WorldWideScience

Sample records for identifying policy implications

  1. A Case Study with an Identified Bully: Policy and Practice Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huddleston, Lillie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bullying is a serious public health problem that may include verbal or physical injury as well as social isolation or exclusion. As a result, research is needed to establish a database for policies and interventions designed to prevent bullying and its negative effects. This paper presented a case study that contributed to the literature by describing an intervention for bullies that has implications for research, practice and related policies regarding bullying.Methods: An individualized intervention for an identified bully was implemented using the Participatory Culture-Specific Intervention Model (PCSIM; Nastasi, Moore, & Varjas, 2004 with a seventh-grade middle school student. Ecological and culture-specific perspectives were used to develop and implement the intervention that included psychoeducational sessions with the student and consultation with the parent and school personnel. A mixed methods intervention design was used with the following informants: the target student, the mother of the student, a teacher and the school counselor. Qualitative data included semi-structured interviews with the parent, teacher and student, narrative classroom observations and evaluation/feedback forms filled out by the student and interventionist. Quantitative data included the following quantitative surveys (i.e., Child Posttraumatic Stress Reaction Index [CPTS-RI] and the Behavior Assessment Scale for Children, 2nd Edition. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used to evaluate the acceptability, integrity and efficacy of this intervention.Results: The process of intervention design, implementation and evaluation are described through an illustrative case study. Qualitative and quantitative findings indicated a decrease in internalizing, externalizing and bullying behaviors as reported by the teacher and the mother, and a high degree of acceptability and treatment integrity as reported by multiple stakeholders.Conclusion: This case

  2. Identifying optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices: implications for policy, practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, Anna R; Umoquit, Muriah; Lehoux, Pascale; Ross, Sue; Ducey, Ariel; Urbach, David R

    2013-03-01

    Non-drug technologies offer many benefits, but have been associated with adverse events, prompting calls for improved postmarket surveillance. There is little empirical research to guide the development of such a system. The purpose of this study was to identify optimal postmarket surveillance strategies for medical and surgical devices. Qualitative methods were used for sampling, data collection and analysis. Stakeholders from Canada and the USA representing different roles and perspectives were first interviewed to identify examples and characteristics of different surveillance strategies. These stakeholders and others they recommended were then assembled at a 1-day nominal group meeting to discuss and prioritise the components of a postmarket device surveillance system, and research needed to achieve such a system. Consultations were held with 37 participants, and 47 participants attended the 1-day meeting. They recommended a multicomponent system including reporting by facilities, clinicians and patients, supported with some external surveillance for validation and real-time trials for high-risk devices. Many considerations were identified that constitute desirable characteristics of, and means by which to implement such a system. An overarching network was envisioned to broker linkages, establish a shared minimum dataset, and support communication and decision making. Numerous research questions were identified, which could be pursued in tandem with phased implementation of the system. These findings provide unique guidance for establishing a device safety network that is based on existing initiatives, and could be expanded and evaluated in a prospective, phased fashion as it was developed.

  3. Policy implications for familial searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  4. Policy implications for familial searching

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforce...

  5. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  6. Identifying and Reconciling Risk Across Sectors: The implications of differing views of risk in climate policy, environmental conservation, and the finance sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, T.; Henderson, I.; Thoumi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence and valuation of risk are commonalities that link the diverse fields of climate change science and policy, environmental conservation, and the financial/investment sector. However, the definition and perception of risks vary widely across these critically linked fields. The "Stranded Asset" concept developed by organizations like the Carbon Tracker Initiative begins to elucidate the links between climate change risk and financial risk. Stranded assets are those that may lose some or all value from climate disruption, changes in demand-side dynamics and/or a more stringent regulatory environment. In order to shift financial flows toward climate change mitigation, emissions-heavy activities that present finance and investment opportunities must also be assessed for their GHG-asset risk attributes in terms of their contribution and vulnerability to climate disruption, as well as other environmental externalities. Until the concept of GHG-asset risk in investment is reconciled with the risks of climate change and environmental conservation, it will not be possible to shift business and financial practices, and unlock private sector resources to address the climate change and conservation challenge. UNEP-FI is researching the application of the concept of Value-atRisk (VaR) to explore links between the financial sector and deforestation/REDD+. The research will test the hypothesis that climate risk is a financial risk, and propose tools to identify and quantify risks associated with unsustainable land-use investments. The tools developed in this research will help investors, managers and governments assess their exposures to the material REDD-related risks in their portfolios. This will inform the development of 'zero net deforestation' investment indices to allow investors to lower the 'deforestation' exposure of 'benchmark' financial indices used by many of the largest money managers. A VaR analysis will be performed, combining the notion of externality

  7. Economic and policy implications of pandemic influenza.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Starks, Shirley J.; Loose, Verne W.; Brown, Theresa Jean; Warren, Drake E.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-03-01

    Pandemic influenza has become a serious global health concern; in response, governments around the world have allocated increasing funds to containment of public health threats from this disease. Pandemic influenza is also recognized to have serious economic implications, causing illness and absence that reduces worker productivity and economic output and, through mortality, robs nations of their most valuable assets - human resources. This paper reports two studies that investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic flu outbreak. Policy makers can use the growing number of economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. Experts recognize that pandemic influenza has serious global economic implications. The illness causes absenteeism, reduced worker productivity, and therefore reduced economic output. This, combined with the associated mortality rate, robs nations of valuable human resources. Policy makers can use economic impact estimates to decide how much to spend to combat the pandemic influenza outbreaks. In this paper economists examine two studies which investigate both the short- and long-term economic implications of a pandemic influenza outbreak. Resulting policy implications are also discussed. The research uses the Regional Economic Modeling, Inc. (REMI) Policy Insight + Model. This model provides a dynamic, regional, North America Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry-structured framework for forecasting. It is supported by a population dynamics model that is well-adapted to investigating macro-economic implications of pandemic influenza, including possible demand side effects. The studies reported in this paper exercise all of these capabilities.

  8. Policy Implementation: Implications for Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, Amy; Cargo, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Policy implementation reflects a complex change process where government decisions are transformed into programs, procedures, regulations, or practices aimed at social betterment. Three factors affecting contemporary implementation processes are explored: networked governance, sociopolitical context and the democratic turn, and new public…

  9. Policy implications of technologies for cognitive enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarewitz, Daniel R. (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Karas, Thomas H.

    2007-02-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group at Sandia National Laboratory and the Consortium for Science, Policy and Outcomes at Arizona State University convened a workshop in May 2006 to explore the potential policy implications of technologies that might enhance human cognitive abilities. The group's deliberations sought to identify core values and concerns raised by the prospect of cognitive enhancement. The workshop focused on the policy implications of various prospective cognitive enhancements and on the technologies/nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive science--that enable them. The prospect of rapidly emerging technological capabilities to enhance human cognition makes urgent a daunting array of questions, tensions, ambitions, and concerns. The workshop elicited dilemmas and concerns in ten overlapping areas: science and democracy; equity and justice; freedom and control; intergenerational issues; ethics and competition; individual and community rights; speed and deliberations; ethical uncertainty; humanness; and sociocultural risk. We identified four different perspectives to encompass the diverse issues related to emergence of cognitive enhancement technologies: (1) Laissez-faire--emphasizes freedom of individuals to seek and employ enhancement technologies based on their own judgment; (2) Managed technological optimism--believes that while these technologies promise great benefits, such benefits cannot emerge without an active government role; (3) Managed technological skepticism--views that the quality of life arises more out of society's institutions than its technologies; and (4) Human Essentialism--starts with the notion of a human essence (whether God-given or evolutionary in origin) that should not be modified. While the perspectives differ significantly about both human nature and the role of government, each encompasses a belief in the value of transparency and reliable information that can allow public discussion and

  10. Market-Driven Management: the Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The first policy implication of the diffusion of a Market-Driven Management approach is the same as the spreading of globalization, i.e. the obsolescence of industrial policies as traditionally designed and managed by Nation-States with the established toolbox of protectionism and subsidies, picking 'national champions', etc. The growing asymmetry between the physical jurisdiction of political bodies and the global operation space of modern corporations feeds the apparent trend toward company...

  11. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  12. From Invisibility to Transparency: Identifying the Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Turner

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the need for a broader and more inclusive approach to decisions about land and resources, one that recognizes the legitimacy of cultural values and traditional knowledge in environmental decision making and policy. Invisible losses are those not widely recognized or accounted for in decisions about resource planning and decision making in resource- and land-use negotiations precisely because they involve considerations that tend to be ignored by managers and scientists or because they are often indirect or cumulative, resulting from a complex, often cumulative series of events, decisions, choices, or policies. First Nations communities in western North America have experienced many such losses that, together, have resulted in a decline in the overall resilience of individuals and communities. We have identified eight types invisible losses that are often overlapping and cumulative: cultural/lifestyle losses, loss of identity, health losses, loss of self-determination and influence, emotional and psychological losses, loss of order in the world, knowledge losses, and indirect economic losses and lost opportunities. To render such invisible losses more transparent, which represents the first step in developing a more positive and equitable basis for decision making and negotiations around land and resources, we recommend six processes: focusing on what matters to the people affected, describing what matters in meaningful ways, making a place for these concerns in decision making, evaluating future losses and gains from a historical baseline, recognizing culturally derived values as relevant, and creating better alternatives for decision making so that invisible losses will be diminished or eliminated in the future.

  13. Income inequality: Implications and relevant economic policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution is to discuss closely the implications of income inequality and the economic policies to tackle it, especially so in view of inequality being one of the main causes of the 2007/2008 international financial crisis and the “great recession” that subsequently emerged. Wealth inequality is also important in this respect, but the focus is on income inequality. Ever since the financial crisis and the subsequent “great recession”, inequality of income, and wealth, has increased and the demand for economic policy initiatives to produce a more equal distribution of income and wealth has become more urgent. Such reduction would help to increase the level of economic activity as has been demonstrated again more recently. A number of economic policy initiatives for this purpose will be the focus of this contribution.

  14. Categorizing the telehealth policy response of countries and their implications for complementarity of telehealth policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Sunil; Scott, Richard E

    2004-01-01

    Developing countries are exploring the role of telehealth to overcome the challenges of providing adequate health care services. However, this process faces disparities, and no complementarity in telehealth policy development. Telehealth has the potential to transcend geopolitical boundaries, yet telehealth policy developed in one jurisdiction may hamper applications in another. Understanding such policy complexities is essential for telehealth to realize its full global potential. This study investigated 12 East Asian countries that may represent a microcosm of the world, to determine if the telehealth policy response of countries could be categorized, and whether any implications could be identified for the development of complementary telehealth policy. The countries were Cambodia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Three categories of country response were identified in regard to national policy support and development. The first category was "None" (Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam) where international partners, driven by humanitarian concerns, lead telehealth activity. The second category was "Proactive" (China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand) where national policies were designed with the view that telehealth initiatives are a component of larger development objectives. The third was "Reactive" (Hong Kong and Japan), where policies were only proffered after telehealth activities were sustainable. It is concluded that although complementarity of telehealth policy development is not occurring, increased interjurisdictional telehealth activity, regional clusters, and concerted and coordinated effort amongst researchers, practitioners, and policy makers may alter this trend.

  15. Policy Implications of Air Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinbaum, C.

    2004-12-01

    While an integrated assessment approach will be required to achieve and sustain improvements in the air quality of Mexico City Metropolitan Area's (MCMA), policy strategies must be based on a solid understanding of the pollutant emissions and atmospheric processes that lead to unacceptable levels of air pollution. The required level of understanding can only be achieved by comprehensive atmospheric measurements followed by a coordinated atmospheric modeling program. The innovative, two-phase atmospheric measurement program, which was a collaborative effort between Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Mexican Metropolitan Environmental Commission, with exploratory measurements in February 2002 and extensive measurements from late March through early May of 2003, was an important step towards meeting these requirements. Although the extensive data sets from the two measurement programs are still being analyzed by the investigators, their preliminary analysis efforts have yielded important insights into the nature and extent of air pollution problem in the MCMA, which in turn will have important policy implications.

  16. Identifying Priorities for Aging Policies in Two Portuguese Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárrios, Maria João; Fernandes, Ana Alexandre; Fonseca, António Manuel

    2018-02-20

    The aging population has an impact on health, social, and economic issues in regard to individuals, communities, and organizations. The challenge for local policies in response to aging is to create sufficient resources to meet the population's needs, wishes, and rights as people age. Active aging constitutes one of the guiding perspectives on policies. Taking into account the local governance perspective, the Model for Aging Local Policies Analysis (MALPA) was created in order to convert the active aging paradigm into a practical approach, as a technique to evaluate and analyze local aging policies. In this research, the MALPA instrument was applied in two Portuguese communities (Coruche and Oeiras). The objective was to identify the intervention priorities of aging policies in both communities, determining whether the instrument can facilitate the development of proposals for the improvement of local aging policies. It was possible to evaluate the communities and programs, identifying the least appropriate policy actions regarding the intervention priorities. The results allowed us to identify 10 priorities about collaborative governance, involvement of the elderly in the policy-making process, lifelong learning, economic hardship, policies for all ages, isolated vulnerable and fragile groups, intergenerational contacts, safety in all policies, labor opportunities, and conditions and transport network improvement.

  17. The Policy Delphi: A Method for Identifying Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, R. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a rarely utilized but effective technique for identifying intended and unintended consequences of past or current policy or policy change. The author guides the reader through the process of identifying potential participants, contacting participants, developing the policy Delphi instrument, and analyzing the findings by…

  18. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2006-01-01

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  19. Implications of Canadian oil tax policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, G H

    1983-01-01

    This thesis examines some of the implications of the policy initiatives taken by both levels of government during the 1974-80 period (i.e., from the OPEC oil embargo and subsequent quadrupling of posted world oil prices to the introduction of the National Energy Program, or NEP). A survey of the fiscal instruments employed by both the federal and the oil-producing provincial levels of government to distribute the oil revenues generated in Canada is presented. The focus of this survey is primarily on the pre-NEP regime and the immediate post-NEP regime. The remainder of the thesis then deals with some of the distributional and efficiency aspects of these tax regimes. The thesis also examines the economic efficiency aspects of the pre- and post-NEP tax regimes. In particular, it addresses the issue of an inefficient allocation of resources within the oil industry itself.

  20. Definitions of fuel poverty: Implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines why the definition of fuel poverty is important in policy formulation and describes how the Government's current definitions evolved from the original concept. It discusses the determination of income and fuel costs and the possibilities for a relative and common European measure. It examines problems inherent in assessing fuel costs as a percentage of income and puts forward the arguments for a ‘budget standard’ approach. The paper illustrates how the size of the problem depends on the definition and chosen threshold and suggests advantages for a rating scale. It illustrates how the income composition and thresholds also govern the distribution of the target populations and the relative importance of the main causal factors, and examines the consequent policy implications. It explores the definition of vulnerable households and the importance of severity and questions whether the UK fuel poverty strategy is targeted at households least able to afford their fuel costs (as the name implies) or primarily those at risk from excess winter and summer mortality and morbidity. Finally, after examining the role of supplementary indicators, it looks at the opportunities for changing the definition and comments on the Government review of the definition and targets. - Highlights: ► There are major failings in the existing official definitions of fuel poverty. ► expressing fuel costs as a percentage of income is a poor indicator of fuel poverty. ► A budget standard approach provides a more consistent, meaningful and fairer measure. ► The scale and nature of the problem changes dramatically with different definitions. ► The definition is crucial to the mix of policies and allocation of resources required.

  1. Evidence-based policy: implications for nursing and policy involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair

    2008-11-01

    Evidence-based policy making is espoused as a central feature of government in the United Kingdom. However, an expectation that this will improve the quality of policy produced and provide a path to increased involvement of nurses in the policy process is misplaced. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the emphasis on evidence-based policy is problematic and cannot be regarded as a "new model" of policy making. Also, it could deflect attention from more practical approaches to policy involvement on the part of nurses. Policy development activities, acquisition of skills in policy analysis, and other forms of involvement are needed if nurses are to move along the continuum from policy literacy, through policy acumen, to policy competence. This involves taking a critical stance on the notion of evidence-based policy.

  2. Dependence on carbonated water: Clinical and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of caffeine dependence syndrome with preference for a specific brand of carbonated water (popularly known as soft drinks or colas is discussed to highlight the clinical and policy implications.

  3. Review of automated vehicle technology : policy and implementation implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    The goals of this project were to undergo a systematic review of automated vehicle technologies with a focus on policy : implications, methods of implementation, regulation by states, and developments occurring on legal fronts, ultimately creating a ...

  4. Financial Frictions and Real Implications of Macroprudential Policies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 26 (2012), s. 333-368 ISSN 1555-4961 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Debt * Equity * Bank * Default * Macroprudential policy Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/Derviz-financial frictions and real implications of macroprudential policies.pdf

  5. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for Sustainable Development. Good Wilson. Abstract. Given the prevailing view that population policy has the potentials to reduce pressure of population on development and the attendant improvement of the welfare of people in society now and in the future, ...

  6. Drug Testing in Schools: Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Public concern about substance abuse, fueled by political and media attention, is causing school administrators to consider a variety of approaches beyond traditional drug education. No procedures, methods, or rules regarding drug testing should be established in the absence of clear school board policy, and no policy decisions should be made…

  7. Fiscal policy and its implications for monetary and financial stability

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2011-01-01

    The BIS 10th Annual Conference took place in Lucerne, Switzerland on 23-24 June 2011. The event brought together senior representatives of central banks and academic institutions, who exchanged views on the conference theme of "Fiscal policy and its implications for monetary and financial stability". This volume contains the opening address of Stephen Cecchetti (Economic Adviser, BIS), a keynote address from Martin Feldstein, and the contributions of the policy panel on "Fiscal policy sustain...

  8. The cross-country implications of alternative climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Aijun; Du, Nan; Wei, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Because of worldwide growing concerns about global climate change, great interest has been expressed in the potential of alternative climate policies to reduce global carbon emissions. In this paper, we compare cross-country implications of alternative climate policies, including unilateral and multilateral climate policies. Our main findings are as follows. Firstly, there are large differences in cross-country effects of alternative unilateral climate policies, when the same given carbon emission reductions are achieved in each abating country respectively. Meanwhile, cross-border externalities undermine efficiency of unilateral climate policies. Secondly, there are significant differences in cross-country implications of alternative multilateral climate policies, when the same global emission reductions are allocated in several different ways among abating countries. Thirdly, it is difficult to reach a stable global climate treaty, since any abating country has the incentive to argue for small carbon emission reductions. Finally, multilateral climate policies can reduce the negative impacts of cross-border externalities, but cannot cure all cross-border externalities. Looking ahead, it will be a great policy challenge for the world to reduce carbon emissions in a cost-effective way. - highlights: • We compare impacts of unilateral climate policies across countries. • We compare effects of alternative multilateral climate policies. • We explore whether cross-border externalities disappear under multilateral climate policies

  9. A Mixed Methods Approach for Identifying Influence on Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2014-01-01

    Fields from political science to critical education policy studies have long explored power relations in policy processes, showing who influences policy agendas, policy creation, and policy implementation. Yet showing particular actors' influence on specific points in a policy text remains a methodological challenge. This article presents a…

  10. Raw materials policy: implications for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaertner, E

    1978-04-01

    The contribution characterizes the situation of the national mining industry in 1977, deals with international raw materials policies within the framework of the North-South dialogue and with the policies of the western industrial countries, points out the dangers of worldwide state-controlled raw materials policies and calls for a) the political risk of enterprise cooperation with developing countries to be covered and b) double taxation to be avoided. Finally, the problems of securing the Federal Republic of Germany's raw materials supplies on a long-term basis are portrayed.

  11. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  12. National Security Implications of Global Warming Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Although numerous historical examples demonstrate how actual climate change has contributed to the rise and fall of powers, global warming , in and of...become convinced that global warming is universally bad and humans are the primary cause, political leaders may develop ill-advised policies restricting

  13. Health policy 2016: implications for geriatric urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M; Clemens, J Quentin

    2016-03-01

    The US healthcare system is undergoing fundamental changes in an effort to improve access to care, curtail healthcare spending, and improve quality of care. These efforts largely focused on Medicare, and therefore, will have a fundamental impact on the care of geriatric patients. This article reviews contemporary health policy issues, with a focus on how these issues may impact the care of geriatric urology patients. The Affordable Care Act has broadened the scope of Medicare coverage. Future Medicare reimbursement will be increasingly tied to care coordination, quality reporting, and demonstration of appropriate outcomes. Additional research is needed to better define the comparative effectiveness of urologic therapies in geriatric patients. Workforce projections indicate that there is a shortage of urologists in many areas of the country, and that this shortage will worsen over time unless a new funding model is instituted for graduate medical education. Medicare spending drives many health policy decisions. Therefore, few health policy topics are unique to geriatrics or geriatric urology. However, certain health policy topics (e.g., care coordination and risk-stratification) are particularly germaine to the elderly patients. Urologists with a particular interest in geriatric urology should be familiar with these issues.

  14. Managing Conflict: Policy and Research Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Sandra V.; Boardman, Susan K.

    1994-01-01

    Highlights the importance of constructive conflict management in resolving disagreements arising from diversity. The authors discuss policy recommendations for implementing conflict-management programs in schools, training individuals in nonschool settings, and designing cross-cultural programs for high-risk inner-city youth. Procedural…

  15. Policy Implications of Research on School Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin

    1983-01-01

    The allocation and use of time are considered important in the context of learning because time can be manipulated, measured, and applied to the design of instructional programs. After a clarification of terminology, an overview of current research on time is offered and policy recommendations discussed. (MJL)

  16. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  17. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  18. Monetary Policy Implications of Electronic Money

    OpenAIRE

    Berentsen, Aleksander

    1997-01-01

    The term digital money refers to various proposed electronic payment mechanisms designed for use by consumers to make retail payments. Digital money products have the potential to replace central bank currency, thereby affecting the money supply. This paper studies the effect of replacing central bank currency on the narrowly defined stock of money under various assumptions regarding regulatory policies and monetary operations of central banks and the reaction of the banking system.

  19. Implications of Electronic Commerce for Fiscal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolsbee, Austan

    In this chapter, I will consider both sides of the relationship between electronic commerce and fiscal policy. For the impact of electronic commerce on fiscal policy, I will pay particular attention to the potential sales-tax revenue losses. The data suggest that the potential losses are actually modest over the next several years. I will also consider the reverse relationship - how fiscal policy affects Internet commerce. Here the evidence suggests that taxes have a sizable effect. I point out, though, that this only supports special treatment if there is some positive externality. Without one, the tax system will lead to excessive online buying to avoid taxes. I will then deal the neglected issue of taxes and Internet access, which can create large deadweight costs both because demand may be price-sensitive and because taxes can slow the spread of new technologies. Finally, I offer some discussion of the international context of taxes and the Internet and the international temptations to raise rates on E-commerce.

  20. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Implications of the Netherlands' environmental policy for offshore mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, K.; Krijt, K.

    1991-01-01

    The environmental policy in the Netherlands, as outlined in the National Environmental Policy Plan, aims for a sustainable development. In principle a two track approach is adhered to: source oriented as well as effects oriented. Effects oriented policy includes the setting of environmental quality objectives and is used to establish the final goals for the source-oriented measures. The policy aims at integrated life-cycle management; in the final target situation all waste is used again as raw material and remaining emissions to the environment should comply with the environmental objectives. In this paper the implications of this policy for the offshore mining industry are elaborated, both for drilling operations and for the production of oil, gas and condensate. The results of the recently concluded Environmental Impact Assessment for the offshore mining industry as a whole are also elaborated

  3. Emerging energy technologies impacts and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    Technical change is a key factor in the energy world. Failure to recognize the potential for technical change, and the pace at which it may occur, has limited the accuracy and usefulness of past energy projections. conversely, programs to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies have often proved disappointing in the face of technical and commercial obstacles. This book examines important new and emerging energy technologies, and the mechanisms by which they may develop and enter the market. The project concentrates on the potential and probable role of selected energy technologies-which are in existence and likely to be of rapidly growing importance over the next decade-and the way in which market conditions and policy environment may affect their implementation

  4. Tourism and spatial transformations; implications for policy and planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashworth, G.J.; Dietvorst, A.G.J.

    1995-01-01

    The transformation of space by tourism and recreation is examined and the implications for tourism policy and planning are drawn out. A general model of transformation as a guide to intervention is presented. The first part of the book focuses on the procedures and includes case-studies from the

  5. Drug Testing in the Schools. Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, William C.; And Others

    Drug testing of district employees and students is examined from several perspectives: implications for school policy, legality, administration and protocol, and test reliability and accuracy. Substance abuse has become a major concern for educators, parents, and citizens as illegal drugs are more readily available. It is also pointed out that the…

  6. EU'S ANTIDUMPING POLICIES TOWARDS CHINA AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    CLINCI, Ionut Cristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper first tries to describe the antidumping measures and to explain how they work in the trade relations between EU and China. Then it tries to explain the implications of the antidumping measures from an economic perspective. Finally, the paper tries to answer the question whether the EU discriminates China in its antidumping policies.

  7. Innovation and inter-firm linkages : new implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, B

    This article discusses the implications for competition, innovation and learning of different forms of inter-firm linkage, ways to govern them, different 'generic systems' of innovation, and government policy. It employs a transformed theory of transactions that can deal with innovation and

  8. The Epidemiological Transition: Policy and Planning Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relevant literatures were reviewed from medical journals, library search and internet source using Google search engine as well as international, national and local journals. The key words employed were: Epidemiological Transition with particular emphasis on policy and planning implications in developing countries.

  9. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  10. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference: Technology and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    As the 20th century draws to a close, new radio technologies and services are poised to change the ways we communicate. Radio waves already make possible a wide range of services considered commonplace--AM and FM radio broadcasting, television, cellular telephones, remote garage-door openers, and baby monitors. Advances in radio technology are giving birth to even more new products and services, including pocket-sized telephones that may allow people to make and receive calls anywhere in the world, high-definition televisions (HDTV) with superior quality pictures and sound, and static-free digital radios. The 1992 World Administrative Radio Conference (WARC-92) authorized frequencies for many of these new radio communication services, and granted additional frequencies for many existing services, including international broadcasting, satellite-based mobile communications, and communications in space. The effects of these changes will be felt well into the 21st century as countries around the world develop and deploy new communications systems to serve the needs of consumers, businesses, and governments. For the United States, the decisions made at the conference will critically affect how we develop new radio technologies and applications, how competitive this country will be in radio communications equipment and services, and how effectively the United States can exercise its role as a leader in world radio communication policymaking. This study of the outcomes and implications of WARC-92 was requested by the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. OTA was asked to evaluate the success of U.S. proposals at the conference, discuss the implications of the decisions made for U.S. technology and policy development, and identify options for improving U.S. participation in future world radio communication conferences.

  11. Policy and organizational implications of gender imbalance in the NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine the policy and organizational implications of gender imbalance in management, which research suggests exists in the NHS. The research in this paper involved a qualitative approach with an analysis of elite interviews conducted with a non-random sample of officials involved in health policy and interviews with a random sample of senior managers in NHS Scotland. The research formed part of a larger study, which explored the enablers and inhibitors to female career progression in various Scottish sectors. The paper finds that gender imbalance in management exists in the NHS. This is manifested in a masculine organizational context, leadership and policy decision-making process, which have implications for female career advancement opportunities and subsequently access to macro policy decisions. The paper involved a sample (30 percent) of senior managers and examined policy processes in NHS Scotland. To improve the external validity of the findings further research should be conducted in NHS organizations in England and Wales. The findings in the paper suggest that gender imbalance in management and a masculine organizational context and leadership style within the NHS create a less than conducive environment for female employees. This has practical implications in terms of levels of part-time employment, career progression and attrition rates. The paper adds to the debate of gender and organizational studies by examining the health sector, which has high levels of female employment but low levels of female representation at senior management levels. The paper therefore adds to an often-neglected area of study, women in leadership and senior managerial positions. The paper is original in its approach by examining the micro and meso organizational dimensions which impact on women's ability to influence macro health policy.

  12. Energy policy in China: implications for global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZhongXiang Zhang [University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    This is the first systematic and comprehensive analysis of the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy. It evaluates the economics of climate change and provides national, cost-effective policies for climate change. The book consists of three main parts, firstly, an analysis of the Chinese energy system to increase awareness of the implications of this sector for China`s future carbon dioxide emissions, secondly, a macroeconomic analysis of carbon dioxide emissions limits using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and finally, a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model.

  13. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J.

    2018-01-01

    A country’s total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup’s potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies. PMID:29425220

  14. Public perceptions of energy system risks: some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.; Otway, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; perceptions, beliefs and attitudes; the survey of public perceptions and attitudes towards energy systems; attitudes towards the five energy systems (nuclear, coal, oil, solar and hydro); perceptions of energy systems - the underlying dimensions of belief (economic benefits; environmental risk; psychological and physical risk; indirect risk; technology development); differential analysis of the perceptions of those pro and con nuclear energy; summary of perceptions of energy systems - relevance to the Austrian dilemma; policy implications. (U.K.)

  15. Policy Implications Analysis: A Methodological Advancement for Policy Research and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madey, Doren L.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    Policy Implications Analysis (PIA) is a tool designed to maximize the likelihood that an evaluation report will have an impact on decision-making. PIA was designed to help people planning and conducting evaluations tailor their information so that it has optimal potential for being used and acted upon. This paper describes the development and…

  16. US and territory telemedicine policies: identifying gaps in perinatal care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroh, Ekwutosi M.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Smith, Alexander M.; Goodman, David A.; Barfield, Wanda D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perinatal regionalization is a system of maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate health care delivery in which resources are ideally allocated for mothers and newborns during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum, in order to deliver appropriate care. Typically, perinatal risk-appropriate care is provided in-person, but with the advancement of technologies, the opportunity to provide care remotely has emerged. Telemedicine provides distance-based care to patients by consultation, diagnosis, and treatment in rural or remote US jurisdictions (states and territories). OBJECTIVE We sought to summarize the telemedicine policies of states and territories and assess if maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care is specified. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a 2014 systematic World Wide Web–based review of publicly available rules, statutes, regulations, laws, planning documents, and program descriptions among US jurisdictions (N=59) on telemedicine care. Policies including language on the topics of consultation, diagnosis, or treatment, and those specific to maternal and neonatal risk-appropriate care were categorized for analysis. RESULTS Overall, 36 jurisdictions (32 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (61%) had telemedicine policies with language referencing consultation, diagnosis, or treatment; 29 (49%) referenced consultation, 30 (51%) referenced diagnosis, and 35 (59%) referenced treatment. In all, 26 jurisdictions (22 states; 3 territories; and District of Columbia) (44%), referenced all topics. Only 3 jurisdictions (3 states; 0 territories) (5%), had policy language specifically addressing perinatal care. CONCLUSION The majority of states have published telemedicine policies, but few specify policy language for perinatal risk-appropriate care. By ensuring that language specific to the perinatal population is included in telemedicine policies, access to maternal and neonatal care can be increased in rural, remote, and resource

  17. The social construction of illness: key insights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Barker, Kristin K

    2010-01-01

    The social construction of illness is a major research perspective in medical sociology. This article traces the roots of this perspective and presents three overarching constructionist findings. First, some illnesses are particularly embedded with cultural meaning--which is not directly derived from the nature of the condition--that shapes how society responds to those afflicted and influences the experience of that illness. Second, all illnesses are socially constructed at the experiential level, based on how individuals come to understand and live with their illness. Third, medical knowledge about illness and disease is not necessarily given by nature but is constructed and developed by claims-makers and interested parties. We address central policy implications of each of these findings and discuss fruitful directions for policy-relevant research in a social constructionist tradition. Social constructionism provides an important counterpoint to medicine's largely deterministic approaches to disease and illness, and it can help us broaden policy deliberations and decisions.

  18. State, federalism and educational policies: implications in brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Cristina Silva Sousa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relationship between state and federalism as a political and administrative organizational form of the state and its implications in Brazilian educational policy. For that, we follow the analysis of the concepts of State, federalism, and educational policies from the classics of Machiavelli (2001, Locke (1998, Rousseau (1999, Hamilton, Jay and Madison (2003, Abrucio Arretche (1996, among others. Therefore, we see that the new Brazilian federalism based on the model proposed by the American Constitution brings the local powers – the municipalities – as new agents within the educational policy and the collaboration regime as a means of effecting cooperative federalism in Brazil. We conclude that the federalism, in Brazilian model, presents itself as demos constraining the national sub-governments.

  19. Identifying a borderline personality disorder prodrome: Implications for community screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Lazarus, Sophie A

    2017-08-01

    Elucidating early signs and symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has important implications for screening and identifying youth appropriate for early intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify dimensions of child temperament and psychopathology symptom severity that predict conversion to a positive screen for BPD over a 14-year follow-up period in a large, urban community sample of girls (n = 2 450). Parent and teacher reports of child temperament and psychopathology symptom severity assessed when girls were ages 5-8 years were examined as predictors of new-onset BPD cases when girls were ages 14-22 years. In the final model, parent and teacher ratings of emotionality remained significant predictors of new-onset BPD. Additionally, parent ratings of hyperactivity/impulsivity and depression severity, as well as teacher ratings of inattention severity, were also predictive. Results also revealed that elevations in these dimensions pose a notable increase in risk for conversion to BPD over the follow-up period. Supplementary analyses revealed that with the exception of parent-reported depression severity, these same predictors were associated with increases in BPD symptom severity over the follow-up period. These findings suggest BPD onset in adolescence and early adulthood can be detected from parent and teacher reports of temperament and symptom severity dimensions assessed in childhood. The identification of this prodrome holds promise for advancing early detection of children at risk prior to the development of the full-blown disorder. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Consumer energy management: policy implications of research. 2 Vols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1982-12-01

    This report provides a framework for understanding the practical implications of consumer energy conservation research in Canada. A review of such research was undertaken to determine its implications for increasing the effectiveness of Canadian conservation policies and programs. The major conclusions and recommendations were as follows. Conservation has been acknowledged as the single most important element in solving Canada's petroleum shortfall in the 1980s. An analytic approach to the formulation of energy policies and the design of conservation programs will be essential if meaningful energy savings in the consumer sector are to be realized. Prior to designing any conservation program, it is essential that the components of consumer energy policy be understood. In order to assess the effectiveness of conservation efforts, it is necessary to assign relative priorities to the criteria of probable energy savings, cost effectiveness, impact by fuel type, impact on consumers, enforceability, and institutional considerations. Conservation efforts aimed at consumers must be based on understanding the basic processes which underlie how they perceive and respond to various types of conservation initiatives. This understanding is gained through consumer impact analysis and program research. The latter action attempts to analyze the effectiveness and acceptability of programs involving information, financial incentives, energy standards, and energy usage restrictions. Conservation programs must ensure that barriers to adoption, such as lack of time and knowledge, financial resources, and lifestyle impacts, will be minimized. 93 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis....

  2. Biomass production and utilisation. Policy implications for LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, O.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of biomass in the energy sector of LDCs and in Africa in particular is illustrated so as to provide the background to the policy importance on the production and use of this energy source. The main areas for policy attention discussed are: biomass for power generation, biomass use in the transport sector, urban energy supply and the interactions with agricultural policies. The roles of the major institutions the government, private sector institutions, educational institutions and non-governmental organizations are identified. It is concluded that with the necessary policy shift that is being advocated, biomass can contribute to a more equitable supply of high quality and efficient energy services in the future of African countries. (K.A.)

  3. Policy Implications of Limiting Immigrant Concentration in Danish Public Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Calmar; Thomsen, Mette Kjærgaard

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant students in Denmark on average perform worse in lower secondary school than native Danish students. Part of the effect may not stem from the immigrant students themselves, but from the student composition at the school. From a policy perspective, the latter aspect is quite interesting...... since it is more feasible to change student composition in schools than the socioeconomic status of the individual students.This article describes theoretically the circumstances under which total student achievement can be increased by reallocating certain groups of students. Empirical analyses......’ educational outcome, by limiting the share of immigrant students at grade level at any one school to less than 50 percent. The policy implications of this finding are discussed....

  4. Opposite policy implications in the theory of money and banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson D. P. Bertolai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent financial crisis creates a demand for welfare-based models of financial regulation and liquidity shortages. In this paper, we review policy implications from two cornerstone models and show that they imply different responses in terms of intertemporal returns of financial liabilities. In the first case, a version of the Cavalcanti and Wallace (1999, random-matching model, monitored agents are led to promote inflation in bank-issued money. In the second case, a sequential-service version of the Diamond and Dybvig (1983 model of bank runs with insolvency, increases in long-run returns can prevent bank runs by reducing the provision of liquidity.

  5. Chinese Foreign Policy in Transition: Trends and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohui Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese foreign policy has been transformed in recent years. This article seeks to provide a systematic analysis of the most salient features of the new Chinese foreign policy. It identifies five such features. Based on these features, the article suggests that China is poised to become a true global power. This view differs significantly from Gerald Segal’s famous claim in 1999 that China was no more than a middle power. The article utilizes many current Chinese sources to help readers understand China’s new motives and goals in international and regional affairs.

  6. Electronic Monitoring of Sex Offenders: Identifying Unanticipated Consequences and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demichele, Matthew; Payne, Brian K.; Button, Deeanna M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, increased legislative attention has been given to strategies to supervise sex offenders in the community. Among other policies, several states have passed laws calling for the use of electronic monitoring technologies to supervise sex offenders in the community. When initially developed, this community-based sanction was designed…

  7. Identifying the Enemy: Social Categorization and National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Kristene

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation seeks to understand the interplay between informal articulations of social categories and formal instantiations of those categories in official language. Specifically, it explores the process of social categorization as it is used to identify threats to national security. The research employed a qualitative, document-based,…

  8. Metering: EU policy and implications for fuel poor households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Fuel poverty is a function of household energy consumption, income, and the cost of delivered energy. The paper discusses ways in which current EU policy on the development of ‘smart’ metering could affect fuel poor households. The main focus is on developments in electricity metering and the development of ‘active demand’ and smart grids, so that demand can be matched closely with available supply. Advances in metering and related technologies open the way to time-of-use charging, easier switching between suppliers and between credit payment and prepayment, direct load control of some end-uses by the utility, greater scope for microgeneration, and improved consumption feedback for customers. These options open up both uncertainties and risks. The paper offers definitions and discussion of various functions of smart metering, summarizes the EU policy background, and considers some possible equity implications of rolling out a new generation of meters. There follows an assessment of potential implications to the fuel poor of changes to metering, based on a review of the literature on energy feedback, tariffing, and supplier–customer relationships. Much of the discussion is based on the UK experience, with examples from other EU member states and, where appropriate, from other parts of the world. - Highlights: ► Smart meters are part of general upgrading of electricity and gas networks. ► EU policy is to roll out the meters to 80%+ of the population by 2020. ► Improved feedback and prepayment metering may benefit the fuel poor. ► Remote disconnection and data privacy are issues for all consumers. ► We need careful assessment of potential gains and losses to the fuel poor.

  9. The implications of probabilistic risk assessment for safety policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    The use of PRA results in decision making requires a level of understanding on the part of the decision maker which is higher than that obtaining previously. The most important application of PRA lies not in the final results but in the intermediate results which refer to specific systems and operations. Such intermediate results are of great value either at the design stage or later during operation. One of the most 'visible' uses of PRA results is in comparing calculated plant risks with either proposed acceptability criteria, or with other plant, or even natural events. The capability to perform PRA has been established. Only the incorporation of PRA into the licensing process is lacking. The principal conclusions on the implications of PRA for safety policy are as follows: regardless of its state of development, PRA is the only means available for calculating public risk, being able to quantify risk is important in policy related to risk acceptability and to national energy policy. PRAs will be used to establish research and development priorities. Any hazardous plant can be treated using the same methods. More sophisticated methods will be used for solving engineering problems. (author)

  10. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems: Implications for Conservation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Delgado, Jorge; Hansen, LeRoy T.; Livingston, Michael J.; Mosheim, Roberto; Williamson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for crop production. However, the introduction of large amounts of nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. This report explores the use of nitrogen in U.S. agriculture and assesses changes in nutrient management by farmers that may improve nitrogen use effi ciency. It also reviews a number of policy approaches for improving nitrogen management and identifi e...

  12. Implications of DSM-5 for Health Care Organizations and Mental Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Richard J; Guo, Kristina L

    2016-01-01

    The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has made major changes in the way mental illness is conceptualized, assessed, and diagnosed in its new diagnostic manual, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published in 2013, and has far reaching implications for health care organizations and mental health policy. This paper reviews the four new principles in DSM-5: 1) A spectrum (also called "dimensional") approach to the definition of mental illness; 2) recognition of the role played by environmental risk factors related to stress and trauma in predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating mental illness; 3) cultural relativism in diagnosis and treatment of mental illness; and 4) recognizing the adverse effects of psychiatric medications on patients. Each of these four principles will be addressed in detail. In addition, four major implications for health care organizations and mental health policy are identified as: 1) prevention; 2) client-centered psychiatry; 3) mental health workers retraining; and 4) medical insurance reform. We conclude that DSM- 5's new approach to diagnosis and treatment of mental illness will have profound implications for health care organizations and mental health policy, indicating a greater emphasis on prevention and cure rather than long-term management of symptoms.

  13. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  14. Financial Literacy and Economic Outcomes: Evidence and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Olivia S; Lusardi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews what we have learned over the past decade about financial literacy and its relationship to financial decision-making around the world. Using three questions, we have surveyed people in several countries to determine whether they have the fundamental knowledge of economics and finance needed to function as effective decision-makers. We find that levels of financial literacy are low not only in the United States. but also in many other countries including those with well-developed financial markets. Moreover, financial illiteracy is particularly acute for some demographic groups, especially women and the less-educated. These findings are important since financial literacy is linked to borrowing, saving, and spending patterns. We also offer new evidence on financial literacy among high school students drawing on the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment implemented in 18 countries. Last, we discuss the implications of this research for policy.

  15. Social reciprocity and health: new scientific evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    The work contract is based on the norm of social reciprocity where appropriate rewards are provided for efforts and achievements at work. The effort-reward imbalance model of work stress maintains that contractual non-reciprocity in terms of high efforts spent and low rewards received is frequent if people have no alternative choice in the labour market, if they are exposed to heavy competition or if they are intrinsically motivated to engage in excessive work-related commitment. According to the model, long-term exposure to effort-reward imbalance increases the risk of stress-related disorders. An overview of results from prospective epidemiological investigations testing the model is given. Overall, people who experience failed reciprocity at work are twice as likely to suffer from incident cardiovascular disease, depression or alcohol dependence compared to those who are not exposed. Associations are stronger for men than for women. Policy implications of findings for improved worksite health promotion are discussed.

  16. Compulsive Buying among College Students: An Investigation of Its Antecedents, Consequences, and Implications for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence, antecedents, consequences, and policy implications of compulsive buying among college students (n=300). Details contributing factors and discusses the relationship between credit card use and compulsive buying. Discusses the implications for consumer policy and suggestions for further research. (JOW)

  17. QUING WHY paper: Framing gender intersections in the European Union: what implications for the quality of intersectionality in policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen; Lombardo, Emanuela

    are increasingly present but they are treated implicitly and from a separate perspective, and the inclusion of a wide range of inequalities often implies a degendering of the policy content. We assess the implications of the identified intersectionality trends for the quality of intersectionality in gender...... equality policies and we suggest the practice of an ‘intersectionality impact assessment’ as a way to improve the quality of EU policy-making. In this regard, we particularly focus on the interface between the civil society and the EU institutions....

  18. The Farm Credit Situation: Implications for Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, J. Bruce

    1986-01-01

    Examines issues regarding current farm finance situation from a public policy perspective: origins and causes of current situation, available policy options for dealing with the problems, and impacts of policy options. (NEC)

  19. Chinese and Russian Policies on Climate Change: Implications for U.S. National Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    crop productivity in China by 2030 as a result of climate change, and a decline of up to 37 percent in rice, maize , and wheat yields after 2050...against global warming. Comparing and contrasting China’s and Russia’s climate change policies and programs may also help to identify gaps in...adequate measures to adapt agriculture to climate change, the annual economic loss from a decrease in climate-determined crop yield in Russia is

  20. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  1. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  2. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  3. Quantifying the spatial implications of future land use policies in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Roux, A.; Augustijn-Beckers, Petronella

    2017-01-01

    Land use policies have a definite and lasting impact on the way that cities grow; however, it is difficult for policy- and decision-makers to observe and quantify the implications of their land use policies and strategies. There is thus a need for information and tools that can adequately support

  4. Carrying capacity: the tradition and policy implications of limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Deane Abernethy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Within just the last few centuries, science and technology have enlarged human capabilities and population size until humans now take, for their own use, nearly half of the Earth's net terrestrial primary production. An ethical perspective suggests that potentials to alter, or further increase, humanity's use of global resources should be scrutinized through the lenses of self-interested foresightedness and respect for non-human life. Without overtly invoking ethics, studies of the carrying capacity achieve just this objective. Carrying capacity is an ecological concept that expresses the relationship between a population and the natural environment on which it depends for ongoing sustenance. Carrying capacity assumes limits on the number of individuals that can be supported at a given level of consumption without degrading the environment and, therefore, reducing future carrying capacity. That is, carrying capacity addresses long-term sustainability. Worldviews differ in the importance accorded to the carrying capacity concept. This paper addresses three worldviews - ecological, romantic, and entrepreneurial - and explores the ethics and the policy implications of their contrasting perspectives.

  5. Large blackouts in North America: Historical trends and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Paul; Apt, Jay; Talukdar, Sarosh

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) for 1984-2006, we find several trends. We find that the frequency of large blackouts in the United States has not decreased over time, that there is a statistically significant increase in blackout frequency during peak hours of the day and during late summer and mid-winter months (although non-storm-related risk is nearly constant through the year) and that there is strong statistical support for the previously observed power-law statistical relationship between blackout size and frequency. We do not find that blackout sizes and blackout durations are significantly correlated. These trends hold even after controlling for increasing demand and population and after eliminating small events, for which the data may be skewed by spotty reporting. Trends in blackout occurrences, such as those observed in the North American data, have important implications for those who make investment and policy decisions in the electricity industry. We provide a number of examples that illustrate how these trends can inform benefit-cost analysis calculations. Also, following procedures used in natural disaster planning we use the observed statistical trends to calculate the size of the 100-year blackout, which for North America is 186,000 MW.

  6. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  7. Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Nunn, Charles L.; Vincent, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    Habitat destruction and infectious disease are dual threats to nature and people. The potential to simultaneously advance conservation and human health has attracted considerable scientific and popular interest; in particular, many authors have justified conservation action by pointing out potential public health benefits . One major focus of this debate—that biodiversity conservation often decreases infectious disease transmission via the dilution effect—remains contentious. Studies that test for a dilution effect often find a negative association between a diversity metric and a disease risk metric, but how such associations should inform conservation policy remains unclear for several reasons. For one, diversity and infection risk have many definitions, making it possible to identify measures that conform to expectations. Furthermore, the premise that habitat destruction consistently reduces biodiversity is in question, and disturbance or conservation can affect disease in many ways other than through biodiversity change. To date, few studies have examined the broader set of mechanisms by which anthropogenic disturbance or conservation might increase or decrease infectious disease risk to human populations. Due to interconnections between biodiversity change, economics and human behaviour, moving from ecological theory to policy action requires understanding how social and economic factors affect conservation.This Theme Issue arose from a meeting aimed at synthesizing current theory and data on ‘biodiversity, conservation and infectious disease’ (4–6 May 2015). Ecologists, evolutionary biologists, economists, epidemiologists, veterinary scientists, public health professionals, and conservation biologists from around the world discussed the latest research on the ecological and socio-economic links between conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease, and the open questions and controversies in these areas. By combining ecological understanding

  8. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  9. Small-Area Estimation of Spatial Access to Care and Its Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Monica; Isett, Kim; Serban, Nicoleta; Swann, Julie

    2015-10-01

    Local or small-area estimates to capture emerging trends across large geographic regions are critical in identifying and addressing community-level health interventions. However, they are often unavailable due to lack of analytic capabilities in compiling and integrating extensive datasets and complementing them with the knowledge about variations in state-level health policies. This study introduces a modeling approach for small-area estimation of spatial access to pediatric primary care that is data "rich" and mathematically rigorous, integrating data and health policy in a systematic way. We illustrate the sensitivity of the model to policy decision making across large geographic regions by performing a systematic comparison of the estimates at the census tract and county levels for Georgia and California. Our results show the proposed approach is able to overcome limitations of other existing models by capturing patient and provider preferences and by incorporating possible changes in health policies. The primary finding is systematic underestimation of spatial access, and inaccurate estimates of disparities across population and across geography at the county level with respect to those at the census tract level with implications on where to focus and which type of interventions to consider.

  10. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  11. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  13. Interviewing children in custody cases: implications of research and policy for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saywitz, Karen; Camparo, Lorinda B; Romanoff, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Research on child interviewing has burgeoned over the past 25 years as expectations about children's agency, competence, and participation in society have changed. This article identifies recent trends in research, policy, and theory with implications for the practice of interviewing children in cases of contested divorce and for the weight to be given the information children provide. A number of fields of relevant research are identified, including studies of families who have participated in the family law system, studies of child witnesses in the field, experimental studies of the effects of interview techniques on children's memory and suggestibility, and ethnographic methods that elicit children's views of their own experiences. Finally, a set of 10 principles for practice are delineated based on the best available science. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    change, 2) an increase in CO2 concentrations that exactly balances the forcing from land use change at the global level, and 3) a simulation combining the first two effects, resulting in net zero global-mean forcing as would occur in an idealized carbon cap-and-trade scheme that accounts for the albedo effect of land use change. The pattern of land use change that we examine is derived from an integrated assessment model that accounts for population, demographic, technological, and policy changes over the 21st century. We find significant differences in the pattern of climate change associated with each of these forcing scenarios, demonstrating the non-additivity of radiative forcing from land-use change and greenhouse gases in the context of a hypothetical scenario of future land use change. These results have implications for the development of land use and climate policies.

  15. Nigerian language policy and its implication in the school curriculum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper observes that the Nigerian language policy, failed to take into consideration the socio-linguistic habits of Nigerians. Since English language is a focal point for communication it then implies that policy makers to formulate language policies based on realities of language need. This is the only way that the ...

  16. The Implications of State Fiscal Policies for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Alicia C.; Shieh, Linda Taing

    2014-01-01

    A variety of policies and practices, including those developed by local boards and administrations, as well as those mandated by state and federal governments, affect budgets and finances at community colleges. Examples include tuition policies, fee structures, performance-based funding, and personnel policies. This chapter explores some of the…

  17. Agricultural price and income policy in the EC : alternative policies and their implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, G.

    1980-01-01

    Alternative forms of income policy without direct supply control. Alternative forms of income policy with direct supply control: quota arrangements. The influence of EC policy on the world market prices of agricultural produce

  18. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  19. Global Warming: The Balance of Evidence and Its Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Keller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and attendant climate change have been controversial for at least a decade. This is largely because of its societal implications. With the recent publication of the Third Assessment Report of the United Nations’ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change there has been renewed interest and controversy about how certain the scientific community is of its conclusions: that humans are influencing the climate and that global temperatures will continue to rise rapidly in this century. This review attempts to update what is known and in particular what advances have been made in the past 5 years or so. It does not attempt to be comprehensive. Rather it focuses on the most controversial issues, which are actually few in number. They are: 1-Is the surface temperature record accurate or is it biased by heat from cities, etc.? 2-Is that record significantly different from past warmings such as the Medieval Warming Period? 3-Is not the sun’s increasing activity the cause of most of the warming? 4-Can we model climate and predict its future, or is it just too complex and chaotic? 5-Are there any other changes in climate other than warming, and can they be attributed to the warming?Despite continued uncertainties, the review finds affirmative answers to these questions. Of particular interest are advances that seem to explain why satellites do not see as much warming as surface instruments, how we are getting a good idea of recent paleoclimates, and why the 20th century temperature record was so complex. It makes the point that in each area new information could come to light that would change our thinking on the quantitative magnitude and timing of anthropogenic warming, but it is unlikely to alter the basic conclusions.Finally, there is a very brief discussion of the societal policy response to the scientific message, and the author comments on his 2-year email discussions with many of the world’s most outspoken critics of the

  20. Equilibrium Implications of Fiscal Policy with Tax Evasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Chiarini, Bruno; Rey, Guido M.

    This paper studies equilibrium effects of fiscal policy disturbances within a dynamic general equilibrium model where tax evasion and underground activities are explicitly incorporated. There are three mainresults. (i) The underground sector mitigates the distortionary impact of fiscal policies......, while lesseningthe drop (and the rise) of aggregate production after restrictive (expansionary) tax shocks. (ii) Taxevasion and underground economy can rationalize expansionary response to contractionary fiscal policies;(iii) A dynamic general equilibrium with tax evasion gives a rational justification...

  1. Informatization Level Assessment Framework and Educational Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sekulovska; Pece Mitrevski

    2018-01-01

    Seeing the informatization as a measure of the educational policy, we propose an informatization level assessment framework and introduce a composite indicator – Education Informatization Index, calculated as a weighted sum by applying the Rank-Order Centroid method for weight designation. Although it is made up of only two main categories (Educational Policy Implementation subindex and Educational Policy Creation subindex) and a total of six individual indicators, it captures well all the so...

  2. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  3. Monetary policy implications of financial innovation: In-depth analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernoth, Kerstin; Gebauer, Stefan; Schäfer, Dorothea

    2017-01-01

    In this policy brief, we argue that the financial innovations triggered by the FinTech industry have the potential to affect the transmission of monetary policy as well as the informational content of important monetary indicators. The growing FinTech industry could contribute substantially to the emergence of nonbank finance as a substitute for traditional commercial bank finance. While the overall effect of nonbank finance on monetary policy transmission is not yet clear, we argue that regu...

  4. Factors that affect general practice as a choice of medical speciality: implications for policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Amit; Ladyshewsky, Richard; Trumble, Stephen

    2017-11-28

    Objective This article critically appraises the range of personal, professional and social factors that affect the choice of speciality across medical students, prevocational doctors, general practice registrars and general practitioners. Methods This qualitative study applied constructs from the fields of decision theory and career theory to better understand the complex nature of choosing a speciality. In all, 47 in-depth interviews were conducted with participants at different stages of their career cycle. The data was codified and analysed using NVivo to identify key factors that influenced speciality choice. Results The research identified 77 individual findings influencing general practice as a choice of medical speciality. These were distilled into a matrix to show that factors such as money, prestige and peer interaction did not have a compelling effect, whereas clinical and academic role models, flexibility, work-life balance, scope of practice, connection with patients, training environment and practical opportunities did. Conclusion The findings indicate that the decision in relation to the choice of medical speciality is a complex cognitive process that is undertaken within a personal, social and professional context particular to each individual. What is known about the topic? Current literature aims to quantify changes in attitudes towards choice of speciality or the effect of particular variables in isolation while ignoring the complexity of this decision process and how the numerous variables compare with each other. What does this paper add? The present study is the first intergenerational research on this topic in the Australian context and the paper dismisses the role of prestige and remuneration as key drivers of choice in picking general practice as a speciality, noting that money is merely a 'hygiene factor'. What are the implications for policy makers? A policy framework outlining 10 key principles is presented to assist policy makers seeking

  5. Low enrolment in Ugandan Community Health Insurance Schemes: underlying causes and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criel Bart

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the promotion of Community Health Insurance (CHI in Uganda in the second half of the 90's, mainly under the impetus of external aid organisations, overall membership has remained low. Today, some 30,000 persons are enrolled in about a dozen different schemes located in Central and Southern Uganda. Moreover, most of these schemes were created some 10 years ago but since then, only one or two new schemes have been launched. The dynamic of CHI has apparently come to a halt. Methods A case study evaluation was carried out on two selected CHI schemes: the Ishaka and the Save for Health Uganda (SHU schemes. The objective of this evaluation was to explore the reasons for the limited success of CHI. The evaluation involved review of the schemes' records, key informant interviews and exit polls with both insured and non-insured patients. Results Our research points to a series of not mutually exclusive explanations for this under-achievement at both the demand and the supply side of health care delivery. On the demand side, the following elements have been identified: lack of basic information on the scheme's design and operation, limited understanding of the principles underlying CHI, limited community involvement and lack of trust in the management of the schemes, and, last but not least, problems in people's ability to pay the insurance premiums. On the supply-side, we have identified the following explanations: limited interest and knowledge of health care providers and managers of CHI, and the absence of a coherent policy framework for the development of CHI. Conclusion The policy implications of this study refer to the need for the government to provide the necessary legislative, technical and regulative support to CHI development. The main policy challenge however is the need to reconcile the government of Uganda's interest in promoting CHI with the current policy of abolition of user fees in public facilities.

  6. Domestic Violence and Pregnancy: A CBPR Coalition Approach to Identifying Needs and Informing Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Candace Forbes; Bagley, Braden; Pulliam, Ivie; Newton, Amy Swetha

    2018-01-01

    Community engagement-the collaborative process of addressing issues that impact the well-being of a community-is a strategic effort to address community issues. The Gulf States Health Policy Center (GS-HPC) formed the Hattiesburg Area Health Coalition (HAHC) in November 2014 for the purpose of addressing policies impacting the health of Forrest and Lamar counties in Mississippi. To chronicle the community-based participatory research (CBPR) process used by HAHC's identification of infant and maternal health as a policy area, domestic violence in pregnancy as a priority area within infant and maternal health, and a community action plan (CAP) regarding this priority area. HAHC reviewed data and identified infant and maternal health as a priority area. They then conducted a policy scan of local prenatal health care to determine the policy area of domestic violence in pregnancy. HAHC developed a CAP identifying three goals with regard to domestic violence and pregnancy that together informed policy. Changes included the development of materials specific to resources available in the area. The materials and recommended changes will first be implemented by Southeast Mississippi Rural Health Initiative (SeMRHI) through a screening question for all pregnant patients, and the adoption of policies for providing information and referrals. The lack of community-level data was a challenge to HAHC in identifying focus and priority areas, but this was overcome by shared leadership and community engagement. After completion of the CAP, 100% of expecting mothers receiving prenatal care in the area will be screened for domestic violence.

  7. Policy implications of achievement testing using multilevel models: The case of Brazilian elementary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Gomes Menezes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale educational assessment has been established as source of descriptive, evaluative and interpretative information that influence educational policies worldwide throughout the last third of the 20th century. In the 1990s the Brazilian Ministry of Education developed the National Basic Education Assessment System (SAEB that regularly measures management, resource and contextual school features and academic achievement in public and private institutions. In 2005, after significant piloting and review of the SAEB, a new sampling strategy was taken and Prova Brasil became the new instrument used by the Ministry to assess skills in Portuguese (reading comprehension and Mathematics (problem solving, as well as collecting contextual information concerning the school, principal, teacher, and the students. This study aims to identify which variables are predictors of academic achievement of fifth grade students on Prova Brasil. Across a large sample of students, multilevel models tested a large number of variables relevant to student achievement. This approach uncovered critical variables not commonly seen as significant in light of other achievement determinants, including student habits, teacher ethnicity, and school technological resources. As such, this approach demonstrates the value of MLM to appropriately nuanced educational policies that reflect critical influences on student achievement. Its implications for wider application for psychology studies that may have relevant impacts for policy are also discussed.

  8. Project-Based Market Competition and Policy Implications for Sustainable Developments in Building and Construction Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ren Yan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Building and construction sectors are significant contributors to the global economy, but their energy consumption necessitates greater commitment to sustainable developments. There is therefore a growing demand for green innovation in the form of cleaner production and policies to meet the modern requirements of sustainability. However, the nature in which public work is undertaken is in an environment of project-based market competition, whereby contractors routinely bid for contracts under specific project awarding systems, and variations are accompanied with the unique scope of individual projects before the final goods or services are delivered. A comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and contractors’ behavior in systems could help to identify the leverage points of policies. This paper proposes a system dynamics model, with quantitative analysis and simulations, to demonstrate the problems of a system with different project awarding systems and ineffective market performance. The framework of market efficiency and performance measures has been proposed to evaluate the project-based competition mechanism. Managerial policy implications for market efficiency and sustainable developments can thus be systematically discussed and compared through iterative computer simulations and scenario analysis.

  9. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river-basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2013-07-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface- and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river-basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly examines policy frameworks in three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  10. Determinants of Self-Employment Dynamics and their Implications on Entrepreneurial Policy Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Millán

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the main results of the empirical research on self-employment dynamics —particularly entry and success— and discusses their possible implications on entrepreneurial policy effectiveness. The main goal of this study is to promote a debate on this topic, encouraging conditional analyses that serve as guidance in the design of a policy agenda.

  11. Connections with the Schooling Enterprise: Implications for Music Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson-Campbell, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author explores music education counterforces, examining whether and how (a) federal and state education policies can better address the in-service needs of special area teachers, particularly music teachers, in the school setting; and (b) policy organizations in the music education profession (i.e., The National Association…

  12. Recapitalization, Implications for Educational Policy and Practice and Future Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerens, Jaap; Scheerens, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    In this concluding chapter conclusions are drawn, and the relevance of the results for educational science and policy and practice are discussed. Illustrations are provided that were drawn from the exploration of policy and practices in the Netherlands. Synthetic answers to the three research

  13. Closing the Reference Interview: Implications for Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Christopher W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reasons why patrons or librarians terminate the reference interview, including the content of the interview, interpersonal dynamics, and institutional or policy factors. Goals and objectives of the person terminating the interview are considered, and guidelines for policy development and performance improvement are offered. (30…

  14. Political implications of US nuclear-export-policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson-Freese, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international debate regarding how effective strict export controls on nuclear-energy supplies are toward a non-proliferation goal. With the Carter Administration, the debate was heightened by a new, more-vigorous US nuclear-export policy, much of which was codified by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). Because of the US position in both the international non-proliferation regime and nuclear export market, the NNPA has had far-reaching consequences. The thesis of this paper is that a nuclear-export policy that fails to consider its short-term ramifications, as the NNPA has been accused of, will be self-defeating. If the US wants a viable worldwide nuclear non-proliferation policy, it must first direct its efforts toward building a domestic non-proliferation consensus, and then worldwide, rather than first setting a highly controversial policy and expecting other nations to fall into line. This work provides a comprehensive case study of US nuclear-export policy between the years 1976 to 1980 in support of the thesis. Further, the behavior and impact of the interest groups which seem to shape US nuclear-export policies is examined, and recommendations made regarding the role of groups in nuclear policy-making and implementation. Finally, recommendations are made regarding non-proliferation policy for the future, as it relates to nuclear exports

  15. Potentially preventable infant and child deaths identified at autopsy; findings and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Andrew R; Mifsud, William; Wolfe, Ingrid; Cass, Hilary; Pryce, Jeremy; Malone, Marian; Sebire, Neil J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the proportion of pediatric deaths investigated by HM Coronial autopsy which were potentially preventable deaths due to treatable natural disease, and what implications such findings may have for health policies to reduce their occurrence. A retrospective study of 1779 autopsies of individuals between 7 days and 14 years of age requested by HM Coroner, taking place in one specialist pediatric autopsy center, was undertaken. Cases were included if they involved a definite natural disease process in which appropriate recognition and treatment was likely to have affected their outcome. Strict criteria were used and cases were excluded where the individual had any longstanding condition which might have predisposed them to, or altered the recognition of, acute illness, or its response to therapy. Almost 8% (134/1779) of the study group were potentially preventable deaths as a result of natural disease, the majority occurring in children younger than 2 years of age. Most individuals reported between 1 and 7 days of symptoms before their death, and the majority had sought medical advice during this period, including from general practitioners within working hours, and hospital emergency departments. Of those who had sought medical attention, around one-third had done so more than once (28%, 15/53). Sepsis and pneumonia accounted for the majority of deaths (46 and 34% respectively), with all infections (sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis) accounting for 110/134 (82%). Around 10% of pediatric deaths referred to HM Coroner are potentially preventable, being the result of treatable natural acute illnesses. In many cases medical advice had been sought during the final illness. The results highlight how a review of autopsy data can identify significant findings with the potential to reduce mortality, and the importance of centralized investigation and reporting of pediatric deaths.

  16. Policy implications of greenhouse warming: Mitigation, adaptation, and the science base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book discusses the policy implications of greenhouse warming by examining three major areas: general summary of information about the greenhouse effect leading to a framework for policy; the science basis for the greenhouse effect; mitigation of greenhouse warming. Each section contains 9-13 chapters on specific subjects including the following: overview of greenhouse gases; policy implications; internations considerations; climate records and models; sea levels; temperature rise estimation; energy management at several levels; nonenergy emission reduction; human populations; deforestation. Conclusions are summarized at the end of each section

  17. Sources of Knowledge of Departmental Policy on Child Sexual Abuse and Mandatory Reporting Identified by Primary School Student-Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of a Department of Education policy on child sexual abuse and mandatory reporting is significant for school teachers. The mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by school teachers carries wide-ranging and significant implications for the lives of school-aged children, and for the teachers who must implement the policy's…

  18. Political economy constraints on carbon pricing policies: What are the implications for economic efficiency, environmental efficacy, and climate policy design?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, Jesse D.

    2014-01-01

    Economists traditionally view a Pigouvian fee on carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, either via carbon taxes or emissions caps and permit trading (“cap-and-trade”), as the economically optimal or “first-best” policy to address climate change-related externalities. Yet several political economy factors can severely constrain the implementation of these carbon pricing policies, including opposition of industrial sectors with a concentration of assets that would lose considerable value under such policies; the collective action nature of climate mitigation efforts; principal agent failures; and a low willingness-to-pay for climate mitigation by citizens. Real-world implementations of carbon pricing policies can thus fall short of the economically optimal outcomes envisioned in theory. Consistent with the general theory of the second-best, the presence of binding political economy constraints opens a significant “opportunity space” for the design of creative climate policy instruments with superior political feasibility, economic efficiency, and environmental efficacy relative to the constrained implementation of carbon pricing policies. This paper presents theoretical political economy frameworks relevant to climate policy design and provides corroborating evidence from the United States context. It concludes with a series of implications for climate policy making and argues for the creative pursuit of a mix of second-best policy instruments. - Highlights: • Political economy constraints can bind carbon pricing policies. • These constraints can prevent implementation of theoretically optimal carbon prices. • U.S. household willingness-to-pay for climate policy likely falls in the range of $80–$200 per year. • U.S. carbon prices may be politically constrained to as low as $2–$8 per ton of CO 2 . • An opportunity space exists for improvements in climate policy design and outcomes

  19. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel P; Bazzi, Angela R; Allen, Heidi L; Martinson, Melissa L; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L

    2017-12-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health.

  20. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  1. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  2. Renewable energy policies in promoting financing and investment among the East Asia Summit countries: Quantitative assessment and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Fang, Zheng; Li, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have implemented various policies for renewable energy development ranging from setting power purchase agreements and the legislation of renewable energy requirements to providing incentives and imposing carbon taxes. The evaluation of the effectiveness of such policies, however, is fragmented, which raises a need for a comprehensive analysis. This paper aims to assess whether and how policies promoting renewable energy investment have achieved the intended goals. It employs five broadly defined criteria - market, uncertainty, profitability, technology, and financial resources - to build an index to assess respectively if such policies have helped create a market for renewable energy, maximize potential profits, reduce risks relating to the investment, develop and adopt new technologies, and improve the access to financial resources. Each criterion is reflected by three indicators. Values of each indicator are converted into ordinal values for analysis. The index not only scans comprehensively all relevant renewable energy investment policies in the East Asia Summit countries, but also provides systematic and quantitative measures to compare the effectiveness of policies in these countries with respect to the creation of market, the degree of uncertainty, the potential of profitability, the development and adoption of technology and the accessibility of financial resources. - Highlights: •This paper evaluate renewable energy policies in 16 East Asia Summit countries. •Five criteria are used to build the quantitative index. •They are market, profitability, legislation, technology, and financial resources. •Policy implications are drawn based on the index.

  3. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    U. Akah, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Calabar, Calabar,. Nigeria .... (SAP) policies by the World Bank which was aimed at streamlining the ... of water resources to her citizens as a conation for assessing ...

  4. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  5. Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications from National Systems of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will focus on two critical topics in the current innovation policy ... data provided by innovation surveys in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and ... long-term climate action to reduce social inequality, promote greater gender ...

  6. Sex, gender, and secondhand smoke policies: implications for disadvantaged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Lorraine J; Hemsing, Natalie J

    2009-08-01

    Although implementation of secondhand smoke policies is increasing, little research has examined the unintended consequences of these policies for disadvantaged women. Macro-, meso-, and micro-level issues connected to secondhand smoke and women are considered to illustrate the range of ways in which sex, gender, and disadvantage affect women's exposure to secondhand smoke. A review of current literature, primarily published between 2000 and 2008, on sex- and gender-based issues related to secondhand smoke exposure and the effects of secondhand smoke policies for various subpopulations of women, including low-income girls and women, nonwhite minority women, and pregnant women, was conducted in 2008. These materials were critically analyzed using a sex and gender analysis, allowing for the drawing of inferences and reflections on the unintended effects of secondhand smoke policies on disadvantaged women. Smoke-free policies do not always have equal or even desired effects on low-income girls and women. Low-income women are more likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke, may have limited capacity to manage their exposure to secondhand smoke both at home and in the workplace, and may experience heightened stigmatization as a result of secondhand smoke policies. Various sex- and gender-related factors, such as gendered roles, unequal power differences between men and women, child-caring roles, and unequal earning power, affect exposure and responses to secondhand smoke, women's capacity to control exposure, and their responses to protective policies. In sum, a much more nuanced gender- and diversity-sensitive framework is needed to develop research and tobacco control policies that address these issues.

  7. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Bryan Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    The illicit nonmedical use of prescription drugs is studied in a model where individuals with imperfectly observable health conditions seek prescription drugs for either medical or nonmedical reasons. The equilibrium number of medical and nonmedical users is endogenous and depends on economic and non-economic barriers to drugs consumption, such as pricing, health care costs, refill policies, monitoring programs, and the medical community’s prescription standards. The results show policies cen...

  8. European security and defense policy and its implications for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özköse, Ö Faruk

    2002-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. The “European Security and Defense Policy” is an evolving process. Since the Maastricht Treaty (1991), the European Union members have been trying to constitute a common security and defense policy within the framework of Common Foreign and Security Policy, second pillar of the European Union. The efforts to create “separable but not separate” European forces within NATO have increased speed in the last years and changed direction towar...

  9. From Policy to Pedagogy: The Implications of Sustainability Policy for Sustainability Pedagogy in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Nora; Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2009-01-01

    In response to the growing number of sustainability policies being enacted at higher education institutions, this article examines the relationship between policy and pedagogy, asking how policy texts can both enable and impede the implementation of sustainability pedagogy in higher education. To explore this question, we have undertaken a case…

  10. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  11. Institutional Design, Macroeconomic Policy Coordination and Implications for the Financial Sector in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Muhammad Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has analysed the implications of institutional design of macroeconomic policy making institutions for the macroeconomic policy interaction and financial sector in the United Kingdom. Employing a Vector Error Correction (VEC model and using monthly data from January 1985 to August 2008 we found that the changes in institutional arrangement and design of policy making authorities appeared to be a major contributing factor in dynamics of association between policy coordination/combination and financial sector. It was also found that the independence of the Bank of England (BoE and withdrawal from the Exchange Rate Mechanism led to the increase in macroeconomic policy maker’s ability to coordinate and restore financial stability. The results imply that although institutional autonomy in the form of instrument independence (monetary policy decisions could bring financial stability, there is a strong necessity for coordination, even in Post-MPC (Monetary Policy Committee and the BoE independence.

  12. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A

    2018-05-01

    Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a rigorous assessment of SWPs in the bi-state region. SWPs were collected from 46 school districts. The Wellness School Assessment Tool (WellSAT) was used to assess comprehensiveness and strength. Additionally, focus group discussions and an online survey were conducted with school personnel to identify barriers and supports needed. Assessment of the SWPs indicated that most school districts failed to provide strong and specific language. Due to these deficiencies, districts reported lack of enforcement of policies. Several barriers to implementing the policies were reported by school personnel; supports needed for effective implementation were identified. To promote a healthful school environment, significant improvements are warranted in the strength and comprehensiveness of the SWPs. The focus group discussions provided insight as to where we need to bridge the gap between the current state of policies and the desired beneficial practices to support a healthy school environment. © 2018, American School Health Association.

  13. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Contaminants in Sludge: Implications for Management Policies and Land Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentel, Steven K.

    2003-07-01

    Policies on sludge (or biosolids) management vary widely, particularly when decisions must be made on what to do with the final product. This paper examines the two principal rationales with which such decisions are made, and through which scientific knowledge is included in the process. These rationales are risk analysis (risk assessment and management), and the criterion of sustainability. Both are found to be potentially arbitrary due to the difficulty in defining the individual constituents necessary to relate environmental phenomena to environmental policy. To place the difficulties in a practical context, this paper presents research results from three recent projects concerned with contaminants in sludge (phosphorus, flocculant polymers, and polymer-surfactant aggregates), and uses the findings to exemplify the dilemma encountered in policy making. A path forward is proposed. (author)

  15. Does gender inequality hinder development and economic growth ? evidence and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bandiera, Oriana; Natraj, Ashwini

    2013-01-01

    Does the existing evidence support policies that foster growth by reducing gender inequality? The authors argue that the evidence based on differences across countries is of limited use for policy design because it does not identify the causal link from inequality to growth. This, however does not imply that inequality-reducing policies are ineffective. In other words, the lack of evidence...

  16. Parents' perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence: implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Melanie J; Emshoff, James; Buck, Chad A; Cook, Sarah L

    2006-05-01

    This study explores perceptions of causes of and solutions for school violence in a sample of 202 parents interviewed in the wake of nationally publicized school shootings. We also investigate the effects the school shootings had on children, parents' perceptions regarding firearms, and changes in parenting behavior. Parents exhibited strong support for almost all proposed causes and solutions, and we address their desire for immediate and often invasive interventions to prevent future violence. We contrast parents' perceptions with their own parenting behaviors and with literature on effective interventions. Results are discussed within the context of policy implications.Editors' Strategic Implications: Parents' perceptions and behaviors are frequently influenced by history effects. The national attention received by school shootings provided an opportunity for exploration of those perceptions and self-reported behaviors. The authors provide evidence from timely surveys that parents struggle with identifying causal factors that may contribute to school violence and consequently support a myriad of strategies for intervention including very invasive environmental preventive strategies. The findings suggest that social scientists should play a proactive role in translating research-supported preventive strategies to effective replications in the community and make research available in formats that are available and comprehensible by the lay public.

  17. Macroeconomic policy interaction: State dependency and implications for financial stability in UK: A systemic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Nasir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The association between economic and financial stabilities and influence of macroeconomic policies on the financial sector creates scope of active policy role in financial stability. As a contribution to the existing body of knowledge, this study has analysed the implications of macroeconomic policy interaction/coordination for financial stability, proxied by financial assets, i.e. equity and bonds price oscillation. The critical review and analysis of the existing literature on the subject suggests that there is also ample evidence of interdependence between monetary and fiscal policies and this interrelation necessitates coordination between them for the sake of financial stability. There is also a case for analysing the symmetry of financial markets responses to macroeconomic policy interaction. On methodological and empirical grounds, it is vital to test the robustness of policy recommendations to overcome the limitation of a single empirical approach (Jeffrey–Lindley’s paradox. Hence, the Frequentist and Bayesian approaches should be used in commentary manner. The policy interaction and optimal policy combination should also be analysed in the context of institutional design and major financial events to gain insight into the implications of policy interaction in the periods of stable economic and financial environments as well as period of financial and economic distress.

  18. The outlook for crude oil supply and demand in Australia and its energy policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs

  19. Challenges and policy implications of gas reform in Italy and Ukraine: Evidence from a benchmarking analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharuk, Anatoliy G.; Storto, Corrado lo

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-country benchmarking study of natural gas distribution to final consumers and compares two samples of companies in Italy and Ukraine. A 2-stage DEA procedure calculating efficiency of gas providers and identifying critical context factors and policy issues that affect it is implemented. Both countries are low performing in terms of operators’ technical and scale efficiency and there is room to design more efficient market configurations. Some issues need attention to develop an effective gas market policy: a) search for efficiency requires accurate investigation of its main drivers that depend on context factors; b) while greater efficiency is necessary to reduce cost and increase service quality, at different stages of progress of the reform process other goals may be more important; c) gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective as its development does not remain confined to the sector, but implies changes in the whole country economy, particularly when the gas market is of primary relevance to the economy; d) a more comprehensive package of reforms may be necessary to make gas market reform successful; e) even though the gas market reform is an economic process, it has unavoidably social and political implications. - Highlights: • Benchmarking of natural gas distribution industry in Italy and Ukraine is performed. • Average industry inefficiency is about 27% and decreasing returns to scale are dominant. • Gas industry reform process should be planned adopting a systemic perspective. • Gas reform needs a more comprehensive package of reforms and/or supporting legislation to be successful. • Gas industry reform has social and political implications.

  20. Exertional Heat Illness among Secondary School Athletes: Statewide Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jill; Slota, Peggy; Zamboni, Beth

    2018-01-01

    Exertional heat illness (EHI) is a leading cause of preventable death among student athletes. While causes and preventative measures for EHI are known, school districts may not be implementing evidence-based practices. This descriptive, exploratory study explored school policies, resources, and practices of coaches in a mid-Atlantic state in the…

  1. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  2. Advancing the Field Elder Abuse: Future Directions and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-01-01

    Elder abuse, sometime called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect), and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that 1 out of 10 older adult experiences some form of elder abuse, and only 1 of out 25 cases are actually reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy dealing with the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow/Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with Administration on Community Living (ACL) (Previously known at Administration on Aging (AoA)) for the last two years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL; and highlight on two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act (OAA) and the Elder Justice Act (EJA). Moreover, I will highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. PMID:23110488

  3. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  4. Health Policy 2016 – Implications for Geriatric Urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suskind, Anne M.; Clemens, J. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review The U.S. healthcare system is undergoing fundamental changes in an effort to improve access to care, curtail healthcare spending, and improve quality of care. These efforts largely focused on Medicare, and therefore will have a fundamental impact on the care of geriatric patients. This article reviews contemporary health policy issues, with a focus on how these issues may impact the care of geriatric urology patients. Recent Findings The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has broadened the scope of Medicare coverage. Future Medicare reimbursement will be increasingly tied to care coordination, quality reporting, and demonstration of appropriate outcomes. Additional research is needed to better define the comparative effectiveness of urologic therapies in geriatric patients. Workforce projections indicate that there is a shortage of urologists in many areas of the country, and that this shortage will worsen over time unless a new funding model is instituted for graduate medical education. Summary Medicare spending drives many health policy decisions. Therefore, few health policy topics are unique to geriatrics or geriatric urology. However, certain health policy topics (e.g., care coordination, risk-stratification) are particularly germaine to the elderly patients. Urologists with a particular interest in geriatric urology should be familiar with these issues. PMID:26765043

  5. From Print to Digital: Implications for Dictionary Policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at some familiar editorial and presentational conventions, and considers which are no longer appropriate in the digital medium — and what new policies might replace them. Keywords: Definitions, example sentences, digital media, exclusion Criteria, gatekeeper, lexicographic conventions, online dictionary ...

  6. Rehabilitation Policy and Practice in Romania: Implications for Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Eniko C.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive account of the Romanian rehabilitation service delivery system. After a short presentation of disability issues during communism, the article shifts focus to a detailed review of current advancements in disability policy and legislation, prevalence, diagnosis, service delivery system and procedures, and…

  7. Adolescent unwed motherhood: implications for a national family policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischman, S H; Palley, H A

    1978-02-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancies among adolescents from impoverished families and the decision of these girls to have their babies rather than to seek an abortion represent on adaptation to the circumstances of poverty. The authors content that a national family policy might help some of these girls avoid out-of-wedlock pregnancy and childbearing.

  8. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.

  9. Resident Perspectives on Work-Life Policies and Implications for Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westercamp, Nicole; Wang, Raziya S; Fassiotto, Magali

    2018-02-01

    As resident burnout increases, there is a need for better awareness, resources, and interventions. Challenges in balancing work and life priorities have been implicated in contributing to physician burnout. Institutional work-life policies (WLPs) are critical tools to meet work-life needs. This study investigates the influence of WLPs on residents' experiences. The authors emailed a SurveyMonkey link to the APA chief resident and Minority Fellow listservs and directly to 94 psychiatry program directors and 52 fellowship directors nationwide to distribute a survey to residents regarding WLP use and barriers, as well as burnout. Estimated response rate was 12-23%. The authors assessed the anonymous responses using SPSS to evaluate for relationships between awareness of WLPs, perceptions/barriers surrounding their usage, and burnout. The authors analyzed 255 responses. Awareness and use of policies ranged from 2 to 33%. A prominent barrier to WLPs is that use results in shifting workload to co-residents (48% agree). Respondents who perceived leadership to view use of WLPs as a sign of weakness (16% agree) were less likely to use WLPs (t (89) = -3.52, p burnout (41%) perceived vastly higher barriers to using WLPs as compared to those without burnout. This study supports the need for further investigation of WLPs to mitigate resident burnout and identifies important perceived barriers that affect the use of WLPs including low awareness, potential for shifting workload to co-residents, and negative perceptions of leadership attitudes toward WLPs.

  10. Irrigation efficiency and water-policy implications for river basin resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C. A.; Vicuña, S.; Blanco-Gutiérrez, I.; Meza, F.; Varela-Ortega, C.

    2014-04-01

    Rising demand for food, fiber, and biofuels drives expanding irrigation withdrawals from surface water and groundwater. Irrigation efficiency and water savings have become watchwords in response to climate-induced hydrological variability, increasing freshwater demand for other uses including ecosystem water needs, and low economic productivity of irrigation compared to most other uses. We identify three classes of unintended consequences, presented here as paradoxes. Ever-tighter cycling of water has been shown to increase resource use, an example of the efficiency paradox. In the absence of effective policy to constrain irrigated-area expansion using "saved water", efficiency can aggravate scarcity, deteriorate resource quality, and impair river basin resilience through loss of flexibility and redundancy. Water scarcity and salinity effects in the lower reaches of basins (symptomatic of the scale paradox) may partly be offset over the short-term through groundwater pumping or increasing surface water storage capacity. However, declining ecological flows and increasing salinity have important implications for riparian and estuarine ecosystems and for non-irrigation human uses of water including urban supply and energy generation, examples of the sectoral paradox. This paper briefly considers three regional contexts with broadly similar climatic and water-resource conditions - central Chile, southwestern US, and south-central Spain - where irrigation efficiency directly influences basin resilience. The comparison leads to more generic insights on water policy in relation to irrigation efficiency and emerging or overdue needs for environmental protection.

  11. Policy Implications and Suggestions on Administrative Measures of Urban Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. V.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, C.; Yoon, J. H.; Chae, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and intensity of floods are increasing worldwide as recent climate change progresses gradually. Flood management should be policy-oriented in urban municipalities due to the characteristics of urban areas with a lot of damage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to prepare a flood susceptibility map by using data mining model and make a policy suggestion on administrative measures of urban flood. Therefore, we constructed a spatial database by collecting relevant factors including the topography, geology, soil and land use data of the representative city, Seoul, the capital city of Korea. Flood susceptibility map was constructed by applying the data mining models of random forest and boosted tree model to input data and existing flooded area data in 2010. The susceptibility map has been validated using the 2011 flood area data which was not used for training. The predictor importance value of each factor to the results was calculated in this process. The distance from the water, DEM and geology showed a high predictor importance value which means to be a high priority for flood preparation policy. As a result of receiver operating characteristic (ROC), random forest model showed 78.78% and 79.18% accuracy of regression and classification and boosted tree model showed 77.55% and 77.26% accuracy of regression and classification, respectively. The results show that the flood susceptibility maps can be applied to flood prevention and management, and it also can help determine the priority areas for flood mitigation policy by providing useful information to policy makers.

  12. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Akl, Elie A; Karroum, Lama Bou; Kdouh, Ola; Akik, Chaza; Fadlallah, Racha; Hammoud, Rawan

    2014-08-20

    Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors' affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews (8.5%) included primary

  13. Systematic reviews addressing identified health policy priorities in Eastern Mediterranean countries: a situational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews can offer policymakers and stakeholders concise, transparent, and relevant evidence pertaining to pressing policy priorities to help inform the decision-making process. The production and the use of systematic reviews are specifically limited in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities in the region is still unknown. This situational analysis exercise aims at assessing the extent to which published systematic reviews address policy priorities identified by policymakers and stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean region countries. It also provides an overview about the state of systematic review production in the region and identifies knowledge gaps. Methods We conducted a systematic search of the Health System Evidence database to identify published systematic reviews on policy-relevant priorities pertaining to the following themes: human resources for health, health financing, the role of the non-state sector, and access to medicine. Priorities were identified from two priority-setting exercises conducted in the region. We described the distribution of these systematic reviews across themes, sub-themes, authors’ affiliations, and countries where included primary studies were conducted. Results Out of the 1,045 systematic reviews identified in Health System Evidence on selected themes, a total of 200 systematic reviews (19.1%) addressed the priorities from the Eastern Mediterranean region. The theme with the largest number of systematic reviews included was human resources for health (115) followed by health financing (33), access to medicine (27), and role of the non-state sector (25). Authors based in the region produced only three systematic reviews addressing regional priorities (1.5%). Furthermore, no systematic review focused on the Eastern Mediterranean region. Primary studies from the region had limited contribution to systematic reviews; 17 systematic reviews

  14. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems. PMID:21539751

  15. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phua Kai Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  16. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-05-04

    Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, drawing on the cases of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia, three regional hubs for medical tourism, via an extensive review of academic and grey literature. Variables for further analysis of the potential impact of medical tourism on health systems are also identified. The framework can provide a basis for empirical, in country studies weighing the benefits and disadvantages of medical tourism for health systems. The policy implications described are of particular relevance for policymakers and industry practitioners in other Southeast Asian countries with similar health systems where governments have expressed interest in facilitating the growth of the medical tourist industry. This article calls for a universal definition of medical tourism and medical tourists to be enunciated, as well as concerted data collection efforts, to be undertaken prior to any meaningful empirical analysis of medical tourism's impact on health systems.

  17. The Social Cost Of Electricity. Scenarios and Policy Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Bigano, A.; Porchia, R.

    2010-01-01

    This book reports and rationalizes the state-of-the-art concerning the social costs of electricity generation. Social costs are assessed by adding to the private generation costs, the external costs associated with damages to human health, the environment, crops, materials, and those related to the consequences of climate change. The authors consider the evolution of these costs up to 2030 for major electricity generating technologies and, using these estimates, evaluate policy options for external cost internalization, providing quantitative scenarios by country and primary fuel for 2010, 2020 and 2030. While mainly focusing on European countries, the book also examines the situation in key emerging economies such as China, India, Brazil and Turkey. With an analysis of the policies for external costs internalization, this book will appeal to energy policymakers, research institutions focusing on energy, environmental and energy NGOs and trade associations, as well as energy companies.

  18. Trump and the GOP agenda: implications for retirement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madland, David; Rowell, Alex

    2018-04-11

    Policymakers need to act to protect Americans' retirement security. A significant portion of Americans are at risk of not being able to maintain their standard of living in retirement and research suggests that this percentage is likely to grow. This commentary provides background on the current state of American retirement, highlights recent efforts to reform retirement policy, and predicts what to expect under President Donald Trump. Retirement has not been a major focus of national policymakers in recent years. Early actions during the Trump administration to undo Obama administration policies may make it more difficult for individuals to save for retirement. While it is impossible to predict the future with any certainty, long standing trends and recent political developments suggest that major action will not be taken during the Trump presidency to boost retirement security.

  19. Health and schooling: evidence and policy implications for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-neto, J B; Hanushek, E A; Leite, R H; Frota-bezzera, R C

    1997-01-01

    Health and education are typically viewed as distinct topics from both the research and policy perspectives. Accordingly, the direct interactions between health status and education have been neglected in both research and policy making. The authors use survey data collected from students during the 1980s in Piaui, Ceara, and Pernambuco states as part of an evaluation of a major educational intervention program, EDURURAL, to investigate the complementarities of health with school attainment and cognitive achievement. A series of anthropometric measures for individual students in rural northeast Brazil are used in educational performance models. The promotion models and value-added achievement models both demonstrate the importance of students' visual acuity. Poor vision systematically leads to higher drop-out rates, more grade repetition, and lower achievement. The achievement models also point to the role of good nutrition.

  20. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  1. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  2. The (Biological or Cultural) Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu Yalcinkaya, Nur; Estrada-Villalta, Sara; Adams, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    Most research links (racial) essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action) among people with dominant (White) and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino) racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  3. The (Biological or Cultural Essence of Essentialism: Implications for Policy Support among Dominant and Subordinated Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soylu Yalcinkaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most research links (racial essentialism to negative intergroup outcomes. We propose that this conclusion reflects both a narrow conceptual focus on biological/genetic essence and a narrow research focus from the perspective of racially dominant groups. We distinguished between beliefs in biological and cultural essences, and we investigated the implications of this distinction for support of social justice policies (e.g., affirmative action among people with dominant (White and subordinated (e.g., Black, Latino racial identities in the United States. Whereas, endorsement of biological essentialism may have similarly negative implications for social justice policies across racial categories, we investigated the hypothesis that endorsement of cultural essentialism would have different implications across racial categories. In Studies 1a and 1b, we assessed the properties of a cultural essentialism measure we developed using two samples with different racial/ethnic compositions. In Study 2, we collected data from 170 participants using an online questionnaire to test the implications of essentialist beliefs for policy support. Consistent with previous research, we found that belief in biological essentialism was negatively related to policy support for participants from both dominant and subordinated categories. In contrast, the relationship between cultural essentialism and policy support varied across identity categories in the hypothesized way: negative for participants from the dominant category but positive for participants from subordinated categories. Results suggest that cultural essentialism may provide a way of identification that subordinated communities use to mobilize support for social justice.

  4. Identifying Key Stakeholder Groups for Implementing a Place Branding Policy in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulibanova V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional brands have become a valuable intangible asset and a crucial competitive resource for forging partnerships. An effective place branding policy is impossible without a precise understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups. It is essential to realize that each region is unique in its own way. Territories differ in the structure of stakeholders, their influence on regional development, and the range of leverages over regional decision-makers. This study aims to give a more precise definition of key groups of stakeholders in Saint Petersburg place branding, and to identify them. The authors employ the method of theoretical and empirical typology of a territory’s stakeholders within a theoretical framework proposed by E. Freeman, P. Kotler, S. Zenker, and E. Brown. The article defines the concept of key regional stakeholders and identifies them. The proposed target audience (stakeholder group model for a place branding policy is tested on the case of Saint Petersburg. The authors show that each target audience of place marketing requires an individual policy. This is explained by the fact that each group enjoys its unique features that should be taken into account when creating and transmitting messages.

  5. The policy implications of the different interpretations of the cost-effectiveness of renewable electricity support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del; Cerdá, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    The cost-effectiveness of support for renewable electricity is a main criterion to assess the success of policy instruments, together with effectiveness. The costs of support are also a source of significant concern for governments all over the world. However, significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. While some authors define the concept of cost-effectiveness as that which complies with the equimarginality principle, many others, including documents from relevant organisations (European Commission, International Energy Agency, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) define it as “the lowest costs of support”, generally equating it with the minimisation of consumer costs. The aim of this paper is to clarify the differences between both approaches and their policy implications regarding the choice of instruments and design elements. It is shown that they partly overlap and that their policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions. While the former favours technology neutral instruments and design elements, the “minimisation of consumer costs” approach favours instruments and design elements which adjust support levels to the costs of the technologies. - Highlights: • Significant confusion exists in the literature on the cost-effectiveness of public support for renewable electricity. • Clarify the differences between two main approaches to cost-effectiveness. • Policy implications clearly differ, leading to very different policy prescriptions

  6. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  7. Identifying the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Phil. (Sport Management) This study is strengthened by several studies that have indicated that the dualist nature of student-athletes is problematic, as well as the management thereof. The study aimed to identify the sociological implications of the main aspects affecting the optimal sporting career development in athletics (throwers) at University of Johannesburg Sport, and offers recommendations for managing student-athletes. The methods utilized for this study included: i) self-desig...

  8. Renewable deployment in India: Financing costs and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Nelson, David; Goel, Shobhit; Konda, Charith; Kumar, Raj

    2013-01-01

    India′s ambitious goals for renewable energy raise many questions regarding the nature of investment required. We conduct financial modeling of actual renewable projects in India; and derive the following insights. First, the high cost of debt is the most pressing problem: higher cost and inferior terms of debt in India may raise the cost of renewable energy by 24–32% compared to the U.S. Second, even if cost of debt goes down, loan terms – including short tenors and variable interest rates – will become significant impediments, given that they add 13–14% to the cost of renewable energy in India compared to the U.S. Finally, due to the high cost of debt, policy lessons from the U.S. and Europe; which focus on finer instruments such as duration of revenue-support, revenue-certainty, investor-risk-perception, and completion/cost-certainty; are not likely to be as effective, with potential impacts on the cost of renewable energy in the 3–11% range. In fact, we find that an interest-rate subsidy, which reduces the cost of debt, reduces the overall subsidy burden by 13–16%. This suggests that Indian policymakers need to prioritize the provision of low-cost, long-term debt and take a closer look at the successful efforts by China and Brazil. -- Highlights: •We examine impact of policy on financing costs of renewables in India. •The high cost of debt – the most pressing problem – adds about 24–32% to the cost. •An interest rate subsidy can actually reduce the overall subsidy burden by 13–16%. •Loan terms – debt tenor and variable rate debt – add about 13–14% to the cost. •Finer policy instruments are not as effective, given that they add 3–11% to the cost

  9. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    There is a growing awareness of the serious problems associated with the provision of sufficient energy to meet human needs and to fuel economic growth world-wide. This has pointed to the need for energy and material efficiency, which would reduce air, water and thermal pollution, as well as waste production. Increasing energy and material efficiency also have the benefits of increased employment, improved balance of imports and exports, increased security of energy supply, and adopting environmentally advantageous energy supply. A large potential exists for energy savings through energy and material efficiency improvements. Technologies are not now, nor will they be, in the foreseeable future, the limiting factors with regard to continuing energy efficiency improvements. There are serious barriers to energy efficiency improvement, including unwillingness to invest, lack of available and accessible information, economic disincentives and organizational barriers. A wide range of policy instruments, as well as innovative approaches have been tried in some countries in order to achieve the desired energy efficiency approaches. These include: regulation and guidelines; economic instruments and incentives; voluntary agreements and actions, information, education and training; and research, development and demonstration. An area that requires particular attention is that of improved international co-operation to develop policy instruments and technologies to meet the needs of developing countries. Material efficiency has not received the attention that it deserves. Consequently, there is a dearth of data on the qualities and quantities for final consumption, thus, making it difficult to formulate policies. Available data, however, suggest that there is a large potential for improved use of many materials in industrialized countries.

  10. German nuclear policy reconsidered. Implications for the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuersch, Michaela; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Malischek, Raimund; Nagl, Stephan; Panke, Timo; Trueby, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, German nuclear policy has been reconsidered. This paper demonstrates the economic effects of an accelerated nuclear phase-out on the German electricity generation sector. A detailed optimization model for European electricity markets is used to analyze two scenarios with different lifetimes for nuclear plants (phase-out vs. prolongation). Based on political targets, both scenarios assume significant electricity demand reductions and a high share of generation from renewable energy sources in Germany. Our principal findings are: First, nuclear capacities are mainly replaced by longer lifetimes of existing coal-fired plants and the construction of new gas-fired plants. Second, fossil fuel-based generation and power imports increase, while power exports are reduced in response to the lower nuclear generation. Third, despite the increased fossil generation, challenging climate protection goals can still be achieved within the framework of the considered scenarios. Finally, system costs and electricity prices are clearly higher. We conclude that the generation sector can generally cope with an accelerated nuclear phase-out under the given assumptions. Yet, we emphasize that such a policy requires a substantial and costly transformation of the supply and the demand side.

  11. Global obesity: trends, risk factors and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Vasanti S; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide increase in obesity and related chronic diseases has largely been driven by global trade liberalization, economic growth and rapid urbanization. These factors continue to fuel dramatic changes in living environments, diets and lifestyles in ways that promote positive energy balance. Nutritional transitions in low-income and middle-income countries are typically characterized by increases in the consumption of animal fat and protein, refined grains, and added sugar. This change is coupled with reductions in physical activity owing to more mechanized and technologically driven lifestyles. Given the high costs of obesity and comorbidities in terms of health-care expenditure and quality of life, prevention strategies are paramount, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries that must manage coexisting infectious diseases and undernutrition in addition to the obesity epidemic. As countries become increasingly urbanized, undernutrition and obesity can exist side by side within the same country, community or household, which is a particular challenge for health systems with limited resources. Owing to the scope and complexity of the obesity epidemic, prevention strategies and policies across multiple levels are needed in order to have a measurable effect. Changes should include high-level global policies from the international community and coordinated efforts by governments, organizations, communities and individuals to positively influence behavioural change.

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  13. Mexico's petroleum and US policy: implications for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronfeldt, D.; Nehring, R.; Gandara, A.

    1980-06-01

    This report examines selected factor affecting Mexico's future petroleum policies, and then assesses various implications of Mexico's petroleum for US interests and policies. After a brief introduction, the report is divided into three sections. The first offers a detailed analysis of Mexico's petroleum resources and production possibilities. The second considers petroleum as a symbolic issue of profound significance for Mexican nationalism. The final section provides an assessment of these and other factors for US interests, objectives, and policy options during the 1980s.

  14. Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Unemployment Rates in Nigeria, Implications for Attaining Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nwosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of macroeconomic policies on unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria from 1980 to 2013 with implication to achieving inclusive growth. The inability of macroeconomic policies in addressing the rising issues unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria despite the impressive economic growth experience over the last decades has increasingly called for the need for the pursuance of inclusive growth to address the social issues of unemployment and poverty rate. Previous studies have not considered the extent to which macroeconomic policies affects unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria, and the implication of this relationship to the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The study observed that among macroeconomic policy variables only exchange rate significantly influenced unemployment rate while only fiscal policy significantly influenced and poverty rate. This implies that present macroeconomic policies in Nigeria do not guarantee the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The contribution of the paper is that to achieve inclusive growth that guarantees high employment and reduced poverty rate, there is the need for a re-examination of macroeconomic policy management in Nigeria.

  15. Exome sequencing identifies three novel candidate genes implicated in intellectual disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Agha

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID is a major health problem mostly with an unknown etiology. Recently exome sequencing of individuals with ID identified novel genes implicated in the disease. Therefore the purpose of the present study was to identify the genetic cause of ID in one syndromic and two non-syndromic Pakistani families. Whole exome of three ID probands was sequenced. Missense variations in two plausible novel genes implicated in autosomal recessive ID were identified: lysine (K-specific methyltransferase 2B (KMT2B, zinc finger protein 589 (ZNF589, as well as hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT with a de novo mutation with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The KMT2B recessive variant is the first report of recessive Kleefstra syndrome-like phenotype. Identification of plausible causative mutations for two recessive and a dominant type of ID, in genes not previously implicated in disease, underscores the large genetic heterogeneity of ID. These results also support the viewpoint that large number of ID genes converge on limited number of common networks i.e. ZNF589 belongs to KRAB-domain zinc-finger proteins previously implicated in ID, HHAT is predicted to affect sonic hedgehog, which is involved in several disorders with ID, KMT2B associated with syndromic ID fits the epigenetic module underlying the Kleefstra syndromic spectrum. The association of these novel genes in three different Pakistani ID families highlights the importance of screening these genes in more families with similar phenotypes from different populations to confirm the involvement of these genes in pathogenesis of ID.

  16. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H

    1998-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  17. Adolescent suicide prevention. Current research and social policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A F; Zigler, E

    1993-02-01

    The rate of adolescent suicide has increased dramatically in the past few decades, prompting several interventions to curb the increase. Unfortunately, many of the intervention efforts have not benefited from current research findings because the communication between researchers and those who develop the interventions is inadequate. Of specific concern are the increasingly popular curriculum-based suicide prevention programs, which have not demonstrated effectiveness and may contain potentially deleterious components. This article reviews the current epidemiological research in adolescent suicide and suggests how this knowledge could be used more effectively to reduce the rate of adolescent suicide. Recommendations include support for integrated primary prevention efforts; suicide prevention education for professionals; education and policies on firearm management; education for the media about adolescent suicide; more efficient identification and treatment of at-risk youth, including those exposed to suicidal behavior; crisis intervention; and treatment for suicide attempters.

  18. Recycling of sewage in Swedish municipalities - Policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederberg, H.

    1997-12-31

    The construction of sewage treatment plants, which increased dramatically during the sixties in Sweden, was based on the idea that sewage is a waste, despite the fact that it contains considerable amounts of nourishment. Environmental research today, focuses more and more on recycling and on the potential resource inherent in sewage. This chapter deals with how to manage a change from problem elimination to recycling of resources, and discuss such from an institutional perspective. A shift towards recycling implies a shift of techniques, decision-makers and process strategies. Implementation of recycling will need strategic principles, and thereby results from research focusing common property resource management can be used in the policy process 32 refs, 5 figs

  19. Consumer preference not to choose: Methodological and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2007-01-01

    Residential consumers remain reluctant to choose new electricity suppliers. Even the most successful jurisdictions, four US states and other countries, have had to adopt extensive consumer education procedures that serve largely to confirm that choosing electricity suppliers is daunting. Electricity is not unique in this respect; numerous studies find that consumers are generally reluctant to switch brands, even when they are well-informed about product characteristics. If consumers prefer not to choose, opening regulated markets can reduce welfare, even for some consumers who do switch, as the incumbent can exploit this preference by raising price above the formerly regulated level. Policies to open markets might be successful even if limited to industrial and commercial customers, with residential prices based on those in nominally competitive wholesale markets

  20. Food inflation in South Africa: some implications for economic policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Logan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends in food price movements in South Africa between 1980 and 2008. There are three main results emanating from the analysis in this paper. Firstly, food price movements have played a large role in generating inflationary episodes in South Africa. Secondly, while external influences do matter, South African food price movements are mainly due to domestic influences. This implies that national policy has an important role to play in taming domestic food price inflation. Thirdly, given the strong second round impacts, food price movements warrant special attention in monetary policymaking. Core measures of inflation that exclude food price movements may not accurately reflect the underlying inflationary pressures in the economy and could compromise the attainment of the goal of price stability.

  1. Sustainable management indicators and implications of public policies for forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyron, Jean-Luc; Bonheme, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Since 1995, in the framework of the Pan-European process of Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe, every five years France establishes sustainable management indicators for forests in metropolitan France. The four successive publications now available provide information, according to the six criteria for sustainable forest management formulated in Helsinki in 1993, on developments over time in the state of French forests and the activities they generate. They also give rise to questions about the extent to which this follow-up meet the needs of forests in the area of public policies, including the fight against the greenhouse effect and adaptation to climate change. In addition, they suggest improvements for the short, medium and long term aimed at enhancing the switch from a statistical description to a strategic vision, as well as harmonisation and coherence of information, and extending the legal, political, institutional and geographic scope of sustainable forest management indicators. (authors)

  2. Investigating Policy Implications for the Abolition of Corporal Punishment in Secondary Schools in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate policy implications for the abolition of corporal punishment in secondary schools in Kenya. Adopting a survey design, using questionnaires, interviews and documentation, a sample of 355 was selected from target population of 3228 teachers, students and parents. The data were analysed thematically.…

  3. Redefining the WISC-R: Implications for Professional Practice and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macmann, Gregg M.; Barnett, David W.

    1992-01-01

    The factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) was examined in the standardization sample using new methods of factor analysis. The substantial overlap across factors was most parsimoniously represented by a single general factor. Implications for public policy regarding the purposes and outcomes of special…

  4. Committee Structure and its Implications for Monetary Policy Decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Berk (Jan Marc); B.K. Bierut

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the implications for the setting of interest rates when monetary policy decisions are taken by a committee, in which a subset of members may meet prior to the voting in the committee and therefore has the possibility to reach consensus ex ante to vote unanimously ex post.

  5. Committee structure and its implications for monetary policy decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierut, B.K.; Berk, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the implications for the setting of interest rates when monetary policy decisions are taken by a committee, in which a subset of membersmay meet prior to the voting in the committee and therefore has the possibility to reach consensus ex ante to vote unanimously ex post. We allow

  6. Early nurse attrition in New Zealand and associated policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L; Clendon, J

    2018-03-01

    To examine the factors contributing to nurses choosing to exit the nursing profession before retirement age. Population growth, ageing and growing demand for health services mean increased demand for nurses. Better retention could help meet this demand, yet little work has been done in New Zealand to understand early attrition. An online survey of registered and enrolled nurses and nurse practitioners who had left nursing was used. This study reports analysis of responses from 285 ex-nurses aged under 55. The primary reasons nurses left the profession were as follows: workplace concerns; personal challenges; career factors; family reasons; lack of confidence; leaving for overseas; unwillingness to complete educational requirements; poor work-life balance; and inability to find suitable nursing work. Most nurses discussed their intentions to leave with a family member or manager and most reported gaining transferrable skills through nursing. Nurses leave for many reasons. Implementing positive practice environments and individualized approaches to retaining staff may help reduce this attrition. Generational changes in the nature of work and careers mean that nurses may continue to leave the profession sooner than anticipated by policymakers. If the nursing workforce is to be able to meet projected need, education, recruitment and retention policies must urgently address issues leading to early attrition. In particular, policies improving the wider environmental context of nursing practice and ensuring that working environments are safe and nurses are well supported must be developed and implemented. Equally, national nursing workforce planning must take into account that nursing is no longer viewed as a career for life. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Macroeconomic implications of population ageing and selected policy responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; McKee, Martin; Rechel, Bernd; Rosenberg, Larry; Smith, James P

    2015-02-14

    Between now and 2030, every country will experience population ageing-a trend that is both pronounced and historically unprecedented. Over the past six decades, countries of the world had experienced only a slight increase in the share of people aged 60 years and older, from 8% to 10%. But in the next four decades, this group is expected to rise to 22% of the total population-a jump from 800 million to 2 billion people. Evidence suggests that cohorts entering older age now are healthier than previous ones. However, progress has been very uneven, as indicated by the wide gaps in population health (measured by life expectancy) between the worst (Sierra Leone) and best (Japan) performing countries, now standing at a difference of 36 years for life expectancy at birth and 15 years for life expectancy at age 60 years. Population ageing poses challenges for countries' economies, and the health of older populations is of concern. Older people have greater health and long-term care needs than younger people, leading to increased expenditure. They are also less likely to work if they are unhealthy, and could impose an economic burden on families and society. Like everyone else, older people need both physical and economic security, but the burden of providing these securities will be falling on a smaller portion of the population. Pension systems will be stressed and will need reassessment along with retirement policies. Health systems, which have not in the past been oriented toward the myriad health problems and long-term care needs of older people and have not sufficiently emphasised disease prevention, can respond in different ways to the new demographic reality and the associated changes in population health. Along with behavioural adaptations by individuals and businesses, the nature of such policy responses will establish whether population ageing will lead to major macroeconomic difficulties. Copyright © 2015 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  8. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, Bob van der; Rabl, Ari

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  9. Genomics and infectious disease: a call to identify the ethical, legal and social implications for public health and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Gail; Dvoskin, Rachel; Thio, Chloe L; Duggal, Priya; Lewis, Michelle H; Bailey, Theodore C; Sutherland, Andrea; Salmon, Daniel A; Kahn, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Advances in genomics are contributing to the development of more effective, personalized approaches to the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. Genetic sequencing technologies are furthering our understanding of how human and pathogen genomic factors - and their interactions - contribute to individual differences in immunologic responses to vaccines, infections and drug therapies. Such understanding will influence future policies and procedures for infectious disease management. With the potential for tailored interventions for particular individuals, populations or subpopulations, ethical, legal and social implications (ELSIs) may arise for public health and clinical practice. Potential considerations include balancing health-related benefits and harms between individuals and the larger community, minimizing threats to individual privacy and autonomy, and ensuring just distribution of scarce resources. In this Opinion, we consider the potential application of pathogen and host genomic information to particular viral infections that have large-scale public health consequences but differ in ELSI-relevant characteristics such as ease of transmission, chronicity, severity, preventability and treatability. We argue for the importance of anticipating these ELSI issues in advance of new scientific discoveries, and call for the development of strategies for identifying and exploring ethical questions that should be considered as clinical, public health and policy decisions are made.

  10. Geo hazard studies and their policy implications in Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, W.

    2007-05-01

    Nicaragua, situated at the Central American Subduction zone and placed in the trajectory of tropical storms and hurricanes, is a frequent showplace of natural disasters which have multiplied the negative effects of a long term socioeconomic crisis leaving Nicaragua currently as the second poorest country of the Americas. In the last years, multiple efforts were undertaken to prevent or mitigate the affectation of the natural phenomena to the country. National and local authorities have become more involved in disaster prevention policy and international cooperation boosted funding for disaster prevention and mitigation measures in the country. The National Geosciences Institution (INETER) in cooperation with foreign partners developed a national monitoring and early warning system on geological and hydro-meteorological phenomena. Geological and risk mapping projects were conducted by INETER and international partners. Universities, NGO´s, International Technical Assistance, and foreign scientific groups cooperated to capacitate Nicaraguan geoscientists and to improve higher education on disaster prevention up to the master degree. Funded by a World Bank loan, coordinated by the National System for Disaster Prevention, Mitigation and Attention (SINAPRED) and scientifically supervised by INETER, multidisciplinary hazard and vulnerability studies were carried out between 2003 and 2005 with emphasis on seismic hazard. These GIS based works provided proposals for land use policies on a local level in 30 municipalities and seismic vulnerability and risk information for each single building in Managua, Capital of Nicaragua. Another large multidisciplinary project produced high resolution air photos, elaborated 1:50,000 vectorized topographic maps, and a digital elevation model for Western Nicaragua. These data, integrated in GIS, were used to assess: 1) Seismic Hazard for Metropolitan Managua; 2) Tsunami hazard for the Pacific coast; 3) Volcano hazard for Telica

  11. Identity politics: implications for gender analysis policy and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Y

    1997-01-01

    As attention has shifted from a concern for citizenship, equality, and welfare to ideas of empowerment, equity, and governance, the locus of competition over power has rested with "identity politics," a recognition of cultural diversity that claims the legitimate right to produce alternative definitions and symbols of identity in public space. The change in identity formation from universal/national to fractured/tribalizing has implications for gender relations in contexts where patriarchal power controls production and reproduction. Except for feminism, all discourses in the current competition over identity politics are patriarchal. A look at the forces of change that shifted the process of modernization to a process of globalization reveals that, while modernization tends to standardize, globalization embraces the contradictory forces of universalizing and diversifying trends. Issues of identity and inequality were not problematic until the modern and the traditional subsumed each other and, thus, revealed the inherent contradictions of modernization. The diversifying forces that jeopardize the transnationalization of identity into membership in a "human society" include 1) language differences among the working classes, 2) growing global inequalities, and 3) collective memories of antagonistic histories. An analysis of gender based on identity politics can be conducted on a macro-level to understand the reluctance of central governments to initiate certain interventions, competing needs, new contradictions, changing gender roles, and the importance of promoting a global social contract.

  12. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  13. Diversity in solar photovoltaic energy: Implications for innovation and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subtil Lacerda, J.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We undertake a qualitative empirical study of the solar photovoltaic (PV) industry in order to investigate the role of diversity in stimulating innovation and diffusion. Based on evolutionary-economic concepts, we identify the main dimensions and components of diversity in the solar PV industry.

  14. Can food be addictive? Public health and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Grilo, Carlos M; DiLeone, Ralph J; Brownell, Kelly D; Potenza, Marc N

    2011-07-01

    Data suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug addiction may be especially useful in combating food-related problems. In the current paper, we review the potential application of policy and public health approaches that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive substances to food-related problems. Corporate responsibility, public health approaches, environmental change and global efforts all warrant strong consideration in reducing obesity and diet-related disease. Although there exist important differences between foods and addictive drugs, ignoring analogous neural and behavioral effects of foods and drugs of abuse may result in increased food-related disease and associated social and economic burdens. Public health interventions that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive drugs may have a role in targeting obesity and related diseases. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Regarding zygotes as persons: implications for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, L Lewis; Brown, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the notion put forward by certain groups (largely as a consequence of their opposition to elective abortion) that the immediate post-fertilization cellular entity - the zygote - is a person and should be given full moral status. Because the zygote has none of the inherent characteristics necessary to be regarded as a person in the traditional philosophical sense (e.g., John Locke or Immanuel Kant), some advocates of this position attempt to advance their case with arguments based on the genetic potential of the human zygote to develop into a person. We argue that this position represents a flawed use of human genetics and ignores the extraordinarily inefficient and wasteful nature of human reproduction. We then explore the public policy consequences that would follow from granting the zygote full moral status. We conclude that the logical consequences of granting the zygote full moral status would require a revolutionary restructuring of many basic social institutions, especially the health care system. The social, political, and economic changes that would be required if the zygote is enshrined as a person in law constitute a convincing reductio ad absurdum that demonstrates the danger in taking this position seriously.

  16. Caring: Implications for Child Care and for Family Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Canadian families have changed, in part due to an economy that provides more work opportunities for women, and a cultural orientation that values equal opportunity and diversity in families. In spite of the change, both quantitative and qualitative evidence suggest a continued preference for mothers to spend considerable time with children, especially in the infant and toddler years. Thus, in an average couple, the presence of young children in the home brings wives to reduce their paid work and husbands to increase their paid work. Our reading of parental preferences suggests an interest in more services for young children in the form of early childhood education and child care, but also an interest in policies that would allow parents to spend more time with children through parental leaves, part-time work with good benefits, and subsidies that supplement market income. Many options available to two-parent families are often less feasible for lone parents, giving a higher priority to child care.

  17. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2006-11-08

    In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  18. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  19. Farmers’ Awareness of Ecosystem Services and the Associated Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Xun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the primary factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services. This study, through questionnaires, conducts research on farmers’ awareness of and demand for ecosystem service functions. The research encapsulates 156 households from 21 groups of villagers in the Guangxi Karst Ecological Immigration District in China. The results of the factors influencing farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, analyzed using a regression model, show that: (1 Farmers are concerned with ecosystem service functions that directly benefit them; however, they do not sufficiently understand the ecosystem’s ecological security maintenance or cultural landscape functions; (2 Farmers’ awareness of ecosystem service functions is not consistent with their corresponding demand, including the ecosystem’s leisure and entertainment, social security, disaster prevention and water purification services; (3 Education level, land area cultivated by the household, proportion of the household’s income from agriculture and immigration status directly affect farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services; (4 Farmers’ personal characteristics, family characteristics and subjective attitudes have different effects on the level of ecological service cognition. Understanding farmers’ awareness of ecosystem services, and the influencing factors can help policymakers and development managers plan local development and policies, and enable harmonious development of the human-earth system in immigration regions of China.

  20. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic Beaujot

    2002-12-01

    activities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour or complementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in a collaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It is important to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links between earning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed that equal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education and work, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaid work, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility is likely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but where families remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reduce the dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earning and caring.

  1. Renewable energy and policy options in an integrated ASEAN electricity market: Quantitative assessments and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Youngho; Li, Yanfei

    2015-01-01

    Energy market integration (EMI) in the ASEAN region is a promising solution to relieve the current immobilization of its renewable energy resources and would serve the fast increasing demand for electricity in the region. EMI could be further extended with coordinated policies in carbon pricing, renewable energy portfolio standards (RPS), and feed-in-tariffs (FIT) in the ASEAN countries. Using a linear dynamic programming model, this study quantitatively assesses the impacts of EMI and the above-mentioned policies on the development of renewable energy in the power generation sector of the region, and the carbon emissions reduction achievable with these policies. According to our results, EMI is expected to significantly promote the adoption of renewable energy. Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS and is recommended for the ASEAN region, albeit political barriers for policy coordination among the countries might be a practical concern. In addition, an RPS of 30% electricity from renewable sources by 2030, which is considered politically a “low-hanging fruit”, would achieve moderate improvements in carbon emissions reductions and renewable energy development, while incurring negligible increases in the total cost of electricity. -- Highlights: •Energy market integration (EMI), carbon pricing, RPS, and FIT are examined for ASEAN. •EMI is a promising and feasible solution to promote renewable energy for ASEAN. •Along with EMI, FIT appears to be more cost-effective than RPS for ASEAN. •RPS of 30% by 2030 appears to be reasonable and feasible for ASEAN. •Coordinating FIT and RPS policies under EMI among ASEAN is advised

  2. Global Operations and Biometrics: Next Generation Capabilities and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    with the object. Literally, how many people have been through the doorway (touching a doorknob) or as a law enforcement and security example, how...and certain identifiable regions of the world through organic material signatures and their effect on the human genome. And lastly, another element of...based ability to generate results that complement manual sketches which are dependent on witness or informant memory (potentially more objective and

  3. Clean coal use in China: Challenges and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xu; Snowden, Simon; McLellan, Benjamin C.; Höök, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption in China is currently dominated by coal, a major source of air pollution and carbon emissions. The utilization of clean coal technologies is a likely strategic choice for China at present, however, although there have been many successes in clean coal technologies worldwide, they are not widely used in China. This paper examines the challenges that China faces in the implementation of such clean coal technologies, where the analysis shows that those drivers that have a negative bearing on the utilization of clean coal in China are mainly non-technical factors such as the low legal liability of atmospheric pollution related to coal use, and the lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal use in China. Policies for the development of clean coal technologies are in their early stages in China, and the lack of laws and detailed implementation requirements for clean coal require resolution in order to accelerate China's clean coal developments. Currently, environmental pollution has gained widespread attention from the wider Chinese populace and taking advantage of this opportunity provides a space in which to regain the initiative to raise people’s awareness of clean coal products, and improve enterprises’ enthusiasm for clean coal. - Highlights: • Clean coal is not widely used in China due to many management issues. • Legal liability of pollution related with coal utilization is too low in China. • China is lack of laws and mandatory regulations for clean coal utilization. • It is difficult to accelerate clean coal utilization by incentive subsidies alone.

  4. Economic and policy implications of the cumulative carbon budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Otto, A.; Hepburn, C.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of cumulative carbon emissions in determining long-term risks of climate change presents considerable challenges to policy makers. The traditional notion of "total CO2-equivalent emissions", which forms the backbone of agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol and the European Emissions Trading System, is fundamentally flawed. Measures to reduce short-lived climate pollutants benefit the current generation, while measures to reduce long-lived climate pollutants benefit future generations, so there is no sense in which they can ever be considered equivalent. Debates over the correct metric used to compute CO2-equivalence are thus entirely moot: both long-lived and short-lived emissions will need to be addressed if all generations are to be protected from dangerous climate change. As far as long-lived climate pollutants are concerned, the latest IPCC report highlights the overwhelming importance of carbon capture and storage in determining the cost of meeting the goal of limiting anthropogenic warming to two degrees. We will show that this importance arises directly from the cumulative carbon budget and the role of CCS as the technology of last resort before economic activity needs to be restricted to meet ambitious climate targets. It highlights the need to increase the rate of CCS deployment by orders of magnitude if the option of avoiding two degrees is to be retained. The difficulty of achieving this speed of deployment through conventional incentives and carbon-pricing mechanisms suggests a need for a much more direct mandatory approach. Despite their theoretical economic inefficiency, the success of recent regulatory measures in achieving greenhouse gas emissions reductions in jurisdictions such as the United States suggests an extension of the regulatory approach could be a more effective and politically acceptable means of achieving adequately rapid CCS deployment than conventional carbon taxes or cap-and-trade systems.

  5. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  6. English in the multilingual classroom: implications for research, policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Brutt-Griffler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The shift in the function of English as a medium of instruction together with its use in knowledge construction and dissemination among scholars continue to fuel the global demand for high-level proficiency in the language. These components of the global knowledge economy mean that the ability of nations to produce multilinguals with advanced English proficiency alongside their mastery of other languages has become a key to global competitiveness. That need is helping to drive one of the greatest language learning experiments the world has ever known. It carries significant implications for new research agendas and teacher preparation in applied linguistics. Design/methodology/approach – Evidence-based decision-making, whether it pertains to language policy decisions, instructional practices, teacher professional development or curricula/program building, needs to be based on a rigorous and systematically pursued program of research and assessment. Findings – This paper seeks to advance these objectives by identifying new research foci that underscore a student-centered approach. Originality/value – It introduces a new theoretical construct – multilingual proficiency – to underscore the knowledge that the learner develops in the process of language learning that makes for the surest route to the desired high levels of language proficiency. The paper highlights the advantages of a student-centered approach that focuses on multilingual proficiency for teachers and explores the concomitant conclusions for teacher development.

  7. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Eime

    2016-08-01

    that sport policy places a higher priority on grass-roots participation and that sporting organisations are supported to prioritise the retention issues occurring during adolescence, particularly for females so as to maximise the potential for sport to maintain its positive contribution to population wellbeing.

  8. Confronting Oahu's Water Woes: Identifying Scenarios for a Robust Evaluation of Policy Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees, C. B.; Garcia, M. E.; Alarcon, T.; Sixt, G.

    2013-12-01

    three primary drivers of sustainability of the water supply: demand, recharge, and sea level rise. We then determined the secondary drivers shaping the primary drivers and separated them into two groups: policy-relevant drivers and external drivers. We developed a simple water balance model to calculate maximum sustainable yield based on soil properties, land cover, daily precipitation and temperature. To identify critical scenarios, the model was run over the full forecasted ranges of external drivers, such as temperature, precipitation, sea level, and population. Only the status quo of the policy drivers such as land use, water use per capita, and habitat protection has been modeled to date. However, our next steps include working with stakeholders to elicit policy strategies such as conservation regulations or zoning plans, and testing the robustness of proposed strategies with the model developed.

  9. Soviet Foreign Policy in Guinea and Somalia, Implications for American Policy Toward Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    membership base, and gave both women and youth active roles in party affairs. This organizing effort to make the PDG representative of all Guineans was...to accept a certain degree of indigenous private enterprise, it has instituted a policy which excludes the entreprenuers from holding party posts...mobilize the nation’s youth 37 and women . To accomplish the first task the PDG leadership made Diallo Saifoulaye (a Foulah) Vice President of the

  10. A fraud prevention policy: Its relevance and implication at a university of technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Rorwana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using research grants administrators and their clients (academic researchers as the lens, this paper investigated the relevance and implication of a fraud prevention policy at a University of Technology (UoT in South Africa. The paper adopted a quantitative approach in which closed-ended questions were complemented by open-ended questions in the survey questionnaire in the attempt to capture the perceptions of both research grants administrators and their clients on the relevance and implications of a fraud and irregularity prevention policy. The results indicate that both research grants administrators (71.4 %, and their clients (73% do not know if UoTx has a fraud and irregularity policy. While only 36% of research grants administrators indicated that they would feel safe reporting deceitful activities, a slight majority (59% of the clients reported same. With regards to the steps to follow to report fraudulent activity, it was noted that while all (100% the research grants administrators noted that they were clueless, ironically an overwhelming majority of their clients indicated otherwise. Notwithstanding, both research grants administrators and their clients (93% and 95% respectively concurred that a fraud prevention policy was necessary for UoTx. The implication is that having phenomenal controls that are not effectively publicized, monitored or worse still overridden by someone are useless.

  11. Standards for arsenic in drinking water: Implications for policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Andrew T; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Gamboa-Loira, Brenda; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2017-11-01

    Global concern about arsenic in drinking water and its link to numerous diseases make translation of evidence-based research into national policy a priority. Delays in establishing a maximum contaminant level (MCL) to preserve health have increased the burden of disease and caused substantial and avoidable loss of life. The current Mexican MCL for arsenic in drinking water is 25 μg/l (2.5 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation from 1993). Mexico's struggles to set its arsenic MCL offer a compelling example of shortcomings in environmental health policy. We explore factors that might facilitate policy change in Mexico: scientific evidence, risk communication and public access to information, economic and technological resources, and politics. To raise awareness of the health, societal, and economic implications of arsenic contamination of drinking water in Mexico, we suggest action steps for attaining environmental policy change and better protect population health.

  12. Regarding Obesity as a Disease: Evolving Policies and Their Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Allison, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis The 2013 decision of the American Medical Association (AMA) to recognize obesity as a complex, chronic disease that requires medical attention came as the result of developments over three decades. Defining a condition such as obesity to be a disease is a very public process that is largely driven by expectation of costs and benefits. Although the public has been slow to embrace defining obesity as a purely medical condition, evidence is emerging for broader awareness of factors beyond personal choice influencing obesity. The AMA decision appears to be working in concert with other factors to bring more access to care, less blame for people with the condition, and more favorable conditions for research to identify effective strategies for prevention and clinical care to reduce the impact of this disease. PMID:27519127

  13. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  14. Earning and caring: demographic change and policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaujot, Roderic

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishSeeking to define families as groups of people who share earning and caringactivities, we contrast theoretical orientations that see advantages to a division of labour orcomplementary roles, in comparison to orientations that see less risk and greater companionship in acollaborative model based on sharing paid and unpaid work, or co-providing and co-parenting. It isimportant to look both inside and outside of families, or at the changing gendered links betweenearning and caring, to understand change both in families and in the work world. It is proposed thatequal opportunity by gender has advanced further in the public sphere associated with education andwork, than in the private family sphere associated with everyday life. Time-use data [from Canada]indicate that, on average, men carry their weight in terms of total productive time (paid plus unpaidwork, but that women make much more of the accommodations between family and work. Fertility islikely to be lowest in societies that offer women equal opportunity in the public sphere but wherefamilies remain traditional in terms of the division of work. Policies are discussed that would reducethe dependency between spouses, and encourage a greater common ground between men and women in earningand caring.FrenchEn cherchant à définir la famille comme étant un groupe de personnes partageant les activités relatives au fait de gagner de l'argent et de prendre soin des autres, nous nous distinguons des théories préconisant la division du travail ou les rôles complémentaires comparativement au modèle collaboratif qui a l'avantage de présenter moins de risque et plus de compagnonnage et qui est fondé sur le partage du travail rémunéré et non rémunéré, le travail à l'extérieur de la maison et le parentage. Il est important de voir ce qui se passe à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur de la famille ou de considérer les liens changeant d'après le sexe entre le rôle de pourvoyeur et

  15. Australian television news coverage of alcohol, health and related policies, 2005 to 2010: implications for alcohol policy advocates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-12-01

    To describe television news coverage between 2005 and 2010 of alcohol, health and relevant alcohol-control policies, with a view to informing policy advocacy. A content analysis of all alcohol stories archived by the Australian Health News Research Collaboration. We recorded what triggered a news item, the main topics covered, whether risks to health were communicated, whether alcohol-control policies were featured and which news-actors appeared. We identified 612 stories, where 69.2% were triggered by a particular newsworthy incident or the release of new findings. The most frequently reported alcohol stories were focused on associated harms (30.2%) and 'binge drinking' (19.0%). A majority (75.3%) reported a variety of positive and negative health effects, yet mainly focused on short-term consequences. Combined, 63% mentioned an alcohol-control policy, yet no one particular policy was featured in more than 10% of all stories. The most commonly featured news-actors included public-health professionals (50.0%), members of affected communities (28.4%) and government representatives (24.3%) Problems related to alcohol were well-established foci of news attention and reportage and covered a broad spectrum of issues related to public health goals, yet less coverage centred on long-term health consequences or effective policy solutions. Future policy advocacy could focus on moving the debate away from simple problem definition to better communication of long-term health risks, existing policies, and evidence of their effectiveness and arguments for their adoption. Future research might consider audience understanding of the information. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  16. Misinformation in eating disorder communications: Implications for science communication policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Benjamin

    Though eating disorders are a serious public health threat, misinformation about these potentially deadly diseases is widespread. This study examines eating disorder information from a wide variety of sources including medical journals, news reports, and popular social activist authors. Examples of misinformation were identified, and three aspects of eating disorders (prevalence, mortality, and etiology) were chosen as key indicators of scientific illiteracy about those illnesses. A case study approach was then adopted to trace examples of misinformation to their original sources whenever possible. A dozen examples include best-selling books, national eating disorder information clearinghouses; the news media; documentary feature films; and a PBS television Nova documentary program. The results provide an overview of the ways in which valid information becomes flawed, including poor journalism, lack of fact-checking, plagiarism, and typographical errors. Less obvious---and perhaps even more important---much of the misinformation results from scientific research being co-opted to promote specific sociopolitical agendas. These results highlight a significant gap in science communication between researchers, the medical community, and the public regarding these diseases, and recommendations to address the problem are offered.

  17. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Moyle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians and the Australian Curriculum; and the implementation of professional standards as outlined in the Australian Professional Standard for Principals and the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers. These policies create expectations of school leaders to bring about change in classrooms and across their schools, often described as bringing about ‘quality teaching’ and ‘school improvement’. These policies indicate that Australian children should develop ‘democratic values’, and that school principals should exercise ‘democratic values’ in their schools. The national approaches to the implementation of these policies however, is largely silent on promoting learning that fosters democracy through education, or about making connections between teaching and learning with technologies, school leadership and living in a democracy. Yet the policies promote these connections and alignments. Furthermore, understanding democratic values, knowing what is a democracy, and being able to use technologies in democratic ways, has to be learned and practiced. Through the lens of the use of technologies to build digital citizenship and to achieve democratic processes and outcomes in schools, these policy complexities are examined in order to consider some of the implications for school leadership.

  18. Policy implications with regard to controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijningen, R.J.J. van; Bartels, J.H.M.; Ackers, J.G.; Hogeweg, B.; Rijn, H.T.U. de; Walle, F.B. de

    1988-04-01

    The RENA (Regulable forms of Natural Background radiation) has started in order to broaden the technical-scientific insights in the domain of the natural background radiation and to continue the SAWORA-study. With regard to the policy implications it has appeared to be desirable to define more detailed the environment-protectional economical and governmental aspects and to consider their mutual relationships in order to prepare a coherent programme which is directed at policy actions to be undertaken as well as at the supporting study needed. (author). 34 refs.; 3 figs.; 11 tabs

  19. A literature review to identify factors that determine policies for influenza vaccination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Cohen, J.M.; Paget, W.J.; Mosnier, A.; Späth, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a literature review of influenza vaccination policy, describing roles and interactions between stakeholders and the factors influencing policy-making. Methods: Major databases were searched using keywords related to influenza vaccination, decision-making and healthpolicy.

  20. Genomic sequencing: assessing the health care system, policy, and big-data implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Trosman, Julia R; Kelley, Robin K; Pletcher, Mark J; Douglas, Michael P; Weldon, Christine B

    2014-07-01

    New genomic sequencing technologies enable the high-speed analysis of multiple genes simultaneously, including all of those in a person's genome. Sequencing is a prominent example of a "big data" technology because of the massive amount of information it produces and its complexity, diversity, and timeliness. Our objective in this article is to provide a policy primer on sequencing and illustrate how it can affect health care system and policy issues. Toward this end, we developed an easily applied classification of sequencing based on inputs, methods, and outputs. We used it to examine the implications of sequencing for three health care system and policy issues: making care more patient-centered, developing coverage and reimbursement policies, and assessing economic value. We conclude that sequencing has great promise but that policy challenges include how to optimize patient engagement as well as privacy, develop coverage policies that distinguish research from clinical uses and account for bioinformatics costs, and determine the economic value of sequencing through complex economic models that take into account multiple findings and downstream costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  1. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  2. Youth with Behavioral Health Disorders Aging Out of Foster Care: a Systematic Review and Implications for Policy, Research, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang-Yi, Christina D; Adams, Danielle R

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) identify and summarize empirical studies on youth with behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care and (2) address implications for behavioral health policy, research, and practice. We identified previous studies by searching PubMed, PsycINFO, EBSCO, and ISI Citation Indexes and obtaining references from key experts in the child welfare field. A total of 28 full articles published between 1991 and 2014 were reviewed and summarized into the key areas including systems of care, disability type, transition practice area, study methods, study sample, transition outcome measures, study analysis, and study findings. Considering how fast youth who have behavioral health disorders fall through the crack as they exit foster care, one cannot understate the importance of incorporating timely and appropriate transition planning and care coordination for youth who have behavioral health disorders aging out of foster care into the usual case management performed by behavioral health systems and service providers.

  3. PUBLIC EXPENDITURE POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS - CHALLENGES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrisor Mihai - Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Public spending is a key component for both public finances and government financial policy. In this situation, government expenditures are made in direct relation with the results of governance with economic and financial crises and global social welfare of the nation. From this perspective, our article aims to highlight the correlation between public expenditure and budgetary financial and economic crisis and, also, state government responses, anticipating their impact on medium and long term. Also, in the context of the crisis and the concomitent lack of public revenue, we identify the pillars on which to base the budget reduction in public expenditure. The implications of the economic crisis in Romania are analyzed along with proposed measures to be followed by the Government through budgetary fiscal strategy. In relation to the purpose and objectives of the research, documentation was made both in terms of bibliographic resources and the plan of legislative documents and quantitative reporting. We believe that the issue of increasing allocative efficiency of resources is vital to counter the current crisis, but also to maximize the positive effects of public interventions in general and from another state, we consider that state and, consequently, public expenditure budget which should be used to replace the market, can not be regarded as some suggest to be founded and we suggest a line for developed countries. This work was supported by the grant “Post-doctoral studies in Economics: program for continuous forming of elite researchers – SPODE”, contract POSDRU/89/1.5/S/61755, project financed by the European Social Fund, by the Operational Sectorial Program Development of Human Resources 2007-2013.

  4. Medical tourism and policy implications for health systems: a conceptual framework from a comparative study of Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Pocock, Nicola S; Phua, Kai Hong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Medical tourism is a growing phenomenon with policy implications for health systems, particularly of destination countries. Private actors and governments in Southeast Asia are promoting the medical tourist industry, but the potential impact on health systems, particularly in terms of equity in access and availability for local consumers, is unclear. This article presents a conceptual framework that outlines the policy implications of medical tourism's growth for health systems, draw...

  5. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  6. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  7. Identifying and categorizing cobenefits in state-supported Australian indigenous environmental management programs: international research implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Barber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Significant natural resource management investment is flowing to bioculturally diverse areas occupied by indigenous and other socioeconomically and politically marginalized groups. Such investment focuses on environmental benefit but may also generate ancillary economic, social, and other cobenefits. Increased investor interest in such cobenefits is driving the emerging research literature on cobenefit identification, categorization, and assessment. For local people undertaking community-based natural resource management, this emerging cobenefit discourse creates opportunities for more holistic program assessments that better reflect local perspectives, but it also contains risks of increased reporting burdens and institutional capture. Here, we synthesize and critically review the cobenefit literature arising from Australian indigenous cultural and natural resource management programs, a context in which there is a strong investor interest in cobenefits, particularly from government. We identify a wide suite of cobenefits in the existing literature and highlight previously unrecognized conceptual gaps and elisions in cobenefit categorization, including inconsistencies in category definition, the underanalysis of key categories, and a lack of systematic attention to beneficiaries as well as benefits. We propose a clarified and expanded conceptual framework to identify consistently the full suite of benefits, thereby enabling further assessment, valuation, and development of incentive mechanisms, standards, and guidelines. Our analysis has implications for community-based natural resource management assessment in a wide range of international contexts.

  8. Credit supply and monetary policy : Identifying the bank balance-sheet channel with loan applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Porras, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of monetary policy on the supply of bank credit. Monetary policy affects both loan supply and demand, thus making identification a steep challenge. We therefore analyze a novel, supervisory dataset with loan applications from Spain. Accounting for time-varying firm

  9. Teacher Strategies for Effective Intervention with Students Presenting Social, Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper some key practice and policy implications emerging from a review of literature on effective teacher strategies for social, emotional and behavioural difficulties are set out. Particular attention is given to implications in relation to the development of teachers' skills.

  10. Integration scenarios of Demand Response into electricity markets: Load shifting, financial savings and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feuerriegel, Stefan; Neumann, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Demand Response allows for the management of demand side resources in real-time; i.e. shifting electricity demand according to fluctuating supply. When integrated into electricity markets, Demand Response can be used for load shifting and as a replacement for both control reserve and balancing energy. These three usage scenarios are compared based on historic German data from 2011 to determine that load shifting provides the highest benefit: its annual financial savings accumulate to €3.110 M for both households and the service sector. This equals to relative savings of 2.83% compared to a scenario without load shifting. To improve Demand Response integration, the proposed model suggests policy implications: reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and the time-lag between market transactions and delivery dates in electricity markets. - Highlights: •Comparison of 3 scenarios to integrate Demand Response into electricity markets. •These are: optimize procurement, offer as control reserve, avoid balancing energy. •Ex post simulation to quantify financial impact and policy implications. •Highest savings from load shifting with a cost reduction of 3%. •Model suggests reducing bid sizes, delivery periods and time lags as policy issues.

  11. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  12. Who is Next? Identifying Communities with the Potential for Increased Implementation of Sustainability Policies and Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the system of connections between societal contexts and policy outcomes in municipal governments provides important insights into how community sustainability happens, and why it happens differently in various communities. A growing body of research in recent years ...

  13. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt

  14. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ''market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate

  15. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called ``market barriers`` to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland`s attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  16. On the economic analysis of problems in energy efficiency: Market barriers, market failures, and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Koomey, J.G.; Levine, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    In his recent paper in The Energy Journal, Ronald Sutherland argues that several so-called market barriers'' to energy efficiency frequently cited in the literature are not market failures in the conventional sense and are thus irrelevant for energy policy. We argue that Sutherland has inadequately analyzed the idea of market barrier and misrepresented the policy implications of microeconomics. We find that economic theory, correctly interpreted, does not provide for the categorical dismissal of market barriers. We explore important methodological issues underlying the debate over market barriers, and discuss the importance of reconciling the findings of non-economic social sciences with the economic analysis of energy demand and consumer decision-making. We also scrutinize Sutherland's attempt to apply finance theory to rationalize high implicit discount rates observed in energy-related choices, and find this use of finance theory to be inappropriate.

  17. Predicting turnover and retention in nursing home administrators: management and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, D A; Schwab, R C

    2000-06-01

    Administrator turnover and its impact on the quality of patient care are important concerns in the nursing home industry. This study evaluates a model to determine which factors, attitudes, and personal characteristics can predict tenure. Responses to a survey from 290 nursing home administrators (NHAs) who furnished data on their previous positions were analyzed using logistic regression methods. The extracted model correlates tenure with the administrator's past patterns of stability, community attachment, organizational commitment, and facility performance. The model is particularly effective (85% accuracy) in flagging NHAs who are likely to depart within their first 3 years of employment. Implications of these findings for recruitment, retention, and licensure policy are discussed.

  18. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  19. A Game of Two Elderly Care Facilities: Competition, Mothballing Options, and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congcong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a model to investigate the entry strategies of private investors to the elderly care service market, with the purpose of explaining the reasons behind dilemma of low signing rate plaguing China’s Public-Private Partnership projects. We focus on the competition between two private investors with or without mothballing options under price uncertainty. After the derivation of equilibria of entry strategies, we employ numerical examples to analyze the dependencies of entry thresholds on market parameters, cost parameters, subsidy, and possession of mothballing option. Conclusions are drawn and some policy implications are given with the intention to alleviate the problem of low signing rate.

  20. A systems approach identifies networks and genes linking sleep and stress: implications for neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Scarpa, Joseph R; Fitzpatrick, Karrie; Losic, Bojan; Gao, Vance D; Hao, Ke; Summa, Keith C; Yang, He S; Zhang, Bin; Allada, Ravi; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Kasarskis, Andrew

    2015-05-05

    Sleep dysfunction and stress susceptibility are comorbid complex traits that often precede and predispose patients to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we demonstrate multilevel organizations of genetic landscape, candidate genes, and molecular networks associated with 328 stress and sleep traits in a chronically stressed population of 338 (C57BL/6J × A/J) F2 mice. We constructed striatal gene co-expression networks, revealing functionally and cell-type-specific gene co-regulations important for stress and sleep. Using a composite ranking system, we identified network modules most relevant for 15 independent phenotypic categories, highlighting a mitochondria/synaptic module that links sleep and stress. The key network regulators of this module are overrepresented with genes implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Our work suggests that the interplay among sleep, stress, and neuropathology emerges from genetic influences on gene expression and their collective organization through complex molecular networks, providing a framework for interrogating the mechanisms underlying sleep, stress susceptibility, and related neuropsychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Renewable energy policies and competition for biomass: Implications for land use, food prices, and processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoguang; Önal, Hayri

    2016-01-01

    We use a mathematical programming model to examine the impacts of simultaneous implementation of two US biofuel and bioenergy policies on commodity markets and spatial distribution of future cellulosic biorefineries. The key findings based on our numerical simulation are: (1) the number and average annual production capacity of cellulosic biofuel refineries depend on the total renewable fuels mandate; (2) the mix of cellulosic biomass feedstock depends on the assumptions about the production costs of energy crops and the amount of cropland that can be used for energy crops, but regardless of the assumptions crop residues are the primary biomass source to meet the demand for biomass for biofuel production and electricity generation; and (3) the biomass production areas would surround either future cellulosic biorefineries or the existing coal-based power plants to reduce the costs of biomass transportation. These findings have important implications for biorefinery investors and provide valuable policy insights for the selection of Biomass Crop Assistance Program project areas. - Highlights: •Impacts of US biofuel and bioenergy policies are analyzed. •The number and production capacity of biorefineries depend on the biofuel policies. •Crop residues are the primary biomass source for bioenergy production. •Biomass production areas will surround cellulosic biorefineries or power plants.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  3. Implications of the Private Property Right to the Community Forest Businesses Formalization through the Certification Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramasto Nugroho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the implication of formalization of community forest business efforts through mandatory timber legality certification policy. Field survey was conducted in March–April 2012 in 3 districts in Central of Java namely Blora, Wonogiri, and Wonosobo District. The results showed that community forest is mainly planting in their private owned land. It brings 2 consequences. Firstly, their willingness to manage their forest sustainably was emerged without any enforcement from external parties. Secondly, there were autonomous in decision making in their way to manage their forest such as they only planted tree species that easy to sell and valuable, they only cut their trees when they need huge money for children schooling, marriage, illness, and housing. The autonomous decision making gives also the owners (farmers other alternatives to utilize their land otherwise planting the trees. It is mean, if the policy is decreasing the potential benefits from growing the trees, they can also convert their community forest into other business in which profitable and easy to sell their products. From those facts, it seems the formalization of community forest business through mandatory certification is not a proper policy to enhance the community forest.Keywords: community forest, formalization, policy, private property, timber legality DOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.3.178

  4. The economics of environmental policy in Poland: implications for countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, M.L.; Bochniarz, Z.; Bolan, R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to generate insights into the problems and opportunities faced by countries in transition in implementing environmental policy based on the recent experience of Poland. There is much to be learned from the experience of the country that arguably took the riskiest and boldest path of environmental and economic institutional change. The experience of Poland can be enlightening in terms of the problems and opportunities in establishing an institutional framework that can validate the long term legitimacy of sustainable development as a national goal. From the unique set of circumstances facing Poland, lessons can be derived for other countries in transition. The paper begins by introducing the basic welfare economics of institutional choice. The theoretical arguments are presented in terms general to institutional design and specific to environmental policy. Subsequently, the recent experience of Poland in terms of the problems faced and key environmental policy innovations are documented. The concluding section presents policy implications that can be drawn from the Polish experience and speculates about their applicability to other countries in transition. 28 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Review of hookah tobacco smoking among college students: policy implications and research recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathuru, Irene M; Tarter, Ralph E; Klein-Fedyshin, Michele

    2015-01-01

    About 30% of college students have smoked hookah tobacco. Although most students perceive this product to be innocuous and non-addictive, hookah tobacco increases the risk for disease and nicotine dependence. Currently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate the manufacture, distribution, or sale of hookah tobacco. Empirical literature pertaining to hookah tobacco smoking is reviewed with a focus on the implications for regulatory policy. PubMed, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases were searched to locate articles published in English. The literature search combined several key words including "hookahs", "college", "advertising", "health effects", and "health policy". Smoking hookah tobacco may play a role in the initiation of smoking among tobacco-naïve college students and may portend persistent smoking among those who have smoked cigarettes. College students are typically nondaily, social smokers. They do not perceive that their heightened risk for tobacco diseases and nicotine dependence relates to their smoking behavior. However, few public health messages target college-age adults to counter media messages that endorse hookah tobacco smoking. Given that the FDA is not authorized to ban specific tobacco products, policy actions should focus on the development of effective risk communication strategies that target college-age adults and on limiting the accessibility of hookah tobacco products to these adults. Accordingly, a research agenda that would inform these policy actions is proposed.

  6. Long-term climate policy implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwanitz, Valeria Jana; Piontek, Franziska; Bertram, Christoph; Luderer, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    It is often argued that fossil fuel subsidies hamper the transition towards a sustainable energy supply as they incentivize wasteful consumption. We assess implications of a subsidy phase-out for the mitigation of climate change and the low-carbon transformation of the energy system, using the global energy–economy model REMIND. We compare our results with those obtained by the International Energy Agency (based on the World Energy Model) and by the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD-Model ENV-Linkages), providing the long-term perspective of an intertemporal optimization model. The results are analyzed in the two dimensions of subsidy phase-out and climate policy scenarios. We confirm short-term benefits of phasing-out fossil fuel subsidies as found in prior studies. However, these benefits are only sustained to a small extent in the long term, if dedicated climate policies are weak or nonexistent. Most remarkably we find that a removal of fossil fuel subsidies, if not complemented by other policies, can slow down a global transition towards a renewable based energy system. The reason is that world market prices for fossil fuels may drop due to a removal of subsidies. Thus, low carbon alternatives would encounter comparative disadvantages. - Highlights: • We assess implications of phasing out fossil fuel subsidies on the mitigation of climate change. • The removal of subsidies leads to a net-reduction in the use of energy. • Emission reductions contribute little to stabilize greenhouse gases at 450 ppm if not combined with climate policies. • Low carbon alternatives may encounter comparative disadvantages due to relative price changes at world markets

  7. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  8. Health care justice and its implications for current policy of a mandatory waiting period for elective tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddab, Amirhossein; McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Fox, Karin A; Aagaard, Kjersti Marie; Salmanian, Bahram; Raine, Susan P; Shamshirsaz, Alireza A

    2015-06-01

    Tubal sterilization during the immediate postpartum period is 1 of the most common forms of contraception in the United States. This time of the procedure has the advantage of 1-time hospitalization, which results in ease and convenience for the woman. The US Collaborative Review of Sterilization Study indicates the high efficacy and effectiveness of postpartum tubal sterilization. Oral and written informed consent is the ethical and legal standard for the performance of elective tubal sterilization for permanent contraception for all patients, regardless of source of payment. Current health care policy and practice regarding elective tubal sterilization for Medicaid beneficiaries places a unique requirement on these patients and their obstetricians: a mandatory waiting period. This requirement originates in decades-old legislation, which we briefly describe. We then introduce the concept of health care justice in professional obstetric ethics and explain how it originates in the ethical concepts of medicine as a profession and of being a patient and its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. We next identify the implications of health care justice for the current policy of a mandatory 30-day waiting period. We conclude that Medicaid policy allocates access to elective tubal sterilization differently, based on source of payment and gender, which violates health care justice in both its deontologic and consequentialist dimensions. Obstetricians should invoke health care justice in women's health care as the basis for advocacy for needed change in law and health policy, to eliminate health care injustice in women's access to elective tubal sterilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Role of Department of Defense Policies in Identifying Traumatic Brain Injuries Among Deployed US Service Members, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agimi, Yll; Regasa, Lemma Ebssa; Ivins, Brian; Malik, Saafan; Helmick, Katherine; Marion, Donald

    2018-05-01

    To examine the role of Department of Defense policies in identifying theater-sustained traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). We conducted a retrospective study of 48 172 US military service members who sustained their first lifetime TBIs between 2001 and 2016 while deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. We used multivariable negative binomial models to examine the changes in TBI incidence rates following the introduction of Department of Defense policies. Two Army policies encouraging TBI reporting were associated with an increase of 251% and 97% in TBIs identified following their implementation, respectively. Among airmen, the introduction of TBI-specific screening questions to the Post-Deployment Health Assessment was associated with a 78% increase in reported TBIs. The 2010 Department of Defense Directive Type Memorandum 09-033 was associated with another increase of 80% in the likelihood of being identified with a TBI among soldiers, a 51% increase among sailors, and a 124% increase among Marines. Department of Defense and service-specific policies introduced between 2006 and 2013 significantly increased the number of battlefield TBIs identified, successfully improving the longstanding problem of underreporting of TBIs.

  10. Mobility as a positional good : implications for transport policy and planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T. [Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2007-01-17

    Social position refers to a person's social rank. Many goods have positional value because they increase the status of their consumers. Positional goods include fashionable jewellery and clothing, luxurious homes and vehicles, and extravagant entertainment. Many motorists choose vehicles with greater potential speeds and off-road abilities than actually needed because these features are considered prestigious. This paper examined how positional value affects transportation decisions and investigated the resulting economic impacts. These included impacts on social welfare and external costs. The paper also discussed implications for transport policy and planning. The paper discussed the science of happiness and included an excerpt from a newspaper article on money and happiness. The paper also included an analysis of popular television shows and Internet blogs. Transportation impacts were also examined, with reference to motor vehicle ownership, luxury vehicles, mode choice, long-distance recreation travel, planning practices, and industrial development policy. A table was also presented that summarized the categories of prestige value travel impacts. The paper also presented possible offsetting benefits and implications for planning. 40 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  11. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  12. Landscape Transformation in Tropical Latin America: Assessing Trends and Policy Implications for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Carmen Vera Diaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Important transformations are underway in tropical landscapes in Latin America with implications for economic development and climate change. Landscape transformation is driven not only by national policies and markets, but also by global market dynamics associated with an increased role for transnational traders and investors. National and global trends affect a disparate number of social, political and economic interactions taking place at the local level, which ultimately shapes land-use and socio-economic change. This paper reviews five different trajectories of landscape change in tropical Latin America, and discusses their implications for development and conservation: (1 Market-driven growth of agribusiness; (2 expansion and modernization of traditional cattle ranching; (3 slow growth of peasant agriculture; (4 logging in production forest frontiers; and (5 resurgence of agro-extractive economies. Contrasting trade-offs between economic development and forest conservation emerge across these landscapes, calling for nuanced policy responses to manage them in the context of climate change. This discussion sets the background to assess how reduction of emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+ aims should be better aligned with current landscape trajectories and associated actors to better address climate-change mitigation in forest landscapes with effective and equitable outcomes.

  13. African female immigration to the United States and its policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J.A.; Logan, Ikubolajeh

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the dynamics of female African immigration and settlement in the United States and discusses the research and policy implications for these processes. It highlights a significant surge in female immigration from African than non-African countries in recent years. This surge is driven by female immigration from Africa’s countries most populous countries, from countries affected by civil conflicts, and from English-speaking countries in the region. African women are also more likely to arrive as unmarried single than other female immigrants. In addition, they had the highest prevalence of Bachelors, Masters, or Doctorate degrees among women in the US. African females were also about twice more likely to be enrolled in US Educational institutions compared to other women. Those in the labor force were more likely to work as nursing professionals than in technical occupational groups such as engineering and computing. The study concludes by discussing the research and policy implications of these findings for countries in the developing world. PMID:25097267

  14. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-01-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance

  15. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roco, M. C.

    2005-06-01

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco & Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships. After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R&D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R&D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  16. The emergence and policy implications of converging new technologies integrated from the nanoscale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roco, M. C. [National Science Foundation (United States)], E-mail: mroco@nsf.gov

    2005-06-15

    Science based on the unified concepts on matter at the nanoscale provides a new foundation for knowledge creation, innovation, and technology integration. Convergent new technologies refers to the synergistic combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences (NBIC), each of which is currently progressing at a rapid rate, experiencing qualitative advancements, and interacting with the more established fields such as mathematics and environmental technologies (Roco and Bainbridge, 2002). It is expected that converging technologies will bring about tremendous improvements in transforming tools, new products and services, enable human personal abilities and social achievements, and reshape societal relationships.After a brief overview of the general implications of converging new technologies, this paper focuses on its effects on R and D policies and business models as part of changing societal relationships. These R and D policies will have implications on investments in research and industry, with the main goal of taking advantage of the transformative development of NBIC. Introduction of converging technologies must be done with respect of immediate concerns (privacy, toxicity of new materials, etc.) and longer-term concerns including human integrity, dignity and welfare. The efficient introduction and development of converging new technologies will require new organizations and business models, as well as solutions for preparing the economy, such as multifunctional research facilities, integrative technology platforms, and global risk governance.

  17. Identification, assessment and intervention--Implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Davidson Petch, Louise

    2005-08-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on 'effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early

  18. Digital platforms: an analytical framework for identifying and evaluating policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Fahy, R.; van Til, H.; Nooren, P.; Stokking, H.; Gelevert, H.

    2015-01-01

    At the request of the Ministry of Economic Affairs, a project consortium of TNO, Ecorys and IViR have developed a framework to analyse policy questions regarding ‘digital platforms’. This framework enables the government to take advantage of the opportunities these platforms offer and to appreciate

  19. Assessing School Wellness Policies and Identifying Priorities for Action: Results of a Bi-State Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Susan P.; Markenson, Deborah; Gibson, Cheryl A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a complex health problem affecting more than one-third of school-aged youth. The increasing obesity rates in Kansas and Missouri has been particularly concerning, with efforts being made to improve student health through the implementation of school wellness policies (SWPs). The primary purpose of this study was to conduct a…

  20. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  1. Parenting, family life, and well-being among sexual minorities: nursing policy and practice implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Scott

    2008-06-01

    Parenting and family life are fundamental social constructs in human society and in law and public policy. Family structures and support systems provide important economic and psychological advantages for parents as well as for their children. Stigma toward lesbian and gay parents often marginalize individuals in these families and restrict family members' full expression of social citizenship, humanity, and personhood. Stigma directly contributes to increased risk for substance abuse, anxiety, and depressive illness among both parents and children. This article reviews the relevant policy literature to deconstruct the impacts of stigma on the psychological health and well-being of sexual minority parents so that psychiatric/mental health nurses and other health care providers can identify and counter these effects in their practices and advocate for policy improvements.

  2. Influence of smallholder farmers’ perceptions on adaptation strategies to climate change and policy implications in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Obert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder agricultural production is largely affected by climate change and variability. Despite the negative effects brought by climate variability, smallholder farmers are still able to derive livelihoods. An understanding of factors that influence farmers’ responses and adaptation to climate variability can improve decision making for governments and development partners. This study investigated farmers’ perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change and how these influence adaptation policies at local level. A survey was conducted with 100 households randomly selected from Chiredzi district. Data collected was used to derive farmer perceptions to climate change as well as the influence of their perceptions and subsequent adaptation methods to ensuing local agricultural adaptation measures and policies. The results indicated that smallholder farmers perceived general reduction in long-term annual rainfall and rising local average temperatures. Adverse trends in rainfall and average temperature perceived by farmers were consistent with empirical data. These perceptions and other socio-economic factors helped to shape smallholder farmer agricultural adaptation strategies. Policy implications are that the government and development partners should seek ways to assist autonomous adaptations by farmers through investments in planned adaptation initiatives.

  3. Sustainable development, demography and sexual and reproductive health: inseparable linkages and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The greatest challenge today is to meet the needs of current and future generations, of a large and growing world population, without imposing catastrophic pressures on the natural environment. Meeting this challenge depends on decisive policy changes in three areas: more inclusive economic growth, greener economic growth, and population policies. This article focuses on efforts to address and harness demographic changes for sustainable development, which are largely outside the purview of the current debate. Efforts to this end must be based on the recognition that demographic changes are the cumulative result of individual choices and opportunities, and that demographic changes are best addressed through policies that enlarge these choices and opportunities, with a focus on ensuring unrestricted and universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services, empowering women to fully participate in social, economic and political life, and investing in the education of the younger generation beyond the primary level. The article provides a strong argument for why the Programme of Action that was agreed at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) 20 years ago continues to hold important implications and lessons for the formulation of the post-2015 development agenda, which is expected to supersede the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Policy implications of considering pre-commitments in U.S. aggregate energy demand system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Christopher S.; Mjelde, James W.; Dharmasena, Senarath

    2017-01-01

    Linear approximations of the Generalized Almost Ideal Demand System and Almost Ideal Demand System for U.S. energy are compared to contrast the explicit inclusion and exclusion of pre-committed consumption levels. Results indicate that pre-commitment levels, the quantity of a good that is consumed in the short run with little regard for price, helps to better explain energy demand in the U.S. compared to the system that does not explicitly consider pre-commitments. Policy implications are if pre-commitments are a legitimate assumption, larger price changes are necessary to achieve a given policy objective than if there are no pre-commitments. - Highlights: • Pre-commitments are the quantity that is consumed with little regard for price. • Demand systems with pre-commitment levels better explain energy demand. • Elasticities from assuming pre-commitments are more elastic. • Estimated elasticities apply to discretionary and not pre-commitment consumption. • Pre-commitments require larger price changes to achieve a given policy objective.

  5. The Water Demand of Energy: Implications for Sustainable Energy Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Madani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With energy security, climate change mitigation, and sustainable development as three main motives, global energy policies have evolved, now asking for higher shares of renewable energies, shale oil and gas resources in the global energy supply portfolios. Yet, concerns have recently been raised about the environmental impacts of the renewable energy development, supported by many governments around the world. For example, governmental ethanol subsidies and mandates in the U.S. are aimed to increase the biofuel supply while the water footprint of this type of energy might be 70–400 times higher than the water footprint of conventional fossil energy sources. Hydrofracking, as another example, has been recognized as a high water-intensive procedure that impacts the surface and ground water in both quality and quantity. Hence, monitoring the water footprint of the energy mix is significantly important and could have implications for energy policy development. This paper estimates the water footprint of current and projected global energy policies, based on the energy production and consumption scenarios, developed by the International Energy Outlook of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The outcomes reveal the amount of water required for total energy production in the world will increase by 37%–66% during the next two decades, requiring extensive improvements in water use efficiency of the existing energy production technologies, especially renewables.

  6. Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change: policy implications for the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehan, R.; Nehdi, M.

    2005-01-01

    There is growing awareness that the cement industry is a significant contributor to global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. It is expected that this industry will come under increasing regulatory pressures to reduce its emissions and contribute more aggressively to mitigating global warming. It is important that the industry's stakeholders become more familiar with greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and associated global warming issues, along with emerging policies that may affect the future of the industry. This paper discusses climate change, the current and proposed actions for mitigating its effects, and the implications of such actions for the cement industry. International negotiations on climate change are summarized and mechanisms available under the Kyoto Protocol for reducing greenhouse gas emissions are explained. The paper examines some of the traditional and emerging policy instruments for greenhouse gas emissions and analyses their merits and drawbacks. The applicability, effectiveness and potential impact of these policy instruments for the global cement industry in general and the Canadian cement industry in particular are discussed with recommendations for possible courses of action

  7. A new approach to measure speculation in the oil futures market and some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Leo H.; Nguyen, Chi M.; Chan, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using a new relative measure, the speculative ratio, defined as trading volume divided by open interest, to gauge speculative activity in the oil futures market. We apply the speculative ratio to examine the relation between basis and speculative activity in the oil futures market before and after the financialization of the oil market in 2003. Our finding suggests that the oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in the post-financialization period. Our finding carries several practical policy implications, as follows: (1) both the commodity exchange and the regulator should design regulations and trading policies that improve basis risk; (2) on the commodity exchange side, new policies on margin requirements and position limits for speculators should be implemented; (3) margin requirements should be based on the level of basis risk; (4) regulators should speed up implementation of the position limit rule in the Dodd–Frank Act; and (5) stronger and more meaningful enforcement actions by regulators are required to punish and deter market manipulators. - Highlights: • Use a new speculative ratio to gauge speculative activities in oil futures market. • Examine the relation between basis and speculative activities. • The new speculative ratio also works well in the post-2008 oil bubble period. • Oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in post-financialization in 2003.

  8. Identifying Barriers to Appropriate Use of Metabolic/Bariatric Surgery for Type 2 Diabetes Treatment: Policy Lab Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jennifer K.; Hesketh, Rachel; Martin, Adam; Herman, William H.; Rubino, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing recognition of the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric/metabolic surgery in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, few patients who may be appropriate candidates and may benefit from this type of surgery avail themselves of this treatment option. To identify conceptual and practical barriers to appropriate use of surgical procedures, a Policy Lab was hosted at the 3rd World Congress on Interventional Therapies for Type 2 Diabetes on 29 September 2015. Twenty-six stakeholders participated in the Policy Lab, including academics, clinicians, policy-makers, industry leaders, and patient representatives. Participants were provided with a summary of available evidence about the cost-effectiveness of bariatric/metabolic surgery and the costs of increasing the use of bariatric/metabolic surgery, using U.K. and U.S. scenarios as examples of distinct health care systems. There was widespread agreement among this group of stakeholders that bariatric/metabolic surgery is a legitimate and cost-effective approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. The following four building blocks were identified to facilitate policy changes: 1) communicating the scale of the costs and harms associated with rising prevalence of type 2 diabetes; 2) properly articulating the role of bariatric/metabolic surgery for certain population groups; 3) identifying new funding sources for bariatric/metabolic surgery; and 4) incorporating bariatric/metabolic surgery into the appropriate clinical pathways. Although more research is needed to identify specific clinical scenarios for the prioritization of bariatric/metabolic surgery, the case appears to be strong enough to engage relevant policy-makers and practitioners in a concerted discussion of how to better use metabolic surgical resources in conjunction with other interventions in good diabetes practice. PMID:27222554

  9. A network analysis using metadata to investigate innovation in clean-tech – Implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Alessandro; Antonelli, Paola; Dell’Anna, Luca; Pozzi, Cesare

    2015-01-01

    Clean-technology (clean-tech) is a large and increasing sector. Research and development (R&D) is the lifeline of the industry and innovation is fostered by a plethora of high-tech start-ups and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Any empirical-based attempt to detect the pattern of technological innovation in the industry is challenging. This paper proposes an investigation of innovation in clean-tech using metadata provided by CrunchBase. Metadata reveal information on markets, products, services and technologies driving innovation in the clean-tech industry worldwide and for San Francisco, the leader in clean-tech innovation with more than two hundred specialised companies. A network analysis using metadata is the employed methodology and the main metrics of the resulting networks are discussed from an economic point of view. The purpose of the paper is to understand specifically specializations and technological complementarities underlying innovative companies, detect emerging industrial clusters at the global and local/metropolitan level and, finally, suggest a way to realize whether observed start-ups, SMEs and clusters follow a technological path of complementary innovation and market opportunity or, instead, present a risk of lock-in. The discussion of the results of the network analysis shows interesting implications for energy policy, particularly useful from an operational point of view. - Highlights: • Metadata provide information on companies' products and technologies. • A network analysis enables detection of specializations and complementarities. • An investigation of the network allows to identify emerging industrial clusters. • Metrics help to appreciate complementary innovation and market opportunity. • Results of the network analysis show interesting policy implications.

  10. Dissemination of health technology assessments: identifying the visions guiding an evolving policy innovation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Denis, Jean-Louis; Tailliez, Stéphanie; Hivon, Myriam

    2005-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has received increasing support over the past twenty years in both North America and Europe. The justification for this field of policy-oriented research is that evidence about the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of technology should contribute to decision and policy making. However, concerns about the ability of HTA producers to increase the use of their findings by decision makers have been expressed. Although HTA practitioners have recognized that dissemination activities need to be intensified, why and how particular approaches should be adopted is still under debate. Using an institutional theory perspective, this article examines HTA as a means of implementing knowledge-based change within health care systems. It presents the results of a case study on the dissemination strategies of six Canadian HTA agencies. Chief executive officers and executives (n = 11), evaluators (n = 19), and communications staff (n = 10) from these agencies were interviewed. Our results indicate that the target audience of HTA is frequently limited to policy makers, that three conflicting visions of HTA dissemination coexist, that active dissemination strategies have only occasionally been applied, and that little attention has been paid to the management of diverging views about the value of health technology. Our discussion explores the strengths, limitations, and trade-offs associated with the three visions. Further efforts should be deployed within agencies to better articulate a shared vision and to devise dissemination strategies that are consistent with this vision.

  11. Downsizing of a provincial department of health--causes and implications for fiscal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Mark

    2002-06-01

    To analyse the financial basis for downsizing of a provincial health department and suggest implications for fiscal policy. Analysis of relevant departmental, provincial and national financing and expenditure trends from 1995/96 to 2002/03. Western Cape (WC) Department of Health (DOH). Downsizing involving 9,282 health workers (27.9%) and closure of 3,601 hospital beds (24.4%) over 5 years. Total aggregate provincial transfers (all provinces) remained fairly constant in real terms. The WC's share decreased from 11.8% in 1996/97 to 9.8% in 2002/03. This was offset by the DOH's share of the WC budget increasing from 25.6% to 29.6%, mainly because of an increase in national health conditional grants. The net effect of financing changes was that the DOH's allocation in real terms was similar in 2002/03 and 1995/96, which suggests that financing changes are not the major cause of downsizing. Expenditure analysis revealed a 39.7% real rise in the average cost of health personnel. Substantial interprovincial inequities remain. The major cause of downsizing was wage growth, particularly following the 1996 wage agreement. Disjointed fiscal and wage policy has affected health services. Simultaneous application of policies of fiscal constraint, redistribution and substantial real wage growth has resulted in substantial downsizing with limited inroads into inequities. Inequities will continue to call for further redistribution, reduction in conditional grants and downsizing, much of which could have been avoided if fiscal and wage policy choices had been optimal.

  12. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaptation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type and level of uncertainty for each impact, and discussed its implications for adaptation policy. A questionnaire-based expert elicitation was performed using an ordinal scoring scale. Experts were asked to indicate the level of precision with which health risks can be estimated, given the present state of knowledge. We assessed the individual scores, the expertise-weighted descriptive statistics, and the argumentation given for each score. Suggestions were made for how dealing with uncertainties could be taken into account in climate change adaptation policy strategies. Results The results showed that the direction of change could be indicated for most anticipated health effects. For several potential effects, too little knowledge exists to indicate whether any impact will occur, or whether the impact will be positive or negative. For several effects, rough ‘order-of-magnitude’ estimates were considered possible. Factors limiting health impact quantification include: lack of data, multi-causality, unknown impacts considering a high-quality health system, complex cause-effect relations leading to multi-directional impacts, possible changes of present-day response-relations, and difficulties in predicting local climate impacts. Participants considered heat-related mortality and non-endemic vector-borne diseases particularly relevant for climate change adaptation. Conclusions For possible climate related health impacts characterised by ignorance, adaptation policies that focus on enhancing the health system’s and society’s capability of dealing with possible future changes, uncertainties and surprises (e.g. through resilience, flexibility, and adaptive capacity) are

  13. Policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dambisya Yoswa M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uganda has a severe health worker shortage and a high demand for health care services. This study aimed to assess the policy and programmatic implications of task shifting in Uganda. Methods This was a qualitative, descriptive study through 34 key informant interviews and eight (8 focus group discussions, with participants from various levels of the health system. Results Policy makers understood task shifting, but front-line health workers had misconceptions on the meaning and intention(s of task shifting. Examples were cited of task shifting within the Ugandan health system, some formalized (e.g. psychiatric clinical officers, and some informal ones (e.g. nurses inserting IV lines and initiating treatment. There was apparently high acceptance of task shifting in HIV/AIDS service delivery, with involvement of community health workers (CHW and PLWHA in care and support of AIDS patients. There was no written policy or guidelines on task shifting, but the policy environment was reportedly conducive with plans to develop a policy and guidelines on task shifting. Factors favouring task shifting included successful examples of task shifting, proper referral channels, the need for services, scarcity of skills and focused initiatives such as home based management of fever. Barriers to task shifting included reluctance to change, protection of professional turf, professional boundaries and regulations, heavy workload and high disease burden, poor planning, lack of a task shifting champion, lack of guidelines, the name task shifting itself, and unemployed health professionals. There were both positive and negative views on task shifting: the positive ones cast task shifting as one of the solutions to the dual problem of lack of skills and high demand for service, and as something that is already happening; while negative ones saw it as a quick fix intended for the poor, a threat to quality care and likely to compromise the health

  14. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  15. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jason D

    2006-07-15

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  16. An Innovation Systems Assessment of the Australian Biofuel Industry. Policy and Private Sector Implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Jason D.

    2006-07-01

    A strong biofuel industry in Australia has the potential to provide numerous benefits to the nation and its peoples. The benefits include; reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and harmful particulate matter, a boost to rural development goals, enhanced fuel security and a lower balance of payments. For biofuels to be seriously considered as alternatives to traditional petroleum based automotive fuels they must be economically viable. The findings from a series of Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) investigations suggest that ethanol and biodiesel production would be economically viable, in the Australian context, with oil prices in the range of 30-40 USD a barrel. Despite the price of oil being in or above this range for over two years a strong home grown biofuel industry has failed to develop in Australia. The purpose of this master's thesis therefore is to identify the critical issues facing biofuel industry development in Australian and to propose possible policy and private sector strategies for dealing with them. The analysis was done in the following three steps; the first was to map the development of the ethanol and biodiesel industries, the second was to analyse the performance of the industries overtime and the third was to identify the mechanisms which have either induced or blocked their growth. The strategies proposed by this thesis were derived from analysing the inducing and blocking mechanisms and the related issues. The innovation systems approach was chosen because of its ability to provide insights into key industry players, their network interactions and the institutional setup within which they work together to develop, diffuse and use their products. The data needed for the analysis stated above included information related to the development, diffusion and use of ethanol and biodiesel; that is, details about the industry actors and their activities, industry networks, product standards, excise arrangements

  17. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...... is with members from R&D centers, another with leaders of S&T fund management sectors in universities. The results demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of creative climate of university R&D centers. This leads to implications such as to improve a more comprehensive innovation Measurement system and to build...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions reduction in different economic sectors: Mitigation measures, health co-benefits, knowledge gaps, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Hou, Hongli; Zhai, Yunkai; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; Li, Liping; Song, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lei; Meng, Bohan; Liu, Xiaobo; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Qiyong

    2018-05-15

    To date, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, mitigation strategies and the accompanying health co-benefits in different economic sectors have not been fully investigated. The purpose of this paper is to review comprehensively the evidence on GHG mitigation measures and the related health co-benefits, identify knowledge gaps, and provide recommendations to promote further development and implementation of climate change response policies. Evidence on GHG emissions, abatement measures and related health co-benefits has been observed at regional, national and global levels, involving both low- and high-income societies. GHG mitigation actions have mainly been taken in five sectors: energy generation, transport, food and agriculture, household and industry, consistent with the main sources of GHG emissions. GHGs and air pollutants to a large extent stem from the same sources and are inseparable in terms of their atmospheric evolution and effects on ecosystem; thus, GHG reductions are usually, although not always, estimated to have cost effective co-benefits for public health. Some integrated mitigation strategies involving multiple sectors, which tend to create greater health benefits. The pros and cons of different mitigation measures, issues with existing knowledge, priorities for research, and potential policy implications were also discussed. Findings from this study can play a role not only in motivating large GHG emitters to make decisive changes in GHG emissions, but also in facilitating cooperation at international, national and regional levels, to promote GHG mitigation policies that protect public health from climate change and air pollution simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland: Implications in the Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Misra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available India, a country of 1.27 billion, nowadays needs reforms, improvements, and new approaches in teacher education to cater to the demands of changing economy and society. This call to improve teacher education becomes more significant considering the fact that 50% of India’s current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below 35. There are two ways to proceed in this direction. First, making an internal review and assessment of present scenario of teacher education and suggesting need-based measures. The second one is to learn from those countries that have recently reviewed their teacher education systems and are continuously working for the betterment of teacher education. Following second approach, present paper analyzes teacher education policies, practices, and reform in Scotland, argues that concerns and commitments to reform teacher education in India and Scotland are similar, and suggests implications of Scottish experiences in the Indian context.

  20. Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Khanal, Sami; Manandhar, Ashish; Shah, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a mature technology that can transform organic matter into a bioenergy source - biogas (composed mainly of methane and carbon dioxide), while stabilizing waste. AD implementation around the world varies significantly, from small-scale household digesters in developing countries to large farm-scale or centralized digesters in developed countries. These differences in the implementation of AD technology are due to a complex set of conditions, including economic and environmental implications of the AD technology, and stimulus provided by a variety of polices and incentives related to agricultural systems, waste management, and renewable energy production. This review explores the current status of the AD technology worldwide and some of the environmental, economic and policy-related drivers that have shaped the implementation of this technology. The findings show that the regulations and incentives have been the primary factor influencing the steady growth of this technology, in both developing and developed countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Non-commercial surrogacy among close relatives in Vietnam: policy and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibino, Yuri

    2018-04-19

    Altruistic surrogacy among close relatives has been legal in Vietnam since the beginning of 2015. Following the revision of the Marriage and Family Law, there have been dozens of cases of surrogacy, and instances of successful pregnancy and childbirth have also been reported. Although surrogacy was completely prohibited in 2003, numerous local brokers offered commercial surrogacy services. Today, surrogacy is permitted under very limited conditions, and commercial surrogacy is prohibited. However, brokers continue to offer illegal commercial surrogacy services, and some even present its incidence may be increasing. In terms of women's roles, Vietnamese society places the highest value on motherhood, and childless couples are stigmatized. Thus, the demand for surrogates is high in Vietnam, rendering it difficult for family members to meet the needs of all those seeking these services. This article considers the consequences and implications of the new surrogacy policy in Vietnam based on field research.

  2. Elder Financial Exploitation: Implications for Future Policy and Research in Elder Mistreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the understanding of elder mistreatment have demonstrated that financial exploitation tends to be one of the most common forms of mistreatment affecting older populations. Agencies such as the World Bank and World Health Organization show significant concern regarding financial exploitation and its connection to physical and emotional injury to victims. The World Bank uses the term “financial violence” as a means of generally describing the harm caused to an individual as a result of financial exploitation or abuse. The proportion of financial exploitation in relation to other forms of elder mistreatment is defined in our research. We discuss the potential impact of elder financial exploitation on victims as well as explore the implications for future research and policy development focused on financial aspects of elder mistreatment and call for further study in the concept of financial exploitation as a violent act. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(3:354-356.

  3. Empowering Non-Formal Education Policy on Life Skills and Its Implications on People Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Alifuddin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The non-formal education policy in responding to the life skills needs of learners has been anticipated by the issuance of some products of legal regulations concerning the non-formal education. Life skills education was explicitly mentioned in legislation, but its implementation has not been in line with the expectations. In practice, many training institutions were only responsible for the output without even trying to channel or hire the students after graduation. The curriculum developed referred to the national standard curriculum by adding local content. Welfare could be easily obtained because the alumni got jobs after completing their skill training. Thus, the life skills education developed was able to give positive implications, especially for the welfare of its alumni and their families

  4. The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Hendrikse, Joshua; Lee, Natalia; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Andrews, Zane B.; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-17

    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation.

  5. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  6. Union Bargaining in an Oligopoly Market with Cournot-Bertrand Competition: Welfare and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Schroeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the welfare effect of union activity in a relatively new oligopoly model, the Cournot-Bertrand model, where one firm competes in output (a la Cournot and the other firm competes in price (a la Bertrand. The Nash equilibrium prices, outputs, and profits are quite diverse in this model, with the competitive advantage going to the Cournot-type competitor. A comparison of the results from the Cournot-Bertrand model with those found in the traditional Cournot and Bertrand models reveals that firms and the union have a different preference ordering over labor market bargaining. These differences help explain why the empirical evidence does not support any one model of union bargaining. We also examine the welfare and policy implications of union activity in a Cournot-Bertrand setting.

  7. How Tight is Too Tight? A Look at Welfare Implications of Distortionary Policies in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Gemayel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since independence in 1991, Uzbekistan has pursued a gradual approach to the transition from planned to market economy. This approach relied heavily on trade controls, directed credit, and large public investments. In addition, a number of financial sector measures were instituted that distorted resource allocation and increased transaction costs. As a result, while possibly preventing the contraction of output in the early 1990s, these policies led to disappointing economic outcomes and social conditions later on. The paper reviews the underlying distortions and presents survey-based evidence to support their existence and their detrimental impact on economic activity. Looking forward, the paper - using a representative agent framework to model existing financial sector distortions - offers some guidance regarding the likely implications of eliminating these distortions on key aggregate variables. It suggests that the elimination of these distortions will be welfare enhancing and will lead to higher levels of investment and capital stock.

  8. A conceptual framework to identify spatial implications of new ways of learning in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Dewulf; Theo van der Voordt; Ronald Beckers

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the spatial implications of new learning theories and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a review of the literature, a theoretical framework has been developed

  9. A conceptual framework to identify spatial implications of new ways of learning in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, R; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the spatial implications of new learning theories and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in higher education.
    Design/methodology/approach - Based on a review of literature, a theoretical framework has been developed that

  10. A conceptual framework to identify spatial implications of new ways of learning in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, Ronald; van der Voordt, Theo; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the spatial implications of new learning theories and the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in higher education. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a review of the literature, a theoretical framework has been developed that

  11. Bank of England’s monetary policy committee – assessing the importance and the implication upon monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Florin Cornel DUMITER; Horatiu Florin SOIM

    2012-01-01

    The monetary policy strategies arround the world have been envolving in the last two decades considerable. In the past, central banks’ have been associated with a „veil of mistery” having at their grounds the so-called policy mistique. Nowadays, the new monetary policy strategy – inflation targeting – promoted by many countries established new coordinates for monetary policy. In this paper we focuse upon the monetary policy committee with a special focus upon the Bank of England’s case, becau...

  12. The BEIR 3 report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    In 1980, a report was compiled by the Advisory Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation on the effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation (BEIR-III Report). A general background is given of the implications of this report on the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. First, the reasons for having advisory committees on radiation and why the BEIR Committee and its current report are somewhat different from the others are briefly outlined. This is followed by discussions on 1) the important biological effects of low-level radiation; 2) what we know and do not know about the health effects of low-level radiation; 3) the uncertainties in the dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer; 4) the controversy over the estimation of the cancer risk from low-level radiation; 5) the sources of epidemiological data for the estimation of excess cancer risk in exposed human populations; 6) the risk estimates of radiation-induced cancer in man; and 7) the implications of numerical risk estimation for radiation protection and public health policy. (UK)

  13. Identifying Effective Policy and Technologic Reforms for Sustainable Groundwater Management in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, K.; Zekri, S.; Karimi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Oman has gone through three decades of efforts aimed at addressing groundwater over-pumping and the consequent seawater intrusion. Example of measures adopted by the government since the 1990's include a vast subsidy program of irrigation modernization, a freeze on drilling new wells, delimitation of several no-drill zones, a crop substitution program, re-use of treated wastewater and construction of recharge dams. With no major success through these measures, the government laid the ground for water quotas by creating a new regulation in 1995. Nevertheless, groundwater quotas have not been enforced to date due to the high implementation and monitoring costs of traditional flow meters. This presentation discusses how sustainable groundwater management can be secured in Oman using a suit of policy and technologic reforms at a reasonable economic, political and practical cost. Data collected from farms with smart meters and low-cost wireless smart irrigation systems have been used to propose sustainable groundwater withdrawal strategies for Oman using a detailed hydro-economic model that couples a MODFLOW-SEAWAT model of the coastal aquifers with a dynamic profit maximization model. The hydro-economic optimization model was flexible to be run both as a social planner model to maximize the social welfare in the region, and as an agent-based model to capture the behavior of farmers interested in maximizing their profits independently. This flexibility helped capturing the trade-off between the optimality of the social planner solution developed at the system's level and its practicality (stability) with respect to the concerns and behaviors of the profit-maximizing farmers. The idetified promising policy and technolgical reforms for Oman include strict enforcement of groundwater quotas, smart metering, changing crop mixes, improving irrigation technologies, and revising geographical distribution of the farming activities. The presentation will discuss how different

  14. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2016-12-01

    Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for 'saviour siblings' who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  15. Older adult perceptions of smart home technologies: implications for research, policy & market innovations in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, J; D'Ambrosio, L A; Reimer, B; Pratt, M R

    2007-01-01

    Advances in information communications technology and related computational power are providing a wide array of systems and related services that form the basis of smart home technologies to support the health, safety and independence of older adults. While these technologies offer significant benefits to older people and their families, they are also transforming older adults into lead adopters of a new 24/7 lifestyle of being monitored, managed, and, at times, motivated, to maintain their health and wellness. To better understand older adult perceptions of smart home technologies and to inform future research a workshop and focus group was conducted with 30 leaders in aging advocacy and aging services from 10 northeastern states. Participants expressed support of technological advance along with a variety of concerns that included usability, reliability, trust, privacy, stigma, accessibility and affordability. Participants also observed that there is a virtual absence of a comprehensive market and policy environment to support either the consumer or the diffusion of these technologies. Implications for research, policy and market innovation are discussed.

  16. The benchmarks of carbon emissions and policy implications for China's cities: Case of Nanjing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Jun; Zhang Rongrong; Wang Haikun; Liu Miaomiao; Wu Yi

    2011-01-01

    The development of urbanization is accelerating in China, and there are great pressures and opportunities in cities to reduce carbon emissions. An emissions inventory is a basic requirement for analyzing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), their potential reduction and to realize low-carbon development of cities. This study describes a method to establish a GHGs emissions inventory in Chinese cities for 6 emission sources including industrial energy consumption, transportation, household energy consumption, commercial energy consumption, industrial processes and waste. Nanjing city was selected as a representative case to analyze the characteristics of carbon emissions in Chinese cities. The results show that carbon emissions in Nanjing have increased nearly 50% during the last decade. The three largest GHGs contributors were industrial energy consumption, industrial processes and transportation, which contributed 37-44%, 35-40% and 6-10%, respectively, to the total GHGs emissions. Per GDP carbon emissions decreased by 55% from 2002 to 2009, and the per capita and per GDP carbon emissions were comparable or even lower than the world average levels. These results have important policy implications for Chinese cities to control their carbon emissions. - Highlights: → Carbon emissions inventory using bottom-up methodology was firstly reported for a Chinese city. → Emission characteristics of Nanjing city were compared with other international cities. → Low carbon policies for Chinese cities were recommended based on the results of this research.

  17. Exploring Privilege in the Digital Divide: Implications for Theory, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Canham, Sarah L; Battersby, Lupin; Sixsmith, Judith; Wada, Mineko; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide. A systematic search yielded 55 articles published between 2006 and 2016. Synthesis of existing knowledge, combined with user-experience elicited through a deliberative dialogue session with community stakeholders (n = 35), made visible a pattern of privilege that determined individual agency in ICT access and use. Though age is consistently centralized as the key determinant of the digital divide, our analyses, which encompassed both van Dijk's resources and appropriation theory and intersectionality, appraised this notion and revealed that age is not the sole determinant. Findings highlight the role of other factors that contribute to digital inequity among community-dwelling middle-aged (45-64) and older (65+) adults, including education, income, gender, and generational status. Informed by results of a realist synthesis that was guided by intersectional perspectives, a conceptual framework was developed outlining implications for theory, policy, and practice to address the wicked problem that is the digital divide.

  18. Experience and policy implications of children presenting with dental emergencies to US pediatric dentistry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton; Vargas, Clemencia M; Candelaria, Devanie; Vemuri, Maryen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and substantiate the experience of children, their families, and their caregivers with children's dental pain and to explore implications of these experiences for public policy. Data for 301 children presenting to 35 pediatric dentistry training programs during a 1-week period in 2000 for pain relief were collected with a questionnaire asking for: (1) sociodemographic characteristics; (2) oral health status; (3) dental care history; (4) presenting problem; (5) clinical findings; and (6) clinical disposition. Descriptive statistics are presented. Among children presenting to training programs with oral pain, 28% were under age 6, 57% were on Medicaid, and 38% were regarded by their dentists to have "likely or obvious" functional impairment-with 22% reporting the highest pain level. Parents reported that 59% had "poor or fair oral health" and 29% had a prior dental emergency in the previous year. Pain, experienced for several days by 73% of children, was associated with difficulty: (1) eating; (2) sleeping; (3) attending school; and (4) playing. Parent-reported barriers to seeking dental care included: (1) missed work (24%); (2) transportation costs (12%); and (3) arranging child care (10%). In this study of children with dental pain, many suffered significant pain: (1) duration; (2) intensity; (3) recurrence; and (4) consequences. This study demonstrates the ongoing need for public policies that assure timely, comprehensive, and affordable dental care for vulnerable children.

  19. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Comparative preimplantation genetic diagnosis policy in Europe and the USA and its implications for reproductive tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle J Bayefsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike many European nations, the USA has no regulations concerning the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, a technique employed during some fertility treatments to select embryos based on their genes. As such, PGD can and is used for a variety of controversial purposes, including sex selection, selection for children with disabilities such as deafness, and selection for ‘saviour siblings’ who can serve as tissue donors for sick relatives. The lack of regulation, which is due to particular features of the US political and economic landscape, has ethical and practical implications for patients seeking PGD around the world. This paper contrasts the absence of PGD oversight in the USA with existing PGD policies in Switzerland, Italy, France and the UK. The primary reasons why PGD is not regulated in the USA are addressed, with consideration of factors such as funding for assisted reproductive technology treatmemt and the proximity of PGD to the contentious abortion debate. The obstacles that would need to be overcome in the USA for PGD to be regulated in the future are outlined. Then, the significance of the current divergence in PGD policy for patients around the world are discussed. Regulatory differences create opportunities for reproductive tourism, which result in legal, health and moral challenges. The paper concludes with comments on the need for policymakers around the world to balance respect for the characters and constitutions of their individual countries with appreciation of the needs of infertile patients across the globe.

  1. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational policy for children with intellectual disability in Republic of Macedonia is not always consistent with the practical implications. The subject of this research was to gain an insight into the current condition of the persons with intellectual disabilities in Macedonia, before all an insight into the barriers that they are facing in their attempts to access educational information and services. This was done through conducting a qualitative (desk-top analyses of the national legislations; semi-structured interviews with parents of persons with intellectual disabilities and focus groups with relevant stakeholders and a quantitative research (quality of life research for the disabled persons. In the research a total number of 213 examinees were included. As in many other cases, and in many other countries, policy and practice are not always coherent. Legislation in the area of education in our country has to be modified and accommodated to the needs of the persons with disabilities and their parents or care-givers. The final conclusion from our research is that the persons with ID are still on the margins of society, and they lead everyday battles to prove that their needs must be taken into consideration in context of their human rights. Although awareness for the importance of the rightful treatment of this problem is not on a satisfactory level, still we can notice a shift in perception and liberation of prejudice.

  2. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  3. Creating value in health care through big data: opportunities and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roski, Joachim; Bo-Linn, George W; Andrews, Timothy A

    2014-07-01

    Big data has the potential to create significant value in health care by improving outcomes while lowering costs. Big data's defining features include the ability to handle massive data volume and variety at high velocity. New, flexible, and easily expandable information technology (IT) infrastructure, including so-called data lakes and cloud data storage and management solutions, make big-data analytics possible. However, most health IT systems still rely on data warehouse structures. Without the right IT infrastructure, analytic tools, visualization approaches, work flows, and interfaces, the insights provided by big data are likely to be limited. Big data's success in creating value in the health care sector may require changes in current polices to balance the potential societal benefits of big-data approaches and the protection of patients' confidentiality. Other policy implications of using big data are that many current practices and policies related to data use, access, sharing, privacy, and stewardship need to be revised. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Human papillomavirus vaccine and cervical cancer prevention: practice and policy implications for pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Jennifer; Sturpe, Deborah A; Khanna, Niharika

    2008-01-01

    To review the epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV), summarize relevant clinical trials of the prophylactic HPV vaccines, and describe the practice and policy implications that HPV vaccine represents for pharmacists. Search of Medline through June 2007 using keywords human papillomavirus vaccine, Gardasil, and Cervarix; meeting abstracts; bibliographies from selected articles; and National Institutes of Health clinical trials registry. English language review articles, clinical trials, and published abstracts were considered for inclusion. HPV is a sexually transmitted infection that is necessary for the development of cervical cancer, and types 16 and 18 are associated with 70% of cases of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. A quadrivalent prophylactic vaccine against HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 is currently available, and a bivalent vaccine targeting HPV-16 and -18 is under review by the Food and Drug Administration. Both are highly effective at preventing persistent HPV infection and precancerous lesions caused by vaccine-specific HPV. HPV vaccine is currently indicated for girls aged 9 to 26 years, but ongoing trials are evaluating the efficacy in other populations. Implementation of a vaccine administration program is an area of opportunity for new policies to include pharmacists in the administration of prophylactic HPV vaccines. Pharmacists are allowed to administer vaccinations in 46 states and can potentially play a role in HPV vaccine administration. For this to happen, however, multiple legal and regulatory changes must occur. Prophylactic HPV vaccines safely and effectively prevent HPV infection and precancerous lesions in the cervix. The availability of these vaccines also create new clinical opportunities for community pharmacists, provided needed legal, regulatory, and policy changes are made.

  5. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  6. Organic nitrogen storage in mineral soil: Implications for policy and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingham, Andrew H., E-mail: drew_bingham@nps.gov [Air Resources Division, National Park Service, P.O. Box 25287, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Cotrufo, M. Francesca [Department of Soil and Crop Sciences and Natural Resources Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, 200 West Lake Street, Fort Collins, CO 80523 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important ecosystem nutrients and often its availability limits net primary production as well as stabilization of soil organic matter. The long-term storage of nitrogen-containing organic matter in soils was classically attributed to chemical complexity of plant and microbial residues that retarded microbial degradation. Recent advances have revised this framework, with the understanding that persistent soil organic matter consists largely of chemically labile, microbially processed organic compounds. Chemical bonding to minerals and physical protection in aggregates are more important to long-term (i.e., centuries to millennia) preservation of these organic compounds that contain the bulk of soil nitrogen rather than molecular complexity, with the exception of nitrogen in pyrogenic organic matter. This review examines for the first time the factors and mechanisms at each stage of movement into long-term storage that influence the sequestration of organic nitrogen in the mineral soil of natural temperate ecosystems. Because the factors which govern persistence are different under this newly accepted paradigm we examine the policy and management implications that are altered, such as critical load considerations, nitrogen saturation and mitigation consequences. Finally, it emphasizes how essential it is for this important but underappreciated pool to be better quantified and incorporated into policy and management decisions, especially given the lack of evidence for many soils having a finite capacity to sequester nitrogen. - Highlights: • We review the current framework for long-term nitrogen stabilization in soils. • We highlight the most important factors according to this framework. • We discuss how these factors may influence management and policy decisions.

  7. Living with a carbon allowance: The experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs) are grassroots voluntary groups of citizens concerned about climate change, who set themselves a carbon allowance each year and provide support to members seeking to reduce their direct carbon emissions from household energy use and personal transport. Some groups have a financial penalty for carbon emitted in excess of the ration, and systems whereby under-emitters are rewarded using the monies collected from over-emitters. CRAGs therefore operate the nearest scheme in existence to the proposed policy of Personal Carbon Trading (PCT). This paper reports the findings of a study of the opinions and experiences of individuals involved in CRAGs (‘CRAGgers’). In general, interviewees have made significant behavioural changes and emissions reductions, but many would be unwilling to sell spare carbon allowances within a national PCT system. The choices made by CRAGgers with respect to the design and operation of their ‘carbon accounting’, their experiences of reducing fossil fuel energy use, and their views on personal carbon trading at CRAG and national level are discussed. Some possible implications for PCT and other policies are considered, as well as the limitations of CRAGs in informing an understanding of the potential impacts and operation of PCT. - Highlights: ► Reports opinions and experiences of members of Carbon Rationing Action Groups (CRAGs). ► Many interviewees have made significant reductions to their carbon footprint. ► CRAGs offer insights into individuals' experiences of living with a carbon allowance. ► Most CRAGs involve highly motivated individuals and avoid trading. ► They nonetheless offer some insights into Personal Carbon Trading and other policies.

  8. Consumer perceptions of smart grid development: Results of a Hong Kong survey and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mah, Daphne Ngar-yin; Vleuten, Johannes Marinus van der; Hills, Peter; Tao, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Consumers have a major role to play in smart grid technologies which can be instrumental in addressing climate change and energy challenges. However, little is known about how consumers perceive, and how they might respond to the opportunities that smart grid technologies offer. This paper reports the results from a Hong Kong survey (n=505). It contributes to the literature by providing a better understanding of the perceptions and behaviour of electricity consumers about the possible deployment of smart grids. Our results indicate that Hong Kong consumers generally welcomed smart grid technologies and had a preference for energy saving, energy efficiency and renewable energy while they showed a high level of opposition to nuclear power. They displayed an interest in playing a much more informed and active role in energy decision-making, but they were sensitive to tariff increases. Motivations and barriers for consumers to support smart grid developments are also discussed. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications for effective consumer engagement. More policy attention is needed on demand-side measures, introducing institutional and regulatory changes, and modifying relationships between consumers, the government and utilities. - Highlights: ► Consumers have a major role in smart grid technologies. ► This paper reports findings of a Hong Kong survey on how consumers perceive and respond. ► Hong Kong consumers are interested in being informed and playing an active role in energy decision-making. ► Motivations and barriers are discussed. ► Policy recommendations for effective consumer engagement are suggested.

  9. A Systems Approach to Identifying and Managing Opportunities and Constraints to Delivering Innovation Policy for Agriculture: An Analysis of the Australian Cooperative Research Centres (CRC) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandall, Jean; Cooksey, Ray; Wright, Vic

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we outline an analytical approach to identifying points in the policy process where management intervention to adjust organizational design could enhance delivery of innovation policy over time. We illustrate this approach using an example from native vegetation policy in the state of Victoria, Australia. We then use this approach to…

  10. The Growth Challenge of Western SMES in Emerging Markets: An Exploratory Framework and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Ruzzier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the main inhibiting factors associated with the process of entry and escalation of SMES in international markets, with a focus on Emerging Markets. We identify and propose seven main categories of Institutional Voids and three main types of resources that may critically determine SMES’ performances on EMS, namely, internationalization knowledge, social capital resources and marketing capabilities. Institutional Voids and resources are brought together within a conceptual framework suggesting that resource-scarce SMES will hold back in their attempts to commit further to Emerging Markets and will be further dissuaded the higher the Institutional Voids in the market. The paper contributes to the policy literature on SME internationalization by focusing on two areas of public policy action that could have a clear and manifest impact on SMES conduct in Emerging Markets, the first related to the resources available to and exploitable by SMES and the latter associated with Institutional Voids.

  11. Student's Work: Social Capital in the Czech Republic and Public Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vodrážka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social capital in Eastern Europe has received a fair amount of scholarly attention in recent years, including in the Czech Republic. This paper examines the stock of macro-level social capital in the Czech Republic in comparative European perspective. The notions of “missing” social capital and corruption as negative social capital are explored. The corruption situation in the Czech Republic and the progress in curbing it that was made in the last decade are evaluated. Regressions run with data from the World Value Survey and the Corruption Perception Index show that economic growth does not translate into correspondingly lower levels of corruption in the Czech case. State bureaucracy is identified as a possible reason for the failure to curb corruption successfully. Public policy recommendations and their usefulness for the Czech Republic are debated and a civil service reform is proposed as the most appropriate policy for addressing the situation.

  12. Patient access to medicines in two countries with similar health systems and differing medicines policies: Implications from a comprehensive literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Gammie, Todd; Seyfoddin, Ali; Hasan, Syed Shahzad; Curley, Louise E

    2018-04-13

    Countries with similar health systems but different medicines policies might result in substantial medicines usage differences and resultant outcomes. The literature is sparse in this area. To review pharmaceutical policy research in New Zealand and Australia and discuss differences between the two countries and the impact these differences may have on subsequent medicine access. A review of the literature (2008-2016) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Systematic searches were conducted across the six databases MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Links, Scopus and Google Scholar. A further search of journals of high relevance was also conducted. Using content analysis, a narrative synthesis of pharmaceutical policy research influencing access to medicines in Australia and New Zealand was conducted. The results were critically assessed in the context of policy material available via grey literature from the respective countries. Key elements regarding pharmaceutical policy were identified from the 35 research papers identified for this review. Through a content analysis, three broad categories of pharmaceutical policy were found, which potentially could influence patient access to medicines in each country; the national health system, pricing and reimbursement. Within these three categories, 9 subcategories were identified: national health policy, pharmacy system, marketing authorization and regulation, prescription to non-prescription medicine switch, orphan drug policies, generic medicine substitution, national pharmaceutical schedule and health technology assessment, patient co-payment and managed entry agreements. This review systematically evaluated the current literature and identified key areas of difference in policy between Australia and NZ. Australia appears to cover and reimburse a greater number of medicines, while New Zealand achieves much lower prices for medicines than their Australian counterparts and has been more

  13. Farmers' adoption of maize (Zea mays L.). Hybrids and persistence of landraces in Southwest China: implications for policy and breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jingsong; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Jiggins, Janice; Leeuwis, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines changes in the distribution of maize hybrids and landraces in the mountainous areas of southwest China over 1998–2008, farmers’ reasons for cultivar adoption and the implications for national policies in relation to seed production and breeding, based on baseline data and a

  14. Implications for Equity and Diversity of Increasing International Student Numbers in European Universities: Policies and Practice in Four National Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakoski, Jani; Pashby, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the main rationales for and possible implications of the policy of increasing international student numbers in higher education (HE). Drawing on critical discourse analysis, we map key themes emerging from two sets of data--university strategy documents and interviews with staff--collected at eight universities in four national…

  15. Threats to the Sustainability of the Outsourced Call Center Industry in the Philippines: Implications for Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friginal, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This study overviews current threats to the sustainability of the outsourced call center industry in the Philippines and discusses implications for macro and micro language policies given the use of English in this cross-cultural interactional context. This study also summarizes the present state of outsourced call centers in the Philippines, and…

  16. How the Government Defines "Rural" Has Implications for Education Policies and Practices. Issues & Answers. REL 2007-010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael L.; Biscoe, Belinda; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Shapley, Kathy L.

    2007-01-01

    Clearly defining what rural means has tangible implications for public policies and practices in education, from establishing resource needs to achieving the goals of No Child Left Behind in rural areas. The word "rural" has many meanings. It has been defined in reference to population density, geographic features, and level of economic…

  17. Implications of health as 'the ability to adapt and self-manage' for public health policy: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, Marielle; Nederland, Trudi; Kaljouw, Marian; van Vliet, Katja; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    To explore the implications for public health policy of a new conceptualisation of health as 'The ability to adapt and to self-manage, in the face of social, physical and emotional challenges'. Secondary qualitative data analysis of 28 focus group interviews, with 277 participants involved in public

  18. Implications of health as 'the ability to adapt and self-manage' for public health policy : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambroes, Marielle; Nederland, Trudi; Kaljouw, Marian; Van Vliet, Katja; Essink-Bot, Marie Louise; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore the implications for public health policy of a new conceptualisation of health as 'The ability to adapt and to self-manage, in the face of social, physical and emotional challenges'. Methods: Secondary qualitative data analysis of 28 focus group interviews, with 277

  19. Consumer energy research review. A compendium of selected studies and their implications for policy formulation and program design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, J.R.B.; McDougall, G.H.G. (comps.)

    1982-01-01

    This bibliography covers studies of consumers of energy, their attitudes and patterns of consumption. Annotations are given in outline form with respect to the study's objectives, major findings, and implications for consumer energy policy and research. If the study was a survey, the location and nature of sample are given. Literature from Canada and the U.S.A. is included.

  20. Returns to Investment in Ontario University Education, 1960-1990, and Implications for Tuition Fee Policy. Discussion Series, Issue 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, David A. A.

    This analysis of Ontario's returns to investment and implications for tuition fee policy updates a 1989 publication titled "Focus on Fees." The paper examines: data on public and private return on investment (ROI) from university education, pattern of ROI rates over time, and impact of tuition fee levels on estimated ROI for various…

  1. The Implications of Growth Policy for Postsecondary Education. A Model and Proposed Course of Action. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Lewis J.; Bergquist, William H.

    A 5-month project was undertaken at the Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education to do a preliminary study of the implications of growth policy for postsecondary education. The decision to focus on this level of education was based on the belief that the existing problems of growth and its limits have become too urgent to be left to…

  2. Policy, Research and Residents’ Perspectives on Built Environments Implicated in Heart Disease: A Concept Mapping Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Stankov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR. Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action. Through the concept mapping process, community members, researchers, government and non-government stakeholders collectively identified eleven clusters encompassing 102 built environmental domains related to CMR, a number of which are underrepresented within the literature. Among the identified built environments, open space, public transportation and pedestrian environments were highlighted as key targets for policy intervention. Whilst there was substantive convergence in stakeholder groups’ perspectives concerning the built environment and CMR, there were disparities in the level of importance government stakeholders and community members respectively assigned to pedestrian environments and street connectivity. These findings support the role of participatory methods in strengthening how urban health issues are understood and in affording novel insights into points of action for public health and policy intervention.

  3. Economic analysis of participation in physical activity in England: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokye, Nana Kwame; Pokhrel, Subhash; Fox-Rushby, Julia

    2014-09-14

    Changing the relative price of (in) activity is an important tool for health policies. Nonetheless, to date, analyses of correlates of physical activity (PA) have excluded the notion of price. Using the first nationwide dataset on prices of PA for England, we explore for the first time how money and time prices are associated with PA (in general) and specific activities. A nationally representative telephone follow-up survey to Health Survey for England (HSE) 2008 was undertaken in 2010. The sample covered individuals who reported to have undertaken some PA in the HSE 2008. Questions focussed on: ex-post money and time prices; type and quantity of PA; perceived benefits of PA and socio-economic details. Count regression models (all activities together, and swimming, workout, walking separately) were fitted to investigate the variation in quantity of PA. Of 1683 respondents, 83% participated in PA (one or more activities), and spent an average of £2.40 per occasion of participation in PA and 23 minutes travelling. Participation in PA was negatively associated with money prices per occasion (i.e. family member/child care fees, parking fees, and facility charges) and travel time price. Participation in PA was more sensitive to travel time price than money price. Among the specific activities, the money price effect was highest for swimming with a 10% higher price associated with 29% fewer occasions of swimming; followed by workout (3% fewer occasions) and walking (2% fewer occasions). Only swimming and workout were sensitive to travel time price. People who felt doing PA could help them 'get outdoors', 'have fun', or 'lose weight' were likely to do more PA. Two main policy implications emerge from the findings. First, the results support the notion that positive financial incentives, e.g. subsidising price of participation, could generally lead to an increase in quantity of PA among those already exercising. Second, such policies could lead to desired policy goals if

  4. Cancer survivorship care-planning: Practice, research, and policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard W; Pritzker, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of cancer survivors are living longer than 5 years from their diagnosis date. This has resulted in a growing population of cancer survivors, expected to reach 19 million by 2024. Survivors frequently experience late effects caused by cancer and its treatment, reducing survivors' quality of life in multiple domains. Survivorship care-plans may aid the many physical, psychosocial, and financial needs that emerge posttreatment. However, the lack of reimbursement mechanisms, the limited amount of effectiveness research, and minimal guidelines for content and delivery are barriers to the widespread provision of survivorship care-plans. Challenges and opportunities for social work practice, research, and policy are identified and discussed.

  5. Political Strategies and Language Policies: The European Union Lisbon Strategy and Its Implications for the EU's Language and Multilingualism Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyzanowski, Michal; Wodak, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between the politics and policies of multilingualism by looking at the role of political macro-strategies in shaping language and multilingualism policies within the European Union. The paper focuses on the relationship between the European Union's 2000-2010 Lisbon Strategy on the European Knowledge-Based Economy…

  6. Ecosystem services from a degraded peatland of Central Kalimantan: implications for policy, planning, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A; Bryan, Bretr A; Meijaard, Erik; Mallawaarachchi, Thilak; Struebig, Matthew; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, landscapes are managed for multiple objectives to balance social, economic, and environmental goals. The Ex-Mega Rice Project (EMRP) peatland in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia provides a timely example with globally significant development, carbon, and biodiversity concerns. To inform future policy, planning, and management in the EMRP, we quantified and mapped ecosystem service values, assessed their spatial interactions, and evaluated the potential provision of ecosystem services under future land-use scenarios. We focus on key policy-relevant regulating (carbon stocks and the potential for emissions reduction), provisioning (timber, crops from smallholder agriculture, palm oil), and supporting (biodiversity) services. We found that implementation of existing land-use plans has the potential to improve total ecosystem service provision. We identify a number of significant inefficiencies, trade-offs, and unintended outcomes that may arise. For example, the potential development of existing palm oil concessions over one-third of the region may shift smallholder agriculture into low-productivity regions and substantially impact carbon and biodiversity outcomes. While improved management of conservation zones may enhance the protection of carbon stocks, not all biodiversity features will be represented, and there will be a reduction in timber harvesting and agricultural production. This study highlights how ecosystem service analyses can be structured to better inform policy, planning, and management in globally significant but data-poor regions.

  7. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  8. Exploring the interrelationship between sport, health and social outcomes in the UK: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downward, Paul; Hallmann, Kirstin; Rasciute, Simona

    2018-02-01

    Policy agencies are now re-visiting early aspirations that sport, as a form of physical activity, can be an instrument to foster general health and also subjective well-being (SWB). Both of these concepts capture physical and mental health states. SWB also encompasses broader psychological and life satisfaction as well as mood and affect. Past and current policies also identify a link between sport, social capital and SWB. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is undertaken on data from the UK's Taking Part survey to investigate the interrelationships between sport, general health, social capital and SWB. The SEM shows a simultaneous relationship between sport and SWB. The effect is mediated through general health. The results also show that there is no relationship between social capital and sport but a clear relationship between SWB and social capital. From a health policy perspective there should be an emphasis on encouraging greater sport participation, despite the difficulties that this poses, because there is a potential 'multiplier' effect on SWB and on general health through mediation. The multiplier effect occurs because once someone engages in sport and has their general health and SWB enhanced, then even further sport participation becomes likely, and subsequent general health and SWB, which would comprise both physical and mental health benefits. To target traditional non participants the research suggests that physical activity should be promoted for enjoyment, with health benefits subsequently following. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Types and Origins of Debris Found on Maui Shorelines: Implications for Mitigation Policies and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickley, L.; Currie, J. J.; Kaufman, G. D.

    2016-02-01

    Marine debris is an identified concern for coastal areas and is known to accumulate in large quantities in the North Pacific Ocean. The proximity of the Main Hawaiian Islands to these "garbage patches" represents an ongoing concern with little understanding of debris origins or efficacy of current mitigation policies. Debris accumulation surveys were conducted monthly between October 2013 and August 2014 and daily during January 2015 at 3 beaches on Maui's coastline. Debris accumulation rates, loads, and sources varied between sites and were influenced by both environmental and anthropogenic factors. Debris accumulation was strongly influenced by the temporal scale of sampling, with daily surveys showing a significant increase in accumulation rate. Plastics were the most common debris item at each site ranging from local, land-based debris including cigarette butts, straws, and food wrappers, to foreign, ocean-based debris such as oyster spacer tubes and hagfish traps. The results of this study indicate that the passage of a tobacco free beaches bill on Maui has not significantly reduced the amount of tobacco related debris. Alternatively, a ban on plastic grocery bags has eliminated this type of debris from Maui's shorelines, with no bags found at any of the sampling sites. The wide spread origins of collected debris further suggests that mitigation strategies to reduce debris will need to take place across hundreds of local municipalities. The efficacy of marine debris policies furthermore depends on enforcement and implementation strategy, as current results suggest policy enforcement at the producer level affords more effective results than that at the consumer level. Local debris mitigation actions have nevertheless been shown to affect debris loads, and municipalities are therefore encouraged to adopt a holistic combination of policy, community-based debris removal programs, increased public awareness, and ongoing monitoring to address marine debris.

  10. Chief nursing officers’ perspectives on Medicare’s hospital-acquired conditions non-payment policy: implications for policy design and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wald Heidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventable adverse events from hospital care are a common patient safety problem, often resulting in medical complications and additional costs. In 2008, Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS implemented a policy, mandated by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005, targeting a list of these ‘reasonably’ preventable hospital-acquired conditions (HACs for reduced reimbursement. Extensive debate ensued about the potential adverse effects of the policy, but there was little discussion of its impact on hospitals’ quality improvement (QI activities. This study’s goals were to understand organizational responses to the HAC policy, including internal and external influences that moderated the success or failure of QI efforts. Methods We employed a qualitative descriptive design. Representatives from 14 Nurses Improving Care of Health System Elders (NICHE hospitals participated in semi-structured interviews addressing the impact of the HAC policy generally, and for two indicator conditions: central-line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI. Within-case analysis identified the key components of each institution’s response to the policy; across-case analysis identified themes. Exemplar cases were used to explicate findings. Results Interviewees reported that the HAC policy is one of many internal and external factors motivating hospitals to address HACs. They agreed the policy focused attention on prevention of HACs that had previously received fewer dedicated resources. The impact of the policy on prevention activities, barriers, and facilitators was condition-specific. CLABSI efforts were in place prior to the policy, whereas CAUTI efforts were less mature. Nearly all respondents noted that pressure ulcer detection and documentation became a larger focus stemming from the policy change. A major challenge was the determination of which conditions were

  11. Healthcare Access for Iraqi Refugee Children in Texas: Persistent Barriers, Potential Solutions, and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermette, David; Shetgiri, Rashmi; Al Zuheiri, Haidar; Flores, Glenn

    2015-10-01

    To identify access barriers to healthcare and potential interventions to improve access for Iraqi refugee children. Four focus groups were conducted using consecutive sampling of Iraqi refugee parents residing in the US for 8 months to 5 years. Eight key-informant interviews also were conducted with employees of organizations serving Iraqi refugee families, recruited using snowball sampling. Focus groups and interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using margin coding and grounded theory. Iraqi refugees identified provider availability, Medicaid maintenance and renewal, language issues, and inadequate recognition of post-traumatic stress disorder as barriers to care for their children. Interviewees cited loss of case-management services and difficulties in understanding the Medicaid renewal process as barriers. Potential interventions to improve access include community-oriented efforts to educate parents on Medicaid renewal, obtaining services, and accessing specialists. Given the enduring nature of language and Medicaid renewal barriers, policies addressing eligibility alone are insufficient.

  12. Exploring public perceptions of solutions to tree diseases in the UK: Implications for policy-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul; Arakelyan, Irina

    2017-10-01

    Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. Genomic techniques could offer the quickest and most predictable approach to developing a disease tolerant native ash. The population of European Ash ( Fraxinus Excelsi or) has suffered major losses in the last decade, due to the onset of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (previously called Chalara Fraxinea ) commonly known in the UK as ash dieback. This study presents evidence on the public acceptability of tree-breed solutions to the spread of Chalara , with the main aim to provide science and policy with an up-stream 'steer' on the likely public acceptability of different tree breeding solutions. The findings showed that whilst there was a firm anti-GM and ' we shouldn't tamper with nature ' attitude among UK publics, there was an equally firm and perhaps slightly larger pragmatic attitude that GM (science and technology) should be used if there is a good reason to do so, for example if it can help protect trees from disease and help feed the world. The latter view was significantly stronger among younger age groups (Millennials), those living in urban areas and when the (GM)modified trees were destined for urban and plantation, rather than countryside settings. Overall, our findings suggest that the UK government could consider genomic solutions to tree breeding with more confidence in the future, as large and influential publics appear to be relaxed about the use of genomic techniques to increase tolerance of trees to disease.

  13. Policy implications of medical tourism development in destination countries: revisiting and revising an existing framework by examining the case of Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rory; Crooks, Valorie A; Ormond, Meghann

    2015-07-04

    Medical tourism is now targeted by many hospitals and governments worldwide for further growth and investment. Southeast Asia provides what is perhaps the best documented example of medical tourism development and promotion on a regional scale, but interest in the practice is growing in locations where it is not yet established. Numerous governments and private hospitals in the Caribbean have recently identified medical tourism as a priority for economic development. We explore here the projects, activities, and outlooks surrounding medical tourism and their anticipated economic and health sector policy implications in the Caribbean country of Jamaica. Specifically, we apply Pocock and Phua's previously-published conceptual framework of policy implications raised by medical tourism to explore its relevance in this new context and to identify additional considerations raised by the Jamaican context. Employing case study methodology, we conducted six weeks of qualitative fieldwork in Jamaica between October 2012 and July 2013. Semi-structured interviews with health, tourism, and trade sector stakeholders, on-site visits to health and tourism infrastructure, and reflexive journaling were all used to collect a comprehensive dataset of how medical tourism in Jamaica is being developed. Our analytic strategy involved organizing our data within Pocock and Phua's framework to identify overlapping and divergent issues. Many of the issues identified in Pocock and Phua's policy implications framework are echoed in the planning and development of medical tourism in Jamaica. However, a number of additional implications, such as the involvement of international development agencies in facilitating interest in the sector, cyclical mobility of international health human resources, and the significance of health insurance portability in driving the growth of international hospital accreditation, arise from this new context and further enrich the original framework. The framework

  14. Burden of liver disease in Europe: epidemiology and analysis of risk factors to identify prevention policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpin, Laura; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Negro, Francesco; Corbould, Emily; Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Webber, Laura; Sheron, Nick

    2018-05-16

    The burden of liver disease in Europe continues to grow. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of liver diseases and their risk factors in European countries, and identify public health interventions that could impact on these risk factors to reduce the burden of liver disease. As part of the HEPAHEALTH project, commissioned by EASL, we extracted information on historical and current prevalence and mortality from national and international literature and databases on liver disease in 35 countries in the WHO European region, as well as historical and recent prevalence data on their main determinants; alcohol consumption, obesity and hepatitis B and C virus infections. We extracted information from peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify public health interventions targeting these risk factors. The epidemiology of liver disease is diverse and countries cluster with similar pictures, although the exact composition of diseases and the trends in risk factors which drive them is varied. Prevalence and mortality data indicate that increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer may be linked to dramatic increases in harmful alcohol consumption in Northern European countries, and viral hepatitis epidemics in Eastern and Southern European countries. Countries with historically low levels of liver disease may experience an increase in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the future, given the rise of obesity across the majority of European countries. Interventions exist for curbing harmful alcohol use, reducing obesity, preventing or treating viral hepatitis, and screening for liver disease at an early stage. Liver disease in Europe is a serious issue, with increasing cirrhosis and liver cancer. The public health and hepatology communities are uniquely placed to implement measures aimed at reducing their causes: harmful alcohol consumption, child and adult obesity prevalence and chronic infection with hepatitis viruses, which will in turn reduce the burden of liver disease. The

  15. Correlates of walking to school and implications for public policies: survey results from parents of elementary school children in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuemei; Lee, Chanam

    2009-01-01

    Walking can be a healthy, sustainable, and equitable mode of transportation, but is not widely used for children's school travel. This study identifies multi-level correlates of walking to/from school and relevant policy implications. We surveyed parents/guardians of 2,695 students from 19 elementary schools in Austin, Texas, which featured diverse sociodemographic and environmental characteristics. Among the personal and social factors, negative correlates were parents' education, car ownership, personal barriers, and school bus availability; positive correlates were parents' and children's positive attitude and regular walking behavior, and supportive peer influences. Of physical environmental factors, the strongest negative correlates were distance and safety concerns, followed by the presence of highways/freeways, convenience stores, office buildings, and bus stops en route. Our findings suggest that society should give high priority to lower socioeconomic status populations and to multi-agency policy interventions that facilitate environmental changes, safety improvements, and educational programs targeting both parents and children.

  16. Energy requirements of consumption: Urban form, climatic and socio-economic factors, rebounds and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Lenzen, Manfred; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2013-01-01

    Household consumption requires energy to be used at all stages of the economic process, thereby directly and indirectly leading to environmental impacts across the entire production chain. The levels, structure and determinants of energy requirements of household consumption therefore constitute an important avenue of research. Incorporating the full upstream requirements into the analysis helps to avoid simplistic conclusions which would actually only imply shifts between consumption categories without taking the economy wide effects into account. This paper presents the investigation of the direct and indirect primary energy requirements of Australian households, contrasting urban, suburban and rural consumption patterns as well as inter- and intra-regional levels of inequality in energy requirements. Furthermore the spatial and socio-economic drivers of energy consumption for different categories of energy requirements are identified and quantified. Conclusions regarding the relationships between energy requirements, household characteristics, urban form and urbanization processes are drawn and the respective policy implications are explored. - Highlights: • We statistically analyze the energy requirements of consumption in Australia. • Contrasting urban/suburban/rural consumption patterns and spatial inequality. • Energy requirements are influenced by urban form, income and demographics. • Urban households require less direct energy, but their total consumption is higher. • Significant rebound effects can be expected when direct energy use is decreased

  17. Fuel pricing policies in South America and Mexico. Economic and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altomonte, H.; Rogat, J.

    2004-01-01

    allow us to compare the pricing policies implemented in the various countries of the region. The second objective is to analyse the implications of these policies with regard to economy and the environment. The study is intended to facilitate dialogue among governments, decision makers and various stakeholders in countries studied her, as well as in other countries of the region. The fuels studied are gasoline, diesel, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas and fuel oil. The analysis of the price structure for fuels focuses on the price formation chain of the downstream, including the three main components, namely, pre-refinery, taxes and mark-ups. Price structures for December 2001 and December 2002 are presented and compared. The study also includes a presentation of the monitoring process for fuel pricing applied in the countries studied. (BA)

  18. Small and Medium Enterprise Development Experience and Policy in Japan and the Philippines: Lessons and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Habito, Cielito F.; Tamangan, Ronald J.; Josef, Frances

    2004-01-01

    The role of SMEs in economic development has been well recognized. SMEs have been regarded as an important contributor to employment generation and wealth creation in a developing economy. Ironically, however, SMEs have been discriminated against considering a raft of issues. In almost all countries, there is either a separate policy statement for SMEs (or for micro or cottage industries) or a general industrial policy statement with some portions of it relating to SMEs. Philippine SME develo...

  19. Dynamical compensation and structural identifiability of biological models: Analysis, implications, and reconciliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Alejandro F; Banga, Julio R

    2017-11-01

    The concept of dynamical compensation has been recently introduced to describe the ability of a biological system to keep its output dynamics unchanged in the face of varying parameters. However, the original definition of dynamical compensation amounts to lack of structural identifiability. This is relevant if model parameters need to be estimated, as is often the case in biological modelling. Care should we taken when using an unidentifiable model to extract biological insight: the estimated values of structurally unidentifiable parameters are meaningless, and model predictions about unmeasured state variables can be wrong. Taking this into account, we explore alternative definitions of dynamical compensation that do not necessarily imply structural unidentifiability. Accordingly, we show different ways in which a model can be made identifiable while exhibiting dynamical compensation. Our analyses enable the use of the new concept of dynamical compensation in the context of parameter identification, and reconcile it with the desirable property of structural identifiability.

  20. Democratic cultural policy : democratic forms and policy consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Clive

    2012-01-01

    The forms that are adopted to give practical meaning to democracy are assessed to identify what their implications are for the production of public policies in general and cultural policies in particular. A comparison of direct, representative, democratic elitist and deliberative versions of democracy identifies clear differences between them in terms of policy form and democratic practice. Further elaboration of these differences and their consequences are identified as areas for further res...

  1. A Survey of Georgia Adult Protective Service Staff: Implications for Older Adult Injury Prevention and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser, Sheryl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS. This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention.Methods: The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services’ leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees’ baseline knowledge of Georgia’s elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed.Result: Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56% women (92%. For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%, [χ2(1 = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28% [χ2(1 =5.951, p < .015].Conclusion: Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas

  2. A survey of georgia adult protective service staff: implications for older adult injury prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Sheryl M; Kerr, Judith; King, Patricia S; Payne, Brian; Beddington, Sarah; Pendrick, Danielle; Leyda, Elizabeth; McCarty, Frances

    2011-07-01

    The aging population is a rapidly growing demographic. Isolation and limited autonomy render many of the elderly vulnerable to abuse, neglect and exploitation. As the population grows, so does the need for Adult Protective Services (APS). This study was conducted to examine current knowledge of older adult protection laws in Georgia among APS staff and to identify training opportunities to better prepare the APS workforce in case detection and intervention. The Georgia State University Institute of Public Health faculty developed a primary survey in partnership with the Georgia Division of Aging Services' leadership to identify key training priority issues for APS caseworkers and investigators. A 47-item electronic questionnaire was delivered to all APS employees via work-issued email accounts. We conducted descriptive analyses, t-tests and chi-square analyses to determine APS employees' baseline knowledge of Georgia's elder abuse policies, laws and practices, as well as examine associations of age, ethnicity, and educational attainment with knowledge. We used a p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals to determine statistical significance of analyses performed. Ninety-two out of 175 APS staff responded to the survey (53% response rate). The majority of respondents were Caucasian (56%) women (92%). For over half the survey items, paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between what APS staff reported as known and what APS staff members indicated they needed to know more about in terms of elder abuse and current policies. Chi-square tests revealed that non-Caucasians significantly preferred video conferencing as a training format (44% compared to 18%), [χ(2)(1) = 7.102, p < .008], whereas Caucasians preferred asynchronous online learning formats (55% compared to 28%) [χ(2)(1) =5.951, p < .015]. Results from this study provide the Georgia Division of Aging with insight into specific policy areas that are not well understood by APS staff

  3. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah L; Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-11-01

    Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory's data to describe the current distribution of - and trends in - transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization's Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network.

  4. Autonomous vehicles:challenges, opportunities, and future implications for transportation policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee; Madjid Tavana; Mohsen Asadi; Tracey Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the challenges and opportunities pertaining to transportation policies that may arise as a result of emerging autonomous vehicle (AV) technologies. AV technologies can decrease the trans-portation cost and increase accessibility to low-income households and persons with mobility issues. This emerg-ing technology also has far-reaching applications and implications beyond all current expectations. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and explores a broad spectrum of issues from safety to machine ethics. An indispensable part of a prospective AV development is communication over cars and infrastructure (connected vehicles). A major knowledge gap exists in AV technology with respect to routing behaviors. Connected-vehicle technology provides a great opportunity to imple-ment an efficient and intelligent routing system. To this end, we propose a conceptual navigation model based on a fleet of AVs that are centrally dispatched over a network seeking system optimization. This study contributes to the literature on two fronts: (i) it attempts to shed light on future opportunities as well as possible hurdles associated with AV technology;and (ii) it conceptualizes a navigation model for the AV which leads to highly efficient traffic circulations.

  5. Innovative Strategy in Shrimp Potiguar: Asymmetries Power Generation and Implications for Policy Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Baldi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the technological trajectory and the actors – public and private - political behave in the carciniculture network (cultivate of shrimp in the federal estate of Rio Grande do Norte. The research was based on both embeddedness and cluster policy approach. The case study was based on bibliographic, archives, and empirical data, whose primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews carried on with 10 members of different organizations from carciniculture sector in the period 2009-2010, as well as interviews already conducted in the area since the year 2005. These data were submitted to content analysis with longitudinal and descriptive approach. Along the technological trajectory of the cluster we highlighted opportunities and limits for innovative strategies generated by asymmetries of power and ability to influence actors in the network. We highlight the relationship between 'power network' and 'links established with public actors' as well as the implications for innovation along the trajectory generated by a more or less state interference.

  6. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  7. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  8. Constraining East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals: methods and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.

    2017-12-01

    The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.

  9. Review of economic and energy sector implications of adopting global climate change policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes a number of studies examining potential economic impacts of global climate change policies. Implications for the United States as a whole, the U.S. energy sector, the U.S. economy, businesses and consumers, and world economies are considered. Impact assessments are performed of U.S. carbon emissions, carbon taxes, and carbon restrictions by comparing estimates from various organizations. The following conclusions were made from the economic studies: (1) the economic cost of carbon abatement is expensive; (2) the cost of unilateral action is very expensive with little quantifiable evidence that global emissions are reduced; (3) multilateral actions of developed countries are also very expensive, but there is quantifiable evidence of global emissions reductions; and (4) global actions have only been theoretically addressed. Paralleling these findings, the energy analyses show that the U.S. is technologically unprepared to give up fossil fuels. As a result: (1) carbon is not stabilized without a high tax, (2) stabilization of carbon is elusive, (3) technology is the only long-term answer, and (4) targeted programs may be appropriate to force technology development. 8 tabs.

  10. An Australian casemix classification for palliative care: lessons and policy implications of a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagar, Kathy; Gordon, Robert; Green, Janette; Smith, Michael

    2004-04-01

    To provide a nontechnical discussion of the development of a palliative care casemix classification and some policy implications of its implementation. 3866 palliative care patients who, in a three month period, had 4596 episodes of care provided by 58 palliative care services in Australia and New Zealand. A detailed clinical and service utilization profile was collected on each patient with staff time and other resources measured on a daily basis. A statistical summary of the clinical variables was compiled as the first stage of the analysis. Palliative care phase was found to be a good predictor of resource use, with patients fairly evenly distributed across the five categories. Clients treated in an inpatient setting had poorer function and higher symptom severity scores than those treated in an ambulatory setting, a result that is not surprising in this Australian setting. Implementation of the resultant AN-SNAP classification has been proceeding since 1998 in some Australian jurisdictions. The development and implementation of a classification such as AN-SNAP provides the possibility of having a consistent approach to collecting palliative care data in Australia as well as a growing body of experience on how to progressively improve the classification over time.

  11. Welfare reform and women's health: review of the literature and implications for state policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Campo, P; Rojas-Smith, L

    1998-01-01

    In August 1996, the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (P.L. 104-193) was signed into law, ending a 60-year federal entitlement guaranteeing families some basic level of assistance during periods of economic hardship. Several components of this new legislation have the potential to impact upon the health and well-being of women and children. We summarize studies examining the relationship between welfare participation and physical and mental well-being of women and what is known about the effects of poverty on health; the patterns of employment among welfare participants and the health consequences of low-wage work on women; domestic violence among welfare recipients; the potential health consequences of the provisions of the new Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program for women's and adolescent health; and the consequences of the new TANF provisions for the health and well-being of immigrant women. We discuss the implications for policy makers in monitoring and minimizing the negative impact of welfare reforms on women's health and well-being.

  12. Observations on quality senior health business: success patterns and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Yi-Hsin Elsa; Chen, Ya-Mei; Su, Shyi; Chang, Yao-Mao; Iqbal, Usman; Yujiro, Handa; Lin, Neng-Pai

    2016-04-01

    Population ageing is a global issue that affects almost every country. Most ageing researches focused on demand side and studies related to supply side were relatively scarce. This study selected quality enterprises focus on ageing health and analysed their patterns on providing quality services successfully. Our study selected quality senior health enterprises and explored their success patterns through face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews with CEO of each enterprise in 2013. Thirty-three quality senior health enterprises in Taiwan. Thirty-three CEO's of enterprises were interviewed individually. None. Core values and vision, historical development, organization structure, services/products provided, delivering channels, customer relationships and further development strategies. Our results indicated success patterns for senior enterprises that there were meeting diversified lifestyles and substitutive needs for the elderly and their caregivers, providing a total solution for actual/virtual integration and flexible one-stop shopping services. We classified these enterprises by used degree of clicks-and-mortar of services and residing situation of the elderly. Industry characteristics and policy implications were summarized. Our observations will serve as a primary evidenced base for enterprises developing their senior market, and also for opening dialogue between customers and enterprises to facilitate valuable opportunities for co-creation between the supply and demand sides. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  13. CO2 Capture from the Air: Technology Assessment and Implications for Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. W.

    2002-05-01

    It is physically possible to capture CO2 directly from the air and immobilize it in geological structures. Today, there are no large-scale technologies that achieve air capture at reasonable cost. Yet, strong arguments suggest that it will comparatively easy to develop practical air capture technologies on the timescales relevant to climate policy [1]. This paper first analyzes the cost of air capture and then assesses the implications for climate policy. We first analyze the lower bound on the cost needed for air capture, describing the thermodynamic and physical limits to the use of energy and land. We then compare the costs of air capture to the cost of capture from combustion exhaust streams. While the intrinsic minimum energy requirement is larger for air capture, we argue that air capture has important structural advantages, such as the reduction of transport costs and the larger potential for economies of scale. These advantages suggest that, in the long-run air capture be competitive with other methods of achieving deep emissions reductions. We provide a preliminary engineering-economic analysis of an air capture system based on CaO to CaCO3 chemical looping [1]. We analyze the possibility of doing the calcination in a modified pressurized fluidized bed combustor (PFBC) burning coal in a CO2 rich atmosphere with oxygen supplied by an air separation unit. The CaCO3-to-coal ratio would be ~2:1 and the system would be nearly thermally neutral. PFBC systems have been demonstrated at capacities of over 100 MW. Such systems already include CaCO3 injection for sulfur control, and operate at suitable temperatures and pressures for calcination. We assess the potential to recover heat from the dissolution of CaO in order to reduce the overall energy requirements. We analyze the possibility of adapting existing large water/air heat exchangers for use as contacting systems to capture CO2 from the air using the calcium hydroxide solution. The implications of air capture

  14. Biologic targets identified from dynamic 18FDG-PET and implications for image-guided therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusten, Espen; Malinen, Eirik; Roedal, Jan; Bruland, Oeyvind S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The outcome of biologic image-guided radiotherapy depends on the definition of the biologic target. The purpose of the current work was to extract hyper perfused and hypermetabolic regions from dynamic positron emission tomography (D-PET) images, to dose escalate either region and to discuss implications of such image guided strategies. Methods: Eleven patients with soft tissue sarcomas were investigated with D-PET. The images were analyzed using a two-compartment model producing parametric maps of perfusion and metabolic rate. The two image series were segmented and exported to a treatment planning system, and biological target volumes BTV per and BTV met (perfusion and metabolism, respectively) were generated. Dice's similarity coefficient was used to compare the two biologic targets. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were generated for a dose painting by contours regime, where planning target volume (PTV) was planned to 60 Gy and BTV to 70 Gy. Thus, two separate plans were created for each patient with dose escalation of either BTV per or BTV met . Results: BTV per was somewhat smaller than BTV met (209 ±170 cm 3 against 243 ±143 cm 3 , respectively; population-based mean and s.d.). Dice's coefficient depended on the applied margin, and was 0.72 ±0.10 for a margin of 10 mm. Boosting BTV per resulted in mean dose of 69 ±1.0 Gy to this region, while BTV met received 67 ±3.2 Gy. Boosting BTV met gave smaller dose differences between the respective non-boost DVHs (such as D 98 ). Conclusions: Dose escalation of one of the BTVs results in a partial dose escalation of the other BTV as well. If tumor aggressiveness is equally pronounced in hyper perfused and hypermetabolic regions, this should be taken into account in the treatment planning

  15. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S.; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S.; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K.

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited ...

  16. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  17. Forestland owners’ willingness to consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously: Implications for biofuel incentive policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde, Bernabas; Lal, Pankaj; Burli, Pralhad

    2017-01-01

    Because socioeconomic based approaches account for relevant limiting and motivating factors, they provide a more realistic measurement of forestland owners’ willingness to supply biomass for bioenergy production- information useful to policy makers in setting production targets and in designing relevant incentive programs. Although forestland owners can supply biomass using different means, including supplying biomass from existing stands and changing land use to establish feedstock plantation, among others, previous studies mostly focus only on a given way of supplying biomass at a time. This produces incomplete information that adversely affects its use. By presenting survey takers in Virginia and Texas three different ways of supplying biomass at the same time, we determine forestland owners’ willingness to consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously and identify the factors that predict such behavior, assess overlap in forestland owners across the different ways of supplying biomass, and assess if and how respondents’ forest management plans and sustainability concerns correspond with their supply decision. Our results show a higher and more articulated rate of willingness to supply biomass than reported in previous studies. The results also suggest that opportunities exist for synergizing programs that incentivize disparate ways of supplying biomass. - Highlights: • Forestland owners are more willing to supply biomass than previous estimated. • Forestland owners will consider multiple ways of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Socioeconomics, sustainability concerns, and management plans predict this behavior. • Incentive programs can target multiple means of supplying biomass simultaneously. • Considerable mismatches exist between the suppliers’ preferences and existing policies.

  18. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  19. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  20. Systematic enrichment analysis of gene expression profiling studies identifies consensus pathways implicated in colorectal cancer development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lascorz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of gene expression profiling (GEP studies on colorectal carcinogenesis have been performed but no reliable gene signature has been identified so far due to the lack of reproducibility in the reported genes. There is growing evidence that functionally related genes, rather than individual genes, contribute to the etiology of complex traits. We used, as a novel approach, pathway enrichment tools to define functionally related genes that are consistently up- or down-regulated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Materials and Methods: We started the analysis with 242 unique annotated genes that had been reported by any of three recent meta-analyses covering GEP studies on genes differentially expressed in carcinoma vs normal mucosa. Most of these genes (218, 91.9% had been reported in at least three GEP studies. These 242 genes were submitted to bioinformatic analysis using a total of nine tools to detect enrichment of Gene Ontology (GO categories or Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. As a final consistency criterion the pathway categories had to be enriched by several tools to be taken into consideration. Results: Our pathway-based enrichment analysis identified the categories of ribosomal protein constituents, extracellular matrix receptor interaction, carbonic anhydrase isozymes, and a general category related to inflammation and cellular response as significantly and consistently overrepresented entities. Conclusions: We triaged the genes covered by the published GEP literature on colorectal carcinogenesis and subjected them to multiple enrichment tools in order to identify the consistently enriched gene categories. These turned out to have known functional relationships to cancer development and thus deserve further investigation.

  1. Methods of Identifying Limb Dominance in Adolescent Female Basketball Players: Implications for Clinical and Biomechanical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrey, Colleen R; Shultz, Sandra J; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-29

    To identify relationships between self-reported limb preferences and performance measures for determining limb dominance in adolescent female basketball players. Cross-sectional cohort study. Forty adolescent female basketball players. Participants provided self-reported preferred kicking and jumping limbs, then completed 3 trials of a single-limb countermovement hop (HOPVER) and unilateral triple hop for distance (HOPHOR) on each limb. Each test was used to independently define limb dominance by the limb that produced the largest maximum vertical height and horizontal distance, respectively. Chi-square tests for independence identified a significant relationship between self-reported preferred kicking and jumping legs (χ = 7.41, P = 0.006). However, no significant relationships were found when comparing self-reported preference to measures of performance during the HOPHOR (χ = 0.33, P = 0.57) or HOPVER (χ = 0.06, P = 0.80). In addition, the 2 performance measures did not consistently produce the same definition of limb dominance among individuals (χ = 1.52, P = 0.22). Self-selection of the dominant limb is unrelated to performance. Furthermore, limb dominance, as defined by vertical jump height, is unrelated to limb dominance defined by horizontal jump distance. The results of this study call into question the validity of consistently defining limb dominance by self-reported measures in adolescent female basketball players.

  2. Oil price shocks and policy implications the emergence of U.S. tight oil production: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Voth, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    How have shocks to supply and demand affected global oil prices; and what are key policy implications following the resurgence of oil production in the United States? Highlights: − The recent collapse in global oil prices was dominated by oversupply. − The future of tight oil in the United States is vulnerable to obstacles beyond oil prices. − Opinions on tight oil from the Top 25 think tank organizations are considered. Global oil prices have fallen more than fifty percent since ...

  3. The ethical and policy implications of research on income inequality and child well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kate E; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2015-03-01

    Child well-being is important for lifelong health and well-being. Although there is a robust evidence base linking social determinants of health (eg, relative poverty and income inequality) to child well-being, social and public health policy tends to focus on interventions to mitigate their effects, rather than remove the root causes. The goal of this study was to examine associations between child well-being and income inequality. We compared reported rates of childhood well-being in the 2007 and 2013 UNICEF reports on child well-being in wealthy countries. Twenty indicators of child well-being (excluding child poverty) were defined consistently in both the 2007 and 2013 reports. These variables were used to create an indicator of change in child well-being over the approximate decade 2000 to 2010. For our analyses of income inequality, we used the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Gini coefficient of income inequality for 2009 and change between 2000 and 2009, respectively. The overall index of child well-being in 2013 was closely and negatively correlated with income inequality (r = -0.60, P = .004) but not with average income (r = -0.3460, P = .12). Adjustment for income inequality, children in relative poverty, and the child poverty gap did not change the lack of association between average income and child well-being in 2013 in wealthy countries. Between 2000 and 2010, child well-being scores improved most in Italy, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and Germany. The biggest declines were seen in Sweden, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, and France. Countries that experienced the largest increases in income inequality had significantly greater declines in child well-being (r = -0.51, P = .02). Children born into socioeconomically disadvantaged families suffer worse child well-being and its lifelong implications, in all societies, worldwide. Our analyses show, however, that some wealthy societies are able to mitigate these inequalities; these

  4. Children, Families and Poverty: Definitions, Trends, Emerging Science and Implications for Policy. Social Policy Report. Volume 26, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Lawrence; Morris, Pamela; Raver, Cybele

    2012-01-01

    Now, more than ever, it is crucial to address the topic of children and poverty in the U.S., given current scientific knowledge about poverty's influence on children and effective strategies to mitigate its negative impact. In this report, we summarize the best available information on definitions and trends in child poverty, policy responses to…

  5. Data Mining and Pattern Recognition Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iddamalgoda, Lahiru; Das, Partha S; Aponso, Achala; Sundararajan, Vijayaraghava S; Suravajhala, Prashanth; Valadi, Jayaraman K

    2016-01-01

    Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how the genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification- and scoring-based prioritization methods in determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI) methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors' could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation.

  6. Data mining and Pattern Recognizing Models for Identifying Inherited Diseases: Challenges and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahiru Iddamalgoda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Data mining and pattern recognition methods reveal interesting findings in genetic studies, especially on how genetic makeup is associated with inherited diseases. Although researchers have proposed various data mining models for biomedical approaches, there remains a challenge in accurately determining the responsible genetic factors for prioritizing the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP associated with the disease. In this commentary, we review the state-of-art data mining and pattern recognition models for identifying inherited diseases and deliberate the need of binary classification and scoring based prioritization methods for determining causal variants. While we discuss the pros and cons associated with these methods known, we argue that the gene prioritization methods and the protein interaction (PPI methods in conjunction with the K nearest neighbors’ could be used in accurately categorizing the genetic factors in disease causation

  7. Identifying Areas Suitable for the Occurrence of Rift Valley Fever in North Africa: Implications for Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsevska, E; Hellal, J; Mejri, S; Hammami, S; Marianneau, P; Calavas, D; Hénaux, V

    2016-12-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne zoonotic disease that has caused widespread outbreaks throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, with serious consequences for livestock-based economies and public health. Although there have never been any reports of RVF in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya, it is a priority disease in the Maghreb, due to the threat of introduction of the virus through transboundary livestock movements or infected mosquito vectors. However, the implementation of surveillance activities and early warning contingency plans requires better knowledge of the epidemiological situation. We conducted a multicriteria decision analysis, integrating host distribution with a combination of important ecological factors that drive mosquito abundance, to identify hotspots and suitable time periods for RVF enzootic circulation (i.e. stable transmission at a low to moderate level for an extended period of time) and an RVF epizootic event (i.e. a sudden occurrence of a large number of infected animals over a large geographic area) in the Maghreb. We also modelled vector species distribution using available information on vector presence and habitat preference. We found that the northern regions of the Maghreb were moderately suitable for RVF enzootics, but highly suitable for RVF epizootics. The vector species distribution model identified these regions as the most favourable mosquito habitats. Due to the low density of animal hosts and arid conditions, the desert region showed low RVF suitability, except in oases. However, the presence of competent vectors in putative unsuitable areas underlines the need for further assessments of mosquito habitat preference. This study produced monthly RVF suitability maps useful for animal health managers and veterinary services involved in designing risk-based surveillance programmes. The suitability maps can be further enhanced using existing country-specific sources of information and by incorporating knowledge

  8. Identifying the Dominant Personality Profiles in Medical Students: Implications for Their Well-Being and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Diann S; Leung, Janni; Hong, Barry A; Cloninger, Kevin M; Cloninger, C Robert

    2016-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of stress, depression, and burn-out in medical students. Medical students differ widely in personality traits, self-perceptions, and values that may have an impact on their well-being. This study aimed to investigate variability in their personality profiles in relation to their potential for well-being and resilience. Participants were 808 medical students from The University of Queensland. An online questionnaire collected socio-demographics and the Temperament and Character Inventory to assess personality traits. Latent profile analyses identified students' trait profiles. Two distinct personality profiles were identified. Profile 1 ("Resilient") characterized 60% of the sample and was distinguished by low Harm Avoidance combined with very high Persistence, Self-Directedness and Cooperativeness compared to Profile 2 ("Conscientious"). Both Profiles had average levels of Reward Dependence and Novelty Seeking and low levels of Self-Transcendence. Profiles did not differ by age, gender, or country of birth, but rural background students were more likely to have Profile 1. While both Profiles indicate mature and healthy personalities, the combination of traits in Profile 1 is more strongly indicative of well-being and resilience. Finding two distinct profiles of personality highlights the importance of considering combinations of traits and how they may interact with medical students' potential for well-being. Although both profiles of students show healthy personalities, many may lack the resilience to maintain well-being over years of medical training. Programs that develop character and personality self-awareness would enhance their well-being and prepare them to promote the health of their patients.

  9. Exploring patient experiences with prescription medicines to identify unmet patient needs: implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukarslan, Suzan N; Lewis, Nancy J W; Shimp, Leslie A; Gaither, Caroline A; Lane, Daniel C; Baumer, Andrea L

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacy services are offered to patients, and often, they decline participation. Research is needed to better understand patients' unmet needs when taking prescribed medications. To identify and characterize patients' unmet needs related to using prescribed medication for chronic conditions. Focus groups of patients using prescription medication for chronic conditions discussed their experiences with medications, starting from initial diagnosis to ongoing management. Sessions involved 40 patients from 1 Midwestern U.S. state. Major themes were identified using content analysis. Three major themes emerged. First, patients seek information to understand their health condition and treatment rationale. Patients form an illness perception (its consequence, controllability, cause, and duration) that dictates their actions. Second, patients desire to be involved in treatment decisions, and they often feel that decisions are made for them without their understanding of the risk-to-benefit trade-off. Third, patients monitor the impact of treatment decisions to determine if anticipated outcomes are achieved. The results were consistent with Dowell's therapeutic alliance model (TAM) and Leventhal's common sense model (CSM). The TAM can be used to model the consultative services between pharmacists and patients. The impact of the new services (or interventions) can be evaluated using the CSM. Patients expressed a strong desire to be involved in their treatment decisions. The effectiveness of medication therapy management services may be enhanced if pharmacists build on patients' desire to be involved in their treatment decisions and assist them to understand the role of medications and their risks and expected outcomes within the context of the patients' perceptions of illness and desired coping strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications of transportation policies on energy and environment in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimates and analyzes the historical and future trends of energy demand and environmental emissions from passenger transportation of the Kathmandu Valley covering CO 2 , CO, HC, NO x , SO 2 , total suspended particles (TSP) and lead (Pb). It uses the Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System framework for constructing future scenarios up to year 2020 and analyzing their implications; these scenarios mainly deal with the traffic improvement measures, promotion of public transportation and electric vehicles. The results estimate over a four-fold increase in energy demand in 1988-2000. TSP increase of 4.5 times in this period is the major concern since high particulate concentration is already above World Health Organization guidelines. Under the non-intervention scenario, energy demand in 2020 is estimated to be 2.7 times that in the year 2000. Similarly, 2.5 times increase of TSP in 2020 from the year 2000 is estimated that would further increase the TSP concentrations. The scenario analyses suggest that increasing vehicle speed, promoting public transportation and promoting electric vehicles could reduce energy demand by 28%, 28% and 18%, respectively, while promoting a reasonably comfortable condition on overcrowded public transportation could increase energy demand by 10% from non-intervention scenario. For TSP, any future measures would not be enough unless the attention is not paid to in-use vehicle stock. A mix of all the policies mentioned above has potentials to cut down CO 2 emissions to over 60% from the non-intervention case in 2020

  11. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  12. The global diffusion of organ transplantation: trends, drivers and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, Richard; Mahíllo, Beatriz; Domínguez-Gil, Beatriz; Delmonico, Francis L; Noel, Luc; Chapman, Jeremy; Matesanz, Rafael; Carmona, Mar; Alvarez, Marina; Núñez, Jose R; Leichtman, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rising incomes, the spread of personal insurance, lifestyle factors adding to the burden of illness, ageing populations, globalization and skills transfer within the medical community have increased worldwide demand for organ transplantation. The Global Observatory on Donation and Transplantation, which was built in response to World Health Assembly resolution WHA57.18, has conducted ongoing documentation of global transplantation activities since 2007. In this paper, we use the Global Observatory’s data to describe the current distribution of – and trends in – transplantation activities and to evaluate the role of health systems factors and macroeconomics in the diffusion of transplantation technology. We then consider the implications of our results for health policies relating to organ donation and transplantation. Of the World Health Organization’s Member States, most now engage in organ transplantation and more than a third performed deceased donor transplantation in 2011. In general, the Member States that engage in organ transplantation have greater access to physician services and greater total health spending per capita than the Member States where organ transplantation is not performed. The provision of deceased donor transplantation was closely associated with high levels of gross national income per capita. There are several ways in which governments can support the ethical development of organ donation and transplantation programmes. Specifically, they can ensure that appropriate legislation, regulation and oversight are in place, and monitor donation and transplantation activities, practices and outcomes. Moreover, they can allocate resources towards the training of specialist physicians, surgeons and transplant coordinators, and implement a professional donor-procurement network. PMID:25378744

  13. Expression Profiling of Differentiating Emerin-Null Myogenic Progenitor Identifies Molecular Pathways Implicated in Their Impaired Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin Iyer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD, a disorder causing progressive skeletal muscle wasting, irregular heart rhythms and contractures of major tendons. RNA sequencing was performed on differentiating wildtype and emerin-null myogenic progenitors to identify molecular pathways implicated in EDMD, 340 genes were uniquely differentially expressed during the transition from day 0 to day 1 in wildtype cells. 1605 genes were uniquely expressed in emerin-null cells; 1706 genes were shared among both wildtype and emerin-null cells. One thousand and forty-seven transcripts showed differential expression during the transition from day 1 to day 2. Four hundred and thirty-one transcripts showed altered expression in both wildtype and emerin-null cells. Two hundred and ninety-five transcripts were differentially expressed only in emerin-null cells and 321 transcripts were differentially expressed only in wildtype cells. DAVID, STRING and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified pathways implicated in impaired emerin-null differentiation, including cell signaling, cell cycle checkpoints, integrin signaling, YAP/TAZ signaling, stem cell differentiation, and multiple muscle development and myogenic differentiation pathways. Functional enrichment analysis showed biological functions associated with the growth of muscle tissue and myogenesis of skeletal muscle were inhibited. The large number of differentially expressed transcripts upon differentiation induction suggests emerin functions during transcriptional reprograming of progenitors to committed myoblasts.

  14. Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets; Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Kros, J.; Vries, de W.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient budgets of agroecosystems are constructed either (i) to increase the understanding of nutrient cycling, (ii) as performance indicator and awareness raiser in nutrient management and environmental policy, or (iii) as regulating policy instrument to enforce a certain nutrient management

  15. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  16. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, Thomas A.; Hathaway, Brandon J.; Smith, Timothy M.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  17. “Have policy makers erred?” Implications of mother tongue education for preprimary schooling in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ssentanda, Medadi Erisa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Uganda language-in-education policy is silent about pre-primary schooling. This level of education is largely in the hands of private individuals who, because of wide-spread misconceptions about learning and acquiring English in Uganda (as in many other African countries, instruct pre-primary school learners in English. This article demonstrates how this omission in language-in-education policy is creating competition between rural government and private schools regarding the teaching of English and the development of initial literacy. The absence of an official language policy for pre-primary schooling has also dichotomised the implementation of mother tongue education in rural areas. The policy allows rural primary schools to use mother tongue as language of learning and teaching in the first three school grades. However, whereas private schools instruct through English only, government schools to a large extent adhere to the policy, albeit with undesirable consequences. The practical implications of lack of a language-in-education policy for and minimal government involvement in pre-primary schooling are discussed in this article.

  18. Patient-identified events implicated in the development of body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Curley, Erin E; Renshaw, Keith D; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the causes of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but researchers have proposed a diathesis-stress model. This study uses a patient-centered approach to identify stressful events to which patients attribute the development of their BDD symptoms. An Internet-recruited sample of 165 adults with BDD participated. A large minority of participants attributed the development of their BDD to a triggering event. Bullying experiences were the most commonly described type of event. Additionally, most events were interpersonal and occurred during grade school or middle school. There were no differences in severity of psychosocial outcomes between participants who did or did not attribute their BDD to a specific triggering event. However, participants who specifically attributed their BDD development to a bullying experience had poorer psychosocial outcomes (i.e., perceived social support, depression severity, functional impairment, quality of life) compared to those who attributed their BDD development to another type of triggering event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social cost of carbon pricing of power sector CO2: accounting for leakage and other social implications from subnational policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline, John E.; Rose, Steven K.

    2018-01-01

    In environments where climate policy has partial coverage or unequal participation, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions or economic activity may shift to locations and sectors where emissions are unregulated. This is referred to as leakage. Leakage can offset or augment emissions reductions associated with a policy, which has important environmental and economic implications. Although leakage has been studied at national levels, analysis of leakage for subnational policies is limited. This is despite greater market integration and many existing state and regional environmental regulations in the US. This study explores leakage potential, net emissions changes, and other social implications in the US energy system with regionally differentiated pricing of power sector CO2 emissions. We undertake an economic analysis using EPRI’s US-REGEN model, where power sector CO2 emissions are priced in individual US regions with a range of social cost of carbon (SCC) values. SCC estimates are being considered by policy-makers for valuing potential societal damages from CO2 emissions. In this study, we evaluate the emissions implications within the SCC pricing region, within the power sector outside the SCC region, and outside the power sector (i.e. in the rest of the energy system). Results indicate that CO2 leakage is possible within and outside the electric sector, ranging from negative 70% to over 80% in our scenarios, with primarily positive leakage outcomes. Typically ignored in policy analysis, leakage would affect CO2 reduction benefits. We also observe other potential societal effects within and across regions, such as higher electricity prices, changes in power sector investments, and overall consumption losses. Efforts to reduce leakage, such as constraining power imports into the SCC pricing region likely reduce leakage, but could also result in lower net emissions reductions, as well as larger price increases. Thus, it is important to look beyond leakage and consider a

  20. The Track of Policies for Educational Equality and Its Implications in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seog Hun

    2013-01-01

    Most countries have taken equality of education as a paramount issue, but policy initiatives have not taken the same patterns across the nations. This paper addressed the features of equality policies and their changes in South Korea through an array of target groups and types of policy measures. According to a contingency approach, Korea relied…

  1. Assessing social vulnerability to drought in South Africa: Policy implication for drought risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiso Muyambo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess and identify social vulnerability of communal farmers to drought in the O.R. Tambo district in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa using a survey data and social vulnerability index (SoVI. Eleven social vulnerability indicators were identified using Bogardi, Birkman and Cardona conceptual framework. The result found that an SoVI estimated for O.R. Tambo district was very high with a Likert scale of 5 for cultural values and practices, security or safety, social networks, social dependence, preparedness strategies and psychological stress attributed for the high value of social vulnerability to drought. Indigenous knowledge and education had an SoVI value of 2, which was of low vulnerability, contributing positively to resilience to drought. The study also found that government involvement in drought risk reduction is limited; as a result, the study recommends that a national, provincial and district municipalities policy on drought risk reduction and mitigation should be developed.

  2. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technological innovation system in China: Structure, function evaluation and policy implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Xianjin; Ye Zhonghua; Xu Zhengzhong; Husar Holmes, Maja; Henry Lambright, W.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can be an important technology option for China in addressing global climate change and developing clean energy technologies. Promoted by international climate conventions and supported by government research and development programs, an increasing number of CCS pilot and demonstration projects have been launched in China. In this study, we analyze the structure of China’s CCS effort from a technological innovation system (TIS) perspective. Within this system, key socio-political components, including institutions, actor-networks, and technology development, are examined to evaluate the state of the innovation system. The study assessed the perceived capacity of seven functional areas of the CCS innovation system through a survey of key CCS actors and stakeholders. The findings suggest that China’s CCS innovation system has a strong functional capacity for knowledge and technology development. It is significantly weaker in the innovative functions of knowledge diffusion, market formation, facilitating entrepreneurs and new entrants into the CCS market. Based on the evaluation of China’s technological innovation system to develop CCS, the article articulates specific public policies to formulate a more robust innovation system to traverse the “valley of death” from research and development to commercial deployment and accelerate energy innovation in China. - Highlights: ► We analyze and evaluate China’s CCS innovation system from TIS perspective. ► Strong and systematic CCS innovation system structure has come into being in China. ► The system has acquired high knowledge development and accumulation. ► Weak innovation functions are identified: market creation, guidance, etc. ► Public policies are needed to improve the innovation system performance.

  3. Progress and policy implication of the Insurance Programs for Catastrophic Diseases in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wenhui; Zhang, Luying; Chen, Wen

    2017-07-01

    The State Council encouraged the involvement of commercial insurance companies (CICs) in the development of the Insurance Program for Catastrophic Diseases (IPCD), yet its implementation has rarely been reported. We collected literature and policy documentation and conducted interviews in 10 cities with innovative IPCD policies to understand the details of the implementation of IPCD. IPCDs are operated at the prefectural level in 14 provinces, while in 4 municipalities and 6 provinces, unified IPCDs have been implemented at higher levels. The contribution level varied from 5% to 10% of total Basic Medical Insurance (BMI) funds or CNY10-35 per beneficiary in 2015. IPCD provides an additional 50% to 70% reimbursement rate for the expenses not covered by BMI with various settings in different locations. Two models of CIC operation of IPCD have been identified according to the financial risks shared by CICs. Either the local department of Human Resources and Social Security or a third party performs assessments of the IPCD operation, service quality, and patients' satisfaction. A number of IPCDs have been observed to use 1% to 5% of the funds as a performance-based payment to the CIC(s). CIC involvement in operating the IPCD raises concerns regarding the security of the information of beneficiaries. Developing appropriate data sharing mechanisms between the local department of Human Resources and Social Security and CICs is still in progress. In conclusion, the IPCD relieves the financial burden on patients by providing further reimbursement, but its benefit package remains limited to the BMI reimbursable list. CICs play an important role in monitoring and supervising health service provision, yet their capacity for actuarial services or risk control is underdeveloped. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mexican Americans are Less Likely to Return to Work Following Stroke: Clinical and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Brown, Devin L; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2016-08-01

    Greater poststroke disability and U.S. employment policies may disadvantage minority stroke survivors from returning to work. We explored ethnic differences in return to work among Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) working at the time of their stroke. Stroke patients were identified from the population-based BASIC (Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi) study from August 2011 to December 2013. Employment status was obtained at baseline and 90-day interviews. Sequential logistic regression models were built to assess ethnic differences in return to work after accounting for the following: (1) age (working at the time of their stroke, of which 125 (63%) completed the 90-day outcome interview. Forty-nine (40%) stroke survivors returned to work by 90 days. MAs were less likely to return to work (OR = .45, 95% CI .22-.94) than NHWs. The ethnic difference became nonsignificant after adjusting for NIHSS (OR = .59, 95% CI .24-1.44) and further attenuated after adjusting for education (OR = .85, 95% CI .32- 2.22). The majority of stroke survivors did not return to work within 90 days of their stroke. MA stroke survivors were less likely to return to work after stroke than NHW stroke survivors which was due to their greater neurological deficits and lower educational attainment compared with that of NHW stroke survivors. Future work should focus on clinical and policy efforts to reduce ethnic disparities in return to work. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spread of anti-malarial drug resistance: Mathematical model with implications for ACT drug policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dondorp Arjen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria-endemic countries are implementing a change in anti-malarial drug policy to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT. The impact of different drug choices and implementation strategies is uncertain. Data from many epidemiological studies in different levels of malaria endemicity and in areas with the highest prevalence of drug resistance like borders of Thailand are certainly valuable. Formulating an appropriate dynamic data-driven model is a powerful predictive tool for exploring the impact of these strategies quantitatively. Methods A comprehensive model was constructed incorporating important epidemiological and biological factors of human, mosquito, parasite and treatment. The iterative process of developing the model, identifying data needed, and parameterization has been taken to strongly link the model to the empirical evidence. The model provides quantitative measures of outcomes, such as malaria prevalence/incidence and treatment failure, and illustrates the spread of resistance in low and high transmission settings. The model was used to evaluate different anti-malarial policy options focusing on ACT deployment. Results The model predicts robustly that in low transmission settings drug resistance spreads faster than in high transmission settings, and treatment failure is the main force driving the spread of drug resistance. In low transmission settings, ACT slows the spread of drug resistance to a partner drug, especially at high coverage rates. This effect decreases exponentially with increasing delay in deploying the ACT and decreasing rates of coverage. In the high transmission settings, however, drug resistance is driven by the proportion of the human population with a residual drug level, which gives resistant parasites some survival advantage. The spread of drug resistance could be slowed down by controlling presumptive drug use and avoiding the use of combination therapies containing drugs with

  6. Forks in the Road. Alternative Routes for International Climate Policies and their Implications for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Meyer, L.; Van Vuuren, D.; Den Elzen, M.

    2011-11-01

    Several scenarios are possible for future international climate policies, each with a different role in the climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These scenarios assume policies that are comparable to the current policies, as well as more fragmented and more integrated international climate policies. The various alternative routes have been assessed with respect to their potential consequences. These assessments showed that none of the proposed routes could fully replace the current negotiation process under the UNFCCC, but rather that they could contribute to generating societal support for future climate policies. In addition, the report presents an analysis of how the Netherlands could use this development of alternative routes for international climate policy. Possible responses by the Netherlands to each of these scenarios would depend on the degree to which climate change as a policy topic is considered a priority in the Netherlands.

  7. A retrospective analysis of cannabis use in a cohort of mentally ill patients in Sri Lanka and its implications on policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maithripala Chinthaka

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several epidemiological studies have shown that cannabis; the most widely used illegal drug in the world, is associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD. Aims To assess the characteristics of cannabis use and its association with SSD in a cohort of psychiatrically ill patients and discuss the implications for policy development Methods This is a retrospective analytical study of a cohort of psychiatric patients who received treatment in the psychiatry unit of the Provincial General Hospital, Ratnapura, Sri Lanka over five years (2000 - 2004. The schizophrenia spectrum disorders defined in this article include schizophrenia and the schizoaffective disorders. Results A total of 3644 patient records were analyzed. The percentage of self reported life time cannabis (LTC use was 2.83% (103, all males. Sixteen percent (576 of the total cohort was diagnosed with SSD by 2009. Male sex and LTC use were significantly associated with SSD (p Conclusions Self reported LTC use was strongly associated with being diagnosed with SSD. However we could not identify a particular subgroup of users that are at increased risk to recommend targeted primary prophylaxis. The policy implications of this observation are discussed.

  8. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  9. User experience with a health insurance coverage and benefit-package access: implications for policy implementation towards expansion in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shafiu; Aji, Budi; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Souares, Aurelia; Dong, Hengjin; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2016-04-01

    Developing countries are devising strategies and mechanisms to expand coverage and benefit-package access for their citizens through national health insurance schemes (NHIS). In Nigeria, the scheme aims to provide affordable healthcare services to insured-persons and their dependants. However, inclusion of dependants is restricted to four biological children and a spouse per user. This study assesses the progress of implementation of the NHIS in Nigeria, relating to coverage and benefit-package access, and examines individual factors associated with the implementation, according to users' perspectives. A retrospective, cross-sectional survey was done between October 2010 and March 2011 in Kaduna state and 796 users were randomly interviewed. Questions regarding coverage of immediate-family members and access to benefit-package for treatment were analysed. Indicators of coverage and benefit-package access were each further aggregated and assessed by unit-weighted composite. The additive-ordinary least square regression model was used to identify user factors that may influence coverage and benefit-package access. With respect to coverage, immediate-dependants were included for 62.3% of the users, and 49.6 rated this inclusion 'good' (49.6%). In contrast, 60.2% supported the abolishment of the policy restriction for non-inclusion of enrolees' additional children and spouses. With respect to benefit-package access, 82.7% of users had received full treatments, and 77.6% of them rated this as 'good'. Also, 14.4% of users had been refused treatments because they could not afford them. The coverage of immediate-dependants was associated with age, sex, educational status, children and enrolment duration. The benefit-package access was associated with types of providers, marital status and duration of enrolment. This study revealed that coverage of family members was relatively poor, while benefit-package access was more adequate. Non-inclusion of family members could

  10. Integration of health into urban spatial planning through impact assessment: Identifying governance and policy barriers and facilitators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, Laurence; Barton, Hugh; Gray, Selena; Lease, Helen; Pilkington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a review of literature examining the barriers and facilitators in integrating health in spatial planning at the local, mainly urban level, through appraisals. Our literature review covered the UK and non UK experiences of appraisals used to consider health issues in the planning process. We were able to identify four main categories of obstacles and facilitators including first the different knowledge and conceptual understanding of health by different actors/stakeholders, second the types of governance arrangements, in particular partnerships, in place and the political context, third the way institutions work, the responsibilities they have and their capacity and resources and fourth the timeliness, comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the appraisal process. The findings allowed us to draw some lessons on the governance and policy framework regarding the integration of health impact into spatial planning, in particular considering the pros and cons of integrating health impact assessment (HIA) into other forms of impact assessment of spatial planning decisions such as environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environment assessment (SEA). In addition, the research uncovered a gap in the literature that tends to focus on the mainly voluntary HIA to assess health outcomes of planning decisions and neglect the analysis of regulatory mechanisms such as EIA and SEA. - Highlights: ► Governance and policy barriers and facilitators to the integration of health into urban planning. ► Review of literature on impact assessment methods used across the world. ► Knowledge, partnerships, management/resources and processes can impede integration. ► HIA evaluations prevail uncovering research opportunities for evaluating other techniques.

  11. Monetary burden of health impacts of air pollution in Mumbai, India: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, A M; Trivedi, P L

    2011-03-01

    Mumbai, a mega city with a population of more than 12 million, is experiencing acute air pollution due to commercial activity, a boom in construction and vehicular traffic. This study was undertaken to investigate the link between air pollution and health impacts for Mumbai, and estimate the monetary burden of these impacts. Cross-sectional data were subjected to logistic regression to analyse the link between air pollution and health impacts, and the cost of illness approach was used to measure the monetary burden of these impacts. Data collected by the Environmental Pollution Research Centre at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Mumbai were analysed using logistic regression to investigate the link between air pollution and morbidity impacts. The monetary burden of morbidity was estimated through the cost of illness approach. For this purpose, information on treatment costs and foregone earnings due to illness was obtained through the household survey and interviews with medical practitioners. Particulate matter (PM(10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) emerged as the critical pollutants for a range of health impacts, including symptoms such as cough, breathlessness, wheezing and cold, and illnesses such as allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study developed the concentration-response coefficients for these health impacts. The total monetary burden of these impacts, including personal burden, government expenditure and societal cost, is estimated at 4522.96 million Indian Rupees (INR) or US$ 113.08 million for a 50-μg/m(3) increase in PM(10), and INR 8723.59 million or US$ 218.10 million for a similar increase in NO(2). The estimated monetary burden of health impacts associated with air pollution in Mumbai mainly comprises out-of-pocket expenses of city residents. These expenses form a sizable proportion of the annual income of individuals, particularly those belonging to poor households. These findings have implications for public

  12. Extending coverage to informal sector populations in Kenya: design preferences and implications for financing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okungu, Vincent; Chuma, Jane; Mulupi, Stephen; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-09

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group. The objective of the study was to document the views of informal sector workers regarding different prepayment mechanisms, and critically analyze key design features of a future health system and the policy implications of financing UHC in Kenya. This was part of larger study which involved a mixed-methods approach. The following tools were used to collect data from informal sector workers: focus group discussions [N = 16 (rural = 7; urban = 9)], individual in-depth interviews [N = 26 (rural = 14; urban = 12)] and a questionnaire survey [N = 455(rural = 129; urban = 326)]. Thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data while Stata v.11 involving mainly descriptive analysis was used in quantitative data. The tools mentioned were used to collect data to meet various objectives of a larger study and what is presented here constitutes a small section of the data generated by these tools. The findings show that informal sector workers in rural and urban areas prefer different prepayment systems for financing UHC. Preference for a non-contributory system of financing UHC was particularly strong in the urban study site (58%). Over 70% in the rural area preferred a contributory mechanism in financing UHC. The main concern for informal sector workers regardless of

  13. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  14. Interaction between the EU emissions trading scheme and energy policy instruments in the Netherlands. Implications of the EU Directive for Dutch Climate Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Van Dril, A.W.N.

    2003-11-01

    The present study analyses the potential interactions between the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and some selected energy and climate policy instruments in the Netherlands. These instruments include: (1) The Benchmarking Covenant (BC): a negotiated agreement with energy-intensive industries in order to improve their energy efficiency; (2) The Regulatory Energy Tax (REB): an ecotax (or levy) on the consumption of gas and electricity, including the partial exemption of this ecotax on renewable electricity; (3) The Environmental Quality of Electricity Production (MEP): a feed-in subsidy system for producers of renewable electricity; and (4) The system of Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs): a system of guarantees of origin to promote renewable electricity based on the partial exemption of the REB. A general finding of the present report is that once the EU ETS becomes operational, the effectiveness of all other policies to reduce CO2 emissions of the participating sectors becomes zero. The report explores the specific implications of this general finding for the coexistence of the EU ETS and the selected policy instruments in the Netherlands. It concludes that this coexistence will have a significant impact on the performance of both the EU ETS and the selected instruments in the Netherlands

  15. VOCs and OVOCs distribution and control policy implications in Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Peter K. K.; Ho, Josephine W. K.; Tsang, Roy C. W.; Blake, Donald R.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Yu, Jian Zhen; Yuan, Zibing; Wang, Xinming; Shao, Min; Zhong, Liuju

    2013-09-01

    Ambient air measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were conducted and characterised during a two-year grid study in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region of southern China. The present grid study pioneered the systematic investigation of the nature and characteristics of complex VOC and OVOC sources at a regional scale. The largest contributing VOCs, accounting over 80% of the total VOCs mixing ratio, were toluene, ethane, ethyne, propane, ethene, butane, benzene, pentane, ethylbenzene, and xylenes. Sub-regional VOC spatial characteristics were identified, namely: i) relatively fresh pollutants, consistent with elevated vehicular and industrial activities, around the PRD estuary; and ii) a concentration gradient with higher mixing ratios of VOCs in the west as compared with the eastern part of PRD. Based on alkyl nitrate aging determination, a high hydroxyl radical (OH) concentration favoured fast hydrocarbon reactions and formation of locally produced ozone. The photochemical reactivity analysis showed aromatic hydrocarbons and alkenes together consisted of around 80% of the ozone formation potential (OFP) among the key VOCs. We also found that the OFP from OVOCs should not be neglected since their OFP contribution was more than one-third of that from VOCs alone. These findings support the choice of current air pollution control policy which focuses on vehicular sources but warrants further controls. Industrial emissions and VOCs emitted by solvents should be the next targets for ground-level ozone abatement.

  16. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  17. THE IMPLICATIONS OF MARKETING ACTIVITY IN RISK ANALYSIS, CORE ELEMENT OF LENDING POLICY TO COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Florin-Mihai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present financial context first affected by the lack of trust generated by the important bankruptcies in the USA and secondly by the global economic crisis, financial institutions are more than ever focused on applying market research, customer segmentation procedures and based upon them adapted credit strategies. The process is based on the fundaments of the marketing mix, much more carefully than before in order to maximize efficiency and market position or to consolidate, increase market share by taking advantage of opportunities or diminishing the effects of the present unfavorable economic climate. Analysis procedures based on differential risk models can be identified, the starting point being precisely the involvement of marketing by the market segmentation process and the concepts of “customer centricity” and “client relationship management”, specific credit policies being based upon them. The present paper intends to bring forth the client segmentation criteria practiced by top Romanian commercial banks, as the right segmentation process will reflect on the typology of financing over time. Furthermore, client segmentation tends to influence banking management in order to administer the risks arising from the credit activities, as it is in strict connection to the elements and processes involved in determining a correct rating of the applicants for funding.

  18. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Zacharias, Christos; Kokkodis, Marios; Lappas, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices) in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification) and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  19. Economic impact and policy implications from urban shared transportation: The case of Pittsburgh's shared bike system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Pelechrinis

    Full Text Available During the last years the number of cities that have installed and started operating shared bike systems has significantly increased. These systems provide an alternative and sustainable mean of transportation to the city dwellers. Apart from the energy sustainability benefits, shared bike systems can have a positive effect on residents' health, air quality and the overall condition of the currently crumbling road network infrastructure. Anecdotal stories and survey studies have also identified that bike lanes have a positive impact on local businesses. In this study, driven by the rapid adoption of shared bike systems by city governments and their potential positive effects on a number of urban life facets we opt to study and quantify the value of these systems. We focus on a specific aspect of this value and use evidence from the real estate market in the city of Pittsburgh to analyze the effect on dwellers' properties of the shared bike system installed in the city in June 2015. We use quasi-experimental techniques and find that the shared bike system led to an increase in the housing prices (both sales and rental prices in the zip codes where shared bike stations were installed. We further bring into the light potential negative consequences of this impact (i.e., gentrification and discuss/propose two public policies that can exploit the impact of the system for the benefit of both the local government as well as the city dwellers.

  20. Chinese investment in the EU renewable energy sector: Motives, synergies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, Louise; Lv, Ping; Spigarelli, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses three questions: how have trade and investment in wind and solar sectors evolved between the EU and China in recent years? Is there a link between rising trade conflicts and trade and investment trends? And what wider motivations and synergies can be identified in Chinese investments in the EU's RE sector? To address these questions we analyze trade and investment data, as well as qualitative data, including information from media and company reports. Large increases in trade and investment were followed by rapid falls since 2012–13. Trade tensions have not led to increases in investment, rather the inverse. We find that Chinese investment in these two sectors is very concentrated in Germany. The key motivation for investment is market seeking, although R+D is also important, especially for wind. Most investments are greenfield, a preference that has persisted over time. Our qualitative analysis of several key acquisitions indicates that technology integration and the consolidation of capacities across the supply chain were key motivations in most of the cases studied. We conclude with some policy orientations. - Highlights: • Chinese investments in solar and wind in Europe are concentrated in Germany. • Large increases in trade and investment were followed by rapid falls since 2012–13. • These falls seem to be related to market difficulties. • Key investment entry mode is greenfield and motivation is market seeking. • In acquisitions, technology seeking plays a key role.

  1. The evaluation policy in the State of Rio de Janeiro: implications for school management and curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Meirelles Cerqueira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting and discussing the evaluation system in the State of Rio de Janeiro from the 1990s on. The presentation was organized through the theoretical background based on Brooke; Soares (2008; Coelho (2008; Sordi; Ludke (2009; Bonamino; and Sousa (2012, along with the official documents which regulate the evaluation system; the discussion was build up from the discourse of a manager and a teacher both working in the schools under observation. The data collection was carried out through observation, semi-structured interviews and document analysis. The documents analyzed were “SAERJ” and “Saerjinho”, the Minimum Curriculum, the online System called „Conexão‟ and the “IDERJ” from which it was possible to identify a policy which is strongly marked for charging teachers and principals with the results reached. The results revealed that in both schools there is some training for the external evaluations of Portuguese and Mathematics. It was concluded that meeting the particular demands of each school might be made more difficult due to the attention that has to be focused on the fulfilment of general requirements imposed by the school external evaluation system.

  2. Drink driving and risky behavior among university students in southwestern Nigeria-Implications for policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, O; Babalola, O R; Olakulehin, O A; Ighoroje, M

    2016-05-18

    Drink driving contributes significantly to road traffic injuries. Little is known about the relationship between drink driving and other high-risk behaviors in non-Western countries. The study aimed to assess the relationship between drink driving and other risky behaviors including making phone calls, sending text messages, nonuse of protective gear, and driving against traffic. A cross-sectional survey of risky behavior among undergraduates was conducted. A stratified random sampling method was used to identify young undergraduates who had driven a motorized vehicle in the past year. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) and other tools developed by researchers were used to identify the risky behaviors. Of 431 respondents, 10.7% had engaged in drink driving in the past 12 months. The most common risky behavior was making phone calls (63.7%), followed by nonuse of helmets (54.7%), driving against traffic (49.2%), nonuse of seat belts (46.8%), and sending text messages (26.1%). Alcohol use was significantly associated with making phone calls (U = 1.148; P < .0001), sending text messages (U = 1.598; P = .021), nonuse of helmets (U = 1.147; P < .0001), driving against traffic (U = 1.234; P < .0001), and nonuse of seat belts (U = 3.233; P = .001). Drink driving was associated with all risky behaviors except nonuse of seat belts (U = 1.842; P = .065). Alcohol use and drink driving were associated with multiple risky driving behaviors. This provides useful insight for policy development and presents additional challenges for traffic injury prevention.

  3. Sustainable diet policy development: implications of multi-criteria and other approaches, 2008-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Tim; Mason, Pamela

    2017-12-04

    The objective of the present paper is to draw lessons from policy development on sustainable diets. It considers the emergence of sustainable diets as a policy issue and reviews the environmental challenge to nutrition science as to what a 'good' diet is for contemporary policy. It explores the variations in how sustainable diets have been approached by policy-makers. The paper considers how international United Nations and European Union (EU) policy engagement now centres on the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Change Accord, which require changes across food systems. The paper outlines national sustainable diet policy in various countries: Australia, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Qatar, Sweden, UK and USA. While no overarching common framework for sustainable diets has appeared, a policy typology of lessons for sustainable diets is proposed, differentiating (a) orientation and focus, (b) engagement styles and (c) modes of leadership. The paper considers the particularly tortuous rise and fall of UK governmental interest in sustainable diet advice. Initial engagement in the 2000s turned to disengagement in the 2010s, yet some advice has emerged. The 2016 referendum to leave the EU has created a new period of policy uncertainty for the UK food system. This might marginalise attempts to generate sustainable diet advice, but could also be an opportunity for sustainable diets to be a goal for a sustainable UK food system. The role of nutritionists and other food science professions will be significant in this period of policy flux.

  4. Use and effectiveness of behavioural economics in interventions for lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases: a systematic review with policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, Oana M; Vasilescu, Livia; Chereches, Razvan M

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective. We included 117 studies in the review; 67 studies had a low risk of bias and were classified as strong or very strong, 37 were moderate, and 13 were weak. We grouped studies by NCDs risk factors and conducted a narrative synthesis. The most frequent behavioural economics precepts used were incentives, framing, and choice architecture. We found inconclusive evidence regarding the success of behavioural economics strategies to reduce alcohol consumption, but we identified several strategies with policy-level implications which could be used to reduce smoking, improve nutrition, and increase physical activity. Most studies targeting tobacco consumption, physical activity levels, and eating behaviours from a behavioural economics perspective had promising results with potential impact on NCDs health policies. We recommend future studies to be implemented in real-life settings and on large samples from diverse populations.

  5. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  6. Infant mortality in South Africa - distribution, associations and policy implications, 2007: an ecological spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartorius Benn KD

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many sub-Saharan countries are confronted with persistently high levels of infant mortality because of the impact of a range of biological and social determinants. In particular, infant mortality has increased in sub-Saharan Africa in recent decades due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The geographic distribution of health problems and their relationship to potential risk factors can be invaluable for cost effective intervention planning. The objective of this paper is to determine and map the spatial nature of infant mortality in South Africa at a sub district level in order to inform policy intervention. In particular, the paper identifies and maps high risk clusters of infant mortality, as well as examines the impact of a range of determinants on infant mortality. A Bayesian approach is used to quantify the spatial risk of infant mortality, as well as significant associations (given spatial correlation between neighbouring areas between infant mortality and a range of determinants. The most attributable determinants in each sub-district are calculated based on a combination of prevalence and model risk factor coefficient estimates. This integrated small area approach can be adapted and applied in other high burden settings to assist intervention planning and targeting. Results Infant mortality remains high in South Africa with seemingly little reduction since previous estimates in the early 2000's. Results showed marked geographical differences in infant mortality risk between provinces as well as within provinces as well as significantly higher risk in specific sub-districts and provinces. A number of determinants were found to have a significant adverse influence on infant mortality at the sub-district level. Following multivariable adjustment increasing maternal mortality, antenatal HIV prevalence, previous sibling mortality and male infant gender remained significantly associated with increased infant mortality risk. Of these

  7. Instruments to increase climate policy ambition before 2020. Economic and political implications in selected industry and emerging countries. Pre2020 climate policy ambition. Draft version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Nadine; Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; Day, Thomas [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Healy, Sean; Schumacher, Katja [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Duscha, Vicki [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-06-06

    The objective of this research paper is to analyse the current efforts of country activities towards the 2020 2 C target, in order to identify best practices and their possible impact on emission reduction in 2020. A first scan of policies in countries with high greenhouse gas emissions and countries with remarkably ambitious climate change mitigation strategies (see Table 1) revealed that thematic areas with notable coverage in domestic climate policy are: general strategies and targets, renewable energy support schemes for electricity, product standards and codes for energy efficiency in buildings, and direct subsidies and fuel quotas for renewables in Transport. From this, along with initial indications of mitigation potential, we identified four areas where ambition could be significantly enhanced by 2020.

  8. Anesthetic Implications of Ebola Patient Management: A Review of the Literature and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missair, Andres; Marino, Michael J; Vu, Catherine N; Gutierrez, Juan; Missair, Alfredo; Osman, Brian; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2015-09-01

    met search criteria for information related to inpatient Ebola virus disease management or animal virology studies as primary or secondary sources. In addition, 9 articles met search criteria as tertiary sources, representing published guidelines. The recommendations developed in this article are based on these 29 source documents. Anesthesia-specific literature regarding the care of Ebola patients is very limited. Secondary-source guidelines and policies represent the majority of available information. Data from controlled animal experiments and tuberculosis patient research provide some evidence for the existing recommendations and identify future guideline considerations.

  9. Implications of China's Open-Door Policy for Families: A Family Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Andrew S.; Anderson, Elaine A.

    2008-01-01

    China's open-door policy (ODP) was created in 1978 as a response to the severe economic depression affecting the country after the Cultural Revolution. The policy was designed to restore China's financial status and lift the nation out of destitution. By all accounts, the ODP has been successful in improving the country's monetary condition.…

  10. Technologies, Democracy and Digital Citizenship: Examining Australian Policy Intersections and the Implications for School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    There are intersections that can occur between the respective peak Australian school education policy agendas. These policies include the use of technologies in classrooms to improve teaching and learning as promoted through the "Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for Young Australians" and the "Australian Curriculum";…

  11. Innovation Happens in Systems: Implications for Science, Technology and Innovation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the regional systems of innovation in Canada, and looks at the ways that policy instruments play a role in the process. Recommendations are made to encourage the development of policies that foster the development of innovation clusters in Canada.

  12. Perceptions and Implications of No-Fee School Policy: School-Based Management Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naong, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The inception of no-fee schools and a school-fee exemption policy has become a contentious issue but also an exciting one for school managers in South Africa. Managers opposed to the policy have cited amongst others things, academic standards dropping, as well as parents who can afford to pay jumping on the bandwagon and refusing to pay. While the…

  13. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a

  14. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Seung Soo

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to identify high-risk groups for industrial accidents by setting up 2003 as the base year and conducting an in-depth analysis of the trends of major industrial accident indexes the index of industrial accident rate, the index of occupational injury rate, the index of occupational illness and disease rate per 10,000 people, and the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people for the past 10 years. This study selected industrial accident victims, who died or received more than 4 days of medical care benefits, due to occupational accidents and diseases occurring at workplaces, subject to the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, as the study population. According to the trends of four major indexes by workplace characteristics, the whole industry has shown a decreasing tendency in all four major indexes since the base year (2003); as of 2012, the index of industrial accident rate was 67, while the index of occupational injury fatality rate per 10,000 people was 59. The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  15. On the Implications of Knowledge Bases for Regional Innovation Policies in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassink Robert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional innovation policies have been criticised for being too standardised, one-size-fits-all and place-neutral in character. Embedded in these debates, this paper has two aims: first, to analyse whether industries with different knowledge bases in regions in Germany have different needs for regional innovation policies, and secondly, to investigate whether knowledge bases can contribute to the fine-tuning of regional innovation policies in particular and to a modern, tailor-made, place-based regional innovation policy in general. It concludes that although needs differ due to differences in knowledge bases, those bases are useful only to a limited extent in fine-tuning regional innovation policies

  16. Impact, regulation and health policy implications of physician migration in OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoens Steven

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the face of rising demand for medical services due to ageing populations, physician migration flows are increasingly affecting the supply of physicians in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development (OECD countries. This paper offers an integrated perspective on the impact of physician migration on home and host countries and discusses international regulation and policy approaches governing physician migration. Methods Information about migration flows, international regulation and policies governing physician migration were derived from two questionnaires sent to OECD countries, a secondary analysis of EUROSTAT Labour Force Surveys, a literature review and official policy documents of OECD countries. Results OECD countries increasingly perceive immigration of foreign physicians as a way of sustaining their physician workforce. As a result, countries have entered into international agreements regulating physician migration, although their success has been limited due to the imposition of licensing requirements and the protection of vested interests by domestic physicians. OECD countries have therefore adopted specific policies designed to stimulate the immigration of foreign physicians, whilst minimising its negative impact on the home country. Measures promoting immigration have included international recruitment campaigns, less strict immigration requirements and arrangements that foster shared learning between health care systems. Policies restricting the societal costs of physician emigration from developing countries such as good practice guidelines and taxes on host countries have not yet produced their expected effect or in some cases have not been established at all. Conclusions Although OECD countries generally favour long-term policies of national self-sufficiency to sustain their physician workforce, such policies usually co-exist with short-term or medium-term policies to attract foreign physicians

  17. Injecting drug use in prison: prevalence and implications for needle exchange policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nat M J; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Farragher, Tracey M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore prison drug injecting prevalence, identify any changes in injecting prevalence and practice during imprisonment and explore views on prison needle exchange. An empirical prospective cohort survey conducted between 2006 and 2008. The study involved a random sample of 267 remand and sentenced prisoners from a large male category B prison in England where no prison needle exchange operates. Questionnaires were administered with prisoners on reception and, where possible, at one, three and six months during their sentence. In total, 64 per cent were injecting until admission into prison. The majority intended to stop injecting in prison (93 per cent), almost a quarter due to the lack of needle exchange (23 per cent). Yet when hypothetically asked if they would continue injecting in prison if needle exchange was freely available, a third of participants (33 per cent) believed that they would. Injecting cessation happened on prison entry and appeared to be maintained during the sentence. Not providing sterile needles may increase risks associated with injecting for prisoners who continue to inject. However, providing such equipment may prolong injecting for other prisoners who currently cease injecting on account of needle exchange programmes (NEPs) not being provided in the UK prison setting. Practical implications - Not providing sterile needles may increase risks associated with injecting for prisoners who continue to inject. However, providing such equipment may prolong injecting for other prisoners who currently cease injecting on account of NEPs not being provided in the UK prison setting. This survey is the first to question specifically regarding the timing of injecting cessation amongst male prisoners and explore alongside intention to inject should needle exchange facilities be provided in prison.

  18. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  19. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  20. Sectoral roles in greenhouse gas emissions and policy implications for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jianping; Lei, Yalin; Xu, Qun; Wang, Xibo

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a decomposition and emissions matrix is developed to identify the roles (giver or taker) played by the sectors in the greenhouse gas emissions for the economy of Beijing in China. Our results indicate that services were the most important emitter if we consider the total (direct and indirect) emissions. In addition to Construction, Scientific studies and technical services and Finance sectors of services were the largest takers. They have a large role in boosting greenhouse gas emissions throughout the economy of Beijing. As the basis and supporter of production activities, the electricity production and the transportation sectors were the greatest givers. More emphasis should be placed on using clean energy and carbon capture and storage technologies to reduce emissions within these sectors. Based on the roles played by these sectors in greenhouse gas emissions, some policy implications were proposed for energy utilization and carbon emissions trading.

  1. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  2. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study of around 200,000 dwellings comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets. - Highlights: ► Actual gas consumption in Dutch dwellings is lower than the theoretical. ► In the dwellings with label A–B, theoretical gas consumption is lower than actual gas consumption. ► In less efficient dwellings, theoretical gas consumption is much higher than the actual. ► Most current energy reduction targets are unachievable if modelled with actual instead of theoretical energy consumption

  3. Modeling Nutrient Release in the Tai Lake Basin of China: Source Identification and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beibei; Liu, Heng; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Because nutrient enrichment has become increasingly severe in the Tai Lake Basin of China, identifying sources and loads is crucial for watershed nutrient management. This paper develops an empirical framework to estimate nutrient release from five major sectors, which requires fewer input parameters and produces acceptable accuracy. Sectors included are industrial manufacturing, livestock breeding (industrial and family scale), crop agriculture, household consumption (urban and rural), and atmospheric deposition. Results show that in the basin (only the five sectors above), total nutrient loads of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) into aquatic systems in 2008 were 33043.2 tons N a-1 and 5254.4 tons P a-1, and annual area-specific nutrient loads were 1.94 tons N km-2 and 0.31 tons P km-2. Household consumption was the major sector having the greatest impact (46 % in N load, 47 % in P load), whereas atmospheric deposition (18 %) and crop agriculture (15 %) sectors represented other significant proportions of N load. The load estimates also indicate that 32 % of total P came from the livestock breeding sector, making it the second largest phosphorus contributor. According to the nutrient pollution sectors, six best management practices are selected for cost-effectiveness analysis, and feasible options are recommended. Overall, biogas digester construction on industrial-scale farms is proven the most cost-effective, whereas the building of rural decentralized facilities is the best alternative under extreme financial constraint. However, the reduction potential, average monetary cost, and other factors such as risk tolerance of policy makers should all be considered in the actual decision-making process.

  4. A comparative institutional analysis of the Fukushima nuclear disaster: Lessons and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Rothwell, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the causes, responses, and consequences of the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident (March 2011) by comparing these with Three Mile Island (March 1979) and Chernobyl (April 1986). We identify three generic modes of organizational coordination: modular, vertical, and horizontal. By relying on comparative institutional analysis, we compare the modes' performance characteristics in terms of short-term and long-term coordination, preparedness for shocks, and responsiveness to shocks. We derive general lessons, including the identification of three shortcomings of integrated Japanese electric utilities: (1) decision instability that can lead to system failure after a large shock, (2) poor incentives to innovate, and (3) the lack of defense-in-depth strategies for accidents. Our suggested policy response is to introduce an independent Nuclear Safety Commission, and an Independent System Operator to coordinate buyers and sellers on publicly owned transmission grids. Without an independent safety regulator, or a very well established “safety culture,” profit-maximizing behavior by an entrenched electricity monopoly will not necessarily lead to a social optimum with regard to nuclear power plant safety. All countries considering continued operation or expansion of their nuclear power industries must strive to establish independent, competent, and respected safety regulators, or prepare for nuclear power plant accidents. - Highlights: ► We review damage to Fukushima Dai-Ichi on March 11, 2011, from the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami. ► We find that delays in coordinated action led to a cascading series of accidents at Fukushima. ► We suggest unbundling of the publicly purchased Tokyo Electric Power to pay for accident damages. ► We suggest the creation of a Japanese Independent System Operator to manage unbundled transmission assets. ► We propose establishing an open-interface, rule-based independent nuclear regulator in Japan.

  5. Life expectancy impacts due to heating energy utilization in China: Distribution, relations, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli

    2018-01-01

    The relation between life expectancy and energy utilization is of particular concern. Different viewpoints concerned the health impacts of heating policy in China. However, it is still obscure that what kind of heating energy or what pattern of heating methods is the most related with the difference of life expectancies in China. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively investigate the spatial relations between life expectancy at birth (LEB) and different heating energy utilization in China by using spatial autocorrelation models including global spatial autocorrelation, local spatial autocorrelation and hot spot analysis. The results showed that: (1) Most of heating energy exhibit a distinct north-south difference, such as central heating supply, stalks and domestic coal. Whereas spatial distribution of domestic natural gas and electricity exhibited west-east differences. (2) Consumption of central heating, stalks and domestic coal show obvious spatial dependence. Whereas firewood, natural gas and electricity did not show significant spatial autocorrelation. It exhibited an extinct south-north difference of heat supply, stalks and domestic coal which were identified to show significant positive spatial autocorrelation. (3) Central heating, residential boilers and natural gas did not show any significant correlations with LEB. While, the utilization of domestic coal and biomass showed significant negative correlations with LEB, and household electricity shows positive correlations. The utilization of domestic coal in China showed a negative effect on LEB, rather than central heating. To improve the solid fuel stoves and control consumption of domestic coal consumption and other low quality solid fuel is imperative to improve the public health level in China in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Shifting policy priorities in EU-China energy relations: Implications for Chinese energy investments in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gippner, Olivia; Torney, Diarmuid

    2017-01-01

    Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU (European Union) have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy – and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability, efficiency, affordability and environmental stewardship. Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in 2015–2016, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability, China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship. This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK. - Highlights: • Compares dominant frames of energy policy in China and the European Union in the period 2005–2015. • Shows that there has been a convergence of policy frames between China and the EU. • Convergence on environmental stewardship is necessary but not sufficient for FDI in clean energy.

  7. Welfare implications of the renewable fuel standard with an integrated tax-subsidy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolrud, Tristan D.; Galinato, Gregmar I.

    2017-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal integrated tax-subsidy policy where one input is taxed and revenues are used to subsidize the use of a substitute input to reduce greenhouse gas emissions given the existing policies under the Renewable Fuel Standard policies. We measure the welfare effects and impact on cellulosic ethanol production after implementing the tax-subsidy policy using a general equilibrium model. A revenue-neutral integrated tax-subsidy scheme leads to a small positive tax rate for crude oil and a large positive subsidy for cellulosic ethanol because the former has a larger emissions coefficient than the latter. The overall welfare effects of an integrated tax subsidy scheme are less than a 1% increase for the economy but the growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry could range from 28% to 238% because the revenues from taxing crude oil are directly used to subsidize cellulosic ethanol production. - Highlights: • We derive an integrated tax-subsidy interacting with the Renewable Fuel Standard. • The policy is revenue-neutral. • Policy results in a small crude oil tax and a large cellulosic ethanol subsidy. • Simulations indicate a welfare-increasing optimal policy. • Growth in the cellulosic ethanol industry ranges from 28% to 238%.

  8. Mental health services for black and minority ethnic elders in the United Kingdom: a systematic review of innovative practice with service provision and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Benbow, Susan Mary

    2013-03-01

    The proportion of older people from black and minority ethnic (BME) groups in the United Kingdom (UK) is increasing steadily as the population ages. The numbers with dementia, depression, and other mental health problems are predicted to increase. Government policy documents have highlighted gaps in services for BME elders and/or the need to develop culturally appropriate services, in order to prevent people from BME communities from becoming socially excluded and finding services hard to access. This paper reviews published examples of innovative services and key learning points from them. A search was carried out on Pubmed, Medline, and Google Scholar for service developments aimed at BME elders in the UK. Sixteen relevant papers and reports were identified and were analysed to identify learning points and implications for clinical practice and policy. Commissioning issues included were forward planning for continuing funding and mainstreaming versus specialist services. Provider management issues included were employing staff from the communities of interest, partnership, and removing language barriers. Provider service issues included were education for service provider staff on the needs of BME elders, making available information in relevant languages, building on carers' and users' experiences, and addressing the needs of both groups. A model for structuring understanding of the underutilisation of services by BME elders is suggested. The main emphasis in future should be to ensure that learning is shared, disseminated, and applied to the benefit of all communities across the whole of the UK and elsewhere. Person-centred care is beneficial to all service users.

  9. Least cost, utility scale abatement from Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). Part 2: Scenarios and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, M.J.; Jeppesen, M.; Chattopadhyay, D.; Manzie, C.; Alpcan, T.; Dargaville, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the second of a two part study that considers least cost, greenhouse gas abatement pathways for an electricity system. Part 1 of this study formulated a model for determining these abatement pathways, and applied this model to Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market) for a single reference scenario. Part 2 of this study applies this model to different scenarios and considers the policy implications. These include cases where nuclear power generation and CCS (carbon capture and storage) are implemented in Australia, which is presently not the case, as well as a more detailed examination of how an extended, RPS (renewable portfolio standard) might perform. The effect of future fuel costs and different discount rates are also examined. Several results from this study are thought to be significant. Most importantly, this study suggests that Australia already has utility scale technologies, renewable and non-renewable resources, an electricity market design and an abatement policy that permit continued progress towards deep greenhouse gas abatement in its electricity sector. In particular, a RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears to be close to optimal as a greenhouse gas abatement policy for Australia's electricity sector for at least the next 10–15 years. - Highlights: • Considers scenarios and policy implications for Australia's NEM (National Electricity Market). • An extended form of RPS (renewable portfolio standard) appears near optimal until roughly 2030. • For up to 80% abatement, the inclusion of nuclear achieves only marginal benefit by 2050. • CCS (Carbon capture and storage) does not appear competitive with current cost estimates.

  10. Identifying policy target groups with qualitative and quantitative methods: the case of wildfire risk on nonindustrial private forest lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Designing policies to harness the potential of heterogeneous target groups such as nonindustrial private forest owners to contribute to public policy goals can be challenging. The behaviors of such groups are shaped by their diverse motivations and circumstances. Segmenting heterogeneous target groups into more homogeneous subgroups may improve the chances of...

  11. Public policy and medical tourism: ethical implications for the Egyptian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Egypt's medical tourism industry has been experiencing tremendous growth. However, Egypt continues to lack the necessary investment in its public health system to effectively care for its population. Current policy and the emergence of medical tourism have led to unequal health care access, resulting in high a prevalence of infectious diseases and lack of resources for its most vulnerable populations. As a new Egyptian government emerges, it is important for policymakers to understand the critical issues and ethical concerns of existing health policy. This understanding may be used to propose new policy that more effectively allocates to care for Egypt's population.

  12. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  13. Identifying structural barriers to an effective HIV response: using the National Composite Policy Index data to evaluate the human rights, legal and policy environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Ferguson, Laura; Alfven, Tobias; Rugg, Deborah; Peersman, Greet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Attention to the negative effects of structural barriers on HIV efforts is increasing. Reviewing national legal and policy environments with attention to the international human rights commitments of states is a means of assessing and providing focus for addressing these barriers to effective HIV responses. Methods Law and policy data from the 171 countries reporting under the Declaration of Commitment from the 2001 United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS were analyzed to assess attention to human rights in national legal and policy environments as relevant to the health and rights of key populations such as people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men and sex workers. Results Seventy-eight governments and civil society in 106 countries report the existence of laws and policies which present obstacles to accessing HIV services for key populations. Laws and policies which positively affect access to HIV-related services, in and of themselves constituting structural interventions, were also reported. The dissonance between laws and how this impacts the availability and use of HIV-related services deserve greater attention. Conclusions Recognition of the harms inherent in laws that constitute structural barriers to effective HIV responses and the potential positive role that a supportive legal environment can play suggests the need for legal reform to ensure an enabling regulatory framework within which HIV services can be effectively delivered and used by the populations who need them. Moving beyond laws and policies, further efforts are required to determine how to capture information on the range of structural barriers. Teasing apart the impact of different barriers, as well as the structural interventions put in place to address them, remains complicated. Capturing the impact of policy and legal interventions can ultimately support governments and civil society to ensure the human rights of key populations are protected in

  14. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  15. Iran's Nuclear Strategy Options and U.S. Foreign Policy Implications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jimmy D

    2005-01-01

    .... strategic interests. Iran's movement toward a nuclear weapon option creates complex issues for American national security policy makers and highlights the international community's inability to police rogue states effectively...

  16. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  17. Childhood obesity policy: implications for African American girls and a nursing ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In the United States there is a prevalence of obesity among ethnic groups, especially African American girls. The author in this column examines through an ecological lens selected American federal, state, and city policies and program interventions aimed at reducing obesity. Specifically, the eating behavior of African American girls is discussed as a population subset for which significant gaps are present in current obesity policy and implementation. Policy recommendations should include parents as research has shown a significant relationship in the eating behaviors of African American girls and their parents. Opportunities for nurses in practice and research to test the effectiveness of family and community level policy and program initiatives that address the ecological perspectives of the adolescent environment are discussed.

  18. Prevention of mental and behavioral disorders : implications for policy and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saxena, S.; Llopis, E.J.; Hosman, C.M.H.

    2006-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence indicating the efficacy of interventions in reducing risk factors, increasing protective factors, preventing psychiatric symptoms and new cases of mental disorders. Macro-policy interventions to improve nutrition, housing and education or to reduce economic insecurity

  19. Social class and policy preferences: implications for economic inequality and interclass relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Heather E

    2017-12-01

    Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality. Reducing stereotypes and developing a shared sense of societal responsibility that cuts across class lines can help advance these goals. Social psychological research is vital to informing these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CONNECTIVITY OF ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR SCIENCE AND POLICY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental and public health policy continues to evolve in response to new and complex social, economic and environmental drivers. Globalization of commerce, evolving patterns of land use, and technological advances in such areas as manufacturing and genetically modified food...

  2. Paradigmatic obstacles to improving the health of populations: implications for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinlay John B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are promising developments in public health, most interventions (both at the individual and community levels remain focused on "downstream" tertiary treatments or one-on-one interventions. These efforts have their origins in the biomedical paradigm and risk factor epidemiology and the behavioral science research methods that serve as their handmaidens. This paper argues for a more appropriate balance of "downstream" efforts with a more appropriate whole population public health approach to health policy -what may be termed a social policy approach to healthy lifestyles rather than the current lifestyle approach to health policy. New, more appropriate research methods must be developed and applied to match these emerging levels of whole population intervention. We must avoid any disjunction between new upstream policy level interventions and the methods used to measure their effect -appropriate unto the intervention level must be the evaluation method thereof.

  3. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Andrews, Anthony; Holt, Mark

    2008-01-01

    .... In the United States, interest appears driven, in part, by provisions in the 2005 Energy Policy Act authorizing streamlined licensing that combine construction and operating permits, and tax credits...

  4. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nikitin, Mary B; Parillo, Jill M; Squassoni, Sharon; Andrews, Anthony; Holt, Mark

    2007-01-01

    .... In the United States, interest appears driven, in part, by provisions in the 2005 Energy Policy Act authorizing streamlined licensing that combine construction and operating permits, and tax credits...

  5. Public policy and regulatory implications for the implementation of Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services for Enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning; Henten, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS) is a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services for enterprises. This paper discusses how public policy and regulations will impact on OCCS implementation. We rely on documented publicly available government...... and corporate policies on the adoption of cloud computing services and deduce the impact of these policies on their adoption of opportunistic cloud computing services. We conclude that there are regulatory challenges on data protection that raises issues for cloud computing adoption in general; and the lack...... of a single globally accepted data protection standard poses some challenges for very successful implementation of OCCS for companies. However, the direction of current public and corporate policies on cloud computing make a good case for them to try out opportunistic cloud computing services....

  6. Psychosocial stress and cardiovascular disease. Part 3: Clinical and policy implications of research on the transcendental meditation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kenneth G; Schneider, Robert H; Salerno, John W; Nidich, Sanford I

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States today and a major contributor to total health care costs. Psychosocial stress has been implicated in CVD, and psychosocial approaches to primary and secondary prevention are gaining research support. This third article in the series on psychosocial stress and CVD continues the evaluation of one such approach, the Maharishi Transcendental Meditation program, a psychophysiological approach from the Vedic tradition that is systematically taught by qualified teachers throughout the world. Evidence suggests not only that this program can provide benefits in prevention but also that it may reduce CVD-related and other health care expenses. On the basis of data from the studies available to date, the Transcendental Meditation program may be responsible for reductions of 80% or greater in medical insurance claims and payments to physicians. This article evaluates the implications of research on the Transcendental Meditation program for health care policy and for large-scale clinical implementation of the program. The Transcendental Meditation program can be used by individuals of any ethnic or cultural background, and compliance with the practice regimen is generally high. The main steps necessary for wider adoption appear to be: (1) educating health care providers and patients about the nature and expected benefits of the program, and (2) adjustments in public policies at the state and national levels to allow this program to be included in private and public health insurance plans.

  7. Global Health Systems and Policy Development: Implications for Health Literacy Research, Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Dodson, Sarity; Leung, Angela; Levin-Zamir, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and responsive health systems are critical to population health and human development. While progress has been made toward global health and development targets, significant inequities remain within and between countries. Expanding health inequities suggest a widespread and systemic neglect of vulnerable citizens, and a failure to enshrine within policies a responsibility to tailor care to the variable capabilities of citizens. Implementation of health and social policies that drive the design of accessible health systems, services, products and infrastructure represents the next frontier for health reform. Within this chapter we argue the need to consider health and health literacy across policy domains, to operationalize the intent to address inequities in health in meaningful and pragmatic ways, and to actively monitor progress and impact within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We contend that viewing and developing policies and systems within a health literacy framework will assist in placing citizens and equity considerations at the center of development efforts. In this chapter, we explore the relationship between health literacy and equitable access to health care, and the role of health system and policy reform. We first explore international policies, health literacy, and the SDGs. We then explore national policies and the role that national and local services and systems play in building health literacy, and responding to the health literacy challenges of citizens. We discuss the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework for Integrated People-Centered Health Services and the way in which health services are being encouraged to understand and respond to citizen health literacy needs. Each section of the chapter ends with a summary and a review of health literacy research and practice. Throughout, we illustrate our points through 'vignettes' from around the world.

  8. Role of healthcare workers in early epidemic spread of Ebola: policy implications of prophylactic compared to reactive vaccination policy in outbreak prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltart, Cordelia E M; Johnson, Anne M; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-10-19

    Ebola causes severe illness in humans and has epidemic potential. How to deploy vaccines most effectively is a central policy question since different strategies have implications for ideal vaccine profile. More than one vaccine may be needed. A vaccine optimised for prophylactic vaccination in high-risk areas but when the virus is not actively circulating should be safe, well tolerated, and provide long-lasting protection; a two- or three-dose strategy would be realistic. Conversely, a reactive vaccine deployed in an outbreak context for ring-vaccination strategies should have rapid onset of protection with one dose, but longevity of protection is less important. In initial cases, before an outbreak is recognised, healthcare workers (HCWs) are at particular risk of acquiring and transmitting infection, thus potentially augmenting early epidemics. We hypothesise that many early outbreak cases could be averted, or epidemics aborted, by prophylactic vaccination of HCWs. This paper explores the potential impact of prophylactic versus reactive vaccination strategies of HCWs in preventing early epidemic transmissions. To do this, we use the limited data available from Ebola epidemics (current and historic) to reconstruct transmission trees and illustrate the theoretical impact of these vaccination strategies. Our data suggest a substantial potential benefit of prophylactic versus reactive vaccination of HCWs in preventing early transmissions. We estimate that prophylactic vaccination with a coverage >99% and theoretical 100% efficacy could avert nearly two-thirds of cases studied; 75% coverage would still confer clear benefit (40% cases averted), but reactive vaccination would be of less value in the early epidemic. A prophylactic vaccination campaign for front-line HCWs is not a trivial undertaking; whether to prioritise long-lasting vaccines and provide prophylaxis to HCWs is a live policy question. Prophylactic vaccination is likely to have a greater impact on the

  9. Clinical implications of nonspecific pulmonary nodules identified during the initial evaluation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Minsu [Eulji University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eulji Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Yoon Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Choong Wook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to identify the clinical implications of nonspecific pulmonary nodules (NPNs) detected in the initial staging workup for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Medical records of patients who had been diagnosed and treated in our hospital were retrospectively analysed. After definite treatment, changes of NPNs detected on initial evaluation were monitored via serial chest computed tomography. The associations between NPNs and the clinicopathological characteristics of primary HNSCC were evaluated. Survival analyses were performed according to the presence of NPNs. The study consisted of 158 (49.4%) patients without NPNs and 162 (50.6%) patients with NPNs. The cumulative incidence of probabilities of pulmonary malignancy (PM) development at 2 years after treatment were 9.0% and 6.2% in NPN-negative and NPN-positive patients, respectively. Overall and PM-free survival rates were not significantly different according to NPN status. Cervical lymph node (LN) involvement and a platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) ≥126 increased the risk of PMs (both P <0.05). NPNs detected in the initial evaluation of patients with HNSCC did not predict the risk of pulmonary malignancies. Cervical LN involvement and PLR ≥126 may be independent prognostic factors affecting PM-free survival regardless of NPN status. (orig.)

  10. Nurses' work environment and intent to leave in Lebanese hospitals: implications for policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Alameddine, Mohamad; Dumit, Nuhad; Dimassi, Hani; Jamal, Diana; Maalouf, Salwa

    2011-02-01

    development were key work environment challenges contributing to the attrition on nurses from Lebanese hospitals. Although some of the issues identified are country specific, others would certainly be relevant to other countries in the EMR. Addressing these challenges would require a strong and coordinated action from governments, professional bodies, policy makers and health managers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk-based analysis and policy implications for renewable energy investments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, Dimitrios; Doukas, Haris; Psarras, John; Stamtsis, Giorgos

    2017-01-01

    Significant renewable energy (RE) investments have to be implemented in order to achieve the ambitious RE targets set in the EU for 2020 and beyond. Moreover, a great amount of capital has to be leveraged, as these projects are followed by high investment and financing costs. Main aim of this paper is the provision of a comprehensive assessment of the existing risk elements of RE investments in relation to the respective policies and the evaluation of their impact on the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) in Greece. A consultation procedure with key national energy stakeholders took also place, including policy makers, project developers, investors, equity providers, bankers and energy analysts in the Greek RE market, in order to provide a validation of the respective results. It has been concluded that the policy design risk represents the risk element with the greatest impact on the cost of capital and, thus, the level of RE investments’ deployment. Βased on the cost of capital valuation process followed, the WACC was estimated to reach approximately 12% for onshore wind and little lower values for solar PV projects in Greece. - Highlights: • Policy design risk constitutes the main influential parameter of the WACC. • Social acceptance is more critical for large-scale, mainly onshore wind, projects. • A stable policy framework may lead to less risk and, thus, cost of RE projects. • The WACC is around 12% for onshore wind and little lower for solar PV projects.

  12. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  13. The economics of energy policy in China. Implications for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhongxiang Zhang

    1998-01-01

    This book is the first systematic and comprehensive attempt to deal with the economic implications of carbon abatement for the Chinese economy in the light of the economics of climate change. The book provides 1) an analysis of the Chinese energy system in order to shed light on its implications for China's future CO 2 emissions; 2) a macroeconomic analysis of CO 2 emission limits for China, using a newly-developed computable general equilibrium model of the Chinese economy; and 3) a cost-effective analysis of carbon abatement options in China's electricity sector by means of a technology-oriented dynamic optimization model. (UK)

  14. Policy Contexts of Social Work in Britain: the wider implications of 'New' Labour and the 'New Legal Regime'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Several commentators have expressed disappointment with New Labour's apparent adherence to the policy frameworks of the previous Conservative administrations. The employment orientation of its welfare programmes, the contradictory nature of the social exclusion initiatives, and the continuing obsession with public sector marketisation, inspections, audits, standards and so on, have all come under critical scrutiny (c.f., Blyth 2001; Jordan 2001; Orme 2001. This paper suggests that in order to understand the socio-economic and political contexts affecting social work we need to examine the relationship between New Labour's modernisation project and its insertion within an architecture of global governance. In particular, membership of the European Union (EU, International Monetary Fund (IMF and World Trade Organisation (WTO set the parameters for domestic policy in important ways. Whilst much has been written about the economic dimensions of 'globalisation' in relation to social work rather less has been noted about the ways in which domestic policy agenda are driven by multilateral governance objectives. This policy dimension is important in trying to respond to various changes affecting social work as a professional activity. What is possible, what is encouraged, how things might be done, is tightly bounded by the policy frameworks governing practice and affected by those governing the lives of service users. It is unhelpful to see policy formulation in purely national terms as the UK is inserted into a network governance structure, a regulatory framework where decisions are made by many countries and organisations and agencies. Together, they are producing a 'new legal regime', characterised by a marked neo-liberal policy agenda. This paper aims to demonstrate the relationship of New Labour's modernisation programme to these new forms of legality by examining two main policy areas and the welfare implications they are enmeshed in. The first is

  15. Endogenous information, adverse selection, and prevention: Implications for genetic testing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Richard; Richter, Andreas; Thistle, Paul

    2017-09-01

    We examine public policy toward the use of genetic information by insurers. Individuals engage in unobservable primary prevention and have access to different prevention technologies. Thus, insurance markets are affected by moral hazard and adverse selection. Individuals can choose to take a genetic test to acquire information about their prevention technology. Information has positive decision-making value, that is, individuals may adjust their behavior based on the result of the test. However, testing also exposes individuals to uncertainty over the available insurance contract, so-called classification risk, which lowers the value of information. In our analysis we distinguish between four different policy regimes, determine the value of information under each regime and associated equilibrium outcomes on the insurance market. We show that the policy regimes can be Pareto ranked, with a duty to disclose being the preferred regime and an information ban the least preferred one. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic disease and climate change: understanding co-benefits and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capon, Anthony G; Rissel, Chris E

    2010-01-01

    Chronic disease and climate change are major public policy challenges facing governments around the world. An improved understanding of the relationship between chronic disease and climate change should enable improved policy formulation to support both human health and the health of the planet. Chronic disease and climate change are both unintended consequences of our way of life, and are attributable in part to the ready availability of inexpensive fossil fuel energy. There are co-benefits for health from actions to address climate change. For example, substituting physical activity and a vegetable-rich diet for motor vehicle transport and a meat-rich diet is both good for health and good for the planet. We should encourage ways of living that use less carbon as these can be healthy ways of living, for both individuals and society. Quantitative modelling of co-benefits should inform policy responses.

  17. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediger, Volkan S., E-mail: volkanediger@gmail.co [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey); Berk, Istemi [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: {yields}We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. {yields} We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. {yields} We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. {yields} We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. {yields} Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  18. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Berk, Istemi

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  19. Heterogeneity among informal microenterprises in Mexico: empirical evidence and some policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rivera Huerta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike traditional theories of development, new schools of thinking consider nonfarm informal micro-enterprises as a dynamic sector. Nevertheless, social researchers from both streams recognize the necessity of policies to formalize and increase the productivity of such kind of enterprises. Using Mexican data from 2008 and cluster analysis techniques, this work proposes that informal micro-enterprises constitute a very heterogeneous group and that such heterogeneity deserves a diversified strategy of development: while some entrepreneurs would benefit from productivity policies, some others would require an assistance approach.

  20. To implicate the private sector in funding: The Kyoto mechanisms and SUMO policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguet, Benoit; Morel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Internationally set objectives in the fight against climate change cannot be reached without funding from the private sector. Public money, a scarce resource, must be used as best possible, in particular when it has a leverage effect on private funding. In this respect, feedback from the Kyoto Protocol's clean development mechanism is of interest. On the eve of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference, we must ramp up the mobilization of private resources. Smart unconventional monetary (SUMO) policies could help us toward this goal. Several countries have adopted such policies to cope with macro-economic circumstances or systemic risks. Is the destabilization of the climate not a risk of this sort?

  1. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  2. On the implications of thresholds for economic science and environmental policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, R.F.T.

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the implications for economic analyses of the occurrence of thresholds in environmental damage functions. This research question is analysed for the case of global warming from three different perspectives. The first perspective is that of certainty of information. Using

  3. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed

  4. BEIR-III report and its implications for radiation protection and public health policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-03-01

    A general background is given of the implications the BEIR-III Report may have on societal decision-making in the regulation of activities concerned with the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific basis for establishing appropriate radiation protection guides are discussed. (ACR)

  5. Effect of a food waste disposer policy on solid waste and wastewater management with economic implications of environmental externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalouf, Amani; El-Fadel, Mutasem

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the carbon footprint of introducing a food waste disposer (FWD) policy was examined in the context of its implications on solid waste and wastewater management with economic assessment of environmental externalities emphasizing potential carbon credit and increased sludge generation. For this purpose, a model adopting a life cycle inventory approach was developed to integrate solid waste and wastewater management processes under a single framework and test scenarios for a waste with high organic food content typical of developing economies. For such a waste composition, the results show that a FWD policy can reduce emissions by nearly ∼42% depending on market penetration, fraction of food waste ground, as well as solid waste and wastewater management schemes, including potential energy recovery. In comparison to baseline, equivalent economic gains can reach ∼28% when environmental externalities including sludge management and emissions variations are considered. The sensitivity analyses on processes with a wide range in costs showed an equivalent economic impact thus emphasizing the viability of a FWD policy although the variation in the cost of sludge management exhibited a significant impact on savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2011-02-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  7. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2010-08-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  8. When renewable portfolio standards meet cap-and-trade regulations in the electricity sector: Market interactions, profits implications, and policy redundancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, C.-C.; Campbell, J.E.; Chen, Yihsu

    2011-01-01

    Emission trading programs (C and T) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are two common tools used by policymakers to control GHG emissions in the energy and other energy-intensive sectors. Little is known, however, as to the policy implications resulting from these concurrent regulations, especially given that their underlying policy goals and regulatory schemes are distinct. This paper applies both an analytical model and a computational model to examine the short-run implications of market interactions and policy redundancy. The analytical model is used to generate contestable hypotheses, while the numerical model is applied to consider more realistic market conditions. We have two central findings. First, lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. Second, making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. - Highlights: → Lowering the CO 2 C and T cap might penalize renewable units, and increasing the RPS level could sometimes benefit coal and oil and make natural gas units worse off. → Making one policy more stringent would weaken the market incentive, which the other policy relies upon to attain its intended policy target. → The market-wise average emissions could increase when increasing RPS requirement.

  9. The Radical Reform of Administrative Policies in New South Wales School Education: Practical and Theoretical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, R. J. S.

    The government of New South Wales (Australia) is attempting to enhance the quality of public education by radically altering management structures and practices. Despite some popular objections, political intervention was mandated and warranted due to excessive centralization in administrative policy making, curriculum development, and resource…

  10. The Politics of Public Accountability: Implications for Centralized Music Education Policy Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses accountability issues that affect music education policy and implementation in the neoliberal education system. Using examples from education reform in Ontario, Canada, the author argues that two forms of accountability imbalances fostered by the neoliberal state--hierarchical answerability over communicative reason and…

  11. The role of natural resource amenities in attracting retirees: implications for economic growth policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyal; Donald G. Hodges; H. Ken Cordell

    2008-01-01

    Increasing criticism of resource-extractive and polluting heavy duty industries in urbanareas, as well as continuing declines in timbering, farming and mining in rural areas, havecreated challenges for planners and policy makers seeking sustainable rural economies.Earlier studies have concluded that a...

  12. Identification, Assessment and Intervention--Implications of an Audit on Dyslexia Policy and Practice in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gavin; Deponio, Pamela; Petch, Louise Davidson

    2005-01-01

    This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of…

  13. Hepatitis B prevalence in the Turkish population of Arnhem: implications for national screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.; Beest, G.T.; Sancak, I.; Aydinly, R.; Bulbul, K.; Laetemia-Tomata, F.; De Leeuw, M.; Waegemaekers, T.; Swanink, C.; Roovers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C in most migrant groups in The Netherlands, a national screening policy for these infections is not available. In order to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the largest group of first-generation migrants (FGM) in The Netherlands, we

  14. Unravelling the concept of consumer preference: implications for health policy and optimal planning in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michele M; Earl, Peter E; Haines, Terry P; Mitchell, Geoffrey K

    2010-10-01

    Accounting for consumer preference in health policy and delivery system design makes good economic sense since this is linked to outcomes, quality of care and cost control. Probability trade-off methods are commonly used in policy evaluation, marketing and economics. Increasingly applied to health matters, the trade-off preference model has indicated that consumers of health care discriminate between different attributes of care. However, the complexities of the health decision-making environment raise questions about the inherent assumptions concerning choice and decision-making behavior which frame this view of consumer preference. In this article, we use the example of primary care in Australia as a vehicle to examine the concept of 'consumer preference' from different perspectives within economics and discuss the significance of how we model preferences for health policy makers. In doing so, we question whether mainstream thinking, namely that consumers are capable of deliberating between rival strategies and are willing to make trade-offs, is a reliable way of thinking about preferences given the complexities of the health decision-making environment. Alternative perspectives on preference can assist health policy makers and health providers by generating more precise information about the important attributes of care that are likely to enhance consumer engagement and optimise acceptability of health care. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Advancing the field of elder abuse: future directions and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2012-11-01

    Elder abuse, sometimes called elder mistreatment or elder maltreatment, includes psychological, physical, and sexual abuse; neglect (caregiver neglect and self-neglect); and financial exploitation. Evidence suggests that one in 10 older adults experiences some form of elder abuse, but only one in 25 cases is reported to social services agencies. At the same time, elder abuse is associated with significant morbidity and premature mortality. Despite these findings, there is a great paucity in research, practice, and policy addressing the pervasive issues of elder abuse. Through my experiences as a American Political Sciences Association Congressional Policy Fellow and Health and Aging Policy Fellow working with the Administration on Community Living (ACL) (previously known as the Administration on Aging) for the last 2 years, I will describe the major functions of the ACL and highlight two major pieces of federal legislation: The Older Americans Act and the Elder Justice Act. I will also highlight major research gaps and future policy relevant research directions for the field of elder abuse. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Flexible information infrastructures in Dutch e-government collaboration arrangements: experiences and policy implication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.J.J.M. Bekkers (Victor)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHow can the flexibility of an information architecture in e-government chains - defined as a set of multi-rational agreements - be achieved, if one acknowledges the fact that the use of ICT may automate the status quo between organizations which work together in a policy chain? Research

  17. Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of parental leave as a social policy designed to eliminate the traditional, gender-based division of labor. Examined whether fathers' taking parental leave equalized women's and men's involvement in the labor market and in child care once the leave was over by analyzing 319 sets of Swedish parents. (Author/ABL)

  18. English in the Primary Classroom in Vietnam: Students' Lived Experiences and Their Social and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Lan Chi; Hamid, M. Obaidul; Renshaw, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although the teaching of English as a foreign language in primary schools has emerged as one of the major language-in-education policy decisions, students' perspectives on primary English have received very little research attention. Drawing on data from a larger study, this paper depicts primary school students' lived experiences in the English…

  19. The Distribution of Academic Ability in the Teaching Force: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Victor S.; Schlechty, Phillip C.

    1982-01-01

    Data indicate that teaching attracts and retains a disproportionately high percentage of those with low measured academic ability and fails to attract and retain those with high ability. If policy makers wish to change this situation, they must be prepared to pay the price. (Author)

  20. Science Education and Test-Based Accountability: Reviewing Their Relationship and Exploring Implications for Future Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kevin J. B.

    2012-01-01

    Assuming that quality science education plays a role in economic growth within a country, it becomes important to understand how education policy might influence science education teaching and learning. This integrative research review draws on Cooper's methodology (Cooper, 1982; Cooper & Hedges, 2009) to synthesize empirical findings on the…

  1. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  2. Teen Girls' Online Practices with Peers and Close Friends: Implications for Cybersafety Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Young people's online safety continues to be a high priority for educators and parents. Cybersafety policies and educational programs are continually updated and revised to accommodate for the innovative ways they engage with digital culture. However, empirical research has shown that despite these efforts young people, especially teen girls,…

  3. The implications of policy pre-post test scores for street-level bureaucratic discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorch, Edwina L

    2009-01-01

    Substantial reductions in audit error rates observed over the past few years suggest eligibility workers have moved toward an eligibility compliance culture described by Bane and Ellwood. However, the results of this study indicate that social service caseworkers responded correctly to 49% of the targeted policy items at the pre-test stage and 68% at the post-test stage. Such findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that, in instances when caseworkers lack policy knowledge, they use their own discretion. Such a finding not only supports Lipsky's theory but also supports the notion that administrators should be encouraged to utilize 'mastery learning' procedures whereby caseworkers are retained in new-hire and follow-up training classes until they have mastered 100% of targeted policy information. Retention of caseworkers may also reduce federal and local audit errors and errors in crediting the reduction of caseloads to social service policies when in fact significant components of them have not been implemented (learned or utilized). And, most importantly, retention in training classes may increase the appropriate provision of services to the needy.

  4. Revival of Legacy of Tooke and Gibson: Implications for Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehman Atiq-ur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The monetary policy rules used by central banks these days are based on the assumption that inflation could be reduced by increasing interest rate. On contrary, Tooke (1774-1858, the forefather of monetary economics, was of the view that the relationship between interest rate and inflation should be positive. His view was based on simple logic, ‘interest is a part of cost, and therefore, the increase in interest rate should increase inflation by increasing cost of production (Tooke, 1838’. Tooke’s view has got support from a number of empirical evidence including Gibson (1923 who found positive correlation between two variables for UK data over a period of 200 years. On the other hand, mainstream economic thinking on which the actual monetary practices are based ignored any possibility of positive relationship between interest rate and inflation throughout the history. The existence of Tooke’s cost side effects of monetary policy is a serious concern because if these effects exist than the use of monetary policy would be counterproductive. Using the data from entire globe, I attempt to explore the nature of relationship between the interest rate and inflation. I found that the data supports the perception of Tooke and Gibson and denies that the effectiveness of monetary policy currently adapted by the correlation between interest rate and inflation is positive. The results are robust to sample size, sample period, and various definitions of interest rate and inflation.

  5. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  6. Implications of the UK NHS consent policy for nuclear medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Claire D; Tindale, Wendy B

    2005-02-01

    To comply with government policy on consent, the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals (STH) National Health Service (NHS) Trust introduced a new consent policy in February 2002. Verbal or written consent (depending on the level of risk) must be obtained prior to each study. The patient must be fully informed and given time to reach a decision. Consideration needs to be given to the following: to whom, when and how to provide such information and obtain consent. Each study type and patient circumstance needs to be classified according to risk. Consideration of the risks resulted in a local policy in which written consent is required for the following: therapeutic procedures, studies on pregnant women, studies in which pregnancy needs to be avoided, research procedures, cardiac stress for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and intrathecal administration. Patient information leaflets have been updated with new information about the study and any risks. Information is now available for both patients and hospital staff. Compliance with the consent policy in a service department provides logistic challenges, but it is possible to fully inform patients in advance about their treatment, allowing them to give informed consent.

  7. Health risks of climate change: An assessment of uncertainties and its implications for adaption policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardekker, J.A.; de Jong, A.; van Bree, L.; Turkenburg, W.C.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Projections of health risks of climate change are surrounded with uncertainties in knowledge. Understanding of these uncertainties will help the selection of appropriate adaptation policies. Methods: We made an inventory of conceivable health impacts of climate change, explored the type

  8. Implications of State Policy Changes on Mental Health Service Models for Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Janelle E.; Cmar, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    For over 25 years, students with disabilities in California received educationally related mental health services through interagency collaboration between school districts and county mental health agencies. After a major change in state policy that eliminated state-mandated interagency collaboration, school districts in California are now solely…

  9. Rhode Island Pension Reform: Implications and Opportunities for Education. Education Sector Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot-Hatfield, Jennie; Monahan, Amy; Rosenberg, Sarah; Tucker, Bill

    2011-01-01

    On August 24, 2010, the state of Rhode Island received some outstanding news. Its yearlong, bipartisan effort to develop new policies to spur educational improvement was about to pay off. The state, along with eight others and the District of Columbia, was named a winner of the U.S. Department of Education's Race to the Top grant competition. The…

  10. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  11. Obesity as a Socially Defined Disease: Philosophical Considerations and Implications for Policy and Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2016-03-01

    Obesity has generated significant worries amongst health policy makers and has obtained increased attention in health care. Obesity is unanimously defined as a disease in the health care and health policy literature. However, there are pragmatic and not principled reasons for this. This warrants an analysis of obesity according to standard conceptions of disease in the literature of philosophy of medicine. According to theories and definitions of disease referring to (abnormal functioning of) internal processes, obesity is not a disease. Obesity undoubtedly can result in disease, making it a risk factor for disease, but not a disease per se. According to several social conceptions of disease, however, obesity clearly is a disease. Obesity can conflict with aesthetic, moral, or other social norms. Making obesity a "social disease" may very well be a wise health policy, assuring and improving population health, especially if we address the social determinants of obesity, such as the food supply and marketing system. However, applying biomedical solutions to social problems may also have severe side effects. It can result in medicalization and enhance stigmatization and discrimination of persons based on appearance or behavior. Approaching social problems with biomedical means may also serve commercial and professionals' interests more than the health and welfare of individuals; it may make quick fix medical solutions halt more sustainable structural solutions. This urges health insurers, health care professionals, and health policy makers to be cautious. Especially if we want to help and respect persons that we classify and treat as obese.

  12. Social media policies: Implications for contemporary notions of corporate social responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stohl, C.; Etter, M.; Banghart, S.; Woo, D.

    Three global developments situate the context of this investigation: the increasing use of social media by organizations and their employees, the burgeoning presence of social media policies, and the heightened focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR). In this study the intersection of these

  13. California's greenhouse gas law, Assembly Bill 1493: Deficiencies, alternatives, and implications for regulatory climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Kenneth C.

    2007-01-01

    California's Air Resources Board has finalized regulations implementing Assembly Bill (AB) 1493, which requires 'maximum feasible and cost-effective reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles'. By 2030, when California's light-duty vehicle stock has been substantially replaced by regulation-compliant vehicles, total emissions from regulated vehicles are projected to be reduced by 27% relative to 'business-as-usual', but are nevertheless expected to be 8.7% higher than 2004 emissions. If an 8.7% increase truly represents the 'maximum feasible and cost-effective' emissions reduction from transportation vehicles, then global climate stabilization clearly will not be attained within limits of 'feasibility' and 'cost-effectiveness', and climate sustainability will only be achievable through severely draconian measures. On the other hand, if significantly greater emissions reduction would be feasible and cost-effective, then the AB 1493 regulations fail to satisfy the legislative policy mandate and the task is to find a regulatory mechanism that will. The thesis of this paper is that the regulations do not satisfy the mandate for several reasons, the most important being the conflicting policy objectives of the 'cost-constrained' legislative mandate and the 'quantity-constrained', standard-based regulatory instrument. An alternative policy instrument that would better fit legislative policy and environmental objectives would be a feebate-type system (although not necessarily a conventional vehicle feebate)

  14. Impacts and Implications of Future-oriented Technology Analysis for Policy and Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    SARITAS Ozcan; CAGNIN CRISTIANO; HAVAS Attila; MILES Ian

    2009-01-01

    Most of the papers in this special issue were presented at the Third International Seville Conference on Future-Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) that took place in October 2008. They address a wide variety of issues in FTA including methods and policy and governance impacts with discussions and demonstrations at the regional and corporate levels.

  15. Perception, acquisition and use of ecosystem services: human behavior, and ecosystem management and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley T. Asah; Anne D. Guerry; Dale J. Blahna; Joshua J. Lawler

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services, fundamental to livelihoods and well-being, are reshaping environmental management and policy. However, the behavioral dimensions of ecosystem services and the responses of ordinary people to the management of those services, is less well understood. The ecosystem services framework lends itself to understanding the relationship between ecosystems...

  16. Managing and Mobilising Talent in Malaysia: Issues, Challenges and Policy Implications for Malaysian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Norzaini; Sirat, Morshidi; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The future of Malaysia as a high-income and competitive nation largely depends on its pool of highly skilled human capital. Hence, the issue of human capital development has taken centre stage in numerous reform agendas of Malaysia. This paper seeks to provide examples of policy initiatives aimed at facilitating the management of highly educated…

  17. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  18. The diverging trajectories of cannabis and tobacco policies in the United States: reasons and possible implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wayne; Kozlowski, Lynn T

    2018-04-01

    To examine briefly the (i) rationales for two policy proposals in the United States to make it mandatory for cigarettes to contain very low levels of nicotine and to legalize cannabis for recreational use by adults; and (ii) possible lessons that participants in each policy debate may learn from each other. We briefly describe the diverging policies towards cannabis and tobacco in the United States, explain and critically analyse their rationales and discuss possible policy lessons. Advocates of cannabis legalization have argued that prohibition has been an ineffective and expensive policy that penalizes ethnic minority users unjustly of a drug that is far less harmful than alcohol. The prohibition of traditional tobacco cigarettes has been advocated as a way to eliminate cigarette smoking. These proposals embody very different attitudes towards the harms of recreational adult drug use. Advocates of nicotine prohibition demand that alternative methods of nicotine delivery must be shown to be completely safe before adults are allowed to use them. Advocates of tobacco prohibition ignore evidence that smokers may not use these products and the likelihood of expanding the illicit tobacco market. Advocates of legalizing and regulating recreational cannabis ignore the need to tax and regulate sales in order to minimize the harms of heavy use. It is not clear that the prohibition of adult use has a useful role to play in the regulation of either cannabis or tobacco. If both products remain legal, the goals of regulating tobacco and cannabis products should be to restrict youth access, promote the use of the least harmful products, provide users with evidence-based information on both absolute and differential product risks of use and use differential taxes and marketing controls to promote ways of using these products that cause the least harm to their users. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Transcriptomic analysis in a Drosophila model identifies previously implicated and novel pathways in the therapeutic mechanism in neuropsychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka eSingh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We have taken advantage of a newly described Drosophila model to gain insights into the potential mechanism of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs, a group of drugs that are widely used in the treatment of several neurological and psychiatric conditions besides epilepsy. In the recently described Drosophila model that is inspired by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced kindling epileptogenesis in rodents, chronic PTZ treatment for seven days causes a decreased climbing speed and an altered CNS transcriptome, with the latter mimicking gene expression alterations reported in epileptogenesis. In the model, an increased climbing speed is further observed seven days after withdrawal from chronic PTZ. We used this post-PTZ withdrawal regime to identify potential AED mechanism. In this regime, treatment with each of the five AEDs tested, namely, ethosuximide (ETH, gabapentin (GBP, vigabatrin (VGB, sodium valproate (NaVP and levetiracetam (LEV, resulted in rescuing of the altered climbing behavior. The AEDs also normalized PTZ withdrawal induced transcriptomic perturbation in fly heads; whereas AED untreated flies showed a large number of up- and down-regulated genes which were enriched in several processes including gene expression and cell communication, the AED treated flies showed differential expression of only a small number of genes that did not enrich gene expression and cell communication processes. Gene expression and cell communication related upregulated genes in AED untreated flies overrepresented several pathways - spliceosome, RNA degradation, and ribosome in the former category, and inositol phosphate metabolism, phosphatidylinositol signaling, endocytosis and hedgehog signaling in the latter. Transcriptome remodeling effect of AEDs was overall confirmed by microarray clustering that clearly separated the profiles of AED treated and untreated flies. Besides being consistent with previously implicated pathways, our results provide evidence for a role of