiences of Sexism and Gender Microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Ramón S.; McCormick, Melinda; Henderson, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sexism occurs when men are believed to be superior to women, and is thought to be one of the reasons for women's underrepresentation in physics and astronomy. The issue of sexism in physics and astronomy has not been thoroughly explored in the physics education literature and there is currently no clear language for discussing sexism in the field.…

  11. The Power of Affirming Group Values: Group Affirmation Buffers the Self-Esteem of Women Exposed to Blatant Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit). All then participated in a (fictitious) second study, in which half completed a group affirmation manipulation (wrote about the top three values of a self-defining group) and half completed a control writing exercise. The self-esteem of women who were threatened by sexism, but group affirmed, was protected from the negative effects of perceiving sexism.

  12. The Power of Affirming Group Values: Group Affirmation Buffers the Self-Esteem of Women Exposed to Blatant Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Rodgers, Julie; Major, Brenda; Forster, Daniel; Peng, Kaiping

    2016-01-01

    Extending the group affirmation literature to the domain of prejudice, this study investigated whether group affirmation buffers the self-esteem of women exposed to blatant sexism. In accordance with Self-Affirmation Theory (Steele, 1988) and group affirmation research (Sherman et al., 2007), we hypothesized that when one aspect of the collective self is threatened (gender identity), self-esteem can be maintained via the affirmation of an alternative aspect of the collective self. In a 2×2 between-participants design, female students were randomly assigned to read about discrimination directed toward women or a non-self-relevant disadvantaged group (the Inuit). All then participated in a (fictitious) second study, in which half completed a group affirmation manipulation (wrote about the top three values of a self-defining group) and half completed a control writing exercise. The self-esteem of women who were threatened by sexism, but group affirmed, was protected from the negative effects of perceiving sexism. PMID:27867318

  13. Using Nail Polish to Teach about Gender and Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Nelta M.

    2010-01-01

    How might teachers help students investigate the relationship between gender and homophobia? This article describes an exercise that uses fingernail polish to do just that. The authors uses anecdotal evidence to describe the exercise in which students pair with someone of the opposite gender and paint each other's fingernails. Additionally, the…

  14. Teaching about Heterosexism: Challenging Homophobia in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Dennis; Msibi, Thabo

    2011-01-01

    This article, a critical review of a module on heterosexism and homophobia, sets out the challenges to be overcome if the oppressive conditions for lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and teachers in South Africa are to be changed. It draws on evidence from student assignments, records of participatory discussions and the notes of the authors, who…

  15. Understanding and addressing homophobia in schools: a view from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    important role in offering a critique of homophobia grounded in South Africa's legal .... This could serve the interest of securing a safe environment for ... ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, conscience, ..... complicit in inciting feelings of 'abnormality' of conduct in relation to gay learners.

  16. Internalized homophobia in homosexual men: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence about linguistic expressions used that show internalized homophobia by homosexual individuals. The objective of this research was to explore suggestive internalized homophobic language used by web page users for homosocialization purposes among homosexual men living in Bogotá and Cartagena, Colombia. A qualitative study was designed with the purpose of analyzing content of 40 profiles, 20 from Bogota, and in the same proportion in Cartagena. This was based on account profiles from a website which contained contact inquiries between people who were not heterosexual and described homophobic characteristics when referring to their ideal partner. It was observed that in 19 out of 20 profiles in Bogotá and the same proportion in Cartagena people used suggestive and direct qualifiers that showed internalized explicit homophobia and implicit language, for instance, “I am looking for serious people”. The internalized homophobia is expressed by looking for that “macho” man who is professional and lives a heterosexual lifestyle. Authors conclude that homosexual men who requested contact with other men by Internet often expressed internalized homophobia in explicit and implicit ways, which suggests accepting hegemonic model of masculine men. Quantitative studies are needed in Colombian non-heterosexual populations.

  17. Homophobia, Lesbians, and Women's Sports: An Exploratory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Patricia S.

    In addressing the subject of lesbian athletes, this paper discusses some ways in which sport psychologists, researchers and clinicians may constructively approach the issues. These include: (1) understand one's own homophobia and how it affects clinical work as a sport psychologist by studying the growing body of literature on the topic; (2)…

  18. Using a College Human Sexuality Course to Combat Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Anissa; McRee, Nick; Arntz, Diana L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study seeks to identify factors among university students that may be associated with homophobic attitudes and whether homophobia may be reduced by educational interventions, such as knowledge-based curricula found in college sexuality courses. Participants were 128 undergraduate students attending a small, private university in the…

  19. What looks like sexism and why? The effect of comment type and perpetrator type on women's perceptions of sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Abigail; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Earnshaw, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Sexist comments are not perceived equally in the eyes of women. We extend previous research by examining the degree to which multiple types of potentially sexist comments made by multiple types of men are perceived as sexist. Further, we examine the degree to which three possible mediators--prototypicality, perceived intent, and interdependence--explained these effects. Female undergraduate students (N = 248) were randomly assigned to read a scenario in which a hostile sexist, benevolent sexist, or objectifying comment was made by one of three types of men: a stranger, their boss, or their boyfriend. Results demonstrate that hostile sexism was perceived as more sexist than benevolent sexism or objectification. Comments made by boyfriends were also rated as less sexist than those made by bosses or strangers. Furthermore, perceptions of prototypicality of the comment or perpetrator and perceived intent to harm mediated the effect of study manipulations on perceptions of sexism.

  20. Gender stereotypes and linguistic sexism present in books in educational context for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Finco

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, since the 1970s, there has been a significant debate on the studies on linguistic sexism that have contributed to the problematization of the presence of gender stereotypes in children's literature. This article presents a historical reconstruction of the debate developed in Italy in the last forty years. The debate showed the importance of problematizing the patterns of identity and behavior transmitted through reading in educational contexts for children. This context also led to the drafting of the Polite Project, which invites editors to be respectful with gender differences, both text and images. It presents important research on the problem of the presence of stereotyped messages of gender present in books for children and the changes that have occurred throughout this process.

  1. Gender Stereotypes and Discrimination: How Sexism Impacts Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Stone, Ellen A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize and integrate some of the latest developmental science research on gender stereotypes and discrimination in childhood and adolescence. We focus on five forms of sexism: (a) stereotypes and discrimination against boys regarding their school behaviors and disciplinary actions; (b) stereotypes and discrimination against girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) domains; (c) stereotypes and discrimination in sports; (d) peer gendered harassment, including sexual harassment and teasing because of gender atypicality or nonconformity; and (e) sexualized gender stereotypes that sexually objectify girls and assume boys are sexually voracious. First, we document each type of sexism and examine children's awareness and perceptions of that bias, including their own self-reports and attributions. We examine the implications of this sexism for children and adolescents' developmental health (i.e., social, academic, and psychological well-being). We then draw connections between these various areas of research, focusing on how these different forms of sexism interact to reduce equity and justice among children and negatively impact positive developmental outcomes. The chapter concludes with suggestions for future research. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Challenging Sexism? Gender and Ethnicity in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses understandings of girls confronting sexism in a Swedish multiethnic urban school. The empirical study includes school observations, conversations and formal group interviews with 15-16-year-old pupils from seven classes in four schools. The article provides an analysis of one of the schools, where the fieldwork showed gender…

  3. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  4. One Struggle through Individualism: Toward an Antiracist White Racial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, James M.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the collective versus individualistic viewpoint is important to understanding racism in America. The author applies lessons learned in dealing with homophobia to the matter of racism. Forming for oneself a white version of racial identity is the key to white's active personal involvement and identification with being anti-racist.…

  5. Is homophobia associated with an implicit same-sex attraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinnis, Cara C; Hodson, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Some theorists propose that homophobia stems from underlying same-sex attraction. A few studies have tested this hypothesis, yet without a clear measure of implicit sexual attraction, producing mixed results. For the first time, we test this attraction-based account of homophobia among both men and women using an implicit measure of sexual attraction. No evidence of an attraction-based account of homophobia emerged. Instead, implicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians among female participants. Even in targeted analyses examining the relation between implicit same-sex attraction and homosexual evaluations among only those theoretically most likely to demonstrate an attraction-based homophobic effect, implicit same-sex attraction was not associated with evaluations of homosexuals or was associated with more positive evaluations of homosexuals. In addition, explicit same-sex attraction was related to positive evaluations of gay men and lesbians for male participants. These results are more in keeping with the attitude-similarity effect (i.e., people like, rather than dislike, similar others).

  6. Perceptions of Same-Sex Relationships and Marriage as Gender Role Violations: An Examination of Gendered Expectations (Sexism).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Carol M; Rees, Amy M; Titus, Tana L

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to add to the literature that has demonstrated a link between sexism and sexual prejudice. The study evaluated whether a community sample with an age range of 19-64 (n = 122), including 32% sexual minority participants, believe that dating, sex, and marriage with same-sex partners are perceived to be gender role violations. Results varied by participant sexual/gender identity (LGBTQ or heterosexual) and political ideology. Liberal LGBTQ persons do not see same-sex relationships as gender role violations; LGBTQ non-liberals and heterosexual liberals rated same-sex relationships as mild violations; and non-liberal heterosexuals perceive same-sex relationships as "moderate" violations. Our results suggest both positive movement in attitudes toward same-sex relationships, including same-sex marriage, and broader recognition that gender identity, gender role expression, and sexual orientation are separate and distinct components of one's overall sexual identity.

  7. [The role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and psychological distress among sexual-minority youths (SMY): a moderated mediation approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Félix-Antoine; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine

    Introduction Sexual-minority youths (SMY) report high rates of psychological distress such as depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation (Burton, Marshal, Chisolm, Sucato et Friedman, 2013; Williams & Chapman, 2011). Several studies confirm that the poor mental health outcomes are partly related to their high likelihood of experiencing homophobic victimization (Blais, Gervais, Boucher, Hébert & Lavoie, 2013; Taylor & Peter, 2011; Hughes, McCabe, Wilsnack, West & Boyd, 2010; Chamberland, Richard & Bernier, 2013). Whereas the development of a positive sexual minority identity is crucial for the mental health of SMY (Chamberland, Richard & Chevrier, 2011; Rosario, Schrimshaw & Hunter, 2011; Luhtanen, 2002), the victimization they experience put them at risk of internalizing societal homophobia and heterosexism (Meyer, 2003; Hatzenbuehler, 2009). It is important to identify variables that may influence the impact of distal and proximal factors that impact SMY's mental health.Objectives The objectives of this paper are 1) to document different forms of homophobic victimization experienced by SMY, according to gender and age, and 2) to test the potential moderating effect of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization, internalized homophobia and psychological distress.Method Data come from 228 SMY aged 14 to 22 years old recruited through online means as part of the Quebec Youth's Romantic Relationships Survey. The impact of homophobic victimization, parental support, and internalized homophobia on psychological distress is explored by a linear regression model including moderated mediation effects.Results Results show the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress as well as indirect significant relationship through internalized homophobia. The moderated mediation analysis also confirms the moderating role of parental support in the relationship between homophobic victimization and psychological distress. Thus

  8. Flash fire and slow burn: women's cardiovascular reactivity and recovery following hostile and benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Kristen; Burgess, Kaleena D; Bosson, Jennifer K

    2015-04-01

    Women's cardiovascular responses to sexist treatment are documented, but researchers have yet to consider these responses separately as a function of sexism type (hostile vs. benevolent). This study demonstrates distinct effects of hostile and benevolent sexism for women's cardiovascular responses that indicate increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Female participants performed a demanding insight task after exposure to a male researcher who offered them a hostilely sexist, benevolently sexist, or nonsexist comment. Women displayed heightened cardiovascular reactivity (increases from baseline) during the task following hostile sexism, and they displayed impaired cardiovascular recovery (return to baseline after the task) following benevolent sexism. The effects seen in the hostile condition were mediated by self-reported anger. These findings indicate that women's affective responses to hostile and benevolent sexism differ but that exposure to both forms of sexism may have negative cardiovascular consequences. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Internalized Homophobia and Relationship Quality among Lesbians, Gay Men, and Bisexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M.; Meyer, Ilan H.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the associations between internalized homophobia, outness, community connectedness, depressive symptoms, and relationship quality among a diverse community sample of 396 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals. Structural equation models showed that internalized homophobia was associated with greater relationship problems…

  10. Dismantling the Context and Breaking Free from Contextual Oppositions: How Teacher Education Programs Can Combat Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    In exploring homophobia in schools, the author discusses a qualitative research study conducted with a group of teachers from New York State. The article examines how the group of teachers (participating in professional development program) discusses their perceptions of homophobia in their classrooms and schools. Specifically, the teachers…

  11. From Sexuality (Gender) to Gender (Sexuality): The Aims of Anti-Homophobia Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airton, Liz

    2009-01-01

    The tradition of anti-homophobia education is often characterized by the conflation of gender and sexuality in which oppression arising from gender non-normativity is subsumed within the sexuality-based concepts of homophobia and heterosexism. This paper presents the view that oppression arising from stringent gender normativity should instead be…

  12. Texts, Structure, and Collaboration: Reflections of a Professional Development Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Homophobia is an incredible problem within educational settings. Therefore, we must begin examining how we can address the challenge in an effective manner. Researchers postulate professional development (PD) discussing homophobia is an appropriate method to address the problem. To date, there is little published literature that discusses how a PD…

  13. A socioecological measurement of homophobia for all countries and its public health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Erik; d'Elbée, Marc; Ross, Michael W; Carroll, Aengus; Plessis, André du; Loures, Luiz

    2018-03-03

    Measuring homophobia at country level is important to guide public health policy as reductions in stigma are associated with improved health outcomes among gay men and other men who have sex with men. Methods: We developed a Homophobic Climate Index incorporating institutional and social components of homophobia. Institutional homophobia was based on the level of enforcement of laws that criminalise, protect or recognise same-sex relations. Social homophobia was based on the level of acceptance and justifiability of homosexuality. We estimated the Index for 158 countries and assessed its robustness and validity. Western Europe is the most inclusive region, followed by Latin America. Africa and the Middle East are home to the most homophobic countries with two exceptions: South Africa and Cabo Verde. We found that a 1% decrease in the level of homophobia is associated with a 10% increase in the gross domestic product per capita. Countries whose citizens face gender inequality, human rights abuses, low health expenditures and low life satisfaction are the ones with a higher homophobic climate. Moreover, a 10% increase in the level of homophobia at country level is associated with a 1.7-year loss in life expectancy for males. A higher level of homophobia is associated with increased AIDS-related death among HIV-positive men. The socioecological approach of this index demonstrates the negative social, economic and health consequences of homophobia in low- and middle-income countries. It provides sound evidence for public health policy in favour of the inclusion of sexual minorities.

  14. The impact of gendered friendship patterns on the prevalence of homophobia among belgian late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the determinants of homophobia among Belgian adolescents, a shortened version of the Homophobia scale (Wright et al., 1999) was included in a representative survey among Belgian adolescents (n = 4,870). Principal component analysis demonstrated that the scale was one-dimensional and internally coherent. The results showed that homophobia is still widespread among Belgian adolescents, despite various legal reforms in the country aiming to combat discrimination of gay women and men. A multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that boys, ethnic minorities, individuals with high levels of ethnocentrism and an instrumental worldview, Muslim minorities, and those with low levels of associational involvement scored significantly higher on the scale. While among boys an extensive friendship network was associated with higher levels of homophobia, the opposite phenomenon was found among girls. We discuss the possible relation between notions of masculinity within predominantly male adolescent friendship networks and social support for homophobia.

  15. Gender discrimination in physics and astronomy: Graduate student experiences of sexism and gender microaggressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, Ramón S.; McCormick, Melinda; Henderson, Charles

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Sexism occurs when men are believed to be superior to women, and is thought to be one of the reasons for women's underrepresentation in physics and astronomy. The issue of sexism in physics and astronomy has not been thoroughly explored in the physics education literature and there is currently no clear language for discussing sexism in the field. This article seeks to begin a conversation on sexism in physics and astronomy and offer a starting point for language to discuss sexism in research groups and departments. Interviews with 21 women in graduate physics and astronomy programs are analyzed for their individual experiences of sexism. Although a subset of women did not report experiencing sexual discrimination, the majority experienced subtle insults and slights known as microaggressions. Other participants also experienced more traditional hostile sexism in the form of sexual harassment, gender role stereotypes, and overt discouragement. These results indicate the existence of sexism in the current culture of physics and astronomy, as well as the importance departments must put on eliminating it and educating students about sexism and microaggressions.

  16. Gender discrimination in physics and astronomy: Graduate student experiences of sexism and gender microaggressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón S. Barthelemy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Sexism occurs when men are believed to be superior to women, and is thought to be one of the reasons for women’s underrepresentation in physics and astronomy. The issue of sexism in physics and astronomy has not been thoroughly explored in the physics education literature and there is currently no clear language for discussing sexism in the field. This article seeks to begin a conversation on sexism in physics and astronomy and offer a starting point for language to discuss sexism in research groups and departments. Interviews with 21 women in graduate physics and astronomy programs are analyzed for their individual experiences of sexism. Although a subset of women did not report experiencing sexual discrimination, the majority experienced subtle insults and slights known as microaggressions. Other participants also experienced more traditional hostile sexism in the form of sexual harassment, gender role stereotypes, and overt discouragement. These results indicate the existence of sexism in the current culture of physics and astronomy, as well as the importance departments must put on eliminating it and educating students about sexism and microaggressions.

  17. Sociophysics of sexism: normal and anomalous petrie multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-07-01

    A recent mathematical model by Karen Petrie explains how sexism towards women can arise in organizations where male and female are equally sexist. Indeed, the Petrie model predicts that such sexism will emerge whenever there is a male majority, and quantifies this majority bias by the ‘Petrie multiplier’: the square of the male/female ratio. In this paper—emulating the shift from ‘normal’ to ‘anomalous’ diffusion—we generalize the Petrie model to a stochastic Poisson model that accommodates heterogeneously sexist men and woman, and that extends the ‘normal’ quadratic Petrie multiplier to ‘anomalous’ non-quadratic multipliers. The Petrie multipliers span a full spectrum of behaviors which we classify into four universal types. A variation of the stochastic Poisson model and its Petrie multipliers is further applied to the context of cyber warfare.

  18. Barriers to women engaging in collective action to overcome sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Helena R M; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-12-01

    Over centuries women have fought hard to obtain increasing gender equality, but despite these successes absolute equality remains an elusive goal. Theoretically, women's numerical strength makes them well-placed to take effective collective action, and millions of women engage in feminist collective action every day. In this article, however, we argue that women also face barriers to engaging in feminist collective action; barriers that are associated with the social construction and experience of what it means to be a woman. Our review synthesizes sexism research under a contemporary collective action framework to clarify our current understanding of the literature and to offer novel theoretical explanations for why women might be discouraged from engaging in feminist collective action. Using the antecedents of collective action identified by van Zomeren, Postmes, and Spears' (2008) meta-analysis, we critically review the sexism literature to argue that women face challenges when it comes to (a) identifying with other women and feminists, (b) perceiving sexism and expressing group-based anger, and (c) recognizing the efficacy of collective action. We then outline a research agenda with a view to investigating ways of overcoming these barriers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. New Sexism in Couple Therapy: A Discursive Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Olga; LaMarre, Andrea; Rice, Carla; Hardt, Laura; Le Couteur, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    The persistence of gender inequality in postindustrial societies is puzzling in light of a plethora of changes that destabilize it, including shifts in economy, legislation, and the proliferation of feminist politics. In family relations, such persistence manifests as a disconnect between couples aspiring to be more egalitarian yet continuing to enact traditional gender roles and hierarchies. There is an emerging consensus that gender inequality persists because of people's continued reliance on sexist ideology or gendered assumptions that constitute women as innately distinct from and inferior to men. Sexist ideology changes its form to accommodate to changing socio-economic conditions. Contemporary forms of sexism are old ways of legitimizing male power articulated in new and creative ways, often by incorporating feminist arguments. To effectively recognize and address "new sexism," scholars and practitioners require new, innovative research frameworks. Our objective in writing this article is two-fold. First, we seek to advance discursive (i.e., focused on language in use) approaches to the study of sexism. Second, we present the results of a discursive analysis of "new" sexist discourse in the context of couple therapy. The study provides preliminary evidence that, despite endorsing egalitarian norms, couples studied continue to rely on gender binaries and remain entrenched in old-fashioned patterns of gender inequality. Implications of these results for the practice of couple therapy and for future research are discussed. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  20. Psychometrics of an internalized homophobia instrument for men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, John L; Shidlo, Ariel; Zemon, Vance; Foley, Frederick W; Dorfman, David; Dahlman, Karen L; Hamid, Sahira

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-Axial Gay Men's Inventory-Men's Short Version (MAGI-MSV) assesses internalized homophobia via 20 items and 3 dimensions. This study extended the psychometric examination of the MAGI-MSV. The instrument was administered to 228 ethnically diverse HIV-negative gay men seeking counseling in New York City (mean age = 35, age range = 16-70). Following principal axis factoring and parallel analyses, 4 factors emerged and 14 items were retained. The descriptive labels for factors included gay self-assurance and worth, public appearance of homosexuality, and impact of HIV/AIDS on homosexuality. The new, fourth factor was named maladaptive measures to eliminate homosexuality.

  1. The Influence of Racism and Sexism in the Career Development of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…

  2. Effects of a Sexual Health Education Programme on School Psychological Counsellor Candidates' Sexism Tendencies in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Hanife

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a sexual health curriculum developed for school psychological counsellors in Turkey on the sexual health knowledge of the participating candidates, their beliefs in sexual myths and their tendencies towards ambivalent sexism and sexism in romantic relationships. The study adopted a semi-experimental design. Study…

  3. Identifying and Combating Sexism in EFL Textbooks--With a Case Study into China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Baiqiang

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores methodologies of identifying and combating sexism in EFL (English as a Foreign Language) textbooks. The writer of this paper has found out there exists sexism or gender inequality in the Chinese high school EFL textbooks. The writer hopes that future EFL curriculum designers, EFL textbook writers, textbook censors in textbook…

  4. "Something's Gotta Give:" Advanced-Degree Seeking Women's Experiences of Sexism, Role Overload, and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lindsey M.

    2014-01-01

    With the rise in advanced-degree seeking women and the minimal research on the dual impact of sexism and role overload, the current study aims to better understand the impact of sexism and role overload on psychological distress in a particular sample of advanced-degree seeking women. Seventy-six female medical student participants (mean age 24.7)…

  5. Internalized homophobia and reduced HIV testing among men who have sex with men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyun, Thomas; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Arreola, Sonya; Do, Tri; Hebert, Pato; Beck, Jack; Makofane, Keletso; Wilson, Patrick A; Ayala, George

    2014-03-01

    Although previous research has examined barriers and facilitators of HIV testing among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, few studies have focused on social factors, including homophobia and internalized homophobia. This study utilized data from a global online survey to determine correlates of HIV testing as part of a subanalysis focused on Chinese MSM. Controlling for age, HIV knowledge, number of sexual partners, and other covariates, ever having tested for HIV was significantly correlated with lower internalized homophobia. This study suggests that stigma associated with sexual orientation may serve as a barrier to participation in HIV testing and other health-promoting behaviors.

  6. Inviting the breach: confronting homophobia in the name of social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Subrina J; Johnson, Julia R; Rich, Marc D

    2015-01-01

    In 2008 California was divided over Proposition 8, a measure designed to prohibit same-sex marriage. In this article, we focus on a university classroom setting to explore how discussions about Proposition 8 and homophobia led to what Turner (1986) termed a social drama. Drawing on student personal narratives as they moved through the stages of social drama, we provide a poignant example of the conflict that may erupt when homophobia and heteronormativity are part of the curriculum. After documenting the social drama, we offer pedagogical strategies and note the strategic ways Christian, hegemonic discourse is utilized during discussions about homophobia.

  7. Internalized Homophobia Influences Perceptions of Men's Sexual Orientation from Photos of Their Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2017-04-01

    Although researchers have explored the perceiver characteristics that make people accurate at identifying others' sexual orientations, characteristics of the targets remain largely unexplored. In the current study, we examined how individual differences in internalized homophobia among gay men can affect perceptions of their sexual orientation by asking 49 individuals to judge the sexual orientations of 78 gay men from photos of their faces. We found that gay men reporting higher levels of internalized homophobia were less likely to have come out of the closet and were, in turn, less likely to be perceived as gay. Thus, internalized homophobia and the concealment of one's sexual minority status can impact perceptions of sexual orientation.

  8. Addressing the Question of Homophobia in Jordanian Public Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the question of homosexuality, homosexuals, and homophobia in the Jordanian public debate in the aftermath of an LGBTQIA meeting that was held secretly in Amman in May 2015. The main purpose of the article is to demonstrate the constituents and arguments which reproduce the public discourse on anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals and homophobia in Jordan. This purpose is reached by analysing 35 journal articles written in Standard Arabic in Jordanian public and open-access media. The analysis involves the qualitative analysis of the argument, processes, and themes used to represent homosexuality and homosexuals by the discourse producers. The analysis reveals that the question of homosexuality and homosexuals in Jordan can be addressed in terms of seven angles: the public anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals’ calls, the (Islamic religious argument, protecting and reinforcing law and order, the argument of (homosexually-transmitted diseases, the calls of pro-homosexuality and pro-homosexuals and LGBTQIA’s rights activists, the homosexuals’ own self-representation, and the neutral scientific account and representation.

  9. "Honk against homophobia": rethinking relations between media and sexual minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzo, Paul; Hess, Kristy

    2013-01-01

    The theory of "symbolic annihilation" or "symbolic violence" has been used in academic literature to describe the way in which sexual minorities have been ignored, trivialized, or condemned by the media. This article aims to de-center research from issues of media representation to consider the capacity for minority groups to proactively use new media and its various avenues for interactivity, social networking, and feedback to fight social exclusion. This work suggests that new media has become a space in which the nominally marginal in society may acquire "social artillery"-a term used to describe how sexual minorities utilize their expanding and more readily accessible social connections in digital space to combat instances of homophobia. The research draws on the results of an inquiry into the relation between media and a regional youth social justice group in Australia tackling homophobia. The research demonstrates that the group is becoming increasingly adept and comfortable with using a cross-section of media platforms to fulfill their own objectives, rather than seeing themselves as passive subjects of media representation. This article argues that this sets an example for other socially excluded groups looking to renegotiate their relation with the media in regional areas.

  10. Video Games Exposure and Sexism in a Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, Laurent; Sarda, Elisa; Gentile, Douglas A; Bry, Clementine; Roché, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Research has indicated that many video games are saturated with stereotypes of women and that these contents may cultivate sexism. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between video game exposure and sexism for the first time in a large and representative sample. Our aim was also to measure the strength of this association when two other significant and well-studied sources of sexism, television exposure and religiosity, were also included in a multivariate model. A representative sample of 13520 French youth aged 11-19 years completed a survey measuring weekly video game and television exposure, religiosity, and sexist attitudes toward women. Controlling for gender and socioeconomic level, results showed that video game exposure and religiosity were both related to sexism. Implications of these results for future research on sexism in video games are discussed.

  11. Human Rights and Vulnerability. Examples of Sexism and Ageism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª DEL CARMEN BARRANCO AVILÉS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A human rights based approach applied to the idea of ‘vulnerable group’ connects vulnerability and structural discrimination. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability provides some elements that allow to state that we are facing a new paradigm in the International Human Rights Law. One of the keys for the understanding of this new framework is the assumption of the disadvantage related to vulnerability as, at least in a part, socially built and ideologically justified. Sexism and ageism are examples of how ideologies reinforce vulnerability of women, children and aged persons transforming them in groups which members are in risk of discrimination.

  12. [Reliability and Validity of the Scale for Homophobia in Medicine Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Lafaurie, María Mercedes; Gaitán-Duarte, Hernando G

    2012-12-01

    There are several scales to quantify homophobia in different populations. However, the reliability and validity of these instruments among Colombian students are unknown. Consequently, this work is intended to assess reliability (inner consistency) as well as the validity of the Scale for Homophobia in Medicine students from a private university in Bogotá (Colombia). Methodological study with 199 Medicine students from 1st to 5th semester that filled out the Homophobia Scale form, the general welfare questionnaire, the Attitude Towards Gays and Lesbians Scale (ATGL), WHO-5 (divergent validity) and the Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity (nomologic validity). Pearson's correlations were computed, the Cronbach's alfa coefficient, the omega coefficient (construct's reliability) and confirmatory factorial analysis. The Scale for Homophobia showed an alpha Cronbach coefficient of 0,785, an omega coefficient of 0,790 and a Pearson correlation with the ATGL of 0,844; with WHO-5, -0,059; and a Francis Scale of Attitude Toward Christianity, 0,187. The Scale toward Homophobia exhibited a relevant factor of 44,7% of the total variance. The Scale for Homophobia showed acceptable reliability and validity. New studies should investigate the stability of the scale and the nomologic validity regarding other constructs. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Homophobia and communal coping for HIV risk management among gay men in relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowski, Courtney; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-02-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain disproportionately affected by the HIV epidemic in the US and estimates suggest that one to two-thirds of new infections occur among main partners. Previous research has focused on individual MSM and their risk for HIV, yet couples' ability to manage risk has been largely understudied. In particular, the role that homophobia plays in shaping the ability of gay male couples to cope with HIV risk is currently understudied. A sample of 447 gay/bisexual men with main partners was taken from a 2011 survey of gay and bisexual men in Atlanta. Linear regression models were fitted for three couples' coping outcome scales (outcome efficacy, couple efficacy, communal coping) and included indicators of homophobia (internalized homophobia and homophobic discrimination). Findings indicate that reporting of increased levels of internalized homophobia were consistently associated with decreased outcome measures of couples' coping ability regarding risk management. The results highlight the role that homophobia plays in gay male couples' relationships and HIV risk, extending the existing literature in the field of same-sex relationships as influenced by homophobia.

  14. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  15. Sexism and alexithymia: correlations and differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Garaigordobil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to analyze differences as a function of gender, age, and educational level in sexism and alexithymia in a nonclinical and in a clinical sample, and to explore the relation between these constructs. A descriptive and correlational cross-sectional methodology was used. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Parker et al. 1993 were administered. The sample comprised 989 participants from the Basque Country, aged between 18 and 65 years. The results revealed: 1 Significantly higher scores in the males in sexism (hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent and in alexithymia (difficulties to express emotions and external-oriented thinking in both samples; in the total alexithymia score, the males had significantly higher scores only in the nonclinical sample; 2 As of 55 years of age, a significant increase in benevolent and ambivalent sexism, and in difficulties to identify emotions, external-oriented thinking, and in the total alexithymia score were observed (only in the nonclinical sample; however, no changes with age were observed in hostile sexism and in difficulties to express emotions; 3 A decrease in sexism and alexithymia as the educational level increased; and 4 Significant positive correlations between sexism and alexithymia.

  16. Everyday exposure to benevolent sexism and condom use among college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors related to condom use is critical in reducing the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), especially for women, who are disproportionately affected by many STIs. Extant work has shown that perceived sexism is one such factor associated with lower levels of condom use among women, but has yet to explore whether benevolent sexism in particular-a subtle form of sexism that often goes unnoticed and increases cognitions and behaviors consistent with traditional female gender roles (e.g., sexual submissiveness)-relates negatively to this safer-sex practice. The present research tested this possibility and, in addition, examined whether relational sex motives, which reflect a desire to engage in sex as a means to foster partners' sexual satisfaction, mediated the relation between benevolent sexism and condom use. During the spring of 2011, female college students (N = 158) reported how often they experienced benevolent sexism in their daily lives and, 2 weeks later, their relational sex motives and condom use. Supporting hypotheses results indicated that greater exposure to benevolent sexism was associated significantly with lower condom use, and that relational sex motives mediated this relationship. We discuss implications for women's well-being, including ways to promote safer sex in the face of sexism.

  17. Value-Based Standards Guide Sexism Inferences for Self and Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Chelsea; Erickson, Lynnsey; Devine, Patricia G

    2017-09-01

    People often disagree about what constitutes sexism, and these disagreements can be both socially and legally consequential. It is unclear, however, why or how people come to different conclusions about whether something or someone is sexist. Previous research on judgments about sexism has focused on the perceiver's gender and attitudes, but neither of these variables identifies comparative standards that people use to determine whether any given behavior (or person) is sexist. Extending Devine and colleagues' values framework (Devine, Monteith, Zuwerink, & Elliot, 1991; Plant & Devine, 1998), we argue that, when evaluating others' behavior, perceivers rely on the morally-prescriptive values that guide their own behavior toward women. In a series of 3 studies we demonstrate that (1) people's personal standards for sexism in their own and others' behavior are each related to their values regarding sexism, (2) these values predict how much behavioral evidence people need to infer sexism, and (3) people with stringent, but not lenient, value-based standards get angry and try to regulate a sexist perpetrator's behavior to reduce sexism. Furthermore, these personal values are related to all outcomes in the present work above and beyond other person characteristics previously used to predict sexism inferences. We discuss the implications of differing value-based standards for explaining and reconciling disputes over what constitutes sexist behavior.

  18. Authenticating Sexual Diversity in School: Examining Sociolinguistic Constructions of Young People's Sexual Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauntson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research into sexuality and education shows that homophobia is particularly prevalent and problematic in schools. However, little of this work has drawn on linguistic frameworks. This article uses the tactics of intersubjectivity framework to examine how a group of LGB-identified young people understand their sexuality identities in…

  19. Graduate Social Work Faculty's Support for Educational Content on Women and on Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Dana S; Woodford, Michael R; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M; Luke, Katherine P

    2015-10-01

    Social work faculty play an important role in preparing students to address sexism and engage in culturally competent practice with women. This study examines the nature of U.S. and Anglo-Canadian graduate social work faculty's support for content on women and on sexism. Although support appears high for both content areas, results suggest that faculty endorsement for content on women is significantly greater than that for sexism. Further, bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that the nature of support differs for each content area. Implications for social work education are discussed.

  20. The social nature of benevolent sexism and the antisocial nature of hostile sexism: Is benevolent sexism more likely to manifest in public contexts and hostile sexism in private contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisango, Tadios; Mayekiso, Thokozile; Thomae, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Previous research converges on demonstrating that benevolent sexism (BS) is socially approved, whereas hostile sexism (HS) is socially disapproved. We postulated that a sample of married women would be likely to report that their husbands express hostile sexist attitudes and engage in related actions towards them more in private than public contexts, where they lie concealed from public censure. By contrast, the women would report that their husbands would be likely to express benevolent sexist attitudes and engage in related actions more in public than private contexts, where they are reinforced not only by their target (i.e. wife), but also by significant others and the society at large. We tested these hypotheses with a sample of Black, heterosexually married Zimbabwean women (n = 109, mean age = 31.83). Results supported our hypotheses: the women reported hostile sexist attitudes and actions to be more likely to occur in private than public contexts; on the other hand, they reported benevolent sexist attitudes and actions to be more likely in public than private contexts. We conclude that differences in social approval of BS and HS account for these results. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Sexual-Minority College Women's Experiences with Discrimination: Relations with Identity and Collective Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    This study examined sexual-minority women's reports of sexism, heterosexism, and gendered heterosexism (discrimination that is both sexist and heterosexist) as predictors of social identity and collective action during college. A measure of gendered heterosexism was developed that assesses women's experiences with discrimination that is…

  2. Enlightened Sexism, Structural Violence or the Failure of Representative Democracy: The 2016 Gender Equality Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A Bethell-Bennett

    2016-10-01

    Enlightened Sexism seems to be an appropriate description of the policies and laws as well as attitudes of a large portion of the Bahamian population that agreed that women should not have the same rights as men.

  3. Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Health: Does Sexism Influence Women’s Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molix, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This commentary provides a brief overview of theory and research that supports the idea that sexism may be related to the disproportionate negative cardiovascular health outcomes in women. It describes the sexism as a stressor and outlines its association with a variety of health outcomes as evidence for why sex disparities should be examined within the context of pervasive inequities. To date, population-based studies have not explicitly examined the relationship between sexism and CVD but smaller studies have yielded fairly consistent results. It is suggested that future research should aim to examine the influence of two types of sexism (i.e., hostile and benevolent) and that daily or within-day designs be employed to assess cognitive, behavioral, and physiological responses to everyday sexist experiences. PMID:25054736

  4. Influence of age, marital status and environment on sexism in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    05] and environment of living [t (777) = 3.21, p<.01] are significant factors influencing hostile sex discrimination (sexism) in Nigeria. Results also indicated that benevolent sex discriminations are not significantly influenced by age, marital status ...

  5. Perceptions of sexual harassment: the effects of gender, legal standard, and ambivalent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R L; Hurt, L; Russell, B; Mannen, K; Gasper, C

    1997-02-01

    This research tests the possibility that the reasonable woman as compared to the reasonable person test of hostile work environment sexual harassment interacts with hostile and benevolent sexist beliefs and under some conditions triggers protectionist attitudes toward women who complain of sexual harassment. We administered to a sample of undergraduates the ambivalent sexism inventory along with the fact patterns in two harassment cases and asked them to make legally relevant decisions under either the reasonable woman or person standard. We found that those high in hostile sexism, and women, found more evidence of harassment. However, those high in benevolent sexism did not exhibit the hostile sexism effects. Although men were less sensitive to the reasonable woman standard than women, under some conditions the reasonable woman standard enabled both genders to find greater evidence of harassment. The results are discussed from the perspectives of law and psychology.

  6. Ambivalent Sexism and Power-Related Gender-role Ideology in Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhixia; Fiske, Susan T.; Lee, Tiane L.

    2013-01-01

    Glick-Fiske's (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory(ASI) and a new Gender-Role Ideology in Marriage (GRIM) inventory examine ambivalent sexism toward women, predicting power-related, gender-role beliefs about mate selection and marriage norms. Mainland Chinese, 552, and 252 U.S. undergraduates participated. Results indicated that Chinese and men most endorsed hostile sexism; Chinese women more than U.S. women accepted benevolent sexism. Both Chinese genders prefer home-oriented mates (women especially seeking a provider and upholding him; men especially endorsing male-success/female-housework, male dominance, and possibly violence). Both U.S. genders prefer considerate mates (men especially seeking an attractive one). Despite gender and culture differences in means, ASI-GRIM correlations replicate across those subgroups: Benevolence predicts initial mate selection; hostility predicts subsequent marriage norms. PMID:24058258

  7. Latina and European American Girls’ Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaper, Campbell

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810

  8. Latina and European American Girls' Experiences with Academic Sexism and their Self-Concepts in Mathematics and Science During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.

  9. Approach to the concept of emotionality. The emotional stereotype of sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Carretero-Bermejo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work has two main objectives: The first one is to understand the emotional stereotype of sexism, or what is the same, to know the expectations and beliefs that sexism shows about what should be the emotional behavior in women and men from this ideological position. The second objective is to propose a first approach and definition of the emotional dimension of sexism within the framework of the theory of Ambivalent Sexism, that we will call emotionality. For the development of this work we have selected a sample of 1608 students located on the four provinces and five Education Faculties from Castilla La Mancha. 1308 participants are those who have fulfilled all the conditions to join the study. The results show that sexism presents a stereotype of emotional management very clear and different for men and women as well as complementary as sexist ideology itself, where women get their highest score in emotional care and its lowest score in emotional regulation. By contrast, men get the highest score in emotional regulation and its lowest score in emotional care. This sexist emotional stereotype is also significantly different, from our results perspective, of the stereotype of study population that has not sexist beliefs. Our results suggest, therefore, the existence of this sexist emotional stereotype and the need to include a new dimension, the emotionality, in the definition of sexism.

  10. Religious affiliation, internalized homophobia, and mental health in lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, David M; Meyer, Ilan H

    2012-10-01

    Most religious environments in the United States do not affirm homosexuality. The authors investigated the relationship between exposure to nonaffirming religious environments and internalized homophobia and mental health in a sample of lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGBs) in New York City. Guided by minority stress theory, the authors hypothesized that exposure to nonaffirming religious settings would lead to higher internalized homophobia, more depressive symptoms, and less psychological well-being. The authors hypothesized that Black and Latino LGBs would be more likely than White LGBs to participate in nonaffirming religious settings and would therefore have higher internalized homophobia than White LGBs. Participants were 355 LGBs recruited through community-based venue sampling and evenly divided among Black, Latino, and White race or ethnic groups and among age groups within each race or ethnic group, as well as between women and men. Results supported the general hypothesis that nonaffirming religion was associated with higher internalized homophobia. There was no main effect of nonaffirming religion on mental health, an unexpected finding discussed in this article. Latinos, but not Blacks, had higher internalized homophobia than Whites, and as predicted, this was mediated by their greater exposure to nonaffirming religion. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  11. Demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Susan E; Orlosky, Paula M; Sinkkanen, Kimberly A; Stevens, Heather R

    2010-01-01

    Examinations of demographic and social factors associated with homophobia and fear of AIDS are limited by the frequent use of homogeneous, college student samples and limited examination of interrelationships among variables. The present study examined community attitudes toward homosexuality and fear of HIV/AIDS as a function of age, education, race/ethnicity, religious affiliation, political party affiliation, and personal contact with homosexual individuals and persons living with HIV/AIDS. A community sample of 463 adults completed standardized measures of homophobia and fear of AIDS as well as demographic and social background items. When examined separately, each demographic and social factor assessed, with the exception of race/ethnicity, was associated with homophobia and all but race/ethnicity and political party affiliation were associated with fear of AIDS. However, when entered into multiple regression analyses, 24% of the variance in homophobia was predicted by a single variable, including only personal contact with homosexual individuals, while 18% of the variance in fear of AIDS was accounted for by five variables, including personal contact with homosexual individuals, religious affiliation, political affiliation, education, and personal contact with someone living with HIV/AIDS. Findings suggest that it is important to consider intercorrelations among social and demographic factors, particularly when considering homophobia.

  12. Ambivalent sexism, stereotypes and values in military population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zubieta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing presence of women in the public sphere has provoked cultural changes that affect social cognition. These changes implicate social organizations such as the Military. Focusing the interest in approaching modern forms of prejudice in terms of gender inequalities, we studied ambivalent sexism attitudes, values and social dominance orientation in a sample of 238 males and females from the National Military School training to become officials. Results show the presence of sexist attitudes. In sex roles and gender typing, female participants show an androgynous stereotype probably related to the need to present themselves closer to men in order to assume leadership.

  13. "Daughter and son: a completely different story”? Gender as a moderator of the relationship between sexism and parental attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background During childhood, parents are the first and most important individuals who form the base of the content of gender stereotypes in children. A parent’s expectations about the extent a child’s behaviour should be line with gender stereotypes also depends on the intensity of a parent’s sexism. A parent’s sexism may be exhibited in parental attitudes. Hence, in our study we analysed the relationship between parental ambivalent sexism and parental attitudes within dyads of mothers and fathers with a special focus on the role of the gender of both parents and children. Participants and procedure Two hundred and ninety-four couples of parents of five-year-olds (153 girls, 141 boys participated. The Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI was used to measure levels of sexism, and the Parental Attitudes Scale (SPR was used to assess parental attitudes. Results In terms of the profile of parental attitudes, regardless of the child’s sex, mothers and fathers scored highest for inconsequent and demanding attitudes, and lowest for overprotective and autonomy attitudes. The child’s sex is also not important for the overall levels of parents’ sexism – fathers exhibit higher levels of hostile sexism in comparison to mothers. Only the mothers’ education level is important for levels of sexism – women with higher education exhibited the lowest levels of hostile sexism. The child’s sex moderates relationships between parents’ sexism and parental attitudes. In the case of mothers of sons, the intensity of benevolent sexism is negatively related to overprotective and demanding attitudes. The more educated the mothers of sons, the more demanding they were. For fathers of sons, the inconsequence attitude increases under the influence of both hostile and benevolent sexism. Among fathers of daughters, hostile sexism strengthens the overprotective attitude, while levels of both benevolent and hostile sexism as well as education influence the

  14. Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.

  15. Ambivalent Sexism as a Mediator for Sex Role Orientation and Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships: A Study in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferzan Curun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the mediating effects of ambivalent sexism (hostile and benevolent in the relationship between sex role orientation (masculinity and femininity and gender stereotypes (dominance and assertiveness in college students. The variables were measured using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI, the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, and the Attitudes toward Gender Stereotypes in Romantic Relationships Scale (AGSRRS. These inventories were administered to 250 undergraduate students at Istanbul University in Istanbul and Suleyman Demirel University in Isparta, Turkey. Results indicate that benevolent sexism mediates the relationship between hostile sexism and male dominance. Benevolent sexism also mediates femininity and male dominance, as well as femininity and male assertiveness. Hostile sexism was mediated only between the masculine personality trait and benevolent sexism. The present findings expand the literature on sex role orientation by revealing evidence that masculine and feminine individuals experience ambivalent sexism distinctively. The results are discussed in terms of the assumptions of sex role orientation, ambivalent sexism, and gender stereotypes.

  16. The Interrelations Between Internalized Homophobia, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Australian Gay Men, Lesbians, and Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Internalized homophobia has been linked to depression among gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals. Relatively little research has investigated the link between internalized homophobia and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. The current research investigated the interrelations among internalized homophobia, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation by testing additive, mediation, and moderation models. Self-identified Australian gay men (n = 360), lesbians (n = 444), and bisexual women (n = 114) completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and the suicide subscale of the General Health Questionnaire. Results supported the additive and partial mediation models for gay men and the mediation and moderation models for lesbians. None of the models were supported for bisexual women. The findings imply that clinicians should focus on reducing internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men and lesbians, and depressive symptoms among bisexual women, to reduce suicidal ideation.

  17. Who has the worst attitudes toward sexual minorities? Comparison of transphobia and homophobia levels in gender dysphoric individuals, the general population and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A D; Castellini, G; Ristori, J; Casale, H; Giovanardi, G; Carone, N; Fanni, E; Mosconi, M; Ciocca, G; Jannini, E A; Ricca, V; Lingiardi, V; Maggi, M

    2017-03-01

    To date, few studies have addressed attitudes toward transgender individuals. In addition, little is known about health care providers' (HCP) attitudes toward sexual minorities. The aim of the present study is to compare attitudes toward homosexual and transgender individuals between gender dysphoric individuals (GDs), general population controls (C) and HCP. A total of 310 subjects were considered, including 122 GDs (63 transwomen and 59 transmen), 53 heterosexual HCP (26 males and 27 females) and 135 C. Participants completed the Modern Homophobia Scale (MHS) and the Attitudes Toward Transgendered Individuals Scale (ATTI) in order to assess attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women and toward transgender individuals, respectively. In addition, GDs completed the Gender Identity/Gender Dysphoria Questionnaire (GIDYQ-AA) and ATTI to measure, respectively, gender dysphoria levels and internalized transphobia. Religious attitudes were evaluated by means of the Religious Fundamentalism Scale (RFS), and Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC-12) was used to measure perceived discrimination. (1) Men showed significantly higher levels of homophobia and transphobia when compared to women (p attitudes, which are strongly dependent on religious precepts and dogma.

  18. Examining the conflation of multiculturalism, sexism, and religious fundamentalism through Taylor and Bakhtin: expanding post-colonial feminist epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Louise

    2009-01-01

    In this post-9/11 era marked by religious and ethnic conflicts and the rise of cultural intolerance, ambiguities arising from the conflation of multiculturalism, sexism, and religious fundamentalism jeopardize the delivery of culturally safe nursing care to non-Western populations. This new social reality requires nurses to develop a heightened awareness of health issues pertaining to racism and ethnocentrism to provide culturally safe care to non-Western immigrants or refugees. Through the lens of post-colonial feminism, this paper explores the challenge of providing culturally safe nursing care in the context of the post-9/11 in Canadian healthcare settings. A critical appraisal of the literature demonstrates that post-colonial feminism, despite some limitations, remains a valuable theoretical perspective to apply in cultural nursing research and develop culturally safe nursing practice. Post-colonial feminism offers the analytical lens to understand how health, social and cultural context, race and gender intersect to impact on non-Western populations' health. However, an uncritical application of post-colonial feminism may not serve racialized men's and women's interests because of its essentialist risk. Post-colonial feminism must expand its epistemological assumptions to integrate Taylor's concept of identity and recognition and Bakhtin's concepts of dialogism and unfinalizability to explore non-Western populations' health issues and the context of nursing practice. This would strengthen the theoretical adequacy of post-colonial feminist approaches in unveiling the process of racialization that arises from the conflation of multiculturalism, sexism, and religious fundamentalism in Western healthcare settings.

  19. Fans, homophobia and masculinities in association football: evidence of a more inclusive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashmore, Ellis; Cleland, Jamie

    2012-06-01

    This article draws on 3,500 responses from fans and professionals involved in association football (soccer) to an anonymous online survey posted from June 2010 to October 2010 regarding their views towards gay footballers. The overall findings are that, contrary to assumptions of homophobia, there is evidence of rapidly decreasing homophobia within the culture of football fandom. The results advance inclusive masculinity theory with 93 per cent of fans of all ages stating that there is no place for homophobia within football. Fans blame agents and clubs for the lack of openness and challenge football's governing organizations to oppose the culture of secrecy surrounding gay players and to provide a more inclusive environment to support players who want to come out. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2012.

  20. Prospects of implicit measures in assessment of defensive function of explicit homophobia in heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some authors state that one of the functions of explicit homophobia is defensive, and that it has roots in latent attraction towards same sex. Large body of evidence suggests that implicit techniques enable assessment of those cognitions hidden from conscious awareness. Sample of 277 heterosexuals completed several implicit (Implicit Association Test-IAT and Affective Priming-AP and explicit measures of attitude (Test of homophobia and Connotative differential. Multi-group SEM analysis was done to investigate cross-sample stability of the model postulating influence of IAT and AP factors on latent explicit factor. Analyses suggest that both in males and females IAT latent factor predicts negative explicit attitude. Results revealed that explicit homophobia is related to implicit, negative attitude toward homosexuals and not to implicit attraction towards same sex. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 179033

  1. Homophobia as a barrier to comprehensive media coverage of the Ugandan anti-homosexual bill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The Ugandan Anti-Homosexuality Bill of October 2009 caused an international outcry and sparked intense debate in the local media. This article explores to what degree a discriminatory social environment manifests itself in the Ugandan print media and discusses the potential implications for media's coverage of contentious policy options such as the Anti-Homosexuality Bill. A content analysis of 115 items from two daily newspapers (the government-owned New Vision and the privately owned the Daily Monitor, between October and December 2009) indicates the existence of two separate house styles; this is in spite of the fact that both newspapers reproduce the surrounding society's homophobia, albeit with different frequency. Unlike the New Vision, the Daily Monitor includes coverage on homophobia and discrimination, as well as provides space for criticism of the Bill. By acknowledging discrimination and its negative impact, the newspaper de-legitimizes homophobia and problematizes the proposed Anti-homosexuality Bill for their readers.

  2. Experiences of homophobia among gay and bisexual men: results from a cross-sectional study in seven countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Anna N; Finneran, Catherine; Sullivan, Patrick S; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Experiences of homophobic discrimination are associated with an increased prevalence of psychological disorders and increased odds of reporting suicidal ideation among gay and bisexual men. We examine two domains of homophobia--external homophobic discrimination and internalised homophobia--and their associations with sexual orientation, demographic characteristics, relationships and social support among a sample of gay and bisexual men from seven countries. Sexually active gay and bisexual men aged over 18 and residing in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand, the UK and the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook. Two outcomes were examined: reporting experiences of homophobic discrimination and reporting feelings of internalised homophobia. No covariates were consistently significantly associated with experiencing external homophobic discrimination across countries. Across all countries, bisexually identifying respondents reported significantly greater feelings of internalised homophobia. Respondents in Brazil and the UK reporting a main partner, and respondents in Australia, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, Thailand and the USA reporting a larger gay/bisexual social network, reported significantly fewer feelings of internalised homophobia. Results suggest an ameliorative effect of social networks on experiencing homophobia. Additional research should focus on the mechanisms through which social networks reduce feelings of internalised homophobia.

  3. The Relationship Between Internalized Homophobia and Intimate Partner Violence in Same-Sex Relationships: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Longobardi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between internalized homophobia and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization in same-sex relationships. The literature search and the application of the inclusion criteria made it possible to identify 10 studies, 2 of which were excluded due to missing data. Therefore, eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed positive and statistically significant associations between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration and victimization, indicating that higher levels of internalized homophobia were related to higher levels of IPV. Specifically, the pooled effect size for the relationship between internalized homophobia and IPV perpetration (all forms), it was r + = .147, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [.079, .214]; for the association between internalized homophobia and physical/sexual IPV perpetration, it was r + = .166, 95% CI [.109, .221]; p homophobia and psychological IPV perpetration, it was r + = .145, 95% CI [.073, .216]; and for the association between internalized homophobia and any type of IPV victimization, it was r + = .102, 95% CI [.030, .173]. Implications of these results for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  4. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Kasumovic

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary

  5. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when

  6. Perceiving Partners to Endorse Benevolent Sexism Attenuates Highly Anxious Women's Negative Reactions to Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Emily J; Overall, Nickola C; Hammond, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Benevolent sexism prescribes that men are dependent on women in relationships and should cherish their partners. The current research examined whether perceiving male partners to endorse benevolent sexism attenuates highly anxious women's negative reactions to relationship conflict. Greater attachment anxiety was associated with greater distress and insecurity during couples' conflict discussions (Study 1), during daily conflict with intimate partners (Study 2), and when recalling experiences of relationship conflict (Study 3). However, this heightened distress and insecurity was attenuated when women (but not men) perceived their partner to strongly endorse benevolent sexism (Studies 1-3) and thus believed their partner could be relied upon to remain invested (Study 3B). These novel results illustrate that perceiving partners to endorse benevolent sexism alleviates anxious women's insecure reactions to relationship threat by conveying partner's continued reliability. Implications of these security-enhancing effects are considered in light of the role benevolent sexism plays in sustaining gender inequality. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Ambivalent sexism, attitudes towards menstruation and menstrual cycle-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marván, Ma Luisa; Vázquez-Toboada, Rocío; Chrisler, Joan C

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between ambivalent sexism and beliefs and attitudes towards menstruation, and, in turn, to study the influence of these variables on menstrual cycle-related symptoms. One hundred and six Mexican women completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, the Beliefs about and Attitudes toward Menstruation Questionnaire and the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire. The higher scores on benevolent sexism were associated with the most positive attitudes towards menstruation and also with the belief that a menstruating woman should or should not do some activities and that menstruation keeps women from their daily activities. The higher scores on hostile sexism were associated with rejection of menstruation as well as with feelings of embarrassment about it. Beliefs about and attitudes towards menstruation predicted menstrual cycle-related symptoms related to negative affect, impaired concentration and behavioural changes, but did not predict somatic symptoms. These results will be useful to health professionals and advocates who want to change the negative expectations and stereotypes of premenstrual and menstrual women and reduce the sexism and negative attitudes towards women that are evident in Mexican culture. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. The compassionate sexist? How benevolent sexism promotes and undermines gender equality in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideg, Ivona; Ferris, D Lance

    2016-11-01

    Although sexist attitudes are generally thought to undermine support for employment equity (EE) policies supporting women, we argue that the effects of benevolent sexism are more complex. Across 4 studies, we extend the ambivalent sexism literature by examining both the positive and the negative effects benevolent sexism has for the support of gender-based EE policies. On the positive side, we show that individuals who endorse benevolent sexist attitudes on trait measures of sexism (Study 1) and individuals primed with benevolent sexist attitudes (Study 2) are more likely to support an EE policy, and that this effect is mediated by feelings of compassion. On the negative side, we find that this support extends only to EE policies that promote the hiring of women in feminine, and not in masculine, positions (Study 3 and 4). Thus, while benevolent sexism may appear to promote gender equality, it subtly undermines it by contributing to occupational gender segregation and leading to inaction in promoting women in positions in which they are underrepresented (i.e., masculine positions). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. He loves her, he loves her not: attachment style as a personality antecedent to men's ambivalent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua; Hung, Jacqueline A; Glick, Peter; Dinero, Rachel E

    2012-11-01

    The authors present an integrative account of how attachment insecurities relate to sexism. Two studies showed that attachment avoidance predisposes men to endorse hostile but to reject benevolent sexism (BS), whereas attachment anxiety predisposes men toward ambivalent (both hostile and benevolent) sexism. The authors also tested predicted mediators, finding that men's social dominance orientation (a competitive intergroup ideology) mediated the avoidance to hostile sexism link. In addition, romanticism (an idealized interpersonal ideology) mediated attachment insecurity to BS links: (a) Avoidant men tended to reject romanticism (i.e., were cynical about romance) and, in turn, were likely to reject BS, whereas (b) anxious men tended to endorse romanticism (i.e., were idealistic about romance) and, in turn, likely to endorse BS. The authors conclude that men's sexism stems in part from dispositional attachment working models, both directly and through the interpersonal and intergroup ideologies they generate.

  10. Gender nonconformity and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults: Homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia as mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beusekom, Gabriël; Bos, Henny Mw; Kuyper, Lisette; Overbeek, Geertjan; Sandfort, Theo Gm

    2016-04-01

    We assessed among a sample of 724 Dutch lesbian, gay, and bisexual-identified adults ( M age  = 31.42) whether experiences with homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia simultaneously mediated the relation of gender nonconformity with mental health. Results indicated that homophobic stigmatization and internalized homophobia partially mediated the relation between gender nonconformity and mental health. Gender nonconformity was related to more mental health problems via increased experiences with homophobic stigmatization and to less mental health problems because of reduced levels of internalized homophobia. However, the mediated relation of gender nonconformity with mental health via homophobic stigmatization was only significant for men.

  11. COPING AS A MEDIATOR OF INTERNALIZED HOMOPHOBIA AND PSYCHOLOGICAL DISTRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULT SEXUAL MINORITY WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Kulesza, Magdalena; Balsam, Kimberly F; Rhew, Isaac C; Blayney, Jessica A; Lehavot, Keren; Hughes, Tonda L

    2014-09-01

    Sexual minorities have higher rates of depression and anxiety than their heterosexual counterparts. This elevated risk of psychological distress has generally been hypothesized to be a result of the effects of discrimination including internalized negative beliefs about sexual minorities. However, little research has examined the role of various types of coping in mediating between internalized homophobia and mental health. We tested the direct relationship between internalized homophobia and psychological distress and evaluated general and sexual minority-specific coping strategies as potential mediators using structural equation modeling. Data are from a national sample of 1,099 young adult sexual minority women who were on average 20.86 ( SD = 2.12) years old, participating in a study on mental health and substance use. The model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ 2 (83) = 402.9, p homophobia and psychological distress, sexual minority-specific coping did not. Our findings support previous studies that have demonstrated the impact of internalized homophobia on psychological distress as well as the role of coping as a protective/risk factor in this relationship.

  12. A Study of Homophobia among HBCU Undergraduate Students toward Gay and Lesbian Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, Donna Gibson

    2014-01-01

    While recent research examines homophobia among social work majors, there is limited research devoted to social work students enrolled in a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Social workers are not immune to possessing homophobic attitudes; therefore, diversity training is important. This research explored whether there were any…

  13. Wearing a Rainbow Bumper Sticker: Experiential Learning on Homophobia, Heteronormativity, and Heterosexual Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Lisa M.; Bolt, Sophia C.

    2015-01-01

    College campuses are known to be heteronormative environments that often foster heterosexism and homophobia. There is a broad call for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) awareness-building curricula as one avenue for positive change in campus climates. This study interrogates the effects of an experiential learning activity…

  14. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  15. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  16. Combatting Homophobia in Sport and Physical Education: Academic and Professional Responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenskyj, Helen

    This paper presents a discussion of events within national sport organizations that have recently addressed the problem of homophobia in sports; in particular, the social, professional, and political harassment of lesbian women who are career athletes. A brief overview is given of the stance of feminists, both liberal humanist and radical, on the…

  17. Sexual minority women's gender identity and expression: challenges and supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Heidi M; Puckett, Julia A; Ippolito, Maria R; Horne, Sharon G

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority women were divided into four groups to study their gender identities (butch and femme), and gender expression (traditionally gendered and non-traditionally gendered women who do not identify as butch or femme). Experiences of heterosexist events (discrimination, harassment, threats of violence, victimization, negative emotions associated with these events), mental health (self esteem, stress, depression), and supports for a sexual minority identity (social support, outness, internalized homophobia) were examined across these groups. Findings suggested that butch-identified women experienced more heterosexist events than femme women or women with non-traditional gender expressions. There were no differences in mental health variables. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  18. On the Link Between Benevolent Sexism and Orgasm Frequency in Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Emily Ann; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-11-01

    Previous research on subclinical orgasmic difficulties among women has focused on intrapsychic and interpersonal variables, but little attention has been paid to the more distal ideological factors that might indirectly constrain sexual pleasure. We hypothesized that women's endorsement of a benevolently sexist worldview would be negatively associated with orgasm frequency. Specifically, we predicted that benevolent sexism would be associated with increased perceptions of male sexual selfishness. This perception of men as interested in their own sexual pleasure would then predict decreased willingness to ask a partner for sexual pleasure, which in turn would be associated with less frequent orgasms. We found support for our model across two studies (Study 1: N = 339; Study 2: N = 323). We did not, however, find a direct effect of benevolent sexism on orgasm frequency. We discuss possible additional variables linking benevolent sexism with orgasm frequency, implications, and future directions.

  19. Hostile sexism (de)motivates women's social competition intentions: The contradictory role of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonaki, Elena; Manstead, Antony S R; Maio, Gregory R

    2015-09-01

    In the present research, we examine the ways in which exposure to hostile sexism influences women's competitive collective action intentions. Prior to testing our main model, our first study experimentally induced high versus low levels of security-comfort with the aim of providing experimental evidence for the proposed causal link between these emotions and intentions to engage in social competition. Results showed that lower levels of security-comfort reduced women's readiness to compete socially with men. Experiment 2 investigated the effect of hostile sexism on women's emotional reactions and readiness to engage in social competition. Consistent with the proposed model, results showed that exposure to hostile beliefs about women (1) increased anger-frustration and (2) decreased security-comfort. More specifically, exposure to hostile sexism had a positive indirect effect on social competition intentions through anger-frustration, and a negative indirect effect through security-comfort. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Tweeting about sexism: The well-being benefits of a social media collective action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D

    2015-12-01

    Although collective action has psychological benefits in non-gendered contexts (Drury et al., 2005, Br. J. Soc. Psychol., 44, 309), the benefits for women taking action against gender discrimination are unclear. This study examined how a popular, yet unexplored potential form of collective action, namely tweeting about sexism, affects women's well-being. Women read about sexism and were randomly assigned to tweet or to one of three control groups. Content analyses showed tweets exhibited collective intent and action. Analyses of linguistic markers suggested public tweeters used more cognitive complexity in their language than private tweeters. Profile analyses showed that compared to controls, only public tweeters showed decreasing negative affect and increasing psychological well-being, suggesting tweeting about sexism may serve as a collective action that can enhance women's well-being. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Labeling Sexual Victimization Experiences: The Role of Sexism, Rape Myth Acceptance, and Tolerance for Sexual Harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMaire, Kelly L; Oswald, Debra L; Russell, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether attitudinal variables, such as benevolent and hostile sexism toward men and women, female rape myth acceptance, and tolerance of sexual harassment are related to women labeling their sexual assault experiences as rape. In a sample of 276 female college students, 71 (25.7%) reported at least one experience that met the operational definition of rape, although only 46.5% of those women labeled the experience "rape." Benevolent sexism, tolerance of sexual harassment, and rape myth acceptance, but not hostile sexism, significantly predicted labeling of previous sexual assault experiences by the victims. Specifically, those with more benevolent sexist attitudes toward both men and women, greater rape myth acceptance, and more tolerant attitudes of sexual harassment were less likely to label their past sexual assault experience as rape. The results are discussed for their clinical and theoretical implications.

  2. Sexual Identity and HIV Status Influence the Relationship Between Internalized Stigma and Psychological Distress in Black Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R.; Cook, Stephanie H.; Wilson, Patrick A.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men. PMID:27017893

  3. Attitudes toward homosexuality among young adults: connections to gender role identity, gender-typed activities, and religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Evan; Lindsey, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in attitudes toward homosexuality have been linked to numerous personality and demographic variables. This study investigated the influence that gender role identity, involvement in gender-typed activities, and religiosity plays in this relationship. The sample included 194 undergraduate students from a Northeastern university. Analyses revealed that both males and females who held a more masculine gender role identity and individual commitment to religion scored higher on measures of homophobia and heteronormativity, whereas there was no association between spiritual meaning in life and attitudes toward homosexuality. Among males, but not females, more masculine gender identity and less spiritual meaning in life was associated with greater homophobia. The importance of the findings for research on the origins of attitudes toward individuals with a homosexual orientation are discussed, as well as the potential directions for future research on connections between gender role identity, religious affiliation, and attitudes toward gays and lesbians.

  4. Sexual identity and HIV status influence the relationship between internalized stigma and psychological distress in black gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Melissa R; Cook, Stephanie H; Wilson, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Experiences of internalized homophobia and HIV stigma in young Black gay and bisexual men (GBM) may lead to psychological distress, but levels of distress may be dependent upon their sexual identity or HIV status. In this study, we set out to explore the associations between psychological distress, sexual identity, and HIV status in young Black GBM. Participants were 228 young Black GBM who reported on their psychological distress, their HIV status, and their sexual identity. Results indicated that internalized homophobia was significantly related to psychological distress for gay men, but not for bisexual men. HIV stigma was related to psychological stress for HIV-positive men, but not for HIV-negative men. Results indicate a need for more nuanced examinations of the role of identity in the health and well-being of men who have sex with men.

  5. Sexual identity, identity disclosure, and health care experiences: is there evidence for differential homophobia in primary care practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Petroll, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    Given extant health disparities among women who belong to the sexual minority, we must understand the ways in which access to and satisfaction with health care contribute to such disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore how sexual minority women's (SMW) health care experiences compared with those of their heterosexually identified counterparts. We also sought to investigate whether there were differences within SMW in this regard. Finally, we explored whether participant satisfaction and comfort with health care providers (HCPs) differed depending upon HCP knowledge of participants' sexual orientation. We administered surveys to 420 women including lesbian, gay, bisexual, or other "queer" identified women (n = 354) and heterosexually identified women (n = 66). Contrary to our expectations, we found that SMW were as likely to have had a recent health care appointment, to have been recommended and to have received similar diagnostic and preventive care, and to feel comfortable discussing their sexual health with their HCPs. They were, however, less likely to report being satisfied with their HCPs. We found no differences between lesbian SMW and non-lesbian SMW with respect to these indicators. We found important differences with respect to sexual orientation disclosure and health care satisfaction, however. Those participants whose HCPs purportedly knew of their minority sexual orientation reported greater satisfaction with their HCPs and greater comfort discussing their sexual health than those whose providers were presumably unaware. We discuss important clinical and research implications of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. “Let’s get those queers!” : Homophobia and heteronormativity within young male sporting cultures in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agnes Elling; Froukje Smits

    2016-01-01

    Presentation at ISSA Conference 2016 (International Sport Sociology Association): "Based on predominantly qualitative research, socio-critical sports sociologists from various (western) countries have in the past argued convincingly that heteronormativity and homophobia form early influences in

  7. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women: Conceptualization, Factor Structure, Reliability, and Associations With Hypothesized Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R

    2016-08-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese Internalized Homophobia (IH) scale for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n = 1187), or as bisexual (n = 641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n = 353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscale associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates, including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage, and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates, and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the minority stress model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed.

  8. Racism and Sexism, Together, in Counselling: Three Women of Colour Tell Their Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrard, Nikki

    1991-01-01

    From interviews with 10 women of color for qualitative research about experiences as clients in mental health systems, summarizes all 10 women's examples of racism and sexism and discusses stories and impact that experiences had on the women. Discusses dilemma of white researchers doing research on women of color, and makes recommendations for…

  9. Examining the Psychological Effect of Rape Acknowledgment: The Interaction of Acknowledgment Status and Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura C; Miller, Katherine E; Leheney, Emma K; Ballman, Alesha D; Scarpa, Angela

    2017-07-01

    Although the majority of rape survivors do not label their experiences as rape (i.e., unacknowledged rape), the literature is mixed in terms of how this affects survivors' psychological functioning. To elucidate the discrepancies, the present study examined the interaction between rape acknowledgement and ambivalent sexism in relation to depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The analyzed sample included 128 female rape survivors who were drawn from a larger college sample of 1,595 participants. The participants completed measures of sexual assault experiences, ambivalent sexism, and depression and PTSD symptoms. The results supported a significant interaction between acknowledgement status and benevolent sexism in relation to both depression and PTSD symptoms. Conversely, the present study failed to find support for an interaction between acknowledgment status and hostile sexism. The clinical implications suggest that rather than seeing acknowledging rape as essential to the recovery process, clinicians should assess for and take into account other factors that may contribute to psychological functioning. Additionally, the findings support that more complex models of trauma recovery should be investigated with the goal of working toward a more comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal process of rape acknowledgment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Gendered Word (Or World): Sexism in Philippine Preschool English Language Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrayo, Veronico Nogales

    2014-01-01

    Adhering to the notion that language learning is necessarily a culture-learning process, this paper explores the issue of sexism in six Philippine preschool English language textbooks. The study adopts the qualitative-quantitative approach in examining the following categories: gender visibility (illustrations), "firstness",…

  11. Should Educators and Parents Encourage Other-Gender Interactions? Gender Segregation and Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Emily; Mehta, Clare; Strough, JoNell

    2013-01-01

    We investigated gender differences in the association between gender-segregated peer preferences and sexism in adolescents (15-17 years, 60 boys and 85 girls). To assess gender-segregated peer preferences, adolescents nominated peers for interaction in two contexts: "hanging out" at home and working on a school project. The Modern Sexism…

  12. Promotion beyond Tenure: Unpacking Racism and Sexism in the Experiences of Black Womyn Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Natasha N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Black womyn full professors' experiences of promotion beyond tenure. Using a critical race feminist theoretical framework, findings suggest that a meritocratic ideology undergirds a dominant narrative about the Professor rank. However, racism and sexism mediated the participants' opportunities to access the status and…

  13. Don't Rock the Boat: Women's Benevolent Sexism Predicts Fears of Marital Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposito, Francisca; Herrera, M. Carmen; Moya, Miguel; Glick, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We examined how Spanish women's benevolent sexism (a sex-role attitude) affects their perceptions of whether a hypothetical husband will feel threatened by a wife's success at work. In a social perception study, female participants (N = 210) read a vignette in which a husband and his wife argued over her job promotion. Women's benevolent sexism…

  14. Seeing the Unseen: Attention to Daily Encounters with Sexism as Way to Reduce Sexist Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Julia C.; Swim, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in the United States and Germany to test whether women and men endorse sexist beliefs because they are unaware of the prevalence of different types of sexism in their personal lives. Study 1 (N = 120) and Study 2 (N = 83) used daily diaries as a method to encourage individuals "to see the unseen." Results…

  15. Benevolent Sexism and Support of Romantic Partner's Goals: Undermining Women's Competence While Fulfilling Men's Intimacy Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2015-09-01

    The current research demonstrates how benevolent sexism functions to undermine women's competence while facilitating men's access to heterosexual intimacy by prompting different support behaviors by men and women. Objective coders rated the support provision exhibited during heterosexual couples' (N = 100) video-recorded discussions of each other's personal goals. Men who endorsed benevolent sexism provided more dependency-oriented support, including directly providing plans and solutions and neglecting the recipient's own abilities, which led to their female partners feeling less competent and less positively regarded. In contrast, women who endorsed benevolent sexism provided greater relationship-oriented support, characterized by affection and emphasizing the positive relationship outcomes associated with their partner's goals, which led their male partners to perceive greater regard and intimacy in their relationship. This study is the first to investigate how benevolent sexism prompts naturalistic support behaviors that can impede women's capacity for independent success while supporting the fulfillment of men's intimacy needs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Stigma by Prejudice Transfer: Racism Threatens White Women and Sexism Threatens Men of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Diana T; Chaney, Kimberly E; Manuel, Sara K; Wilton, Leigh S; Remedios, Jessica D

    2017-04-01

    In the current research, we posited the stigma-by-prejudice-transfer effect, which proposes that stigmatized group members (e.g., White women) are threatened by prejudice that is directed at other stigmatized group members (e.g., African Americans) because they believe that prejudice has monolithic qualities. While most stigma researchers assume that there is a direct correspondence between the attitude of prejudiced individuals and the targets (i.e., sexism affects women, racism affects racial minorities), the five studies reported here demonstrate that White women can be threatened by racism (Study 1, 3, 4, and 5) and men of color by sexism (Study 2). Robust to perceptions of liking and the order in which measures were administered, results showed that prejudice transfers between racism and sexism were driven by the presumed social dominance orientation of the prejudiced individual. In addition, important downstream consequences, such as the increased likelihood of anticipated stigma, expectations of unfair treatment, and the attribution of negative feedback to sexism, appeared for stigmatized individuals.

  17. Ladies First? Not So Fast: Linguistic Sexism in Peer-Reviewed Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Malachi; Jozkowski, Kristen N

    2018-02-01

    The words we use reflect and influence our interpretation of the world. The role of gender within a language varies; biases based on social gender are referred to as linguistic sexism. Male firstness is the practice of persistently ordering masculine terms before feminine terms. Because academic writing is mandated to be free of bias, peer-reviewed research should not contain any form of linguistic sexism. To assess the presence of male firstness in academic writing, we examined 862 contemporary articles from 10 social science journals across three disciplines: sexuality, health, and psychology. To assess male firstness, we tallied common gendered pairs (e.g., "women and men"; "male and female") and calculated percentages indicating how often men were presented before women. We found that male firstness bias was present in each of the 10 journals. For individual journals, the percentage of gendered phrases that presented masculine terms first ranged from 57.7% to 88.8%. Sexuality and health journals demonstrated less linguistic sexism than psychology; however, there were no consistent trends between journals within each discipline. We discuss the current presence of male firstness in academic journals and the issues this bias triggers. Recommendations for reducing linguistic sexism in peer-reviewed research are also discussed.

  18. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  19. Relational aggression and victimization in gay male relationships: the role of internalized homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Thomas M; Robertson, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    This article presents two studies that are the first to examine relational aggression and relational victimization in gay male peer relationships. A qualitative pilot study provides a strong rationale for a subsequent empirical investigation of 100 young adult, self-identified gay males. Results of both studies demonstrate that relational aggression and relational victimization are common experiences in gay male relationships. They also reveal forms of relational aggression and victimization that appear to be unique to gay males (e.g., outing). Results of the empirical study found significant relations between engaging in relational aggression against gay males and experiencing relational victimization and between experiencing relational victimization and internalized homophobia. However, there was no significant correlation between internalized homophobia and engaging in relational aggression. A multiple regression analysis found that experiencing relational victimization was correlated more strongly with the combination of engaging in relational aggression and internalized homophobia together than with relational aggression alone. Results are discussed within the framework of Allport's "traits due to victimization" theory and Meyer's theory of "minority stress." Implications for the prevention of relational aggression/victimization in gay male relationships are offered. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Ambivalent sexism and attitudes toward women in different stages of reproductive life: a semantic, cross-cultural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrisler, Joan C; Gorman, Jennifer A; Marván, Maria Luisa; Johnston-Robledo, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    College students in southeastern Mexico (n = 185) and the northeastern United States (n = 96) utilized a semantic differential scale to rate subtypes of women: a menstruating woman, a menopausal woman, a pregnant woman, a premenstrual woman, a woman with a hysterectomy, a teenage girl, a woman in love, and a woman with a young baby. Americans reported significantly more negative attitudes than Mexicans did toward a menstruating woman, a premenstrual woman, a teenage girl, and a pregnant woman. Participants chose more positive words to describe a teenage girl, a woman in love, a pregnant woman, and a woman with a young baby, which is suggestive of a pronatal bias. Participants also completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI). Men scored significantly higher than women on hostile sexism. Mexicans scored significantly higher than Americans on both hostile and benevolent sexism. Sexism scores are related to attitudes toward premenstrual, menstruating, and menopausal women; women with a hysterectomy; and women with a young baby.

  1. Homophobia Is Related to a Low Interest in Sexuality in General: An Analysis of Pupillometric Evoked Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Grob, Emmanuelle; Chanal, Julien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Radel, Remi

    2016-10-01

    A recent study by Cheval et al (J Sex Med 2016;13:825-834) found that individuals high in homophobia look significantly less long at sex-related photographs, regardless of their nature (ie, homosexual or heterosexual). Because viewing time is under some conscious control, this result could indicate that individuals high in homophobia have a low sexual interest in any sexual stimuli or are consciously motivated to avoid sexual material in line with their conscious values. To determine the mechanism underlying shorter viewing time of sex-related photographs in individuals high in homophobia using pupil dilatation, which is considered a spontaneous, unconscious, and uncontrollable index of sexual interest. Heterosexual men (N = 36) completed a questionnaire assessing their level of homo-negativity and then performed a picture-viewing task with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess their pupillary responses to the presentation of sexually related or neutral photographs. Non-linear mixed models were carried out to fit the individual non-linear trajectories of pupillary reaction. Different parameters were obtained including the final asymptote of the pupillary response. Results showed that the final pupil size of men high in homophobia increased significantly less to the presentation of sex-related images (ie, heterosexual and homosexual) than the pupil size of men low in homophobia. In contrast, no significant difference in the final pupil size reaction toward homosexual images (vs heterosexual images) emerged between men high and men low in homophobia. Theoretically, these findings reinforce the necessity to consider that homophobia might reflect concerns about sexuality in general and not homosexuality in particular. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The moderating effects of contact with lesbian and gay friends on the relationships among religious fundamentalism, sexism, and sexual prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B; Melton, E Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which contact with lesbian and gay friends moderated the effects of religious fundamentalism and sexism on sexual prejudice. The authors gathered data from 269 heterosexual adults living in Texas. Results indicate that the effects of religious fundamentalism on sexual prejudice were reduced when contact was high. However, the positive association between modern sexism and sexual prejudice was not moderated by contact. The authors discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  3. Homophobia and the Transition to Adulthood: A Three Year Panel Study among Belgian Late Adolescents and Young Adults, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghe, Marc; Meeusen, Cecil

    2012-01-01

    Studies on homophobia among adolescents routinely depart from the assumption that this attitude will be continued into adulthood. However, little research has been conducted on how the transition toward adulthood actually affects homophobia. While earlier studies relied on cross-sectional observations, the present analysis makes use of the Belgian…

  4. Challenging homophobia and heterosexism through storytelling and critical dialogue among Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Homophobia and heterosexism are ubiquitous in Canadian society. They contribute to significant health and mental health disparities for lesbian, gay and bisexual youth and their families. Anti-homophobia efforts tend to focus on students and teachers at school. While these efforts are important, they do not reach parents, who play an important role in shaping young people's attitudes towards gender and sexuality. To eliminate bullying and victimisation associated with homophobia at school and in the community, concerted efforts are urgently needed to mobilise parents to become champions against homophobia and heterosexism. In this paper, we report on our use of storytelling and critical dialogue to engage a group of Hong Kong Chinese immigrant parents in Toronto to interrogate their values and assumptions about homosexuality. In particular, we illustrate how we use storytelling to create a liminal space whereby the narrators and listeners collaborate to create counter-discourses that challenge social domination and exclusion. We then discuss the implications of using a critical dialogical approach to integrate anti-homophobia efforts in community parenting programmes.

  5. Internalized Homophobia as a Partial Mediator between Homophobic Bullying and Self-Esteem among Sexual Minority Youths in Quebec (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among sexual minority youths. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among sexual minority youths and to model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. Method: A community sample of 300 sexual minority youths aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equations model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. Results: 60.7% of the sample reported at least on form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. Conclusion: Our results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on well-being of sexual minority youths. PMID:24714888

  6. Muslim gay men: identity conflict and politics in a Muslim majority nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdi, Nassim; Lachheb, Monia; Anderson, Eric

    2017-12-08

    While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations. We discuss the multiple difficulties these men face in relation to religious intolerance and ethnic heteronormativity, and reflect upon the possibilities and obstacles of using Western identity politics towards the promotion of social justice within a framework of growing homohysteria. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  7. An Avenue for Challenging Sexism: Examining the High School Sociology Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaylene Mae Stevens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this interpretative qualitative study, the researchers investigated the beliefs and practices of six high school sociology teachers in relation to the teaching of gender. Using a feminist lens, this study employed mixed methods, analyzing teacher interviews, observations, and classroom artifacts. The results showed that the teachers viewed sociology as different from other social studies courses, because it serves as a more intentional way to reduce sexism and gender stratification. As such, the teachers saw the sociology classroom as a place for students to grapple with issues of gender stratification and inequity.  Teachers’ beliefs related to gender and sexism strongly influenced what they saw as the purpose of sociology class, and it influenced the instructional practices that they used.  Recommendations are made related to professional development around issues of gender equity.

  8. Ambivalent Sexism in Close Relationships: (Hostile) Power and (Benevolent) Romance Shape Relationship Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tiane L.; Fiske, Susan T.; Glick, Peter; Chen, Zhixia

    2013-01-01

    Gender-based structural power and heterosexual dependency produce ambivalent gender ideologies, with hostility and benevolence separately shaping close-relationship ideals. The relative importance of romanticized benevolent versus more overtly power-based hostile sexism, however, may be culturally dependent. Testing this, northeast US (N=311) and central Chinese (N=290) undergraduates rated prescriptions and proscriptions (ideals) for partners and completed Ambivalent Sexism and Ambivalence toward Men Inventories (ideologies). Multiple regressions analyses conducted on group-specific relationship ideals revealed that benevolent ideologies predicted partner ideals, in both countries, especially for US culture’s romance-oriented relationships. Hostile attitudes predicted men’s ideals, both American and Chinese, suggesting both societies’ dominant-partner advantage. PMID:23914004

  9. Prevalence of internalized homophobia and HIV associated risks among men who have sex with men in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebajo, Sylvia B; Eluwa, George I; Allman, Dan; Myers, Ted; Ahonsi, Babatunde A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the level of internalized homophobia and associated factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Using respondent driven sampling, MSM were recruited in Lagos and Ibadan between July and September, 2006. Internalized homophobia was assessed as a negative composite score using an 11-item scale. A total of 1,125 MSM were interviewed. About 44.4% self-identified as homosexual or gay while 55% regarded themselves as bisexual. About a third of the respondents reported internalized homophobia. With homosexual/gay men as reference, respondents who self-identified as bisexual were two times more likely [AOR 2.1; 95 CI: 1.6 - 2.9, p Nigeria.

  10. Sexism, Sexual Harassment, and Sexual Assault: Comparing Data from 2002 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    were offensive or embarrassing), unwanted sexual attention (attempts to establish a sexual relationship), and sexual coercion (classic quid pro quo ...are defined legally. The quid pro quo type is the easiest to identify and although frequencies are low, it is the most likely to be challenged. This...SEXISM, SEXUAL HARASSMENT AND SEXUAL ASSAULT: COMPARING DATA FROM 2002 AND 2006 Dr. Richard J. Harris University of Texas at San

  11. Dangerous relation: chivalrousness and sexism through a look at the novel of Laclos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Carneiro da Silva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Product of a scientific initiation research, this article part of un hermeneutic interpretation of the novel by Choderlos de Laclos (Dangerous Relations, 1971 and his filmic adaptation (Dangerous Liaisons, Stephen Frears, 1988 in search of launching a new look at the male figures of gentleman and sexist, understand them as movements that are approaching, cohabit, interpenetrate and infl uence, confi guring the chivalrousness a form of change to stay for sexism.

  12. Deliberative Democracy V. Politics of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OSCAR PÉREZ DE LA FUENTE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The defenders of deliberative democracy insist in the idea that for searching political truths is necessary to use values as universality, rationality and fairness. The defenders of the politics of identity distrust from this deliberative approach because, the interests of the powerful groups of the society are often behind those values. The common approach of deliberative democracy misunderstands the proper role, language, expression and actual interests of the members of the minorities. Deliberative democracy isn't really compromised with pluralism –social, cultural, ethnic, racial…– because it is more compromised with formal and substantial rules of decision that finally determine the result of the deliberation. Minorities claim for a new understanding of the democracy from the difference, from the identity. Thus, democracy is the result of a dialogue, not from abstractions, but from the particularity. In this sense, it is important the notion of ethics of alterity as a moral effort to understand the Other. This exercise excludes all kind of alterophobia (misogyny, xenophobia, racism, homophobia... and it is against relativist approach. An identity is legitimate in the way it includes the alterity. The minorities claim to think, other time, topics as democracy from the dynamics between identity/alterity, inclusion/exclusion, equal dignity/differentiated identity.

  13. Tao Rising: Sexism and Feminist/Transpersonal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Llewlee L.

    This report presents a dialectical model of identity development which is based on observations of how the self evolves within the context of feminist/transpersonal therapy. Developmental stages which are identified include fusion (Stage I), differentiation (Stage II), and integration (Stage III) of the Child (asserting) and Parent (nurturing)…

  14. Lifetime Video Game Consumption, Interpersonal Aggression, Hostile Sexism, and Rape Myth Acceptance: A Cultivation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jesse; Potocki, Bridget

    2016-06-01

    Although previous research has investigated relationships between media consumption, sexism, and rape myth acceptance (RMA), limited research has investigated video games despite their emergence as one of the most popular forms of media entertainment globally. Given that video games typically feature even less diverse and more objectified representations of women than traditional mainstream media, we predicted that there would be relationships between video game consumption and negative beliefs and attitudes about women. In this study, we conducted a survey (N = 351) of male and female adults and used structural equation modeling to analyze relationships among video game consumption, trait interpersonal aggression, ambivalent sexism, and first-order (percentage of false rape accusations) and second-order cultivation effects (RMA). We found support for the hypothesized cultivation model, indicating a relationship between video game consumption and RMA via interpersonal aggression and hostile sexism. Although these findings cannot be interpreted causally, we discuss the implications of these associations and future directions for research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Media culture and post-sexism discourse: a rhetoric study through facebook and gender violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Etura Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the appearance of the post-sexism discourse in Social networks through controversy in Facebook about the broadcast in the spanish television of a journalist report called ‘Sexism kills’ (February, 2016 in a prime time programme entitled “Salvados”. Specifically, we analyse a corpus of texts formed by 98 comments and more tan 4000 reactions on the night of January 31 consequence of a preview advertisement in the Jordi Evole’s Facebook page (the presentator of the programme.Our theoretical supporting research is based on feminist theory and critical discourse analyse. By means of both proposal, we have tried to find, show and describe a post-sexism discourse and the ideological frames underlying in the comments, which attacked the topic of the tv programme even before the telecast. Upon examination of this corpus, it becomes clear that exist a common discoursive patron in the postsexism prosumers in internet and a different behaviour by genders against the sexist violence.

  16. Egalitarian Sexism: A Kantian Framework for Assessing the Cultural Evolution of Marriage (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmquist Stephen R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This first part of a two-part series exploring implications of the natural differences between the sexes for the cultural evolution of marriage assesses whether Kant should be condemned as a sexist due to his various offensive claims about women. Being antithetical to modern-day assumptions regarding the equality of the sexes, Kant’s views seem to contradict his own egalitarian ethics. A philosophical framework for making cross-cultural ethical assessments requires one to assess those in other cultures by their own ethical standards. Sexism is inappropriate if it exhibits or reinforces a tendency to dominate the opposite sex. Kant’s theory of marriage, by contrast, illustrates how sexism can be egalitarian: given the natural differences between the sexes, different roles and cultural norms help to ensure that females and males are equal. Judged by the standards of his own day and in the context of his philosophical system, Kant’s sexism is not ethically inappropriate.

  17. I Love You but I Cyberbully You: The Role of Hostile Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pecino, Roberto; Durán, Mercedes

    2016-04-25

    Cyberbullying is attracting social, political, and academic interest as the use of electronic devices such as computers and mobile phones by young people has increased dramatically. However, little is known about the factors involved in their perpetration, particularly in the context of college students' dating relationships. The aim of this study is to examine the involvement of college students in cyberbullying in the context of their dating relationships and to explore the impact of sexism on males' cyberbullying of their girlfriends. Participants are 219 undergraduate students from a university in the south of Spain. Results showed that 48.4% of participants reported having bullied their partners during the last year via mobile phone and 37.5% via Internet. Males reported a greater extent of cyberbullying of their girlfriends through both means. Regression analyses indicated that males' levels of hostile sexism are related to males' cyberbullying of their girlfriends. These findings suggest a modernization in the forms of violence toward women among college students and also expand current literature by revealing the influence of participants' hostile sexism on this type of cyber aggression against women in dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. The costs and benefits of sexism: resistance to influence during relationship conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, Nickola C; Sibley, Chris G; Tan, Rosabel

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether men's and women's hostile sexism (HS) and benevolent sexism (BS) were associated with resistance to influence in couples' conflict interactions. Ninety-one heterosexual couples were recorded while trying to produce desired changes in each other. Participants reviewed their discussions and rated how open they were to their partner's perspective. Objective coders also rated the extent to which each partner exhibited hostile communication. We tested key principles arising from ambivalent sexism theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996). First, BS is necessary because mutual interdependence reduces the power of HS to influence women within intimate relationships. We found that the more men endorsed HS, the less open and more hostile both partners were, and the less successful their discussions were in producing desired change. Second, BS reduces the threat of women's dyadic power by revering and respecting women's interpersonal roles while restricting women's influence outside the relationship domain. We found that men who expressed higher agreement with BS were more open to their partners' influence and behaved with less hostility, and their discussions were more successful. These relationship benefits illustrate why BS is effective at disarming women's resistance to wider inequalities. These benefits, however, were contingent on men adopting BS attitudes. When women strongly endorsed BS but their male partner did not, women were less open, behaved with greater hostility, and perceived their discussions as less successful. These results indicate that, because BS increases the stakes within the relationship domain, women who endorse BS will react more negatively when their expectations are not realized.

  19. Lesbian mommy blogging in Canada: documenting subtle homophobia in Canadian society and building community online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes how lesbian mommy bloggers in Canada are using their blogs as forums for self-expression and a means to form community, as they record their unique experiences as queer parents. Further, it argues that lesbian mommy blogging is documenting a subtle form of homophobia that exists in Canada in terms of social acceptance. Although there is legal acceptance of queer families, society has not necessarily caught up with the law. These blogs show that lesbian parents in Canada still struggle with issues of equality, including difficulties being "out," invisibility, and having to advocate for the non-birth parent.

  20. Alcohol Use, Hostile Sexism, and Religious Self-Regulation: Investigating Risk and Protective Factors of IPV Perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Kellie R; Renzetti, Claire M

    2017-05-01

    Research suggests that the relationship between alcohol use and intimate partner violence (IPV) is moderated by a range of other factors. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between alcohol use, hostile sexism, and religious self-regulation with perpetration. Using a national sample of 255 men, we found that hostile sexism was associated with physical violence toward a partner and alcohol use was positively associated with psychological abuse toward a partner. With regard to religious self-regulation, we found that introjected religious self-regulation was positively associated with hostile sexism and positively associated with perpetrating physical IPV. Identified religious self-regulation was negatively associated with physical violence perpetration. We also found significant interactions among our independent measures on physical IPV perpetration. These analyses suggest that increased alcohol consumption elevates the risk for physical violence perpetration among men who are high in introjected religious self-regulation and low in hostile sexism, while reducing the risk for perpetration in men who are high in identified religious self-regulation and low in hostile sexism. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  1. Relationships between Ambivalent Sexism and the Five Moral Foundations in Domestic Violence: Is it a Matter of Fairness and Authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecina, Maria L; Piñuela, Raul

    2017-04-03

    Ambivalent sexism has served to justify and maintain patriarchy and traditional gender roles characterized by inequality and male domination in the intimate partner violence (IPV) literature; according to the Moral Foundation Theory (MFT) there are two specific moral foundations related to inequality and domination: fairness and authority. We connect these separate fields arguing that sexist attitudes can be related to specific patterns of endorsement of the five moral foundations. Our hypothesis is that ambivalent sexism in men convicted of violence against the partner may be rooted in at least these two moral foundations, and that at least these two moral foundations may also serve to predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. Controlling for political orientation, the results show that benevolent sexism correlates positively with the authority foundation; and hostile sexism correlates negatively with the fairness foundation. Both foundations contribute to explaining the two dimensions of ambivalent sexism (benevolent and hostile) and only the fairness foundation predict intention to change the violent behavior against the partner. New treatment approaches could be designed to increase moral concerns about fairness and to reduce moral concerns about authority in people who, at least, have once used violence against their partners.

  2. The role of heavy episodic drinking and hostile sexism in men's sexual aggression toward female intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra Teten

    2012-11-01

    Research indicates that men's heavy episodic drinking is a significant risk factor for their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. The aim of this investigation was to examine how hostile sexism (i.e., antipathy toward women) and benevolent sexism (i.e., subjectively positive, yet patriarchal, views of women) influence the relation between men's heavy episodic drinking and their perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimate partners. Participants were 205 heterosexual drinking men who completed self-report measures of quantity of alcohol consumption during the past 12 months, hostile sexism, and sexual aggression toward an intimate partner during the past 12 months. Men's heavy episodic drinking was positively associated with sexual aggression perpetration toward intimate partners amongst men who endorsed high, but not low, levels of hostile sexism. No such interactive effect emerged for men's endorsement of benevolent sexism. These results have important implications for understanding cumulative risk factors for the perpetration of sexual aggression toward intimates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Acceptance Journeys Social Marketing Campaign to Reduce Homophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Shawnika J; Davis, Catasha R; Hollander, Gary; Gasiorowicz, Mari; Jeffries, William L; Gray, Simone; Bertolli, Jeanne; Mohr, Anneke

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Acceptance Journeys social marketing campaign to reduce homophobia in the Black community in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. We assessed the campaign's effectiveness using a rolling cross-sectional survey. Data were collected annually online between 2011 and 2015. Each year, a unique sample of Black and White adults, aged 30 years and older, were surveyed in the treatment city (Milwaukee) and in 2 comparison cities that did not have antihomophobia campaigns (St. Louis, MO, and Cleveland, OH; for total sample, n = 3592). Black self-identification and Milwaukee residence were significantly associated with exposure to the campaign, suggesting successful message targeting. The relationship between exposure and acceptance of gay men was significantly mediated through attitudes toward gay men, perceptions of community acceptance, and perceptions of the impact of stigma on gay men, but not through rejection of stereotypes. This model accounted for 39% of variance in acceptance. This evidence suggests that the Acceptance Journeys model of social marketing may be a promising strategy for addressing homophobia in US Black communities.

  4. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Rachik

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

  5. Coping with Sexual Stigma: Emerging Adults with Lesbian Parents Reflect on the Impact of Heterosexism and Homophobia during Their Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvalanka, Katherine A.; Leslie, Leigh A.; Radina, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how youth with LGB (lesbian, gay, and bisexual) parents experience various forms of sexual stigma (i.e., homophobia and heterosexism). Previous studies have focused primarily on frequency of teasing and harassment; therefore, much less is known about how indirect and institutional types of sexual stigma play out in the lives…

  6. Purple Boas, Lesbian Affection, and John Deere Hats: Teacher Educators' Role in Addressing Homophobia in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how one group of teachers discussed their perceptions of homophobia in their schools. A qualitative study was conducted that utilized the following: individual and group interviews, participant reflective journals, professional development sessions, and a research journal. The study illuminated how the role of hegemonic…

  7. Bullying, "Cussing" and "Mucking About": Complexities in Tackling Homophobia in Three Secondary Schools in South London, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Ian; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In countries such as the UK, schools have a responsibility to prevent all forms of bullying, including those related to sexual orientation. However, relatively little is known about how schools go about this work successfully. This study aimed to identify how three secondary schools in south London, England, were addressing homophobia. Three…

  8. Discussing Sexual Orientation and Gender in Classrooms: A Testimonial-Based Approach to Fighting Homophobia in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Gabrielle; Vallerand, Olivier; Petit, Marie-Pier; Charbonneau, Amélie

    2015-01-01

    To fight homophobia in schools in Québec, many teachers rely on community organizations such as the Groupe de Recherche et d'Intervention Sociale (Research and Social Intervention Group) to address sexual diversity in class. This article documents major outcomes of these workshops as seen by students. Students identified topics related to…

  9. Infusing Multicultural Education into the Curriculum: Preparing Pre-Service Teachers to Address Homophobia in K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role multicultural education can play in addressing homophobia in K-12 schools. The author explores the lack of multiculturalism courses in undergraduate teacher education programs. To address the lack of multiculturalism courses, three instructional activities are offered that faculty in teacher education programs can…

  10. The effects of sexism, psychological distress, and difficult sexual situations on U.S. women's sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B

    2011-10-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.

  11. The Effects of Sexism, Psychological Distress, and Difficult Sexual Situations on U.S. Women’s Sexual Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2011-01-01

    Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804

  12. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  13. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The Relationship Between Television Sports Exposure and Rape Myth Acceptance: The Mediating Role of Sexism and Sexual Objectification of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; McNallie, Jenna

    2016-06-30

    Rape affects a large proportion of women in the United States but is one of the most underreported crimes. It is believed that rape myth acceptance contributes to low reporting rates. We tested whether television sports exposure was indirectly related to higher acceptance of rape myth beliefs. An online survey involving 465 undergraduate students showed that viewing TV sports was positively related to hostile sexism, benevolent sexism, and sexual objectification of women. Through these variables, TV sports was indirectly and positively associated with rape myth acceptance. These results suggest that sports programming contributes to the perpetuation of rape myths in society. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Leadership identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Questioning the assumption that identities can be controlled through a shared organisational culture, the article explores the inculcation of a discourse of diversity into leadership identities in a Danish bank and building society. Thus, it intends to demonstrate that, on the one hand, discourse...... plays a significant role in identity construction and, on the other, that leaders’ constructions may have many sources of inspiration within and outside the organisation, emphasising that identity construction is a complex process in which organisational efforts to promote a common leadership identity...... to construct their leadership identities. While the respondents present comparable identities to the interviewer, the analysis reveals that the they draw on different discourses and employ a number of different discursive means to present this identity. This, the article argues, may be the result of a number...

  16. Institutional sexism: An obstacle to an effective protection against domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is an analysis of the social treatment of victims of domestic violence and their institutional treatment in the context of gender stereotypes, prejudices and discriminatory attitudes, which are deeply rooted and widely spread among professionals involved in the prevention and prosecution of domestic violence. The aim of the paper is to point out how, and in what way institutional sexism becomes a barrier to effective prevention, prosecution and sanctioning of domestic violence and the cause of discrimination of victims of this form of violence in the exercise of the right to legal protection. In this context, the current situation in Serbia has been observed in light of the international standard of “due diligence”, which is normatively operationalized in Istanbul Convention (2011. From the perspective of this standard, the authors discuss the standpoints of the CEDAW Committee as well as the latest opinion of the European Court of Human Rights in the verdict of the case Eremia and others v. Moldova (2013, which was the first time that the Court held that institutional sexism was the main reason for the state authorities’ failure to provide adequate legal protection against domestic violence. The authors underscore that the state action on the recognition, demystification and eradication of the deeply rooted institutional sexism is one of the key prerequisites for an effective prevention of domestic violence in compliance with the international “due diligence” standard. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179046: Zaštita ljudskih i manjinskih prava u evropskom pravnom prostoru

  17. The role of culture of honour, sexism and jealousy in response to partner infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Canto Ortiz, Jesús María; Moreno Jiménez, Pilar; Perles Novas, Fabiola; San Martín García, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    En esta investigación han participado 170 estudiantes universitarios (80 hombres y 90 mujeres). El propósito de este trabajo fue analizar si la cultura del honor, el sexismo y el grado de celos influían en el tipo de infidelidad (sexual o emocional) que más afectaba a los sujetos. Los participantes respondieron a seis dilemas en los que se les planteaban el tipo de infidelidad que más les afectan (sexual o emocional), una escala sobre escala sobre cultura del honor, un inventario sobre sexism...

  18. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12)

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez; María Rosas Rodríguez; Mónica Teresa González Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12) evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha) with only ...

  19. Ternutator identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devchand, Chandrashekar; Fairlie, David; Nuyts, Jean; Weingart, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    The ternary commutator or ternutator, defined as the alternating sum of the product of three operators, has recently drawn much attention as an interesting structure generalizing the commutator. The ternutator satisfies cubic identities analogous to the quadratic Jacobi identity for the commutator. We present various forms of these identities and discuss the possibility of using them to define ternary algebras.

  20. Gender, age, and place of residence as moderators of the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation among Australian gay men and lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Internalized homophobia is a risk factor for depression among gay men and lesbians. The aim of the study was to test whether the internalized homophobia-depression relation was moderated by gender (stronger among gay men compared with lesbians), age (stronger among younger compared with older gay men and lesbians), and place of residence (stronger among gay men and lesbians who live in rural areas compared with those who live in urban areas). An Australian sample of 311 self-identified gay men and 570 self-identified lesbians, aged 18 to 70 years, completed the Internalized Homophobia Scale and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results indicated that age and gender did not moderate the internalized homophobia-depressive symptoms relation. Place of residence was a significant moderator for gay men but not lesbians. In contrast to the hypothesis, the internalized homophobia-depression relation was significant only among gay men who resided in urban areas. Those who work with gay men should be particularly aware of the significant relationship between internalized homophobia and depressive symptoms among gay men who reside in urban areas.

  1. Homophobia and racism experienced by Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: correlates of exposure and associations with HIV risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuko; Borkowf, Craig; Millett, Gregorio A; Bingham, Trista; Ayala, George; Stueve, Ann

    2012-04-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected from 1081 Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited with respondent-driven sampling (RDS) techniques from Los Angeles and New York, we examined the extent to which Latino MSM reported exposure to social discrimination (i.e., experienced both homophobia and racism, homophobia only, racism only, or neither homophobia nor racism). More than 40% of respondents experienced both homophobia and racism in the past 12 months. Los Angeles participants, those with lower income, and those who reported being HIV-positive were more likely to report experiencing both types of social discrimination. Adjusting for potential confounders, men exposed to both homophobia and racism were more likely than men exposed to neither form of discrimination to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse with a casual sex partner (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI, 1.18-3.24) and binge drinking (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI, 1.02-1.98). Our findings suggest the presence of a syndemic of adverse social experiences and call for more intervention research to address both homophobia and racism experienced among Latino MSM in the United States.

  2. The intersection of youth masculinities, decreasing homophobia and class: an ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Mark

    2014-03-01

    This article examines the emergence of progressive attitudes toward homosexuality among working-class boys in a sixth form in the south of England to develop an intersectional analysis of class, youth masculinities and decreasing homophobia. Drawing on three months of ethnographic data collection, I find that working-class male youth intellectualize pro-gay attitudes and that homophobic language is almost entirely absent from the setting. I document the presence of homosocial tactility, as well as the valuing of friendship and emotional closeness. However, these behaviours are less pronounced than documented among middle-class boys, and I use these findings to advance understanding of how class influences the development of inclusive attitudes and behaviours. Inclusive masculinity theory is used to understand these findings, refining the theory and extending it to a new demographic. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  3. Beyond "homophobia": Thinking more clearly about stigma, prejudice, and sexual orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herek, Gregory M

    2015-09-01

    This article addresses the topic of homophobia. Recent events might make it seem as though it is dying out. Hate crimes based on a person's sexual orientation or gender presentation can now be prosecuted by the federal government, even when they occur in states lacking their own hate crime laws. Numerous states have changed their laws to permit same-sex couples to marry, some through the passage of legislation and others through ballot measures. Since the U.S. Supreme Court's 2013 decision overturning part of the Defense of Marriage Act, those marriages have been recognized by the federal government. With the dramatic and relatively rapid turnaround in public opinion, this article focuses on the changes in stigma and issues of sexual prejudice as well. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Internalized Homophobia Scale for Vietnamese Sexual Minority Women (IHVN-W): Conceptualization, factor structure, reliability, and associations with hypothesized correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang Quynh; Poteat, Tonia; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; German, Danielle; Nguyen, Yen Hai; Vu, Loan Kieu-Chau; Nguyen, Nam Thi-Thu; Knowlton, Amy R.

    2016-01-01

    We developed the first Vietnamese internalized homophobia (IH) scale, for use with Vietnamese sexual minority women (SMW). Drawing from existing IH scales in the international literature and based on prior qualitative research about SMW in the Viet Nam context, the scale covers two domains: self-stigma (negative attitudes toward oneself as a sexual minority person) and sexual prejudice (negative attitudes toward homosexuality/same-sex relations in general). Scale items, including items borrowed from existing scales and items based on local expressions, were reviewed and confirmed by members of the target population. Quantitative evaluation used data from an anonymous web-based survey of Vietnamese SMW, including those who identified as lesbian (n=1187), or as bisexual (n=641) and those who were unsure about their sexual identity (n=353). The scale was found to consist of two highly correlated factors reflecting self-stigma (not normal/wholesome and self-reproach and wishing away same-sex sexuality) and one factor reflecting sexual prejudice, and to have excellent internal consistency. Construct validity was evidenced by subscales’ associations with a wide range of hypothesized correlates including perceived sexual stigma, outness, social support, connection to other SMW, relationship quality, psychological well-being, anticipation of heterosexual marriage and endorsement of same-sex marriage legalization. Self-stigma was more strongly associated with psychosocial correlates and sexual prejudice was more associated with endorsement of legal same-sex marriage. The variations in these associations across the hypothesized correlates and across sexual identity groups were consistent with the Minority Stress Model and the IH literature, and exhibited context-specific features, which are discussed. PMID:27007469

  5. Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Susan Stamarski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within Human Resources (HR practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  6. Reverberations of Racism and Sexism Through the Subjective Sexualities of Undergraduate Women of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Alyssa N; Fitz, Caroline C; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2016-01-01

    Young women of color (among others) face both subtle and overt discrimination on a regular basis, but few studies have examined relations between discrimination and sexual outcomes using quantitative tools. We surveyed 154 self-identified undergraduate women of color to examine connections between race- and sex-based discrimination and subjective sexual well-being (i.e., condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction) and also tested whether sexual autonomy mediated these relations. When examined individually, each form of discrimination was related negatively to condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction, such that as women reported more discrimination, they reported poorer sexual well-being. However, when examining both racism and sexism as joint predictors, only racism remained significant and there were no racism × sexism interaction effects. In a path model, sexual autonomy mediated the relation between racism and each measure of subjective sexual well-being; racism was negatively related to sexual autonomy, which in turn was positively related to both condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction. These findings are consistent with the broader literature on the negative impact of discrimination on various aspects of mental and physical health. They also reinforce the position that redressing social inequality is a vital component of promoting individual health.

  7. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S.; Son Hing, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  8. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  9. Help to perpetuate traditional gender roles: Benevolent sexism increases engagement in dependency-oriented cross-gender helping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Kende, Anna; Bareket, Orly; Lazar, Yael

    2016-01-01

    Based on theorizing that helping relations may serve as a subtle mechanism to reinforce intergroup inequality, the present research (N = 1,315) examined the relation between benevolent sexism (i.e., a chivalrous yet subtly oppressive view of women) and helping. In cross-gender interactions, the endorsement of (Studies 1, 3, and 4) or exposure to (Study 2) benevolent sexism predicted (a) men's preference to provide women with dependency-oriented help (i.e., direct assistance) rather than tools for autonomous coping, and (b) women's preference to seek dependency-oriented help rather than tools for autonomous coping. Benevolent sexism did not predict men's and women's engagement in dependency-oriented helping relations in same-gender interactions. Studies 1 and 2 examined behavioral intentions in response to a series of hypothetical scenarios; Studies 3 and 4 examined actual behavior in tests of mathematical and logical ability, and pointed to assumed partner's expectations as a potential mediator. The converging evidence supports the hypothesis that benevolent sexism encourages engagement in cross-gender helping relations that perpetuate traditional gender roles. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  11. Medical Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine philosophical stances underpinning medical identity and assess the conceptual relationship between physician, medical practice and culture. Argument: Medical identity is about the ideals and moral positions that physicians take when justifying themselves. Medical identity...... hedonistic versus sentimentalist approaches to medical identity. The sociocultural philosophical analysis of medical identity can shed light on what it means conceptually for a physician to harbor beliefs associated with him/her being taken to be an autonomous professional. It is important because it touches...... on the meaning of being a compassionate, good and skilled physician, making its relevance to person-centered medicine self-evident. Conclusion: Medical identity should be analyzed with reference to literature, philosophy and medical practice in order for the physician to exercise a reflective position...

  12. Identity paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers paradoxical nature of identity that emerges from: 1 the very concept of identity whose abstract generality unites various and even opposite features; 2 the processual nature of reality that is easier to express in the poetical metaphors or abstract principles than in unambiguous conceptual networks; 3 the oppose relationship between being and knowledge, mind and matter, subject and object, self and personality. Entangled in the labyrinth which evade efforts to be conceptually defined, the modern thinking of identity moves towards abandoning the idea of “self” on behalf of the “ego” and towards the misapprehension of identity as being identical. This corresponds to the “time of the lost spirit” stretched between the simultaneous need to find an identity and to give it up.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and Controlling Behavior Among Male Same-Sex Relationships in China: Relationship With Ambivalent Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Diandian; Zheng, Lijun

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we examined intimate partner violence (IPV), cold violence, and controlling behaviors in male same-sex relationships in China, with a focus on the characteristics of IPV and controlling behaviors, and their relationships with ambivalent sexism. IPV was categorized as psychological aggression, physical injury, physical assault, and sexual coercion and was measured using the revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2), an eight-item scale measuring cold violence that was designed specifically for this study. Controlling behaviors were measured using a 34-item scale that was designed for this study, and sexist attitudes toward women and men were assessed using the short forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI) and the Ambivalence toward Men Inventory (AMI), respectively. Participants ( N = 272) reported instances of perpetration of or victimization by IPV and controlling behaviors within the past 6 months and indicated ambivalent sexism (hostile attitude toward men and women and benevolent attitude toward men and women [HM, HS, BM, and BS, respectively]). Almost 47.1% of the participants reported an experience of IPV, and the prevalence of cold violence and controlling behaviors was found to be 65.1% and 80.5%, respectively. Psychological aggression was the most common, followed sequentially by sexual coercion, physical assault, and injury in present study. We found a strong association between perpetration and victimization and that different forms of violence tend to co-occur in both IPV and controlling behaviors. As predicted, ambivalent sexism was positively correlated with IPV and controlling behaviors, specifically HS and HM. The results indicated the high prevalence of IPV and controlling behaviors among male same-sex relationships, and sexism contributing to this high prevalence.

  14. Identity Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Provides information for identity management services on the creation, modification and eventual deletion of accounts and entitlements based on user relationships on...

  15. Identity Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    The study aims at exploring how identity is enacted within the context of a two-year programme in Service, Hospitality, and Tourism Management (SHTM). This research thus investigates how students and educators go about their daily lives in different educational contexts both on and off campus...... as a contribution to the body of literature of ANT-based studies. Second, it contributes to existing identity theories by exemplifying a socio-material approach to identity issues. Third, the study enables reflections upon how educational institutions as fundamentally identity-producing organisations acknowledge...

  16. Civil Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Axel

    In this paper I will go through a catalogue of examples of contexts in which the term civil identity is currently used, ranging from the formal and technical process of linking a set of administrative and other events to an individual biological person by means of identity cards, fingerprints, iris...... of Israel to Luce Irigaray's Feminist agenda of elaborating gender specific civil identities. My intention is to investigate whether these different employments of 'civil identity' point towards a common, and fairly well defined object field asking questions of contemporary relevance to the philosophy...

  17. Homofobia en estudiantes de enfermería Homofobia em estudantes de enfermagem Homophobia among nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La homofobia es una actitud negativa hacia personas homosexuales, frecuente en profesionales de la salud y con implicaciones en la salud pública. Este fenómeno había sido poco estudiado en estudiantes de enfermería. El objetivo fue conocer la prevalencia y las variables asociadas a la homofobia en estudiantes de enfermería. La revisión sistemática fue realizada de los artículos de investigación formal en EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid y ProQuest. Fueron incluidos los artículos publicados entre 1998 y 2008, escritos en español, inglés o portugués. Fueron utilizadas las palabras llave homophobia, homosexuality y nursing students. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo. Se revisaron ocho investigaciones. Entre el 7 y el 16% de los estudiantes presenta algún grado de homofobia. La homofobia es más común en varones y en los religiosos más conservadores. La homofobia es frecuente en estudiantes de enfermería y puede tener implicancias negativas para el ejercicio de la enfermería.A homofobia é uma atitude negativa em relação a pessoas homossexuais, frequente em profissionais da saúde, e com implicações na saúde pública. Este fenômeno havia sido pouco estudado em estudantes de enfermagem. O objetivo foi conhecer a prevalência e variáveis associadas à homofobia em estudantes de enfermagem. A revisão sistemática foi realizada nos artigos de pesquisa formal em EBSCO, Imbiomed, LILACS, MEDLINE, Ovid e ProQuest. Foram incluídos os artigos publicados entre 1998 e 2008, escritos em espanhol, inglês ou português. Foram utilizadas as palavras-chave homophobia, homosexuality e nursing students. Uma análise descritiva foi realizada. Oito pesquisas foram revisadas. Entre 7% e 16% dos estudantes apresenta algum grau de homofobia. A homofobia é mais comum em homens e nos religiosos mais conservadores. A homofobia é frequente em estudantes de enfermagem, e pode ter implicações negativas para o exercício da enfermagem.Homophobia

  18. "She deserved it": Effects of sexism norms, type of violence, and victim's pre-assault behavior on blame attributions toward female victims and approval of the aggressor's behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Sabrina; Eyssel, Friederike; Bohner, Gerd

    2014-04-01

    Effects of ambivalent sexism, sexism norms, victim behavior, and type of violence on male students' reactions to male violence against women in intimate relationships were examined. Participants judged a scenario depicting an act of sexual or non-sexual violence against a female partner who had either shown overtly sexual or non-sexual behavior toward another man. Generally, high (vs. low) hostile sexism, high (vs. low) hostile sexism norm feedback, and victim's overtly sexual (vs. non-sexual) behavior led to stronger victim blame and perceived approval of the aggressor's behavior. The victim of non-sexual violence was blamed more than the rape victim, particularly if she had behaved in an overtly sexual manner.

  19. Bridging Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaux, Kay; Burke, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Sociology and psychology are no strangers in the theoretical world of self and identity. Early works by William James (1890), a psychologist, and George Herbert Mead (1934), a sociologist, are often taken as a starting point by investigators in both fields. In more recent years, with the development of a number of identity theories in both fields,…

  20. Brand Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John

    1998-01-01

    Instead of differentiating themselves by building "brand identities," colleges and universities often focus on competing with price. As a result, fewer and fewer institutions base their identities on value, the combination of quality and price. Methods of building two concepts to influence customers' brand image and brand loyalty are…

  1. Ritual Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Beek, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Rituals are often used as opportunities for self-reflection and identity construction. The Camino to Santiago de Compostela, which has become a singularly popular pilgrimage since the late 1980s, is an example of a ritual that is explicitly used to gain a deeper understanding of one’s identity

  2. Organizational Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo; Schultz, Majken

    This text presents the classic works on organizational identity alongside more current thinking on the issues. Ranging from theoretical contributions to empirical studies, the readings in this volume address the key issues of organizational identity, and show how these issues have developed through...

  3. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...

  4. Homophobia: An Impulsive Attraction to the Same Sex? Evidence From Eye-Tracking Data in a Picture-Viewing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheval, Boris; Radel, Remi; Grob, Emmanuelle; Ghisletta, Paolo; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Chanal, Julien

    2016-05-01

    Some models suggest that homophobia can be explained as a denied attraction toward same-sex individuals. While it has been found that homophobic men have same-sex attraction, these results are not consistent. This study drew on the dual-process models to test the assumption that sexual interest in homosexual cues among men high in homophobia will depend on their specific impulses toward homosexual-related stimuli. Heterosexual men (N = 38) first completed a scale measuring their level of homonegativity. Then, they performed a manikin task to evaluate their impulsive approach tendencies toward homosexual stimuli (IAHS). A picture-viewing task was performed with simultaneous eye-tracking recording to assess participants' viewing time of the visual area of interest (i.e., face and body). IAHS positively predicted the viewing time of homosexual photographs among men with a high score of homonegativity. Men with a high homonegativity score looked significantly longer at homosexual than at heterosexual photographs but only when they had a high IAHS. These findings confirm the importance of considering the variability in impulsive processes to understand why some (but not all) men high in homophobia have homosexual interest. These findings reinforce the theoretical basis for elaborating a dual-process model for behaviors in the sexual context. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Trends in attitudes toward people living with HIV, homophobia, and HIV transmission knowledge in Quebec, Canada (1996, 2002, and 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrien, Alix; Beaulieu, Marianne; Leaune, Viviane; Perron, Michèle; Dassa, Clément

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PWHIV) face negative attitudes that isolate and discourage them from accessing services. Understanding negative attitudes and the social environment can lead to more effective health promotion strategies and programs. However, a scale to measure attitudes has been lacking. We developed and validated attitudes toward PWHIV Scale to examine trends in attitudes toward PWHIV in Quebec in 1996, 2002, and 2010. We also examined the relationship between negative attitudes toward PWHIV, homophobia, and knowledge about HIV transmission. The scale included 16 items and had a five-factor structure: F1 (fear of being infected), F2 (fear of contact with PWHIV), F3 (prejudicial beliefs toward groups at high risk of HIV), F4 (tolerance regarding sexual mores and behaviors), and F5 (social support for PWHIV). The validity and reliability of the scale were assessed and found to be high. Overall, Quebecers had positive attitudes toward PWHIV, with more negative attitudes observed in subgroups defined as male, ≥50 years of age, homophobia, and below-average knowledge about HIV transmission. Scores were stable between 1996 and 2002, and increased in 2010. Negative attitudes were correlated with higher levels of homophobia and lesser knowledge about HIV transmission. The lowest scores for each factor were observed in the same subgroups that had low overall scores on the Attitudes Scale. The findings from this study can be used to intensify interventions that promote compassion for PWHIV, address attitudes toward homosexuality, and encourage greater knowledge about the transmission of HIV in these subgroups.

  6. Fashioning Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    We dress to communicate who we are, or who we would like others to think we are, telling seductive fashion narratives through our adornment. Yet, today, fashion has been democratized through high-low collaborations, social media and real-time fashion mediation, complicating the basic dynamic...... of identity displays, and creating tension between personal statements and social performances. Fashioning Identity explores how this tension is performed through fashion production and consumption,by examining a diverse series of case studies - from ninety-year old fashion icons to the paradoxical rebellion...... by readdressing Fred Davis' seminal concept of 'identity ambivalence' in Fashion, Culture and Identity (1992), Mackinney-Valentin argues that we are in an epoch of 'status ambivalence', in which fashioning one's own identity has become increasingly complicated....

  7. Developing a community-level anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention in new York city: The project CHHANGE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paige, Mark Q; Gordon, Steven; Matthews, David; Musgrave, Geneva; Kornegay, Mark; Greene, Emily; Phelan, Jo C; Koblin, Beryl A; Taylor-Akutagawa, Vaughn

    2017-08-01

    HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia are associated with significant negative health and social outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and those at risk of infection. Interventions to decrease HIV stigma have focused on providing information and education, changing attitudes and values, and increasing contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), activities that act to reduce stereotyped beliefs and prejudice, as well as acts of discrimination. Most anti-homophobia interventions have focused on bullying reduction and have been implemented at the secondary and post-secondary education levels. Few interventions address HIV stigma and homophobia and operate at the community level. Project CHHANGE, Challenge HIV Stigma and Homophobia and Gain Empowerment, was a community-level, multi-component anti-HIV/AIDS stigma and homophobia intervention designed to reduce HIV stigma and homophobia thus increasing access to HIV prevention and treatment access. The theory-based intervention included three primary components: workshops and trainings with local residents, businesses and community-based organizations (CBO); space-based events at a CBO-partner drop-in storefront and "pop-up" street-based events and outreach; and a bus shelter ad campaign. This paper describes the intervention design process, resultant intervention and the study team's experiences working with the community. We conclude that CHHANGE was feasible and acceptable to the community. Promoting the labeling of gay and/or HIV-related "space" as a non-stigmatized, community resource, as well as providing opportunities for residents to have contact with targeted groups and to understand how HIV stigma and homophobia relate to HIV/AIDS prevalence in their neighborhood may be crucial components of successful anti-stigma and discrimination programming. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Identity Management

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with its implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user’s privacy when completed traceability is enforced and some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  9. Identity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, A [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN.

  10. Identity management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces identity management concepts and discusses various issues associated with their implementation. It will try to highlight technical, legal, and social aspects that must been foreseen when defining the numerous processes that an identity management infrastructure must support. Grid interoperability as well as cross platform interoperability is addressed on the technical aspect, followed by a short discussion on social consequences on user's privacy when completed traceability is enforced. The paper will finally give some examples on how identity management has been implemented at CERN

  11. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  12. Design and psychometric properties of The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexism-12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Díaz Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Sexual Machism Scale (EMS-Sexismo-12 evaluates in both men and women, sexism levels that could result in sexual health risk behaviors. Nowadays there is no Sexual Machism Scale. The analyses were made with 79 participants, 43 men and 36 women, with ages that go from 11 to 76 years. Originally 24 items were elaborated, however exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis guided the reduction of the scale. It is achieved to obtain a brief and precise scale (12 items, 0.91 alpha with only one factor that explains 98.1% of its variance and adequate goodness of fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. We also analyzed differences between men and women founding higher scores in men than in women.

  13. Benevolent Ideology and Women's Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men's Wallet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Silvestre

    Full Text Available Can ideology, as a widespread "expectation creator," impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women on women's economic decision-making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2's Generalized Linear Mixed Model's results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women's endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape male-female relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men.

  14. [Violence and sexism in television cartoons for children. Analysis of the contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto Rodríguez, M A; March Cerdá, J C; Argente del Castillo, A

    1996-04-15

    To detect features of violence and sexism in cartoons in the children's programmes of Spanish television companies. Analysis of the content of cartoons broadcast by TV-1, TV-2, Canal Sur, Antena 3 and Tele 5 during one week. The programmes recorded were viewed by two independent observers, first separately and then together. All those scenes with violent contents or sexist messages were noted. The main findings were: a) violent contents were very common; b) roles and jobs linked to gender were found; c) advertising accompanied and was inserted within children's programming. The points identified show the need for both school and family to encourage children to develop a critical attitude to the messages they receive.

  15. Benevolent Ideology and Women's Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men's Wallet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Aude; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne; Dardenne, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Can ideology, as a widespread "expectation creator," impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women's economic decision-making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2's Generalized Linear Mixed Model's results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women's endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape male-female relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men.

  16. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: the role of insecurity and benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrasin, Oriane; Fasel, Nicole; Green, Eva G T; Helbling, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals' sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat), Experiment 1 (n = 142) showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile-as measured with benevolent sexism items-related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181) showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: on the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions-that is, more positive attitudes-among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters.

  17. When sexual threat cues shape attitudes toward immigrants: The role of insecurity and benevolent sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriane eSarrasin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on psychological and political science research on individuals’ sensitivity to threat cues, the present study examines reactions to political posters that depict male immigrants as a sexual danger. We expect anti-immigrant attitudes to be more strongly predicted by feelings of insecurity or representations of men and women as strong and fragile, when individuals are exposed to sexual threat cues than when they are not. Results from two online experiments conducted in Switzerland and Germany largely confirmed these assumptions. Comparing two anti-immigrant posters (general and non-sexual threat vs. sexual threat, Experiment 1 (n = 142 showed that feelings of insecurity were related to an increased support for expelling immigrants from the host country in both cases. However, only in the sexual threat cues condition and among female participants, were perceptions of women as fragile—as measured with benevolent sexism items—related to support for expelling immigrants. Further distinguishing between different forms of violence threat cues, Experiment 2 (n = 181 showed that collective feelings of insecurity were most strongly related to support for expelling immigrants when a male immigrant was presented as a violent criminal. In contrast, benevolent sexist beliefs were related to anti-immigrant stances only when participants were exposed to a depiction of a male immigrant as a rapist. In both cases attitudes were polarized: On the one hand, representations of immigrants as criminals provoked reactance reactions—that is, more positive attitudes—among participants scoring low in insecurity feelings or benevolent sexism. On the other hand, those scoring high in these dimensions expressed slightly more negative attitudes. Overall, by applying social psychological concepts to the study of anti-immigrant political campaigning, the present study demonstrated that individuals are sensitive to specific threat cues in posters.

  18. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  19. Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, Martin; Gervais, Jesse; Hébert, Martine

    2014-03-01

    Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.

  20. Internalized homophobia as a partial mediator between homophobic bullying and self-esteem among youths of sexual minorities in Quebec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Blais

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Verbal/psychological homophobic bullying is widespread among youths of sexual minorities. Homophobic bullying has been associated with both high internalized homophobia and low self-esteem. The objectives were to document verbal/psychological homophobic bullying among youths of sexual minorities and model the relationships between homophobic bullying, internalized homophobia and self-esteem. A community sample of 300 youths of sexual minorities aged 14 to 22 years old was used. A structural equation model was tested using a nonlinear, robust estimator implemented in Mplus. The model postulated that homophobic bullying impacts self-esteem both directly and indirectly, via internalized homophobia. 60.7% of the sample reported at least one form of verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model explained 29% of the variance of self-esteem, 19.6% of the variance of internalized homophobia and 5.3% of the verbal/psychological homophobic bullying. The model suggests that the relationship between verbal/psychological homophobic bullying and self-esteem is partially mediated by internalized homophobia. The results underscore the importance of initiatives to prevent homophobic bullying in order to prevent its negative effects on the well-being of youths of sexual minorities.

  1. Identity, identity politics, and neoliberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrenn Mary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the intensification of neoliberalism, it is useful to examine how some individuals might cope with the irrationality of the system. Neoliberalism cloaks the execution of the corporate agenda behind rhetorical manipulation that advocates for limited government. The corollary absence of government involvement on behalf of the citizenry writ large disarms the means of social redress for the individual. Democracy funded and fueled by corporate power thereby disenfranchises the individual, provoking some to search for empowerment through identity politics. The argument set forth suggests that individuals construct, reinforce, or escalate allegiance to identities as a coping mechanism, some of which manifest in violent identity politics.

  2. Sexism within anatomy as perceived by professional anatomists and in comparison with the perceptions of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2016-10-01

    Two hundred and eight professional anatomists responded to a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval for the study was obtained from Cardiff University. The results of the survey provided comparisons with the attitudes of medical students that have previously been reported (Morgan et al., 2014). Although a few differences were discerned between females and males in our surveys and between anatomists and medical students, overall our findings suggest that, while both professional anatomists and medical students recognize the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. We recommend that teachers of anatomy should become more aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. Clin. Anat. 29:892-910, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Two Sets of Business Cards: Responses of Chinese Immigrant Women Entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia to Sexism and Racism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Chiang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing entrepreneurial discourses have been dominated by white middle-class androcentric approach, giving little space to the discussions of racism and sexism experienced by minority women entrepreneurs. This paper aims to fill this gap through an examination of the experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs in Canada and Australia using an intersectional approach. The key research question addressed in the paper is to what extent, and in what ways, do racism and sexism impact on the entrepreneurial experiences of Asian immigrant women entrepreneurs and what strategies do they use in managing discrimination to protect themselves and their businesses? Four main strategies were derived from our findings, namely, creating a comfortable niche, playing the mainstream card, swallowing the pain, and resisting.

  4. Sexual diversity and homophobia: a “disarrangement” culture in public educational policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Batista de Oliveira Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels resulting from the disqualification of “compulsory heteronormativity” process that focus on Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, Bigenders, Transvestites, Transsexuals, Transgenders, Queers, Questioners, Intersexes, Indecisives, Asexuals and Allies people emerge in several instances. As a dialog agent, the school has been characterized asa strategic place to implement public policies and, in this context, emerge actions as the School without Homophobia and Health and Prevention in School programs. In order to promote the discussion on strategies developed in the national scenario, it is discussed its products: Gay Kit, Adolescents and Youth Peer Education Guide and Comic Books. Using bibliographical research as a methodology, excerpts of a master’s thesis are used so as to bring the theory of Cultural Studies as a mainstay of discourse. Given the government’s suspension of these materials, one realizes how difficult it is to stand up against public opinion. However, the refusal of the majority does not give the State the right to withhold basic rights of minorities.

  5. Homophobia is associated with sexual behavior that increases risk of acquiring and transmitting HIV infection among black men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, William L; Marks, Gary; Lauby, Jennifer; Murrill, Christopher S; Millett, Gregorio A

    2013-05-01

    We investigated whether the experience of homophobic events increases the odds of engaging in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among black men who have sex with men (MSM) and whether social integration level buffered the association. Participants (N = 1,154) reported homophobic events experienced in the past 12 months. Social integration measures included social support, closeness with family members and friends, attachment to the black gay community, openness about sexuality within religious communities, and MSM social network size. Logistic regression analyses indicated that experiencing homophobia was associated with (1) UAI among men not previously diagnosed with HIV and (2) sexual HIV transmission risk behavior among men who knew they were HIV-infected. None of the social integration measures buffered these associations. Homophobia may promote acquisition and transmission of HIV infection among black MSM. Interventions are needed to reduce homophobia experienced by black MSM.

  6. "Not Brain-washed, but Heart-washed": A Qualitative Analysis of Benevolent Sexism in the Anti-Choice Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Kari N; Lawson, Karen L

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, anti-choice dialog has shifted from a focus on the fetus to a focus on the woman. This new movement constructs itself as positive and pro-woman, while perpetuating harmful stereotypes about women and the effects of abortion. Research has shown a relationship between benevolent sexism (beliefs that women are morally pure creatures in need of protection and nurturing) and restrictive attitudes towards abortion, although no research has qualitatively explored this relationship. The present study seeks to explore this by interpreting the content of one-on-one interviews with Canadian individuals holding an anti-choice stance through the theoretical framework of benevolent sexism. Thematic analysis of the interviews revealed three main themes: (1) protective paternalism, (2) complementary gender differentiation, and (3) the categorization of women. These themes connect strongly with benevolent sexism, providing evidence that abortion is still a stigmatized procedure. This stigma has shifted from viewing women who have abortions in an overtly negative way to viewing them as pitiable and poor decision makers.

  7. And She Wrote Backwards: Same-Sex Love, Gender and Identity in Shani Mootoo’s work and her recent Valmiki’s Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissy Helff

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the representation of love, gender and national identity in Shani Mootoo’s creative work in general and her most recent novel Valmiki’s Daughter (2008 in particular. In all her work, Mootoo describes the phenomenon of otherness as a part of the negotiating process of the protagonists' selves.Challenging xenophobia, homophobia and all forms of prejudices the author works with the concept of lesbian and bisexual love, cross-racial relationships in order to write identity and to create a home.

  8. Sexismo ambivalente hacia hombres: Un estudio exploratorio con adolescentes mexicanos (Ambivalent Sexism Towards Men: An Exploratory Study with Mexican Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Alexis Arenas-Rojas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El sexismo ambivalente hacia las mujeres ha sido investigado con mayor frecuencia en comparación con las actitudes sexistas hostiles y benevolentes hacia los hombres. Por ello en esta investigación se exploran las actitudes ambivalentes hacia hombres en adolescentes mexicanos. Método: Estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo donde cuarenta y tres mujeres y treinta siete hombres, con edades comprendidas entre 12 y 19 años (M=16.61, DT=1.20, contestaron el Inventario de Sexismo Ambivalente hacia Hombres. Resultados: El análisis estadístico mostró que los chicos obtuvieron mayores niveles de sexismo benevolente hacia el hombre, mientras que en el sexismo hostil no se obtuvieron diferencias significativas entre hombres y mujeres. Conclusiones: Desde una perspectiva de género inclusiva es pertinente continuar con el estudio del sexismo hacia las mujeres y los hombres con el fin de entender las dinámicas subyacentes en la discriminación hacia ambos sexos. Por lo tanto, las actitudes hacia los hombres no deben ser consideradas como un tema de investigación irrelevante. Abstract: The ambivalent sexism towards women has been investigated more frequently in comparison of the hostile and benevolent attitudes toward men. Thus, this research explores the ambivalent attitudes toward men in Mexican adolescents. Method: It is a descriptive, transversal and quantitative study. Forty-three women and thirty-seven men, aged between 12 and 19 years (M=16.61, SD=1.20, answered Inventory Ambivalent Sexism towards men. Results: Statistical analysis showed that boys had higher levels of benevolent sexism towards men; while in hostile sexism no significant differences between men and women were obtained. Conclusions: From a gender inclusive perspective is pertinent to continue with the study of sexism towards women and men in order to understand the underlying dynamics discrimination towards both sexes. Thus, the attitudes toward men should not

  9. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  10. [Identity theft

    CERN Multimedia

    Wolinksy, H

    2003-01-01

    "A new survey by the Federal Trade Commission indicates that over the last five years one in four American households has been hit by identity theft, which can result in thieves tapping their victims' credit cards or bank accounts" (1 page).

  11. Designer's Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunrath, Kamila; Cash, Philip; Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    A designer’s professional identity (DPI) develops through both education and professional experience, building on core personality traits and innate skills. In this paper a systematic literature review and a secondary narrative review were developed in order to map personal attributes and design...

  12. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social...

  13. Minding the gap between feminist identity and attitudes: the behavioral and ideological divide between feminists and non-labelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Alyssa N; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2010-12-01

    Sexism persists in the contemporary United States and has deleterious effects on women and girls. This suggests that feminism--as a movement, a set of attitudes, or an explicit identity--is still warranted. Although feminist attitudes may buffer against the effects of sexism, notably in health domains, we suggest that there may be an ideological divide between those who hold such attitudes while rejecting the identity (non-labelers) and self-identified feminists. Non-labelers engage in less collective action on behalf of women's rights. On the basis of survey responses of 276 college students, non-labelers appear to be self-interested. We argue that disentangling attitudes from identity is crucial for sharpening predictions about the relation of feminism to other psychological and behavioral variables, and for engaging in broader social change. Furthermore, understanding whether non-labelers' rejection of feminist identity is rooted in fear of stigma associated with the label, neoliberal beliefs, or other explanations is important to those organizing for reform. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2010, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Between queerpos and speeches: standardization of conducts, homosexualities and homophobia in the practices of School Physical Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Matias do Prado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in the queers studies, this article aims to discuss the tagging social process standardization of conducts, repudiation of homosexuality and construction of homophobia through some school practices of Physical Education. From reports generated by semi-structured interviews, it was possible to infer that, from the curriculum, sports are mobilized for the construction and maintenance of a representation of masculinity that subjugates and ranks other expressions of existence. In this relational game, students who do not fit (or will not fit to the hegemonic models are targets of constant derogatory demarcations, which aim to establish a difference that “is read” socially as “abnormal”.

  15. 'Even though it's a small checkbox, it's a big deal': stresses and strains of managing sexual identity(s) on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jennifer D; McClelland, Sara I

    2015-01-01

    Facebook offers a socialisation context in which young people from ethnic, gender and sexual minorities must continually manage the potential for prejudice and discrimination in the form of homophobia and racism. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight young women, aged 16-19 years, who self-identified as queer and as women of colour. A detailed analysis of these interviews--focusing in particular on how young people described navigating expectations of rejection from family and friends--offered insight into the psychological and health consequences associated with managing sexual identity(s) while online. The 'closet' ultimately takes on new meaning in this virtual space: participants described trying to develop social relationships within Facebook, which demands sharing one's thoughts, behaviours and ideas, while also hiding and silencing their emerging sexuality. In this 'virtual closet', tempering self-presentation to offset social exclusion has become a continuous, yet personally treacherous, activity during the daily practice of using Facebook.

  16. [A Brief Homophobia Scale in Medical Students From Two Universities: Results of A Refinement Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    The process of evaluating measurement scales is an ongoing procedure that requires revisions and adaptations according to the characteristics of the participants. The Homophobia Scale of seven items (EHF-7) has showed acceptable performance in medical students attending to two universities in Colombia. However, performance of some items was poor and could be removed, with an improvement in the psychometric findings of items retained. To review the psychometric functioning and refine the content of EHF-7 among medical students from two Colombian universities. A group of 667 students from the first to tenth semester participated in the research. Theirs ages were between 18 and 34 (mean, 20.9±2.7) years-old, and 60.6% were females. Cronbach alpha (α) and omega of McDonald (Ω) were calculated as indicators of reliability and to refine the scale, an exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed. EHF-7 showed α=.793 and Ω=.796 and a main factor that explained 45.2% of the total variance. EFA and CFA suggested the suppression of three items. The four-item version (EHF-4) reached an α=.770 and Ω=.775, with a single factor that accounted for 59.7% of the total variance. CFA showed better indexes (χ 2 =3.622; df=1; P=.057; Root-mean-square error of approximation (RMSEA)=.063, 90% CI, .000-.130; Comparative Fit Indices (CFI)=.998; Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI)=.991). EHF-4 shows high internal consistency and a single dimension that explains more than 50% of the total variance. Further studies are needed to confirm these observations, that can be taken as preliminary. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. El papel de la cultura del honor, del sexismo y de los celos en la respuesta a la infidelidad de la pareja (The role of culture of honour, sexism and jealousy in response to partner infidelity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús María Canto Ortiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether a culture of honour, sexism and jealousy influenced the type of infidelity (sexual or emotional experienced by the participants. A total of 170 university students (80 men and 90 women participated. They responded to six dilemmas indicating which type of infidelity most affected them (sexual or emotional using a culture of honour scale, a sexism inventory and a jealousy scale. There were differences between men and women only in two dilemmas. The influence of a culture of honour, hostile sexism, benevolent sexism and jealousy on sexual and emotional infidelity was analyzed. Women who scored high on a culture of honour, benevolent sexism and jealousy were those who felt most affected by sexual infidelity.

  18. Essentialist beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, James S; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Ross, Michael W; Costa, Daniel S J; Dar-Nimrod, Ilan

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined essentialist beliefs about sexual orientation and their implications for sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing in a sample of gay men. A combination of targeted sampling and snowball strategies were used to recruit 639 gay identifying men for a cross-sectional online survey. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sexual orientation beliefs, sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity, and psychological wellbeing outcomes. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether essentialist beliefs were associated with psychological wellbeing indirectly via their effect on sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity. A unique pattern of direct and indirect effects was observed in which facets of essentialism predicted sexual identity uncertainty, internalized homonegativity and psychological wellbeing. Of note, viewing sexual orientation as immutable/biologically based and as existing in discrete categories, were associated with less sexual identity uncertainty. On the other hand, these beliefs had divergent relationships with internalized homonegativity, with immutability/biological beliefs associated with lower, and discreteness beliefs associated with greater internalized homonegativity. Of interest, although sexual identity uncertainty was associated with poorer psychological wellbeing via its contribution to internalized homophobia, there was no direct relationship between identity uncertainty and psychological wellbeing. Findings indicate that essentializing sexual orientation has mixed implications for sexual identity uncertainty and internalized homonegativity and wellbeing in gay men. Those undertaking educational and clinical interventions with gay men should be aware of the benefits and of caveats of essentialist theories of homosexuality for this population. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    , as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  20. Judging the gender of the inanimate: Benevolent sexism and gender stereotypes guide impressions of physical objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Benjamin R

    2017-09-01

    Within a given culture, sexist ideologies and stereotypes are largely characterized by their prescriptive expectations for the types of social and behavioural domains men and women occupy. The activities that take place within these respective domains, however, frequently involve designed, physical artefacts. This study reports a pair of studies that test whether sexist schemas are capable of guiding not only impressions of men and women as social groups, but also their impressions of the inanimate objects associated with these groups. In Study 1, benevolent sexism was found to predict a greater willingness to classify physical objects as being either highly feminine or highly masculine, even when these objects had a neutral rating by the sample as a whole. In Study 2, stereotypes consistent with legitimizing ideologies (i.e., competence and warmth) predicted rating associated objects in complementary ways, in terms of greater liking of feminine objects but greater presumed competence needed for using masculine objects. These results demonstrate how sexist beliefs and attitudes are capable of bleeding into people's impressions of the physical world. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. When Sexism Meets Racism: the 1920 Numerus Clausus Law in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Fenyves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the Hungarian Numerus Clausus edict, introduced in 1920, was aimed at restricting not only the number of Hungarian Jews, but also the number of women in higher education. What is more, university admission policies, often applied beyond the legal framework of this law, reinforced and reproduced the male, nationalist, Christian and conservative hegemony. However, while the Numerus Clausus edict lived on in Hungarian common memory as the first step towards the later introduced anti-Jewish laws and the subsequent extermination of the majority of Hungarian Jews, the consequences of the law regarding women’s exclusion from higher education and thus from the intellectual elite remains mainly unknown to date. Moreover, since “gendered memory” still does not exist in Hungary, there is no way to remember the introduction of the Numerus Clausus law as one of the historical moments that marked women’s place and role in Hungarian society until well after the Second World War and as the symbolic moment when anti-Semitism and sexism met.

  2. Perceptions of Psychological Abuse: The Role of Perpetrator Gender, Victim's Response, and Sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capezza, Nicole M; D'Intino, Lauren A; Flynn, Margaret A; Arriaga, Ximena B

    2017-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that male abuse is more damaging than female abuse, just as it previously has been assumed that physical abuse is more harmful than psychological abuse. We sought to examine gender assumptions given that they may cause people to overlook the harm that men experience with a psychologically abusive partner. The current experiment compared perceptions of male and female perpetrators of psychological abuse, and examined whether gendered perceptions were affected by sexist beliefs or participants' own sex. The experiment also explored the effect of the victim's response to a perpetrator's abuse. College participants ( N = 195) read a scenario depicting a hypothetical marital conflict that manipulated the sex of the perpetrator, the level of abuse (abuse or no abuse), and whether the victim did or did not respond with some aggression. In scenarios that featured abuse (relative to no-abuse conditions), a male perpetrator was consistently perceived more harshly than a female perpetrator. Participant sex and sexism did not moderate this gender-based perception. Varying the victim's response in the scenario affected perceptions more in the no-abuse condition than in the abuse condition. The findings are discussed in terms of robust gender assumptions and the difficulties in challenging such assumptions.

  3. Think manager--think male in adolescents and its relation to sexism and emotions in leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ael, Cristina; Cuadrado, Isabel; Molero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Think manager--think male, this study was conducted to examine the type of leadership role depending on gender in a sample of 158 Spanish adolescents -according to three types of leaders: "male middle leader", "female middle leader" and "middle leader in general". The kind of emotional expression (positive and negative) evoked by their leadership behaviors (task- and relationship- oriented) was also analyzed. Lastly, whether adolescents' sexist beliefs affected the attribution of traits and the emotional expression towards these leaders was examined. Results showed that task-oriented traits were more characteristic of the leadership role than relationship-oriented traits. Adolescents expressed more positive emotions towards a task-oriented leader and towards a leader behaving in ways associated with both task- and relationship- oriented styles, but only for men. Finally, hostile sexism predicted fewer task-oriented traits to female leaders, more negative affect towards task-oriented male leaders and towards counter-stereotypic leaders. These results were moderated by the sex of adolescents.

  4. Analysis of adolescent profiles by gender: strengths, attitudes toward violence and sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, Marta; Blanca, Maria J; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita

    2014-02-20

    The present study analyzes the profiles of boys and girls, considering gender, in the early stages of adolescence in the variables of character strengths, attitudes toward diversity and violence, and sexism. The aim is to explore the gender differences, whether the variables in each set differ from one another and whether these differences are maintained in profiles for boys and girls. The participants were 527 students (mean age = 12.21 and SD = 0.53) from the city of Málaga (Spain). Profile analysis was used to analyze data. The results, using an alpha of 0.0021 for each contrast, indicate that boys and girls differ in their character strengths, particularly in the case of girls, whose prominent strengths relate to pro-social behavior and peer relationships, where Cohen´s d are higher than .30. Moreover, boys justify attitudes of violence to a greater extent (Cohen´s d from .44 to .81) and show greater agreement with sexist beliefs (d = .63). The research suggests that it would be of interest to encourage advancement in character strengths at this age.

  5. Psychosocial Implications of Family and Religious Homophobia: Insights for HIV Combination Prevention among Black Men who have Sex with Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Parker, Caroline; Parker, Richard G.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Philbin, Morgan; Hirsch, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) bear an increasingly disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States. Research demonstrates that psychosocial factors, such as homophobia, are associated with HIV risk. Between June 2013 and May 2014, we conducted three in-depth interviews with each of 31 BMSM and interviews with 17 community stakeholders in New York City to understand the sociocultural and structural factors that may affect adherence to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among BMSM and to inform an adherence clinical trial. BMSM and community leaders frequently described condomless sex as a consequence of psychological factors and economic circumstances stemming from homophobia from families and religious groups. Negative support from social networks affected self-worth, which community stakeholders believed was crucial for men to engage in HIV prevention, such as PrEP. Our results indicate that addressing psychosocial factors and fostering social support are key elements to improve the effectiveness of combination prevention among BMSM. PMID:27037286

  6. Internalized homonegativity/homophobia is associated with HIV-risk behaviours among Ugandan gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M W; Kajubi, P; Mandel, J S; McFarland, W; Raymond, H F

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the relationship of internalized homonegativity/homophobia (IH) to sexual risk behaviours among 216 Ugandan gay and bisexual men, using the 7-item IH scale previously developed on this population. IH was significantly associated with unprotected anal intercourse, and more so with unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Higher IH was also associated with more sex while intoxicated. There was a strong association between anal intercourse of any type and IH, suggesting a complex relationship between anal sex and identification with, or internalization of, homonegativity/homophobia. Specifically, it may be the anal component of sex rather than the sex with another man that is seen as labeling one as homosexual or stigmatizing. Those men who stated that they engaged in sex with other men for love, rather than for the physical feeling or for money, had higher IH scores. These data suggest that there may be an interactive relationship between IH and sexual behaviour, with greater internalization being associated with more stereotypically gay activities, which in turn may lead to more self-identification as gay and thus greater susceptibility to internalization.

  7. [Descriptive study of homophobia and vulnerability to HIV/AIDS of the transvestites in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Patricia Juliana; Ferreira, Luiz Oscar Cardoso; de Sá, Janilson Barros

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to ascertain the vulnerabilities to HIV/Aids of transvestites of the Metropolitan Region of Recife. The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS) method was selected for data collection. Among the 110 transvestites, high indices of homophobia were found in locations such as: security services, work facilities, family and religious environments, neighborhood, school, stores, leisure spaces, and healthcare services. Among the situations of violence experienced, the predominant cases involved verbal aggression (81.8%) and physical aggression (68.2%). The HIV test carried out at some stage in their lives was reported by 84.4% of the subjects. A high level of knowledge of the forms of HIV prevention and transmission was detected. The majority of the transvestites began their sexual activity before 15 years of age without condom use. It was seen that in the context of the HIV/Aids epidemic, the strategies for health promotion can only be effective if factors for enhancing the understanding of the vulnerability to HIV/Aids, such as homophobia, are considered.

  8. Mediating Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette Leonhardt; Morsing, Mette; Ravasi, Davide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a longitudinal field study on the effects of positive media coverage on the reconstruction of organizational identity. The study highlights how intense positive coverage – to the point of turning an organization into a ‘celebrity’– influences both the way members understand...... their organization (sensemaking effect) and the gratification they derive from its positive representation (self-enhancement effect). Our findings suggest that positive media representations foster members' alignment around an emergent new understanding of what their organization is. Over time, however, celebrity...

  9. Unravelling identities

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The decision to go to war by the government of the day is assumed to be a decision taken on behalf of all citizens of the nation, conceived as a collective united by a harmony of interests. Yet in the case of the Iraq War, there is clearly no unified voice of support from the British people. There is division between the state and its citizens, and the latter also reflect the multilayered identities of an increasingly multicultural society. How do individuals displaying mu...

  10. Acceptability of Partner Violence in 51 Societies: The Role of Sexism and Attitudes Toward Violence in Social Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Juan; Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Andrea

    2016-04-27

    Sexist attitudes have been claimed to play an important role in acceptability of intimate partner violence (IPV). Empirical evidence suggests that sexist individuals are also more accepting of violence in social relationships than non-sexist individuals. Results from multilevel regression models of data from 72,730 respondents of 51 countries around the world showed that (a) both sexism and acceptability of general violence in social relationships were positively related to acceptability of IPV and (b) the highest levels of acceptability of IPV were found among those sexist individuals who also present positive attitudes toward the use of violence in social relationships. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. The Role of Individual Differences and Situational Variables in the Use of Workplace Sexual Identity Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Louren; Leuty, Melanie E

    2016-07-01

    Examination of individual difference variables have been largely ignored within research on the use of workplace sexual identity management strategies. The current study examined personality traits (extraversion, openness, and neuroticism), facets of sexual identity development (identity confusion, internalized heterosexism), and situational variables (e.g., perceptions of workplace climate and heterosexism) in explaining the use of management strategies, as well as possible interactions between individual and situational factors. Perceptions of the workplace climate toward lesbian and gay individuals significantly related to the use each of the management strategies, and Internalized Heterosexism was found to significantly predict the use of the Explicitly Out strategy. Most interactions between individual difference and situational variables were not supported, with the exception of an interaction between workplace heterosexism and internalized homophobia in explaining the use of the Explicitly Out strategy.

  12. Federated Identity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. This paper addresses the topic of federated identity management. It discusses in detail the following topics: what is digital identity, what is identity management, what is federated identity management, Kim Camerons 7 Laws of Identity, how can we protect the users privacy in a federated environment, levels of assurance, some past and present federated identity management systems, and some current research in FIM.

  13. Benevolent Sexism, Attitudes Toward Motherhood, and Reproductive Rights: A Multi-Study Longitudinal Examination of Abortion Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanshu; Davies, Paul G; Sibley, Chris G; Osborne, Danny

    2016-07-01

    Although Benevolent Sexism (BS)-an ideology that highly reveres women who conform to traditional gender roles-is cloaked in a superficially positive tone, being placed upon a pedestal is inherently restrictive. Accordingly, because the paternalistic beliefs associated with BS are based on the idealization of traditional gender roles (which include motherhood), BS should predict people's attitudes toward women's reproductive rights. Using data from a nationwide longitudinal panel study (N = 12,299), Study 1 showed that BS (but not Hostile Sexism) had cross-lagged effects on opposition to both elective and traumatic abortion. Study 2 (N = 309) extended these findings by showing that the relationship between BS and support for abortion was fully mediated by attitudes toward motherhood. These results highlight the pernicious nature of BS by demonstrating that the idealization of women-and motherhood, in particular-comes at a substantial cost (namely, the restriction of women's reproductive rights). © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  14. From seduction to sexism: Feminists challenge the ethics of therapist-client sexual relations in 1970s america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Susanna; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Before the 1970s, psychologists and other mental health professionals who had sex with their patients committed no ethical violations. Indeed, the line between seduction and sexual exploitation in the therapy hour was extremely blurry to patients and therapists alike. This article is about how that changed. We focus on feminist psychologists' efforts, through the American Psychological Association Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice, to document and reduce sexism in psychotherapy, including that involving therapist-client sexual relations. We contextualize these efforts within the larger feminist critique of the psy-disciplines that began in the late 1960s, highlighting how psychologists used several feminist strategies to recast seduction as sexism and revise the profession's ethical standards to specifically state that sexual intimacies with clients are unethical. As an example of a feminist intervention into psychology's-and society's-extant gender ideologies, this process highlights the mutually reinforcing entanglements of psychology and feminism, both methodologically and politically. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  16. Contact with Counter-Stereotypical Women Predicts Less Sexism, Less Rape Myth Acceptance, Less Intention to Rape (in Men) and Less Projected Enjoyment of Rape (in Women).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschler, Miriam; West, Keon

    2017-01-01

    Intergroup contact-(positive) interactions with people from different social groups-is a widely researched and strongly supported prejudice-reducing mechanism shown to reduce prejudice against a wide variety of outgroups. However, no known previous research has investigated whether intergroup contact can also reduce sexism against women. Sexism has an array of negative outcomes. One of the most detrimental and violent ones is rape, which is both justified and downplayed by rape myth acceptance. We hypothesised that more frequent, higher quality contact with counter-stereotypical women would predict lower levels of sexism and thus less rape myth acceptance (in men) and less sexualised projected responses to rape (in women). Two studies using online surveys with community samples supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, 170 male participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less intention to rape. Similarly, in Study 2, 280 female participants who experienced more positive contact with counter-stereotypical women reported less projected sexual arousal at the thought of being raped. Thus, the present research is the first known to show that contact could be a potential tool to combat sexism, rape myth acceptance, intentions to rape in men, and sexualisation of rape by women.

  17. Modern Sexism and Preference for a Coach among Select National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Female Athletes: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Nancy Jo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods research study was to examine the relationship of modern sexism to a female athlete's preference for a coach based on the sex of the coach. Female athletes (N = 155) from one National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Northeastern United States participated in the…

  18. Options in Education: Program No. 88. Sex and Sexism in Education, Part II. Transcripts of a Weekly Series Broadcast by Member Stations of National Public Radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Public Radio, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is a transcription of a program from the radio series, "Options in Education." It is part 2 of a two-part series dealing with sexism in education. It deals with sex discrimination in various aspects of public education, including textbooks, teacher promotion, sports programs and children's literature. There is also a…

  19. It gets better: resolution of internalized homophobia over time and associations with positive health outcomes among MSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron; Chmiel, Joan S; Guadamuz, Thomas E; Penniman, Typhanye; Shoptaw, Steven; Ostrow, David; Plankey, Michael W

    2013-05-01

    Health disparities research among gay and bisexual men has focused primarily on risk and deficits. However, a focus on resiliencies within this population may greatly benefit health promotion. We describe a pattern of resilience (internalized homophobia (IHP) resolution) over the life-course and its associations with current health outcomes. 1,541 gay and bisexual men from the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort study, an ongoing prospective study of the natural and treated histories of HIV, completed a survey about life-course events thought to be related to health. The majority of men resolved IHP over time independent of demographics. Men who resolved IHP had significantly higher odds of positive health outcomes compared to those who did not. These results provide evidence of resilience among participants that is associated with positive health outcomes. Understanding resiliencies and incorporating them into interventions may help to promote health and well-being among gay and bisexual men.

  20. 'Triply cursed': racism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence and disclosure among young Black gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.

  1. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and 9 service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community, and from friends within the Black gay community, that otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with their alienation and rejection. PMID:24784224

  2. Investigating the influence of shame, depression, and distress tolerance on the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating in lesbian and bisexual women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Vanessa; Robert-McComb, Jacalyn J; Clopton, James R; Reich, Darcy A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited research evidence about the specific factors influencing disordered eating for lesbian and bisexual women. Therefore, this study investigated relationships among binge eating, internalized homophobia, shame, depression, and distress tolerance in a sample of lesbian (n=72) and bisexual women (n=66). Two hypotheses were tested. First, it was hypothesized that shame and depression would mediate the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating. Second, it was hypothesized that distress tolerance would moderate the relationship between shame and binge eating and the relationship between depression and binge eating in the mediation relationships proposed in the first hypothesis. Results indicated that shame was a significant mediator for the relationship between internalized homophobia and binge eating, that depression was not a significant mediator, and that distress tolerance did not moderate the significant mediation relationship between shame and binge eating. The data in this study also indicated that the proportions of lesbian and bisexual participants who reported binge eating and compensatory behavior did not differ significantly, but that bisexual participants reported significantly more depression and shame than lesbian participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing Heterosexuals' and Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems and the Effects of Internalized Homophobia on Gay Men/Lesbians' Responses to Relationship Problems in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okutan, Nur; Buyuksahin Sunal, Ayda; Sakalli Ugurlu, Nuray

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold: (1) to investigate the effects of sexual orientation (heterosexuals and gay men/lesbians) and gender difference on responses to romantic relationship problems (Exit, Voice, Loyalty, and Neglect [EVLN] responses) and of perceived partner's EVLN responses in Turkey, and (2) to examine whether internalized homophobia was associated with EVLN responses and perceived partner's EVLN responses for gay men and lesbians. Responses to Dissatisfaction Scale-Accommodation Instrument, Internalized Homophobia, and Demographics Information were administered to 187 participants (44 lesbians, 44 gay men, 53 heterosexual women, 46 heterosexual men).The MANCOVA results showed that men reported higher loyalty than women, whereas women presented more exit responses than men. Further, the interactions between gender and sexual orientation on the participants' EVLN responses and on the perceived partner's EVLN responses were significant. With respect to heterosexual women, heterosexual men displayed more loyalty responses. Lesbians had higher scores on loyalty than did heterosexual women. Lesbians also had higher scores on perceived partner's exit response than did heterosexual women and gay men. On the contrary, heterosexual women reported more perceived partner's voice response than lesbians. In addition, lesbians reported higher perceived partner's neglect responses than heterosexual women. Compared to heterosexual women, heterosexual men reported higher perceived partner's exit response. Finally, internalized homophobia was associated with destructive responses for both lesbians and gay men.

  4. Men's hostile sexism and biased perceptions of intimate partners: fostering dissatisfaction and negative behavior in close relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C

    2013-12-01

    Hostile sexism (HS) expresses attitudes that characterize women who challenge men's power as manipulative and subversive. Does endorsing HS negatively bias perceptions of women's behavior and, in turn, create animosity within intimate relationships? Committed heterosexual couples reported on their own behavior and perceptions of their partner's behavior five times across a year (Study 1) and daily for 3 weeks (Study 2). Men who more strongly endorsed HS perceived their partner's behavior as more negative than was justified by their partner's reports. Furthermore, more negative perceptions of the partner's behavior mediated the links between men's HS and feeling more manipulated by their partners, behaving more negatively toward their partners, and lower relationship quality. This indicates that men who endorse HS behave more negatively toward intimate partners and experience lower relationship satisfaction because their antagonistic attitudes toward women in general permeate the way they perceive those partners.

  5. Gaming out online: Black lesbian identity development and community building in Xbox Live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kishonna L

    2017-11-22

    As gaming culture continues to marginalize women and people of color, other gamers are also highlighting the inequalities they face within digital gaming communities. While heterosexism and homophobia are commonplace within gaming culture, little is known about the actual experiences of "gaymers" and even less about "gaymers" of color. As such, this article seeks to explore lesbians of color and their experiences "gayming" out and online. Exploring identity development, community building, and connectivity via social networking, the women within this study articulate what it means to be lesbian online and how this impacts their physical and digital experiences. The private spaces within gaming culture that many marginalized groups inhabit are the few spaces that value the articulation of marginalized interests and viewpoints. Ethnographic observations reveal how supportive communities can improve resilience by mitigating the effects of stereotyping, microaggressions, and other discriminatory practices in online gaming.

  6. The Construction of the Masculine: Women’s Domination and Homophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Welzer-Lang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article interrogates the theoretical frameworks, methods and instruments of analyses employed in the study of men and masculinity. In doing so, it questions essentialist definitions of men while examining the schemes, the habitus, and the homophobic, heterosexual and virile model that construct and strengthen masculine identity and domination. To accomplish the above, the author addresses a vast array of contemporary French feminist debates.

  7. Resentment of paternalism as system change sentiment: hostile sexism toward men and actual behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Charlotte Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Glick and colleagues (2004), this study tested the idea that resentment of paternalism (which is part of the hostile sexism toward men construct) might approximate desire for system change by correlating this variable with actual behavior associated with system change in a single culture. Specifically, voting behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election was predicted from political party affiliation, measures of hostile and benevolent sexism toward both women and men, and egalitarian racial attitudes using a U.S. college student sample. Results indicated that the only significant predictors of voting behavior were political party affiliation, resentment of paternalism, and egalitarian racial attitudes. Higher levels of resentment of paternalism were in fact associated with voting for the ticket that represented system change-holding the other predictors constant.

  8. Identity after Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstrøm, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how legacy organizational identity and death relate to each other and, thereby, contribute to closing the gap in knowledge on organizational identity constructions in times of death. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory....../value: This paper addresses an apparent gap in the literature on identity and death; exploring identity narratives in a bankrupted bank, the paper considers constructions of legacy organizational identities in times of disruptive death....

  9. Asian American Adolescent Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohm, Julie Juhye

    1999-01-01

    The formation of ego identity in Asian American late adolescents attending Virginia Tech was examined within the frameworks of Erikson's psychosocial theory and Berry, Trimble, and Olmedo's model of acculturation. Ego identity was measured using the Achieved sub-scale of the Revised Version of the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status, an instrument based on the theoretical constructs of Erikson. Ethnic identity was measured using the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure and America...

  10. Associations Between Internalized Homophobia and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Young Black Men Who Have Sex With Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Richard A; Salazar, Laura F; Mena, Leandro; Geter, Angelica

    2016-10-01

    To assess internalized homophobia (IH) and its relationship to sexual risk behaviors and prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in a clinic-based sample of young black men who have sex with men (YBMSM). Six hundred YBMSM completed a self-interview and provided specimens for testing. A 7-item scale assessed IH, and 19 sexual risk behaviors were assessed. In adjusted models, compared with men with less IH, those with greater IH were more likely to report: any condomless anal receptive sex (P = 0.01) and sex with women (P < 0.001). Alternatively, men with greater IH were less likely to: discuss acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevention with sex partners (P = 0.009), disclose their same sex sexual behavior to providers (P = 0.01), be tested for human immunodeficiency virus in the past 12 months (P = 0.04), report condomless oral sex (P = 0.049), and test RPR positive (P = 0.01). With some exceptions, IH among YBMSM attending STI clinics may influence their sexual risk behaviors; however, STI prevalence was not associated with this construct.

  11. Media/Visual Literacy Art Education: Sexism in Hip-Hop Music Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2007-01-01

    Media programs like hip-hop music videos are powerful aesthetic agents that inspire teenagers. Thus, they have tremendous influence on young people's identity formation, lifestyle choices, and knowledge construction which are manifested in the ways teens dress, express themselves, behave, and interact with each other. However, because of the…

  12. Identity Work and Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical literature on identity work and identifies two distinct approaches to incorporating emotion. The majority of empirical studies use emotion to describe the experiences of identity work. In doing so, the authors (a) mention the emotions that people feel in situations...... that trigger identity work, (b) illustrate identity work as an emotional endeavour, and (c) describe the emotional impact of successful and unsuccessful identity work. There is also an emerging literature that examines the mutual constitution of emotions and identity work. These authors address emotional...... labour, affective social identification, emotional attachment and detachment, and humour when studying identity work. This paper suggests that, to understand better the relation between emotions and identity work, future research should examine the role of emotions in problematizing identity...

  13. Identity and identity conflict in the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Horton (Kate); P.S. Bayerl (Saskia); G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAs individuals, we define ourselves according to various characteristics that include our values and beliefs. This gives us our identity. As organisations become increasingly complex, understanding the concept of identity conflict may mean the difference between success and failure.

  14. Interacting with sexist men triggers social identity threat among female engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logel, Christine; Walton, Gregory M; Spencer, Steven J; Iserman, Emma C; von Hippel, William; Bell, Amy E

    2009-06-01

    Social identity threat is the notion that one of a person's many social identities may be at risk of being devalued in a particular context (C. M. Steele, S. J. Spencer, & J. Aronson, 2002). The authors suggest that in domains in which women are already negatively stereotyped, interacting with a sexist man can trigger social identity threat, undermining women's performance. In Study 1, male engineering students who scored highly on a subtle measure of sexism behaved in a dominant and sexually interested way toward an ostensible female classmate. In Studies 2 and 3, female engineering students who interacted with such sexist men, or with confederates trained to behave in the same way, performed worse on an engineering test than did women who interacted with nonsexist men. Study 4 replicated this finding and showed that women's underperformance did not extend to an English test, an area in which women are not negatively stereotyped. Study 5 showed that interacting with sexist men leads women to suppress concerns about gender stereotypes, an established mechanism of stereotype threat. Discussion addresses implications for social identity threat and for women's performance in school and at work.

  15. On Fay identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michev, Iordan P.

    2006-01-01

    In the first part of this paper we consider the transformation of the cubic identities for general Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) tau functions from [Mishev, J. Math. Phys. 40, 2419-2428 (1999)] to the specific identities for trigonometric KdV tau functions. Afterwards, we consider the Fay identity as a functional equation and provide a wide set of solutions of this equation. The main result of this paper is Theorem 3.4, where we generalize the identities from Mishev. An open problem is the transformation of the cubic identities from Mishev to the specific identities for elliptic KdV tau functions

  16. Identities as organizational practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Asmuß, Birte

    Identity has been widely acknowledged as playing a central role in various organizational processes, yet there is still a need to better understand the dynamics and functions of identity work in modern organizations. The present paper is centered within this concern, and examines identity......) reveal the intersubjective, multimodal and embodied nature of identity work; 2) demonstrate identity work as organizational practices, used in order to accomplish specific actions; and 3) pose a question on the view on identity as a layered/leveled phenomenon....

  17. Reflexões sobre homofobia e educação em escolas do interior paulista Reflections on homophobia and education in schools in the interior of Sao Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Silva Teixeira-Filho

    2011-12-01

    reinforce the hegemonic discourses of control of sexualities guided by the attempt to promote heterosexuality as the only form of sexual intelligibility, to the detriment of other forms of expression of sexuality. We discuss how homophobia and the devices of social control of sexuality (re produce prejudices and stereotypies, resulting in vulnerabilities that non-heterosexual teenagers have, such as homophobic victimization, social and affective isolation, ideations and suicide attempts. The study shows that the invariant were discrimination, homophobic violence and the insults that are perpetrated in the values and discourses of adolescents at school and in their family, demonstrating the institutionalization of homophobia as a regulatory practice of the psychological and social construction of gender and sexual identities. We highlight how important it is for the school to appropriate the means of deconstruction of heterocentric normativity to preserve the rights and citizenship of the people who do not identify with the prevailing models of heterosexuality.

  18. The Supermalt identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2007-01-01

    on consumers' self-identities. The second part explored the role of food and beverage products in the construction of self-identities. The final part focused on the construction of brand identity for Supermalt. Findings - The article provides information on the self-identities constructed by Afro......-Caribbean informants. The food and beverage consumption of informants reflects their mixed cultural identity. The brand identity Supermalt appears to be malleable, with ample room for consumer co-construction. Perceptions of brand identity differ markedly among informants, who are all able to construct Supermalt......Purpose - The objective of this article is to conduct a case study of the Supermalt brand of malt beer, which has become the preferred beverage of Afro-Caribbean consumers in Brixton on a very limited marketing budget. Design/methodology/approach - The article uses the concepts of personal identity...

  19. Researching Identity and Interculturality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp.......Review of: Researching Identity and Interculturality / by F. Dervin and K. Risager (eds.). Routledge 2015, 245 pp....

  20. Understanding Identity and Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....

  1. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  2. Mobile Identity Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Identity management consists of the processes and all underlying technologies for the creation, management, and usage of digital identities. Business rely on identity management systems to simplify the management of access rights to their systems and services for both their employees and their

  3. Being Tolerant about Identity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, R.; Gutzmann, D.; Köpping, J.; Meier, C.

    2014-01-01

    Identity and identification are very important concepts in philosophy and logic. They are crucial for the analysis of quantification and for counting. According to some philosophers, many examples that are supposed to show that identity is contingent, in fact show that the notion of identity is

  4. The generalizability of gender bias: Testing the effects of contextual, explicit, and implicit sexism on labor arbitration decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girvan, Erik J; Deason, Grace; Borgida, Eugene

    2015-10-01

    Decades of social-psychological research show that gender bias can result from features of the social context and from individual-level psychological predispositions. Do these sources of bias impact legal decisions, which are frequently made by people subject to factors that have been proposed to reduce bias (training and accountability)? To answer the question, we examined the potential for 3 major social-psychological theories of gender bias (role-congruity theory, ambivalent sexism, and implicit bias) to predict outcomes of labor arbitration decisions. In the first study, undergraduate students and professional arbitrators made decisions about 2 mock arbitration cases in which the gender of the employee-grievants was experimentally manipulated. Student participants' decisions showed the predicted gender bias, whereas the decisions of experienced professionals did not. Individual-level attitudes did not predict the extent of the observed bias and accountability did not attenuate it. In the second study, arbitrators' explicit and implicit gender attitudes were significant predictors of their decisions in published cases. The laboratory and field results suggest that context, expertise, and implicit and explicit attitudes are relevant to legal decision-making, but that laboratory experiments alone may not fully capture the nature of their effect on legal professionals' decisions in real cases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Flirting with disaster: short-term mating orientation and hostile sexism predict different types of sexual harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Charlotte; Rees, Jonas; Bohner, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    We combine evolutionary and sociocultural accounts of sexual harassment, proposing that sexuality-related and hostility-related motives lead to different types of harassment. Specifically, men's short-term mating orientation (STMO) was hypothesized to predict only unwanted sexual attention but not gender harassment, whereas men's hostile sexism (HS) was hypothesized to predict both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. As part of an alleged computer-chat task, 100 male students could send sexualized personal remarks (representing unwanted sexual attention), sexist jokes (representing gender harassment), or nonharassing material to an attractive female target. Independently, participants' STMO, HS, and sexual harassment myth acceptance (SHMA) were assessed. Correlational and path analyses revealed that STMO specifically predicted unwanted sexual attention, whereas HS predicted both unwanted sexual attention and gender harassment. Furthermore, SHMA fully mediated the effect of HS on gender harassment, but did not mediate effects of STMO or HS on unwanted sexual attention. Results are discussed in relation to motivational explanations for sexual harassment and antiharassment interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Benevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Aude; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne; Dardenne, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision-making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape male-female relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. PMID:26870955

  7. Identity and Professional Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Medha; Fast, Nathanael J; Fisher, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Despite evidence that large professional networks afford a host of financial and professional benefits, people vary in how motivated they are to build such networks. To help explain this variance, the present article moves beyond a rational self-interest account to examine the possibility that identity shapes individuals' intentions to network. Study 1 established a positive association between viewing professional networking as identity-congruent and the tendency to prioritize strengthening and expanding one's professional network. Study 2 revealed that manipulating the salience of the self affects networking intentions, but only among those high in networking identity-congruence. Study 3 further established causality by experimentally manipulating identity-congruence to increase networking intentions. Study 4 examined whether identity or self-interest is a better predictor of networking intentions, providing support for the former. These findings indicate that identity influences the networks people develop. Implications for research on the self, identity-based motivation, and professional networking are discussed.

  8. Inventário de sexismo ambivalente: sua adaptação e relação com o gênero Ambivalent sexism inventory: its adaptation and correlation with gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton S. Formiga

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi adaptar para o Brasil o Inventário de Sexismo Ambivalente (Glick & Fiske, 1996, assim como conhecer em que medida suas pontuações são diferentes em função do gênero. Este instrumento é constituído por 22 itens, respondidos em escala de cinco pontos, tipo Likert e teoricamente avalia dois fatores: sexismo hostil e sexismo benévolo. A amostra foi composta de 200 graduandos do curso de Psicologia de uma universidade privada, de ambos os sexos. A aplicação deste inventário foi coletiva, nas salas de aula, garantido o anonimato das respostas. Os resultados confirmaram a existência dos dois fatores hipotetizados, e indicaram uma correlação do sexismo com o gênero; especificamente, os homens apresentam maior sexismo hostil, enquanto as mulheres pontuaram mais em relação ao sexismo benévolo. Estes resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura sobre os estereótipos de gênero.This study aimed (1 to adapt the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick & Fiske, 1996 to the Brazilian reality, and (2 to evaluate the variability of its scores in relation to gender. This instrument is composed of 22 items that should be responded to on 5-point Likert-scale; theoretically, it evaluates two factors: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. Two hundred (male and female Psychology undergraduate students of a private university took part in the sample. The questionnaires were completed collectively during class, and the subjects were assured of the anonymity of their answers. The results confirmed the existence of both hypothesized factors, and indicated a correlation of sexism with gender. Specifically, male score were higher in hostile sexism, while female scores were higher in benevolent sexism. These results are discussed with the stereotype of gender background found in the literature.

  9. State-Sponsored Homophobia and the Denial of the Right of Assembly in Central and Eastern Europe : The "Boomerang" and the "Ricochet" between European Organizations and Civil Society to Uphold Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    State-sponsored homophobia emerged in certain Central and Eastern European states in the past decade, with the denial of the right of assembly for gay pride marches. However, more recently there has been progress in the recognition of the fundamental democratic right of assembly. What accounts for

  10. [Laws on gender violence and their effect on sexism in advertising: a comparative analysis of advertisements from Argentina, Mexico, Spain and the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Llaguno, Marta; Navarro-Beltrá, Marián

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender violence legislation on the incidence of sexism and gender bias in advertisements published in four countries: Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The study focused on the content of 163 advertisements: 69 from Spain, 16 from Mexico, 50 from Argentina, and 28 from the United States. Data were gathered on the presence of bodies not associated with the product being advertised, to study the stereotypical presentation of men and women and gender biases in advertisements in Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The following stereotypical findings were observed: (i) men were shown in public places more often than women in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.000), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.011); (ii) men were shown more often than women practicing neutral professions in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.004), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.025); and (iii) men were shown more often than women as workers and users (P = 0.000) and less often than women in a parenting role (P = 0.000). With regard to biases, (i) men were given greater visibility than women in all four countries, and (ii) only in the ads from Spain were there significant differences in terms of parity, with men appearing more often in the ads than women (P = 0.014), and empowerment, with men shown making decisions more often than women; P = 0.045). Those countries with legislation aimed at using communication to prevent gender violence do not have less sexism in their advertisements. To analyze the relationships between laws, sexism, and gender violence, it would be necessary to undertake a rigorous diachronic assessment of the instruments constructed and also to compare the results with other cultural and social indicators that are often difficult to isolate.

  11. Exploring medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla, Desla; Moczygemba, Jackie

    2009-09-16

    The crime of medical identity theft is a growing concern in healthcare institutions. A mixed-method study design including a two-stage electronic survey, telephone survey follow-up, and on-site observations was used to evaluate current practices in admitting and registration departments to reduce the occurrence of medical identity theft. Survey participants were chief compliance officers in acute healthcare organizations and members of the Health Care Compliance Association. Study results indicate variance in whether or how patient identity is confirmed in healthcare settings. The findings of this study suggest that information systems need to be designed for more efficient identity management. Admitting and registration staff must be trained, and compliance with medical identity theft policies and procedures must be monitored. Finally, biometric identity management solutions should be considered for stronger patient identification verification.

  12. Experiencing with Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Justine Grønbæk

    2012-01-01

    This article studies how a political organization begins to experiment with its identity. By use of an empirical case of the Danish Ministry of Education, I examine how a political organization supplements its identity of a legislating power with identities of a supervisor, beacon and facilitator...... of evaluation in public schools. Out of a paralysis emerge new innovative strategies of governing, aimed at the schools’ self-governing capacity. The identity of the political system thus emerges as oscillations between different roles of a legislating power and a supervising coach. The case study suggests...... that a society of experimentalism is emerging. Thus, the relevant object of study is no longer organizational identity, but the experiments with different identities that modern organizations are performing....

  13. Internalised homophobia is differentially associated with sexual risk behaviour by race/ethnicity and HIV serostatus among substance-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansergh, Gordon; Spikes, Pilgrim; Flores, Stephen A; Koblin, Beryl A; McKirnan, David; Hudson, Sharon M; Colfax, Grant N

    2015-08-01

    There is a continuing need to identify factors associated with risk for HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), including a need for further research in the ongoing scientific debate about the association of internalised homophobia and sexual risk due partly to the lack of specificity in analysis. We assess the association of internalised homophobia by race/ethnicity within HIV serostatus for a large sample of substance-using MSM at high risk of HIV acquisition or transmission. Convenience sample of substance-using (non-injection) MSM reporting unprotected anal sex in the prior 6 months residing in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York and San Francisco. The analytic sample included HIV-negative and HIV-positive black (n=391), Latino (n=220), and white (n=458) MSM. Internalised homophobia was assessed using a published four-item scale focusing on negative self-perceptions and feelings of their own sexual behaviour with men, or for being gay or bisexual. Analyses tested associations of internalised homophobia with recent risk behaviour, stratified by laboratory-confirmed HIV serostatus within race/ethnicity, and controlling for other demographic variables. In multivariate analysis, internalised homophobia was inversely associated (pbehaviour among white and Latino MSM. More research is needed to further identify nuanced differences in subpopulations of MSM, but these results suggest differentially targeted intervention messages for MSM by race/ethnicity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...... ‘entrepreneurial preparedness’ as parameter. This research seeks to address the following questions: What significant components or characteristics do entrepreneurs rely on in the early processes of constructing an entrepreneurial identity....

  15. Personal Identity in Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Podroužková

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of human enhancement, its methods and its relation to personal identity. Also several approaches to personal identity will be described. Transhumanism is a special think tank supporting human enhancement through modern technologies and some of its representatives claim, that even great changes to human organisms will not affect their personal identity. I will briefly describe the most important means of human enhancment and consider the problem of personal identity for each of them separately.

  16. Known and Unknown Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze-Pedersen, Sofie

    This qualitative study investigates the relationship between openness and identity among 18 adoptees. Many studies have argued that a high degree of openness is important for the identity formation of adoptees. However, few studies have explored this relationship. Two types of openness...... (biographical knowledge and communicative openness) are used to categorise the empirical material, making it possible to illuminate how different types of openness influence identity. The findings suggest that there is no direct link between a high degree of openness and positive identity formation. Instead...

  17. Identity/Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Knauer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the unspoken fourth dimension of intersectionality—time. Using the construction of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT identities as an example, it establishes that identity, as it is lived and experienced, is not only multivalent, but also historically contingent. It then raises a number of points regarding the temporal locality of identity—the influence of time on issues of identity and understanding, its implications for legal interventions, social movement building, and paradigms of progressive change. As the title suggests, the paper asks us to consider the frame of identity over time.

  18. Elective Identities, (Culture, Identization and Integration)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMost of contemporary individual and social identities (constructed with societal, cultural and technological resources) are radically autonomous, nomadic and virtual - i.e. they are de-traditionalized, open to negotiation and not based on a single interpretation of a tradition.

  19. Patient perspectives on answering questions about sexual orientation and gender identity: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnadottir, Ragnhildur I; Bockting, Walter; Dowding, Dawn W

    2017-07-01

    To examine patients' perceptions of being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Health disparities exist in the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender population, but further research is needed to better understand these disparities. To address this issue, experts recommend the routine collection of sexual orientation and gender identity data in health care. Nurses on the front line of patient care play a key role in the collection of these data. However, to enable nurses to conduct such assessments it is important to understand the perspective of the patients on being asked about their sexual orientation and gender identity in a healthcare setting. An integrative review was conducted using the methodology proposed by Whittemore and Knafl (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005, 52, 546). Six electronic databases were searched, and two reviewers independently reviewed papers for inclusion. Papers were included if they were empirical studies, peer-reviewed papers or reports, assessing patient perspectives on discussing sexual orientation and gender identity in the healthcare setting. Twenty-one relevant studies that met the inclusion criteria were identified. A majority of the studies indicated patients' willingness to respond to, and a perceived importance of, questions about sexual orientation and gender identity. However, fears of homophobia and negative consequences hindered willingness to disclose this information. This review indicates that in most cases patients are willing to answer routine questions about their sexual orientation in the healthcare setting and perceive them as important questions to ask. The findings of this review have implications for nurses looking to incorporate questions about sexual orientation into their routine patient assessment. The findings indicate that care providers need to be mindful of heteronormative assumptions and take steps to ensure they are knowledgeable about lesbian, gay

  20. (Re)scaling identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    of Pakistani origin, the study employs theoretical ideas of estrangement, identification and recognition in order to obtain a thorough understanding of the complexity and the contradictory character of their spatial identities and affiliations. A turning point in the double processes of estrangement...... of identity....

  1. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  2. Self and social identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N; Spears, R; Doosje, B

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter, we examine the self and identity by considering the different conditions under which these are affected by the groups to which people belong. From a social identity perspective we argue that group commitment, on the one hand, and features of the social context, on the other hand,

  3. Children's Social Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…

  4. Corporate identity. Brand designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Steve

    2004-02-19

    The past two years have seen a steadily more consistent brand identity for the NHS. Branding will become more important as foundation status and PCT commissioning makes acute hospitals more competitive. This has put pressure on some trusts that have their own strong identities.

  5. Identities-in-action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Diana; Valero, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The notion of identity is often used in mathematics education research in an attempt to link individual and social understandings of mathematical learning. In this paper we review existing research making use of the notion of identity, and we point to some of the strengths and weaknesses in the w...

  6. Identity without Membership?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    the formation of organizational identity in more fluid organizational settings. Drawing on an empirical study of the hacker collective Anonymous, we show that organizational identity is formed through public communicative events that are subject to meaning negotiation whether or not actions can be attributed...

  7. Personal Identity in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Kazumi; Mizokami, Shinichi

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores characteristics of identity formation among Japanese adolescents and young adults living in a cultural context where individualism has been increasingly emphasized even while maintaining collectivism. We argue that, to develop a sense of identity in Japanese culture, adolescents and young adults carefully consider others'…

  8. Multicultural identity processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Zhan, Siran; Morris, Michael W; Benet-Martínez, Verónica

    2016-04-01

    The study of multicultural identity has gained prominence in recent decades and will be even more urgent as the mobility of individuals and social groups becomes the 'new normal'. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art theoretical advancements and empirical discoveries of multicultural identity processes at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and collective (e.g., organizational, societal) levels. First, biculturalism has more benefits for individuals' psychological and sociocultural adjustment than monoculturalism. Bicultural individuals' racial essentialist beliefs and Bicultural Identity Integration affect cultural frame switching, racial categorization, and creativity. Second, identity denial and identity-based discrimination by other people or groups threaten multicultural individuals' psychological health and performance. Third, multiculturalism and interculturalism policies are associated with different conceptions of and attitudes toward diversity, and have distinct outcomes for multicultural individuals and societies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identity as wrapping up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an understanding of cross-professional collaboration and to develop a notion of professional identity based in practice. The background of the paper is science and technology studies and more precisely actor network theory. The method used: The empirical analysis...... in close relation to the making of a report concerning the cross-professional collaboration. Findings are that “Identity as wrapping up” points to the way in which certain actors, by other actors, are maneuvered into certain pockets in a network. Identity as wrapping up is emphasized as a way...... of participating, which is closely connected to the intention to control the relation towards the other. Thus identity as wrapping up is argued to be a strategy to optimize the situation of one’s own profession. Conclusion: This articulation of identity contributes to the actor network literature as well...

  10. Researcher Identity in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Kobayashi, Sofie; McGinn, Michelle K.

    2015-01-01

    to reinterpretation, and ECRs need to attend to new or reimagined signals in their efforts to develop a researcher identity in this current context. In this article, we present a comprehensive framework for researcher identity in relation to the ways ECRs recognise and respond to divergent signals across spheres...... of activity. We illustrate this framework through eight identity stories drawn from our earlier research projects. Each identity story highlights the congruence (or lack of congruence) between signals across spheres of activity and emphasises the different ways ECRs respond to these signals. The proposed...... comprehensive framework allows for the analysis of researcher identity development through the complex and intertwined activities in which ECRs are involved. We advance this approach as a foundation for a sustained research agenda to understand how ECRs identify and respond to relevant signals, and...

  11. Visual identity and rebranding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Wrona

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to highlight the essence of visual identification and rebranding, as well as to discuss elements of corporate identity, which are subject to revitalization in the process of refreshing the image of a brand. In the first part the article the analysis of the term visual identification is conducted. In the analysis special attention is drawn to the role of visual identification in creating a coherent identity of an organization. In the subsequent chapters further components of corporate identity are presented in detail – starting with logotype, through business forms, advertisements, accompanying materials and Internet websites to signs on buildings. Moreover, corporate identity book as a collection of standards and guidelines for application of corporate identity rules is discussed. The deliberations are based on the study of literature. The last chapter presented the transformation of the brand of Institute of Aviation.

  12. Teaching heroics: Identity and ethical imagery in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robeck, Edward C.

    In what follows, I address ways in which science education can influence personal identity and social relationships. I do this through a consideration of ideological implications of science as it is constituted in science education. In this situation, I consider science to be a symbolic--emanating from socially derived meanings. I begin with the premise that any symbol system is permeated with ideological elements. To highlight the ideological elements of science in science education, I use another more explicitly symbolic system as a comparative framework. That system is epic heroism, primarily as Joseph Campbell (1949) describes it in The Hero With A Thousand Faces. The discussion of science education is given a practical grounding using transcripts from the interviews with twenty Grade 10 students and many of their teachers undertaken in the 1993-1994 school year. I used epic heroism as a framework for initiating interpretations of broad themes from the transcripts, but also read the transcripts in relation to aspects of epic heroism, including existing critiques of Campbell's work and heroism more broadly. Specific quotes are included to illustrations of various points. My particular focus here is on ideological elements that can be associated with racism, sexism, and other social relationships that are collectively referred to as relations involving divisive bias. In particular, two themes are discussed extensively. The first is the theme of identity formed through separation, which results in the promotion of reductive and individualistic identities. The second theme has to do with the role of boundary imagery in the formation of relationship, which establishes difference hierarchically. Both of these are pervasive in divisive bias and in the imagery of epic heroism. Ways in which they can pervade practices in science education are also discussed. The central argument of the thesis is that science education, when undertaken through practices that incorporate

  13. AMBIGUITY IN AUTOBIGRAPHICAL NARRATIVES IN NIGERIA: VALORIZING SEXISM AND DISPLACEMENT IN OGONI COSMOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Babatunde Ogunyemi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the examination of ambiguity in autobiographical writings in Nigeria. It underscores the architectonic discourse, cultural alienation and ‘self-elevation’ in some selected autobiographies. Ambiguity in this instance visualizes that these male narratives hinge on something, which is what we now wish to excavate as an area of serious academic endeavour. And it also hinges on how Saro Wiwa’s autobiographies who happen to be male is inevitably sexist in orientation, this will, however, be shown when examining in particular the structuring (narratological devices of the texts. This work valorizes the cardinal representations of self and male gender in enhancing identity for people of diverse perspectives without appreciating female voices which constitute an integral part of the literary history and ideologue. ‘Negating women in art is negating history because history is the main discipline through which we can understand gender’ (Brereton, 1998, p. 17. This paper encapsulates the motif of dominance and oppression of women because women were only made to be seen and not heard or even represented in such art. However, this situation is disheartening because while the ‘African feminist accommodates men and make them its central assurance, love and care’ (Chukwuma, 1990, p. 15, men who are fickle minded literary ideologues delight in over projecting self using the instrument of ‘I’ in autobiographies without recourse to women who hold some basis to their existence. This research work entails a close analysis of the question of gender and displacement originating from these autobiographical writings originating from Nigeria and the configuration of the motif of metaphor in male dominated gender in five autobiographical writings in line with narratology and Butler’s Theory of performativity.

  14. Sexism and anatomy, as discerned in textbooks and as perceived by medical students at Cardiff University and University of Paris Descartes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Susan; Plaisant, Odile; Lignier, Baptiste; Moxham, Bernard J

    2014-03-01

    Contemporary textbooks of anatomy and surface anatomy were evaluated to ascertain whether they were gender-neutral. The evidence of this, and previous studies, suggests that, both in terms of imagery and text, many textbooks lack neutrality. To further investigate such matters, we provided second-year medical students studying at Cardiff University (n = 293) and at the Paris Descartes University (n = 142) during the 2011-2012 academic year with a questionnaire inviting them to address the possibility that social/gender factors hinder the dispassionate representation of anatomy. Ethical approval was obtained from both Cardiff and Paris universities. Eighty-six percent of the students at Cardiff and 39% at Paris Descartes responded and provided data for analysis. The hypothesis tested is that medical students perceive a gender bias that is reflected in the books they read and the tuition they receive. Our findings suggest that, while students recognise the importance of gender issues and do not wish to associate with sexism, most are unaware of the possible negative aspects of sexism within anatomy. In this respect, the findings do not support our hypothesis. Nevertheless, we recommended that teachers of anatomy and authors of anatomy textbooks should be aware of the possibility of adverse effects on professional matters relating to equality and diversity issues. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  15. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A.; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2–4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3–4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity “types.” A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists (“low identifier”), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists (

  16. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolien A. van Breen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2–4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2 and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3–4, especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity “types.” A woman can be (1 strongly identified with neither women nor feminists (“low identifier”, (2 strongly identified with women but less so with feminists (

  17. A Multiple Identity Approach to Gender: Identification with Women, Identification with Feminists, and Their Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breen, Jolien A; Spears, Russell; Kuppens, Toon; de Lemus, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Across four studies, we examine multiple identities in the context of gender and propose that women's attitudes toward gender group membership are governed by two largely orthogonal dimensions of gender identity: identification with women and identification with feminists. We argue that identification with women reflects attitudes toward the content society gives to group membership: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of group characteristics, interests and values? Identification with feminists, on the other hand, is a politicized identity dimension reflecting attitudes toward the social position of the group: what does it mean to be a woman in terms of disadvantage, inequality, and relative status? We examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in four studies. Study 1 showed that identification with women reflects attitudes toward group characteristics, such as femininity and self-stereotyping, while identification with feminists reflects attitudes toward the group's social position, such as perceived sexism. The two dimensions are shown to be largely independent, and as such provide support for the multiple identity approach. In Studies 2-4, we examine the utility of this multiple identity approach in predicting qualitative differences in gender attitudes. Results show that specific combinations of identification with women and feminists predicted attitudes toward collective action and gender stereotypes. Higher identification with feminists led to endorsement of radical collective action (Study 2) and critical attitudes toward gender stereotypes (Studies 3-4), especially at lower levels of identification with women. The different combinations of high vs. low identification with women and feminists can be thought of as reflecting four theoretical identity "types." A woman can be (1) strongly identified with neither women nor feminists ("low identifier"), (2) strongly identified with women but less so with feminists ("traditional identifier"), (3

  18. A queer day in Canada: examining Canadian high school students' experiences with school-based homophobia in two large-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Tracey; Taylor, Catherine; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine how location (nationally, compared to Canadian regions) is related to indicators of a hostile school environment for sexual minority youth, particularly when physical abuse is used as the outcome variable. Data representing 5,766 Canadian students were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate techniques. Results from the multivariate analyses showed that non-physical abuse was the most significant predictor of homophobically based physical abuse, for both LGBQ and non-LGBQ students. Findings reiterate the importance of considering the progression of harmful events as an escalation of violence as well as the need to view homophobic bullying as having a significant impact on all students. Finally, while the presence of homophobia is prevalent across all Canadian regions, there are, nevertheless, many regional differences, which could be used to inform region-specific action plans.

  19. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  20. Linguistic identity matching

    CERN Document Server

    Lisbach, Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Regulation, risk awareness and technological advances are increasingly drawing identity search functionality into business, security and data management processes, as well as fraud investigations and counter-terrorist measures.Over the years, a number of techniques have been developed for searching identity data, traditionally focusing on logical algorithms. These techniques often failed to take into account the complexities of language and culture that provide the rich variations  seen in names used around the world. A new paradigm has now emerged for understanding the way that identity data

  1. Vocational Identity and Ego Identity Status in Korean Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Young Koo, PhD, RN

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings show that nursing students in identity achievement status have secure and clear vocational identities. Further longitudinal and qualitative studies are needed to find out if identity formation among nursing students changes with age.

  2. The Threat of Sexism in a STEM Educational Setting: The Moderating Impacts of Ethnicity and Legitimacy Beliefs on Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Laurie T.; Garcia, Donna M.; Adams, Glenn; Villalobos, J. Guillermo; Hammer, Elliott; Gilbert, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Social identity threat has negative consequences for women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. The present study examined whether legitimacy beliefs--beliefs that status differences between men and women in STEM fields are fair--put women at risk for experiencing social identity threat and poorer performance on a…

  3. The Impact of Homophobia and HIV Stigma on HIV Testing Uptake Among Chinese Men Who Have Sex With Men: a Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chongyi; Cheung, Doug H; Yan, Hongjing; Li, Jianjun; Shi, Ling-en; Raymond, Henry F

    2016-01-01

    Gay and HIV-related stigma and discrimination are major barriers to accessing HIV prevention services among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) worldwide. We aimed to identify modifiable factors that mediate the relationships between gay and HIV-related stigma and discrimination and HIV testing uptake among Chinese MSM. We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 523 HIV-uninfected or unknown HIV status MSM in Jiangsu Province, China between November 2013 and January 2014. Multivariable analyses were conducted to examine the associations among experienced homophobia, HIV stigma, and recent HIV testing. Causal mediation parametric analyses were conducted to assess whether depression and social norms mediated hypothesized associations. Stronger subjective norms toward testing was associated with higher odds of recent HIV testing (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01 to 1.21), whereas increasing levels of depression and HIV stigma were both associated with lower odds of recent testing (AOR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99; and AOR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.84 to 0.99, respectively). There was an indirect relationship (natural indirect effect [NIE]) of experienced homophobia on recent testing (ORNIE: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93 to 0.98) mediated (35.0%) through depression. Furthermore, there was an indirect relationship of HIV stigma on recent testing (ORNIE: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99) mediated (19.2%) through subjective norms. Depression and social norms are important mediators of HIV testing uptake among stigmatized Chinese MSM. Therefore, in addition to advocacy efforts and policies that address social-level stigma and discrimination, HIV prevention programs should also address mental health issues and incorporate community-based approaches to changing social norms toward HIV testing.

  4. From “In the Air” to “Under the Skin”: Cortisol Responses to Social Identity Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Major, Brenda; Gangi, Cynthia E.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined women’s neuroendocrine stress responses associated with sexism. They predicted that, when being evaluated by a man, women who chronically perceive more sexism would experience more stress unless the situation contained overt cues that sexism would not occur. The authors measured stress as the end product of the primary stress system linked to social evaluative threat—the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal cortical axis. In Study 1, female participants were rejected by a male confederate in favor of another male for sexist reasons or in favor of another female for merit-based reasons. In Study 2, female participants interacted with a male confederate who they learned held sexist attitudes or whose attitudes were unknown. Participants with higher chronic perceptions of sexism had higher cortisol, unless the situation contained cues that sexism was not possible. These results illustrate the powerful interactive effects of chronic perceptions of sexism and situational cues on women’s stress reactivity. PMID:21239591

  5. Personal Identity Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodogno, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers concerned with the question of personal identity have typically been asking the so-called re-identification question: what are the conditions under which a person at one point in time is properly re-identified at another point in time? This is a rather technical question. In our...... everyday interactions, however, we do raise a number of personal identity questions that are quite distinct from it. In order to explore the variety of ways in which the Internet may affect personal identity, I propose in this study to broaden the typical philosophical horizon to other more mundane senses...... of the question. In Section 2, I describe a number of possible meanings of personal identity observed in everyday contexts and more philosophical ones. With some caveats, I argue that it is the specific context in which the question arises that disambiguates the meaning of the question. Online contexts are novel...

  6. Researcher Identities in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelló, Montserrat; Wisker, Gina; Kobayashi, Sofie

    as other emergent ‘signals’, the latent or clear indications from institutions and academic communities regarding career directions and necessary professional skills and attitudes should be identified and interpreted for researchers to adequately develop their new identities. The aim of this paper......Researchers are now embarked upon what we define as a ‘risk career’, rather than, as previously, a relatively more predictable academic career. In this changing context, traditional milestones that enabled early career researchers to build their identities are disappearing. Instead, what we define...... is twofold: a) to present a comprehensive framework of the notion of researcher identity by means of analysing those spheres of activity related to researcher and career development; and b) to relate researcher identities to the experiences of early career researchers with issues concerning signals...

  7. Primary Identity in Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Brian Russell

    In our times, literary criticism, as well as larger political and cultural developments, is characterized by identity politics, meaning that our discourses are structured around the notion of different socially identifiable populations in society. In relation to literature, this results in our...... viewing the characters in literature in terms of these political identities. Literature is consequently discussed in relation to political causes. Literary criticism is animated by the same causes, and is viewed as having a direct intervention in society in relation to them. In this paper, I will discuss......, in relation to Frye’s works, the idea that the primary identities of characters in literature were and, to a considerable extent, continue to be those of family-member identities. As such, literature should not be appropriated to a political context too readily. Whereas viewing characters in terms of...

  8. Music, culture and identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Ramadani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available At the time of globalization it is difficult to pretend avoiding music culture and identity from political, cultural and social developments. Thus, it is impossible for the music to be unshakable and to represent national identity by not taking and giving nothing to culture. The dynamics of life and the rapid development of technology make it impossible for the culture to remain unaffected in terms of sharing experiences social experiences. Culture represents our current course, both in terms of politics, also in the social and human aspects. Through the technology it is possible for our children to be equal with children of all other countries, to exchange information and to connect directly with all countries of the world. Musical education is one of the main factors of cultural development and preservation of national identity. Identity consists of everything we posses and reflect. We are those who distinguish from each other and have a common denominator compared to other nations.

  9. WORK AND LEARNER IDENTITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to suggest a theoretical framework than can assess to how people’s engagement in specific historical and social work practices are significant to their development, maintenance or transformation of a learner identity. Such a framework is crucial in order to grasp how...... different groups have distinctive conditions for meeting the obligation of forming a proactive learner identity and engage in lifelong learning prevalent in both national and transnational policies on lifelong learning....

  10. Introduction: Discourses of Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of usages of ideas of 'identity' in relation to migration in Britain, France, and Germany, as well as in the Serbian anti-muslim war - with a view of demonstrating conceptual context of the usages.......Analysis of usages of ideas of 'identity' in relation to migration in Britain, France, and Germany, as well as in the Serbian anti-muslim war - with a view of demonstrating conceptual context of the usages....

  11. Developing Identity for Lawyers

    OpenAIRE

    Høedt-Rasmussen, Inger

    2014-01-01

    The role of the lawyer is in transition and the formerly predominantly homogeneous profes-sion has become a heterogeneous group of lawyers with diverging perceptions of the lawyer’s identity and of the main characteristics of the profession. The European Union has extended the perception of democracy and the fundamental rights to include more collective rights, social concerns, global responsibility and sustainability. The dissertation’s main question is: How can the identity and competen...

  12. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  13. The Process of Identity Work: Negotiating a Work Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crafford, A.; Adams, B.G.; Saayman, T.; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Roodt, G.

    2015-01-01

    Identity work is an important process in negotiating, regulating and maintaining a coherent sense of self-(identity). In this chapter we discuss how identity work is particularly useful in establishing a work identity. The crux of the discussion in this chapter is based on the qualitative phase of

  14. Identity Expansion and Transcendence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sims Bainbridge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups.  Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement.  Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.

  15. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors...

  16. Identity negotiations in meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmuß, Birte; Oshima, Sae

    of the company, and all members know (and display) that he holds some information that the rest don’t have access to. Our analysis shows that the participants evoke various identities of the manager, sometimes orienting to the structure of the organization, and other times orienting to wider social categories......Meetings are places, where identity negotiation is a central activity and where members’ local practices recurrently inform and are informed by larger categories (Antaki and Widdicombe 1998). Correspondingly, the approach to understanding organization (macro) by way of identity work (micro) has...... company, and in the data recorded over 10 days, the employees frequently complain about the many changes that have taken place. Our focus lies in a unique occasion where one of the managers makes an unusual appearance at the lunchroom. In this situation, he is the only one that is on the business side...

  17. Learning as Negotiating Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Keller, Hanne Dauer

    The paper explores the contribution of Communities of Practice (COP) to Human Resource Development (HRD). Learning as negotiating identities captures the contribution of COP to HRD. In COP the development of practice happens through negotiation of meaning. The learning process also involves modes...... of belonging constitutive of our identities. We suggest that COP makes a significant contribution by linking learning and identification. This means that learning becomes much less instrumental and much more linked to fundamental questions of being. We argue that the COP-framework links learning with the issue...... of time - caught in the notion of trajectories of learning - that integrate past, present and future. Working with the learners' notion of time is significant because it is here that new learning possibilities become visible and meaningful for individuals. Further, we argue that the concept of identity...

  18. On the fundamentals of identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Gaag, Mandy

    Various new perspectives on identity have been introduced or have increased in popularity over the past two decades. These include identity as dynamic system (Kunnen & Bosma, 2001), a narrative approach to identity (McAdams, 2001), multi-dimensional models of identity formation (Luyckx et al., 2006;

  19. Splitting Ward identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Social identities and risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Jensen, Mette; Kaltoft, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    Expert-based environmental and health risk regulation is widely believed to suffer from a lack of public understanding and legitimacy. On controversial issues such as genetically modified organisms and food-related chemicals, a "lay-expert discrepancy" in the assessment of risks is clearly visible...... of social identities. On the basis of qualitative interviews with citizens and experts, respectively, we focus on the multiple ways in which identities come to be employed in actors' risk accounts. Empirically, we identify salient characteristics of "typical" imagined experts and lay-people, while arguing...

  1. Splitting Ward identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Within the background-field framework we present a path integral derivation of the splitting Ward identity for the one-particle irreducible effective action in the presence of an infrared regulator, and make connection with earlier works on the subject. The approach is general in the sense that it does not rely on how the splitting is performed. This identity is then used to address the problem of background dependence of the effective action at an arbitrary energy scale. We next introduce the modified master equation and emphasize its role in constraining the effective action. Finally, application to general gauge theories within the geometric approach is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Law and Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2011-01-01

    processes of social integration. Within media-based and political debates, transnational marriages are frequently described as practices destructive both to individual freedom and to Danish national identity. Nonetheless, it is a practice in which both minority and majority citizens engage, one that frames...... both their family lives and their lives as citizens. This article analyses the dynamic relationship between public discourse and practices of transnational marriage. The first part describes how political and legislative perceptions of transnational (arranged) marriages are situated within a discussion......' expressions of autonomy and choice and their adaptations of such concepts to understandings of social belonging, inclusion and identity formation vis--vis the Danish nation-state....

  3. Editorial: Negotiating Gamer Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Barr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The term ‘gamer identity’ is hotly contested, and certainly not understood as a broadly accepted term. From the outdated stereotype of white, heterosexual, teenage boys playing Nintendo in their parents’ basement to the equally contested proclamation that “‘gamers’ are over”, the current game culture climate is such that movements as divisive and controversial as #gamergate can flourish. For this latest special issue of Press Start, we invited submissions regarding the recent controversies surrounding the notion of player identities, with the aim of receiving papers from different viewpoints on gamer identity and culture.

  4. Corporate Brand Identity in SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäläskä, Minna; Jones, Richard Ian

    Purpose: To study the emergence of corporate brand identity in SMEs and to develop a typology of brand identity drivers that reflects a co-creative approach to the emergence of brand identity. Design / Methodology / Approach : Existing approaches to brand identity are summarised. A narrative...... studies. The research is important since it suggests an iterative and co-creative approach to brand identity. A typology of brand identity formation for SMEs is presented: entrepreneur driven, market driven, stakeholder driven. Practical implications: The three paths to creating a strong brand identity...... challenge existing notions that brand identity is based solely on the values of the entrepreneur. This typology suggests that SMEs should be open to creating an identity that draws from their stakeholder eco-system. Originality / value: this research challenges the existing assumption that brand identity...

  5. Language, Identity, and Exile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdinast-Vulcan, Daphna

    2010-01-01

    The exilic mode of being, a living on boundary-lines, produces a constant relativization of one's home, one's culture, one's language, and one's self, through the acknowledgement of otherness. It is a homesickness without nostalgia, without the desire to return to the same, to be identical to oneself. The encounter with the other which produces a…

  6. Bilingualism versus identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Jesper

    1988-01-01

    During the last hundred years psychologists, philosophers and theologians have developed two different conceptions of personal identity. One of them insists that each person is a unique and transcendental being, whereas the other finds the personality deriving from interaction with other persons....... (This is the prevailing view today.) These theories are placed in relation to the difficulties an immigrant encounters....

  7. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  8. Shifting Design Consultancy Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Huijboom, Nina; Holm Nielsen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    and identities that resonate more with freelancing and portfolio careers than with the intention of creating firms that are intended to expand. We recognized a pattern where freelancers build up their work as a portfolio by moving from one engagement to another, a process that we will call sequential freelancing...

  9. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working...

  10. The Visual Identity Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant-Gadd, Laurie; Sansone, Kristina Lamour

    2008-01-01

    Identity is the focus of the middle-school visual arts program at Cambridge Friends School (CFS) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Sixth graders enter the middle school and design a personal logo as their first major project in the art studio. The logo becomes a way for students to introduce themselves to their teachers and to represent who they are…

  11. Work and Female Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reohr, Janet R.

    In climbing an organizational ladder dominated by males, the professional woman encounters obstacles to the more traditional feminine behaviors and mannerisms to which she may be accustomed. These obstacles may erode her sense of identity, creating difficulties both inside and outside of her work environment. Traditional distinctions between…

  12. Positioning health professional identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ole; Krogh Christensen, Mette; Mørcke, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on positioning theory, the purpose of this paper is to characterize the activities and positions of students and supervisors at workplaces and on-campus skills training sites across the higher health professional educations of medicine, sports science, and nursing. Furthermore, the study ...... explored the impact of work-based learning (WBL) and skills training on students’ personal professional identity development....

  13. Dissociative Identity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Few psychological disorders in the Diagnostic Statistical Manual have generated as much controversy as Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID). For the past 35 years diagnoses of DID, previously referred to as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), have increased exponentially, causing various psychological researchers and clinicians to question the…

  14. Spatial Identity in Gagauzia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Salavatova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically the gagauz developed a self-perception based on their difference from Moldova as well as the ‘Turkish world’. The article argues that this fact has determined their pro-Russian political orientation as the only possible way of maintaining their identity

  15. Body Integrity Identity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Rianne M.; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal

  16. Fluidity, Identity, and Organizationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobusch, Leonhard; Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    that the organizationality of a social collective is accomplished through “identity claims”—i.e., speech acts that concern what the social collective is or does—and negotiations on whether or not these claims have been made on the collective's behalf. We empirically examine the case of the hacker collective Anonymous...

  17. Professions and their Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John

    2005-01-01

    analytical strategies can frame in sufficiently complex ways what it means to be a professional today. It is assumed that at least four main issues must be dealt with in order to conduct a satisfactory analysis of professions and their identities. Firstly, it is of fundamental strategic importance that one...

  18. Regional identity and family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripković Gordana D.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a continuation of a study on regionalisation and family, within the project named Sociological Aspects of Multiculturality and Regionalisation and their influence on the development of AP Vojvodina and the Republic of Serbia. The author focuses her attention to operationalisation of the theoretical and methodological premises that were developed in the previous paper (Tripković, 2002: 111-127, which means that it represents the results of the second phase of the research plan. This phase includes adjusting of theoretical concepts to the fieldwork displaying the results of the research and the analysis of the findings that put a family in the context of confronting different identities, above all national and regional. As possible "identity difference" was emphasized in the research, theoretical and methodological apparatus was adjusted to this goal. That is why in this paper the replies of interviewees that can suggest or reject the assumption that their national identity can influence significantly the evaluation of identity specificities are presented and analyzed, concerning more or less visible aspects of family life, like welfare status, relations between spouses, respect to the elder, family harmony, number of children, connections with relatives, etc.

  19. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  20. Rights of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kofman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A person’s identity is their sense of who and what they are, of who stands in significant relations to them, and of what is valuable to them. This is inevitably very broad, an immediate implication of which is that the concept of identity taken alone cannot do significant normative work. In some cases a person’s identity is bound up with the evil that they do or wish to do, and cannot thereby give them any right to do it. In other cases very powerful elements of a person’s identity – such as their attachment to loved ones – is certainly related to important rights, but it is not entirely clear that one needs the concept of identity to explicate or justify these rights; the deep involvement of their identity is arguably a byproduct of other important values in these cases (such as love, and those values can do the grounding work of the rights by themselves and more simply and clearly. Nevertheless, when suitably qualified, a person’s identity is central to accounting for important political rights. These ranges from rights to participate in cultural practices of one’s group, which sometimes implies duties on governments to support minorities threatened with extinction, to – at the outer limit – rights to arrange political administration. These rights are connected to both autonomy and fairness. Cultural rights are often taken either to be opposed to autonomy, or at best instrumental to personal autonomy (by providing ‘options’, but in fact, the ideal of autonomy, expressed by Mill as being the author of one’s life, requires that one be in control of significant aspects of one’s identity. Significant aspects of one’s identity are collectively determined within a culture. Cultures are not static, and their development is particularly affected by political boundaries. A fundamental right of autonomy implies, therefore, that groups be allowed, within reasonable constraints of general feasibility and stability, to arrange

  1. Homophobia and hate speech in Serbian public discourse : how nationalist myths and stereotypes influence prejudices against the LGBT minority

    OpenAIRE

    Stakic, Isidora

    2011-01-01

    Human rights abuses targeted towards LGBT persons constitute a global pattern of serious concern. Despite the fact that discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity is prohibited by various international, regional and national legal provisions, prejudices and stereotypes related to LGBT people significantly impede the implementation of non-discrimination laws. This study focuses on contemporary Serbia, and attempts to understand the role of public discourse in incitin...

  2. Sexism in Parenting Manuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrain, John D.

    1977-01-01

    Parental roles, as delineated in many of the popular parenting manuals on the market, are reviewed and assessed. It is concluded that the vast majority of authors of child-rearing guides implicity or explicitly endorse the traditional roles of father as the dominant breadwinner and mother as the nurturant caretaker. (Author)

  3. Science of Sexism?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    darshanw

    2015-06-20

    Jun 20, 2015 ... tive of the attitudes many of them have faced in ... This image of women scientists at ISRO celebrating the launch of the Mars orbiter ... engineers writing on social media about ... women to Indian science) and Prof. Shobhona ...

  4. Constructing nurses' professional identity through social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willetts, Georgina; Clarke, David

    2014-04-01

    The profession of nursing continues to struggle with defining and clarifying its professional identity. The definitive recognition of nursing as a profession was the moving of training from the hospital apprentice model to the tertiary sector. However, this is only part of the story of professional identity in nursing. Once training finishes and enculturation into the workplace commences, professional identity becomes a complicated social activity. This paper proposes social identity theory as a valuable research framework to assist with clarifying and describing the professional identity of nurses. The paper outlines the key elements of a profession and then goes on to describe the main concepts of social identity theory. Lastly, a connection is made between the usefulness of using social identity theory in researching professional identity in nursing, recognizing the contextual nature of the social activity of the profession within its workplace environment. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Scripting Professional Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bévort, Frans; Suddaby, Roy

    2016-01-01

    on a longitudinal ethnography of professionals in a Big Four accounting firm we analyse the process by which individual professionals make sense of their new roles and integrate the conflicting demands of professional and managerial logics. We find that individuals are active authors of their own identity scripts......This article examines how individual accountants subjectively interpret competing logics of professionalism as they transform from practicing accountants to managerial roles and as their organizations transform from traditional professional partnerships to more corporate organizational forms. Based....... We further observe considerable interpretive variation in how identity scripts are reproduced and enacted. We contribute to the emerging understanding of institutions as ‘inhabited’ by individuals and extend this literature by demonstrating that the institutional work of reinterpreting competing...

  6. LITERATURE AND IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Litričin Dunić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Literature can represent, on the one hand, the establishment of cultural and national identity, and, on the other hand, a constant indicator of the differences. Self-image and the image of the Other in literature is very important not only for understanding national character and preservation of cultural identity, but also for the release from ideological reading and stereotyping. Analyzing the image of the Other, research into the representation of the Balkans symbolically represents in the popular literature of the West, study of the cultural context and the processes that formed the writer’s perceptions that determine the establishment of stereotypes about Homo Balcanicus and many others, are all important tasks of imagological research, as well as the key research tasks conducted nowadays. In this paper we shall discuss some of these issues in the field of comparative literature.

  7. A general integral identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glasser, M L, E-mail: laryg@clarkson.edu [Department of Physics, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5820 (United States); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid 470071 (Spain)

    2011-06-03

    The identity {integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Phi}{integral}{sub 0}{sup {pi}/2}d{Theta} sin{Phi} F(x sn{Phi} sin{Phi})={pi}/2 {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}F(xt)dt, where F is any function, is derived. Several extensions are given and a few examples of physical interest are described.

  8. When less is more: Psychometric properties of Norwegian short-forms of the Ambivalent Sexism Scales (ASI and AMI) and the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance (IRMA) Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Mons; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports on the development and the psychometric properties of short forms of Ambivalent Sexism Scales toward women (ASI; Glick & Fiske, 1996) and men (AMI; Glick & Fiske, 1999), and a scale measuring rape stereotypes (IRMA; McMahon & Farmer, 2011). The short form AMI/ASI were applied for examining gender and educational differences in university students (N = 512) and in high school students (N = 1381), and for predicting individual differences in rape stereotypes in the latter. The short forms demonstrated good to excellent psychometric properties across samples of emerging adults. Relative to female students, male students reported markedly more hostility toward women and more stereotypical beliefs about rape. Despite sampling from a highly gender egalitarian and secular culture, these gender differences are on a par with those reported internationally. Rape stereotypes were predicted by sexism in high school students. Additional predictors were educational program, relationship status, and acceptance of derogatory sexual slurs. The paper questions the validity of separate constructs for benevolent sexism toward women versus men. The short form versions of the scales may substitute the original versions in future research, and help prevent attrition while measuring the same constructs. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Identity, History, Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surovtsev V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of historical narratives in the formation of identity. Rüsen’s thesis on the contradiction of traditional historical identities that suggest an ethnocentric position with the processes of intercultural communication is analyzed. The potential of historical narratives in overcoming (or restricting ethnocentrism is considered. It is shown that ethnocentrism is constituted by kinds of the configuration of historical writing rather than by a subjective position of historical narrative authors. The types of stories suggest a the way of making history using only the criteria of success and failure in the interpretation of the past; b interpretation of history as teleological continuity; c merely the necessity to justify (to substantiate claims or to discredit something. It is alleged that the realization that the form of historical knowledge constructs, not discovers, can facilitate liberation from referential fallacy on the whole and enslavement by certain kinds of stories in particular. It is concluded that the recognition of the constitutive nature of historical narratives allows being independent from the traditional forms of historical knowledge and traditional ideas about their cultural value. In particular, it allows reconsidering the need to apply historical knowledge when constructing identity.

  10. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  11. "Homosexuality/Homophobia Is Un-African"?: Un-Mapping Transnational Discourses in the Context of Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Bill/Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Amar

    2016-01-01

    This article un-maps the recent impasse between pro- and antigay mobilization around Uganda's Anti-Homosexuality Act (AHA, 2009-2014). Drawing on scholarly and social media sources, it summarizes the increasing influence of (U.S.) transnational evangelism that has precipitated a state-religious complex of "anticipatory political homophobia" in Uganda. If transnational evangelism against same-sex sexuality in Uganda has generated a strong reaction from global LGBT human-rights advocates, this article critiques this Western homotransnationalist response by analyzing its limited terms of operation, focusing on the ways in which Uganda is hailed into the biopolitical project of a Western queer modernity. The author focuses on the copresence between homotransnationalist mobilization and "homophobic anticipatory countermobilization" as (re)organizing/suturing a global ordering project that is deeply invested in biopolitics and necropolitics. This suggests that the global flashpointing of Uganda in the context of the AHA incites further questions concerning the transnationality of "gay human rights" discourse under neoliberalism.

  12. Examining the Conditions Under Which Internalized Homophobia Is Associated with Substance Use and Condomless Sex in Young MSM: the Moderating Role of Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-08-01

    Internalized homophobia (IH) is the internalization of homophobic attitudes by sexual minorities due to social bias. IH has been inconsistently related to substance use and condomless sex for young men who have sex with men (YMSM). We examined negative urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative emotional experiences), positive urgency (the tendency to act impulsively in response to positive emotional experiences), and sensation seeking as independent moderators of the association of IH with binge drinking, drug use, and condomless anal sex. Data were collected from 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) over the course of 18 months (baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up). Hierarchical generalized linear modeling revealed that there was a significant moderation for binge drinking and receptive condomless anal sex, with the association between IH and these risk behaviors increased for those with higher levels of negative urgency and positive urgency. IH is important to the negative health outcomes of binge drinking and condomless anal sex for individuals high in negative and/or positive urgency, who may act impulsively to avoid subjective negative experiences or in the face of positive emotional experiences. Future research is needed to further establish additional conditions under which IH may be important to understanding risk behaviors in YMSM, which is essential to developing targeted prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Exploring risk behaviors and vulnerability for HIV among men who have sex with men in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire: poor knowledge, homophobia and sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011-2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence.

  14. Exploring Risk Behaviors and Vulnerability for HIV among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire: Poor Knowledge, Homophobia and Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aho, Josephine; Hakim, Avi; Vuylsteke, Bea; Semde, Gisèle; Gbais, Honorat G.; Diarrassouba, Mamadou; Thiam, Marguerite; Laga, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV. Few data are available on MSM and HIV-related risk behaviors in West Africa. We aimed to describe risk behaviors and vulnerability among MSM in Abidjan, Cote d′Ivoire. We conducted a cross-sectional respondent-driven sampling survey with 601 MSM in 2011–2012. Sociodemographic and behavioural data as well as data related to emotional state and stigma were collected. Population estimates with 95% confidence intervals were produced. Survey weighted logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with inconsistent condom use in the prior 12 months. Most MSM were 24 years of age or younger (63.9%) and had attained at least primary education (84.4%). HIV risk behaviors such as low condom and water-based lubricant use, high numbers of male and female sex partners, and sex work were frequently reported as well as verbal, physical and sexual abuse. Inconsistent condom use during anal sex with a male partner in the prior 12 months was reported by 66.0% of the MSM and was positively associated with history of forced sex, alcohol consumption, having a regular partner and a casual partner, having bought sex, and self-perception of low HIV risk. MSM in Abidjan exhibit multiple and frequent HIV-related risk behaviors. To address those behaviours, a combination of individual but also structural interventions will be needed given the context of stigma, homophobia and violence. PMID:24959923

  15. The Impact of Victimization and Neuroticism on Mental Health in Young Men who have Sex with Men: Internalized Homophobia as an Underlying Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-09-01

    Sexual minorities experience greater mental health issues compared to heterosexuals due to minority stressors. This study focused on the impact of victimization and neuroticism on mental health in young men who have sex with men (YMSM), and the mediating role of internalized homophobia (IH). IH refers to when a sexual minority person internalizes social bias and develops a negative view of themselves, which is a likely process through which victimization and neuroticism impact mental health. Data were collected over three time points across 12 months, with 450 YMSM (mean age = 18.9) and an 80.7% retention rate. Two mediation analyses with bias-corrected bootstrapping using 1000 samples were conducted, controlling for age, race, and sexual orientation. Results revealed that victimization [ F (9, 440) = 4.83, p < .001, R 2 = .09] and neuroticism [ F (9, 440) = 12.23, p < .001, R 2 = .20] had a significant indirect effect on mental health via increased levels of IH. These findings show how external experiences of stigma and personality level characteristics may impact YMSM in terms of their sense of self. Furthermore, these results support addressing social conditions that marginalize YMSM in order to promote better mental health through decreasing IH.

  16. Internalized Homophobia and Perceived Stigma: A Validation Study of Stigma Measures in a Sample of Young Men who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Jae A; Newcomb, Michael E; Ryan, Daniel T; Swann, Greg; Garofalo, Robert; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-03-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience minority stressors that impact their mental health, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Internalized homophobia (IH) and perceived stigma represent two of these minority stressors, and there has been limited research empirically validating measures of these constructs. We validated measures of IH and perceived stigma with a sample of 450 YMSM (mean age=18.9) and a sample of 370 YMSM (mean age=22.9). Results from exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported modifications to the IH and perceived stigma scales, ultimately revealing a three factor and one factor structure, respectively. Convergent and discriminant validity were examined utilizing correlations between IH, perceived stigma, and other variables related to minority stress (e.g., victimization). We evaluated predictive validity by examining relations with mental health, substance use, and risky sexual behaviors measured 12-months from baseline. There were mixed findings for IH, with subscales varying in their relations to mental health, drinking, and sexual risk variables. Perceived stigma was not related to mental health or substance use, but was associated with greater prevalence of STIs. Findings supported the use of these modified scales with YMSM and highlight the need for further measurement studies.

  17. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination.

  18. Entrepreneurship Education as Identity Workspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education theory and practice show increasing interest in identity work as an important part of entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship programs become identity workspaces where pedagogical designs stimulate entrepreneurial identity work and support individuals’ discovery...... of themselves as entrepreneurs. This article investigates how entrepreneurship education is practiced as an identity workspace, when reflective identity work is turned into a pedagogical strategy for entrepreneurial learning. I present empirical data from a qualitative fieldstudy in an eleven week mandatory...... and identities. Exposed to identity work practices in class, learners experienced conflicting demands participating as succesful students and participating as potential entrepreneurs. The study draws attention to how an education setting contextualises identity work as a social practice. It critisises...

  19. An 'open source' networked identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of identity in relation to youth practices on social network sites (SNS). The paper illustrates how writing “I love you” or other emotional statements on each other’s profiles on SNS is not only a common way for Danish teenagers to communicate and practice friendship...... communicative actions – are not only performing their own identity, but are becoming co-constructors of each other's identities, which the author characterizes as an 'open source' networked identity....

  20. Social Identity and Group Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...

  1. Social identity process within organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Bazarov, Takhir; Kuzmina, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Expanding and complex social realities cause new types of identity. Variety in organizations and workgroups (where people are involved), implies a special kind of social identity which can be defined as professional, organizational or managerial. The study of the social identity processes in organizations is a new interdisciplinary sphere that is presented especially commonly in European Social Psychology. The result of its theoretical comprehension is Social Identity Theory. In the article l...

  2. John locke on personal identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  3. John Locke on Personal Identity**

    OpenAIRE

    Nimbalkar, Namita

    2011-01-01

    John Locke speaks of personal identity and survival of consciousness after death. A criterion of personal identity through time is given. Such a criterion specifies, insofar as that is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the survival of persons. John Locke holds that personal identity is a matter of psychological continuity. He considered personal identity (or the self) to be founded on consciousness (viz. memory), and not on the substance of either the soul or the body.

  4. Identity Development in Deaf Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in seven deaf adolescents who attended a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 18 years), administering identity interviews every year. Identity development is conceptualized as the processes of exploration and commitment formation (Bosma,…

  5. Queering Black Racial Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Alandis A.; Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    We used queer theory to encourage readers to think differently about previous theories about Black racial identity development. Queer theory facilitates new and deeper understandings of how Black people develop their racial identities, prompting more fluidity and nuance. Specifically, we present a queered model of Black racial identity development…

  6. Social Identity Simulation System (SISTEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-31

    Report Individuation Individuation refers to when an individual attempts to preserve self-esteem by psychologically separating oneself from a...its expected costs. The following subsections describe various strategies of social identity entrepreneurship in more detail. Calling for...Haslam, S. A., & Reicher, S. (2007). Identity Entrepreneurship and the consequences of identity failure: the dynamics of leadership in the BBC prison

  7. Identity theft and your practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a growing problem in America. The federal government has passed laws to help "prevent" identity theft. However, several powerful medical associations are fighting the legislation. Americans need to know what is happening with these laws and why these laws are important to protect providers from lawsuits and consumers of healthcare from medical identity theft.

  8. Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A; Halloran, Michael J; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then measured the effect of the prime on self-stereotyping and ingroup favouritism. The findings showed significant differences in social identity across adolescent groups, in that social identity effects were relatively strong in early- and late-adolescents, particularly when peer group identity rather than gender identity was salient. While these effects were consistent with the experience of change in educational social context, differences in cognitive style were only weakly related to ingroup favouritism. The implications of the findings for theory and future research on social identity during adolescence are discussed. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  10. Keeping identity private

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    information. On the other hand, consumers have expressed concerns that their rights and ability to control their personal information are violated. Paradoxically, it appears that users provide personal data freely and willingly, as it has been observed on Facebook and other social networks. This study...... is an attempt to understand the relationship between individuals’ intentions to disclose personal information, their actual personal information disclosure behaviours, and how these can be leveraged to develop privacy-enhancing identity management systems (IDMS) that users can trust. Legal, regu...

  11. Identities at Odds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an interaction analytic account of how linguistic identities in internationalized workplaces in Denmark are indexed against members’ institutional positions in particular interactional settings. Where language policy may not be explicitly articulated between members, it is still....... The study uses recordings of naturally occurring interaction in different international workplace settings, and argues for greater attention to be paid to the actual language-policy practices in international workplace settings, as a entry point into developing a more nuanced understanding of the practices...

  12. Digital identity management

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent, Maryline

    2015-01-01

    In the past four decades, information technology has altered chains of value production, distribution, and information access at a significant rate. These changes, although they have shaken up numerous economic models, have so far not radically challenged the bases of our society.This book addresses our current progress and viewpoints on digital identity management in different fields (social networks, cloud computing, Internet of Things (IoT)), with input from experts in computer science, law, economics and sociology. Within this multidisciplinary and scientific context, having crossed analys

  13. Identity Management A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Sharoni, Ilan; Williamson, Graham; Yip, David

    2009-01-01

    In an age in which the boundaries between the real and the virtual are becoming increasingly blurred, this timely guide teaches both the key issues of identity management as well as appropriate strategies and preventative measures for ensuring personal safety in the virtual world. In a corporate setting, it is essential to identify and control the way in which the organization deals with customers, suppliers, employees, and other users who may interact with the information systems of the company. Providing strategies for overcoming this task in real-world terms as well as questions that assist

  14. Identities in Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Clua i Fainé

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Young Catalans in London build their identity as immigrants in a close dialectic between their own imaginary about immigration in their country of origin and British perceptions of them. Given the negative stigma attached to the category of «immigrant», not all recognise themselves as such. Some simply refuse to acknowledge they belong to this category, while others use the projection of prejudices on immigrants towards Spaniards as a strategy from which they distance themselves by establishing a distinction between Catalans and Spaniards.

  15. Identity style and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development.

  16. Identity and the Management Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg; Dehlin, Erlend

    The paper discusses the concept of identity in relation to management. We take our starting point in Wittgenstein’s concept language games. We argue that identity is a question of using linguistic tools to construct reality. Two elements of the language game metaphor are central here: rules...... and family resemblance. As such, managing identity in organizations is closely linked to rules and family resemblance. Organizations manage identity through the definition of norms and values for right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate, to name but a few. Norms and values are important as reference...... points for constructing identities. Managing identity has become more important because the rules-of-the-game have become more unstable. Managing identity is important if the bonds between individuals and organizations are to be sustained. But this task is contradictory and paradoxical of its very nature...

  17. Online Identities and Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru; Ali, Bader; Ozguven, Hatice; Lord, Julien

    Online identities play a critical role in the social web that is taking shape on the Internet. Despite many technical proposals for creating and managing online identities, none has received widespread acceptance. Design and implementation of online identities that are socially acceptable on the Internet remains an open problem. This chapter discusses the interplay between online identities and social networking. Online social networks (OSNs) are growing at a rapid pace and has millions of members in them. While the recent trend is to create explicit OSNs such as Facebook and MySpace, we also have implicit OSNs such as interaction graphs created by email and instant messaging services. Explicit OSNs allow users to create profiles and use them to project their identities on the web. There are many interesting identity related issues in the context of social networking including how OSNs help and hinder the definition of online identities.

  18. It Was Too Rare To Be Normal : The Impact of Off-Stage Characters, Homosexuality and Homophobia in A Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Hege Linnerud

    2012-01-01

    Tennessee Williams’ on-stage characters have been given much attention by the critics, yet the off-stage characters that exist only as a memory are sometimes forgotten. The theme homosexuality is shown through Williams’ off-stage characters, as well as the homophobia we encounter, which is triggered by the deaths of these two. My main objective is to look at Allan Grey in A Streetcar Named Desire and Skipper in Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and their function in the two plays. It is remarkable how Wi...

  19. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    2011-11-01

    HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada. We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender) described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal), meso (social/community), and macro (organizational/political) realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro), social networks and support groups (meso), and challenging stigma (macro). HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and discrimination

  20. HIV, gender, race, sexual orientation, and sex work: a qualitative study of intersectional stigma experienced by HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen H Logie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection rates are increasing among marginalized women in Ontario, Canada. HIV-related stigma, a principal factor contributing to the global HIV epidemic, interacts with structural inequities such as racism, sexism, and homophobia. The study objective was to explore experiences of stigma and coping strategies among HIV-positive women in Ontario, Canada.We conducted a community-based qualitative investigation using focus groups to understand experiences of stigma and discrimination and coping methods among HIV-positive women from marginalized communities. We conducted 15 focus groups with HIV-positive women in five cities across Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis to enhance understanding of the lived experiences of diverse HIV-positive women. Focus group participants (n = 104; mean age = 38 years; 69% ethnic minority; 23% lesbian/bisexual; 22% transgender described stigma/discrimination and coping across micro (intra/interpersonal, meso (social/community, and macro (organizational/political realms. Participants across focus groups attributed experiences of stigma and discrimination to: HIV-related stigma, sexism and gender discrimination, racism, homophobia and transphobia, and involvement in sex work. Coping strategies included resilience (micro, social networks and support groups (meso, and challenging stigma (macro.HIV-positive women described interdependent and mutually constitutive relationships between marginalized social identities and inequities such as HIV-related stigma, sexism, racism, and homo/transphobia. These overlapping, multilevel forms of stigma and discrimination are representative of an intersectional model of stigma and discrimination. The present findings also suggest that micro, meso, and macro level factors simultaneously present barriers to health and well being--as well as opportunities for coping--in HIV-positive women's lives. Understanding the deleterious effects of stigma and

  1. Identity at work: Exploring strategies for Identity Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron G. Adams

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explored strategies for identity work that are central to the negotiation and regulation of employee work identity.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to explore employee narratives and identify the strategies available to them in the process of identity work, as they defined themselves at work.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on identity work in South Africa, this study wanted to advance knowledge about identity work and the strategies used for regulating and negotiating an identity at work by exploring these constructs in this context.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative research process formed the basis for this study. Nineteen employees from a global manufacturing company participated in two semi-structured in-depth interviews. Grounded theory was applied to analyse and interpret the data.Main findings: Nine strategies for identity work were identified and categorised into four broad themes (personal philosophies; relationships; career management and negotiating balance.Practical/managerial implications: Employees followed various strategies for defining themselves at work and this may have some implications for employee work engagement and productivity.Contribution/value-add: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge of identity work, and provides insights into the strategies people use to regulate and negotiate their identities at work. 

  2. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  4. Nostalgia and lost identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtova, Elena

    2013-02-01

    Nostalgia for the Soviet Union is a major social phenomenon in Russia today due to the irrevocable losses of the recent past in which Soviet citizens involuntarily became immigrants in their own country. With reference to discussions of nostalgia in philosophical and psychoanalytic literature, I suggest that nostalgia may represent either a defensive regression to the past or a progressive striving for wholeness through re-connecting with what has been lost in the service of a greater integration. I compare this with the processes of adaptation seen in immigrants and provide a clinical illustration of a young man coming to terms with loss and change in the post-Soviet era. When nostalgia is recognized as a legitimate emotional experience it may facilitate mourning and enable the integration of the past with the present and the development of a new identity. © 2013, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. Forging a Black identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Chevannes

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] The Rastafarians: sounds of cultural dissonance [revised and updated editionj. LEONARD E. BARRETT, SR. Boston: Beacon Press, 1988. xviii + 302 pp. (Paper US$ 11.95 Rasta and resistance: from Marcus Garvey to Walter Rodney. HORACE CAMPBELL. Trenton NJ: Africa World Press, 1987. xiii + 236 pp. (Cloth US$32.95, Paper US$ 10.95 Garvey's children: the legacy of Marcus Garvey. TONY SEWELL. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1990. 128 pp. (Paper £ 17.95 The central theme linking these three titles is the evolution of a black identity among English-speaking Caribbean peoples, in particular Jamaicans. Consequently all three authors cover the two most important historical phenomena in Caribbean black nationalism, namely Garveyism and Rastafari, one focusing on the former and the other two focusing on the latter.

  6. National and Transnational Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    within the Turkish minority in the three countries with special attention to the influence of transnational social transformation. Social communities and organisations such as trade unions, political parties or religious and cultural association have usually been ascribed the capability to enhance...... relations between individuals and to extend trust, values, identity and social belonging. Whether we focus on the individual and the value of face to face contact or we focus on the role of the organisation as an intervening institution between the state, the political system and the citizen...... in prolongation of the previous development. Conversely do the analyses of the Danish and German case show that models are not static. Denmark followed Sweden shortly after in introducing local voting rights for non-citizens and generally non-citizens enjoy considerable political, social and civic rights...

  7. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  8. Internalized Homophobia and Drug Use in a National Cohort of Gay and Bisexual Men: Examining Depression, Sexual Anxiety, and Gay Community Attachment as Mediating Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Raymond L; Starks, Tyrel J; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2018-05-01

    The minority stress process of internalized homophobia (IH) has been associated with a range of adverse health outcomes among gay and bisexual men (GBM). However, evidence is mixed regarding the effect of IH on drug use, suggesting the potential role of multiple mediated pathways. Researchers have linked depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment with IH. Depression, sexual anxiety, and gay community attachment have also been linked with drug use and drug-related problems suggesting potential mediating roles. A U.S. national sample of 1071 HIV-negative GBM completed at-home surveys, including measures of sociodemographic characteristics, IH, depression, sexual anxiety, gay community attachment, and drug use and associated problems. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, depression mediated the association between IH and recent drug use. IH was positively associated with depression, and depression was positively associated with recent drug use. Gay community attachment partially mediated drug-related problems. IH had a positive direct association with drug-related problems and a negative direct association with gay community attachment. Gay community attachment had a positive association with drug-related problems. IH was positively associated with sexual anxiety, but sexual anxiety was not associated with either drug outcome. Efforts to reduce IH among HIV-negative GBM are likely to have a positive impact on mental health problems, as well as reduce risk for drug use and drug-related problems. Gay communities could provide the social support necessary for reducing IH; however, emphasis on community level interventions that address factors that increase risk for drug-related problems remains important.

  9. Perancangan Corporate Identity Brotherwood Decoration

    OpenAIRE

    Ciputra, Ongky Permana; Bangsa, Petrus Gogor; Christianna, Aniendya

    2015-01-01

    Sebagai Perusahaan interior di Surabaya, “BROTHERWOOD” sedang membangun citra positif melalui penguatan corporate identity secara menyeluruh.Oleh karena itu “Brotherwood” memerlukan corporate identity dan mengaplikasikannya pada media promosi dan informasi yang sesuai dengan karakter dari target audience dan target market-nya.Dengan menggunakan corporate identity diharapkan “Brotherwood” menjadi lebih dikenal oleh target audience dan target market-nya sehingga membuat market “Brotherwood” men...

  10. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  11. Constructing leadership identities through stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Hersted, Lone

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the construction of leadership identities through stories found in four narrative interviews from a qualitative study and leadership development project based on social constructionism and action learning. We argue that leadership development and the construction of leadership...... that the concept of coauthoring is useful in developing leadership and leadership identities through reflexive dialogs and emerging stories....... identities in a postmodern paradigm are based on the negotiation and co-construction of meanings, relationships, and stories. The following questions are investigated: What happens when a group of leaders from different organizations construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct their identity as leaders through...

  12. Identity Support, Identity Devaluation, and Well-Being among Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Kristin P.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    2005-01-01

    This research tested predictions about the association of identity support and identity devaluation with psychological well-being (self-esteem, life satisfaction, and depression). Lesbian women completed baseline surveys (N=42), then provided daily experience reports during a 2-week period (n=38), and completed a 2-month follow-up survey (n=34).…

  13. Social Identity Change: Shifts in Social Identity during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Chris; Stukas, Arthur A.; Halloran, Michael J.; Foddy, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the proposition that adolescence involves significant shifts in social identity as a function of changes in social context and cognitive style. Using an experimental design, we primed either peer or gender identity with a sample of 380 early- (12-13 years), mid- (15-16 years), and late-adolescents (18-20 years) and then…

  14. Identity Theft - The National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legislative Liaison Small Business Programs Social Media State Websites Videos Featured Videos On Every Front identity theft you discover someone is still fraudulently using your Social Security Number, you can Features Blended Retirement System Diversity Features by Year Identity Theft Posture Statement State

  15. Play Memories and Place Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study examined play memories from childhood to adulthood of 478 university students between ages 20 and 62 as exhibited in drawings of play memories and questionnaire responses. The study focused on the role of the physical environment and place identity in play memories and individual identity development. Findings showed that…

  16. Social Identity and Group Contests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social

  17. Identity development in deaf adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, E. Saskia

    2014-01-01

    We studied identity development during 5 years in 11 deaf adolescents who attend a school for deaf children in the highest level of regular secondary education (age between 14 and 19 years). Identity development is conceptualized by the processes of exploration and commitment formation, as

  18. Exploring Leader Identity and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Kerry L; Middleton, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Taking on a leader identity can be a motivating force for pursuing leader development. This chapter explores the reciprocal and recursive nature of identity development and leader development, emphasizing how shifting views of self influence one's motivation to develop as a leader. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  19. Gender identity development in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensma, Thomas D; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; de Vries, Annelou L C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence".This article aims to provide an outline of what is currently known on trajectories, and contributing factors to gender identity development in adolescence. We give a historical overview of the concept of gender identity, and describe general identity development in adolescence, gender identity development in the general population and in gender variant youth. Possible psychosocial (such as child and parental characteristics) and biological factors (such as the effects of prenatal exposure to gonadal hormones and the role of genetics) contributing to a gender variant identity are discussed. Studies focusing on a number of psychosocial and biological factors separately, indicate that each of these factors influence gender identity formation, but little is known about the complex interplay between the factors, nor about the way individuals themselves contribute to the process. Research into normative and gender variant identity development of adolescents is clearly lagging behind. However, studies on persons with gender dysphoria and disorders of sex development, show that the period of adolescence, with its changing social environment and the onset of physical puberty, seems to be crucial for the development of a non-normative gender identity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Generalized Cherednik-Macdonald identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    We derive generalizations of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term identities associated to root systems which depend, besides on the usual Multiplicity function, symmetrically on two additional parameters omega +/-. They are natural analogues of the Cherednik-Macdonald constant term q-identities in