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Sample records for identifying obese women

  1. Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor J. B. Dummer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5 kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options.

  2. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NiCole R. Keith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. Objective We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. Methods In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30 black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day's EMA. Results Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8% or fitness equipment (68.8% in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%. The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53, working (7.1 ± 8.80, and happy (6.9 ± 10.03, respectively. Conclusion Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management.

  3. Global transcriptome profiling identifies KLF15 and SLC25A10 as modifiers of adipocytes insulin sensitivity in obese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agné Kulyté

    Full Text Available Although the mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D are not entirely understood, it is likely that alterations of adipose tissue function are involved. The aim of this study was to identify new genes controlling insulin sensitivity in adipocytes from obese women with either insulin resistant (OIR or sensitive (OIS adipocytes. Insulin sensitivity was first determined by measuring lipogenesis in isolated adipocytes from abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT in a large observational study. Lipogenesis was measured under conditions where glucose transport was the rate limiting step and reflects in vivo insulin sensitivity. We then performed microarray-based transcriptome profiling on subcutaneous WAT specimen from a subgroup of 9 lean, 21 OIS and 18 obese OIR women. We could identify 432 genes that were differentially expressed between the OIR and OIS group (FDR ≤5%. These genes are enriched in pathways related to glucose and amino acid metabolism, cellular respiration, and insulin signaling, and include genes such as SLC2A4, AKT2, as well as genes coding for enzymes in the mitochondria respiratory chain. Two IR-associated genes, KLF15 encoding a transcription factor and SLC25A10 encoding a dicarboxylate carrier, were selected for functional evaluation in adipocytes differentiated in vitro. Knockdown of KLF15 and SLC25A10 using siRNA inhibited insulin-stimulated lipogenesis in adipocytes. Transcriptome profiling of siRNA-treated cells suggested that KLF15 might control insulin sensitivity by influencing expression of PPARG, PXMP2, AQP7, LPL and genes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Knockdown of SLC25A10 had only modest impact on the transcriptome, suggesting that it might directly influence insulin sensitivity in adipocytes independently of transcription due to its important role in fatty acid synthesis. In summary, this study identifies novel genes associated with insulin sensitivity in

  4. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  5. Fertility treatment in obese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. This has major adverse consequences for health in general and fertility in women in particular. With the increasing number of women in reproductive age being obese, there is also an increasing need for fertility treatment. And with more pregnant women

  6. [Postmenopausal osteoporosis in obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmozherova, N V; Popov, A A

    2008-01-01

    assessment of frequency of obesity and comorbidities in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP). cross-sectional study included 243 postmenopausal symptomatic women with OP diagnosed by dual energy lumbar spine absorptiometry. normal body mass was found in 74 women (30.5%), 105 persons (43.2%) had overweight and 64 patients (26.3%) were obese. Obese OP patients had significantly higherfrequency of arterial hypertension, chronic heart failure, osteoarthritis and glucose metabolism disorders than those with normal body mass. Obese persons also had more severe menopausal symptoms than women with normal body mass. There was no difference in non-traumatic fractures between obese, overweight and slim patients. Thus, postmenopausal OP in obese women was associated with numerous comorbidities and more severe menopausal symptoms.

  7. Iron status in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankowiak-Kulpa, Hanna; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Styszyński, Arkadiusz; Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Grzymisławski, Marian

    2017-12-23

    A decreased concentration of iron, and consecutively haemoglobin, ferritin and decreased level of saturated transferrin, were observed in obese individuals more often than in healthy subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine whether iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation are significantly diminished in obese female patients compared to non-obese counterparts, and whether excess adiposity and inflammation were associated with depleted iron. Female patients (n=48) diagnosed with obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m2), aged 18-40 were accepted for the study. A control group (n=30) encompassed normal weight women, aged 18-30. All obese women obtained an individually adjusted dietary plan with an energy content of 1,500 kcal. Blood glucose, insulin, lipids, ferritin, TIBC and iron concentrations were assayed in serum twice, initially and after 8 weeks of dieting. The obese women at the initial evaluation, in comparison to non-obese control women, were characterized by a significantly lower mean red blood cell volume (MCV; 84.2±12.4 vs. 91.3±9.3 fL; piron level (92.6±42.4 vs. 119.8±44.0 μg/dL; piron homeostasis. Weight loss leads to decrease in the CRP level, but it does not change haematologic parameters in the period of 8 weeks.

  8. Obesity literacy and culture among African American women in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ivette A; Boston, Patricia Q; Dutton, Matthew; Jones, Chauneva Glenn; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Vilme, Helene

    2014-07-01

    To explore causal explanations of obesity among African-American women of diverse weight across the life spectrum. In-depth interviews were conducted with adult African-American women of healthy weight (N = 10), overweight (N = 10), and obese weight (N = 20) to evaluate the relationship between causal explanations of obesity and weight. Generally overlooked dimensions of health definitions were discovered. Differences in weight definitions were detected between women of different weights. Terminology, symptoms, and solutions to obesity were detected between the women of different weights and public health recommendations. Identified causal discrepancies will help bridge the disconnection between public health recommendations and African-American women's perceptions with tailored interventions.

  9. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  10. Association Between Obesity and Migraine in Women.

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    Pavlovic, Jelena M; Vieira, Julio R; Lipton, Richard B; Bond, Dale S

    2017-08-25

    Migraine is a common and highly disabling condition that is particularly prevalent among women and especially women of reproductive age. The tremendous rise in adiposity in the Western world has led to an epidemic of obesity in women. The particular effects of obesity on women with migraine of various ages are the focus of this review. Conflicting findings from various studies with different approaches and populations have made challenging definitive conclusions about associations between migraine and obesity. While the association between obesity and migraine frequency has been consistently demonstrated and obesity is considered a risk factor for progression from episodic to chronic migraine, the association between obesity and migraine prevalence is still somewhat debated and appears to be dependent on gender and age, with the most consistent effects observed in women younger than 55 years of age. Association between migraine and obesity is most commonly observed in women of reproductive age. The multimodal changes associated with age and hormonal change in women likely play a role in this relationship, as obesity does not appear to be related to migraine in women over 55 years of age. Future studies focusing on the migraine-obesity relationship in women should examine the effects of age, endogenous hormonal state, and exogenous hormones on migraine and obesity.

  11. Obesity and nutrition in women throughout adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Karen H; Stark, Mary Ann; Searing, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    Nutritional challenges are particularly relevant to women. Almost 62% of women are overweight; of these women, 33% are obese. The incidence of obesity is even greater in non-Hispanic Black and Mexican American women. Women who are overweight or obese experience a greater number of adverse health outcomes, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and breast and colon cancer. Dietary patterns influence health outcomes, with a heart-healthy pattern having the most positive health outcomes. Health care providers should encourage women to consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables and low in total and saturated fats.

  12. Association of intimate partner violence and health-care provider-identified obesity.

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    Davies, Rhian; Lehman, Erik; Perry, Amanda; McCall-Hosenfeld, Jennifer S

    2016-07-01

    The association of physical and nonphysical intimate partner violence (IPV) with obesity was examined. Women (N = 1,179) were surveyed regarding demographics, obesity, and IPV exposure using humiliate-afraid-rape-kick (HARK), an IPV screening tool. A three-level lifetime IPV exposure variable measured physical, nonphysical or no IPV. Health-care provider-identified obesity was defined if participants were told by a medical provider within the past 5 years that they were obese. Bivariate analyses examined obesity by IPV and demographics. Multivariable logistic regression assessed odds of obesity by IPV type, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Among participants, 44% reported lifetime IPV (25% physical, 19% nonphysical), and 24% reported health-care provider-identified obesity. In unadjusted analyses, obesity was more prevalent among women exposed to physical IPV (30%) and nonphysical IPV (27%), compared to women without IPV (20%, p = .002). In multivariable models, women reporting physical IPV had 1.67 times greater odds of obesity (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20, 2.33), and women reporting nonphysical IPV had 1.46 times greater odds of obesity (95% CI 1.01, 2.10), compared to women reporting no exposure. This study extends prior data by showing, not only an association between physical IPV and obesity, but also an association between obesity and nonphysical IPV.

  13. Dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome in obese and non-obese Framingham women.

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    Sonnenberg, Lillian; Pencina, Michael; Kimokoti, Ruth; Quatromoni, Paula; Nam, Byung-Ho; D'Agostino, Ralph; Meigs, James B; Ordovas, Jose; Cobain, Mark; Millen, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between habitual dietary patterns and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in women and to identify foci for preventive nutrition interventions. Dietary patterns, nutrient intake, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and MetS risk factors were characterized in 1615 Framingham Offspring-Spouse Study (FOS) women. Dietary pattern subgroups were compared for MetS prevalence and CVD risk factor status using logistic regression and analysis of covariance. Analyses were performed overall in women and stratified on obesity status; multivariate models controlled for age, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes, and CVD risk factors. Food and nutrient profiles and overall nutritional risk of five non-overlapping habitual dietary patterns of women were identified including Heart Healthier, Lighter Eating, Wine and Moderate Eating, Higher Fat, and Empty Calories. Rates of hypertension and low high-density lipoprotein levels were high in non-obese women, but individual MetS risk factor levels were substantially increased in obese women. Overall MetS risk varied by dietary pattern and obesity status, independently of APOE and CVD risk factors. Compared with obese or non-obese women and women overall with other dietary patterns, MetS was highest in those with the Empty Calorie pattern (contrast p value: p<0.05). This research shows the independent relationship between habitual dietary patterns and MetS risk in FOS women and the influence of obesity status. High overall MetS risk and the varying prevalence of individual MetS risk factors in female subgroups emphasize the importance of preventive nutrition interventions and suggest potential benefits of targeted behavior change in both obese and non-obese women by dietary pattern.

  14. Employment discrimination against obese women in obesity clinic's patients perspective.

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    Obara-Gołębiowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The workplace is one of many areas of life where obese people are unfairly treated. According to the literature obese women are particularly susceptible to discrimination in employment. There is a lack of polish researches of this subject. The main objective of this study was to analyze personal, subjective experiences related to weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace of obese Polish women. The study was carried out in a hospital clinic for obesity management. A total of 420 women with BMI>30, aged 21 to 72, participated in group interviews focused on the weight bias and discrimination against obese people in the workplace. In the group of clinically obese women, 5.3% of subjects had experienced employment discrimination and 10.5% had been victims of verbal and social abuse in the workplace. The most common psycho-physical consequences of the weight stigma were emotional problems, lack of motivation and overeating in response to stress. Weight-based discrimination in the workplace poses a problem in Poland. The weight stigma and occupational discrimination lead to psycho-physical discomfort which exacerbates overeating and obesity.

  15. Obesity in Women: Insights for the Clinician.

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    Tauqeer, Zujaja; Gomez, Gricelda; Stanford, Fatima Cody

    2018-04-01

    As a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, obesity is a disease that is frequently encountered in clinical practice today and requires a range of medical interventions. While obesity affects both men and women across all ages, multiple issues are particularly germane to women's health, particularly as obesity is more prevalent among women than men in the United States and obesity among women of reproductive health relates to the growing issue of childhood obesity. Discussed herein are the epidemiology and pathophysiology of obesity along with the impact of perinatal obesity on fetal programming. Guidance on screening and management of obesity through lifestyle intervention, pharmacologic therapy, and bariatric surgery, as well as avoidance of weight-promoting medications wherever possible, is elaborated. Particular attention is paid to the contribution of these modalities to weight loss as well as their impact on obesity-related comorbidities that affect a woman's overall health, such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension, and her reproductive and gynecologic health. With modest weight loss, women with obesity can achieve notable improvements in chronic medical conditions, fertility, pregnancy outcomes, and symptoms of pelvic floor disorders. Moreover, as children born to women after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss show improved metabolic outcomes, this demonstrates a role for maternal weight loss in reducing risk of development of metabolic disturbances in children. In light of the immense cost burden and mortality from obesity, it is important to emphasize the role of lifestyle intervention, pharmacologic management, and bariatric surgery for weight loss in clinical practice to mitigate the impact of obesity on women's health.

  16. Obesity and immigration among Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Kathleen Y; Colangelo, Laura A; Chiu, Brian C-H; Gapstur, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Several studies have shown a positive association between acculturation and obesity in Hispanics. We sought to examine the association in a sample of urban Hispanic women. Using data collected in the Chicago Breast Health Project, we used logistic regression to examine the association of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) with language acculturation and years in the US in a sample of 388 Hispanic women. Women self-reported the number of years they had lived in the US (mean 17.6) as well as their preferred language across several domains, which was used to calculate a language acculturation score. Nearly all the women (98%) were born outside the US with the majority (65%) born in Mexico and the majority of women (69%) had low language acculturation, i.e., answered "only Spanish" in every domain. Over half of the women were obese (56%). In multivariable analysis, odds of obesity was twice as high among women living in the US for greater than 20 years compared to those in the US for 10 years or less (OR/year = 2.07, 95% CI 1.25-3.42). In contrast, low language acculturation was not associated with odds of obesity (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.70-1.86). While greater years in the US increased odds of obesity among Hispanic women, no association of obesity with language acculturation was found. These results suggest that mechanisms other than language contribute to the immigration effect.

  17. Obesity and fractures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaor, Melissa Orlandin; Pilbrow, Lesley; Tonkin, Carol; Parker, Richard A; Compston, Juliet

    2010-02-01

    Low body mass index (BMI) is a recognized risk factor for fragility fracture, whereas obesity is widely believed to be protective. As part of a clinical audit of guidance from the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), we have documented the prevalence of obesity and morbid obesity in postmenopausal women younger than 75 years of age presenting to our Fracture Liaison Service (FLS). Between January 2006 and December 2007, 1005 postmenopausal women aged less than 75 years with a low-trauma fracture were seen in the FLS. Of these women, 805 (80%) underwent assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and values for BMI were available in 799. The prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 to 34.9 kg/m(2)) and morbid obesity (BMI > or = 35 kg/m(2)) in this cohort was 19.3% and 8.4%, respectively. Normal BMD was reported in 59.1% of obese and 73.1% of morbidly obese women, and only 11.7% and 4.5%, respectively, had osteoporosis (p obesity in postmenopausal women presenting to the FLS with low-trauma fracture. Most of these women had normal BMD, as measured by DXA. Our findings have important public heath implications in view of the rapidly rising increase in obesity in many populations and emphasize the need for further studies to establish the pathogenesis of fractures in obese individuals and to determine appropriate preventive strategies. Copyright 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Dietary patterns and their associations with general obesity and abdominal obesity among young Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J G; Wang, Z H; Wang, H J; Du, W W; Su, C; Zhang, J; Jiang, H R; Zhai, F Y; Zhang, B

    2015-09-01

    Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods and efficaciously illustrate the impact of diet on health outcomes. This study identified the dietary patterns and determined their relationships with obesity among young Chinese women. In 2011, the China Health and Nutrition Survey included 2363 young women aged 18-44 years. Factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls identified the dietary patterns. Weight, height and waist circumstance (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. General obesity was defined as BMI ⩾28 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as WC ⩾85 cm. Four dietary patterns were identified: traditional south; traditional north; snack; and high protein. After adjusting for confounders and energy intake, women in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional south pattern were less likely to have general obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-0.78) and abdominal obesity (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.90). Subjects in the highest-score quintiles of the traditional north pattern had significantly greater risk of general obesity (OR=2.28; 95% CI 1.38-3.74) and of abdominal obesity (OR=2.32; 95% CI 1.66-3.24). The traditional south pattern of rice as the major staple food with pork and vegetable dishes is associated with lower risk of general and abdominal obesity. The traditional north pattern of high intake of wheat, other cereals and tubers is positively associated with general and abdominal obesity. This provides important information for interventions and policies addressing obesity prevention among young Chinese women.

  19. Stress, cortisol, and obesity: a role for cortisol responsiveness in identifying individuals prone to obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagalamulage, S D; Lee, T K; Clarke, I J; Henry, B A

    2016-07-01

    There is a strong inter-relationship between activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and energy homeostasis. Patients with abdominal obesity have elevated cortisol levels. Furthermore, stress and glucocorticoids act to control both food intake and energy expenditure. In particular, glucocorticoids are known to increase the consumption of foods enriched in fat and sugar. It is well-known that, in all species, the cortisol response to stress or adrenocorticotropin is highly variable. It has now emerged that cortisol responsiveness is an important determinant in the metabolic sequelae to stress. Sheep that are characterized as high-cortisol responders (HRs) have greater propensity to weight gain and obesity than low-cortisol responders (LRs). This difference in susceptibility to become obese is associated with a distinct metabolic, neuroendocrine, and behavioral phenotype. In women and ewes, HR individuals eat more in response to stress than LR. Furthermore, HR sheep have impaired melanocortin signaling and reduced skeletal muscle thermogenesis. High-cortisol responder sheep exhibit reactive coping strategies, whereas LRs exhibit proactive coping strategies. This complex set of traits leads to increased food intake and reduced energy expenditure in HR and thus, predisposition to obesity. We predict that cortisol responsiveness may be used as a marker to identify individuals who are at risk of weight gain and subsequent obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Insulin sensitivity in post-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubro, S; Western, P; Bülow, J

    1994-01-01

    1. Both increased and decreased sensitivity to insulin has been proposed to precede the development of obesity. Therefore, insulin sensitivity was measured during a 2 h hyperinsulinaemia (100 m-units min-1 m-2) euglycaemic (4.5 mmol/l) glucose clamp combined with indirect calorimetry in nine weight......-1 kg-1, not significant). Basal plasma concentrations of free fatty acids were similar, but at the end of the clamp free fatty acids were lower in the post-obese women than in the control women (139 +/- 19 and 276 +/- 48 mumol/l, P = 0.02). 3. We conclude that the insulin sensitivity of glucose...... metabolism is unaltered in the post-obese state. The study, however, points to an increased antilipolytic insulin action in post-obese subjects, which may favour fat storage and lower lipid oxidation rate postprandially.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME IN WOMEN WITH OBESITY.

    OpenAIRE

    Alanazi; Abdul Aziz Ahmed N.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Obesity becomes a recent worldwide epidemic and it is close associated with PCOS. Currently there are not enough researches which can let to understand the interplay between PCOS and its features including anovulation and infertility and androgen status and obesity. The aim of the study was to identify relations between PCOS and obesity. Methodology: Cross-sectional study was conducted for the period 2014-2016 and included 300 of patients with PCOS. The following categorical var...

  2. Obesity and sleepiness in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Tânia Aparecida; Mota, Maria Carliana; Crispim, Cibele Aparecida

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is associated with a number of comorbidities, including chronic widespread pain, fatigue and non-restorative sleep. Evidence has shown that FM is closely associated with overweight and obesity. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between obesity and sleepiness in women with FM. A total of 100 adult female patients with a prior medical diagnosis of FM participated in the study. Body mass, height and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. The diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index. Subjective analyses of daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality) were performed. An obesity rate of 41 % was found in all women (56.1 % were sleepy and 43.9 % were not, p = 0.04). Obese women showed a greater level of sleepiness when compared with non-obese (10.2 and 7.0, respectively, p = 0.004). Sleepy women showed a greater weight gain after the diagnosis of FM when compared with non-sleepy women (11.7 and 6.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.04). A positive and significant correlation between BMI and sleepiness (r = 0.35, p = 0.02) was also found. In multivariate logistic regression, moderate or severe sleepiness (ESS >12) was associated with obesity (odds ratio 3.44, 95 % CI 1.31-9.01, p = 0.04). These results demonstrate an important association between sleepiness and FM, suggesting that the occurrence of obesity may be involved with sleepiness in these patients.

  3. Overweight and Obesity in Lesbian and Bisexual College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Corrie Barnett; Lindley, Lisa L.; Montgomery, Kara; Hardin, James; Burcin, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate and compare the prevalence of overweight and obesity among self-identified lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual college age women. Methods: A secondary analysis of the Spring 2006 National College Health Assessment was conducted with 31,500 female college students (aged 18 to 25 years) to compare body mass index (calculated…

  4. Identifying and mitigating risks for agricultural injury associated with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan King

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In some occupational contexts overweight and obesity have been identified as risk factors for injury. The purpose of this study was to examine this hypothesis within farm work environments and then to identify specific opportunities for environmental modification as a preventive strategy. Data on farm-related injuries, height and weight used to calculate body mass index (BMI, and demographic characteristics were from the Phase 2 baseline survey of the Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort; a large cross-sectional mail-based survey conducted in Saskatchewan, Canada from January through May 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine associations between BMI and injury. Injury narratives were explored qualitatively. Findings were inconsistent and differed according to gender. Among women (n = 927, having overweight (adjusted OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.29 to 6.70 but not obesity (1.10; 95% CI: 0.35 to 3.43 was associated with an increased odds of incurring a farm-related injury. No strong or statistically significant effects were observed for men (n = 1406 with overweight or obesity. While injury-related challenges associated with obesity have been addressed in other occupational settings via modification of the worksite, such strategies are challenging to implement in farm settings because of the diversity of work tasks and associated hazards. We conclude that the acute effects of overweight in terms of injury do require consideration in agricultural populations, but these should also be viewed with a differentiation based on gender.

  5. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); P. Steures (Pieternel); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); P.G. Hompes (Peter); J.M. Burggraaff (Jan); G.J.E. Oosterhuis (Jur); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity

  7. Obesity affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Eijkemans, Marinus J. C.; Habbema, J. Dik F.; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Burggraaff, Jan M.; Oosterhuis, G. Jur E.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W. J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing rapidly among women all over the world. Obesity is a known risk factor for subfertility due to anovulation, but it is unknown whether obesity also affects spontaneous pregnancy chances in subfertile, ovulatory women. METHODS: We evaluated whether obesity affected

  8. Is BMI a valid measure of obesity in postmenopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banack, Hailey R; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; Stokes, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is a widely used indicator of obesity status in clinical settings and population health research. However, there are concerns about the validity of BMI as a measure of obesity in postmenopausal women. Unlike BMI, which is an indirect measure of obesity and does not distinguish lean from fat mass, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provides a direct measure of body fat and is considered a gold standard of adiposity measurement. The goal of this study is to examine the validity of using BMI to identify obesity in postmenopausal women relative to total body fat percent measured by DXA scan. Data from 1,329 postmenopausal women participating in the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study were used in this analysis. At baseline, women ranged in age from 53 to 85 years. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥ 30 kg/m and body fat percent (BF%) greater than 35%, 38%, or 40%. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value to evaluate the validity of BMI-defined obesity relative BF%. We further explored the validity of BMI relative to BF% using graphical tools, such as scatterplots and receiver-operating characteristic curves. Youden's J index was used to determine the empirical optimal BMI cut-point for each level of BF% defined obesity. The sensitivity of BMI-defined obesity was 32.4% for 35% body fat, 44.6% for 38% body fat, and 55.2% for 40% body fat. Corresponding specificity values were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 94.6%, respectively. The empirical optimal BMI cut-point to define obesity is 24.9 kg/m for 35% BF, 26.49 kg/m for 38% BF, and 27.05 kg/m for 40% BF according to the Youden's index. Results demonstrate that a BMI cut-point of 30 kg/m does not appear to be an appropriate indicator of true obesity status in postmenopausal women. Empirical estimates of the validity of BMI from this study may be used by other investigators to account for BMI-related misclassification in older women.

  9. Should overweight or obese women be denied access to ART?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Badawy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has grown to epidemic proportions, and currently nearly half of the reproductive-age women are overweight or obese. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1.6 billion worldwide are overweight (BMI between 25 and 30 kg/m2 and 400 million are obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2. Over half of all women in the UK and 61% of women in USA are either overweight or obese. There are distinctly increased health risks and costs of obesity that led to a great argument about fertility treatment including assisted reproductive techniques (ART in obese women.

  10. Disgust sensitivity, obesity stigma, and gender: contamination psychology predicts weight bias for women, not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Debra L; Tybur, Josh M; Latner, Janet D

    2012-09-01

    Recent research has established a link between disgust sensitivity and stigmatizing reactions to various groups, including obese individuals. However, previous research has overlooked disgust's multiple evolved functions. Here, we investigated whether the link between disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma is specific to pathogen disgust, or whether sexual disgust and moral disgust--two separate functional domains--also relate to negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Additionally, we investigated whether sex differences exist in the manner disgust sensitivity predicts obesity stigma, whether the sexes differ across the subtypes of obesity bias independent of disgust sensitivity, and last, the association between participants' BMI and different subtypes of obesity stigma. In study 1 (N = 92), we established that obesity elicits pathogen, sexual, and moral disgust. In study 2, we investigated the relationship between these types of disgust sensitivity and obesity stigma. Participants (N = 387) reported their level of disgust toward various pathogen, sexual, and moral acts and their attitudes toward obese individuals. For women, but not men, increased pathogen disgust sensitivity predicted more negative attitudes toward obese individuals. Men reported more negative general attitudes toward obese individuals whereas women reported greater fear of becoming obese. The sexes also differed in how their own BMI related to the subtypes of obesity stigma. These findings indicate that pathogen disgust sensitivity plays a role in obesity stigma, specifically for women. Defining the scope of disgust's activation in response to obesity and its relationship with other variables can help identify possible mechanisms for understanding and ultimately alleviating prejudice and discrimination.

  11. Osteosarcopenic obesity is associated with reduced handgrip strength, walking abilities, and balance in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilich, J Z; Inglis, J E; Kelly, O J; McGee, D L

    2015-11-01

    We determined the prevalence of osteosarcopenic obesity (loss of bone and muscle coexistent with increased adiposity) in overweight/obese postmenopausal women and compared their functionality to obese-only women. Results showed that osteosarcopenic obese women were outperformed by obese-only women in handgrip strength and walking/balance abilities indicating their higher risk for mobility impairments. Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is a recently defined triad of osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and adiposity. We identified women with OSO in overweight/obese postmenopausal women and evaluated their functionality comparing them with obese-only (OB) women. Additionally, women with osteopenic/osteoporotic obesity (OO), but no sarcopenia, and those with sarcopenic obesity (SO), but no osteopenia/osteoporosis, were identified and compared. We hypothesized that OSO women will have the lowest scores for each of the functionality measures. Participants (n = 258; % body fat ≥35) were assessed using a Lunar iDXA instrument for bone and body composition. Sarcopenia was determined from negative residuals of linear regression modeled on appendicular lean mass, height, and body fat, using 20th percentile as a cutoff. Participants with T-scores of L1-L4 vertebrae and/or total femur OSO (n = 32) included women with both osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia, while those with normal bone and no sarcopenia were classified as OB (n = 99). Functionality measures such as handgrip strength, normal/brisk walking speed, and right/left leg stance were evaluated and compared among groups. Women with OSO presented with the lowest handgrip scores, slowest normal and brisk walking speed, and shortest time for each leg stance, but these results were statistically significantly different only from the OB group. These findings indicate a poorer functionality in women presenting with OSO, particularly compared to OB women, increasing the risk for bone fractures and immobility from

  12. Fat metabolism in formerly obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranneries, C; Bülow, J; Buemann, B

    1998-01-01

    An impaired fat oxidation has been implicated to play a role in the etiology of obesity, but it is unclear to what extent impaired fat mobilization from adipose tissue or oxidation of fat is responsible. The present study aimed to examine fat mobilization from adipose tissue and whole body fat...... oxidation stimulated by exercise in seven formerly obese women (FO) and eight matched controls (C). Lipolysis in the periumbilical subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body energy expenditure (EE), and substrate oxidation rates were measured before, during, and after a 60-min bicycle exercise bout of moderate.......32 +/- 0.84 vs. 3.70 +/- 0.57 kJ/min, P obese group. In conclusion, fat mobilization both at rest and during exercise is intact in FO, whereas fat oxidation...

  13. Race and ethnicity, obesity, metabolic health, and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle D; Hedlin, Haley; Mackey, Rachel H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity unaccompanied by metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk across racial and ethnic subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 14 364 postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative who had data on fasting...... serum lipids and serum glucose and no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes at baseline. We categorized women by body mass index (in kg/m(2)) as normal weight (body mass index 18.5 to obese (body mass index ≥30) and by metabolic health, defined......, overweight women had similar risk to normal weight women (HR 0.92, interaction P=0.05). Obese black women without metabolic syndrome had higher adjusted risk (HR 1.95) than obese white women (HR 1.07; interaction P=0.02). Among women with only 2 metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular risk was increased...

  14. African American Women and Obesity through the Prism of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith

    2018-01-01

    Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…

  15. Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during

  16. Subgingival microbial profile of obese women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Cesário, Paola C; Leão, Anna Thereza T; Colombo, Ana Paula V

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the composition of subgingival microbiota between obese and non-obese women with or without periodontal disease. Full-mouth periodontal clinical assessments were carried out in 76 obese women (17 periodontally healthy and 59 with periodontal disease), and 34 non-obese women (12 periodontally healthy, 22 with periodontal disease). Subgingival biofilm samples were individually obtained from seven sites of each individual, and the prevalence and counts of 40 bacterial taxa were determined by the checkerboard method. The frequency and counts of each species were computed for each individual and across the groups. Differences among and between groups were sought by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Possible correlations between obesity and clinical and microbiologic parameters were tested with Spearman correlation coefficient. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, and Capnocytophaga ochracea were found in significantly higher levels in obese compared with non-obese women (P periodontal health, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Leptotrichia buccalis were detected in higher mean frequency and/or counts in obese women than in non-obese women, whereas in patients with periodontal disease, obese women harbored greater levels of C. ochracea than non-obese women (P periodontal disease presented significantly greater mean counts of P. gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia than non-obese women with periodontal health (P periodontal disease are present at the same time, significant positive correlations were detected with C. ocharcea, P. gingivalis, S. sanguinis, and T. forsythia. Few differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of obese and non-obese women with periodontal health or disease were found. However, a high prevalence of P. gingivalis in obese women with periodontal health was observed. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  17. The body experience and stigmatizing experiences of two obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Holen, Helene H.

    2015-01-01

    Masteroppgave - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2015 This thesis addresses the themes body experiences in obese women and stigmatization of obesity. Both the prevalence of obesity and the prevalence of stigmatization of obesity is increasing. Also the amount of conducted bariatric surgeries is increasing. It has been shown in previous studies that stigmatization may affect obese people in negative manners. The objective of this thesis, is therefore to obtain an increased understandi...

  18. Salivary Cortisol and Binge Eating Disorder in Obese Women After Surgery for Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Junilla K.; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Background Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Method Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women with...

  19. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Mol, B. W.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.

    2013-01-01

    What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? The median dropout rate was 24% in overweight and obese infertile women who

  20. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, M. A. Q.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Mol, B. W.; Land, J. A.; Hoek, A.

    What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? The median dropout rate was 24 in overweight and obese infertile women who

  1. Adipokine Profiling in Adult Women With Central Obesity and Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Supriya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Central obesity and hypertension are common risk factors for the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and renal diseases. Studies have shown that it is more difficult to control blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage in obese individuals with hypertension compared to their non-obese counterparts, especially among women. Obese females have a 6 times higher risk of developing hypertension than non-obese females while obese males are at a 1.5 times higher risk of developing hypertension, compared to their non-obese counterparts. Indeed, the inter-relationship between obesity and hypertension is unclear. Adipokines have been proposed to play a mediating role in the relationship between obesity and hypertension and are involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Therefore, this study sought to determine the role of adipokines (adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α in hypertensive Hong Kong Chinese women with central obesity. A total of 387 women aged 58 ± 11 years who were examined with a 2 × 2 factorial design for central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 80 cm and hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, were recruited from a pool of 1,492 Hong Kong Chinese adults who were previously screened for metabolic syndrome. Subjects with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and dyslipidemia were excluded to eliminate confounding effects. Our findings revealed that hypertensive women with central obesity had a lower anti-inflammatory status (adiponectin and a higher pro-inflammatory status (TNF-α than obese alone or hypertensive alone women. Also, women with central obesity had higher circulatory PAI-1 and leptin concentrations than their non-obese counterparts. We conclude that obesity may shift toward a more pro-inflammatory state and may become more severe in the presence of hypertension or vice versa.

  2. Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women : a subgroup analysis of a RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, A M; Groen, H; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Broekmans, F J; Vogel, N E A; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not identify a subgroup in which lifestyle intervention increased the healthy live birth rate however it did

  3. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva AO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and its association with obesity and sarcopenia in elderly Brazilian women. Two hundred and seventy-two sedentary women with a mean age of 66.75 ± 5.38 years were recruited for participation in this study. Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA evaluations. Sarcopenic obesity diagnosis was established from the ratio between fat-free mass and body surface area as obtained by DXA. There was no association of obesity with sarcopenic obesity (P = 0.424. In contrast, sarcopenia was significantly related to sarcopenic obesity (P < 0.001, although most of the elderly women with sarcopenia (n = 171 did not exhibit sarcopenic obesity. These results highlight the importance of diagnosing sarcopenic obesity as elderly women exhibiting sarcopenia could be either eutrophic or obese.Keywords: sarcopenic obesity, aging, obesity, sarcopenia, health

  4. Obesity in women – a life cycle of medical risk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-07-16

    Jul 16, 2009 ... infection, bleeding and thrombosis compared to non-obese women who have assisted ... Effect of weight status at age 16-24 over 7 years of follow-up. Non .... burden of obesity and smoking, obese female smokers lost 13.3.

  5. Gene polymorphisms and increased DNA damage in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luperini, B C O; Almeida, D C; Porto, M P; Marcondes, J P C; Prado, R P; Rasera, I; Oliveira, M R M; Salvadori, D M F

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is characterized by increased adipose tissue mass resulting from a chronic imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Furthermore, there is a clearly defined relationship among fat mass expansion, chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; leading to ROS-related pathological events. In the past years, genome-wide association studies have generated convincing evidence associating genetic variation at multiple regions of the genome with traits that reflect obesity. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the relationships among the gene polymorphisms ghrelin (GHRL-rs26802), ghrelin receptor (GHSR-rs572169), leptin (LEP-rs7799039), leptin receptor (LEPR-rs1137101) and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO-rs9939609) and obesity. The relationships among these gene variants and the amount of DNA damage were also investigated. Three hundred Caucasian morbidly obese and 300 eutrophic (controls) women were recruited. In summary, the results demonstrated that the frequencies of the GHRL, GHSR, LEP and LEPR polymorphisms were not different between Brazilian white morbidly obese and eutrophic women. Exceptions were the AA-FTO genotype and allele A, which were significantly more frequent in obese women than in the controls (0.23% vs. 0.10%; 0.46 vs. 0.36, respectively), and the TT-FTO genotype and the T allele, which were less frequent in morbidly obese women (p<0.01). Furthermore, significant differences in the amount of genetic lesions associated with FTO variants were observed only in obese women. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the analyzed SNPs were not closely associated with morbid obesity, suggesting they are not the major contributors to obesity. Therefore, our data indicated that these gene variants are not good biomarkers for predicting risk susceptibility for obesity, whereas ROS generated by the inflammatory status might be one of the causes of DNA damage in obese women, favoring

  6. Attitudes toward obesity in obese persons: A matched comparison of obese women with and without binge eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R.M.; Masheb, R.M.; White, M.A.; Grilo, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about weight controllability and psychological factors (self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder features). The age-and BMI-matched groups did not differ with respect to beliefs about obesity or attitudes toward obese persons, or in self-esteem or depression. Correlational analyses conducted separately within each group revealed that women with BED who reported more favorable attitudes towards obese persons had higher self-esteem and lower levels of depression, whereas there were no significant associations between these variables among women without BED. In addition, weight controllability beliefs and eating disorder features were unrelated to self-esteem and depression in both groups. These findings suggest that stigmatizing attitudes endorsed by obese persons are neither tempered nor worsened by psychological distress or eating pathology. Given that stigmatizing attitudes did not differ between obese women with and without BED, it may be that obesity itself, rather than psychological features or disordered eating, increases vulnerability to negative weight-based attitudes. Potential implications for stigma reduction efforts and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:20124783

  7. Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact of FTO ... with increased obesity risk but there is a lack of association with diabetes. ... (as certain foods or gene therapy) will prevent the percentage of women who is affected ...

  8. Obesity in minority women: calories, commerce, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is increasing at epidemic rates in all women, but especially in minority women and children. Factors that contribute to this include changes in caloric intake and expenditure (calories), cost and ease of acquiring food along with pressures from the marketplace and media (commerce) and the community response to the increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyle (culture).

  9. European Society of Contraception Statement on Contraception in Obese Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merki-Feld, Gabriele S; Skouby, Sven; Serfaty, David

    2015-01-01

    The obesity 'epidemic' continues to increase, mostly but not only in developed countries. As overweight and obese women are at an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) at baseline and at a much higher risk during pregnancy, it is essential to help these women to plan pregnancies carefully...... and with the Medical Eligibility Criteria of the World Health Organisation....

  10. Inflammatory signatures distinguish metabolic health in African American women with obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald V Denis

    Full Text Available Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities. We then used hierarchical clustering to generate inflammation signatures by combining the effects of identified cytokines and chemokines and summarized the signatures using an inflammation score. The analyses revealed six distinct signatures of sixteen cytokines/chemokines (P = 0.05 that differed significantly by prevalence of T2D (P = 0.004, obesity (P = 0.0231 and overall inflammation score (P < E-12. Signatures were validated in two independent cohorts of African American women with obesity: thirty nine subjects with no metabolic complications or with T2D and hypertension; and thirteen breast reduction surgical patients. The signatures in the validation cohorts closely resembled the distributions in the discovery cohort. We find that blood-based cytokine profiles usefully associate inflammation with T2D risks in vulnerable subjects, and should be combined with metabolism and obesity counselling for personalized risk assessment.

  11. Glucagon and insulin response to meals in non-obese and obese Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, P.; Garbaczewski, L.; Koppeschaar, H.; Thijssen, J.H.H.; Waard, F. de

    1987-01-01

    Many digestive complaints are associated with abnormalities in gastrointestinal peptide hormone function. To investigate the effect of obesity on the release of pancreatic peptide hormones, we have compared the release of insulin and glucagon in non-obese-obese Dutch women in response to isocaloric

  12. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A. Mohd-Shukri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m2 pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05. Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy.

  13. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN70595832...

  14. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Suarez-Torres, Ismael; Bravo-Henríquez, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    To measure macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentrations in obese and non-obese women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women diagnosed with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls with regular menses and normal ovaries on ultrasound examination were selected and divided into 4 groups (group A, PCOS and obese; group B, PCOS and non-obese; group C, obese controls; and group D, non-obese controls) based on body mass index (obese >30 kg/m2 and non-obese <25 kg/m2). Luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, serum glucose, insulin and MIF levels were measured. Obese and non-obese women with PCOS had higher luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, and insulin levels as compared to the obese and non-obese control groups, respectively (P < .0001). Women with PCOS had significantly higher MIF levels (group A, 48.6 ± 9.9 mg/ml; group B, 35.2 ± 6.0 ng/ml) as compared to controls (group C, 13.5 ± 6.0 ng/ml; group D, 12.0 ± 4.3 ng/dl; P < .0001). A weak, positive and significant correlation was seen between fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in women with PCOS (P < .05). Significant differences exist in plasma MIF levels between obese and non-obese women with and without PCOS. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Eating Behaviors and Obesity in African American and Caucasian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    August 16,20 10 APPROVAL SHEET Title of Thesis: "Eahng Behaviors and Obesity in Afncan Amelican and Caucasian Women " Name of Candidate: Elena A...AND OBESITY IN AFRICAN AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN " is appropriately acknowledged and, beyond brief excerpts, is with the permission of the copyright...Caucasian Women Elena A. Spieker1,2,3, Robyn Osborn1,2, and Tracy Sbrocco1,2 1 Department of Medical and Clinical Psychology, Uniformed Services

  16. Emerging health problems among women: Inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Tsai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome has been documented worldwide. However, few studies have investigated the risk of inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome specifically in women. Hormone balance plays a crucial role in regulating metabolism and helps to maintain optimal health. It is likely that the sex difference in obesity may be due to the variation in hormone concentration throughout a woman's life, which predisposes them to weight gain. This paper reviews previous literature and discusses factors that influence the risk of adiposity-related health consequences among women for three critical biological transitions throughout a woman's life: puberty, menopause, and pregnancy. To improve quality of life and metabolic health for women, interventions are needed to target women at different transition stages and provide tailored health education programs. Interventions should raise awareness of physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, and promote healthy behavioral change in women.

  17. [Obesity in Brazilian women: association with parity and socioeconomic status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regicely Aline Brandão; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino

    2015-05-01

    To determine the influence of reproductive history on the prevalence of obesity in Brazilian women and the possible modifying effect of socioeconomic variables on the association between parity and excess weight. A retrospective analysis of complex sample data collected as part of the 2006 Brazilian National Survey on Demography and Health, which included a group representative of women of childbearing age in Brazil was conducted. The study included 11 961 women aged 20 to 49 years. The association between the study factor (parity) and the outcome of interest (obesity) was tested using logistic regression analysis. The adjusted effect of parity on obesity was assessed in a multiple regression model containing control variables: age, family purchasing power, as defined by the Brazilian Association of Research Enterprises (ABEP), schooling, and health care. Significance level was set at below 0.05. The prevalence of obesity in the study population was 18.6%. The effect of parity on obesity was significant (P for trend parity and age. Family purchase power had a significant odds ratio for obesity only in the unadjusted analysis. In the adjusted model, this variable did not explain obesity. The present findings suggest that parity has an influence on obesity in Brazilian women of childbearing age, with higher prevalence in women vs. without children.

  18. The Treatment of Obese Pregnant Women (TOP) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....

  19. Activity Behaviours in Lean and Morbidly Obese Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2018-05-17

    Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Macrophage Populations in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Pregnant Women: Potential Role of Obesity in Maternal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyerahi Bravo-Flores

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with inflammatory changes and accumulation and phenotype polarization of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs. Obese pregnant women have alterations in adipose tissue composition, but a detailed description of macrophage population is not available. In this study, we characterized macrophage populations in visceral adipose tissue (VAT from pregnant women with normal, overweight, and obese pregestational weight. Immunophenotyping of macrophages from VAT biopsies was performed by flow cytometry using CD45 and CD14 as markers of hematopoietic and monocyte linage, respectively, while HLA-DR, CD11c, CD163, and CD206 were used as pro- and anti-inflammatory markers. Adipocyte number and size were evaluated by light microscopy. The results show that pregnant women that were overweight and obese during the pregestational period had adipocyte hypertrophy. Two different macrophage populations in VAT were identified: recruited macrophages (CD45+CD14+, and a novel population lacking CD45, which was considered to be a resident macrophages subset (CD45−CD14+. The number of resident HLA−DRlow/− macrophages showed a negative correlation with body mass index (BMI. Both resident and recruited macrophages from obese women expressed higher CD206 levels. CD11c expression was higher in resident HLA-DR+ macrophages from obese women. A strong correlation between CD206 and CD11c markers and BMI was observed. Our findings show that being overweight and obese in the pregestational period is associated with adipocyte hypertrophy and specific ATMs populations in VAT.

  1. Identifying job characteristics related to employed women's breastfeeding behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzmueller, Christiane; Zhang, Jing; Thomas, Candice L; Wang, Zhuxi; Fisher, Gwenith G; Matthews, Russell A; Strathearn, Lane

    2018-05-14

    For employed mothers of infants, reconciliation of work demands and breastfeeding constitutes a significant challenge. The discontinuation of breastfeeding has the potential to result in negative outcomes for the mother (e.g., higher likelihood of obesity), her employer (e.g., increased absenteeism), and her infant (e.g., increased risk of infection). Given previous research findings identifying return to work as a major risk factor for breastfeeding cessation, we investigate what types of job characteristics relate to women's intentions to breastfeed shortly after giving birth and women's actual breastfeeding initiation and duration. Using job titles and job descriptors contained in a large Australian longitudinal cohort data set (N = 809), we coded job titles using the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL)'s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) database and extracted job characteristics. Hazardous working conditions and job autonomy were identified as significant determinants of women's breastfeeding intentions, their initiation of breastfeeding, and ultimately their breastfeeding continuation. Hence, we recommend that human resource professionals, managers, and public health initiatives provide breastfeeding-supportive resources to women who, based on their job characteristics, are at high risk to prematurely discontinue breastfeeding to ensure these mothers have equal opportunity to reap the benefits of breastfeeding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Maternal obesity support services: a qualitative study of the perspectives of women and midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dearden Andy M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Twenty percent of pregnant women in the UK are obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, reflecting the growing public health challenge of obesity in the 21st century. Obesity increases the risk of adverse outcomes during pregnancy and birth and has significant cost implications for maternity services. Gestational weight management strategies are a high priority; however the evidence for effective, feasible and acceptable weight control interventions is limited and inconclusive. This qualitative study explored the experiences and perceptions of pregnant women and midwives regarding existing support for weight management in pregnancy and their ideas for service development. Methods A purposive sample of 6 women and 7 midwives from Doncaster, UK, participated in two separate focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Results Two overarching themes were identified, 'Explanations for obesity and weight management' and 'Best care for pregnant women'. 'Explanations' included a lack of knowledge about weight, diet and exercise during pregnancy; self-talk messages which excused overeating; difficulties maintaining motivation for a healthy lifestyle; the importance of social support; stigmatisation; and sensitivity surrounding communication about obesity between midwives and their clients. 'Best care' suggested that weight management required care which was consistent and continuous, supportive and non-judgemental, and which created opportunities for interaction and mutual support between obese pregnant women. Conclusions Women need unambiguous advice regarding healthy lifestyles, diet and exercise in pregnancy to address a lack of knowledge and a tendency towards unhelpful self-talk messages. Midwives expressed difficulties in communicating with their clients about their weight, given awareness that obesity is a sensitive and potentially stigmatising issue. This indicates more could be done to educate and support them in their work with

  3. Multiparity is associated with high motivation to change diet among overweight and obese postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Lori A; Pathiraja, Viranga C; Krause, Katrina; Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Østbye, Truls

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with weight gain and obesity. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of parity and other factors on motivation to change diet to lose weight in a cohort of overweight and obese postpartum women. Active Mothers Postpartum is a randomized, controlled trial aimed at postpartum weight reduction. At baseline, we measured motivation to change diet to lose weight among 491 overweight/obese postpartum women. Logistic regression was used to model the effect of parity on motivation to change diet at baseline while adjusting for potential confounders including age, race, education, body mass index category, and breastfeeding status. Approximately two thirds (68%) of participants were highly motivated to change their diet to lose weight. In the multivariable model, women with three or more children had 2.5 times the odds of high motivation compared with primigravid women, and women not breastfeeding had 1.6 times the odds of high motivation compared with any breastfeeding. Although risk for obesity is incurred starting with a woman's first pregnancy, women in this study were more motivated to change their diet to lose weight after their third pregnancy. Further research is needed to understand how to best capitalize on the high motivation in women with several children as well as how to improve motivation for primigravid women and women who are breastfeeding. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology of underweight and overweight-obesity among term pregnant Sudanese women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rayis, Duria A

    2010-12-06

    Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of obesity in young women is a major public health concern. Few data are available concerning the epidemiology of malnutrition especially obesity among pregnant women in the developing countries. A cross sectional study was conducted at Khartoum hospital during February-April 2008, to investigate prevalence of underweight, obesity, and to identify contemporary socio-demographic predictors for obesity among term pregnant women in Khartoum Hospital, Sudan. After taking an informed consent, a structured questionnaire was administered to each woman to gather information on educational level, age and parity. Maternal weight and height were measured and expressed as body mass index (BMI - weight (kg)\\/height (m) 2). Findings Out of 1690 term pregnant women, 628 (37.1%) were primigravidae, 926 (54.8%) had ≥ secondary educational level (minimum of 8 years) and 1445 (85.5%) were housewives. The mean (SD) of the age and parity were 27.2 (6.3) years and 2.0 (2.1) respectively. Out of these 1690 women, 94(5.5%) were underweight (BMI of ≤ 19.9 Kg\\/m2), 603 (35.6%) were overweight (BMI of 25 - 29.9 Kg\\/m2) and 328 (19.4%) were obese (BMI of ≥ 30 Kg\\/m2). In multivariate analyses, obesity was positively associated with age (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.1; P< 0.001), and with women\\'s education (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7; P = 0.001). Obesity was positively associated with parity in univariate analyses only (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2; P = 0.02) Conclusion The high prevalence of obesity in these pregnant women represents a competing public health problem in Sudan. More research is needed.

  5. Obesity and hypertension among market men and women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and hypertension are emerging problems in the Tamale metropolis in the northern region of Ghana. This study investigated the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among market men and women in the Tamale Metropolis. This is from a viewpoint of the market place, being an occupational environment that ...

  6. Bone turnover biomarkers in obese postmenopausal Saudi women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus type-2 (T2DM) and osteoporosis are problems worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between T2DM and bone turnover in diabetic obese postmenopausal Saudi women. Subjects and Methods: The present study included total of 65 T2-DM obese ...

  7. The Use of Stress-Management Training for Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Daniel; Del Porto, Delbert

    Stress management training contributes to weight loss, maintenance of weight loss and improved social and occupational functioning in obese women. Data from the Beck Depression Inventory and the Assertiveness Questionnaire indicate that obese persons have poor self-concepts which result in depression which is inversely related to assertiveness.…

  8. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  9. Dietary interventions in overweight and obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    : A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...

  10. Determinants of overweight or obesity among ever-married adult women in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Saquib, Nazmus; Hasan, Md Mehedi; Saquib, Juliann; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Khan, Jahidur Rahman; Uddin, Md Jasim; Cullen, Mark R; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing in Bangladesh. It is higher among Bangladeshi women than among men. This study was conducted to assess a host of demographic and socioeconomic correlates of overweight and obesity, separately for the urban and rural women of Bangladesh. We used data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011. The BDHS provides cross-sectional data on a wide range of indicators relating to population, health, and nutrition. We analyzed nutrition-related data to identify the factors associated with being overweight or obese among ever-married women aged 18-49 years. Of 16,493 women, about 18 % (95 % CI 17 · 80-18 · 99) were overweight or obese. Unemployed urban women were at 1 · 44 (95 % CI 1 · 18-1 · 76, p women who were involved in manual-labored work. Watching television at least once a week was another significant predictor among urban women (OR 1 · 49; 95 % CI 1 · 24-1 · 80; p women (OR 1 · 31; 95 % CI 1 · 14-1 · 51; p women. The findings of the study indicate that a large number of women in Bangladesh are suffering from being overweight or obese, and multiple factors are responsible for this including, older age, being from wealthy households, higher education, being from food-secured households, watching TV at least once a week, and being an unemployed urban woman. Given the anticipated long-term effects, the factors that are associated with being overweight or obese should be considered while formulating an effective intervention for the women of Bangladesh.

  11. Day-3 embryo metabolomics in the spent culture media is altered in obese women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver, José; De Los Santos, María J; Alamá, Pilar; Castelló, Damià; Privitera, Laura; Galliano, Daniela; Labarta, Elena; Vidal, Carmen; Pellicer, Antonio; Domínguez, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether the global metabolomic profile of the spent culture media (SCM) of day-3 embryos is different in obese and normoweight women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Prospective cohort analysis. IVF clinic. Twenty-eight young, nonsmoking women with normoweight, nonsmoking male partners with mild/normal sperm factors undergoing a first IVF attempt for idiopathic infertility, tubal factor infertility, or failed ovulation induction: obese ovulatory women (n = 12); obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; n = 4); normoweight ovulatory women (n = 12). Fifty μl of SCM collected from two day-3 embryos of each cohort. Metabolomic profiling via ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry of SCM from a total of 56 embryos. The untargeted metabolomic profile was different in obese and normoweight women. Partial least squares discriminant analysis resulted in a clear separation of samples when a total of 551 differential metabolites were considered. A prediction model was generated using the most consistent metabolites. Most of the metabolites identified were saturated fatty acids, which were detected in lower concentrations in the SCM of embryos from obese women. The metabolomic profile was similar in obese women with or without PCOS. The metabolomic profile in the SCM of day-3 embryos is different in normoweight and obese women. Saturated fatty acids seem to be reduced when embryos from obese patients are present. NCT01448863. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese polycystic ovary syndrome women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obese PCOS women had significantly higher age of menarche, abortion and menstrual disturbances. Also, signs of hyperandrogenism, acanthosis nigricans were more encountered among them with higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, FSH, LH and testosterone.

  13. Weight reduction intervention for obese infertile women prior to IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Einarsson, Snorri; Bergh, Christina; Friberg, Britt

    2017-01-01

    in the weight reduction group reaching BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2 or reaching a weight loss of at least five BMI units to the IVF only group. No statistical differences in live birth rates between the groups in either subgroup analysis were found. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION: The study was not powered to detect a small......STUDY QUESTION: Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? SUMMARY ANSWER: An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF...... in infertile obese women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial was performed between 2010 and 2016 in the Nordic countries. In total, 962 women were assessed for eligibility and 317 women were randomized. Computerized randomization with concealed allocation...

  14. Sibutramine promotes amygdala activity under fasting conditions in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Heldmann, Marcus; Daul, Susanne; Klose, Silke; Rotte, Michael; Schäfer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas F; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2012-06-01

    Sibutramine, a centrally-acting selective monoamine reuptake inhibitor, has been used as an appetite suppressant drug in obesity. To gain insight into the central nervous actions of sibutramine, brain responses to pictures of food items after sibutramine vs placebo application were assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in obese women. In a randomized double-blind crossover design, 10 healthy obese women (BMI 31.8-39.9 kg/m(2)) received 15 mg/d of sibutramine vs placebo for 14 d. Obese participants, and a group of 10 age-matched normal weight controls, viewed pictures of food items and control objects in hungry and satiated states while lying in the MR scanner. The paradigm followed a block design. In obese participants, fMRI measurements were conducted prior and after two weeks of daily sibutramine or placebo administration, whereas control participants were scanned only at one point in time. Upon food item presentation, obese participants showed increased brain activity in areas related to emotional and reward processing, perceptual processing, and cognitive control as compared to normal weight controls. Sibutramine exerted a divergent satiety-dependent effect on amygdala activity in obese participants, increasing activity in the hungry state while decreasing it under conditions of satiation. Our results demonstrate a modulatory influence of sibutramine on amygdala activity in obese women which may underlie the appetite suppressant effects of the drug.

  15. The association between socioeconomic status and obesity in Peruvian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, Julio A; Stanojevic, Sanja; Ruiz-Grosso, Paulo; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country's development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008), we investigated this relationship in women aged 15-49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multistage nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.3-14.8); 8.4% (95% CI: 7.5-9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95% CI: 15.2-17.2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru.

  16. The Association between Socioeconomic Status and Obesity in Peruvian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poterico, J.A.; Stanojevic, S.; Ruiz, P.; Bernabe-Ortiz, A.; Miranda, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Historically in developing countries, the prevalence of obesity has been greater in more advantaged socioeconomic groups. However, in recent years the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity has changed and varies depending on the country’s development stage. This study examines the relationship between SES and obesity using two indicators of SES: education or possession assets. Using the cross-sectional 2008 National Demographic and Family Health Survey of Peru (ENDES 2008) we investigated this relationship in women aged 15 to 49 years living in rural and urban settings. Descriptive, linear and logistic regressions analyses were conducted accounting for the multi-staged nature of the sampling design. The overall prevalence of obesity in this study was 14.1% (95%CI: 13.3–14.8); 8.4% (95%CI: 7.5–9.3) in rural areas and 16.2% (95%CI: 15.2–17-2) in urban areas. Wealthier women were more likely to be obese, and this association was stronger in rural areas. Conversely, more educated women were less likely to be obese, especially in urban areas. The distribution of obesity in Peruvian women is strongly related to socioeconomic position, and differs whether measured as possession assets or by level of education. These findings could have important implications for policy development in Peru. PMID:21959344

  17. Safety and effectiveness data for emergency contraceptive pills among women with obesity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to determine whether emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are less safe and effective for women with obesity compared with those without obesity. We searched PubMed for articles through November 2015 regarding the safety and effectiveness of ECPs [ulipristal acetate (UPA), levonorgestrel (LNG) and combined estrogen and progestin] among obese users. We assessed study quality using the United States Preventive Services Task Force evidence grading system. We identified four pooled secondary analyses (quality: poor to fair), two of which examined UPA and three examined LNG formulations. Three analyses pooled overlapping data from a total of three primary studies and demonstrated significant associations between obesity and risk of pregnancy after ECP use. One analysis reported a 4-fold increased risk of pregnancy among women with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) compared with women within normal/underweight categories (BMIcontraception; at weights less than 75 kg, the rate of pregnancy was less than 2%. Two analyses examining UPA suggested an approximate 2-fold increased risk of pregnancy among women with obesity compared with either normal/underweight women or nonobese (BMIemergency contraception options in order for them to understand their options, to receive advanced supplies of emergency contraception as needed and to understand how to access an emergency copper intrauterine device if desired. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Alternative methods for measuring obesity in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ashley E; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi; Smith, Jennifer A

    2013-03-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) may not be the most appropriate measurement tool in determining obesity in diverse populations. We studied a convenience sample of 108 African American (AA) women to determine the best method for measuring obesity in this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to determine if percent body fat (PBF) and percent body water (PBW) could be used as alternatives to BMI in predicting obesity and risk for hypertension (HTN) among AA women. After accounting for age, BMI, and the use of anti-hypertensive medication, PBF (p = 0.0125) and PBW (p = 0.0297) were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, while BMI was not. Likewise, PBF (p = 0.0316) was significantly associated with diastolic blood pressure, while PBW and BMI were not. Thus, health care practitioners should consider alternative anthropometric measurements such as PBF when assessing obesity in AA women.

  19. Interleukin-17A Gene Expression in Morbidly Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zapata-Gonzalez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Data from recent studies conducted in rodent models and humans suggest that interleukin-17A (IL-17A plays a role in the induction of inflammation in adipose tissue during obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the gene expression of IL-17A in adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. We used RT-PCR to evaluate the expression of IL-17A and several adipo/cytokines in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT of 10 normal-weight control women (BMI < 25 kg/m2 and 30 morbidly obese women (MO, BMI > 40 kg/m2. We measured serum levels of IL-17A and adipo/cytokines in MO and normal weight women. IL-17A expression was significantly higher in VAT than in SAT in MO patients (p = 0.0127. It was very low in normal-weight controls in both VAT and SAT tissues. We found positive correlations between IL-17A and IL-6, lipocalin-2 and resistin in VAT of MO patients. The circulating level of IL-17A was higher in the normal-weight group than the MO patients (p = 0.032, and it was significantly related to adiponectin and TNFRII levels. In conclusion, IL-17A expression in VAT is increased in morbidly obese women, which suggests a link between obesity and innate immunity in low-grade chronic inflammation in morbidly obese women.

  20. Triceps-surae musculotendinous stiffness: relative differences between obese and non-obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Aurélio; Gabriel, Ronaldo; Abrantes, João; Brás, Rui; Moreira, Helena

    2009-12-01

    There is a lack of research into the relationship between obesity and muscle-tendon unit stiffness in postmenopausal women. Muscle-tendon unit stiffness appears to affect human motion performance and excessive and insufficient stiffness can increase the risk of bone and soft tissue injuries, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle-tendon unit stiffness and obesity in postmenopausal women. 105 postmenopausal women (58 [SD 5.5] years) participated. Four groups (normal weight, pre-obese, obesity class I and obesity class II) were defined according World Health Organization classification of body mass index. The ankle muscle-tendon unit stiffness was assessed in vivo with a free oscillation technique using a load of 30% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. ANOVA shows significant difference in muscle-tendon unit stiffness among the groups defined (Pnormal weight-pre-obese; normal weight-obesity class I and normal weight-obesity class II. The normal weight group had stiffness of 15789 (SD 2969) N/m, pre-obese of 19971 (SD 3678) N/m, obesity class I of 21435 (SD 4295) N/m, and obesity class II of 23497 (SD 1776) N/m. Obese subjects may have increased muscle-tendon unit stiffness because of fat infiltration in leg skeletal muscles, range of motion restrictions and stability/posture reasons and might be more predisposed to develop musculoskeletal injuries. Normal weight group had identical stiffness values to those reported in studies where subjects were not yet menopausal, suggesting that stiffness might not be influenced by menopause.

  1. Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JafariNasabian P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegah JafariNasabian,1 Julia E Inglis,1 Owen J Kelly,2 Jasminka Z Ilich1 1Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 2Abbott Nutrition, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome (OSO has recently been identified as a condition encompassing osteopenia/osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity. OSO is especially deleterious in older adults (even if they are not obese by conventional measures, due to age-related redistribution of fat and its infiltration into bone and muscle. Osteoporosis and bone fractures in elderly increase the risk of sarcopenia, which, through decreased mobility, increases the risk of more falls and fractures, creating a vicious cycle. Obesity plays a dual role: to a certain extent, it promotes bone and muscle gains through mechanical loading; in contrast, increased adiposity is also a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other endocrine factors that impair bone and muscle. As the elderly population increases, changes in lifestyle to delay the onset of OSO, or prevent OSO, are warranted. Among these changes, dietary patterns and physical activity modifications are the first ones to be implemented. The typical Western diet (and lifestyle promotes several chronic diseases including OSO, by facilitating a pro-inflammatory state, largely via the imbalance in omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio and low-fiber and high-processed food consumption. Nutritional modifications to prevent and/or alleviate the OSO syndrome include adequate intake of protein, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D and increasing consumptions of foods containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber. Certain types of physical activity, often decreased in overweight/obese women and in elderly, might preserve bone and muscle, as well as help in reducing body fat accrual and fat infiltration. Habitual daily activities and some alternative modes of exercise may be more appropriate for older

  2. Influence of physical activity on psychosomatic health in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzyk, K; Cajdler, A; Pokorski, M

    2008-12-01

    It is unclear to what extent the known psychosomatic benefits of exercise hold true for the obese. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that the psychosomatic health and components of general intelligence, such as the capacity for logical-deductive tasks, would be better in regularly exercising than non-exercising obese women. We addressed the issue in a self-reported survey study, comprising two groups of middle-aged obese women (age 30-50 years, BMI >30 kg/m(2)) of 25 persons each. The criterion for the group division was regular exercise, minimum twice a week, for at least 2 months. The following psychometric tools were used: Physical Fitness and Exercise Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 for depression, Life Satisfaction Scale, General Health Inventory-28, Raven's Matrices Test for intelligence, and a test for selfcontentment with one's body figure shape. The exercising obese women scored significantly better in Life Satisfaction Scale (17.1 +/- 1.2 vs.12.0 +/- 0.9), had a lower level of depression (8.1 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.4 +/- 0.7), and a better assessment of the health status (24.6 +/- 1.6 vs. 36.4 +/- 2.2) (reversed score) compared with non-exercising ones (Pexercising obese women also appreciably better assessed their bodily looks. Interestingly, if depression was present in exercising women, it had more detrimental health effects than in physically inactive ones. The study failed to substantiate appreciable changes in general intelligence between active and non-active obese women. In conclusion, physical activity is of benefit for the psychosomatic health in obese women, which should be considered in behavioral counseling.

  3. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Obesity in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonghee; Kim, Hye Young; Kim, Jeongseon

    2017-12-08

    Instant coffee mixes that contain sugar and non-dairy creamer account for 80-90% of the total coffee market in Korea. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and obesity in Korean women. We included 5995 women who participated in a health screening examination at the Korean National Cancer Center between 2007 and 2016. Daily coffee consumption and the use of sugar and creamer in coffee was evaluated using a 106-item food frequency questionnaire. Obesity was assessed by body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity was assessed by waist circumference (WC). A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) of obesity according to coffee consumption. After multivariate adjustment, high coffee consumption was positively associated with obesity as measured by BMI (≥3 cups vs. no drinks, OR = 2.52; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.91-3.34; p for the trend coffee consumption and obesity prevalence was not altered by menopause. The amount of coffee with additives consumed per day by Korean women was positively correlated with the prevalence of obesity, but causation cannot be determined due to the cross-sectional nature of the study design. The mechanism underlying the observed relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  4. Salivary cortisol and binge eating disorder in obese women after surgery for morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; van Ramshorst, Bert; van Doornen, Lorenz J P; Geenen, Rinie

    2009-01-01

    Binge eating episodes characterized by loss of control are hypothesized to be accompanied by changes in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Cortisol is an end product of this neuroendocrine stress system. The aim of this study was to examine the cortisol levels and the awakening cortisol response (ACR) in obese persons showing binge eating after surgery for morbid obesity. Sixteen obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) and 18 obese women without BED participated in the study. Means+/-SD: age 43 +/- 15, body mass index 40 +/- 8. Salivary cortisol, anthropometric assessments, and the eating disorder examination interview were taken. Women with BED showed a significantly lower waist-to-hip ratio and cortisol levels during the day than women without BED, whereas the ACR did not differ. Our cross-sectional study in a small sample generates the hypothesis that neuroendocrine regulation differs between obese women with and without BED after obesity surgery. This finding needs replication in future studies that should also examine the causal direction of the observed association.

  5. Characterization of 24-h cortisol release in obese and non-obese hyperandrogenic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J E; Bray, M A; Faiman, C; Reyes, F I

    1994-12-01

    Excessive androgen output is a well-recognized feature of adrenocortical oversecretion in women with ovarian hyperandrogenism, or polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). However, evidence of a concomitant alteration of cortisol secretion is lacking even though obesity per se, a common clinical feature of PCOD, has been shown to be associated with cortisol oversecretion. To clarify whether a subtle alteration in cortisol secretion exists, a study of 24-h episodic cortisol release and post-prandial cortisol responses was undertaken in eight women with PCOD and eight normal women comprising equal numbers of obese and non-obese subjects. All four groups showed normal biphasic 24-h cortisol secretion profiles but cortisol pulse frequency was increased in the PCOD groups. Independently, both hyperandrogenism and obesity were associated with an accelerated cortisol clearance rate. These changes, together with normal or only slightly elevated 24-h cortisol integrated area under the curve, suggest an increased compensatory cortisol production in women with PCOD. Furthermore, subjects with PCOD and subjects with obesity showed different post-prandial cortisol responses to normal non-obese women. In conclusion, these subtle cortisol abnormalities may be a manifestation of altered central regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and peripheral metabolic abnormalities, and may be linked to the pathophysiology of PCOD.

  6. Impaired associative learning with food rewards in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihao; Manson, Kirk F; Schiller, Daniela; Levy, Ifat

    2014-08-04

    Obesity is a major epidemic in many parts of the world. One of the main factors contributing to obesity is overconsumption of high-fat and high-calorie food, which is driven by the rewarding properties of these types of food. Previous studies have suggested that dysfunction in reward circuits may be associated with overeating and obesity. The nature of this dysfunction, however, is still unknown. Here, we demonstrate impairment in reward-based associative learning specific to food in obese women. Normal-weight and obese participants performed an appetitive reversal learning task in which they had to learn and modify cue-reward associations. To test whether any learning deficits were specific to food reward or were more general, we used a between-subject design in which half of the participants received food reward and the other half received money reward. Our results reveal a marked difference in associative learning between normal-weight and obese women when food was used as reward. Importantly, no learning deficits were observed with money reward. Multiple regression analyses also established a robust negative association between body mass index and learning performance in the food domain in female participants. Interestingly, such impairment was not observed in obese men. These findings suggest that obesity may be linked to impaired reward-based associative learning and that this impairment may be specific to the food domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Willingness among Obese Pregnant Women to Accept MRI Scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83...

  8. Leptin production during early starvation in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S; Horowitz, J F; Landt, M; Goodrick, S J; Mohamed-Ali, V; Coppack, S W

    2000-02-01

    We evaluated abdominal adipose tissue leptin production during short-term fasting in nine lean [body mass index (BMI) 21 +/- 1 kg/m(2)] and nine upper body obese (BMI 36 +/- 1 kg/m(2)) women. Leptin kinetics were determined by arteriovenous balance across abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue at 14 and 22 h of fasting. At 14 h of fasting, net leptin release from abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects (10.9 +/- 1.9 ng x 100 g tissue x (-1) x min(-1)) was not significantly greater than the values observed in the lean group (7.6 +/- 2.1 ng x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)). Estimated whole body leptin production was approximately fivefold greater in obese (6.97 +/- 1.18 microg/min) than lean subjects (1.25 +/- 0.28 microg/min) (P production rates decreased in both lean and obese groups (to 3.10 +/- 1.31 and 10.5 +/- 2.3 ng x 100 g adipose tissue(-1) x min(-1), respectively). However, the relative declines in both arterial leptin concentration and local leptin production in obese women (arterial concentration 13.8 +/- 4.4%, local production 10.0 +/- 12.3%) were less (P lean women (arterial concentration 39.0 +/- 5.5%, local production 56.9 +/- 13.0%). This study demonstrates that decreased leptin production accounts for the decline in plasma leptin concentration observed after fasting. However, compared with lean women, the fasting-induced decline in leptin production is blunted in women with upper body obesity. Differences in leptin production during fasting may be responsible for differences in the neuroendocrine response to fasting previously observed in lean and obese women.

  9. Increased cortisol bioavailability, abdominal obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Martine; Marquez Pereira, Patricia; Barat, Pascal; Gatta, Blandin; Roger, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    This study was conducted to obtain a detailed profile of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and reactivity and its differential relationships with body fat distribution and total fat mass in premenopausal obese women. Cortisol responses to stimulation (awakening, food intake, exercise) and suppression (0.25 mg dexamethasone), cortisol metabolism, and tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were studied in 53 premenopausal obese women grouped according to their waist-to hip ratio: women with abdominal body fat distribution (A-BFD; n = 31) and women with peripheral fat distribution (P-BFD; n = 22). Comparatively, A-BFD women had 1) lower awakening salivary cortisol levels; 2) increased salivary responsiveness to a standardized lunch; 3) similar pituitary sensitivity to dexamethasone but decreased sensitivity of monocytes to dexamethasone; 4) similar 24-hour urinary free cortisol but increased 24-hour urinary ratio of cortisone-to-cortisol; and 5) no difference in corticosteroid binding protein parameters. Although abdominal obesity is not very different from generalized obesity in terms of HPA function, subtle variations in HPA axis activity and reactivity are evidenced in A-BFD premenopausal obese women.

  10. Television exposure and overweight/obesity among women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuoyire, Derek Anamaale

    2018-01-01

    Although the public health importance of the association between television (TV) viewing and obesity and/or related outcomes have been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and prospective studies elsewhere, similar studies are lacking within the African region. With the view to fill this gap in the literature, the current study explored the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Based on a sample of 4158 women, descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to data on TV ownership, TV viewing frequency, and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (GDHS) to explore the association between TV exposure and overweight/obesity among Ghanaian women. Despite controlling for other factors (age educational level, marital status, wealth quintile, occupation, type of locality, and parity), the results show that women with TV in their households, and with high TV exposure were significantly ( P  TV in their households, and no TV exposure. The study demonstrates that increased TV exposure is significantly associated with overweight/obesity among women in Ghana even after adjusting for other factors. Interventions aimed at tackling obesity in Ghana should focus on encouraging the uptake of more physically demanding pastime activities in place of TV "sit time".

  11. [Nutritional knowledge and its association with overweight and obesity in Mexican women with low socioeconomic level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Gómez, Carlos; Juárez Martínez, Liliana; Shamah Levy, Teresa; García Guerra, Armando; Avila Curiel, Abelardo; Quiroz Aguilar, Marco Antonio

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the association between knowledge about nutrition with the presence of obesity or overweight in women with low income in Mexico City. Data was obtained with the Urban Food and Nutrition Survey 2002 in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (ENURBAL 2002), a stratified multistage and clustered design survey. An ordinal logistic regression model was used in order to estimate the probability to present obesity and overweight or obesity, in relation to nutritional knowledge, age, education, employment, socioeconomic status, and total fat consumption. The variables that were related to overweight or obesity: correct or regular nutrition knowledge (OR = 2,00; CI95% = 1,13-3,54) and (OR = 1,54; CI 95%= 1,03-2,30), respectively; age 30 years (OR = 3,00; CI 95% = 1,94-4,64), belonging to a medium- low socioeconomic status (OR = 2,04; CI 95% = 1,33-3,15), and high fat consumption (OR = 1,65; CI 95% = 1,07-2,55). For obesity was age 30 years (OR = 2,42; IC 95% = 1,48-3,94) and high fat consumption (OR = 1,67; IC 95% = 1,05-2,66). Our results helped to identify associated factors in women with obesity and overweight from low income households, mainly those concerning with nutrition knowledge. This emphasizes the importance of improving knowledge about nutrition, in planning the strategy for interventions aimed to prevent overweight and obesity.

  12. Identifying and Developing Women For Management Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Bird

    1971-01-01

    Organizational attitudes and effective development are key factors in acceptance of women managers. Article examines the development of sex role stereotypes and how they effect the placement of women in management positions. (RB)

  13. Comparison of thermogenic sympathetic response to food intake between obese and non-obese young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, T; Miyawaki, C; Ue, H; Kanda, T; Yoshitake, Y; Moritani, T

    2001-02-01

    Sympathetic nervous system abnormality in humans is still a matter of debate. The present study was designed to examine diet-induced autonomic nervous system activity and metabolic change in obese and non-obese young women. Sixteen age- and height-matched obese and non-obese young women participated in this study. Sympathovagal activities were assessed by means of our newly developed spectral analysis procedure of heart-rate variability during the resting condition and after mixed-food ingestion (480 kcal). Energy expenditure was also measured under these two conditions. There was no significant difference in any of the parameters of the heart-rate variability between the obese group and control group during the resting condition. In the control group, both absolute values (221.5 +/- 54.5 vs. 363.8 +/- 43.7 ms2, p frequency component and global sympathetic nervous system index (1.46 +/- 0.19 vs. 3.26 +/- 0.61, p food ingestion compared with the values obtained after resting condition. However, no such sympathetic response was found in the obese group. Energy expenditure increased in the two groups after the meal, but the magnitude of the increase above the preprandial resting condition was significantly greater in the control group than in the obese group (11.2 +/- 2.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0.8%, p food intake, which might be related to lowered capacity of thermogenesis and the state of obesity.

  14. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  15. Genome wide association study identifies KCNMA1 contributing to human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Hong; Arner, Peter; Hoffstedt, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) analyses have identified common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with obesity. However, the reported genetic variation in obesity explains only a minor fraction of the total genetic variation expected to be present in the population....... Thus many genetic variants controlling obesity remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use GWA followed by multiple stepwise validations to identify additional genes associated with obesity....

  16. Obesity in Women: The Clinical Impact on Gastrointestinal and Reproductive Health and Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett-Blakely, Octavia; Uwakwe, Laura; Rashid, Farzana

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 36% of adult women in the United States are obese. Although obesity affects women similarly to men in terms of prevalence, there seem to be gender-specific differences in the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of obesity. Obesity is linked to comorbid diseases involving multiple organ systems, including the gastrointestinal tract, like gastroesophageal reflux disease, fatty liver disease, and gallstones. This article focuses on obesity in women, specifically the impact of obesity on gastrointestinal diseases and reproductive health, as well as the treatment of obesity in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk of overweight and obesity among semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, P K; Tucker, Katherine L; Wolk, Alicja

    2005-06-01

    Observational studies suggest that a plant-based diet is inversely related to body mass index (BMI), overweight, and obesity. Our objective was to examine the BMI (kg/m(2)) and risk of overweight and obesity of self-defined semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women. Data analyzed in this cross-sectional study were from 55459 healthy women participating in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Women were asked whether they considered themselves to be omnivores (n = 54257), semivegetarians (n = 960), lactovegetarians (n = 159), or vegans (n = 83), and this question was the main exposure variable in this study. In secondary analyses, we reclassified women as lactovegetarians on the basis of food intakes reported on the food-frequency questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight or obesity (BMI >/= 25) was 40% among omnivores, 29% among both semivegetarians and vegans, and 25% among lactovegetarians. In multivariate, adjusted logistic regression analyses, self-identified vegans had a significantly lower risk of overweight or obesity [odds ratio (OR) = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.69] than did omnivores, as did lactovegetarians (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.85) and semivegetarians (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.43, 0.62). Risk of overweight or obesity remained significantly lower among lactovegetarians classified on the basis of the food-frequency questionnaire (OR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.78). Even if vegetarians consume some animal products, our results suggest that self-identified semivegetarian, lactovegetarian, and vegan women have a lower risk of overweight and obesity than do omnivorous women. The advice to consume more plant foods and less animal products may help individuals control their weight.

  18. High risk for obstructive sleep apnea and other sleep disorders among overweight and obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jayne R; Larrabure-Torrealva, Gloria T; Luque Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Grande, Mirtha; Motta, Vicky; Barrios, Yasmin V; Sanchez, Sixto; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-09-02

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common and serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep, is associated with excess weight and obesity. Little is known about the co-occurrence of OSA among pregnant women from low and middle-income countries. We examined the extent to which maternal pre-pregnancy overweight or obesity status are associated with high risk for OSA, poor sleep quality, and excessive daytime sleepiness in 1032 pregnant women in Lima, Peru. The Berlin questionnaire was used to identify women at high risk for OSA. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were used to examine sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression procedures were employed to estimate odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for putative confounding factors. Compared with lean women (overweight women (25-29.9 kg/m(2)) had 3.69-fold higher odds of high risk for OSA (95% CI 1.82-7.50). The corresponding aOR for obese women (≥30 kg/m(2)) was 13.23 (95% CI: 6.25-28.01). Obese women, as compared with their lean counterparts had a 1.61-fold higher odds of poor sleep quality (95% CI: 1.00-2.63). Overweight or obese pregnant women have increased odds of sleep disorders, particularly OSA. OSA screening and risk management may be indicated among pregnant women in low and middle income countries, particularly those undergoing rapid epidemiologic transitions characterized by increased prevalence of excessive adult weight gain.

  19. Exercise self-efficacy intervention in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Jude

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of a brief tailored intervention on self-efficacy beliefs and exercise energy expenditure in active and inactive overweight and obese women. Participants were randomly assigned to either control (N = 50) or intervention (N = 47) conditions, and their exercise self-efficacy was assessed three times over a 12-week period. Results showed that the intervention increased schedule, physical, exercise-worries efficacy, and energy expenditure in the previously inactive group. The results suggest that self-efficacy interventions are effective at increasing exercise energy expenditure in inactive overweight and obese women. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome women: obese and non obese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Lucas Gabriel Maltoni; Bedoschi, Giuliano; Melo, Anderson Sanches; Albuquerque, Felipe Oliveira de; Rosa e Silva, Ana Carolina Japur de Sá; Ferriani, Rui Alberto; Navarro, Paula Andrea

    2011-06-01

    To compare the metabolic characteristics of obese and non-obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (POS) from the Brazilian Southeast. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 218 women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of POS--90 non-obese women (BMI between 18.5 and 29.9 kg/m²), and 128 obese patients (BMI > 30 kg/m²) selected at the time of diagnosis. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR), glucose intolerance (GI), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and mean values of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were compared between obese and non-obese patients with POS. The two groups were also compared in terms of clinical and hormonal characteristics (follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, total testosterone, dihydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone). Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS 9.0 software. Quantitative variables were compared by the Student's t-test (data with normal distribution) or by the Mann-Whitney test (non-parametric distribution). Qualitative variables were compared by the Fisher test. The level of significance was set at 5% (p women with POS have a higher frequency of IR, GI and MS than non-obese. However, the occurrence of metabolic disorders is elevated also in the non-obese patients, suggesting that the presence of the syndrome may favor the development of metabolic comorbidities with potential medium- and long-term repercussions.

  1. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Yuying; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Shengxian; Zhou, Wenzhong; Ye, Lei; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Tao; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Zuwei; Zhao, Dandan; Gu, Weiqiong; Hong, Jie; Ning, Guang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese contro...

  2. Self-monitoring Lifestyle Behavior in Overweight and Obese Pregnant Women: Qualitative Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke

    Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.

  3. Prevalence of obesity, central obesity, and associated socio-demographic variables in Syrian women using different anthropometric indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Bakir M Adel; Hammad Kholoud; Mohammad Loreen

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing globally in both developing and developed countries, especially, those with rapid cultural and social changes. The aims of current study were twofold: (a) to examine, for the first time in Syria, the prevalence of overweight, obesity and central obesity in Syrian women and obesity-related socio-demographic determinants, and (b) to establish a base line data about obesity related determinants needed to develop appropriate treatment and pre...

  4. Obesity in women – a life cycle of medical risk | van der Merwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity can have an impact on health at each stage of a woman's life cycle. In young women, obesity has an impact on psychosocial health and, as they grow older, on their reproductive health. Obesity also imposes a number of serious risks during pregnancy. In older women, obesity is associated with the emergence of a ...

  5. Perceived discrimination among men and women with normal weight and obesity. A population-based study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Lena M; Näslund, Erik; Rasmussen, Finn

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether men and women with obesity reported different types of discrimination to a greater extent than those with normal weight, and explored whether these associations were modified by socioeconomic position. National representative sample of men and women, with normal weight (n = 2,000), moderate obesity (n = 2,461) and severe obesity (n = 557). Participants were identified in a yearly population-based survey (1996-2006) and data on perceived discrimination and potential confounding factors were measured in 2008. Logistic regression models tested whether obesity was associated with perceived lifetime, workplace, healthcare and interpersonal discrimination. The overall response rate was 56%. For men, moderate obesity was associated with workplace discrimination, while severely obese women were more likely to report this sort of discrimination than normal weight women. Severely obese individuals were twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination than normal weight individuals. Women, regardless of weight status group, were in turn twice as likely to report healthcare discrimination as men. Women with severe obesity were significantly more likely to report interpersonal discrimination compared with normal weight women. Socioeconomic position modified the association between weight status and healthcare discrimination. Highly educated individuals with moderate and severe obesity were more likely to report healthcare discrimination than their normal weight counterparts, whereas low educated individuals with normal weight, moderate and severe obesity were equally likely to report discrimination. In this large, population-based study, discrimination was more likely to be reported by obese individuals compared with those of normal weight. The associations, however, varied according to gender and socioeconomic position.

  6. Insulin resistance in obesity can be reliably identified from fasting plasma insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Horst, K. W.; Gilijamse, P. W.; Koopman, K. E.; de Weijer, B. A.; Brands, M.; Kootte, R. S.; Romijn, J. A.; Ackermans, M. T.; Nieuwdorp, M.; Soeters, M. R.; Serlie, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the major contributor to cardiometabolic complications of obesity. We aimed to (1) establish cutoff points for insulin resistance from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (EHCs), (2) identify insulin-resistant obese subjects and (3) predict insulin resistance from routinely

  7. Obesity, metabolic profile, and inhibition failure: Young women under scrutiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoira, N P; Tapajóz, F; Allegri, R F; Lajfer, J; Rodríguez Cámara, M J; Iturry, M L; Castaño, G O

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity, as well as evidence about this pathology as a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia in the elderly, is increasing worldwide. Executive functions have been found to be compromised in most studies, although the specific results are dissimilar. Obese young women constitute an interesting study and intervention group, having been found to be unaffected by age and hormonal negative effects on cognition and considering that their health problems affect not only themselves but their families and offspring. The objective of the present study was to compare the executive performance of obese young women with that of a healthy control group. A cross-sectional study was done among premenopausal women from a public hospital in Buenos Aires. The sample comprised 113 participants (32 healthy controls and 81 obese women), who were evaluated for depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and executive functioning (Trail-Making Test B, Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and verbal fluency test). Statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS version 20.0 software. Among executive functions, a significant difference was found between groups in inhibition (pcognitive test and 2h post-load glucose level. Inhibition was decreased in our obese young women group, and glucose/lipid metabolism may be involved in this association. The cognitive impairment is comparable with that described in addictive conditions. Our conclusions support the concept of multidisciplinary management of obese patients from the time of diagnosis. Detecting and understanding cognitive dysfunction in this population is essential to providing appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cardiac parasympathetic regulation in obese women with binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, H-C; Schild, S; Schellberg, D; Quenter, A; Bode, C; Herzog, W; Zipfel, S

    2006-03-01

    Obese individuals with a binge eating disorder (BED) differ from obese non-binge eaters (NBED) with respect to (a) eating behaviour, (b) psychiatric comorbidity and (c) level of psychosocial distress. The aim of the study was to explore whether these three factors have an influence on cardiac parasympathetic function, that is independent of obesity: as alterations in cardiac parasympathetic function may have a role in the higher cardiovascular mortality that is present in obese individuals. In total, 38 obese women (BMI>30 kg/m(2)), with a BED and 34 age and BMI matched healthy controls (NBED) completed a laboratory stress protocol that incorporated a baseline resting period, Head-up Tilt Testing (HUT) and two challenging mental tasks. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured continuously during the protocol. Parasympathetic cardiac regulation was assessed as the high frequency component of heart rate variability (HRV-HF). Mental challenge led to an augmented reduction of HRV-HF in obese binge eaters, which was linked to the binge eating frequency and hunger perception, but not to psychiatric comorbidity. During baseline conditions and HUT, no significant differences in parasympathetic measures were observed between the two subject groups. Subjects with a BED showed greater reduction in parasympathetic cardiac control (HRV-HF) during mental stress, suggesting higher stress vulnerability in women with a BED. Longitudinal investigations are necessary to evaluate whether this is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality.

  9. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section......, macrosomia and childhood obesity. This article reviews the effect of maternal obesity on obstetric and neonatal outcomes and provides recommendations for management of obesity in pregnancy....

  10. Parity and Overweight/Obesity in Peruvian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Quispe, Renato; Poterico, Julio A; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Miranda, J Jaime

    2017-10-19

    The rise in noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in developing countries may have changed or intensified the effect of parity on obesity. We aimed to assess this association in Peruvian women using data from a nationally representative survey. We used data from Peru's Demographic and Health Survey, 2012. Parity was defined as the number of children ever born to a woman. We defined overweight as having a body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) of 25.0 to 29.9 and obesity as a BMI ≥30.0. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between parity and BMI and BMI categories, by area of residence and age, adjusting for confounders. Data from 16,082 women were analyzed. Mean parity was 2.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.17-2.33) among rural women and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36-1.43) among urban women. Mean BMI was 26.0 (standard deviation, 4.6). We found evidence of an association between parity and BMI, particularly in younger women; BMI was up to 4 units higher in rural areas and 2 units higher in urban areas. An association between parity and BMI categories was observed in rural areas as a gradient, being highest in younger women. We found a positive association between parity and overweight/obesity. This relationship was stronger in rural areas and among younger mothers.

  11. Optimal weight gain in obese and overweight pregnant Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka-Nakama, Junko; Enomoto, Kimiko; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Miyagi, Etsuko; Aoki, Shigeru

    2018-03-20

    We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.

  12. Is obesity in women protective against osteoporosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Fornari, Rachele; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Silvia Migliaccio1,2, Emanuela A Greco1, Rachele Fornari1, Lorenzo M Donini1, Andrea Lenzi11Dipartimento di Medicina Sperimentale, Sezione di Fisiopatologia, Endocrinologia e Nutrizione, Università Sapienza di Roma, 2Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università Foro Italico di Roma, ItaliaAbstract: The belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently come into question. The latest epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that a high level of f...

  13. Influence of cortisol on zinc metabolism in morbidly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota Martins, Luana; Soares de Oliveira, Ana Raquel; Clímaco Cruz, Kyria Jayanne; Borges de Araújo, Camila Guedes; de Oliveira, Francisco Erasmo; Santos de Sousa, Gustavo; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2014-01-01

    The accumulation of visceral fat affects the metabolism of hormones and some nutrients, but these mechanisms remain unclear. To assess the influence of cortisol on the metabolism of zinc in morbidly obese women. Cross-sectional, case-control study involving 80 women aged between 20 and 59 years. The participants were divided into two groups: experimental (morbidly obese, n = 40) and control (normal weight, n = 40). Zinc concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and serum and urinary cortisol by chemiluminescence method. Zinc intake was significantly different between groups. Mean plasma zinc was lower in obese compared to control group. Mean values for erythrocyte zinc were 44.52 ± 7.84 µg/gHb and 40.17 ± 6.71 µg/gHb for obese and control groups, respectively. Urinary excretion of this mineral was higher in obese compared to control subjects (p cortisol were 9.58 ± 4.86 µg/dL for obese and 9.89 ± 5.61 µg/dL for control groups. Mean values for urinary cortisol were 163.00 ± 100.35 µg/dL and 109.71 ± 34.88 µg/dL for obese and control groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlation analysis between cortisol and zinc was not significant (p > 0.05). Obese patients have hypozincemia and high erythrocyte zinc levels. The correlation between zinc parameters and cortisol concentration showed no influence of this hormone on zinc metabolism.

  14. Ghrelin level negatively predicts quality of life in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, P H; Song, Y L; Hsu, C H

    2017-02-01

    A cross-sectional cohort study was conducted to investigate whether ghrelin level in obese women predicts the quality of life (QOL). A total of 307 subjects fulfilled the criteria: (1) age between 20 and 65 years old, (2) body mass index ≥27 kg/m 2 (3) waist circumference ≥80 cm were enrolled in the study. All subjects were assigned to one of the plasma ghrelin level categories according to the quartiles. The median of age and BMI of the 307 obese women were 45 ± 18 years and 29.9 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 , respectively. The main outcome evaluated is the associations of plasma ghrelin level and QOL, which were evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis. Results of linear trend test show significant statistical difference in plasma lipoproteins (triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL-cholestero and LDL-cholesterol = and levels of obesity-related hormone peptides, including leptin, adiponectin, insulin among quartiles of ghrelin. Multiple liner regression analysis of serum obesity-related hormone peptide level and QOL using stepwise method shows ghrelin concentration was the only predictor of QOL, including PCS-12 level (β = -0.18, p = 0.001), MCS-12 level (β = -0.14, p = 0.009), WHOQOL-BREF scores: physical (β = -0.13, p = 0.03), psychological (β = -0.16, p = 0.007), social (β = -0.21, p =  ghrelin concentration is strongly associated with QOL level among obese women. Hence, ghrelin concentration might be a valuable marker to be monitored in obese women.

  15. The value of blood serotonin for effective weight loss in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Vadimovna Anikina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, which leads to excessive accumulation of fat. In recent years, many important discoveries were made in this field, including the discovery of hormones produced by adipose tissue and the identification of many of the central and peripheral pathways of energy balance. Objective. To study the levels of hormones that affect appetite and metabolism in women with obesity baseline and after weight loss while taking sibutramine. Materials and methods. The study included 56 women aged 42,9±9,5 years, with a BMI of 34,6±6,1 kg/m2. All patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental examination. Hormonal study included determination of serotonin, leptin, ghrelin, endothelin-1, adiponectin. Results: In women with obesity we identified hyperleptinemia and increased serotonin levels. The decrease in body weight in patients receiving sibutramine was accompanied by lower levels of serotonin, leptin, ghrelin, endothelin-1, and increase of adiponectin. Conclusions: Obese patients have significantly elevated levels of leptin, serotonin, ghrelin compared to women of normal weight. Sibutramine treatment leads to a decrease in serotonin, leptin, ghrelin and is more effective in women with a BMI less than 36,5 kg/m2.

  16. The Curves Exercise Suppresses Endotoxemia in Korean Women with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seon Ah; Kim, Sun Kyeong; Seo, Hee Jung; Kim, Mijoo; Ahn, Kye Taek; Kim, Jun Hyung; Park, Jae Hyeong; Lee, Jae Hwan; Choi, Si Wan; Jeong, Jin Ok

    2017-02-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is a worldwide pandemic and associated with high cardiovascular risk. Metabolic endotoxemia (ME) is thought to be an underlying molecular mechanism. It triggers toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory adipokines and causes a chronic low grade inflammatory status, which results in cardiovascular risk increase. Exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment to improve prognosis. In this study, we examined the circulating endotoxin level in Korean obese women and investigated effects of exercise on it. Women over body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m² participated in a resistance training exercise, Curves. At baseline and after 12 weeks exercise, tests including blood samples were taken. In Korean obese women, the fasting endotoxin was 1.45 ± 0.11 EU/mL. Ingestion of a high calorie meal led to a peak level after 2 hours (postprandial 2 hours [PP2]) and a significant rise over the 4 hours (postprandial 4 hours [PP4]) in it (1.78 ± 0.15 and 1.75 ± 0.14 EU/mL for PP2 and PP4, P exercise, BMI and hip circumference were reduced significantly. The total cholesterol (TC) at fasting, PP2 and PP4 were decreased significantly. All levels of circulating endotoxin at fasting, PP2 and PP4 showed reduction. But, the peak change was only significant (baseline vs. 12 weeks for PP2; 1.78 ± 0.15 vs. 1.48 ± 0.06 EU/mL, P obese women for the first time. Also, we establish that energy intake leads to endotoxemia and exercise suppresses the peak endotoxemia after meal. It suggests an impact for a better prognosis in obese women who follow regular exercise.

  17. Obesity and its relation to depressive symptoms and sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümel, Juan E; Chedraui, Peter; Aedo, Sócrates; Fica, Juan; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Laribezcoa, Fiorella; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstatinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity increases during female mid-life and although many factors have been identified, data from Latin America is lacking. To assess factors related to obesity among middle-aged women and determine the association with depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle and other factors. A total of 6079 women aged 40-59 years of 11 Latin American countries were asked to fill out the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and a general questionnaire containing personal socio-demographic data, anthropometric measures and lifestyle information. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2). Obesity was observed in 18.5% and sedentary lifestyle in 63.9%. A 55.5% presented vasomotor symptoms, 12.2% had severe menopausal symptoms and 13.2% used hormone therapy for the menopause. Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.5% and anxiety 59.7%. Our logistic regression model found that significant factors associated to obesity included: arterial hypertension (OR: 1.87), depressive symptoms (OR: 1.57), sedentary lifestyle (OR: 1.50) diabetes mellitus (OR: 1.34), higher number of individuals living at home (OR: 1.31), sleep problems (OR:1.22), anxiety (OR: 1.21), having a stable partner (OR: 1.20), parity (OR: 1.16) and vasomotor symptoms (OR:1.14). A lower risk for obesity was found among women using hormonal contraceptives (OR: 0.69). Obesity in middle-aged women is the consequence of the interaction of multiple factors. It was associated to hypertension, depressive symptoms, sedentary lifestyle, climacteric symptoms and other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships Among Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and Plasma Cytokines in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gerald V; Sebastiani, Paola; Andrieu, Guillaume; Tran, Anna H; Strissel, Katherine J; Lombardi, Frank L; Palmer, Julie R

    2017-11-01

    The principal objective of this investigation was to identify novel cytokine associations with BMI and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Cytokines were profiled from African American women with obesity who donated plasma to the Komen Tissue Bank. Multiplex bead arrays of analytes were used to quantify 88 cytokines and chemokines in association with clinical diagnoses of metabolic health. Regression models were generated after elimination of outliers. Among women with obesity, T2D was associated with breast adipocyte hypertrophy and with six plasma analytes, including four chemokines (chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 2, chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 16, chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1, and chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 16) and two growth factors (interleukin 2 and epidermal growth factor). In addition, three analytes were associated with obesity independently of diabetes: interleukin 4, soluble CD40 ligand, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3. Profiling of inflammatory cytokines combined with measures of BMI may produce a more personalized risk assessment for obesity-associated disease in African American women. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  19. Outcome of assisted reproductive technology in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenna, Antonio; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A; Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity among patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Latin America and its consequences on treatment outcomes. Methods We used the Latin American Registry of ART to obtain women's age and body mass index (BMI), cancellation rate, number of oocytes retrieved and embryos transferred, clinical pregnancy, live birth and miscarriage rates from 107.313 patients undergoing autologous IVF and ICSI during four years; a multivariable analysis was performed to determine the effect of BMI on cancellation, oocytes retrieved, pregnancy, live birth and miscarriage, adjusting for age, number of embryos transferred and embryo developmental stage upon embryo transfer, when appropriate. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.1% and 42.4%, respectively; correcting for age of female partner, overweight and obesity were associated to an increase in the odds of cancellation and to a lower mean number of oocytes retrieved; after adjusting for age, number of embryos transferred and stage of embryo development at transfer, we found that the BMI category was not associated to a change in the likelihoods of pregnancy, live birth and miscarriage. Conclusions The prevalence of obesity among women seeking ART in Latin America is surprisingly high; however, BMI does not influence the outcome of ART performed in these women. PMID:28609272

  20. Plasma galanin concentrations in obese, normal weight and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitti, C; Brunani, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Dubini, A; Bendinelli, P; Maroni, P; Cavagnini, F

    1995-05-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of eating behavior. No information is available on its concentrations in the biological fluids in human obesity, and this study aimed to clarify this. We measured plasma galanin and serum insulin levels in 30 obese, 35 normal weight and 11 anorectic women. Mean galanin values were quite similar in obese and control subjects (76.8 +/- 3.20 vs 76.1 +/- 2.33 pg/ml) and only slightly reduced in anorectic patients (67.9 +/- 2.30 pg/ml). Insulin levels were significantly increased and decreased in obese and anorectic patients, respectively, compared to controls. Insulin correlated positively with BMI in the whole group of subjects studied (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and in the obese subgroup (r = 0.56, P < 0.02). No correlations could be detected between WH ratio, insulin and galanin concentrations and between galanin and BMI. In conclusion, plasma galanin concentrations appear to be comparable in obese, normal weight and anorectic subjects. This does not exclude a role of galanin in the regulation of eating behavior since variations of the peptide in discrete brain areas may not be detectable in general circulation and peripheral sources of the peptide may contribute to its plasma levels. Also, our data suggest that galanin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in humans.

  1. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotin, Nicole; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Anastos, Kathryn; Weiser, Sheri D

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US) yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women. Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity. Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31%) reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20) after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use. Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  2. Food insecurity with hunger is associated with obesity among HIV-infected and at risk women in Bronx, NY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Sirotin

    Full Text Available Food insecurity, insufficient quality and quantity of nutritionally adequate food, affects millions of people in the United States (US yearly, with over 18 million Americans reporting hunger. Food insecurity is associated with obesity in the general population. Due to the increasing prevalence of obesity and risk factors for cardiovascular disease among HIV-infected women, we sought to determine the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in this cohort of urban, HIV-infected and -uninfected but at risk women.Using a cross-sectional design, we collected data on food insecurity, body mass index and demographic and clinical data from 231 HIV-infected and 119 HIV-negative women enrolled in Bronx site of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify factors associated with obesity.Food insecurity was highly prevalent, with almost one third of women (110/350, 31% reporting food insecurity over the previous six months and over 13% of women reported food insecurity with hunger. Over half the women were obese with a Body Mass Index (BMI of ≥ 30. In multivariate analyses, women who were food insecure with hunger had higher odds of obesity (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] =  2.56, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]  =  1.27, 5.20 after adjusting for HIV status, age, race, household status, income, drug and alcohol use.Food insecurity with hunger was associated with obesity in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected, urban women. Both food insecurity and obesity are independent markers for increased mortality; further research is needed to understand this relationship and their role in adverse health outcomes.

  3. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Support Resources Diseases and Conditions Adrenal Disorders Osteoporosis and Bone Health Children and Teen Health Diabetes Heart Health Men's Health Rare Diseases Pituitary Disorders Thyroid Disorders Transgender Health Obesity and Weight Management Women's Health You and Your ...

  4. Effect of Maternal Age at Childbirth on Obesity in Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    We, Ji-Sun; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Kil, Kicheol

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The object of this study was to assess the obesity in postmenopausal women, according to age at childbirth. We analyzed the association between age at first childbirth, age at last childbirth, parity, and subject obesity status (general obesity; BMI?>25?kg/m2, nongeneral obesity; BMI ?25?kg/m2, abdominal obesity; waist circumference?>85?cm, nonabdominal obesity; waist circumference ?85?cm), using data from a nationwide population-based survey, the 2010 to 2012 Korean National Health ...

  5. Dog obesity--the need for identifying predisposing genetic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switonski, M; Mankowska, M

    2013-12-01

    Incidence of overweight and obesity in dogs exceeds 30%, and several breeds are predisposed to this heritable phenotype. Rapid progress of canine genomics and advanced knowledge on the genetic background of human obesity bring a unique opportunity to perform such studies in dogs. Natural candidate genes for obesity are these encoding adipokines. Extended studies in humans indicated that polymorphisms of three of them, i.e. ADIPOQ, IL1 and TNF, are associated with predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the use of genome-wide association studies revealed an association between human obesity and polymorphism of more than 50 other genes. Until now only few preliminary reports on polymorphism of canine FTO, MC4R, MC3R and PPARG genes have been published. Since the dog is a valuable model organism for human diseases one can foresee that such studies may also contribute to an in-depth understanding of human obesity pathogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Willingness among obese pregnant women to accept MRI scan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83% and 61...

  7. Perception of Obese Women in Relation With your Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Agra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obese person besides being affected to suffer physiological damage, may also have psychological and social changes. So the obese person suffers and develops self- deprecating feelings of self-indulgence, anxiety and changes in feeding behavior, thus ta- king it, can progress to the state of depression, leaving it susceptible to social isolation. Aim: This study aimed to investigate the perception of obese women in relation to its body and the influences in their lives and affective. Method: It is a descriptive, exploratory and qualitative research involving 20 women attending Basic Health Units in the municipality of Cuité/PB, through semi-structured interview, conducted in February 2013. Data collection only started after approval of the project by the Research Ethics Committee of the Health Sciences Center of the Federal University of Paraíba, under CAAE 06662222.4.0000.5188. Results: The data were analyzed using the technique Bardin Content Analysis. Analysis emerged the following categories: Distortion of body image, discrimination and social restrictions, limitations on work activities and dissatisfaction in love life. Conclusion: We conclude that obesity, besides causing physical changes, leads to discrimination and prejudice, promoting social exclusion

  8. Outcome of deliveries in healthy but obese women: obesity and delivery outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaplan-Sturk Rebecka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity among fertile women is a global problem. 25% of pregnant Swedish women are overweight at admission to the antenatal clinic and 12% of them are considered as obese. Previous studies have shown an increased risk of delivery complications with an elevated maternal BMI. The aim of this study was to evaluate delivery outcomes in relation to maternal BMI on admission to the antenatal clinic. A healthy group of 787 women with full-term pregnancies and spontaneous onset of labor were included in the study. Delivery outcome was assessed in relation to maternal BMI when attending the antenatal clinic. Results The results indicated that in deliveries where the maternal BMI was >30 a high frequency of abnormal CTG trace during the last 30 minutes of labor was shown. A blood sample for evaluation of risk of fetal hypoxia was performed in only eight percent of these deliveries. A spontaneous vaginal delivery without intervention was noted in 85.7%, and 12% of neonates were delivered with an adverse fetal outcome compared to 2.8% in the group with a maternal BMI Conclusion These results indicate an increased risk at delivery for healthy, but obese women in labor. Furthermore, the delivery management may not always be optimal in these deliveries.

  9. Maternal obesity surgery : effects in women, spouses and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Berglind, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Bariatric surgery is an important treatment for the worldwide increasing epidemic of obesity. However, the effects of such surgery on offspring epigenetic profile and effects on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in women undergoing bariatric surgery and family members are essentially unknown. Aim: The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible effects of maternal weight loss after bariatric surgery and effects on differences in maternal gest...

  10. Ghrelin and Obesity: Identifying Gaps and Dispelling Myths. A Reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Marinos C; Alexandrou, Andreas; Papatsoutsos, Efstathios G; Malietzis, George; Tsilimigras, Diamantis I; Guerron, Alfredo D; Moris, Demetrios

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of obesity is complex. Environmental and genetic causes have been implicated in the development of this disease. Ghrelin is a hormone known to stimulate appetite. There are numerous possible actions through which ghrelin exerts its effect in the body: a) Overproduction of ghrelin, b) reduced ghrelin following meals, and c) increased receptor sensitivity to ghrelin action. Sleeve gastrectomy, a bariatric procedure, leads to reduction of ghrelin levels and subsequently to weight loss. However, there are many limitations to measurement of the fasting plasma level of the active form of ghrelin. The establishment of the exact correlation between ghrelin, appetite and obesity could be vital for the fight against obesity. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Stroo, Marissa; Fuemmeler, Bernard; Malhotra, Rahul; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    Background Although depressive symptoms are common postpartum, few studies have followed women beyond 12 months postpartum to investigate changes in the number and severity of these symptoms over time, especially in overweight and obese women. Using two complementary analytical methods, this study aims to identify trajectories of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum among overweight or obese mothers, and assess the demographic, socio-economic , and health covariates for these trajectories. Methods Using longitudinal data from two behavioral intervention studies (KAN-DO and AMP; N = 844), we used latent growth modeling to identify the overall trajectory of depressive symptoms and how it was related to key covariates. Next, we used latent class growth analysis to assess the heterogeneity in the depressive symptom trajectories over time, and thereby, identify subgroups of women with distinct trajectories. Findings The overall trajectory of depressive symptoms over two years postpartum was relatively stable in our sample. However, the presence of three distinct latent class trajectories [stable-low (82.5%), decreasing symptoms (7.3%) and increasing symptoms (10.2%)], identified based on trajectory shape and mean depressive symptom score, supported heterogeneity in depressive symptom trajectories over time. Lower maternal education was related to a higher symptom score, and poorer subjective health status at baseline predicted inclusion in the increasing symptoms trajectory. Conclusions In some overweight or obese mothers postpartum depressive symptoms do not resolve quickly. Practitioners should be aware of this phenomenon and continue to screen for depression for longer periods of time postpartum. PMID:25213748

  12. Lipid accumulation product (LAP) as a criterion for the identification of the healthy obesity phenotype in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwow, Felicja; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Milewicz, Andrzej; Szmigiero, Leszek

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and its complications constitute a major health problem in postmenopausal women. The identification of the obesity phenotype, especially that of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) patients, is a necessary part of obesity treatment protocols. There are several methods to define MHO, but unfortunately, all of them are arbitrary and inconsistent. The aim of this work was to determine whether lipid accumulation product (LAP) could be used as a marker of the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. A sample of 345 Polish postmenopausal women aged 50-60years old participated in the study. Participants were classified as obese when their BMI was >27. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to estimate the best cutoff for the LAP index value to identify postmenopausal women without metabolic syndrome components. We found that the best cutoff value was LAP ≤29.9, and this value was used to define MHO individuals. With this definition, the identification of MHO individuals could be made when both of the following criteria were met: LAP index ≤29.9 and no arterial hypertension (SBPwomen identified according to the above definition, were compared with those of MHO women identified by two other methods in the literature. These methods and our definition identified similar proportions of MHO women ranging from 11.6% to 16.9%. We found that MHO women identified by all of the definitions used in this study possessed a similar metabolic status, and they did not differ in anthropometric indices or body fat distribution measurements. We concluded that the combination of LAP estimation and arterial blood pressure measurement appear to constitute a useful method for identifying the MHO phenotype in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Early Antenatal Prediction of Gestational Diabetes in Obese Women: Development of Prediction Tools for Targeted Intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L White

    Full Text Available All obese women are categorised as being of equally high risk of gestational diabetes (GDM whereas the majority do not develop the disorder. Lifestyle and pharmacological interventions in unselected obese pregnant women have been unsuccessful in preventing GDM. Our aim was to develop a prediction tool for early identification of obese women at high risk of GDM to facilitate targeted interventions in those most likely to benefit. Clinical and anthropometric data and non-fasting blood samples were obtained at 15+0-18+6 weeks' gestation in 1303 obese pregnant women from UPBEAT, a randomised controlled trial of a behavioural intervention. Twenty one candidate biomarkers associated with insulin resistance, and a targeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR metabolome were measured. Prediction models were constructed using stepwise logistic regression. Twenty six percent of women (n = 337 developed GDM (International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria. A model based on clinical and anthropometric variables (age, previous GDM, family history of type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, sum of skinfold thicknesses, waist:height and neck:thigh ratios provided an area under the curve of 0.71 (95%CI 0.68-0.74. This increased to 0.77 (95%CI 0.73-0.80 with addition of candidate biomarkers (random glucose, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, fructosamine, adiponectin, sex hormone binding globulin, triglycerides, but was not improved by addition of NMR metabolites (0.77; 95%CI 0.74-0.81. Clinically translatable models for GDM prediction including readily measurable variables e.g. mid-arm circumference, age, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c and adiponectin are described. Using a ≥35% risk threshold, all models identified a group of high risk obese women of whom approximately 50% (positive predictive value later developed GDM, with a negative predictive value of 80%. Tools for early pregnancy identification of obese women at risk of GDM are described

  14. Effect of Long-term Exercise on Voiding Functions in Obese Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Gyu Ko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose An overactive bladder (OAB may be defined as urgency that is a sudden, compelling, difficult to defer desire to pass urine that is usually accompanied by frequency and nocturia and possibly by incontinence. Obesity and old age are two factors in various causes of OAB. Several epidemiologic studies have identified positive associations among obesity, old age, urinary incontinence, and OAB. However, although exercise has been known to improve obesity and reduce incontinent urine loss, little research has been done in elderly women. Therefore, we investigated the effects of exercise on obesity-related metabolic factors, blood lipid factors, and OAB symptoms in elderly Korean women. Methods Twenty-one women aged between 69 and 72 years were recruited from the Seoul senior towers in Korea. All subjects worked out on a motorized treadmill and stationary cycle for 40 minutes, respectively, and performed resistance exercise for 30 minutes once a day for 52 weeks. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, OAB symptom score, and King's health questionnaire were investigated and analyzed. Results Before performing physical exercise, all subjects showed increased OAB symptoms in association with enhanced body mass index (BMI, percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles. However, physical exercise for 52 weeks suppressed BMI, percentage fat, and blood lipid profiles and thus improved OAB symptoms. Conclusions We suggest that long-term physical exercise can be a valuable tool for remarkable improvement of OAB.

  15. Obese pregnant women and complications in relation to pregnancy and birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Tanvig, Mette Honnens; Damm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    One third of the pregnant Danish women are overweight or obese. Maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for adverse maternal and foetal outcomes including infertility, miscarriage, congenital malformations, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, complicated deliveries, caesarean section, macr...

  16. Bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal body mass index, overweight, or obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Juan Pablo; Rojano-Mejía, David; Pedraza, Javier; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Soriano, Ruth; García-García, Eduardo; Aguirre-García, María Del Carmen; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two important public health problems that greatly impact mortality and morbidity. Several similarities between these complex diseases have been identified. The aim of this study was to analyze if different body mass indexes (BMIs) are associated with variations in bone mineral density (BMD) among postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women with normal weight, overweight, or different degrees of obesity. We studied 813 postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied. Height and weight were used to calculate BMI, whereas BMD in the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We used ANCOVA to examine the relationship between BMI and BMDs of the LS, TH, and femoral neck (FN), adjusting for confounding factors. Based on World Health Organization criteria, 15.13% of women had normal BMI, 39.11% were overweight, 25.96% had grade 1 obesity, 11.81% had grade 2 obesity, and 7.99% had grade 3 obesity. The higher the BMI, the higher was the BMD at the LS, TH, and FN. The greatest differences in size variations in BMD at these three sites were observed when comparing women with normal BMI versus women with grade 3 obesity. A higher BMI is associated significantly and positively with a higher BMD at the LS, TH, and FN.

  17. Obesity-Associated Hypertension: the Upcoming Phenotype in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Rohan; Qi, Andrea; Jaiswal, Abhishek; Le Jemtel, Thierry H; Oparil, Suzanne

    2017-05-01

    The present obesity epidemic particularly affects African-American women. Whether the obesity epidemic will alter the hypertension phenotype in African-American women is entertained. The prevalence of morbid obesity is steadily increasing in African-American women, who are prone to developing hypertension (HTN) even in the absence of obesity. The obesity-associated hypertension phenotype is characterized by marked sympathetic nervous system activation and resistance/refractoriness to antihypertensive therapy. Weight loss achieved through lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapy has a modest and rarely sustained antihypertensive effect. In contrast, bariatric surgery has a sustained antihypertensive effect, as evidenced by normalization of hypertension or lessening of antihypertensive therapy. The prevalence of HTN and its obesity-associated phenotype is likely to increase in African-American women over the next decades. Obese African-American women may be increasingly referred for bariatric surgery when hypertension remains uncontrolled despite lifestyle interventions and pharmacological therapy for weight loss and blood pressure (BP) control.

  18. Insulin resistance in obesity can be reliably identified from fasting plasma insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, K W; Gilijamse, P W; Koopman, K E; de Weijer, B A; Brands, M; Kootte, R S; Romijn, J A; Ackermans, M T; Nieuwdorp, M; Soeters, M R; Serlie, M J

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the major contributor to cardiometabolic complications of obesity. We aimed to (1) establish cutoff points for insulin resistance from euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (EHCs), (2) identify insulin-resistant obese subjects and (3) predict insulin resistance from routinely measured variables. We assembled data from non-obese (n=112) and obese (n=100) men who underwent two-step EHCs using [6,6-(2)H2]glucose as tracer (insulin infusion dose 20 and 60 mU m(-2) min(-1), respectively). Reference ranges for hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were calculated from healthy non-obese men. Based on these reference values, obese men with preserved insulin sensitivity or insulin resistance were identified. Cutoff points for insulin-mediated suppression of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and insulin-stimulated glucose disappearance rate (Rd) were 46.5% and 37.3 μmol kg(-)(1) min(-)(1), respectively. Most obese men (78%) had EGP suppression within the reference range, whereas only 12% of obese men had Rd within the reference range. Obese men with Rd obese men in age, body mass index (BMI), body composition, fasting glucose or cholesterol, but did have higher fasting insulin (110±49 vs 63±29 pmol l(-1), Pobese men could be identified with good sensitivity (80%) and specificity (75%) from fasting insulin >74 pmol l(-1). Most obese men have hepatic insulin sensitivity within the range of non-obese controls, but below-normal peripheral insulin sensitivity, that is, insulin resistance. Fasting insulin (>74 pmol l(-1) with current insulin immunoassay) may be used for identification of insulin-resistant (or metabolically unhealthy) obese men in research and clinical settings.

  19. Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenic obesity is the combination of reduced fat-free mass (FFM and increased fat mass (FM with advancing age but there is lack of clear criteria for its identification. The purposes of the present investigation were: 1 to determine the prevalence of postmenopausal women with reduced FFM relative to their FM and height, and 2 to examine whether there are associations between the proposed classification and health-related variables. A total of 607 women were included in this cross-sectional study and were separated into two subsets: 258 older women with a mean age of 66.8 ± 5.6 years and 349 young women aged 18-40 years (mean age, 29.0 ± 7.5 years. All volunteers underwent body composition assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The FFM index relative to FM and height was calculated and the cutoff value corresponded to two standard deviations below the mean of the young reference group. To examine the clinical significance of the classification, all older participants underwent measurements of quadriceps strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Values were compared between those who were classified as low FFM or not, using an independent samples t-test and correlations were examined. The cutoff corresponded to a residual of -3.4 and generated a sarcopenic obesity prevalence of 19.8% that was associated with reduced muscle strength and aerobic fitness among the older participants. Also, the index correlated significantly with the health-related fitness variables. The results demonstrated reduced functional capacity for those below the proposed cutoff and suggested applicability of the approach as a definition for sarcopenic obesity.

  20. Effects of ear acupuncture therapy for obesity on the depression of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Set, Turan; Cayir, Yasemin; Pirim, Asuman Bihter Guven

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is one of the leading health risks worldwide, and depression is among the leading causes of the burden of disease. These disorders are increasingly prevalent as comorbidities. Depressive symptoms are associated with obesity, and are more common in women. To evaluate the effectiveness of ear acupuncture for obesity on the depression of obese women. After baseline testing, 30 eligible patients with body mass index (BMI) >29.9 kg/m(2) were included. The Beck Depression Inventory for Primary Care (BDI-PC) was used to assess changes in depression. BMI was also measured. Patients had six ear acupuncture sessions, every 15 days and were followed up for 3 months. Twenty four patients completed the study. The mean±SD age of patients was 42.9±9.0 years. Their mean±SD BMI was 39.0±4.7 kg/m(2) before acupuncture, decreasing to 37.2±4.3 kg/m(2) after acupuncture therapy (pacupuncture, decreasing to 2.7±1.4 (pacupuncture therapy (p=0.104). After acupuncture therapy, no significant correlation was found between the percentage reduction of BMI and percentage reduction of the depression score (p=0.119). Further research into the effects of ear acupuncture in the management of obesity and depression is justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  2. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  4. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  5. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  6. Unique barriers and needs in weight management for obese women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jennifer M; Ridgeway, Jennifer L; Vickers, Kristin S; Hathaway, Julie C; Vincent, Ann; Oh, Terry H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers, needs, and preferences of weight management intervention for women with fibromyalgia (FM). Obesity appears in higher rates in women with fibromyalgia compared to the population at large, and no study to date has taken a qualitative approach to better understand how these women view weight management in relation to their disease and vice versa. We designed a qualitative interview study with women patients with FM and obesity. Women (N = 15) were recruited by their participation in a fibromyalgia treatment program (FTP) within the year prior. The women approached for the study met the following inclusion criteria: confirmed diagnosis of FM, age between 30 and 60 years (M = 51 ± 6.27), and body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 (M = 37.88 ± 4.87). Patients completed questionnaire data prior to their participation in focus groups (N = 3), including weight loss history, physical activity data, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), and the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item (PHQ-9). Three focus group interviews were conducted to collect qualitative data. Consistent themes were revealed within and between groups. Patients expressed the complex relationships between FM symptoms, daily responsibilities, and weight management. Weight was viewed as an emotionally laden topic requiring compassionate delivery of programming from an empathetic leader who is knowledgeable about fibromyalgia. Patients view themselves as complex and different, requiring a specifically tailored weight management program for women with FM. Women with FM identify unique barriers to weight management, including the complex interrelationships between symptoms of FM and health behaviors, such as diet and exercise. They prefer a weight management program for women with FM that consists of an in-person, group-based approach with a leader but are open to a tailored conventional weight management program. Feasibility may be one of the biggest barriers

  7. Polysome profiling in liver identifies dynamic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum translatome by obesity and fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Suneng; Fan, Jason; Blanco, Joshua; Gimenez-Cassina, Alfredo; Danial, Nika N; Watkins, Steve M; Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2012-08-01

    Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  8. Polysome profiling in liver identifies dynamic regulation of endoplasmic reticulum translatome by obesity and fasting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneng Fu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-associated metabolic complications are generally considered to emerge from abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, whereas the status of protein metabolism is not well studied. Here, we performed comparative polysome and associated transcriptional profiling analyses to study the dynamics and functional implications of endoplasmic reticulum (ER-associated protein synthesis in the mouse liver under conditions of obesity and nutrient deprivation. We discovered that ER from livers of obese mice exhibits a general reduction in protein synthesis, and comprehensive analysis of polysome-bound transcripts revealed extensive down-regulation of protein synthesis machinery, mitochondrial components, and bile acid metabolism in the obese translatome. Nutrient availability also plays an important but distinct role in remodeling the hepatic ER translatome in lean and obese mice. Fasting in obese mice partially reversed the overall translatomic differences between lean and obese nonfasted controls, whereas fasting of the lean mice mimicked many of the translatomic changes induced by the development of obesity. The strongest examples of such regulations were the reduction in Cyp7b1 and Slco1a1, molecules involved in bile acid metabolism. Exogenous expression of either gene significantly lowered plasma glucose levels, improved hepatic steatosis, but also caused cholestasis, indicating the fine balance bile acids play in regulating metabolism and health. Together, our work defines dynamic regulation of the liver translatome by obesity and nutrient availability, and it identifies a novel role for bile acid metabolism in the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity.

  9. Novel genetic loci identified for the pathophysiology of childhood obesity in the Hispanic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variants responsible for susceptibility to obesity and its comorbidities among Hispanic children have not been identified. The VIVA LA FAMILIA Study was designed to genetically map childhood obesity and associated biological processes in the Hispanic population. A genome-wide association stu...

  10. Self-identified obese people request less money: a field experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios Proestakis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behaviour as a result of this discriminatory behaviour has not been studied thoroughly. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the self-weight bias by giving to both self-identified obese (n=90 and non-obese (n=180 individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task. Consistent with the System Justification Theory, we find that self-identified obese individuals, due to a preexisting false consciousness, request significantly lower amounts of money than non-obese ones. A within subject comparison between self-reports and external interviewers' evaluations reveals that the excessive weight felt by the self but not reported by evaluators captures the self-weight bias not only for obese but also for non-obese individuals. Linking our experimental results to the supply side of the labour market, we argue that self-weight bias, as expressed by lower salary requests, enhances discriminatory behaviour against individuals who feel, but may not actually be, obese and consequently exacerbates the wage gab across weight.

  11. Self-identified Obese People Request Less Money: A Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proestakis, Antonios; Brañas-Garza, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that obese people are discriminated in different social environments, such as the work place. Yet, the degree to which obese people are internalizing and adjusting their own behavior as a result of this discriminatory behavior has not been thoroughly studied. We develop a proxy for measuring experimentally the "self-weight bias" by giving to both self-identified obese ( n = 90) and non-obese ( n = 180) individuals the opportunity to request a positive amount of money after having performed an identical task. Consistent with the System Justification Theory, we find that self-identified obese individuals, due to a preexisting false consciousness , request significantly lower amounts of money than non-obese ones. A within subject comparison between self-reports and external monitors' evaluations reveals that the excessive weight felt by the "self" but not reported by evaluators captures the self-weight bias not only for obese but also for non-obese individuals. Linking our experimental results to the supply side of the labor market, we argue that self-weight bias, as expressed by lower salary requests, enhances discriminatory behavior against individuals who feel, but may not actually be, obese and consequently exacerbates the wage gap across weight.

  12. An Obesity Dietary Quality Index Predicts Abdominal Obesity in Women: Potential Opportunity for New Prevention and Treatment Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores M. Wolongevicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Links between dietary quality and abdominal obesity are poorly understood. Objective. To examine the association between an obesity-specific dietary quality index and abdominal obesity risk in women. Methods. Over 12 years, we followed 288 Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women, aged 30–69 years, without metabolic syndrome risk factors, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. An 11-nutrient obesity-specific dietary quality index was derived using mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3-day dietary records. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference >88 cm was assessed during follow-up. Results. Using multiple logistic regression, women with poorer dietary quality were more likely to develop abdominal obesity compared to those with higher dietary quality (OR 1.87; 95% CI, 1.01, 3.47; P for trend =.048 independent of age, physical activity, smoking, and menopausal status. Conclusions. An obesity-specific dietary quality index predicted abdominal obesity in women, suggesting targets for dietary quality assessment, intervention, and treatment to address abdominal adiposity.

  13. Continuity of midwifery care and gestational weight gain in obese women: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Denise

    2011-03-01

    information on their application in high risk populations is required. There is an identified need to trial alternative antenatal interventions to reduce perinatal risk factors for women who are obese and the findings from this project may have application in other maternity services. In addition this study will inform a larger trial that will focus on birth and postnatal outcomes. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610001078044.

  14. Utility of obesity indices in screening Chinese postmenopausal women for metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengju; Ma, Fang; Lou, Huiping; Zhu, Yanning

    2014-05-01

    Although a variety of indices have been used to assess obesity, which is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), the best indicator of the effects of fat accumulation on Chinese postmenopausal women is still uncertain. Thus, the objectives of this study were to analyze the potential of different obesity indices and to explore which index is best for predicting MetS in Chinese postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data of 1,234 Chinese postmenopausal women (aged 42-79 y) who participated in the annual health checkup was performed. The obesity indices of all participants, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), percent body fat (PBF), and fat mass index (FMI), were measured or calculated. The updated National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to assess MetS risk factors. Spearman and partial correlations were used to assess correlations between obesity indices and MetS components. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff values of all indicators of MetS development. The values of BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, PBF, and FMI that resulted in the maximization of the Youden index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) were defined as optimal. Among the participants, 38.8% (n = 479) were identified as having two or more nonadipose MetS risk components (excluding a positive WC component). These women had higher obesity indices than women with fewer metabolic risk factors. All indices were significantly associated with all MetS components even after controlling for age and C-reactive protein. A BMI of 24.0 kg/m, a WHR of 0.85, a WC of 79.9 cm, a WHtR of 0.49, a PBF of 29.9%, and an FMI of 7.2 kg/m were the optimal cutoff values for predicting at least two other MetS components according to ROC curve analysis. However, among the indicators of

  15. The Menstrual Disorders in Women of Reproductive Age with Obesity

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    Sh.U. Akhmedova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this article, the authors present the results of studies on reproductive health features in 25 women with obesity seeking medical help for infertility. Objective: to study the nature of menstrual disorders in women of childbearing age with obesity. Materials and methods. We have studied the features of reproductive health in 25 obese women seeking medical assistance for infertility in the Republican specialized scientific and practical centre of endocrinology in 2014–2015, who were included in the first study group. The second group consisted of 25 women with normal weight-for-stature values and without menstrual disorders. All the patients underwent the following tests, including complete blood count, blood biochemistry, radioimmunoassays of the blood hormones (prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, insulin, estradiol, progesterone, free testosterone, thyroxine, anti-Műllerian hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione, ultrasound of the uterus and ovaries with folliculometry on 11–14th days of the menstrual cycle. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland. Results. In the history of the patients in both groups, diseases of the upper respiratory tract and gastrointestinal diseases were most common among somatic pathology. Among gynecological diseases, in both groups the most frequent disorders were chronic urogenital infection, candida vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Emphasis is placed on the data about the presence of hormone-dependent proliferative diseases in women with overweight: cervical pseudoerosions, endocervicosis, uterine fibroids, a history of endometriosis. The analysis of biochemical parameters in the first study group found increased triglycerids levels 3.0 mmol/L — in 34 %. The first group of patients had low values of the average parameters of LH, FSH, free and total testosterone (normogonadotropic hypogonadism against normoprolactinemia. The

  16. Obesity educational interventions in U.S. medical schools: a systematic review and identified gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Crandall, Sonia; Miller, David; Ip, Eddie; Marion, Gail; Spangler, John G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States. However, physicians feel poorly trained to address the obesity epidemic. This article examines effective training methods for overweight and obesity intervention in undergraduate medical education. Using indexing terms related to overweight, obesity, and medical student education, we conducted a literature searched PubMed PsycINFO, Cochrane, and ERIC for relevant articles in English. References from articles identified were also reviewed to located additional articles. We included all studies that incorporated process or outcome evaluations of obesity educational interventions for U.S. medical students. Of an initial 168 citations, 40 abstracts were retrieved; 11 studies were found to be pertinent to medical student obesity education, but only 5 included intervention and evaluation elements. Quality criteria for inclusion consisted of explicit evaluation of the educational methods used. Data extraction identified participants (e.g., year of medical students), interventions, evaluations, and results. These 5 studies successfully used a variety of teaching methods including hands on training, didactic lectures, role-playing, and standardized patient interaction to increase medical students' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding overweight and obesity intervention. Two studies addressed medical student bias toward overweight and obese patients. No studies addressed health disparities in the epidemiology and bias of obesity. Despite the commonly cited "obesity epidemic," there are very few published studies that report the effectiveness of medical school obesity educational programs. Gaps still exist within undergraduate medical education including specific training that addresses obesity and long-term studies showing that such training is retained.

  17. Physicians and Physician Trainees Rarely Identify or Address Overweight/Obesity in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marta A; Nkoy, Flory L; Maloney, Christopher G; Mihalopoulos, Nicole L

    2015-10-01

    To determine how frequently physicians identify and address overweight/obesity in hospitalized children and to compare physician documentation across training level (medical student, intern, resident, attending). We conducted a retrospective chart review. Using an administrative database, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention body mass index calculator, and random sampling technique, we identified a study population of 300 children aged 2-18 years with overweight/obesity hospitalized on the general medical service of a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We reviewed admission, progress, and discharge notes to determine how frequently physicians and physician trainees identified (documented in history, physical exam, or assessment) and addressed (documented in hospital or discharge plan) overweight/obesity. Physicians and physician trainees identified overweight/obesity in 8.3% (n = 25) and addressed it in 4% (n = 12) of 300 hospitalized children with overweight/obesity. Interns were most likely to document overweight/obesity in history (8.3% of the 266 patients they followed). Attendings were most likely to document overweight/obesity in physical examination (8.3%), assessment (4%), and plan (4%) of the 300 patients they followed. Medical students were least likely to document overweight/obesity including it in the assessment (0.4%) and plan (0.4%) of the 244 hospitalized children with overweight/obesity they followed. Physicians and physician trainees rarely identify or address overweight/obesity in hospitalized children. This represents a missed opportunity for both patient care and physician trainee education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary protein intake in sarcopenic obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muscariello E

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Espedita Muscariello,1 Gilda Nasti,1 Mario Siervo,2 Martina Di Maro,1 Dominga Lapi,1 Gianni D’Addio,3 Antonio Colantuoni1 1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Human Nutrition Research Centre, Institute for Ageing and Health, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; 3IRCCS Salvatore Maugeri Foundation, Telese, Italy Objective: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of obese older women and to assess the effect of a diet moderately rich in proteins on lean mass in sarcopenic obese older women.  Materials and methods: A total of 1,030 females, >65 years old, body mass index >30 kg/m2, were investigated about their nutritional status. Muscle mass (MM was estimated according to the Janssen equation (MM =0.401× height2/resistance measured at 50 kHz +3.825× sex -0.071× age +5.102. Sarcopenia was defined according to the MM index, MM/height2 (kg/m2, as two standard deviations lower than the obesity-derived cutoff score (7.3 kg/m2. A food-frequency questionnaire was used to measure participants’ usual food intake during the previous 3 months. Moreover, a group of sarcopenic obese older women (n=104 was divided in two subgroups: the first (normal protein intake [NPI], n=50 administered with a hypocaloric diet (0.8 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins, and the second treated with a hypocaloric diet containing 1.2 g/kg desirable body weight/day of proteins (high protein intake [HPI], n=54, for 3 months. Dietary ingestion was estimated according to a daily food diary, self-administered, and three reports of nonconsecutive 24-hour recall every month during the follow-up.  Results: The 104 women were classified as sarcopenic. After dieting, significant reductions in body mass index were detected (NPI 30.7±1.3 vs 32.0±2.3 kg/m2, HPI 30.26±0.90 vs 31.05±2.90 kg/m2; P<0.01 vs baseline. The MM index presented significant variations in the NPI as well as in the

  19. Assessing the association between 25-OH vitamin D levels and ROMA score in a population of obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, E; Capoccia, D; Granato, T; Viggiani, V; Tartaglione, S; Manganaro, L; Angeloni, A; Leonetti, F

    2016-01-01

    The “Risk of Malignancy Algorithm” (ROMA) combines the diagnostic power of the CA125 and HE4 markers with menopausal status to predict the risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between 25-OH vitamin D levels and ROMA score in obese women. One hundred and eighteen patients with a Body Mass Index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2 (Group 1) and 80 women with a BMI less than 25 kg / m² (Group 2) were studied. The 25-OH vitamin D was quantified with LUMIPULSE® G 1200. As a threshold value, identified by ROC curve analysis, 20.2 ng/ mL (sensitivity 73.3%, specificity 84%) was chosen corresponding to the limit between sufficient and insufficient 25-OH vitamin D according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Low 25-OH vitamin D levels were observed in 64% of obese women and in 11% of normal-weight women (p less than 0.001). ROMA score above 13% was detected only in obese women (19%). An association between low levels of 25-OH vitamin D and ROMA score was observed. Indeed, 64% of obese women with ROMA score >13% had concomitant insufficient levels of 25-OH vitamin D, while only 36% of obese women with ROMA score >13% had sufficient 25-OH vitamin D levels (p less than 0.0001). This study suggests that the deficiency of 25- OH vitamin D in obese women has a possible correlation with high ROMA score.

  20. Serum Adiponectin, Visfatin, and Omentin Compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.

  1. Clinical Pain Catastrophizing in Women With Migraine and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Dale S; Buse, Dawn C; Lipton, Richard B; Thomas, J Graham; Rathier, Lucille; Roth, Julie; Pavlovic, Jelena M; Evans, E Whitney; Wing, Rena R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is related to migraine. Maladaptive pain coping strategies (eg, pain catastrophizing) may provide insight into this relationship. In women with migraine and obesity, we cross-sectionally assessed: (1) prevalence of clinical catastrophizing; (2) characteristics of those with and without clinical catastrophizing; and (3) associations of catastrophizing with headache features. Obese women migraineurs seeking weight loss treatment (n = 105) recorded daily migraine activity for 1 month via smartphone and completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Clinical catastrophizing was defined as total PCS score ≥30. The six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6), 12-item Allodynia Symptom Checklist (ASC-12), Headache Management Self-Efficacy Scale (HMSE), and assessments for depression (Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and anxiety (seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale) were also administered. Using PCS scores and body mass index (BMI) as predictors in linear regression, we modeled a series of headache features (ie, headache days, HIT-6, etc) as outcomes. One quarter (25.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.2-34.1%) of participants met criteria for clinical catastrophizing: they had higher BMI (37.9 ± 7.5 vs 34.4 ± 5.7 kg/m(2) , P = .035); longer migraine attack duration (160.8 ± 145.0 vs 97.5 ± 75.2 hours/month, P = .038); higher HIT-6 scores (68.7 ± 4.6 vs 64.5 ± 3.9, P duration (β = 0.390, P duration, higher pain sensitivity, greater headache impact, and lower headache management self-efficacy. In all participants, PCS scores were related to several migraine characteristics, above and beyond the effects of obesity. Prospective studies are needed to determine sequence and mechanisms of relationships between catastrophizing, obesity, and migraine. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  2. Risk of cesarean delivery among pregnant women with class III obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghesi, Yves; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Pigeyre, Marie; Deruelle, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    To identify factors associated with cesarean delivery among women with class III obesity attempting vaginal delivery. In a retrospective study, medical charts were reviewed for women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy of at least 37 weeks and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of 40 or higher who were eligible to attempt vaginal delivery at a maternity hospital in Lille, France, between 1999 and 2012. Among 345 eligible women, 301 (87.2%) attempted vaginal delivery; 211 (70.1%) were successful and 90 (29.9%) delivered by cesarean. The frequency of nulliparity was higher among those undergoing cesarean after a trial of labor (64 [71.1%]) than among those who delivered vaginally (57 [27.0%]; Pcesarean (61 [67.8%] vs 96 [45.5%]; Pcesarean among women attempting vaginal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-4.22), whereas history of vaginal delivery was protective (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Nulliparous women with class III obesity attempting a vaginal delivery should be warned of the high risk of cesarean delivery, especially if they require induction. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  3. Association of major dietary patterns with obesity risk among Mongolian men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugee, Otgontuya; Khor, Geok Lin; Lye, Munn-Sann; Luvsannyam, Lhagva; Janchiv, Oyunbileg; Jamyan, Batjargal; Esa, Norhaizan

    2009-01-01

    Mongolia is experiencing changes in its unique nomadic lifestyle and dietary habits in the last two decades with accompanying increase in obesity rate. The dietary pattern approach, which investigates the overall diet in relation to obesity risks, has become appealing in nutrition epidemiology. The aim of this study was to identify major dietary patterns of the Mongolian adults in relation to the risk of having obesity. Dietary intake of a total 418 adults aged ? 25 years was assessed by using a food frequency questionnaire with 68 items. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dietary patterns: transitional high in processed meat and potato, traditional rich in whole milk, fats and oils and healthy with greater intake of whole grains, mixed vegetables and fruits. Individuals in the upper quintile of the transitional pattern had significantly greater risk of obesity (BMI > or =25 kg/m2: OR=2.47; 95% CI=1.04-5.86) while subjects in the highest quintile of the healthy dietary pattern were found to have significantly decreased risk of obesity (OR: 0.49; 95% CI=0.25-0.95). Men in the highest quintile of the transitional pattern had greater risk of abdominal obesity WC > or =90 cm: OR= 4.08; 95% CI=1.11-14.97) than those in the lowest quintile. Women in the top quintile of the traditional pattern had a greater odds of having abdominal obesity (WC > or =80 cm: OR=4.59; 95% CI=1.58-13.30) than those in the lowest quintile. The study suggests that public health efforts be targeted at adults in Mongolia to address the undesirable aspects of the transitional and the traditional dietary patterns.

  4. Identifying the educational needs of menopausal women: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Ainscough, Jessica L; Trant, Meredith; Starker, Joan; Cousineau, Tara M

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify the educational needs of menopausal women and test the feasibility of an online self management program based on social learning theory. The four stages included 1) a needs assessment using a) focus groups with 24 women ages 40 to 55 and b) phone interviews with eight health experts; 2) the use of concept mapping methodology for quantifying qualitative data from stage 1 to identify the core programmatic concepts; 3) development of a demonstration program; and 4) a pilot study with 35 women and 9 health experts to assess knowledge gained and program satisfaction. Results show that women desire more information about normalcy of menopause and symptom management and found the program to meet a need for menopausal education otherwise perceived as unavailable. The women significantly increased their menopausal knowledge after brief exposure (t(34) = 3.64; p = .001). This project provides support for an online health education program for menopausal women and content ideas for inclusion in women's health education curriculum. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Miscarriage after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing pregnancy in women with moderate and severe obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    To compare the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women with moderate to severe obesity to that in women with a normal BMI after sonographic confirmation of the foetal heart rate in the first trimester.

  6. Impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, T; Himabindu, Y; Sriharibabu, M; Pandey, Anil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for overweight and obesity in the society. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the reproductive age group women not only affects maternal health but also the health of the off spring. Infertility is a common problem in India affecting 13-19 million people at any given time. Even though it is not life threatening, infertility causes intense mental agony and trauma that can only be best described by infertile couples themselves. Infertility is more common in overweight and obese individuals compared to normal weight individuals. Decreasing ovarian reserve is an important factor for infertility in women. This study examined the impact of physical activity on ovarian reserve markers in normal, overweight and obese reproductive age women. The observations made in this study reveal that physical activity improves ovarian reserve markers in all reproductive age women but this improvement is more distinct and statistically significant in overweight and obese women compared to normal weight women.

  7. Evidence for disruption of normal circadian cortisol rhythm in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Polotsky, Alex; Chosich, Justin; Roth, Lauren; Allshouse, Amanda A; Bradford, Andrew P; Santoro, Nanette

    2018-04-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of comorbidities encountered in obesity, including the relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that we and others have observed. We sought to examine serum cortisol profiles throughout the day and evening in a sample of normal weight women and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, regularly cycling obese (n = 12) and normal weight (n = 10) women were recruited. Mean serum cortisol was measured by frequent blood sampling for 16 h (8am-midnight) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with obesity had significantly higher overall cortisol levels when compared to normal weight women (6.2 [4.3, 6.6] vs. 4.7 [3.7, 5.5] ug/dl, p = .04). Over the two-hour postprandial period, obese women displayed an almost two-fold greater (7.2 [6.5, 8.6] ug/dl) rise in cortisol than normal weight controls (4.4 [3.7, 6.2] ug/dl, p obese women demonstrated a sustained evening cortisol elevation compared to normal weight women, who displayed the typical decline in cortisol (3.2 [2.3, 4] vs. 2 [1.5, 3.2] ug/dl, p obesity may be related to risks of obesity-associated metabolic comorbidities and reproductive dysfunction often seen in these women.

  8. Clinical Management of Obesity in Women: Addressing a Lifecycle of Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nadia N; Butsch, Winfield Scott; Aidarous, Sabina

    2016-06-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that nearly 2 billion people worldwide are overweight, 600 million of whom are obese. The increasing prevalence of this condition in women is of particular concern given its impact on reproductive health and mortality. Burgeoning data implicating maternal obesity in fetal programming and the metabolic health of future generations further suggest that obesity in women is one of the most pressing public health concerns of the twenty-first century. However, health care professionals are infrequently engaged in obesity management. This article provides a conceptual understanding of obesity and a rational approach to treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Osteosarcopenic Obesity Syndrome: What Is It and How Can It Be Identified and Diagnosed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Z. Ilich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conditions related to body composition and aging, such as osteopenic obesity, sarcopenia/sarcopenic obesity, and the newly termed osteosarcopenic obesity (triad of bone muscle and adipose tissue impairment, are beginning to gain recognition. However there is still a lack of definitive diagnostic criteria for these conditions. Little is known about the long-term impact of these combined conditions of osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity in older adults. Many may go undiagnosed and progress untreated. Therefore, the objective of this research is to create diagnostic criteria for osteosarcopenic obesity in older women. The proposed diagnostic criteria are based on two types of assessments: physical, via body composition measurements, and functional, via physical performance measures. Body composition measurements such as T-scores for bone mineral density, appendicular lean mass for sarcopenia, and percent body fat could all be obtained via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical performance tests: handgrip strength, one-leg stance, walking speed, and sit-to-stand could be assessed with minimal equipment. A score could then be obtained to measure functional decline in the older adult. For diagnosing osteosarcopenic obesity and other conditions related to bone loss and muscle loss combined with obesity, a combination of measures may more adequately improve the assessment process.

  10. Changes in Global Transcriptional Profiling of Women Following Obesity Surgery Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Noronha, Natalia Yumi; Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Bruno Affonso Parente; Cortes-Oliveira, Cristiana; Pinhanelli, Vitor Caressato; Salgado Junior, Wilson; Machry, Ana Julia; da Silva Junior, Wilson Araújo; Souza, Dorotéia Rossi Silva; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Nonino, Carla Barbosa

    2018-01-01

    Differential gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is poorly characterized. Markers of these processes may provide a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that underlie these events. The main goal of this study was to identify changes in PBMC gene expression in women with obesity before and 6 months after RYGB-induced weight loss. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of PBMCs from 13 obese women was analyzed before and 6 months after RYGB; the RNA of PBMCs from nine healthy women served as control. The gene expression levels were determined by microarray analysis. Significant differences in gene expression were validated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Microarray analysis for comparison of the pre- and postoperative periods showed that 1366 genes were differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The main pathways were related to gene transcription; lipid, energy, and glycide metabolism; inflammatory and immunological response; cell differentiation; oxidative stress regulation; response to endogenous and exogenous stimuli; substrate oxidation; mTOR signaling pathway; interferon signaling; mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB1), heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) gene expression; adipocyte differentiation; and methylation. Six months after bariatric surgery and significant weight loss, many molecular pathways involved in obesity and metabolic diseases change. These findings are an important tool to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention and clinical practice of nutritional genomics in obesity.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Contraceptive Methods for Obese and Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotke, Pamela S; Kaneshiro, Bliss

    2015-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity have become a major public health challenge. Given the added health risks that obese women have during pregnancy, preventing unwanted pregnancy is imperative. Clinicians who provide contraception must understand the efficacy, risks, and the weight changes associated with various contraceptive methods. Despite differences in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of hormonal contraceptives in overweight and obese women, efficacy does not appear to be severely impacted. Both estrogen-containing contraceptives and obesity increase the risk of venous thromboembolism, but the absolute risk remains acceptably low in reproductive age women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Bicudo Faria-Schützer

    Full Text Available As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control.Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1 The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2 The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3 The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4 The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant.During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman.

  13. Emotional Experiences of Obese Women with Adequate Gestational Weight Variation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-Schützer, Débora Bicudo; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani de Castro; Alves, Vera Lucia Pereira; Vieira, Carla Maria; Turato, Egberto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Background As a result of the growth of the obese population, the number of obese women of fertile age has increased in the last few years. Obesity in pregnancy is related to greater levels of anxiety, depression and physical harm. However, pregnancy is an opportune moment for the intervention of health care professionals to address obesity. The objective of this study was to describe how obese pregnant women emotionally experience success in adequate weight control. Methods and Findings Using a qualitative design that seeks to understand content in the field of health, the sample of subjects was deliberated, with thirteen obese pregnant women selected to participate in an individual interview. Data was analysed by inductive content analysis and includes complete transcription of the interviews, re-readings using suspended attention, categorization in discussion topics and the qualitative and inductive analysis of the content. The analysis revealed four categories, three of which show the trajectory of body care that obese women experience during pregnancy: 1) The obese pregnant woman starts to think about her body;2) The challenge of the diet for the obese pregnant woman; 3) The relation of the obese pregnant woman with the team of antenatal professionals. The fourth category reveals the origin of the motivation for the change: 4) The potentializing factors for change: the motivation of the obese woman while pregnant. Conclusions During pregnancy, obese women are more in touch with themselves and with their emotional conflicts. Through the transformations of their bodies, women can start a more refined self-care process and experience of the body-mind unit. The fear for their own and their baby's life, due to the risks posed by obesity, appears to be a great potentializing factor for change. The relationship with the professionals of the health care team plays an important role in the motivational support of the obese pregnant woman. PMID:26529600

  14. A comparison of antenatal classifications of 'overweight' and 'obesity' prevalence between white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi pregnant women in England; analysis of retrospective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rebecca; Ali, Nasreen; Guppy, Andy; Griffiths, Malcolm; Randhawa, Gurch

    2017-04-11

    Maternal obesity increases women's risk of poor birth outcomes, and statistics show that Pakistani and Bangladeshi women (who are born or settled) in the UK experience higher rates of perinatal mortality and congenital anomalies than white British or white Other women. This study compares the prevalence of maternal obesity in Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British women using standard and Asian-specific BMI metrics. Retrospective cross-sectional analysis using routinely recorded secondary data in Ciconia Maternity information System (CMiS), between 2008 and 2013. Mothers (n = 15,205) whose ethnicity was recorded as white British, Bangladeshi, Pakistani or Indian. Adjusted standardised residuals and Pearson Chi-square. Percentage of mothers stratified by ethnicity (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and white British) who are classified as overweight or obese using standard and revised World Health Organisation BMI thresholds. Compared to standard BMI thresholds, using the revised BMI threshold resulted in a higher prevalence of obesity: 22.8% of Indian and 24.3% of Bangladeshi and 32.3% of Pakistani women. Pearson Chi-square confirmed that significantly more Pakistani women were classified as 'obese' compared with white British, Indian or Bangladeshi women (χ 2  = 499,88 df = 9, p women stratified by maternal ethnicity of white British, Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. Using revised anthropometric measures in Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi women has clinical implications for identifying risks associated with obesity and increased complications in pregnancy.

  15. Compensating for Stigma: Obese and Nonobese Women's Reactions to Being Visible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Tested the hypothesis that obese women (n=155) compensate for the prejudice of others. Results supported the hypothesis that obese women who were aware of the need to compensate for their partners' reactions to their appearance were able to do so. (JBJ)

  16. Correlates of Obesity in Young Black and White Women: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gregory L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Contrasts body size and potential correlates of obesity in 1,481 African-American and 1,307 white 18- through 30-year-old women in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (CARDIA). The increased prevalence of obesity in African-American women could not be explained by racial differences in age or education. (SLD)

  17. Physical activity and sedentary behavior in metabolically healthy obese young women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) in metabolically healthy obese (MHO) have been limited to postmenopausal white women. We sought to determine whether PA and SB differ between MHO and metabolically abnormal obese (MAO), in young black and white women....

  18. Convergence in insulin resistance between very severely obese and lean women at the end of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Shareen; Barr, Sarah M; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Semple, Scott; Gray, Calum; Andrew, Ruth; Denison, Fiona C; Walker, Brian R; Norman, Jane E

    2015-11-01

    Disrupted intermediary metabolism may contribute to the adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with very severe obesity. Our aim was to study metabolism in such pregnancies. We recruited a longitudinal cohort of very severely obese (n = 190) and lean (n = 118) glucose-tolerant women for anthropometric and metabolic measurements at early, mid and late gestation and postpartum. In case-control studies of very severely obese and lean women we measured glucose and glycerol turnover during low- and high-dose hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps (HEC) at early and late pregnancy and in non-pregnant women (each n = 6-9) and body fat distribution by MRI in late pregnancy (n = 10/group). Although greater glucose, insulin, NEFA and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and greater weight and % fat mass (FM) was observed in very severely obese vs lean participants, the degree of worsening was attenuated in the very severely obese individuals with advancing gestation, with no difference in triacylglycerol (TG) concentrations between very severely obese and lean women at term. Enhanced glycerol production was observed in early pregnancy only in very severely obese individuals, with similar intrahepatic FM in very severely obese vs lean women by late gestation. Offspring from obese mothers were heavier (p = 0.04). Pregnancies complicated by obesity demonstrate attenuation in weight gain and insulin resistance compared with pregnancies in lean women. Increased glycerol production is confined to obese women in early pregnancy and obese and lean individuals have similar intrahepatic FM by term. When targeting maternal metabolism to treat adverse pregnancy outcomes, therapeutic intervention may be most effective applied early in pregnancy.

  19. Impact of maternal obesity on the metabolic profiles of pregnant women and their offspring at birth

    OpenAIRE

    Desert , Romain; Canlet , Cécile; Costet , Nathalie; Cordier , Sylvaine; Bonvallot , Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Obesity is currently an increasing public health problem. The intra-uterine environment plays a critical role in foetal development. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of obesity with modifications in the metabolic profiles of pregnant women, and their new-borns. Based on the PELAGIE cohort (Brittany, France), a sample of 321 pregnant women was divided into three groups according to their body mass index (BMI) (normal, over-weight and obese)....

  20. HPA AXIS RESPONSE TO STRESS PREDICTS SHORT-TERM SNACK INTAKE IN OBESE WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Appelhans, Bradley M.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Peters, Erica N.; Spring, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher post-stress cortisol was associated with decreased post-stress snack intake in obese women but was unrelated to snack intake in lean wome...

  1. A cross-sectional study on obesity and related risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawaw, Paul; Yav, Thierry; Lukanka, Olivier; Mukuku, Olivier; Kakisingi, Christian; Kakoma, Jean-Baptiste; Luboya, Oscar Numbi

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is known as one of adjuvant factors for increase in non-communiable diseases (NCDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity and identify its risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. In October 2014, we interviewed a total of 430 women selling in the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, health-related habits and behaviors, diet, physical activity, chronic diseases, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were collected. A multivariate logistic regression model was fitted. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 16.51% and 13.26% respectively. The logistic regression did not show any significant association between age and obesity. Risk of obesity was lower in married women (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.23 (0.08-0.63)). Women with low educational profile (primary school or less) were more likely to be obese than those with higher education (secondary or high school) (aOR = 2.50 (1.12-5.63)). Risk of obesity increased with living in urban area (aOR = 2.52 (1.00-6.36)), use of oral birth control pills (aOR = 11.07 (3.52-34.83)) and low consumption of fruit (aOR = 5.47 (1.88-15.92)) and vegetable (aOR = 2.42 (1.05-5.56)). Obese women were more likely to be hypertensive than non-obese (aOR = 7.15 (2.46-20.75)) and diabetics (aOR = 3.62 (1.62-8.11)). This study has reported a prevalence of 13.26% of obesity among women selling at Lusonga's market. Marital status, education level, residence, use of oral birth control pills and consumption of fruit and vegetables had a significant association with the prevalence of obesity in this category of women.

  2. Obesity is associated with breast cancer in African-American women but not Hispanic women in South Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkissyan, Marianna; Wu, Yanyuan; Vadgama, Jaydutt V

    2011-08-15

    Obesity is considered a risk factor for breast cancer. Modifying life styles that reduce obesity offers the potential for prevention and improved outcomes from cancer. The effects of obesity and breast cancer among African-American women and Hispanic women have been explored in a limited number of studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of obesity with breast cancer in a minority cohort. This was a cross-sectional study of 471 African-American and Hispanic women with and without breast cancer in South Los Angeles. Data regarding body mass index (BMI) and clinical factors were obtained by medical record abstraction. Data were assessed using logistic regression with multivariate analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to assess disease-free survival. Women with breast cancer were more likely to be obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) than women without breast cancer (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; P = .01). There was a significant association of being overweight or obese and breast cancer among postmenopausal women (OR, 2.3 [P = .03] and 2.9 [P obesity and breast cancer was significant only among African-American women (OR, 2.70; P American women (OR, 4.8; P obesity and later disease stage at diagnosis (P = .06). An association also was observed between higher BMI (for cutoff points of both 30 kg/m(2) and 28 kg/m(2)) and poorer disease-free survival (P = .045 and P = .019, respectively). The current data suggested an association between obesity and breast cancer, especially among postmenopausal women and most significantly in the African-American cohort. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  3. Overweight, obesity and related non-communicable diseases in Asian Indian girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, S M; Misra, A; Gulati, S; Gupta, R

    2013-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising globally and in India. Overweight, obesity and related diseases need to be delineated in Asian Indian women. A literature search was done using key words like 'obesity', 'Asian Indian women', 'body fat distribution', 'type 2 diabetes', 'fertility', 'polycystic ovarian disease', metabolic syndrome', 'cardiovascular disease', 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'gender', 'sex' and 'prevalence' up to September 2012 in Pubmed and Google Scholar search engines. This review highlights the Asian Indian body composition with regards to obesity and provides a collated perspective of gender-specific prevalence of the co-morbidities. Recent data show that women (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 15-61%) have higher prevalence of overweight and obesity as compared with men (range of prevalence of overweight and obesity from different studies 12-54%) in India and that obesity is increasing in the youth. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both men and women steeply rose in a Punjabi community from Jaipur. Importantly, prevalence of abdominal obesity has been consistently higher in women than in men. The lowest prevalence (6.0%) of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women is reported from South India (rural Andhra Pradesh; 2006) and the highest (14.0%) by the National Urban Diabetes Survey (2001). Although the clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors was generally high, it increased further in post-menopausal women. There are a number of factors that predispose Indian women to obesity; sedentary behaviour, imbalanced diets, sequential and additive postpartum weight gain and further decrease in physical activity during this period and cultural issues. In view of these data, preventive measures should be specifically targeted to Indian women.

  4. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental...... health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (... and Lifestyle Intervention for gestational diabetes mellitus prevention) study were analyzed. Maternal mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. RESULTS: A total of 735 pregnant women were...

  5. Ethnicity and the association between anthropometric indices of obesity and cardiovascular risk in women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Louise G H; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Welborn, Timothy A; Lee, Andy H; Della, Phillip R

    2014-05-22

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether the cross-sectional associations between anthropometric obesity measures, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and calculated 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk using the Framingham and general CVD risk score models, are the same for women of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European and Asian descent. This study would investigate which anthropometric obesity measure is most predictive at identifying women at increased CVD risk in each ethnic group. Cross-sectional data from the National Heart Foundation Risk Factor Prevalence Study. Population-based survey in Australia. 4354 women aged 20-69 years with no history of heart disease, diabetes or stroke. Most participants were of Australian, UK and Ireland, North European, South European or Asian descent (97%). Anthropometric obesity measures that demonstrated stronger predictive ability of identifying women at increased CVD risk and likelihood of being above the promulgated treatment thresholds of various risk score models. Central obesity measures, WC and WHR, were better predictors of cardiovascular risk. WHR reported a stronger predictive ability than WC and BMI in Caucasian women. In Northern European women, BMI was a better indicator of risk using the general CVD (10% threshold) and Framingham (20% threshold) risk score models. WC was the most predictive of cardiovascular risk among Asian women. Ethnicity should be incorporated into CVD assessment. The same anthropometric obesity measure cannot be used across all ethnic groups. Ethnic-specific CVD prevention and treatment strategies need to be further developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Coping with perceived racism: a significant factor in the development of obesity in African American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendwa, Denee T; Gholson, Georica; Sims, Regina C; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Ali, Mana; Harrell, C Jules; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L

    2011-07-01

    African American women have the highest rates of obesity in the United States. The prevalence of obesity in this group calls for the identification of psychosocial factors that increase risk. Psychological stress has been associated with obesity in women; however, there is scant literature that has explored the impact of racism on body mass index (BMI) in African American women. The current study aimed to determine whether emotional responses and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism were associated with BMI in African American women. A sample of 110 African American women participated in a community-based study. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate BMI and participants completed the Perceived Racism Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between BMI and behavioral coping responses to perceived racism. Findings for emotional responses to perceived racism and appraisal of one's daily life as stressful were nonsignificant. Mean comparisons of BMI groups showed that obese African American women used more behavioral coping responses to perceived racism as compared to normal-weight and overweight women in the sample. Findings suggest that behavioral coping responses better explained increased risk for obesity in African American women. A biobehavioral pathway may explain this finding with a stress-response process that includes cortisol reactivity. Maladaptive behavioral coping responses may also provide insight into obesity risk. Future research is needed to determine which behavioral coping responses place African American women at greater risk for obesity.

  7. Assessment of postural stability in overweight and obese middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Kováčiková

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and overweight are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation and are associated with balance disorders. Objective: To assess the postural stability in a natural stance in overweight and obese women based on center of pressure (CoP velocity in the anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions. Methods: A total of 102 women categorized according to body mass index into normal weight, overweight and obese categories underwent a measurement of quiet standing with their eyes open (EO and with their eyes closed (EC. Postural stability was assessed with a force platform. The mean CoP velocity was evaluated in both directions. Results: In the AP direction under EO conditions, obese women swayed significantly faster than normal weight women (1.01 cm/s and 0.80 cm/s. In the ML direction, a higher CoP velocity was observed in normal weight women than in obese women (0.52 cm/s and 0.41 cm/s. Under EC conditions in the AP direction, obese women swayed significantly faster than normal weight women (1.29 cm/s and 0.97 cm/s. In the ML direction, a higher CoP velocity was observed in normal weight women than in obese women (0.65 cm/s and 0.48 cm/s. Conclusions: Results suggest a negative impact of obesity on postural stability in the AP direction. In the ML direction, obese women were more stable than normal weight women, probably due to enlargement of the support base in a natural stance.

  8. Adiponectin and leptin in overweight/obese and lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-I; Hsu, Ming-I; Lin, Shyh-Hsiang; Chang, Yuan-Chin I; Hsu, Chun-Sen; Tzeng, Chii-Ruey

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adiponectin and leptin levels in overweight/obese and lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This was a retrospective study. Of the 422 studied patients, 224 women with PCOS and 198 women without PCOS were evaluated. Insulin resistance and the metabolic components were assessed. The adiponectin and leptin levels were also evaluated. Adiponectin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), and total testosterone, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels; conversely, leptin reversed the aforementioned reaction and was negatively correlated with adiponectin levels. The adiponectin to leptin ratios were significantly lower in PCOS women than in those without PCOS. Compared to women with non-PCOS, overweight/obese women with PCOS had lower serum adiponectin levels than women without PCOS, which was not the case for lean women. Conversely, lean women with PCOS had higher serum leptin levels than those without PCOS, which was not the case for overweight/obese women. Adipose tissue might play an important role in the metabolic complications in women with PCOS. To study the impact of obesity biomarkers in women with PCOS, overweight/obese and lean women should be considered separately.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  10. Serum level of orexin-A, leptin, adiponectin and insulin in north Indian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sameeksha; Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Supriya; Sachan, Rekha; Asthana, Akash

    2017-12-01

    Obesity is regulated by different metabolic factors like leptin, adiponectin insulin and neuropeptide orexin-A. The aim of this study is to assess the role of these hormones and their interrelationship with obesity in north Indian women. A total of 168 obese women with Body Mass Index (BMI)>30kg/m 2 and 150 lean women (BMIWomen with obesity were further subdivided into two groups according to their BMI, 71 overweight women with the BMI 25-29.9kg/m 2 (mean±S.D: 27.87±0.71) and the 97 obese women with BMI>30kg/m 2 (34.68±1.90). Orexin -A, leptin and adiponectin were estimated using quantitative sandwich enzyme linked immunoassay and insulin was estimated by using an immuno-radiometric assay. Orexin -A and adiponectin level were significantly lower however, leptin and inulin level were significantly higher in obese women as compared with control group. Further, the one- way group analysis showed that the orexin -A and adiponectin level were significantly lower but leptin and insulin level was significantly higher in obese women as compared to overweight and control group respectively. Result showed that the level of adiponectin, leptin, orexin-A and insulin play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure. In obesity, the activity of these peptides is disturbed. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IDENTIFYING MOTIVATION FACTOR INVOLVEMENT OF SARAWAK MALAY WOMEN ENTREPRENEUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyantie Mohamad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak multilayered cake among Sarawak product signature famous among the local as well as international tourist visiting Sarawak. In fact, Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurs have become very necessary players in the entrepreneurial field specifically in this cottage industries from the early introduction of this business, they have facing various problem in this businesses. Thus, this research aims to build an understanding of motivational factor that encourage Sarawak Malay women entrepreneurial experiences especially in multilayered cake businesses. Using qualitative methods, this research aims to identify the entrepreneurial motivations factors; with regards to start-up motivation by Sarawak Malay women. The finding shows that the motivations that influence Malay women within Kuching, Sarawak areas to start and grow their business are involve self-driven and context driven that motivate them involve in multilayered cakes businesses.

  12. Exercise in obese pregnant women: The role of social factors, lifestyle and pregnancy symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntyre H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.

  13. Rates and Predictors of Obesity Among African American Sexual Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K; Li, Chien-Ching; McConnell, Elizabeth; Aranda, Frances; Smith, Christina

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine rates of and risk factors for obesity in a community sample of African American sexual minority women (SMW). Data were collected using self-administered paper-and-pencil survey questionnaires (n = 219). Participants were primarily middle aged (M = 40.1; standard deviation [SD] = 10.5 years), well educated (56.9% with a college education and above), insured (82.3%), and had a median income range from $30,000 to $39,999. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample was 31.6 (SD = 8.0). Based on BMI scores, over half of the participants were identified as obese (53.9%) and 25.6% were overweight. A number of comorbid illnesses were reported that could be exacerbated by excess weight, including arthritis (21.3%), adult-onset diabetes (4.9%), back problems (23.2%), high cholesterol (15.3%), high blood pressure (19.2%), and heart disease (12%). Multiple risk factors for obesity were observed, including infrequent exercise (American SMW report high rates of obesity, chronic health conditions exacerbated by weight, and health and dietary behaviors that increase risk for weight-related health disparities. These study findings have implications for additional research and intervention development.

  14. The Gut Microbiome, Obesity, and Weight Control in Women's Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greathouse, K Leigh; Faucher, Mary Ann; Hastings-Tolsma, Marie

    2017-08-01

    The microbes residing in the human gut, referred to as the microbiome, are intricately linked to energy homeostasis and subsequently obesity. Integral to the origins of obesity, the microbiome is believed to affect not only health of the human gut but also overall health. This microbiome-obesity association is mediated through the process of energy extraction, metabolism, and cross talk between the brain and the gut microbiome. Host exposures, including diet, that potentially modify genetic predisposition to obesity and affect weight management are reviewed. The higher prevalence of obesity among women and recent evidence linking obesity during pregnancy with offspring health make this topic particularly relevant. Current limitations in microbiome research to address obesity and future advances in this field are described. Applications of this science with respect to applied nursing and overall health care in general are included, with emphasis on the reproductive health of women and their offspring.

  15. Evaluation of Specific Metabolic Rates of Major Organs and Tissues: Comparison Between Nonobese and Obese Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, ZiMian; Ying, Zhiliang; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Zhang, Junyi; Heller, Martin; Later, Wiebke; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2011-01-01

    Elia (1992) identified the specific resting metabolic rates (Ki) of major organs and tissues in young adults with normal weight: 200 for liver, 240 for brain, 440 for heart and kidneys, 13 for skeletal muscle, 4.5 for adipose tissue and 12 for residual mass (all units in kcal/kg per day). The aim of the present study was to assess the applicability of Elia’s Ki values for obese adults. A sample of young women (n = 80) was divided into two groups, nonobese (BMI

  16. Dropout is a problem in lifestyle intervention programs for overweight and obese infertile women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsaerts, M A Q; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Mol, B W; Land, J A; Hoek, A

    2013-04-01

    What are the dropout rates in lifestyle intervention programs (LIPs) for overweight and obese infertile women and can intervention- or patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout be identified in these women? The median dropout rate was 24% in overweight and obese infertile women who participated in a LIP; clinical useful intervention or patient-related factors associated with dropout could not be identified. Overweight and obese infertile women might improve their chance of conception when they improve their lifestyle and lose weight. Dropout from LIPs reduces the chance of losing considerable weight and is therefore considered to be an important limiting factor of the success of LIPs. This systematic review included 15 studies published between January 1980 and December 2012. The included studies investigated the effect of LIPs for overweight and obese infertile women with infertility. From these studies, dropout rates and intervention- and patient-related baseline factors associated with dropout, as well as weight loss and pregnancy rates, were recorded. There were 15 studies identified, of which 10 reported dropout rates. The median dropout rate was 24% (range: 0-31%). Four studies reported baseline characteristics of women who dropped out, but modifiable predictors of dropout could not be identified. Weight loss and pregnancy rates were lower in women who dropped out than in women who completed the LIPs. There were limited numbers of studies investigating patient-related factors associated with dropout. The heterogeneity in the studies precluded us from drawing firm conclusions on the relation between the type of intervention and dropout. Dropout from LIPs is a major drawback because it predisposes to less weight loss and lower pregnancy rates. Identification of predictors of dropout is needed to identify overweight and obese infertile women who are prone for dropout. These women might benefit from extra support and monitoring, to potentially

  17. The correlation between hs C-reactive protein and left ventricular mass in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idrus Alwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP concentrations are increased in obese individuals. In this study, we examined the correlation between hsCRP and left ventricular mass (LV mass. Fourty five healthy obese women and fourty five healthy non obese women as the controls group were studied by echocardiography and hsCRP. There was no significant correlation between hsCRP and left ventricular mass in obese women (r = 0.29, p 0.06. There was a significant correlation between hs CRP and body mass index (r = 0.46, p 0,002, and also hsCRP and visceral fat (r= 0.33, p 0.03. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:100-4 Keywords: hs C-reactive protein, LV mass, obese women

  18. [Cardiovascular exercise on obese women: effects on adiponectine, leptine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros-Olvera, Erick; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther; Lavalle-González, Fernando; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Salazar González, Bertha Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of hormones adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipose tissue on the atherogenic process is one of the most promising models in preventive medicine. The numerous tests performed to identify the effect of exercise on these hormones have not been clear on the type of exercise routine and physical effort calculated to contribute to changing plasma concentrations in obese women. Analyze controlledcardiovascular exercise effect on serum level of adiponectin, leptin, and tumournecrosis factor-alpha in obese young women. A simple blind clinical essay. The intervention covered a 10-week controlled, cardiovascular exercise program by 34 women (cases n=17, controls n=17) with a body mass index>27kg/m(2). Molecular analysis was performed by immune-fluorescence. Following the intervention, cases and controls means were as follows: adiponectin 19.0 vs. 12.2μ/ml (P=.008); leptin 20.0 vs. 28.0μ/L (P=.02); and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 4.7 vs. 5.1pg/ml (P=.05). The established exercise (5 sessions a week of exercise of 40min each for 10 weeks with a heart rate reserve of 40 to 80%) improved plasma concentrations of these hormones in the expected direction. This finding highlights an unpublished amount of exercise, controlled by the reserve cardiac frequency that might contribute the cardiovascular and metabolic protection to obese women. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on longer-term maternal and early childhood outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Jodie M.; Grivell, Rosalie M.; Louise, Jennie

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) is to evaluate the effects of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood outcomes at ages 3-5 years. Methods/design: We will build...... or is being undertaken. The primary maternal outcome is a diagnosis of maternal metabolic syndrome. The primary childhood outcome is BMI above 90%. We have identified 7 relevant trials, involving 5425 women who were overweight or obese during pregnancy, with approximately 3544 women and children with follow......-up assessments available for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Discussion: The proposed IPDMA provides an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dietary and lifestyle interventions among pregnant women who are overweight or obese on later maternal and early childhood health outcomes, including risk of obesity...

  20. Altered functional connectivity within the central reward network in overweight and obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coveleskie, K; Gupta, A; Kilpatrick, L A; Mayer, E D; Ashe-McNalley, C; Stains, J; Labus, J S; Mayer, E A

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects have identified abnormal activation of key regions of central reward circuits, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), in response to food-related stimuli. We aimed to examine whether women with elevated body mass index (BMI) show structural and resting state (RS) functional connectivity alterations within regions of the reward network. Subjects/Methods: Fifty healthy, premenopausal women, 19 overweight and obese (high BMI=26–38 kg m−2) and 31 lean (BMI=19–25 kg m−2) were selected from the University of California Los Angeles' Oppenheimer Center for Neurobiology of Stress database. Structural and RS functional scans were collected. Group differences in grey matter volume (GMV) of the NAcc, oscillation dynamics of intrinsic brain activity and functional connectivity of the NAcc to regions within the reward network were examined. Results: GMV of the left NAcc was significantly greater in the high BMI group than in the lean group (P=0.031). Altered frequency distributions were observed in women with high BMI compared with lean group in the left NAcc (P=0.009) in a medium-frequency (MF) band, and in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (P=0.014, ingestive behaviors. PMID:25599560

  1. Educational inequalities in obesity among Mexican women: time-trends from 1988 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Brunner, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend pwomen with higher education in the period 1988-2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys.

  2. Cortisol production rate is similarly elevated in obese women with or without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Kok, Petra; Pereira, Alberto M; Pijl, Hanno

    2010-07-01

    The pituitary-adrenal axis in obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is marked by increased urinary excretion of cortisol and its metabolites. It is not as yet clear whether the increased cortisol production in PCOS is related to obesity per se. We investigated 15 obese PCOS women with a body mass index of 30-54 kg/m(2) and 15 healthy obese controls (body mass index 31-60 kg/m(2)) with a regular menstrual cycle. Patients and control women underwent 24-h blood sampling at 20-min intervals. Cortisol concentrations were measured with a sensitive assay. Data were analyzed with a new deconvolution program, approximate entropy, and cosinor regression. Basal, pulsatile, and total cortisol production expressed per liter distribution volume, per square meter body surface, and as absolute amount per 24 h was similar in PCOS patients and matched healthy control women. In addition, the regularity of cortisol secretion and the diurnal properties were identical. Compared with 10 lean control women, mean cortisol production per liter distribution volume was similar in the three groups, but the total 24-h cortisol production was increased in obese control women and PCOS women. This study demonstrates equally increased cortisol production in PCOS women and obese healthy control women.

  3. Impact of obesity on secondary cytoreductive surgery and overall survival in women with recurrent ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Arthur-Quan; Cohen, Joshua G; Li, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Obesity may negatively influence tumor biology in women with epithelial ovarian cancers. To date, only body mass indices (BMI) determined at the time of diagnosis have correlated with clinical outcome. We hypothesized that obesity negatively affects survival throughout the disease course, and sought to determine the prognostic role of BMI at the time of secondary cytoreductive surgery (SCS) for recurrent ovarian cancer. We performed a review of patients undergoing SCS for recurrent epithelial ovarian or peritoneal cancer between 1997 and 2012. We retrospectively reviewed data which were analyzed using Fisher's exact test, Kaplan-Meier survival, and Cox regression analysis. BMI was defined according to the National Institutes of Health's categorizations. We identified 104 patients; 2 were underweight, 46 were of ideal body weight, 32 were overweight, and 24 were obese. Overall, 90 patients underwent optimal resection and BMI did not correlate with ability to perform optimal SCS (p=0.25). When examining BMI strata (underweight, ideal, overweight, and obese), we observed a statistical trend between increasing BMI and poor outcome; median survival was undetermined (greater than 50 months), 46 months, 38 months, and 34 months, respectively (p=0.04). In a multivariate analysis, BMI was an independent predictor of survival (p=0.02). In this cohort of women undergoing SCS for recurrent ovarian cancer, BMI significantly and independently correlated with overall survival. This observation suggests an effect of excess weight on tumor biology and/or response to treatment that is prevalent throughout the disease course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whole exome sequencing identifies RAI1 mutation in a morbidly obese child diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Vidhu V; Esteves, Kristyn M; Towne, Meghan C; Brownstein, Catherine A; James, Philip M; Crowley, Laura; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Elsea, Sarah H; Beggs, Alan H; Picker, Jonathan; Agrawal, Pankaj B

    2015-05-01

    The current obesity epidemic is attributed to complex interactions between genetic and environmental factors. However, a limited number of cases, especially those with early-onset severe obesity, are linked to single gene defects. Rapid-onset obesity with hypothalamic dysfunction, hypoventilation and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) is one of the syndromes that presents with abrupt-onset extreme weight gain with an unknown genetic basis. To identify the underlying genetic etiology in a child with morbid early-onset obesity, hypoventilation, and autonomic and behavioral disturbances who was clinically diagnosed with ROHHAD syndrome. Design/Setting/Intervention: The index patient was evaluated at an academic medical center. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband and his parents. Genetic variants were validated by Sanger sequencing. We identified a novel de novo nonsense mutation, c.3265 C>T (p.R1089X), in the retinoic acid-induced 1 (RAI1) gene in the proband. Mutations in the RAI1 gene are known to cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). On further evaluation, his clinical features were not typical of either SMS or ROHHAD syndrome. This study identifies a de novo RAI1 mutation in a child with morbid obesity and a clinical diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome. Although extreme early-onset obesity, autonomic disturbances, and hypoventilation are present in ROHHAD, several of the clinical findings are consistent with SMS. This case highlights the challenges in the diagnosis of ROHHAD syndrome and its potential overlap with SMS. We also propose RAI1 as a candidate gene for children with morbid obesity.

  5. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  6. Metformin versus Placebo in Obese Pregnant Women without Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Akolekar, Ranjit; Kotecha, Reena; Pastides, Alice; Shehata, Hassan

    2016-02-04

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lifestyle-intervention studies have not shown improved outcomes. Metformin improves insulin sensitivity and in pregnant patients with gestational diabetes it leads to less weight gain than occurs in those who do not take metformin. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women without diabetes who had a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of more than 35 to receive metformin, at a dose of 3.0 g per day, or placebo (225 women in each group) from 12 to 18 weeks of gestation until delivery. The BMI was calculated at the time of study entry (12 to 18 weeks of gestation). The primary outcome was a reduction in the median neonatal birth-weight z score by 0.3 SD (equivalent to a 50% reduction, from 20% to 10%, in the incidence of large-for-gestational-age neonates). Secondary outcomes included maternal gestational weight gain and the incidence of gestational diabetes and of preeclampsia, as well as the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes. Randomization was performed with the use of computer-generated random numbers. The analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. A total of 50 women withdrew consent during the trial, which left 202 women in the metformin group and 198 in the placebo group. There was no significant between-group difference in the median neonatal birth-weight z score (0.05 in the metformin group [interquartile range, -0.71 to 0.92] and 0.17 in the placebo group [interquartile range, -0.62 to 0.89], P=0.66). The median maternal gestational weight gain was lower in the metformin group than in the placebo group (4.6 kg [interquartile range, 1.3 to 7.2] vs. 6.3 kg [interquartile range, 2.9 to 9.2], Pmetformin group than in the placebo group. There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of gestational diabetes, large

  7. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  8. Association between sleep and overweight/obesity among women of childbearing age in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests of the relationship between sleep and overweight/obesity (OW/OB) among women have been inconsistent. Few studies reporting such associations have focused on women of childbearing age. This paper investigates this association among Canadian women of childbearing age. Data were from the Canadian...

  9. Maternal obesity and its effect on labour duration in nulliparous women: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekjaer, Karen Louise; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-07-12

    Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic presentation from 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks of completed gestation and spontaneous or induced labour at Nordsjællands Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2011 and 2012. Total duration of labour and the first and second stages of labour were compared between early-pregnancy normal-weight (BMI women. Proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were applied. Early pregnancy BMI classified 1246 (66.1%) women as normal weight, 350 (18.6%) as overweight and 203 (10.8%) as obese. No difference in the duration of total or first stage of active labour was found for overweight (adjusted HR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.16) or obese (adjusted HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28) compared to normal weight women. Median active labour duration was 5.83 h for normal weight, 6.08 h for overweight and 5.90 h for obese women. The risk of caesarean delivery increased significantly for overweight and obese compared to normal weight women (odds ratios (OR) 1.62; 95%CI 1.18-2.22 and 1.76; 95%CI 1.20-2.58, respectively). Caesarean deliveries were performed earlier in labour in obese than normal-weight women (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.28-2.54). BMI had no significant effect on total duration of active labour. Risk of caesarean delivery increased with increasing BMI. Caesarean deliveries are undertaken earlier in obese women compared to normal weight women following the onset of active labour, shortening the total duration of active labour.

  10. Comparison of methods for identifying small-for-gestational-age infants at risk of perinatal mortality among obese mothers: a hospital-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, S N; Sjaarda, L A; Albert, P S; Mendola, P; Grantz, K L

    2016-11-01

    To assess differences in small-for-gestational age (SGA) classifications for the detection of neonates with increased perinatal mortality risk among obese women and subsequently assess the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) status and SGA. Hospital-based cohort. Twelve US clinical centres (2002-08). A total of 114 626 singleton, nonanomalous pregnancies. Data were collected using electronic medical record abstraction. Relative risks (RR) with 95% CI were estimated. SGA trends (birthweight < 10th centile) classified using population-based (SGA POP ), intrauterine (SGA IU ) and customised (SGA CUST ) references were assessed. The SGA-associated perinatal mortality risk was estimated among obese women. Using the SGA method most associated with perinatal mortality, the association between prepregnancy BMI and SGA was estimated. The overall perinatal mortality prevalence was 0.55% and this increased significantly with increasing BMI (P < 0.01). Among obese women, SGA IU detected the highest proportion of perinatal mortality cases (2.49%). Perinatal mortality was 5.32 times (95% CI 3.72-7.60) more likely among SGA IU neonates than non-SGA IU neonates. This is in comparison with the 3.71-fold (2.49-5.53) and 4.81-fold (3.41-6.80) increased risk observed when SGA POP and SGA CUST were used, respectively. Compared with women of normal weight, overweight women (RR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.86) and obese women (RR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.75-0.83) had a lower risk for delivering an SGA IU neonate. Among obese women, the intrauterine reference best identified neonates at risk of perinatal mortality. Based on SGA IU , SGA is less common among obese women but these SGA babies are at a high risk of death and remain an important group for surveillance. SGA is less common among obese women but these SGA babies are at a high risk of death. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Impact of lifestyle intervention for obese women during pregnancy on maternal metabolic and inflammatory markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K. M.; Carlsen, E. M.; Hædersdal, S.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Offspring of obese mothers have increased risk of developing obesity and related short- and long-term disease. The cause is multifactorial and may partly be explained by the unfavorable intrauterine environment. Intervention during pregnancy leading to a healthier lifestyle among obese...... women can reduce hsCRP representing a marker of inflammation during pregnancy. The effect may partly be mediated by more physical activity and partly by changes in intake of carbohydrates and the glycaemic load....

  12. Correlates of poor mental health in early pregnancy in obese European women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Matteo C; Jelsma, Judith G M; Bogaerts, Annick; Simmons, David; Desoye, Gernot; Corcoy, Rosa; Adelantado, Juan M; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Harreiter, Jürgen; van Assche, Frans A; Devlieger, Roland; Jans, Goele; Galjaard, Sander; Hill, David; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Wender-Ozegowska, Ewa; Zawiejska, Agnieszka; Blumska, Kinga; Lapolla, Annunziata; Dalfrà, Maria G; Bertolotto, Alessandra; Dunne, Fidelma; Jensen, Dorte M; Andersen, Lise Lotte T; Snoek, Frank J; van Poppel, Mireille N M

    2017-12-04

    Depression during pregnancy is associated with higher maternal morbidity and mortality, and subsequent possible adverse effects on the cognitive, emotional and behavioral development of the child. The aim of the study was to identify maternal characteristics associated with poor mental health, in a group of overweight/obese pregnant women in nine European countries, and thus, to contribute to better recognition and intervention for maternal depression. In this cross-sectional observational study, baseline data from early pregnancy (mental health was assessed with the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5). Women were classified as having a low (WHO-5 ≤ 50) or high wellbeing. A total of 735 pregnant women were included. The prevalence of having a low wellbeing was 27.2%, 95% CI [24.0, 30.4]. Multivariate analysis showed independent associations between low wellbeing and European ethnicity, OR = .44, 95% CI [.25, .77], shift work, OR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.11, 2.93], insufficient sleep, OR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.96, 5.55], self-efficacy, OR = .95, 95% CI [.92, .98], social support, OR = .94, 95% CI [.90, .99], and pregnancy-related worries (socioeconomic: OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.15]; health: OR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]; relationship: OR = 1.17, 95% CI [1.05, 1.31]). Mental health problems are common in European overweight/obese pregnant women. The identified correlates might help in early recognition and subsequent treatment of poor mental health problems during pregnancy. This is important to reduce the unfavorable effects of poor mental health on pregnancy outcomes. ISRCTN70595832 , 02.12.2011.

  13. Genotype-by-nutrient interactions assessed in European obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Jose L; Boutin, Philippe; Verdich, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The development of obesity is influenced by both genetic and environmental risk factors. Whereas changes in the environment appear to be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity, genetic factors interacting with environmental factors would contribute to explain obesity onset and sever...

  14. Risk of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in Obese Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Arnold, Marcel; Middeldorp, Saskia; Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Silvis, Suzanne M.; Heldner, Mirjam R.; Meisterernst, Julia; Nemeth, Banne; Meulendijks, Eva R.; Stam, Jan; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism. To date, however, whether obesity is associated with adult cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) has not been assessed. To assess whether obesity is a risk factor for CVT. A case-control study was performed in

  15. Mediation of the bidirectional relations between obesity and depression among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R

    2018-06-01

    Past research established that obesity increases risk for development of depression, and depression increases risk for development of obesity. The current study tested physical impairment (difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living), social dysfunction (low social support and high social strain), and emotional eating (using food to cope with stress) as mediators of the bidirectional, longitudinal relations between depression and obesity. A national sample of mid-life adults in the United States (N = 7108) was assessed at three time points over 18 years. Depression predicted increases in obesity, and obesity predicted increases in depression, for women but not for men. Among women, path analyses revealed that physical impairment, social dysfunction, and emotional eating mediated development of obesity from depression, and that physical impairment and emotional eating mediated development of depression from obesity. These results suggest that prevention or treatment of obesity-linked depression and depression-linked obesity in women may need to address multiple connections between these disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which...

  17. The Relationship between Food Insecurity and Obesity in Rural Childbearing Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine M.; Strawderman, Myla S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: While food insecurity and obesity have been shown to be positively associated in women, little is known about the direction of the causal relationship between these 2 constructs. Purpose: To clarify the direction of the causal relationship between food insecurity and obesity. Methods: Chi-square and logistic regression analysis of data…

  18. Pregnancy outcomes in super-obese women – an even bigger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, of morbidly obese and super-obese pregnant women recruited from the antenatal clinic. Data were ... Prolonged admission (>3 days) after delivery was also .... A fasting glucose level ≥5.6 mmol/L or a 2-hour postprandial glucose level ...

  19. Materno-foetal outcome of labour in obese women in Yaounde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women with obesity and morbid obesity determine the mean birth weight, foetal length and Apgar score of the babies as well as associated maternal complications. This was a descriptive cross sectional prospective study ...

  20. Simulating the Impact of Crime on African American Women's Physical Activity and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  1. Emotion processing and regulation in women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, H.; Middendorp, H. van; Devaere, L.; Larsen, J.K.; van Ramshorst, B.; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Emotional eating, the tendency to eat when experiencing negative affect, is prevalent in morbid obesity and may indicate that ways to deal with emotions are disturbed. Our aim was to compare emotion processing and regulation between 102 women with morbid obesity who apply for bariatric surgery and

  2. Unchanged mitochondrial phenotype, but accumulation of lipids in the myometrium in obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gam, Christiane Marie Bourgin Folke; Larsen, Lea Hüche; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2017-01-01

    myometrial mitochondrial capacity or quantity could contribute as a pathophysiological mechanism to labour dystocia. Data did not support reduced myometrial mitochondrial capacity or quantity in the myometrium at term in obese women, but a reduced myocyte density with increased triglyceride content...... to reduced mitochondrial capacity or quantity, could be a possible mechanism leading to reduced efficiency of uterine contractility during labour. In the present study of 36 women having an elective Caesarean section at term, obesity did not change mitochondrial phenotype in the myometrial myocyte obtained...... in obese women. In conclusion no indication of myometrial mitochondrial dysfunction in the isolated state was found, but the observed increase of lipid content might play a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms behind labour dystocia in obese women....

  3. The effect of exercise on insulin resistance in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba S Kareem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Regular aerobic exercises improve insulin resistance, abdominal fat distribution, and body weight in obese diabetic and nondiabetic women with polycystic ovary, and they are advised to perform regular aerobic exercises.

  4. Impacts of obesity on the health of women of childbearing age: A call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-08

    Mar 8, 2016 ... Background: Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide with higher prevalence among women ... a result of ingestion of food in excess of the body's needs, and the ..... and Garvey W.T. American Association of.

  5. Prepregnancy Obesity and Associations With Stroke and Myocardial Infarction in Women in the Years After Childbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Køber, Lars

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular events (stroke or myocardial infarction) are often associated with poorer prognosis in younger, compared with older individuals. We examined the associations between prepregnancy obesity and the risks of myocardial infarction and stroke in young, healthy women. METHODS ...

  6. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  7. Association between Myeloperoxidase Levels and Risk of Insulin Resistance in Egyptian Obese Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira; Basha, Walaa; Reyad, Hanaa; Mohamed, Ramy; Hassan, Naglaa; Kholousi, Shams

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases. AIM: The current study aimed to investigate serum MPO levels in obese Egyptian women and assess its relation with insulin resistance (IR) and other biochemical risk parameters. METHODS: The study included 80 obese women and 50 age-and-sex-matched healthy controls. Insulin resistance (IR) was evaluated by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum MPO, fasting glucose, insulin and blood lipids and anthropometry were measured. Obese cases were divided into three groups based on MPO tertiles. ROC analysis was performed to obtain the optimal cut-off values of MPO to predicate IR in obese women. RESULTS: The mean serum MPO was significantly higher in obese cases than controls. Cases in the highest MPO tertile had higher HOMA-IR, blood lipids and pressure levels compared with those in the lower tertile. The cutoff point of MPO was > 87.8 (ng/mL) and area under curves was 0.82 (p < 0.01) for diagnosis of IR. MPO levels were higher in obese Egyptian women than healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Elevation of MPO was associated with abnormal metabolic parameters. MPO might be used as an earlier biomarker for IR and metabolic disturbance in obese women. PMID:29731928

  8. Impact of obesity on chemotherapy management and outcomes in women with gynecologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Neil S; Wright, Alexi A

    2015-07-01

    To describe the effects of obesity on the pharmacokinetics and dosing of chemotherapies and provide recommendations for chemotherapy management in obese women with gynecologic malignancies. PubMEd and MEDLINE databases were searched for articles published before June 2014. Only English-language articles were considered. 84 manuscripts were reviewed and 66 were included. Search terms included: obesity, overweight, body mass index, body surface area, glomerular filtration rate, chemotherapy, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, inflammation, and pharmacokinetics, Obese cancer patients have worse clinical outcomes, compared with non-obese patients. This may be because of differences in pharmacokinetics, metabolic dysregulation, or physicians' decisions to reduce chemotherapy dose-intensity during treatment to minimize toxicities. A 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline recommends using actual body weight for chemotherapy dosing in all patients treated with curative intent, irrespective of obesity, to avoid compromising clinical outcomes, including progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In women with gynecologic cancers most studies demonstrate no difference in PFS or OS when obese patients receive the same chemotherapy dose intensity as non-obese patients, except perhaps with bevacizumab. Chemotherapy dose-intensity is a critical determinant of cancer outcomes and should be maintained in all patients, irrespective of obesity. Future studies should prospectively examine the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes (adverse events, survival) to improve the care of this growing population of patients who are at risk for inferior clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparisons of energy intake and energy expenditure in overweight and obese women with and without binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in energy intake or energy expenditure that distinguish obese women with and without binge eating disorder (BED). Seventeen obese women with BED and 17 obese controls completed random 24-hour dietary recall interviews, and had ...

  10. Obesity of women in Jordan - Prevalence and associated factors : making a case for a comprehensive obesity policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göllner, S.; Nimeh, Z.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the current burden of obesity in the female population of Jordan on a national scale and examines the factors associated with it. Demographics and Health Surveys (DHS) were used for the years 2002, 2007 and 2009 covering a total of 23,197 women, 15-49 years of age, and variables

  11. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women

    OpenAIRE

    Heden, Tim; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren; Whaley-Connell, Adam T.; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C.; Kanaley, Jill A.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order eight obese women completed two, 12 h conditions in which they consumed 1500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4 h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2 h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min ...

  12. Prevention of surgical wound infection in obese women undergoing cesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Nana; Vinter, Christina Anne; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Obese women undergoing caesarean section are at increased risk of surgical wound infection, which may lead to reduced quality of life, and increased health care cost. The aim is to evaluate the effect of incisional Negative Pressure Wound Therapy applied prophylactically in obese women under......: The study is on-going. We expect to find a 50% reduction of wound infection when using iNPWT compared to standard dressings in this high-risk subpopulation....

  13. An assessment of the relationship of physical activity, obesity, and chronic diseases/conditions between active/obese and sedentary/ normal weight American women in a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharr, J R; Coughenour, C A; Bungum, T J

    2018-03-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are associated with increased rates of chronic diseases and conditions. However, the 'fit but fat' theory posits that cardiopulmonary fitness (or physical activity) can mitigate risks to health associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to compare chronic diseases and conditions of highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. This was a cross-sectional study of the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. Weighted descriptive statistics were performed to describe the demographic characteristics of the two groups. We calculated odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios for chronic diseases and conditions comparing highly active/obese women with inactive/normal weight women. Highly active/obese women were more likely to report risk factors (hypertension, high cholesterol, and diabetes) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) than inactive/normal weight women; however, they did not have increased rates of CVD, CHD, or heart attack and had decreased risk for stroke. Highly active/obese women had increased risk for asthma, arthritis, and depression, but not for cancer, kidney disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Highly active/obese women appear to be staving off the actual development of CHD and CVD; however, further research is needed to understand the long-term health benefits of physical activity among obese women. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Beverage Consumption Patterns among Overweight and Obese African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terryl J. Hartman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to assess patterns of beverage consumption and the contribution of total beverages and classes of beverages to overall energy intake and weight status. We conducted an analysis in a community-based study of 280 low-income overweight and obese African American women residing in the rural South. Participants provided baseline data including demographic characteristics, weight and two 24-h food and beverage dietary recalls. Mean energy intake from beverages was approximately 273 ± 192 kcal/day or 18.3% of total energy intake. The most commonly reported beverage was plain water, consumed by 88.2% of participants, followed closely by sweetened beverages (soft drinks, fruit drinks, sweetened teas, sweetened coffees and sweetened/flavored waters consumed by 78.9% of participants. In multiple regression analyses total energy and percent energy from beverages and specific categories of beverages were not significantly associated with current body mass index (BMI. It is widely accepted that negative energy balance may lead to future weight loss. Thus, reducing consumption of beverages that contribute energy but not important nutrients (e.g., sugar sweetened beverages could be an effective strategy for promoting future weight loss in this population.

  15. Behavioral and body size correlates of energy intake underreporting by obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, M J; Fong, A K; Green, M W

    1999-03-01

    To examine behavioral and body size influences on the underreporting of energy intake by obese and normal-weight women. Seven-day estimated food records were kept by subjects before they participated in a 49-day residential study. Self-reported energy intake was compared with energy intake required to maintain a stable body weight during the residential study (reference standard). Energy intake bias and its relationship to various body size and behavioral measures were examined. Twenty-two, healthy, normal-weight (mean body mass index [BMI] = 21.3) and obese (mean BMI = 34.2) women aged 22 to 42 years were studied. Analysis of variance, paired t test, simple linear regression, and Pearson correlation analyses were conducted. Mean energy intake from self-reported food records was underreported by normal-weight (-9.7%) and obese (-19.4%) women. BMI correlated inversely with the energy intake difference for normal-weight women (r = -.67, P = .02), whereas the Beck Depression Inventory correlated positively with the energy intake difference for obese women (r = .73, P behavioral traits play a role in the ability of women to accurately self-report energy intake. BMI appears to be predictive of underreporting of energy intake by normal-weight women, whereas emotional factors related to depression appear to be more determinant of underreporting for obese women. Understanding causative factors of the underreporting phenomenon will help practicing dietitians to devise appropriate and realistic diet intervention plans that clients can follow to achieve meaningful change.

  16. Utility of Body Mass Index in Identifying Excess Adiposity in Youth Across the Obesity Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Justin R; Kaizer, Alexander M; Rudser, Kyle D; Daniels, Stephen R; Kelly, Aaron S

    2016-10-01

    To determine the proportion of youth within a given body mass index (BMI) obesity category with excess adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Furthermore, to examine whether mean differences in cardiometabolic risk factors based upon various excess adiposity cutpoints were present. DXA data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 (n = 10 465; 8-20 years of age) were used for this analysis. Obesity categories were defined using Centers for Disease Control and prevention definitions for age and sex. Excess adiposity was defined using cohort-specific cutpoints at 75th, 85th, and 90th percentiles of DXA body fat (%) by age and sex using quantile regression models. Additionally, we examined differences in cardiometabolic risk factors among youth (BMI percentile >85th) above and below various excess adiposity cutpoints. Nearly all youth with class 3 obesity (100% male, 100% female; 97% male, 99% female; and 95% male, 96% female; using the 75th, 85th, and 90th DXA percentiles, respectively) and a high proportion of those with class 2 obesity (98% male, 99% female; 92% male, 91% female; and 76% male, 76% female) had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among youth with class 1 obesity or overweight. Elevated cardiometabolic risk factors were present in youth with excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. BMI correctly identifies excess adiposity in most youth with class 2 and 3 obesity but a relatively high degree of discordance was observed in youth with obesity and overweight. Cardiometabolic risk factors are increased in the presence of excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relation with HOMA-IR and thyroid hormones in obese Turkish women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, S; Yerlikaya, E; Akin, F; Kaptanoglu, B; Erürker, T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and thyroid function in obese pre- and postmenopausal women with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). 141 obese women were divided into two groups, HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7, to evaluate relation with HOMA-IR and fatness, hormone and blood parameters. They were then divided into four groups as pre- and postmenopausal with or without MetS. Various fatness, hormone and blood parameters were examined. Statistically significant difference was found in weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, TSH, FT3, FT4, FSH, Anti-microsomal antibody (ANTIM) and triglycerides levels in HOMA-IRHOMA-IR>2.7 obese Turkish women. This study showed that age, weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat%, fasting insulin, FT3, ANTIM, FSH, LH, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, HOMA-IR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels were related in preand post menopausal status in obese women with or without MetS. Obesity may influence the levels of thyroid hormones and increases the risk of MetS in women. Postmenopausal status with MetS is associated with an increased TSH, FT3 and FT4 levels and HOMA-IR in obese women. Strong relation was observed with MetS and TSH and FT3 levels.

  18. Physical activity patterns in morbidly obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soyang; Mohammad, Jamal; Samuel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    To compare physical activity patterns between morbidly obese and normal-weight women. Daily physical activity of 18 morbidly obese and 7 normal-weight women aged 30-58 years was measured for 2 days using the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA) device. The obese group spent about 2 hr/day less standing and 30 min/day less walking than did the normal-weight group. Time spent standing (standing time) was positively associated with time spent walking (walking time). Age- and walking time-adjusted standing time did not differ according to weight status. Promoting standing may be a strategy to increase walking.

  19. Steroid hormone profiling in obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuying; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Shengxian; Zhou, Wenzhong; Ye, Lei; Wang, Lihua; Tao, Tao; Gu, Junjie; Yang, Zuwei; Zhao, Dandan; Gu, Weiqiong; Hong, Jie; Ning, Guang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Weiqing

    2017-10-26

    The study explored differences in the steroidogenic pathway between obese and nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). 1044 women with PCOS (including 350 lean, 312 overweight and 382 obese) and 366 control women without PCOS (including 203 lean, 32 overweight and 131 obese) were enrolled. The differences in steroid hormones were amplified in lean PCOS versus lean controls compared with obese PCOS versus obese controls. Compared with obese PCOS, lean PCOS demonstrated increased dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.015), 17-hydropregnenolone (P = 0.003), 17-hydroprogesterone (17-OHP) (P lean PCOS had increased activity of P450c17 (17-hydropregnenolone/pregnenolone, P  G (p. D184E) in lean PCOS compared with obese PCOS patients (P = 0.006). In conclusion, this study demonstrated for the first time that the adrenal-specific enzyme P450c21 showed decreased activity in lean PCOS patients, and that the adrenal androgen excess may play different roles in lean and obese PCOS patients, which represents as different enzyme activity in the steroidogenic pathway.

  20. biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Naser, H.F.O.

    2004-01-01

    this study investigates the biochemical and physiological studies on adult women suffering from obesity and/or some liver diseases.100 women in premenopausal period (between 30-45 years) were divided into 5 groups:group(1) control, group(2) obese,group (3) HCV non-obese, group(4) HCV obese and group (5) other liver diseases. the obtained results indicated that, for all female-studied groups there were very highly significant differences in weight, body mass index, waist ,hip circumferences, while ,there were non-significant differences in height and waist hip ratio.also there were very highly significant differences in AST, ALT,Alkaline phosphatase,GGT,bilirubin, these results may be due to hepatic injury and metabolic dysfunction. there were very highly significant differences in HDL,triglycerides and total lipids, whereas it was significant difference in cholesterol and non-significant for LDL, these differences might be contributed to obesity and hepatitis virus C infection

  1. Changes in Cycling and Incidence of Overweight and Obesity among Danish Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin Gillies; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Overweight and obesity is associated with increased risk of several non-communicable diseases and is a growing public health issue. The primary purpose of the current study was to investigate incidence of overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. The secondary purpose...... was to investigate incidence of remission from overweight and obesity according to five-year cycling habits. METHODS: We analyzed 9014 men and 8661 women without chronic disease who between 1993 and 2003 completed two assessments approximately five years apart. At both assessments participants reported habitual...... and obesity, according to five-year cycling habits. RESULTS: Continued cycling was associated with lower odds for incidence of abdominal (men:>102 cm, women:>88 cm) and incidence of general (BMI≥30 kg/m) obesity; compared to no cycling, ORs (95% CIs) were 0.82 (0.74,0.91) and 0.74 (0.60,0.92) for abdominal...

  2. Stress does not affect ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessl, Gundula R R; Laessle, Reinhold G

    2017-03-01

    Stress has been supposed to increase appetite. The biological basis of this phenomenon may be a stress-induced alteration of the secretion of GUT peptides such as ghrelin. Stress-induced changes in ghrelin secretion could be a biological basis of overeating and a factor contributing to the development of obesity. Aim of the study was to analyze the effect of acute psychosocial stress on ghrelin secretion in obese and normal weight women. We compared pre- and postprandial plasma ghrelin secretion of 42 obese and 43 normal weight women in a randomized crossover design. Ghrelin and cortisol concentrations were measured and ratings of stress were also recorded in response to a psychological stressor (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Ghrelin samples were collected in the fasting state one time before participating in the TSST and one time before a control session. After the TSST, respectively, control session participants had a standardized ad libitum meal. 30 and 60 min after the TSST, respectively, control session preprandial ghrelin was measured again. Obese women showed lower pre- and postprandial release of ghrelin than normal weight controls. Moreover, obese women showed inhibited postprandial decrease of ghrelin secretion. Stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. The present data provide further evidence of altered ghrelin release in obesity. Acute stress did not affect postprandial ghrelin secretion, but inhibited food intake in all subjects. Results are discussed with regard to biological and psychological regulation of hunger and satiety in obesity.

  3. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F; Makambi, Kepher H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21-39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995-2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of > or = 2 times/week compared with or = 2 drinks/day compared with obesity among young African American women.

  4. An epidemiological study of overweight and obesity among women in an Urban area of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Girdhar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a complex, multi-factorial chronic disease. Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Objectives: To find the prevalence and risk factors for obesity in women aged 20-60 years in Ludhiana city. Methods: The present study is a community based cross sectional study carried out in an urban area of Ludhiana among women aged 20-60 years. Among the study population of 324 women, a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire was used to record the socio-demographic and anthropometric profile of women. Chi square test and logistic regression was used to find the association of obesity and hypertension with socio-demographic variables. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.7% and 29.6% respectively. Obesity was found to be more common among middle-aged Punjabi housewives belonging to upper socio-economic strata. There was strong association between overweight/obesity and hypertension.

  5. Maternal obesity and its effect on labour duration in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekjaer, Karen Louise; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic......), overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2), and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) women. Proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were applied. RESULTS: Early pregnancy BMI classified 1246 (66.1%) women as normal weight, 350 (18.6%) as overweight and 203 (10.8%) as obese. No difference in the duration of total...... or first stage of active labour was found for overweight (adjusted HR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.16) or obese (adjusted HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28) compared to normal weight women. Median active labour duration was 5.83 h for normal weight, 6.08 h for overweight and 5.90 h for obese women. The risk...

  6. Obesity, Healthcare Utilization and Health-Related Quality of Life after Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Frederick H.; Anderson, Frederick A.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Gehlbach, Stephen H.

    2013-01-01

    Fractures in obese postmenopausal women may be associated with higher morbidity than in non-obese women. We aimed to compare healthcare utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, non-obese and underweight women with fractures. Information from GLOW, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2 and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, healthcare utilization, HRQL and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 non-obese and 941 obese women with ≥1 incident clinical fracture during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than non-obese women (6 vs. 5 days, P = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in non-obese women, both before and after fracture, but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of anti-osteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in non-obese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than non-obese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established. PMID:24077896

  7. Metabolic Concomitants of Obese and Nonobese Women With Features of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumosleh, Jocelyne Matar; Grundy, Scott M.; Phan, Jennifer; Neeland, Ian J.; Chang, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often associated with obesity and diabetes. Objective: The present study measured body fat distribution and metabolic risk factors in women with features of PCOS. Design: Cross-sectional, multiethnic study of cardiovascular risks. Setting: General community. Study Participants: 145 PCOS and 344 non-PCOS women. Exposure Measures: Body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal fat masses measured by magnetic resonance imaging and hepatic triglyceride by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Outcomes Measures: Body composition, liver fat content, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), revised, and metabolic syndrome components. Results: PCOS women had a higher free androgen index compared with the non-PCOS women. Nonobese PCOS and non-PCOS women had a similar body fat content and distribution, HOMA-IR, and hepatic triglyceride content. Obese PCOS women had a similar total body fat percentage compared with their non-PCOS counterparts (41.4% and 41.4% respectively). Both obese groups had similar intraperitoneal fat (1.4% of total body mass in PCOS vs 1.4% in non-PCOS). However, obese PCOS women had a greater ratio of truncal/lower body fat (1.42 vs 1.27; P < 0.016). They also had greater insulin resistance (HOMA-IR: PCOS, 2.24% vs non-PCOS, 1.91%; P < 0.016), higher liver triglyceride content (6.96% in PCOS vs 4.44% in non-PCOS; P < 0.016), and a greater incidence of hypertension (33% vs 24%; P < 0.05). No differences were observed in other metabolic risk factors. Conclusions: Both obese and nonobese women with PCOS features had a greater free androgen index compared with non-PCOS women, but neither had greater intraperitoneal fat or abnormal lipid levels. Obese, but not nonobese, women with PCOS had a greater truncal/lower extremity fat ratio, HOMA-IR, and liver triglyceride content. PMID:29264465

  8. Low predictability of anthropometric indicators of obesity in metabolic syndrome (MS) risks among elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fu-Ling; Hsu, Chung-Huei; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    While diagnostic criteria for MS may vary depending on ethnicity, obesity remains a key risk factor in its development. In Taiwan, the incidence of obesity and MS among women has been increasing; however cut-off values for defining obesity for the diagnosis of MS among different groups of women have not been clearly established. The goal of this research was to examine the suitability of various anthropometric indicators of obesity in predicting the presence of MS criteria and to determine appropriate cut-off values of these indicators for women of different age and menstrual status. The sample was derived from the 2002 "Taiwan Three High Prevalence Survey" database. Women were divided into three groups based on age and menstrual status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves was applied to the anthropometric indicators of obesity including, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), to ascertain its value in predicting MS. 2848 cases were included. It was found that most MS component values were worse with age and following menopause. Obesity indicators showed poor predictability for MS risks in post-menopausal women over 65 years, but good predictability in women under 65 years; our study revealed the following as ideal cut-off values for non-menopausal female: WHtRrisks in women over the age of 65, and cut-off values for obesity indicators need to be further reduced in non-menopausal women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Glucose, insulin and C-peptide secretion in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabeer, S; Naidoo, C; Joubert, S M

    1990-06-01

    Plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide responses during oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) were evaluated in 10 non obese women with polycystic ovarian disease (NOB-PCOD) and 10 obese women with polycystic ovarian disease (OB-PCOD). Mean plasma glucose response at 120 minutes in OB-PCOD showed impaired glucose tolerance. Also in this group, 1 patient had frank diabetes mellitus, whilst 3 other patients had impaired glucose tolerance 1 NOB-PCOD patient had impaired glucose tolerance. Mean plasma glucose levels and mean incremental glucose areas were higher in the OB-PCOD at all time intervals and reached statistical significance at 60 and 90 minutes. Mean plasma IRI levels were also higher in OB-PCOD at all time intervals, and reached statistically significant higher levels at 0, 60 and 90 minutes. Mean serum C-peptide valves were also higher at all time intervals in OB-PCOD. The relationship between acanthosis nigricans, obesity and PCOD was also analysed. It is evident from this study that obesity has a significant negative impact on the overall carbohydrate status in women with PCOD.

  10. [Contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in pregnant women with obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese pregnant women depending on the obesity class as well as its effect on the progression of pregnancy. 36 pregnant women of I and II obesity classes and 21 pregnant women with normal body mass participated in the study. Concentrations of insulin, leptin and C-reactive protein in blood serum were measured with immunoenzymatic assays. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined with the Caro index. Contribution of leptin to development of IR was assessed with the ratio "leptin/Caro index". An increase of leptin concentration in blood serum was found in pregnant women with obesity compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the ratio "leptin/Caro index" increased with IR progression and reached maximum in the group with obesity class II, where it was 5.8 times higher than in the control group. An increased frequency of gestoses and placentary dysfunction were manifestations of weakening of adaptive mechanisms of the organism associated with the IR progression and increased role of leptin in its development. Therefore, activation of adipocyte function through the increased leptin secretion and increased ratio "leptin/Caro index" reflects the important role of leptin in pathogenesis of IR in pregnant women with obesity.

  11. Physical activity and the incidence of obesity in young African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Kipping-Ruane, Kristen L; Boggs, Deborah A; Palmer, Julie R

    2013-09-01

    Obesity occurs more commonly among African-American women than among other racial/ethnic groups, and most weight gain occurs before middle age. The study prospectively investigated the relationship of vigorous exercise and brisk walking to the incidence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30) among African-American women aged American women who were aged obese at baseline. BMI, exercise, and walking were assessed at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Data for BMI were collected through 2009. Data for exercise and walking were collected through 2007. Validation and reproducibility data indicated that reporting was more accurate for vigorous exercise than for brisk walking. Cox proportional hazards models estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of incident obesity for hours/week of vigorous exercise and walking relative to "little or no exercise" (obesity decreased with increasing vigorous exercise; the IRR was 0.77 (95% CI=0.69, 0.85) for ≥ 7 hours/week relative to little or no exercise; the IRRs were reduced both among women with a healthy weight (BMI obesity among young African-American women. Results for brisk walking were inconclusive. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Maternal metabolic diseases related to pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity in mexican women with high risk pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Higareda, Salvador; Pérez-Pérez, Omar-Alejandro; Balderas-Peña, Luz-Ma-Adriana; Martínez-Herrera, Brenda-Eugenia; Salcedo-Rocha, Ana-Leticia; Ramírez-Conchas, Rosa-Emilia

    Pre-pregnancy obesity has been proposed as a risk factor related to gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Identify pregnancy related diseases associated with pre-pregnancy obesity as a risk factor ina high risk preganancy patient population. 600 patients whose pre-pregnancy obesity had been assessed as a high risk factor were included in the study. The means, standard deviation, median, interquartile intervals, Pearson and Spearman correlation and logistic regression to estimate risk with the odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The mean pre-pregnancy body mass index was 29.59 ± 6.42 kg/m 2 . The mean for recommended pregnancy weight gain was 2.31 ± 1.03 kg, but the mean of real weight gain was 8.91 ± 6.84 kg. A significant correlation between pre-pregnancy obesity and family history of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000), systemic hypertension (p=0.003), cardiac diseases (p=0.000), dyslipidemia (p=0.000) and obesity (p=0.000) was identified. Pre-pregnancy obesity was identified as a risk factor for the development of gestational diabetes (OR: 1.95; IC95%: 1.39 to 2.76; p=0.000) in this kind of patient. 75% of high risk pregnancy women in a high specialty hospital in West Mexico are overweight or obese when they become pregnant. These are risk factors in the development of gestational diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend pObesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  14. Racial difference in Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP correlates to triglyceride in non-obese and obese African American and Caucasian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianflone Katherine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP has been shown to influence adipose tissue triglyceride (TG storage. The aim was to examine ethnic differences in ASP and leptin levels in relation to lipid profiles and postprandial changes amongst African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA women matched for BMI. Methods 129 women were recruited in total (age 21 – 73 y: 24 non-obese (BMI 2 CA, 27 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 CA, 13 obese diabetic CA, 25 non-obese AA, 25 obese AA, and 15 obese diabetic AA. Cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, apoB, glucose and insulin were measured at baseline. TG, non-esterified fatty acids, leptin, and ASP were measured at baseline and postprandially following a fat meal. Results ASP, leptin, insulin and TG were significantly increased in obese subjects within each race. However, AA women had significantly lower ASP and TG than CA women at all BMI. Obese and diabetic AA women had significantly lower apoB levels than CA women when compared to their respective counterparts. For AA women, fasting ASP was positively correlated with BMI, cholesterol, apoB, LDL-C and glucose. For CA women, fasting ASP was positively correlated with BMI, leptin, glucose and insulin. However, for any given BMI, ASP was significantly reduced in AA vs CA (p = 0.0004. Similarly, for any given leptin level or TG levels, ASP was significantly lower in AA women (p = 0.041 and p = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion CA women have higher baseline TG levels and an earlier TG peak that is accompanied with higher ASP levels suggesting increased ASP resistance, while AA women have lower baseline TG levels and a later TG peak at lower ASP levels suggesting increased ASP sensitivity. This may explain why AA women may have fewer metabolic complications, such as diabetes and CVD, when compared to their Caucasian counterparts at the same level of obesity.

  15. The burden of obesity in women of reproductive age and in pregnancy in a middle-income setting: A population based study from Jamaica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovney Kanguru

    Full Text Available Obesity is rising globally and is associated with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aims to investigate overweight and obesity and its consequences among Jamaican women of reproductive age, particularly development of diabetes, hypertension and the risk of maternal death.A national lifestyle survey (2007/8 of 1371 women of reproductive age provided data on the prevalence of high BMI, associated risk factors and co-morbidities. A national maternal mortality surveillance database (1998-2012 of 798 maternal deaths was used to investigate maternal deaths in obese women. Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests were used.High BMI (> = 25kg/m2 occurred in 63% of women aged between 15 and 49 years. It was associated with increasing age, high gravidity and parity, and full time employment (p<0.001. Of those with high BMI, 5.5% were diabetic, 19.3% hypertensive and 2.8% were both diabetic and hypertensive. Obesity was recorded in 10.5% of maternal deaths, with higher proportions of deaths due to hypertension in pregnancy (27.5%, circulatory/ cardiovascular disorders (13.0%, and diabetes (4.3% compared to 21.9%, 6.9% and 2.6% respectively in non-obese women.This is one of a few studies from a middle-income setting to explore maternal burden of obesity during pregnancy, which contributes to improving the knowledge base, identifying the gaps in information and increasing awareness of the growing problem of maternal overweight and obesity. While survey diagnostic conditions require cautious interpretation of findings, it is clear that obesity and related medical conditions present a substantial public health problem for emerging LMICs like Jamaica. There is an urgent need for global consensus on routine measures of the burden and risk factors associated with obesity and development of culturally appropriate interventions.

  16. Abdominal obesity vs general obesity for identifying arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recio-Rodriguez Jose I

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to analyze the relationship between abdominal obesity and general obesity, with subclinical atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness and wave reflection in healthy, diabetics and hypertensive subjects. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was made of 305 individuals (diabetics 32.8%, hypertensive subjects 37.0% and healthy individuals 30.2%. Measurements: Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, body fat percentage (BFP and waist/height ratio (WHtR. Arterial stiffness was assessed according to pulse wave velocity (PWV, intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (C-IMT, augmentation index (central and peripheral, ankle-brachial index (ABI, and central and peripheral pulse pressure. Results WC and WHtR showed a positive correlation to PWV and C-IMT in the studied groups. After adjusting for age, gender, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, serum glucose and the presence of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, dyslipidemia, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, and atherosclerotic plaques, it was seen that for every 0.1 point increase in WHtR, and for every cm increase in WC, the PWV increased 0.041 and 0.029 m/sec, and C-IMT increased 0.001 mm and 0.001 mm, respectively. Conclusions The measures of abdominal obesity (WHtR and WC correlates better than BMI and BFP with arterial stiffness evaluated by PWV, and with subclinical atherosclerosis evaluated by C-IMT, independently of the presence of diabetes or hypertension. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01325064

  17. Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, M; Luan, J; Langenberg, C

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population-based sam......BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis of case-control genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for early onset and morbid obesity identified four variants in/near the PRL, PTER, MAF and NPC1 genes. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to validate association of these variants with obesity-related traits in population......, these variants, which were identified in a GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity, do not seem to influence obesity-related traits in the general population....

  18. Genome-wide association study for the interaction between BMR and BMI in obese Korean women including overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoungsook; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Myung-Sunny; Choi, Chong Ran; Park, Mi-Young; Kim, Ae-Jung

    2016-02-01

    This is the first study to identify common genetic factors associated with the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) in obese Korean women including overweight. This will be a basic study for future research of obese gene-BMR interaction. The experimental design was 2 by 2 with variables of BMR and BMI. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was conducted in the overweight and obesity (BMI > 23 kg/m(2)) compared to the normality, and in women with low BMR (BMR. A total of 140 SNPs reached formal genome-wide statistical significance in this study (P BMR (rs10786764; P = 8.0 × 10(-7), rs1040675; 2.3 × 10(-6)) and BMI (rs10786764; P = 2.5 × 10(-5), rs10786764; 6.57 × 10(-5)). The other genes related to BMI (HSD52, TMA16, MARCH1, NRG1, NRXN3, and STK4) yielded P BMR and BMI, including NRG3, OR8U8, BCL2L2-PABPN1, PABPN1, and SLC22A17 were identified in obese Korean women (P BMR- and BMI-related genes using GWAS. Although most of these newly established loci were not previously associated with obesity, they may provide new insights into body weight regulation. Our findings of five common genes associated with BMR and BMI in Koreans will serve as a reference for replication and validation of future studies on the metabolic rate.

  19. Are women with obesity and infertility willing to attempt weight loss prior to fertility treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacha, C R; Page, C M; Goldman, R H; Ginsburg, E S; Zera, C A

    To assess attitudes towards weight loss interventions in patients seeking infertility treatment. We evaluated prior weight loss experiences, attitudes towards future interventions by body mass index (BMI), and willingness to delay fertility treatment for weight loss interventions stratified by BMI using logistic regression amongst women ≤45years old with infertility over three months or recurrent pregnancy loss. The average age of our convenience sample of respondents (148 of 794 eligible women, 19%) was 34.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 26.7±7.4kg/m 2 , including 37 with a BMI >30kg/m 2 (25%). Most women had attempted conception over 1year. The majority of women with overweight or obesity were attempting weight loss at the time of survey completion (69%). While 47% of these women reported interest in a supervised medical weight loss program, 92% of overweight women and 84% of women with obesity were not willing to delay fertility treatment more than 3 months to attempt weight loss. Most women with obesity and infertility in our population are unwilling to postpone fertility treatment for weight loss interventions. Copyright © 2017 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Unconscious collusion: An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the maternity care experiences of women with obesity (BMI≥30kg/m²).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sandra; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2017-06-01

    obstetric and midwifery literature continually emphasise incidence and consequence of obesity in pregnancy. However, they offer less consensus on how best to support women who are obese. Therefore, this study explores in depth the lived experience of women who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥30kg/m². This exploration provides a bio-psycho-social understanding of the lived experience of women to identify how best to support them throughout their childbirth experience. an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) design was adopted for this qualitative study. Purposive sampling of participants was conducted on the postnatal wards of a maternity hospital in the Republic of Ireland. In total, 15 participants volunteered to take part in semi-structured interviews conducted at six to ten weeks postnatally. Data were analysed utilising the IPA framework. the results indicate that participants were conscious of the problematics of communicating obesity in pregnancy. The narrative data revealed an unconscious collusion between healthcare professionals and women as they navigate obesity related conversations. The behaviours related to unconscious collusion are incorporated in the sub-ordinate themes; 'just recorded and that's all', 'but what's eating healthy? 'pussy footing around' and 'I hate that word obesity. the findings highlight a lack of information received by participants from healthcare professionals regarding increased BMI or weight management. The data suggests that healthcare professionals appeared to collude with women to avoid challenging discussions regarding obesity. This may be related to avoidance on participants' part and/or may be linked with healthcare professionals' reluctance to communicate issues relating to increased BMI. Although participants were generally unhappy with the communication skills of health professionals, they readily acknowledged the sensitive nature of obesity related communications. The findings provide healthcare

  1. A mixed methods comparison of perceived benefits and barriers to exercise between obese and nonobese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Lucia Andrea; Ward, Dianne S

    2013-05-01

    Obese women have lower levels of physical activity than nonobese women, but it is unclear what drives these differences. Mixed methods were used to understand why obese women have lower physical activity levels. Findings from focus groups with obese white women age 50 and older (N = 19) were used to develop psychosocial items for an online survey of white women (N = 195). After examining the relationship between weight group (obese vs. nonobese) and exercise attitudes, associated items (P exercise (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8) and were more likely to agree their weight makes exercise difficult (OR = 10.6, 95% CI 4.2-27.1), and they only exercise when trying to lose weight (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.6-8.9). Enjoyment and exercise for weight loss were statistically significant mediators of the relationship between weight and physical activity. Exercise interventions for obese women may be improved by focusing on exercise enjoyment and the benefits of exercise that are independent of weight loss.

  2. Circulating ACE is a predictor of weight loss maintenance not only in overweight and obese women, but also in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Holst, Claus; Wodzig, W K W H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Circulating angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was identified as a predictor of weight loss maintenance in overweight/obese women of the Diogenes project. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ACE acted also as a predictor in men of the Diogenes study and to compare it with that in women....... DESIGN: Subjects, who lost ¿8% of body weight induced by low-caloric diet in an 8-week weight loss period, were assigned to weight loss maintenance with dietary intervention for 6 months. SUBJECTS: 125 overweight/obese healthy men from eight European countries who completed whole intervention....... MEASUREMENTS: Concentrations and activity of serum ACE at baseline and after the 8-week weight loss, in addition to anthropometric and physiological parameters. RESULTS: Serum ACE concentration decreased by 11.3±10.6% during the weight loss period in men. A greater reduction is associated with less body weight...

  3. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital...... in Copenhagen. POPULATION: 338 pregnant women, 175 normal-weight women with body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2) and 163 obese women with BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2). METHODS: Physical activity was assessed by a pedometer (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700/701) on seven consecutive days in six different groups: normal......-weight or obese at gestational ages 11-13, 18-22, and 36-38, and expressed as median number of daily steps during a whole week, working days, and weekends. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation between BMI and physical activity during pregnancy and compliance with wearing the pedometer. RESULTS: Noncompliance was more...

  4. Effects of probiotics (Vivomixx®) in obese pregnant women and their newborn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Nilas, Lisbeth; Carlsen, Emma Malchau

    2016-01-01

    microbiota may play a significant role in the development of obesity. Some studies have indicated that the daily consumption of probiotics may reduce the risk of preeclampsia, maintain serum insulin levels and reduce the frequency of GDM in pregnant women. The aims of this study are to investigate whether...... daily probiotic supplements in obese women during pregnancy can limit gestational weight gain, improve glucose homeostasis and thereby improve maternal, fetal and infant health outcomes. Methods: A pilot study including 50 obese pregnant nulliparous women with a prepregnancy BMI of between 30 and 35 kg....../m2 will be randomized to receive daily probiotics (four capsules of Vivomixx®; total of 450 billion CFU/day, including eight probiotic bacterial strains) or placebo from gestational age 14-20 weeks until delivery. The infants will be followed until 9 months of age. The women will be monitored...

  5. Identifying Post-War Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    After suffering through the 30-year civil war that ended in 2009, women ... programs available to women - Analyze the post-war development programs in the north ... addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and gender gaps in ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  6. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking.

  7. The relationship between child abuse and adult obesity among california women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jennifer; Pavao, Joanne; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-07-01

    Despite clinical studies suggesting that child abuse is associated with adult obesity, very few studies have been conducted with large community or state-based samples. This study examines the relationship between child abuse and adult obesity, relative to other risk factors such as demographics, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity, in a representative sample of California women. Data are from the California Women's Health Survey, a state-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey of California women. Participants included 11,115 nonpregnant women aged 18 or older, who provided complete data for all study variables. The telephone interview included assessment of child abuse (abstracted from the Traumatic Stress Schedule), food insecurity, perceived stress, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, height, and weight. Data were collected in 2002, 2003, and 2004, and analyzed in 2006. Obese (body mass index [BMI] of 30 or higher) women were significantly more likely to report exposure to child abuse (odds ratio [OR]=1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-1.42). In a multivariate model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, food insecurity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, physical inactivity, and perceived stress, women exposed to child abuse remained significantly more likely to be obese than unexposed women (adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.13-1.40). The population-attributable fraction of obesity associated with any type of abuse was 4.5% (95% CI=2.28-6.55). Exposure to child abuse is associated with adult obesity among California women, even accounting for other relevant variables. This supports the notion that child abuse and its sequelae may be important targets for public health intervention, particularly in subpopulations where the prevalence of child abuse is known to be high.

  8. Mid-upper arm circumference as a screening tool for identifying children with obesity: a 12-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J-P; Katzmarzyk, P T; Barnes, J D; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Tremblay, M S

    2017-12-01

    No studies have examined if mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) can be an alternative screening tool for obesity in an international sample of children differing widely in levels of human development. Our aim is to determine whether MUAC could be used to identify obesity in children from 12 countries in five major geographic regions of the world. This observational, multinational cross-sectional study included 7337 children aged 9-11 years. Anthropometric measurements were objectively assessed, and obesity was defined according to the World Health Organization reference data. In the total sample, MUAC was strongly correlated with adiposity indicators in both boys and girls (r > 0.86, p obesity was high in both sexes and across study sites (overall area under the curve of 0.97, sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 90%). The MUAC cut-off value to identify obesity was ~25 cm for both boys and girls. In country-specific analyses, the cut-off value to identify obesity ranged from 23.2 cm (boys in South Africa) to 26.2 cm (girls in the UK). Results from this 12-country study suggest that MUAC is a simple and accurate measurement that may be used to identify obesity in children aged 9-11 years. MUAC may be a promising screening tool for obesity in resource-limited settings. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Social stress, obesity, and depression among women: clarifying the role of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Karen D

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the role of stress in the association among physical activity, obesity, and depression among women. The extent to which physical activity moderated these relationships was also examined. Data from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3235) and multivariable regression analyses were used to examine the effects of chronic stress, material hardship, racial discrimination, and physical activity on obesity and depression among African American, Caribbean Black and White women. Stress was not related to body mass index (BMI) for African American or White women, but chronic stress was associated with higher BMI for Caribbean Black women. Stress was associated with depressive symptoms, but there was variation by the type of stressor under consideration. Physical activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and lower BMI, but the relationships varied by type of stressor and race/ethnicity. Physical activity moderated the effect of chronic stress on depressive symptoms and BMI, but only for African American women who reported high levels of chronic stress. Among White women, physical activity moderated the effect of racial discrimination on BMI for those who reported experiencing both high and low levels of discrimination. This study was the first to document physical activity as a moderator in the relationship among stress, depression, and obesity using a nationally representative sample of racially/ethnically diverse women. Findings provide insight into the role of stress in relation to depression and obesity while highlighting heterogeneity among Black Americans.

  10. What kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiepoor, S; Khalkhali, H R; Sadeghi, E

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) and sexual health and determine what kind of sexual dysfunction is most common among overweight and obese women in reproductive age from Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive design was adopted. The data of 198 women who referred to health centers during 2014-2015 in Iran were collected through convenient sampling. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, female sexual function and sexual satisfaction indexes. Participants' heights and weights were recorded in centimeters and kilogram. Data were analyzed applying descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance, regression logistic analysis and χ 2 . P-valuessexual dysfunction, and 69.7% had dissatisfaction and low satisfaction. According to our evaluations, orgasm dysfunction had the most frequency; on the other hand, desire dysfunction and pain dysfunction had the lowest frequency among overweight and obese women, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, we have shown that BMI affected on sexual satisfaction, but there was not significant differences between BMI and sexual function. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity. This article concludes that all women especially women with overweight and obesity should be counseled about health outcomes related to sexual activity.

  11. Insulin-induced capillary recruitment is impaired in both lean and obese women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketel, I J G; Serné, E H; Ijzerman, R G; Korsen, T J M; Twisk, J W; Hompes, P G A; Smulders, Y M; Homburg, R; Vorstermans, L; Stehouwer, C D A; Lambalk, C B

    2011-11-01

    Insulin resistance, i.e. impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Insulin-induced capillary recruitment (IICR) is considered a significant determinant of IMGU. We investigated whether IICR is a determinant IMGU in obese and lean women with and without PCOS. The study included 36 women with PCOS (20 lean, BMI 21.9 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) and 16 obese, BMI 35.9 ± 6.0 kg/m(2)) and 27 age-matched healthy controls (14 lean, BMI 22.2 ± 1.8 kg/m(2) and 13 obese, BMI 40.5 ± 7.0 kg/m(2)). IICR was evaluated by capillary microscopy during an isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. IMGU was expressed as M/I value. The M/I value was significantly lower in obese PCOS women compared with obese controls [0.5 (0.2-1.1) versus 0.8 (0.3-1.4) (mg kg(-1) min(-1) pmol l(-1)) × 100, P lean PCOS and lean control women was non-significant [1.5 (0.5-2.6) versus 1.7 (1.0-3.7) (mg kg(-1) min(-1) pmol l(-1)) × 100, P = 0.17]. Hyperinsulinemia increased capillary recruitment in lean controls (53.5 ± 20.3 versus 64.9 ± 27.4 n/mm(2), P PCOS group nor in obese controls. IICR and androgens were a determinant of M/I value only in lean women with or without PCOS. PCOS per se is associated with impaired IICR. Obese women with PCOS, in part independent of obesity, demonstrated a profound insulin resistance, whereas the difference between lean PCOS women and healthy controls was small and statistically non-significant. IICR was a determinant of IMGU in lean, but not in obese, women regardless of the presence of PCOS.

  12. The prevalence and factors associated with obesity among adult women in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Sherina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The prevalence of obesity in developing countries especially among women is on the rise. This matter should be taken seriously because it can burden the health care systems and lower the quality of life. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity among adult women in Selangor and to determine factors associated with obesity among these women. Methods This community based cross sectional study was conducted in Selangor in January 2004. Multi stage stratified proportionate to size sampling method was used. Women aged 20–59 years old were included in this study. Data was collected using a questionnaire-guided interview method. The questionnaire consisted of questions on socio-demographic (age, ethnicity, religion, education level, occupation, monthly income, marital status, Obstetric & Gynaecology history, body mass index (BMI, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Results Out of 1032 women, 972 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 94.2%. The mean age was 37.91 ± 10.91. The prevalence of obesity among the respondents was 16.7% (mean = 1.83 ± 0.373. Obesity was found to be significantly associated with age (p = 0.013, ethnicity (p = 0.001, religion (p = 0.002, schooling (p = 0.020, educational level (p = 0.016, marital status (p = 0.001 and the history of suffering a miscarriage within the past 6 months (p = 0.023. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity among adult women in this study was high. This problem needs to be emphasized as the prevalence of obesity keeps increasing, and will continue to worsen unless appropriate preventive measures are taken.

  13. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. Methods. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS, Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM, and Spatial Span (SSP tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. Results. 36 (36.7% were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4% obese, and 23 (23.5% overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI. DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay, was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds (p=0.011 and 587 ± 259 ms (p=0.026 in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p=0.008 and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p=0.007 compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9. DEXA-assessed body fat (% showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO2 max. Conclusion. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  14. Effect of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk factors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Okafor, Queen; Cowan, Patricia A; Wicks, Mona N; Rice, Muriel; Husch, Donna S; Khoo, Michelle S C

    2012-04-01

    Obesity is a growing health care concern with implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity and CVD morbidity and mortality are highly prevalent among African American women. This pilot study examined the association between obesity and the traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in a sample of African American women. Participants comprised 48 women (27 obese, 21 normal weight) aged 18-45. with no known history of CVD. The women completed demographic and 7-day physical activity recall questionnaires. Height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI). Hypertension risk was assessed using the average of two resting blood pressure (BP) measurements. Lipid profile, blood glucose, fibrinogen, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and E-selectin (eSel) levels were assessed using fasting blood samples. Laboratory findings were interpreted using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III reference guidelines as well as manufacturers' reference ranges for the novel CVD risk factors. The most common traditional risk factors were physical inactivity (72.9%), positive family history of CVD (58.3%), and obesity (56.3%). Obese individuals had elevated systolic BP (p = .0002), diastolic BP (p = .0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p = .01), triglyceride (p = .02), hs-CRP (p = .002), and fibrinogen (p = .01), when compared with normal-weight women. The findings suggest an association between obesity and higher prevalence of both traditional and emerging CVD risk factors in young African American women.

  15. The Association between Obesity and Cognitive Function in Otherwise Healthy Premenopausal Arab Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Abdulaziz; Gibson, Ann-Marie; J Reilly, John; Gaoua, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    To examine the association between obesity and cognitive function in healthy premenopausal women. From a cohort of 220 women, 98 were randomly selected that provided complete data. Body composition was examined by dual-energy X-ray scan. All participants completed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to assess cognitive performance in three domains: attention, memory, and planning executive function. The Reaction Time (RTI) test was used to assess motor and mental response speeds; the Stockings of Cambridge (SOC) test was used to assess planning executive function. For memory assessment, the Delayed Match to Sample (DMS), Pattern Recognition Memory (PRM), and Spatial Span (SSP) tests were used to assess forced choice recognition memory, visual pattern recognition memory, and working memory capacity, respectively. 36 (36.7%) were morbidly obese, 22 (22.4%) obese, and 23 (23.5%) overweight. Performance on RTI and SOC planning ability were not associated with body mass index (BMI). DMS mean time to correct response, when stimulus is visible or immediately hidden (0 ms delay), was higher by 785 ± 302 ms (milliseconds) ( p =0.011) and 587 ± 259 ms ( p =0.026) in morbidly obese women compared to normal weight women. Memory span length was significantly lower in overweight (5.5 ± 1.3, p =0.008) and obese women (5.6 ± 1.6, p =0.007) compared to normal weight (6.7 ± 0.9). DEXA-assessed body fat (%) showed similar associations as BMI, and latency to correct response on DMS and PRM was positively correlated with percentage of body fat, but not with VO 2 max. In otherwise healthy premenopausal women, obesity did not impact accuracy on cognitive tasks related to attention, memory, or planning executive function, but morbid obesity was associated with higher latency to correct response on memory-specific tasks and lower memory span length.

  16. Using relative handgrip strength to identify children at risk of sarcopenic obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Steffl

    Full Text Available Identifying children at risk of developing childhood sarcopenic obesity often requires specialized equipment and costly testing procedures, so cheaper and quicker methods would be advantageous, especially in field-based settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the muscle-to-fat ratio (MFR and relative handgrip strength, and to determine the ability of handgrip strength relative to body mass index (grip-to-BMI to identify children who are at risk of developing sarcopenic obesity. Grip-to-BMI was measured in 730 Czech children (4 to 14 yrs. Bioelectrical impedance was used to estimate body fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from which the MFR was calculated. The area under the curve (AUC was 0.791 (95% CI 0.692-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 4-9; 0.789 (95% CI 0.688-0.890, p ˂ 0.001 in girls 10-14 years old; 0.719 (95% CI 0.607-0.831, p = 0.001 in boys 4-9; and 0.896 (95% CI 0.823-0.969, p ˂ 0.001 in boys 10-14 years old. Calculated using the grip-to-BMI ratio, the OR (95% CI for girls to be at risk of sarcopenic obesity identified by MFR was 9.918 (4.243-23.186, p ˂ 0.001 and was 11.515 (4.280-30.982, p ˂ 0.001 for boys. The grip-to-BMI ratio can be used to predict the presence of sarcopenic obesity in children, which can play a role in pediatric health interventions.

  17. Food Insecurity as a Risk Factor for Obesity in Low-Income Boushehrian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Mohammadpour Kaldeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food insecurity contributes to poor health and nutritional status such as higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and other mental and physical problems. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in low-income women living in Bushehr. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 Bushehrian women (19-49 years, non pregnant and non lactating. The women were interviewed for socio-economic, demographic, physical and household food security. The radimer-cornell food insecurity instrument and international physical activity questionnaire were used. For data analysis, logistic regression was conducted. Results: Overall, a majority of the households (86% experienced food insecurity. About more than half (55% of the women were obese. The mean body mass index of food insecure groups (30.43 ± 4.67 Kg/cm2 were significantly higher than food secure group (21.41 ± 1.61 Kg/cm2 (p<0.05. After adjusting for other variables using logistic regression, housewives (OR=3.99 and lower physical activity (OR=2.65 significantly increased as well as food security (OR= 0.04 significantly decreased the risk of obesity. Conclusion: The consumption of chip and high dense food and lower physical activity can be important reasons for overweight and obesity in food insecure women.

  18. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy.

  19. [Food insecurity is associated with obesity in adult women of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ruán, Ma Del Carmen; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Valderrama-Álvarez, Zaira; Melgar-Quiñónez, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    To describe the association of food insecurity (FI) and obesity in adults in Mexico. Cross-sectional design. We included adults' data from the health and nutrition national survey 2012 (Ensanut 2012). Measures of weight and height were obtained and BMI was calculated. The level of household food insecurity was measured through the Latin American Scale of Food Security (ELCSA). Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted. 70.6% of the population had some level of food insecurity, 42.6% mild insecurity, 17.7% moderate insecurity and 10.3% severe insecurity. Adults with mild FI had higher probability of obesity (OR: 1.66; 95%CI 1.11-2.50). Women were slightly more likely to be obese (OR: 1.78; 95%CI 1.01-3.12). Mild FI is associated with obesity, particularly among women.

  20. Dimensions of socioeconomic position related to body mass index and obesity among Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Margit Velsing; Fagt, Sisse; Stockmarr, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the association between different dimensions of socioeconomic position, body mass index (BMI) and obesity in the Danish population. Possible interactions between the different dimensions and gender differences were also investigated. Methods....... Associations between dimensions of socioeconomic position and weight status were examined by use of linear multiple regression analysis and logistic regression analysis. Results: BMI and prevalence of obesity were significantly associated with education for both men and women. Odds ratios (ORs) for obesity...... adjustment for educational level. Conclusions: Education was the dimension most consistently associated with BMI and obesity, indicating the importance of cultural capital for weight status. The gender-specific pattern showed a stronger social gradient for women, and indicated that a high relative body...

  1. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  2. Counter-Stereotypes and Feminism Promote Leadership Aspirations in Highly Identified Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Carola; Goclowska, Malgorzata A.; Van Breen, Jolien A.; de Lemus, Soledad; Randsley de Moura, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Although women who highly identify with other women are more susceptible to stereotype threat effects, women's identification might associate with greater leadership aspirations contingent on (1) counter-stereotype salience and (2) feminist identification. When gender counter-stereotypes are salient, women's identification should associate with greater leadership aspiration regardless of feminism, while when gender stereotypes are salient, women's identification would predict greater leadersh...

  3. Physical Activity Patterns in Normal-Weight and Overweight/Obese Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bacchi

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were to assess the volume of physical activity (PA throughout pregnancy in normal-weight vs overweight/obese women, and to investigate which factors may predict compliance to PA recommendations in these women throughout gestation. In 236 pregnant women, 177 normal-weight and 59 overweight/obese (median[IQR] BMI 21.2[19.9-22.8] vs 26.5[25.5-29.0] kg/m2, respectively, medical history, anthropometry and clinical data, including glucose tolerance, were recorded. In addition, pre-pregnancy PA was estimated by the Kaiser questionnaire, while total, walking and fitness/sport PA during pregnancy were assessed by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE modified questionnaire, at 14-16, 24-28 and 30-32 weeks of gestation. PA volume was very low in the first trimester of pregnancy in both groups of women. However, it increased in the second and third trimester in normal-weight, but not in overweight/obese subjects. Higher pre-pregnancy PA was a statistically significant predictor of being physically active (>150 minutes of PA per week during all trimesters of gestation. In conclusion, physical activity volume is low in pregnant women, especially in overweight/obese subjects. PA volume increases during pregnancy only in normal-weight women. Pre-pregnancy PA is an independent predictor of achieving a PA volume of at least 150 min per week during pregnancy.

  4. Systematic review of clinical trials on dietary interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A

    2011-01-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect...

  5. Predictors of postpartum weight change among overweight and obese women: results from the Active Mothers Postpartum study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østbye, Truls; Peterson, Bercedis L; Krause, Katrina M; Swamy, Geeta K; Lovelady, Cheryl A

    2012-02-01

    The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to -24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy.

  6. Influences on the food choices and physical activity behaviours of overweight and obese pregnant women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Orna A; Lindsay, Karen L; McCarthy, Mary; McGloin, Aileen F; Kennelly, Maria; Scully, Helena A; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2017-04-01

    to qualitatively explore influences identified by overweight/obese pregnant women on food choices and physical activity (PA) behaviours; to determine the impact of pregnancy on these factors; and to inform development of future lifestyle interventions during pregnancy. cross-sectional interview study. maternity hospital, Ireland. pregnant women (n=22), early pregnancy Body Mass Index > 25kg/m 2 MEASURES: barriers to and facilitators of healthy eating and PA in overweight/obese pregnancy. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. overweight/obese women perceived the following factors to influence their food choices and PA behaviours: personal (e.g. age, enjoyment, health, aesthetic appearance, and response to fatigue); social (e.g. social support, food modelling, social facilitation and weight bias) and environmental (e.g. food salience and the obesogenic environment). These factors affected PA and food choice trajectories differently according to socio-economic and socio-cultural context. personal, social and environmental factors affect food choices and PA behaviours. Pregnancy is a powerful stimulus for positive changes in food choices particularly. This change is driven by desire for healthy pregnancy outcome, and is not intrinsically motivated. Healthy lifestyle interventions should aim to sustain positive changes beyond pregnancy through: empowerment, intrinsic motivation, family-centred approach, and behavioural goals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Obese but not normal-weight women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterized by metabolic and microvascular insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketel, Iris J G; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Serné, Erik H; Korsen, Ted J M; Hompes, Peter G A; Smulders, Yvo M; de Jongh, Renate T; Homburg, Roy; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2008-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity are associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear to what extent PCOS contributes independently of obesity. The objective of the study was to investigate whether insulin sensitivity and insulin's effects on the microcirculation are impaired in normal-weight and obese women with PCOS. Thirty-five women with PCOS (19 normal weight and 16 obese) and 27 age- and body mass index-matched controls (14 normal weight and 13 obese) were included. Metabolic Insulin sensitivity (isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp) and microvascular insulin sensitivity [endothelium dependent (acetylcholine [ACh])] and endothelium-independent [sodium nitroprusside (SNP)] vasodilation with laser Doppler flowmetry was assessed at baseline and during hyperinsulinemia. Metabolic insulin sensitivity (M/I value) and the area under the response curves to ACh and SNP curves were measured to assess microcirculatory function at baseline and during insulin infusion (microvascular insulin sensitivity). Obese women were more insulin resistant than normal-weight women (P PCOS women were more resistant than obese controls (P = 0.02). In contrast, normal-weight women with PCOS had similar insulin sensitivity, compared with normal-weight women without PCOS. Baseline responses to ACh showed no difference in the four groups. ACh responses during insulin infusion were significantly greater in normal-weight PCOS and controls than in obese PCOS and controls. PCOS per se had no significant influence on ACh responses during insulin infusion. During hyperinsulinemia, SNP-dependent vasodilatation did not significantly increase, compared with baseline in the four groups. PCOS per se was not associated with impaired metabolic insulin sensitivity in normal-weight women but aggravates impairment of metabolic insulin sensitivity in obese women. In obese but not normal-weight women, microvascular and metabolic insulin sensitivity are decreased, independent

  8. Relationship between adiposity and heart rate recovery following an exercise stress test in obese older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rocha da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare differences in heart rate (HR response during and following exercise in obese older women with different percent body fat levels. Ninety older, obese women aged 60-87 years participated in the study, were categorized, and enrolled to one of two groups based on a lower percent body fat (LPBF ≤ 41.10 % or higher percent body fat (HPBF > 41.10 % as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The peak HR during exercise and in the first and second minutes of recovery period were compared between groups. The HPBF group presented a lower peak HR during exercise (p = 0.001 and an impaired HR recovery (p = 0.001 when compared to LPBF group. The present study demonstrated that older women who were in exceedingly obese level have an impaired heart rate response during exercise and in the recovery period, indicating possible autonomic dysfunction.

  9. Systemic Oxidative Stress Is Increased to a Greater Degree in Young, Obese Women Following Consumption of a High Fat Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available High fat meals induce oxidative stress, which is associated with the pathogenesis of disease. Obese individuals have elevated resting biomarkers of oxidative stress compared to non-obese. We compared blood oxidative stress biomarkers in obese (n = 14; 30 ± 2 years; BMI 35 ± 1 kg•m−2 and non-obese (n = 16; 24 ± 2 years; BMI 23 ± 1 kg•m−2 women, in response to a high fat meal. Blood samples were collected pre-meal (fasted, and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours post meal, and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, xanthine oxidase activity (XO, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, malondialdehyde (MDA, triglycerides (TAG, and glucose. An obesity status effect was noted for all variables (p 0.05, contrasts revealed greater values in obese compared to non-obese women for XO, H2O2, MDA, TAG and glucose, and lower values for TEAC at times from 1–6 hours post feeding (p ≤ 0.03. We conclude that young, obese women experience a similar pattern of increase in blood oxidative stress biomarkers in response to a high fat meal, as compared to non-obese women. However, the overall oxidative stress is greater in obese women, and values appear to remain elevated for longer periods of time post feeding. These data provide insight into another potential mechanism related to obesity-mediated morbidity.

  10. Interaction between Education and Household Wealth on the Risk of Obesity in Women in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Chandola, Tarani; Friel, Sharon; Nouraei, Reza; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing problem in lower income countries particularly among women. There are few studies exploring individual socioeconomic status indicators in depth. This study examines the interaction of education and wealth in relation to obesity, hypothesising that education protects against the obesogenic effect of wealth. Methods Four datasets of women of reproductive age from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys spanning the period 1992–2008 are used to examine two distinct time periods: 1992/95 (N = 11097) and 2005/08 (N = 23178). The association in the two time periods between education level and household wealth in relation to the odds of being obese is examined, and the interaction between the two socioeconomic indicators investigated. Estimates are adjusted for age group and area of residence. Results An interaction was found between the association of education and wealth with obesity in both time periods (P-value for interaction wealth quintile was associated with a 78% increase in the odds of obesity in 1992/95 (OR; 95%CI: 1.78; 1.65,1.91) and a 33% increase in 2005/08 (OR; 95%CI: 1.33; 1.26,1.39). For women with the highest level of education, there was little evidence of an association between wealth and obesity (OR; 95%CI: 0.82; 0.57,1.16 in 1992/95 and 0.95; 0.84,1.08 in 2005/08). Obesity levels increased most in women who were in the no/primary education, poorest wealth quintile and rural groups (absolute difference in prevalence percentage points between the two time periods: 20.2, 20.1, and 21.3 respectively). Conclusion In the present study, wealth appears to be a risk factor for obesity in women with lower education levels, while women with higher education are protected. The findings also suggest that a reversal in the social distribution of obesity risk is occurring which can be explained by the large increase in obesity levels in lower socioeconomic groups between the two time periods. PMID:22761807

  11. Obesity, health-care utilization, and health-related quality of life after fracture in postmenopausal women: Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E; Flahive, Julie; Hooven, Frederick H; Anderson, Frederick A; Adachi, Jonathan D; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Lindsay, Robert; Netelenbos, J Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S; Watts, Nelson B; Gehlbach, Stephen H

    2014-02-01

    Fractures may be associated with higher morbidity in obese postmenopausal women than in nonobese women. We compared health-care utilization, functional status, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in obese, nonobese, and underweight women with fractures. Information from the GLOW study, started in 2006, was collected at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 years. In this subanalysis, self-reported incident clinical fractures, health-care utilization, HRQL, and functional status were recorded and examined. Women in GLOW (n = 60,393) were aged ≥55 years, from 723 physician practices at 17 sites in 10 countries. Complete data for fracture and body mass index were available for 90 underweight, 3,270 nonobese, and 941 obese women with one or more incident clinical fractures during the 3-year follow-up. The median hospital length of stay, adjusted for age, comorbidities, and fracture type, was significantly greater in obese than nonobese women (6 vs. 5 days, p = 0.017). Physical function and vitality score were significantly worse in obese than in nonobese women, both before and after fracture; but changes after fracture were similar across groups. Use of antiosteoporosis medication was significantly lower in obese than in nonobese or underweight women. In conclusion, obese women with fracture undergo a longer period of hospitalization for treatment and have poorer functional status and HRQL than nonobese women. Whether these differences translate into higher economic costs and adverse effects on longer-term outcomes remains to be established.

  12. Early-treatment weight loss predicts 6-month weight loss in women with obesity and depression: implications for stepped care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Lemon, Stephenie C; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Some adults with comorbid depression and obesity respond well to lifestyle interventions while others have poor outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether early-treatment weight loss progress predicts clinically significant 6-month weight loss among women with obesity and depression. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from 75 women with obesity and depression who received a standard lifestyle intervention. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for achieving ≥5% weight loss by 6 months were calculated based on whether they achieved ≥1 lb/week weight loss in weeks 2-8. Among those on target at week 3, we examined potential subsequent time points at which weight loss progress might identify additional individuals at risk for treatment failure. At week 2, women who averaged ≥1 lb/week loss were twice as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months than those who did not (RR=2.40; 95% CI: 2.32-4.29); weight loss at weeks 3-8 was similarly predictive (RRs=2.02-3.20). Examining weight loss progress at week 3 and subsequently at a time point during weeks 4-8, 52-67% of participants were not on target with their weight loss, and those on target were 2-3 times as likely to achieve 5% weight loss by 6 months (RRs=1.82-2.92). Weight loss progress as early as week 2 of treatment predicts weight loss outcomes for women with comorbid obesity and depression, which supports the feasibility of developing stepped care interventions that adjust treatment intensity based on early progress in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of muscle composition and architecture on specific strength in obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, F; Capodaglio, P; Orgiu, S; Santovito, C; Caramenti, M; Cadioli, M; Falini, A; Rizzo, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do obesity-specific factors affect skeletal muscle performance in older individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Older obese women have a larger quadriceps femoris size but develop lower tension per unit of skeletal muscle than their normal-weight counterparts. Muscle impairment and excess body mass are very common among older people. Given that the effect of obesity on strength production has scarcely been studied in older individuals, we analysed functional and structural characteristics of quadriceps femoris (QF) in obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) older women with comparable habitual physical activity. In five OB (body mass index 36.8 ± 1.9 kg m(-2), age 72.4 ± 2.3 years) and six NW well-functioning older women (body mass index 24.3 ± 1.8 kg m(-2), age 72.7 ± 1.9 years), peak knee-extension torque (KET) was measured in isometric (90 deg knee flexion) and isokinetic conditions (240, 180, 120 and 60 deg s(-1)). Mid-thigh QF cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle tissue fat content (MF%) were determined with magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon sequence). Muscle fascicle length and pennation angle (PA) were assessed with ultrasonography for each muscle belly of the QF (vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius). Despite similar values of KET, CSA was 17.0% larger in OB than in NW women (P Muscle composition and architecture seem to be important determinants of KET/CSA in elderly women. In fact, owing to the effect of obesity overload, OB women have a larger QF size than NW women, but unfavourable muscle composition and architecture. The higher MF% and steeper PA observed in OB women are associated with reduced levels of muscle specific strength. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  14. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Harris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%, Hispanic (31%, and White (25% women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy.

  15. [Consensus of diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-González, Carlos; Aguilera-Pérez, Jesús Rafael; Arce-Sánchez, Lidia; Barquera-Cervera, Simón; Díaz-Polanco, Araceli; Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Ferreira-Hermosillo, Aldo; Martínez-Cruz, Nayeli; Medina-García, Catalina; Molina-Ayala, Mario Antonio; Muñoz-Manrique, Cinthya Guadalupe; Pantoja-Millán, Juan Pablo; Perichart-Perera, Otilia; Pimentel-Nieto, Dian; Reyes-Rodríguez, Eduardo Armando; Romero-Zazueta, Alejandro; Ruiz-Padilla, Claudia Lorena; Vergara-López, Alma; Vidrio-Velázquez, Maricela; Villagordoa-Mesa, Juan; Zúñiga-González, Sergio Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The development of obesity is complex and multifactorial, with genetic, biological, environmental and lifestyle of each individual etiology. The different changes in metabolism of women, amongst other factors, lead to disorganization in the distribution of lipids, which gathered in large quantities within the viscera, increases cardiovascular mortality and it is a major determinant factor of the metabolic syndrome. To homologate and to apply concepts of evidence-based clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of obesity in women in reproductive age and climacterium. The experts' consensus was done by specialized physicians properly endocrinologists, gynecologists, surgeons, psychologists, nutrition specialists, physical activity and public health, according to their expertise and clinical judgment. The recommendations were based in diagnostic criteria aside from the level of evidence of previously established treatment guidelines, controlled clinical trials and standardized guides for women in reproductive age and climacterium with obesity. The establishment of a nutritional intervention amongst other aspects of lifestyle is the first-line in the treatment of obesity. Current pharmacological treatments offer modest results in efficiency and security in weight reduction so these must go along with real changes in lifestyle in order to obtain better results in the short and long term. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in our country, especially in women in reproductive age, compels us to pose and work in prevention strategies as well as diverse therapeutic plans favoring safe weight loss and results in the long term.

  16. The risk of caesarean section in obese women analysed by parity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, Vicky

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study looked at the association between caesarean section (CS) and Body Mass Index (BMI) in primigravidas compared with multigravidas. STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled women at their convenience, in the first trimester after an ultrasound examination confirmed an ongoing pregnancy. Weight and height were measured digitally and BMI calculated. After delivery, clinical details were again collected from the Hospital\\'s computerised database. RESULTS: Of the 2000 women enrolled, there were 50.4% (n=1008) primigravidas and 49.6% (n=992) multigravidas. Of the 2000 8.5% were delivered by elective CS and 13.4% were delivered by emergency CS giving an overall rate of 21.9%. The overall CS rate was 30.1% in obese women compared with 19.2% in the normal BMI category (p<0.001). In primigravidas the increase in CS rate in obese women was due to an increase in emergency CS (p<0.005) and in multigravidas the increase was due to an increase in elective CS (p<0.01). In obese primigravidas 20.6% had an emergency section for fetal distress. In obese multigravidas 17.2% had a repeat elective CS. CONCLUSION: The influence of maternal obesity on the increase in CS rates is different in primigravidas compared with multigravidas.

  17. Effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk appraisal for obese Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Somi; Chung, ChaeWeon; Cochrane, Barbara B

    2013-11-01

    To examine the effects of tailored message education about breast cancer risk in obese Korean women. Pretest/post-test with two comparison treatments. Rural community settings in South Korea. Non-random sample of 64 obese women. Based on the Health Belief Model, tailored message education involved a one-session individual approach addressing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral domains. The comparison group received a one-time standard education group session. Data on breast cancer risk factors and mammography findings were recorded. Knowledge, awareness, emotional barriers, self-efficacy, and intent to screen and prevent breast cancer. Compared to standard education, tailored message education showed significantly higher score changes on awareness of personal risk (F = 5.21, p message education targeting breast cancer and risk associated with obesity is useful in breast cancer screening education. Future studies should incorporate individualized messages on nutrition, exercise, and cultural barriers to reduce breast cancer risk in obese women. Individual educational strategies can effectively enhance breast cancer prevention and early screening. Public and preventive education should include a focus on cultural, cognitive, and emotional domains. For obese women, a heightened awareness and self-efficacy may influence screening behaviors.

  18. Association of Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein (FABP4 Level with Obesity in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jasim AL-Harbi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte Fatty Acid–Binding Protein(FABP 4 is produced by mature adipocytes, cytoplasmic lipid protein carrier, 132 amino acid and secretion increases during adipogenesis. Chemerin is adipocytokine anewly discovered novel adipokine that regulates adipocyte metabolism and adipogenesis, is The aim of this study is to investigated the relationship of chemerin and FABP4 level with obesity and identifing the usefulness of waist circumference (WC, hip circumference , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, body mass index (BMI,, and body fat percentage( BF% in screening obesity . Anthropometric data were collected for 180 healthy women with an age range 35-60 years, divided into four groups due to body mass index: normalweight (18.5-24.9 kg/m2, overweight (25-29.9 kg/m2 , obese (30-39.9 kg/m2 and morbid(≥ 40 kg/m2. The results revealed that FABP4 and Chemerin circulating concentration were significantly increased (P<0.01 in healthy morbid and obese adult women when compared with lean healthy (normal and over weight women also significant increase of A-FABP and Chemerin with the body mass index (BMI, waist hip ratio, hip circumference, waist circumference, and with BF percentage. According to these finding suggest that the circulating chemerin and A-FABP levels can be used as Prediction marker of overall fat mass and obesity in women.

  19. A Qualitative Study of the Maternity Care Experiences of Women with Obesity: "More than Just a Number on the Scale".

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle; Mandel, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among pregnant women in the United States is high. Obesity can have long-term health consequences for both women and their offspring, so high-quality perinatal care for women with obesity is essential. However, stigmatizing encounters with health care professionals can decrease quality and promote avoidance of care. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with obesity in the maternity care system in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with 16 women with a body mass index of 30 or greater. The authors used an inductive analytical process to translate women's experiences into themes. Women with obesity reported diverse maternity care experiences, with some reporting appropriate and satisfactory care, while most reported at least one negative encounter over the course of perinatal care. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: personalized care, depersonalized care, and setting the tone. Interactions with providers during pregnancy had psychological and emotional effects on women with obesity and influenced the content and perceived quality of their care. Further research is required to explore this phenomenon and its implications for care of women during pregnancy and birth outcomes. In the meantime, providers may wish to consider greater sensitivity to the needs of women with obesity during the perinatal period. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  20. Splitting, impulsivity, and intimate partnerships in young obese women seeking bariatric treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmolikova J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jana Zmolikova,1,2 Dita Pichlerova,3 Petr Bob,1,4 Denisa Schückova,5 Jitka Herlesova,3 Petr Weiss6 1Department of Psychiatry, First Faculty of Medicine, Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Charles University, 2Department of Clinical Psychology, Na Homolce Hospital, 3OB Clinic, Prague, 4Faculty of Medicine, Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Brno, 5Iscare Clinical Centre, 6Institute of Sexology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Splitting represents a defense mechanism that describes fragmentation of conscious experience that may occur in various psychopathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of splitting with disturbed cognitive and affective functions related to impulsivity and intimate partnerships in a group of obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and compare the results with other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa. Methods: In this clinical study, we assessed 102 young women. The sample was divided into three subgroups: obese women (N=30, obese women indicated for bariatric treatment (N=48, and patients with bulimia nervosa (N=24. The patients were assessed using Splitting Index and Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and selected information about their intimate partnership was documented for all the participants.Results: The main results of this study indicate significant differences in the relationship of splitting and impulsivity with difficulties in intimate partnerships. These differences discriminate obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment from other obese patients and patients with bulimia nervosa.Conclusion: These findings may have significant implications for treatment of the obese patients indicated for bariatric treatment and their presurgery psychological evaluations. Keywords: splitting, impulsivity, obesity, bulimia nervosa, bariatric treatment

  1. Breast cancer subtype distribution is different in normal weight, overweight, and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershuni, Victoria; Li, Yun R; Williams, Austin D; So, Alycia; Steel, Laura; Carrigan, Elena; Tchou, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is associated with tumor promoting pathways related to insulin resistance and chronic low-grade inflammation which have been linked to various disease states, including cancer. Many studies have focused on the relationship between obesity and increased estrogen production, which contributes to the pathogenesis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. The link between obesity and other breast cancer subtypes, such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and Her2/neu+ (Her2+) breast cancer, is less clear. We hypothesize that obesity may be associated with the pathogenesis of specific breast cancer subtypes resulting in a different subtype distribution than normal weight women. A single-institution, retrospective analysis of tumor characteristics of 848 patients diagnosed with primary operable breast cancer between 2000 and 2013 was performed to evaluate the association between BMI and clinical outcome. Patients were grouped based on their BMI at time of diagnosis stratified into three subgroups: normal weight (BMI = 18-24.9), overweight (BMI = 25-29.9), and obese (BMI > 30). The distribution of breast cancer subtypes across the three BMI subgroups was compared. Obese and overweight women were more likely to present with TNBC and normal weight women with Her2+ breast cancer (p = 0.008). We demonstrated, for the first time, that breast cancer subtype distribution varied significantly according to BMI status. Our results suggested that obesity might activate molecular pathways other than the well-known obesity/estrogen circuit in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Future studies are needed to understand the molecular mechanisms that drive the variation in subtype distribution across BMI subgroups.

  2. Effects of anti-obesity messages on women's body image and eating behaviour.

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    Shentow-Bewsh, Rachel; Keating, Leah; Mills, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity stigmatization contributes to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among overweight individuals. This study examined the effects of exposure to media-portrayed anti-obesity messages on women's state self-esteem, body esteem, and food intake. It was hypothesized that exposure to anti-obesity messages would result in decreased state self-esteem and body esteem and in increased food intake, and that these effects would be more pronounced in individuals with either higher BMI or stronger perceived pressure to be thin. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions in which they either: read a fictitious media article containing either anti-obesity messages or non-obesity-related health messages, or completed a neutral control task (word search). State self-esteem and body esteem were measured before and after the manipulation. Participants also completed a candy taste rating task and ad lib consumption was surreptitiously measured. There was no main effect of condition on either psychological outcome variable or on grams consumed. Higher perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin was associated with a decrease in body esteem after reading the anti-obesity article only. Having a higher BMI was associated with greater candy intake in the word search condition. This trend was also apparent in the sun exposure condition, but not in the anti-obesity condition. Exposure to anti-obesity messages appears to decrease weight-related body esteem in women who already feel strong pressure to be thin, and may lead heavier women to suppress their food intake. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Beliefs about Causes and Consequences of Obesity among Women in Two Mexican Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; de Escobar-Aznar, Yolanda Martínez; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Raul

    2012-01-01

    Personal beliefs might be barriers to the prevention and treatment of obesity. To assess the beliefs about causes and consequences of and possible solutions to obesity among 18-40 years old women in two Mexican cities and to analyze the association with demographic variables, we developed a questionnaire and assessed the women's weight status. The questionnaire was applied at two outpatient healthcare centres and assessed the responses by the Likert scale. Results were analyzed by demographics, using the chi-square and Spearman correlations. One thousand one hundred adult women participated in the study. Mean age was 27.8 years, and mean BMI (kg/m2) was 27.05. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 35% and 24% respectively. The most mentioned causes of obesity were eating oil and fat (4.1), fried foods (4.1), and eating too much (4.00). The most reported consequences were diseases (4.1), discrimination (3.9), and early death (3.7). The main solutions were physical activity (4.2), healthful eating (4.2), and personal motivation (4.1). Age of participants higher than 30 years, living with a partner, having more than 6 years of education, and having overweight and obesity were predictors of more knowledge about the causes, consequences, and solutions. These Mexican women from low SES had reasonably good knowledge about the causes and consequences of obesity. Although improving education might be beneficial to prevent obesity, changes in environmental contingencies are also necessary to prevent this epidemic. PMID:23082633

  4. Biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with the zinc nutritional status in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennes Dourado Ferro, F; de Sousa Lima, V B; Mello Soares, N R; Franciscato Cozzolino, S Ma; do Nascimento Marreiro, D

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease that induces risk factors for metabolic syndrome and, is associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the zinc. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the existence of relationship between the biomarkers of metabolic syndrome and the zinc nutricional status in obese women. Seventy-three premenopausal women, aged between 20 and 50 years, were divided into two groups: case group, composed of obese (n = 37) and control group, composed of no obese (n = 36). The assessment of the body mass index and waist circumference were carried out using anthropometric measurements. The plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc were analyzed by method atomic absorption spectrophotometry (λ = 213.9 nm). In the study, body mass index and waist circumference were higher in obese women than control group (p 0.05). The mean erythrocytary zinc was 36.4 ± 15.0 μg/gHb and 45.4 ± 14.3 μg/gHb in the obese and controls, respectively (p < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that the body mass index (t =-2.85) and waist circumference (t = -2.37) have a negative relationship only with the erythrocytary zinc (R² = 0.32, p < 0.05). The study shows that there are alterations in biochemical parameters of zinc in obese women, with low zinc concentrations in erythrocytes. Regression analysis demonstrates that the erythrocytary zinc is influenced by biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome, presenting an inverse relationship with the waist circumference and body mass index.

  5. Electrophysiological indices of visual food cue-reactivity. Differences in obese, overweight and normal weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, David John; Howells, Fleur Margaret; Rauch, H G Laurie; Kroff, Jacolene; Lambert, Estelle Victoria

    2015-02-01

    Heightened food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese individuals has been related to aberrant functioning of neural circuitry implicated in motivational behaviours and reward-seeking. Here we explore the neurophysiology of visual food cue-reactivity in overweight and obese women, as compared with normal weight women, by assessing differences in cortical arousal and attentional processing elicited by food and neutral image inserts in a Stroop task with record of EEG spectral band power and ERP responses. Results show excess right frontal (F8) and left central (C3) relative beta band activity in overweight women during food task performance (indicative of pronounced early visual cue-reactivity) and blunted prefrontal (Fp1 and Fp2) theta band activity in obese women during office task performance (suggestive of executive dysfunction). Moreover, as compared to normal weight women, food images elicited greater right parietal (P4) ERP P200 amplitude in overweight women (denoting pronounced early attentional processing) and shorter right parietal (P4) ERP P300 latency in obese women (signifying enhanced and efficient maintained attentional processing). Differential measures of cortical arousal and attentional processing showed significant correlations with self-reported eating behaviour and body shape dissatisfaction, as well as with objectively assessed percent fat mass. The findings of the present study suggest that heightened food cue-reactivity can be neurophysiologically measured, that different neural circuits are implicated in the pathogenesis of overweight and obesity, and that EEG techniques may serve useful in the identification of endophenotypic markers associated with an increased risk of externally mediated food consumption. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fetuin-A levels in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakowski, Jarosław; Jeske, Wojciech; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate serum fetuin-A levels in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to find possible relationships between fetuin-A, metabolic factors and androgens in these patients. In 25 lean (18-38 years, BMI 17.5-25.0 kg/m2) and 15 obese women (20-41 years, BMI 28.1-53.2 kg/m2) with PCOS, anthropometric indices and body composition were measured. Fasting serum fetuin-A, adiponectin, leptin, glucose, lipids, hsCRP, insulin, androgens and SHGB levels were estimated. There was no significant difference in serum fetuin-A levels between lean and obese patients: 0.54 ± 0.13 g/L and 0.60 ± 0.14 g/L, respectively. We noted a correlation between BMI and leptin levels (r = 0.88; p lean patients, we found a correlation between fetuin-A levels and ALT activity (r = 0.44; p lean and obese women with PCOS. We found an association between fetuin-A levels and ALT activity in lean patients and between fetuin-A levels and DHEA-S in all women. The role of fetuin-A in the mechanisms of insulin resistance, and its potential impact on androgenic hormones production in women with PCOS, need to be tested in further studies.

  7. Stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate stress-induced eating in women with binge-eating disorder (BED) and obesity. Three groups of women [obese with BED (n=9); obese non-BED (n=11); and normal weight (NW) non-BED (n=12)], rated their levels of hunger and psychological distress before and after completing the Trier Social Stress Test, followed by food anticipation and then consumption of their preferred snack food. We differentiated between the motivational and hedonic components of eating by measuring the amount of food participants poured into a serving bowl compared to the amount consumed. Stress did not affect poured and consumed calories differently between groups. Across all subjects, calories poured and consumed were positively correlated with post-stress hunger, but calories poured was positively correlated with post-stress anxiety and negative affect. These results indicate that stress-related psychological factors may be more strongly associated with the motivational drive to eat (i.e. amount poured) rather than the hedonic aspects of eating (i.e. amount consumed) for women in general. Exploratory correlation analyses per subgroup suggest that post-stress hunger was positively associated with calories poured and consumed in both non-BED groups. In the obese BED group, calories consumed was negatively associated with dietary restraint and, although not significantly, positively associated with stress-induced changes in anxiety.These findings suggest that stress-induced snacking in obese BED women may be influenced by psychological factors more so than homeostatic hunger mechanisms. After controlling for dietary restraint and negative affect, the NW non-BED women ate a greater percentage of the food they poured than both obese groups, suggesting that obesity may be associated with a heightened motivational drive to eat coupled with a reduction in hedonic pleasure from eating post-stress. Further studies that incorporate novel approaches to

  8. Efficacy of metformin in pregnant obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiswick, Carolyn A; Reynolds, Rebecca M; Denison, Fiona C; Whyte, Sonia A; Drake, Amanda J; Newby, David E; Walker, Brian R; Forbes, Shareen; Murray, Gordon D; Quenby, Siobhan; Wray, Susan; Norman, Jane E

    2015-01-14

    Increasing evidence suggests obesity has its origins prior to birth. There is clear correlation between maternal obesity, high birthweight and offspring risk of obesity in later life. It is also clear that women who are obese during pregnancy are at greater risk of adverse outcomes, including gestational diabetes and stillbirth. The mechanism(s) by which obesity causes these problems is unknown, although hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are strongly implicated. We present a protocol for a study to test the hypothesis that metformin will improve insulin sensitivity in obese pregnant women, thereby reducing the incidence of high birthweight babies and other pregnancy complications. The Efficacy of Metformin in Pregnant Obese Women, a Randomised controlled (EMPOWaR) trial is a double-masked randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine whether metformin given to obese (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) pregnant women from 16 weeks' gestation until delivery reduces the incidence of high birthweight babies. A secondary aim is to test the mechanism(s) of any effect. Obese women with a singleton pregnancy and normal glucose tolerance will be recruited prior to 16 weeks' gestation and prescribed study medication, metformin or placebo, to be taken until delivery. Further study visits will occur at 28 and 36 weeks' gestation for glucose tolerance testing and to record anthropometric measurements. Birth weight and other measurements will be recorded at time of delivery. Anthropometry of mother and baby will be performed at 3 months postdelivery. As of January 2014, 449 women had been randomised across the UK. The study will be conducted in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice. A favourable ethical opinion was obtained from Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, reference number 10/MRE00/12. Results will be disseminated at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. ISRCTN51279843. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  9. Cardiometabolic risks profile of normal weight obese and multi-ethnic women in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Loh, Debbie Ann

    2015-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of normal weight obesity among multi-ethnic women in Peninsular Malaysia and examine its associations with cardiometabolic risks and lifestyle behaviours. This was a cross-sectional study involving women recruited via multi-stage sampling from six states in Malaysia. Anthropometric and body composition analysis were performed. Normal weight obese (NWO) was defined as normal body mass index for Asians and the highest tertile of % body fat (BF). Biochemical measurements included fasting lipid and blood glucose levels. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that included physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, fruit and vegetable intake and sleep duration. Body mass index, %BF, cardiometabolic risk factors, lifestyle behaviours. A total of 6854 women were recruited and the prevalence of NWO was 19.8% (95% CI: 17.3-22.5). NWO was more prevalent among the Indians and older women. NWO women had higher odds for abdominal obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.73-4.04), hypertriglyceridemia (2.51, 1.47-4.29) and hypertension (1.63, 1.15-2.31) compared to women with lower % body fat after adjusted for age and ethnicity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome among NWO women was 5.4% (95% CI: 3.0-9.8). None of the lifestyle behaviours were significantly associated with NWO. Women with NWO had cardiometabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia and increased blood pressure. Health promotion efforts should include NWO women who may be oblivious of their deleterious health risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mighty Mums - An antenatal health care intervention can reduce gestational weight gain in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haby, Karin; Glantz, Anna; Hanas, Ragnar; Premberg, Åsa

    2015-07-01

    overweight and obesity are growing public health problems and around 13% of women assigned to antenatal health care (AHC) in Sweden have obesity (Body Mass Index, BMI ≥30). The risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth increase with increasing BMI. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) among obese women further increases the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this pilot-study from AHC in Gothenburg, a co-ordinated project with standardised care, given by midwives and supported by dietitian and aiming at reducing weight gain in obese pregnant women, is evaluated. to evaluate the effects of a behavioural intervention programme for women with BMI ≥30, with emphasis on nutrition and physical activity, with regards to GWG and effect on weight at the post partum check-up. in the pilot study, the intervention group consisted of the first 50 enrolled obese pregnant women in a large life style project within the AHC in Gothenburg. The control group consisted of 50 obese pregnant women in the same city. The intervention included 60 minutes extra time with the midwife and also offered food discussion group, walking poles and pedometers. The intervention group was prescribed physical activity and could choose from food advice with different content. If needed, the woman was offered referral to the dietitian for a personal meeting. A network was formed with the surrounding community. Outcome measures were GWG, weight change at the postnatal check-up compared with when signing in to antenatal health care, and change in BMI during the same period. women in the intervention group had a significantly lower GWG (8.6 ± 4.9 kg versus 12.5 ± 5.1 kg; p=0.001) and a significantly lower weight at the postnatal check up versus the first contact with AHC (-0.2 ± 5.7 kg versus +2.0 ± 4.5 kg; p=0.032), as well as a decrease in BMI (-0.04 ± 2.1 versus +0.77 ± 2.0; p=0.037). More women in the intervention than in the control group managed GWG obese pregnant women

  11. Android subcutaneous adipose tissue topography in lean and obese women suffering from PCOS: comparison with type 2 diabetic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horejsi, R; Möller, R; Rackl, S; Giuliani, A; Freytag, U; Crailsheim, K; Sudi, K; Tafeit, E

    2004-07-01

    The new optical device, the lipometer, enables the noninvasive, quick, safe, and precise determination of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) layers at any given site of the human body. Fifteen anatomically well-defined body sites from neck to calf describe a SAT topography (SAT-Top) like an individual "fingerprint" of a subject. This SAT-Top was examined in 16 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compared to the body fat distribution of 87 age-matched healthy controls and 20 type-2 diabetic women. SAT-Top differences of these three groups were described and, to render the possibility of visual comparison, the 15-dimensional body fat information was condensed to a two-dimensional factor plot by factor analysis. All PCOS patients had an android body fat distribution with significantly thinner SAT layers on the legs as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a hierarchical cluster analysis resulted in two distinctly different groups of PCOS women, a lean (PCOSL) and an obese (PCOSO) cluster: compared to healthy women, lean PCOS patients had significantly lower total SAT development, even though height, weight, and body mass index did not deviate significantly. Especially on the legs, their SAT layers were significantly lowered, indicating a more "apple-like" fat distribution type. Obese PCOS women showed a SAT-Top pattern very similar to that of women with type-2 diabetes, although the mean age difference between these groups was more than 30 years. Compared to healthy controls, the SAT-Top of these obese PCOS patients was strongly shifted into the android direction, appearing as "super-apples" with a significantly increased upper trunk obesity to 237.8% and a significantly decreased leg SAT development to 79.8%. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  13. A stratified transcriptomics analysis of polygenic fat and lean mouse adipose tissues identifies novel candidate obesity genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Morton

    Full Text Available Obesity and metabolic syndrome results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. In addition to brain-regulated processes, recent genome wide association studies have indicated that genes highly expressed in adipose tissue affect the distribution and function of fat and thus contribute to obesity. Using a stratified transcriptome gene enrichment approach we attempted to identify adipose tissue-specific obesity genes in the unique polygenic Fat (F mouse strain generated by selective breeding over 60 generations for divergent adiposity from a comparator Lean (L strain.To enrich for adipose tissue obesity genes a 'snap-shot' pooled-sample transcriptome comparison of key fat depots and non adipose tissues (muscle, liver, kidney was performed. Known obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL information for the model allowed us to further filter genes for increased likelihood of being causal or secondary for obesity. This successfully identified several genes previously linked to obesity (C1qr1, and Np3r as positional QTL candidate genes elevated specifically in F line adipose tissue. A number of novel obesity candidate genes were also identified (Thbs1, Ppp1r3d, Tmepai, Trp53inp2, Ttc7b, Tuba1a, Fgf13, Fmr that have inferred roles in fat cell function. Quantitative microarray analysis was then applied to the most phenotypically divergent adipose depot after exaggerating F and L strain differences with chronic high fat feeding which revealed a distinct gene expression profile of line, fat depot and diet-responsive inflammatory, angiogenic and metabolic pathways. Selected candidate genes Npr3 and Thbs1, as well as Gys2, a non-QTL gene that otherwise passed our enrichment criteria were characterised, revealing novel functional effects consistent with a contribution to obesity.A focussed candidate gene enrichment strategy in the unique F and L model has identified novel adipose tissue-enriched genes contributing to obesity.

  14. Being overweight or obese and risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis among women: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing; Hiraki, Linda; Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Malspeis, Susan; Chen, Chia-Yen; Awosogba, J. Adebukola; Arkema, Elizabeth V.; Costenbader, Karen H.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between being overweight or obese and developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in two large prospective cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII) Methods We followed 109,896 women enrolled in NHS and 108,727 in NHSII who provided lifestyle, environmental exposure and anthropometric information through biennial questionnaires. We assessed the association between time-varying and cumulative body mass index (BMI) in WHO categories of normal, overweight, and obese (18.5-< 25, 25.0-<30, ≥30.0 kg/m2) and incident RA meeting the 1987 ACR criteria. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for overall RA and serologic subtypes with Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. We repeated analyses restricted to RA diagnosed at age 55 years or younger. Results During 2,765,195 person-years of follow-up (1976–2008) in NHS and 1,934,518 person-years (1989–2009) in NHSII, we validated 1181 incident cases of RA (826 in NHS, 355 in NHSII). There was a trend toward increased risk of all RA among overweight and obese women [HR (95% CI): 1.37 (0.95, 1.98) and 1.37 (0.91, 2.09), p for trend=0.068]. Among RA cases diagnosed at age 55 years or younger, this association appeared stronger [HR 1.45(1.03, 2.03) for overweight and 1.65(1.34, 2.05) for obese women (p trend <0.001)]. Ten cumulative years of being obese, conferred a 37% increased risk of RA at younger ages [HR 1.37 (1.11, 1.69)]. Conclusions Risks of both seropositive and seronegative RA were elevated among overweight and obese women, particularly among women diagnosed with RA at earlier ages. PMID:25057178

  15. Influence of sucrose ingestion on brainstem and hypothalamic intrinsic oscillations in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Coveleskie, Kristen; Connolly, Lynn; Labus, Jennifer S; Ebrat, Bahar; Stains, Jean; Jiang, Zhiguo; Suyenobu, Brandall Y; Raybould, Helen E; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A

    2014-05-01

    The study of intrinsic fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging can provide insight into the effect of physiologic states on brain processes. In an effort to better understand the brain-gut communication induced by the absorption and metabolism of nutrients in healthy lean and obese individuals, we investigated whether ingestion of nutritive and non-nutritive sweetened beverages differentially engages the hypothalamus and brainstem vagal pathways in lean and obese women. In a 2-day, double-blind crossover study, 11 lean and 11 obese healthy women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans after ingestion of 2 beverages of different sucrose content, but identical sweetness. During scans, subjects rested with eyes closed. Blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations demonstrated significantly greater power in the highest frequency band (slow-3: 0.073-0.198 Hz) after ingestion of high-sucrose compared with low-sucrose beverages in the nucleus tractus solitarius for both groups. Obese women had greater connectivity between the right lateral hypothalamus and a reward-related brain region and weaker connectivity with homeostasis and gustatory-related brain regions than lean women. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed sucrose-related changes in oscillatory dynamics of blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in brainstem and hypothalamus in lean and obese women. The observed frequency changes are consistent with a rapid vagally mediated mechanism due to nutrient absorption, rather than sweet taste receptor activation. These findings provide support for altered interaction between homeostatic and reward networks in obese individuals. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Obesity-Fertility Protocol: a randomized controlled trial assessing clinical outcomes and costs of a transferable interdisciplinary lifestyle intervention, before and during pregnancy, in obese infertile women

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, Karine; Langlois, Marie-France; Carranza-Mamane, Belina; Pesant, Marie-H?l?ne; Hivert, Marie-France; Poder, Thomas G.; Lavoie, H?l?ne B.; Ainmelk, Youssef; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise; Laredo, Sheila; Greenblatt, Ellen; Sagle, Margaret; Waddell, Guy; Belisle, Serge; Riverin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity in infertile women increases the costs of fertility treatments, reduces their effectiveness and increases significantly the risks of many complications of pregnancy and for the newborn. Studies suggest that even a modest loss of 5?10?% of body weight can restore ovulation. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the benefits and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program targeting obese infertile women and integrated into the fertility clinics. This study...

  17. Establishment of the Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry: A National Research Collaborative for Identifying the Optimal Assessment and Treatment of Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Shelley; Armstrong, Sarah; King, Eileen; Trapp, Christine; Grow, Mollie; Tucker, Jared; Joseph, Madeline; Liu, Lenna; Weedn, Ashley; Sweeney, Brooke; Fox, Claudia; Fathima, Samreen; Williams, Ronald; Kim, Roy; Stratbucker, William

    2017-02-01

    Prospective patient registries have been successfully utilized in several disease states with a goal of improving treatment approaches through multi-institutional collaboration. The prevalence of youth with severe obesity is at a historic high in the United States, yet evidence to guide effective weight management is limited. The Pediatric Obesity Weight Evaluation Registry (POWER) was established in 2013 to identify and promote effective intervention strategies for pediatric obesity. Sites in POWER provide multicomponent pediatric weight management (PWM) care for youth with obesity and collect a defined set of demographic and clinical parameters, which they regularly submit to the POWER Data Coordinating Center. A program profile survey was completed by sites to describe characteristics of the respective PWM programs. From January 2014 through December 2015, 26 US sites were enrolled in POWER and had submitted data on 3643 youth with obesity. Ninety-five percent were 6-18 years of age, 54% female, 32% nonwhite, 32% Hispanic, and 59% publicly insured. Over two-thirds had severe obesity. All sites included a medical provider and used weight status in their referral criteria. Other program characteristics varied widely between sites. POWER is an established national registry representing a diverse sample of youth with obesity participating in multicomponent PWM programs across the United States. Using high-quality data collection and a collaborative research infrastructure, POWER aims to contribute to the development of evidence-based guidelines for multicomponent PWM programs.

  18. Longitudinal weight gain in women identified with polycystic ovary syndrome: results of an observational study in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teede, Helena J; Joham, Anju E; Paul, Eldho; Moran, Lisa J; Loxton, Deborah; Jolley, Damien; Lombard, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 6-18% of women. The natural history of weight gain in women with PCOS has not been well described. Here we aimed to examine longitudinal weight gain in women with and without PCOS and to assess the association between obesity and PCOS prevalence. The observational study was set in the general community. Participants were women randomly selected from the national health insurance scheme (Medicare) database. Mailed survey data were collected by the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health. Data from respondents to survey 4, aged 28-33 years (2006, n = 9,145) were analyzed. The main outcome measures were PCOS prevalence and body mass index (BMI). Self-reported PCOS prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI: 5.3%-6.4%). Women reporting PCOS had higher weight, mean BMI [2.5 kg/m(2) (95% CI: 1.9-3.1)], and greater 10-year weight gain [2.6 kg (95% CI: 1.2-4.0)]. BMI was the strongest correlate of PCOS status with every BMI increment increasing the risk of reporting PCOS by 9.2% (95% CI: 6%-12%). This community based observational study with longitudinal reporting of weight shows that weight, BMI, and 10-year weight gain were higher in PCOS. We report the novel finding that obesity and greater weight gain are significantly associated with PCOS status. Considering the prevalence, major health and economic burden of PCOS, the increasing weight gain in young women, and established benefits of weight loss, these results have major public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  19. Estrogen exposure, obesity and thyroid disease in women with severe pulmonary hypertension

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    Sweeney Lori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Severe pulmonary hypertension is a lethal group of disorders which preferentially afflicts women. It appears that in recent years the patient profile has shifted towards older, obese, and postmenopausal women, suggesting that endocrine factors may be important. Several studies have revealed an increased prevalence of thyroid disease in these patients, but no studies have evaluated for a coexistence of endocrine factors. In particular, no studies have attempted to evaluate for concurrent thyroid disease, obesity and long-term estrogen exposure in patients. 88 patients attending the Pulmonary Hypertension Association 8th International meeting completed a questionnaire and were interviewed. Information was collected regarding reproductive history, height, weight, and previous diagnosis of thyroid disease. 46% met criteria for obesity. 41% reported a diagnosis of thyroid disease. 81% of women reported prior use of hormone therapy. 70% reported greater than 10 years of exogenous hormone use. 74% of female patients reported two or more of potentially disease modifying endocrine factors (obesity, thyroid disease or estrogen therapy. The coexistent high prevalence in our cohort of exogenous estrogen exposure, thyroid disease and obesity suggests that an interaction of multiple endocrine factors might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and may represent epigenetic modifiers in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  20. Influence of obesity assessments on cardiometabolic risks in African and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, L Jerome; Proctor, Larry; Cole, Calvin L

    2014-01-01

    African American women (AAW) have increased odds of developing cardiometabolic (CME) risks and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) compared with European American women (EAW). The influence of obesity on other CME risks and the CVD disparity is unclear. The purpose of our study was to develop a CME index and evaluate the obesity and CME risk index relationships based on race. A comparative research design was employed in our study as 213 women (132 AAW; 81 EAW) from the Louisiana Delta were evaluated for CME risk clustering patterns by race, based on BMI, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry % body fat and waist conference. Fasting glucose, triglyceride (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were the measured CME risks. In summary, when the CME indexes were evaluated by obesity classification categories the ones that were CVD risk or near risk for the AAW were SBP and TG. The trend of CME index risk for the EAW was SBP and glucose. The stepwise regression equations indicate that HDL-C and SBP/DBP were the best indicators of the effects of obesity on CME risks in AAW and that SBP/DBP and glucose were the best indicators of CME risks in EAW. Our results indicate that CME risks as evaluated based on obesity categories are different for AAW than for EAW.

  1. Obesity and stress urinary incontinence in women: compromised continence mechanism or excess bladder pressure during cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carolyn W; Kolenic, Giselle E; Trowbridge, Elisa R; Berger, Mitchell B; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Margulies, Rebecca U; Morgan, Daniel M; Fenner, Dee E; DeLancey, John O

    2017-09-01

    We compared two hypotheses as to why obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence (SUI): (1) obesity increases demand on the continence system (e.g. higher cough pressure) and (2) obesity compromises urethral function and urethrovaginal support. A secondary analysis was performed using data from a case-control study of SUI in women. Measurements of urethrovaginal support (POP-Q point Aa, urethral axis), urethral function (maximal urethral closure pressure, MUCP), and measures of continence system demand (intravesical pressures at rest and during maximal cough) were analyzed. Cases and controls were divided into three body mass index (BMI) groups: normal (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2 ); overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 ); and obese (≥30 kg/m 2 ). Logistic regression models where created to investigate variables related to SUI for each BMI group. Structural equation modeling was used to test the direct and indirect relationships among BMI, SUI, maximal cough pressure, MUCP, and POP-Q point Aa. The study included 108 continent controls and 103 women with SUI. MUCP was the factor most strongly associated with SUI in all BMI groups. Maximal cough pressure was significantly associated with SUI in obese women (OR 3.191, 95% CI 1.326, 7.683; p continence mechanism.

  2. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Women with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M; Gustafson, Theresa S; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R; Reibel, Diane K; Legro, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4.5 vs. -1.0; P = 0.03) and significantly decreased perceived stress at 16 weeks (-3.6 vs. -1.3, P = 0.01). In the MBSR group, there were significant reductions in fasting glucose at 8 weeks (-8.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and at 16 weeks (-9.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) compared to baseline. Fasting glucose did not significantly improve in the health education group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, weight, or insulin resistance in the MBSR group. In women with overweight or obesity, MBSR significantly reduces stress and may have beneficial effects on glucose. Future studies demonstrating long-term cardiometabolic benefits of MBSR will be key for establishing MBSR as an effective tool in the management of obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  3. Obesity and Associated Cardiometabolic Risk among Women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Purnajita; Das, Sandeep; Hore, Samrat; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Choudhuri, Dipayan

    2017-01-01

    Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25-65 years) from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C)/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  4. Term Elective Induction of Labor and Perinatal Outcomes in Obese Women: Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vanessa R.; Darney, Blair G.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Main, Elliott K.; Gilbert, William; Chung, Judith; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare perinatal outcomes between elective induction of labor (eIOL) and expectant management in obese women. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Deliveries in California in 2007. Population Term, singleton, vertex, nonanomalous deliveries among obese women (n=74,725). Methods Women who underwent eIOL at 37 weeks were compared with women who were expectantly managed at that gestational age. Similar comparisons were made at 38, 39, and 40 weeks. Results were stratified by parity. Chi-square tests and multivariable logistic regression were used for statistical comparison. Main Outcome Measures Method of delivery, severe perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus injury, respiratory distress syndrome. Results The odds of cesarean delivery were lower among nulliparous women with eIOL at 37 weeks (odds ratio [OR] 0.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34–0.90) and 39 weeks (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63–0.95) compared to expectant management. Among multiparous women with a prior vaginal delivery, eIOL at 37 (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.24–0.64), 38 (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.51–0.82), and 39 weeks (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.56–0.81) was associated with lower odds of cesarean. Additionally, eIOL at 38, 39, and 40 weeks was associated with lower odds of macrosomia. There were no differences in the odds of operative vaginal delivery, lacerations, brachial plexus injury, or respiratory distress syndrome. Conclusions In obese women, term eIOL may decrease the risk of cesarean delivery, particularly in multiparas, without increasing the risks of other adverse outcomes when compared with expectant management. Tweetable Abstract Elective induction of labor in obese women does not increase risk of cesarean or other perinatal morbidities. PMID:26840780

  5. Influence of obesity on vertebral fracture prevalence and vitamin D status in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraoui, A; Sadni, S; El Maataoui, A; Majjad, A; Rezqi, A; Ouzzif, Z; Mounach, A

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that weight is an important determinant of bone health. Whereas obesity is associated with increased mortality and morbidity from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, high body weight is widely believed to be associated to hypovitaminosis D and protective against the development of osteoporosis and fracture risk. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of BMI on vitamin D status and on densitometric vertebral fractures (VFs) in a large series of asymptomatic women aged over 50 who had a VFA examination during their bone mineral density (BMD) testing. We enrolled 429 postmenopausal women (mean age, weight and BMI of 59.5 ± 8.3 (50 to 83) years, 75.8 ± 13.3 (35 to 165) kgs and 29.9 ± 5.2 (14.6 to 50.8) kg/m(2), respectively. Lateral VFA images and scans of the lumbar spine and proximal femur were obtained using a Lunar Prodigy densitometer. VFs were defined using the Genant semiquantitative (SQ) approach. Clinical risk factors of osteoporosis were collected and 25-hydroxivitamin D was measured using electrochimiluminescence (Roche). Prevalence of osteoporosis and hypovitaminosis D (obese women had a higher BMD and less proportion of women with osteoporosis and VFs grade 2/3 than lean and overweight women. The prevalence of VFs globally increased with age and as BMI and BMD declined. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the presence of osteoporosis was independently related to BMI and history of fractures while the presence of grade 2/3 VFs was independently related to age, hypovitaminosis D and years of menopause. Obese women had a higher BMD and lower prevalence of VFs. VFs were significantly related to age, hypovitaminosis D and years since menopause. However, among obese women, prevalence of VFs was increased in osteoporotic women.

  6. Obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk among women from Tripura - A Northeastern State of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnajita Sen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiometabolic health status of women is a serious public health concern. Markers of body fat content and their distribution are important indicators of cardiometabolic health risk in participants. In addition, socio-demographic status plays a determinant role. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of adiposity markers and socio-demographic determinants on various cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors in Indian women. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 388 women (age 25–65 years from Tripura, a Northeastern state of India. Various obesity and atherogenic markers such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio, waist - height ratio, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C/total cholesterol, HDL-C/low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and traditional cardiometabolic risk factors such as high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and glucose intolerance were evaluated in participant. The socio-demographic status included the level of education and monthly family income. Results: The cardiometabolic risk in postmenopausal women were higher than premenopausal women. The risk increases with age in both groups. Women with lower educational level and higher income group were found to be prone to higher cardiometabolic risk. Receiver operating characteristics analysis revealed central obesity marked by increased WC was a better predictor of cardiometabolic risk than general obesity marked by increased BMI. Conclusion: The cardiometabolic risk among both premenopausal and postmenopausal women are associated with central obesity which can be predicted by increased WC in the subject. Socio-demographic status of the participant plays a definitive role in determining cardiometabolic risk in women.

  7. Effectiveness of a physical activity program among overweight and obese women

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    Öznur Özkan Bambal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: This study evaluates the impact of a physical activity (PA intervention program on body composition and anthropometrical measurements among middle aged, overweight and obese women. Methods: This was an interventional study in a semi-urban area. Sample size was calculated as 85 women for each group. The overweight and obese women were assigned to one of two groups by randomization on the basis of a cross-sectional study. Women from both groups participated in a training program on healthy life styles. The intervention group participated in a PA program for three months, three times a week. Anthropometrical and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA measurements were performed at the beginning and repeated on 6th and 12th weeks for each group. The Chi square test, Fisher’s exact test, Student’s T test and variance analysis on repeated measures were used for data analysis. Results: Intervention and control groups were similar at the baseline evaluation in terms of their socio-demographic and BIA characteristics. There were statistically significant decreases in both groups in terms of BIA indicators, while body fat percent and trunk fat weight remained unchanged in the control group. When reductions between first and last measurements were compared, for all BIA indicators except for maximum effort capacity scores, muscle weight and body fat percent; the differences were statistically significant in the intervention group. Reductions in body weight, BMI and waist circumference for women who participated in 30 or more PA sessions were higher than for those who participated in 29 or fewer sessions. Conclusions: This PA intervention program was effective for middle aged overweight or obese women in terms of improvement on anthropometrical determinants of obesity. This intervention program can be offered as an appropriate model for similar groups.Key Words: Obesity, intervention study, health promotion, physical activity.

  8. Comparing the effects of a cardiac rehabilitation program on functional capacity of obese and non-obese women with coronary artery disease

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    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are known as important risk factors of coronary artery disease. The prevalence of obesity has increased among both men and women in the world. Therefore, the present study tried to evaluate the effectiveness of a cardiac rehabilitation program on functional capacity and body mass index (BMI in obese and non-obese women with coronary artery disease.    METHODS: In an observational study during 2000-11, we evaluated a total of 205 women with coronary artery disease who referred to the cardiac rehabilitation unit of Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan, Iran. BMI and functional capacity of each patient were assessed before and after the program. The patients were categorized as obese or non-obese based on their BMI. All participants completed the full course of the program. Data was analyzed by independent t-test and paired t-test in SPSS15.    RESULTS: Our finding showed that an 8-week cardiac rehabilitation program had significant effects on functional capacity in obese and non-obese female patients (P < 0.01 for both. The program also resulted in BMI improvements in both groups (P < 0.01 for both. Comparing the changes in the two groups did not reveal any significant differences in functional capacity. However, the two groups were significantly different in terms of BMI changes.    CONCLUSION: Cardiac rehabilitation programs are a major step in restoration of functional capacity and improvement of BMI in obese and non-obese women with coronary artery disease.         Keywords: Cardiac Rehabilitation Program, Coronary Artery Disease, Obesity, Functional Capacity, Body Mass Index.

  9. Evaluation of 'Just4Mums' - A community based healthy eating and physical activity course for obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Ellinor K; Atkinson, Lou; French, David P

    2014-07-01

    Current NICE guidelines state that women in England need to be supported regarding eating healthily and being physically active during pregnancy. In response to these guidelines, the Just4Mums service was developed - a free six week community-based course for obese (BMI⩾30) pregnant women. The service encouraged a healthy weight gain in pregnancy through the provision of information on healthy eating and opportunities to be physically active. The aim of this evaluation was to provide preliminary evidence on efficacy. Participants' were assessed at the beginning and end of the course, in terms of healthy eating and physical activity (PA) behaviour, mental well-being, and mediating variables (i.e. intentions, self-efficacy and attitudes towards healthy eating and PA). Thirty-four out of 60 women (57%) women completed the course. There were few differences between those women who completed and did not complete the course. After attending the service, the intention-to-treat analysis showed an improvement in healthy eating (higher intake of fruit and vegetables, lower intake of fast food), no change in PA, reduction in sedentary behaviour and an improvement in mental well-being. Participants also increased their attitude, intention and self-efficacy towards engaging in PA and intention to eat fruit and vegetables. These findings suggest that women who completed the Just4Mums service improved their health behaviours. More research is needed to identify why so many women dropped out of the service. Copyright © 2014.

  10. Prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women at their first trimester of pregnancy

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    Shatabdi Goon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paradoxically, the escalating global epidemic of maternal obesity coexists with malnutrion in many areas of Bangladesh. This proves a major challenge to obstetric practice from preconception to postpartum due to related comorbid conditions including: maternal death or severe morbidity, gestational diabetes and hypertension, increased risk of early and recurrent miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, thromboembolism, post-caesarean wound infection, postpartum haemorrhage, and low breastfeeding rates. A dramatic increase in birth defects and other pregnancy-induced disorders related to maternal obesity has added millions of dollars to health care costs leading great economical loss to the country. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women in their 1st trimester of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: 426 pregnant women presenting to the antenatal care until of Azimpur maternity hospital of Dhaka, Bangladesh were randomly selected for this cross sectional study to determine their weight status using body mass index (BMI, kg/m2. RESULT: 90 (21.2% pregnant women were reported as obese with pregnancy BMI of >30 kg/m2. 171 (40.1% and 140 (32.8% pregnant women were reported as overweight and healthy with pregnancy BMI of 25-29.9 kg/m2 and 18.5-24.9 kg/ m2, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed obesity and overweight status were found to be significantly associated with age; women aged 31 or above were more likely to be obese (OR=2.5; 95% CI 1.53–3.96 and overweight (OR=3.3; 95% CI 2.15–4.99. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of increasing trends in obesity among Bangladeshi pregnant women, which poses possible health risks both for mother and child. The findings of this study may act as baseline data for monitoring the effectiveness of national programs for the prevention and control of maternal obesity. Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  11. Stress-related cortisol response and laboratory eating behavior in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorig, Fabian; Kießl, Gundula Rebecca Raphaela; Laessle, Reinhold Gustav

    2016-06-01

    Stress-related cortisol secretion has been linked to increased appetite and subsequent food intake in overweight individuals. The present study addresses this relationship in a repeated-measures randomized controlled laboratory experiment. Nineteen obese women were compared to 36 normal weight controls with respect to stress-induced salivary cortisol and laboratory eating behavior, measured by a universal eating monitor. The trier social stress test served as stressor. Stress-induced cortisol levels were significantly higher in the obese compared to the normal weight controls. Unexpectedly, a corresponding increase in laboratory food intake was not detected. The results are interpreted and discussed with regard to restrained eating, which was found to be present to a significant degree in the obese women.

  12. The role of the obesity in the primary hypertension course among men and women

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    O. N. Nadashkevych

    2015-03-01

      Abstract. With the objective to study peculiarities of AH with obesity into the research included 60 patients, among them 45 women and 15 men, among all of them examined features of vasodilatation group, measured leptin and endothelin-1(ЕТh-1 levels. Detected AH accompanied by obesity peculiarities of course of in dependence from the gender. Among men leptin and ЕТh-1 levels were more favorable for blood pressure correction. Among women increasing leptin and ЕТh-1 levels accompanied by decreasing of nitric oxide levels is a negative process, what is necessary to take into consideration when prescribing antihypertensive therapy what needs additional new drugs for correction of endothelial dysfunction. Key words: arterial hypertension, obesity, leptin.

  13. Salivary cariogenic bacteria counts are associated with obesity in student women at a Malaysian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Wey-Zheng; Lim, Sheng-Pei; Say, Yee-How

    2018-01-01

    The counts of cariogenic bacteria lactobacilli and mutans streptococci have been studied and correlated with sugar intake. This study was to investigate the association between salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts with sweet food eating behavior and sweet sensitivity among 120 Malaysian women (101 ethnic Chinese, 19 ethnic Indians), while taking into account anthropometric and menstruation variables. Demographics, anthropometric measurements and menstrual history were taken. Hedonic preference, intake frequency of a list of sweet foods, intensity perception and pleasantness ratings of sweet stimuli were assessed. Saliva was collected for lactobacilli and mutans streptococci culture. We found that centrally obese subjects (high waist circumference and waist-hip ratio) had significantly higher salivary lactobacilli and mutans streptococci counts (all pMalaysian women are associated with central obesity, but not sweet food eating behaviour, sweet sensitivity and menstruation variables. Salivary microbiome analysis could be useful as a potential diagnostic indicator of diseases such as obesity.

  14. 4G/5G polymorphism modulates PAI-1 circulating levels in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Karla S; Sandrim, Valéria C

    2012-05-01

    The increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) has been described as a risk factor to thrombosis-related diseases. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the variant 4G of polymorphism 4G/5G located in promoter region of PAI-1 gene is associated with higher PAI-1 levels. We investigate the role of this polymorphism on circulating PAI-1 concentration in a population of 57 obese women (23%, 4G/4G; 49%, 4G/5G and 28%, 5G/5G genotypes). Our results demonstrate a genotype-specific modulation on PAI-1 levels in obese women, thus 5G/5G genotype presented significantly lower levels of plasma PAI-1 when compared to 4G/4G group (46 ± 19 ng/mL vs. 63 ± 13 ng/mL, respectively). Our findings indicate that obese carriers of 4G/4G genotype may have increased risk to develop thrombotic diseases.

  15. Several dominants risk factors related to obesity in urban childbearing age women in Indonesia

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    Kencana Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Prevalensi kegemukan pada perempuan semakin meningkat terutama di daerahperkotaan yang dapat menyebabkan meningkatnya risiko penyakit kronis. Penelitian ini bertujuan untukmenganalisis beberapa faktor risiko dominan terhadap obesitas pada wanita usia subur usia yang tinggaldi daerah perkotaan di wilayah perkotaan di Indonesia.Metode: Naskah ini memakai sebagian data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007 data. Subjek terdiridari 76408 wanita di usia subur (15-49 years tinggal di daerah perkotaan yang dengan status gizi normaldan gemuk yang berasal dari 258366 rumah tangga. Data Riskesdas tentang faktor-faktor sosio-demografidan lainnya dikumpulkan dengan kuesioner. Status gizi diukur dengan menggunakan indeks massa tubuh(IMT yang dikategorikan menjadi normal, (18,5–24,9 dan gemuk (27 atau lebih. Analisis menggunakanregresi Cox dengan waktu yang tetap.Hasil: Pada analisis ini terdapat 18,8% (14357 wanita obese dan 81.2% (62052 normal. Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun memiliki 3,5 kali lipat risiko lebih besar menjadi obese [risiko relatif suaian (RRa = 3,49; P= 0,000],dan yang bercerai atau menikah berisiko 2,5 kali lipat lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas (masing-masing RRa =2,58; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 2.62; P = 0,000. Wanita tidak bekerja berisiko lebih tinggi untuk menjadi obese(RRa = 1,06; p = 0,000. Selanjutnya, mengkonsumsi protein berlebih, dan sering makan makanan berlemakmemiliki risiko lebih tinggi terhadap obesitas, (RRa = 1,09; P = 0,000 dan RRa = 1,17; P = 0,000.Kesimpulan: Wanita berusia 25-49 tahun, bercerai atau menikah, pengangguran, mengkonsumsi proteinberlebih, dan sering mengkonsumsi makanan berlemak mempunyai risiko obesitas lebih tinggi. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:63-8Kata kunci: obesitas, perkotaan, wanita usia subur AbstractBackground: The prevalence of women suffered from obesity is elevating, mostly in urban areas. Thiscould lead problems especially for chronic diseases. This study aimed to

  16. Evaluation of the association of vitamin D deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velija-Ašimi, Zelija

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the association of vitamin D (VD) deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormone in obese and non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Of the total of 140 women, thirty obese and thirty nonobese, aged 20-40 years, were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were the women with normal level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcium, and those who had not received any medication or VD supplementation within the last 6 months. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), C-reactive protein (CRP), lipid profile, fasting serum glucose, basal insulin, homeostasis model analysis of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), oestrogen, total testosterone, dehidroepiandrostendion-sulphat (DHEA-S), androstendione, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were determined at follicular phase. Body mass index (BMI), weight, waist, lipids, and CRP were significantly higher in obese than in non-obese PCOS women (p=0.000). Meanwhile, insulin and HOMA-IR were also higher in the obese PCOS (p less than 0.000), and so was the fasting glucose (p=0.004). Furthermore, obese PCOS showed significantly higher level of LH (p=0.012), but lower level of progesterone (p=0.001) and androstendione (p=0.006) than in non-obese PCOS. In total 68% of PCOS women had VD deficiency but without significant difference among groups according to BMI. There was no association of VD deficiency with gonadotropins and sex hormones except SHBG. Insulin resistance was a better independent risk factor for the presence of vitamin D deficiency than SHBG. The insulin resistance and vitamin D deficiency significantly predicted the obesity risk in PCOS women.

  17. [Could we perform quality second trimester ultrasound among obese pregnant women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, F; Voulgaropoulos, A; Houllier, M; Senat, M-V

    2013-05-01

    To compare the quality of second trimester ultrasound images and their anatomical quality scores among obese women and those with a normal body mass index (BMI). This prospective study, which took place from 2009 to 2011, included every obese pregnant woman (prepregnancy BMI greater than 30 kg/m(2)) who had an ultrasound examination at 20 to 24 weeks in our hospital and a control group with a normal BMI (20-24.9kg/m(2)) who had the same examination. A single operator evaluated the quality of all images, reviewing the standardized ultrasound planes - three biometric and six anatomical - required by French guidelines and scoring the quality of the six anatomical images. Each image was assessed according to 4-6 criteria, each worth one point. We sought excellent quality, defined as the frequency of maximum points for a given image. The obese group included 223 women and the control group 60. The completion rate for each image was at least 95 % in the control group and 90 % in the obese group, except for diaphragm and right outflow tract images. Overall, the excellence rate varied from 35 % to 92 % in the normal BMI group and 18 % to 58 % in the obese group and was significantly lower in the latter for all images except abdominal circumference (P=0.26) and the spine (P=0.06). Anatomical quality scores were also significantly lower in the obese group (22.3 vs. 27.2 ; P=0.001). Image quality and global anatomical scores in second trimester ultrasound scans were significantly lower among obese than normal-weight women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between Inflammation markers, Coagulation Activation and Impaired Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Healthy Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.Et; Shousha, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance syndrome, and atherosclerosis are closely linked phenomena, often connected with a chronic low grade inflammatory state and pro thrombotic hypo fibrinolytic condition. This study investigated the relationship between impaired insulin sensitivity and selected markers of inflammation and thrombin generation in obese healthy women. The study included 36 healthy obese women (body mass index ≥ 30), with normal insulin sensitivity (NIS, n = 18) or impaired insulin sensitivity (IIS, n 18), and 10 non obese women (body mass index < 25).Impaired insulin sensitivity patients had significantly higher levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), transforming growth factor -β1(TGF-β1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), activated factor VII (VIIa), and prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) compared with either control subjects or normal insulin sensitivity patients. On the other hand, NIS patients had higher hs-CRP, TGF-β1, PAI-1, and factor VIIa, but not F1 + 2, levels than controls. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the insulin sensitivity index and TGF-β1, hs-CRP, PAI-1; factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 levels. Moreover, significant direct correlations were noted between TGF-β1 and CRP, PAI-1, factor VIIa, and F1 + 2 concentrations. Finally, multiple regressions revealed that TGF-β1 and the insulin sensitivity index were independently related to F1 + 2. These results document an in vivo relationship between insulin sensitivity and coagulation activation in obesity. Here we report that obesity is associated with higher TGF-β, PAI-1, prothrombin fragments 1 and 2 (F1 + 2), and activated factor VII (VIIa) plasma levels, and that insulin resistance exacerbates these alterations. The elevated TGF-β1 levels detected in the obese population may provide a biochemical link between insulin resistance and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease

  19. Very low food security predicts obesity predominantly in California Hispanic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cindy W; Williams, David R; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-12-01

    A high prevalence of food insecurity has persisted in the USA for the past two decades. Previous studies suggest that the association between food insecurity and obesity may vary by gender and race/ethnicity. We examined whether food insecurity was associated with BMI and obesity within gender and racial/ethnic groups in a large, diverse sample of low-income adults. A cross-sectional analysis of a large population-based health survey. We compared the distribution of BMI and obesity by food security levels within gender and racial/ethnic categories. Data were derived from the 2003-2009 waves of the California Health Interview Survey. The study sample included 35 747 non-elderly adults with households ≤200 % of the federal poverty level. Among Hispanic men, very low food security was associated with a 1.0 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.3, 1.7 kg/m2) and a 36 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 17, 58 %) after multivariate adjustment. Among Hispanic women, very low food security was associated with a 1.1 kg/m2 higher BMI (95 % CI 0.4, 1.9 kg/m2) and a 22 % higher prevalence of obesity (95 % CI 8, 38 %). Positive associations were also observed for Asian women and multi-racial men. No significant associations were observed for non-Hispanic whites, African Americans, Asian men or multi-racial women. Our results suggest that the association of food insecurity and obesity is limited to individuals of certain low-income, minority racial/ethnic groups. Whether targeted interventions to address food insecurity in these individuals may also decrease obesity risk deserves further investigation.

  20. Serum Neuropeptide Y and Leptin Levels compared between Non-pregnant and Pregnant Women in Overall, Non-obese, and Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary objective of this study was to compare serum NPY and leptin levels between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. The secondary objective was to compare these peptides between non-obese and obese pregnant women. Methods: Fasting venous blood was collected from non-pregnant women before open abdominal surgery and from pregnant women when admitted to the delivery room during the latent phase of labor. Results: There were 12 non-obese and 14 obese subjects in the non-pregnant group and 9 non-obese and 30 obese subjects in the pregnant group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP was comparable, but heart rate (HR was higher in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women. Mean±S.E.M serum NPY levels were lower in the pregnant than in the non-pregnant group in overall (0.54±0.02 and 1.34±0.08, respectively, non-obese (0.53±0.05 and 1.23±0.14, respectively, and obese (0.54±0.03 and 1.43±0.09, respectively subjects (p<0.01 for all, but these were comparable between obese and non- obese pregnant subjects. Serum NPY was positively correlated with SBP (R=0.281, p<0.05, but negatively correlated with HR (R=-0.324, p<0.01. Serum leptin levels were not different between pregnant and non-pregnant groups, but were significantly higher in obese than non-obese pregnant subjects (p<0.001. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumferences in overall and pregnant subjects (p<0.001 all. Conclusion: In pregnancy, decreased NPY levels might be associated with inhibition of SBP rising as well as increased HR. Leptin levels might not be associated with pregnancy, but associated mainly with obesity.

  1. Obesity is associated with a poorer prognosis in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Penelope J; Bell, Robin J; Davis, Susan R

    2014-11-01

    Whether moderate to severe obesity (body mass index (BMI)≥30 to women, recruited within 12 months of their diagnosis of hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HER2-) invasive breast cancer completed an enrolment questionnaire and an annual follow-up questionnaire every 12 months for another 5 years. The impact of obesity on time to either local or distant recurrence or new breast cancer, or death due to breast cancer was determined by Cox regression. Women in the most extreme categories of BMI (women, mean age, 58.4±11.6 years, 53.8% had Stage 1 disease and 88.9% received oral adjuvant endocrine therapy (OAET) within 2 years of diagnosis. The likelihood of an event was significantly associated with moderate to severe obesity (HR=1.71, 95%CI, 1.12-2.62, p=0.014), disease beyond Stage 1 (HR=2.87, 95% CI 1.73-4.75, pobesity (HR 3.23, 95%CI 1.48-7.03, p=0.003) and OAET use (HR 0.41, 95%CI 0.17-0.98, p=0.046) were significantly associated with an event. Moderate to severe obesity is associated with a poorer invasive breast cancer prognosis; this is also true for women with Stage 1 disease, and is independent of age and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metabolic Syndrome, Obesity, and Related Risk Factors among College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Jesse S.; Lofgren, Ingrid E.; Burke, Joanne D.; Reilly, Ruth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to characterize the prevalence of overweight/obesity, metabolic syndrome (MbS) and its criteria, and nutrient intakes of college-age men and women via a large-scale screening. Participants and Methods: From August 2005 to July 2008, 2,722 subjects were recruited for the ongoing, cross-sectional…

  3. Possible Contribution of PTSD to Altered Cortisol Activity in Young Adult Obese African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A

    2015-06-01

    African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.

  4. Predictors of overweight and obesity in adult women in Nairobi Province, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbochi Regina W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since obesity in urban women is prevalent in Kenya the study aimed to determine predictors of overweight and obesity in urban Kenyan women. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in Nairobi Province. The province was purposively selected because it has the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity in Kenya. A total of 365 women aged 25–54 years old were randomly selected to participate in the study. Results Higher age, higher socio-economic (SE group, increased parity, greater number of rooms in the house, and increased expenditure showed greater mean body mass index (BMI,% body fat and waist circumference (WC at highly significant levels (p Conclusions The predictors of overweight and obesity showed that urbanization and the nutrition transition were well established in the sample of women studied in the high SE groups. They exhibited a sedentary lifestyle and consumed a diet high in energy, protein, fat, cholesterol, and alcohol and lower in fibre and carbohydrate compared with those in the low SE groups.

  5. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  6. [Obesity and components of metabolic syndrome in Mexican women survivors of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel; de la Fuente-Vera, Tania Angélica

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that obesity and metabolic syndrome are frequent in cancer survivors. In our country, there is a lack of documentation with regards to this problem in women. Therefore, our aim is to establish the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome components in surviving Mexican women. We elected women who received treatment for cancer with a surviving = 24 months. The data evaluated were demography, clinical anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, kind of cancer, surviving time, and comorbidities, as well as glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. We studied 107 women. Their average age was 60 ± 10 years, with a surviving time of 77 ± 43 months, and a body mass index of 31 ± 6 kg/m2. Their mean glucose level was 120 ± 58 mg/dL, cholesterol 228 ± 43 mg/dL, and triglycerides 207 ± 120 mg/dL. There were 55 (51 %) with glucose > 99 mg/dL, 85 (79 %) with cholesterol > 199 mg/dL, and 67 (63 %) with triglycerides > 149 mg/dL. Obesity (body mass index = 30 kg/m2) occurred in 49 (46 %) and metabolic syndrome in 27 (26 %). Due to a high prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome components were frequent.

  7. Physical activity during pregnancy in obese and normal-weight women as assessed by pedometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Andreasen, Kirsten Riis

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare physical activity as assessed by a pedometer in obese and normal-weight pregnant women at different gestational ages. To evaluate the use of a pedometer in pregnancy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a university hospital in ...

  8. Physical activity during pregnancy in normal-weight and obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, K; Nørgaard, K; Secher, N J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this prospective study were to compare physical activity in 70 normal-weight women with a body mass index (BMI) 20-25 kg/m(2), and 70 obese with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), before and during pregnancy, and to compare compliance using the pedometer. Physical activity before pregnancy was...

  9. Neck circumference as a discriminator of obesity in older women enrolled in a physical activity program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rogério Petreça

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate neck circumference (NC as a discriminator of overweight and obesity and to establish cut-off points for physically active older women. The sample consisted of 170 older women (69.5 ± 6.8 years practicing physical activity. Anthropometric measures (body weight, height, waist circumference – WC, and NC were obtained and the body mass index (BMI was calculated. Correlation analysis was performed and ROC curves were constructed. NC was significantly correlated with BMI (rho = 0.656; p<0.0001 and WC (r = 0.561; p<0.0001. Correlating BMI with NC, areas under the ROC curve of 0.819 (p=0.0001 for overweight and of 0.902 (p=0.0001 for obesity were obtained, with suggested cut-off points of 33.07 and 34.05 cm, respectively. Correlating WC with NC, areas under the ROC curve of 0.711 (p=0.0014 for moderate risk (WC and of 0.864 (p=0.0001 for high risk were obtained, with suggested cut-off points of 32.15 and 34.15 cm, respectively. NC was associated with BMI and WC. An NC ≥ 34 cm was a risk factor for obesity and abnormal body fat distribution in the older women studied. This anthropometric parameter is an alternative to discriminate overweight and obesity in physically active older women.

  10. Developing a complex intervention for diet and activity behaviour change in obese pregnant women (the UPBEAT trial); assessment of behavioural change and process evaluation in a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poston, Lucilla; Briley, Annette L; Barr, Suzanne; Bell, Ruth; Croker, Helen; Coxon, Kirstie; Essex, Holly N; Hunt, Claire; Hayes, Louise; Howard, Louise M; Khazaezadeh, Nina; Kinnunen, Tarja; Nelson, Scott M; Oteng-Ntim, Eugene; Robson, Stephen C; Sattar, Naveed; Seed, Paul T; Wardle, Jane; Sanders, Thomas A B; Sandall, Jane

    2013-07-15

    Complex interventions in obese pregnant women should be theoretically based, feasible and shown to demonstrate anticipated behavioural change prior to inception of large randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The aim was to determine if a) a complex intervention in obese pregnant women leads to anticipated changes in diet and physical activity behaviours, and b) to refine the intervention protocol through process evaluation of intervention fidelity. We undertook a pilot RCT of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women, comparing routine antenatal care with an intervention to reduce dietary glycaemic load and saturated fat intake, and increase physical activity. Subjects included 183 obese pregnant women (mean BMI 36.3 kg/m2). Compared to women in the control arm, women in the intervention arm had a significant reduction in dietary glycaemic load (33 points, 95% CI -47 to -20), (p change. Physical discomfort and sustained barriers to physical activity were common at 28 weeks' gestation. Process evaluation identified barriers to recruitment, group attendance and compliance, leading to modification of intervention delivery. This pilot trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women suggests greater potential for change in dietary intake than for change in physical activity, and through process evaluation illustrates the considerable advantage of performing an exploratory trial of a complex intervention in obese pregnant women before undertaking a large RCT. ISRCTN89971375.

  11. Severe obesity, heart disease, and death among white, African American, and Hispanic postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTigue, Kathleen M; Chang, Yue-Fang; Eaton, Charles; Garcia, Lorena; Johnson, Karen C; Lewis, Cora E; Liu, Simin; Mackey, Rachel H; Robinson, Jennifer; Rosal, Milagros C; Snetselaar, Linda; Valoski, Alice; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-03-01

    To compare mortality, nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) risk across BMI categories in white, African American, and Hispanic women, with a focus on severe obesity (BMI ≥ 40), and examine heterogeneity in weight-related CHD risk. Among 156,775 Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial participants (September 1993-12 September 2005), multivariable Cox models estimated relative risk for mortality, CHD, and CHF. CHD incidence was calculated by anthropometry, race, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). Mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF incidence generally rose with BMI category. For severe obesity versus normal BMI, hazard ratios (HRs, 95% confidence interval) for mortality were 1.97 (1.77-2.20) in white, 1.55 (1.20-2.00) in African American, and 2.59 (1.55-4.31) in Hispanic women; for CHD, HRs were 2.05 (1.80-2.35), 2.24 (1.57-3.19), and 2.95 (1.60-5.41) respectively; for CHF, HRs were 5.01 (4.33-5.80), 3.60 (2.30-5.62), and 6.05 (2.49-14.69). CVRF variation resulted in substantial variation in CHD rates across BMI categories, even in severe obesity. CHD incidence was similar by race/ethnicity when differences in BMI or CVRF were accounted for. Severe obesity increases mortality, nonfatal CHD, and CHF risk in women of diverse race/ethnicity. CVRF heterogeneity contributes to variation in CHD incidence even in severe obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE HIGH-SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN YOUNG OBESE WOMEN WITH PCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Palo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common reproductive disorder in young women affecting 5-10% of population. PCOS women are at increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. PCOS is now recognised as not only a reproductive disorder, but also a metabolic one with long-term effects on women’s health. With this background, the present study was undertaken to assess the levels of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP in young obese women with PCOS as compared with healthy obese women without PCOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS This cross-sectional observational study was carried out in MKCG Medical College, Berhampur, in the Department of Cardiology and Gynaecology between January 2016 to December 2016. A total of 56 young obese PCOS patients aged less than 30 years and 25 healthy patients matched for age and BMI were studied. RESULTS Baseline cardiovascular risk factors, hormone variables and lipid profiles and hs-CRP levels are measured in both PCOS patients and control subjects. It has been observed that the median hs-CRP levels are significantly higher in young obese PCOS patients than the control subjects. Obese patients with PCOS had higher levels of hs-CRP compared to healthy obese controls. The mean values of hs-CRP was 5.46 mg/L in PCOS group and 2.8 mg/L in the control group, which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION PCOS patients clearly present a higher risk of CVD due to its peculiar hormonal pattern characterised by insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and inflammatory state. The metabolic disorders in PCOS could possibly be improved by diet and drugs in early periods of their life, so as to decrease the risk of CVD in future. Estimation hs-CRP maybe considered as a reliable predictive marker for future Cardiovascular Disease (CVD in PCOS patients.

  13. Waist-to-Height Ratio in Indian Women: Comparison With Traditional Indices of Obesity, Association With Inflammatory Biomarkers and Lipid Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilip Malshe, Sharvari; Anand Udipi, Shobha

    2017-07-01

    We compared waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) with traditional anthropometric indices in healthy women aged 21 to 45 years from urban slums of Mumbai city, India. Lipid profile and inflammatory markers were measured in a subsample of 200 women, and their relationship with WHtR was examined. Mean WHtR was 0.50 ± 0.1, but a little more than half (51.9%) of the women had WHtR ≥0.50. WHtR could correctly identify centrally obese adult women, even when they were categorized as healthy or normal according to body mass index, waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, and percentage body fat. Also, in centrally obese women, inflammatory markers-namely, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10-were significantly and positively correlated with WHtR. Thus, results of this study indicate that WHtR is a simple and effective anthropometric variable that has the potential to identify central obesity and the associated inflammation even in women with normal BMI.

  14. Identifying risk profiles for childhood obesity using recursive partitioning based on individual, familial, and neighborhood environment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Henderson, Mélanie; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-02-15

    Few studies consider how risk factors within multiple levels of influence operate synergistically to determine childhood obesity. We used recursive partitioning analysis to identify unique combinations of individual, familial, and neighborhood factors that best predict obesity in children, and tested whether these predict 2-year changes in body mass index (BMI). Data were collected in 2005-2008 and in 2008-2011 for 512 Quebec youth (8-10 years at baseline) with a history of parental obesity (QUALITY study). CDC age- and sex-specific BMI percentiles were computed and children were considered obese if their BMI was ≥95th percentile. Individual (physical activity and sugar-sweetened beverage intake), familial (household socioeconomic status and measures of parental obesity including both BMI and waist circumference), and neighborhood (disadvantage, prestige, and presence of parks, convenience stores, and fast food restaurants) factors were examined. Recursive partitioning, a method that generates a classification tree predicting obesity based on combined exposure to a series of variables, was used. Associations between resulting varying risk group membership and BMI percentile at baseline and 2-year follow up were examined using linear regression. Recursive partitioning yielded 7 subgroups with a prevalence of obesity equal to 8%, 11%, 26%, 28%, 41%, 60%, and 63%, respectively. The 2 highest risk subgroups comprised i) children not meeting physical activity guidelines, with at least one BMI-defined obese parent and 2 abdominally obese parents, living in disadvantaged neighborhoods without parks and, ii) children with these characteristics, except with access to ≥1 park and with access to ≥1 convenience store. Group membership was strongly associated with BMI at baseline, but did not systematically predict change in BMI. Findings support the notion that obesity is predicted by multiple factors in different settings and provide some indications of potentially

  15. The effect of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on cancer mortality in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenson, Kelly R; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Using the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study, we examined the relationship of fitness and obesity on cancer mortality among 2585 women and 2890 men followed from 1972-1976 to 1998. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a treadmill test and obesity was assessed using body mass index (BMI) calculated from measured height and weight. Gender-specific hazard ratios (HR) were calculated from proportional hazard models, which included covariates for age, education, smoking, alcohol intake, Keys score, and menopause (women only). Adjusted cancer mortality was significantly lower in the most fit quintile relative to the other four quintiles for men (HR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81) but not for women (HR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.52-1.36). Adjusted cancer mortality was significantly higher in the highest BMI quintile relative to the other four BMI quintiles for women (HR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.06-2.09) but not for men (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.77-1.43). Further adjustment for BMI on fitness and adjustment for fitness on BMI did not meaningfully change the HR. There were no significant interactions between fitness and obesity in predicting cancer mortality for either women or men. In this study, high fitness was a stronger predictor of cancer mortality in men, whereas high BMI was a stronger predictor of cancer mortality in women.

  16. Appetite-related hormone levels in obese women with and without binge eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Paraguassú Brandão

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate serum levels of appetite-related hormones (peptide YY3-36, total ghrelin, leptin and insulin before and after consumption of a meal in obese women with and without binge eating episodes and normal weight women. METHODS: Twenty-five women aged 32-50 years were invited to participate in this study, including 9 normal weight women without binge eating episodes (20-25kg/m², group 1, 9 obese women with binge eating episodes (³30kg/m², group 2, and 7 obese women without binge eating episodes (group 3. Four blood samples were collected from each participant, one being 60 minutes before and three being 15, 45 and 90 minutes after a meal. The composition of the meal was 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein and 30% lipids. RESULTS: Group 3 presented increased HOMA-IR (M=2.5, SD=1.04 when compared with group 1 (M=1.5, SD=0.53 and group 2 (M=1.8, SD=0.58, p=0.04. Body mass index (p<0.0001, leptin (p<0.0001 and insulin (p=0.01 were higher in group 3 than in the other groups before and after the meal. Additionally, total ghrelin (p=0.003 and PYY3-36 (p=0.02 levels were lower in group 2 than in the other groups before and after the meal. After adjustment for body mass index, only the lower PYY3-36 level of group 2 remained statistically different from the other groups (p=0.01. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that lower levels of PYY 3-36 are associated with binge eating in obese women.

  17. ATLANTIC DIP: the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Owens, Lisa A

    2010-03-01

    OBJECTIVE A prospective study of the impact of obesity on pregnancy outcome in glucose-tolerant women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Irish Atlantic Diabetes in Pregnancy network advocates universal screening for gestational diabetes. Women with normoglycemia and a recorded booking BMI were included. Maternal and infant outcomes correlated with booking BMI are reported. RESULTS A total of 2,329 women fulfilled the criteria. Caesarean deliveries increased in overweight (OW) (odds ratio 1.57 [95% CI 1.24-1.98]) and obese (OB) (2.65 [2.03-3.46]) women. Hypertensive disorders increased in OW (2.30 [1.55-3.40]) and OB (3.29 [2.14-5.05]) women. Reported miscarriages increased in OB (1.4 [1.11-1.77]) women. Mean birth weight was 3.46 kg in normal BMI (NBMI), 3.54 kg in OW, and 3.62 kg in OB (P < 0.01) mothers. Macrosomia occurred in 15.5, 21.4, and 27.8% of babies of NBMI, OW, and OB mothers, respectively (P < 0.01). Shoulder dystocia occur in 4% (>4 kg) compared with 0.2% (<4 kg) babies (P < 0.01). Congenital malformation risk increased for OB (2.47 [1.09-5.60]) women. CONCLUSIONS OW and OB glucose-tolerant women have greater adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  18. Morning plasma cortisol is low among obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabir, Iram; Ganie, Mohd Ashraf; Praveen, Edavan P; Khurana, Madan L; John, Jomimol; Gupta, Nandita; Kumar, Guresh; Ammini, Ariachery C

    2013-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause for androgen excess in women. It is associated with wide variety of metabolic disorders. The present study assessed morning plasma cortisol in women with PCOS. One hundred and ninety seven cases and 55 controls were enrolled for this study. The mean age of patients and controls were 23 ± 5.6 years and 25 ± 4.3 years. One hundred twelve (56%) women with PCOS had BMI >25. Serum cortisol levels were significantly higher in lean PCOS women compared to controls (13.4 ± 5.1 versus 11.3 ± 4.5, p cortisol was lower among obese women with PCOS. Morning plasma cortisol correlated negatively with BMI in PCOS women with normal glucose tolerance.

  19. Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity - Women, Infant, and Child

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes data on weight status for children aged 3 months to 4 years old from Women, Infant, and Children Participant and Program Characteristics...

  20. Cardiac valve evaluation and adipokine levels in obese women treated with sibutramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraç, Sefa; Saraç, Fulden

    2010-06-01

    The aims of present study were 1) to evaluate cardiac valve characteristics, 2) to determine the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the obese women before and after 19 months sibutramine treatment in the obese women. Sixty obese women were enrolled in this prospective, randomized study. Thirty women received 10 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. The rest of the obese women received 15 mg once daily dose of sibutramine for 19 months. All patients were evaluated with echocardiography. Plasma levels of adiponectin and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hsCRP by immunoturbimetric assay. Student paired and unpaired t tests were used to compare the 10 mg or 15 mg dose sibutramine effects either in groups or between the groups. There were no signs of significant regurgitation or thickening of the mitral and aortic valves on echocardiographic evaluation performed after 19 months of treatment. Parameters of systolic function after 10 or 15 mg treatment were not different from pretreatment characteristics. Minimal tricuspid regurgitation was found in one (1/27) patient treated with 10 mg sibutramine after 19 months. Among obese patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine one patient (1/28) had minimal mitral valve regurgitation and 2 patients (2/28) had minimal aortic insufficiency. Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 15 obese treated with 15 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (50%). Stage II diastolic dysfunction in the 10 obese treated with 10 mg regressed to stage I diastolic dysfunction (33.3%). Mean levels of TNF-alpha(p=0.04), fibrinogen (p=0.03) and hsCRP (p=0.04)i decreased and adiponectin (p=0.03) levels increased in the obese treated with 10 mg sibutramine. Likewise, in the patients treated with 15 mg sibutramine, mean levels of TNF- alpha(p=0.01), fibrinogen (p= 0.02), and hsCRP (p= 0.04) decreased

  1. Effects of fasting on insulin action and glucose kinetics in lean and obese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Bryan C; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Horton, Tracy J; Bessesen, Daniel H

    2007-10-01

    The development of insulin resistance in the obese individual could impair the ability to appropriately adjust metabolism to perturbations in energy balance. We investigated a 12- vs. 48-h fast on hepatic glucose production (R(a)), peripheral glucose uptake (R(d)), and skeletal muscle insulin signaling in lean and obese subjects. Healthy lean [n = 14; age = 28.0 +/- 1.4 yr; body mass index (BMI) = 22.8 +/- 0.42] and nondiabetic obese (n = 11; age = 34.6 +/- 2.3 yr; BMI = 36.1 +/- 1.5) subjects were studied following a 12- and 48-h fast during 2 h of rest and a 3-h 40 mUxm(-2)xmin(-1) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (HEC). Basal glucose R(a) decreased significantly from the 12- to 48-h fast (lean 1.96 +/- 0.23 to 1.63 +/- 0.15; obese 1.23 +/- 0.07 to 1.07 +/- 0.07 mgxkg(-1)xmin(-1); P = 0.004) and was equally suppressed during the HEC after both fasts. The increase in glucose R(d) during the HEC after the 12-h fast was significantly decreased in lean and obese subjects after the 48-h fast (lean 9.03 +/- 1.17 to 4.16 +/- 0.34, obese 6.10 +/- 0.77 to 3.56 +/- 0.30 mgxkg FFM(-1)xmin(-1); P lean than obese subjects. We conclude that 1) 48 h of fasting produces a marked decline in peripheral insulin action, while suppression of hepatic glucose production is maintained in lean and obese men and women; and 2) the magnitude of this decline is greater in lean vs. obese subjects.

  2. Engagement in New Dietary Habits-Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Christina; Hammarström, Anne; Sandberg, Susanne; Lindahl, Bernt; Olsson, Tommy; Larsson, Christel; Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine

    2016-02-01

    Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time. The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles. A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase". We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in

  3. Physical activity and psychological well-being in obese pregnant and postpartum women attending a weight-gain restriction programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claesson, Ing-Marie; Klein, Sofia; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-01-01

    the objective of the study was to compare the differences in psychological well-being and quality of life during pregnancy and post partum of obese physically active women and obese physically inactive women enroled in a weight gain restriction programme. We also wanted to explore whether physical activity influences weight change or health status during pregnancy. a prospective intervention study. antenatal care clinic. a total of 74 obese pregnant women in a physically active group and 79 obese women in a physically inactive group. the women kept diaries of their physical activity during pregnancy and answered the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Medical Study Short-Form Health Survey in gestational weeks 15 and 35 and 11 weeks post partum. Physical activity was measured in metabolic equivalents. the physically active women experienced fewer depressive symptoms and estimated an improved quality of life during their pregnancies as measured by physical functioning, bodily pain, social functioning, role limitations due to emotional problems and general mental health as compared with the physically inactive women. There were no differences between the groups in gestational weight gain or weight change from early pregnancy to post partum or in prevalence of complications. physical activity among obese pregnant women provides better psychological well-being and improved quality of life, but does not prevent weight change. staff at Antenatal Care Clinics that face obese pregnant women, should encourage and emphasise the benefits of being physically active throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, Andre; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M. A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J. P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, W. James; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Magi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A. G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimaki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bradfield, J.P.; Taal, H.R.; Timpson, N.J.; Scherag, A.; Lecoeur, C.; Warrington, N.M.; Hypponen, E.; Holst, C.; Valcarcel, B.; Thiering, E.; Salem, R.M.; Schumacher, F.R.; Cousminer, D.L.; Sleiman, P.M.A.; Zhao, J.; Berkowitz, R.I.; Vimaleswaran, K.S.; Jarick, I.; Pennell, C.E.; Evans, D.M.; St Pourcain, B.; Berry, D.J.; Mook-Kanamori, D.O.; Hofman, A.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; van der Valk, R.J.P.; de Jongste, J.C.; Postma, D.S.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gauderman, W.J.; Hassanein, M.T.; Lindgren, C.M.; Mägi, R.; Boreham, C.A.G.; Neville, C.E.; Moreno, L.A.; Elliott, P.; Pouta, A.; Hartikainen, A.-L.; Li, M.; Raitakari, O.; Lehtimäki, T.; Eriksson, J.G.; Palotie, A.; Dallongeville, J.; Das, S.; Deloukas, P.; McMahon, G.; Ring, S.M.; Kemp, J.P.; Buxton, J.L.; Blakemore, A.I.F.; Bustamante, M.; Guxens, M.; Hirschhorn, J.N.; Gillman, M.W.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Bisgaard, H.; Gilliland, F.D.; Heinrich, J.; Wheeler, E.; Barroso, I.; O'Rahilly, S.; Meirhaeghe, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Power, C.; Palmer, L.J.; Hinney, A.; Widen, E.; Farooqi, I.S.; McCarthy, M.I.; Froguel, P.; Meyre, D.; Hebebrand, J.; Järvelin, M.J.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Smith, G.D.; Hakonarson, H.; Grant, S.F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of

  6. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bradfield, Jonathan P; Taal, H Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta...

  7. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. DESIGN: a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11...... a descriptive analysis methodology. FINDINGS: motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction...... awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis....

  8. Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...

  9. Increasing overweight and obesity erodes engagement in one's neighborhood by women, but not men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; Han, Seung Yong; Brewis, Alexandra A; Wutich, Amber

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is socially stigmatized in the U.S., especially for women. Significant research has focused on the role that the social and built environments of neighborhoods play in shaping obesity. However, the role of obesity in shaping neighborhood social structure has been largely overlooked. We test the hypothesis that large body size inhibits an individual's engagement in his or her neighborhood. Our study objectives are to assess if (1) body size (body mass index) interacts with gender to predict engagement in one's neighborhood (neighborhood engagement) and (2) if bonding social capital interacts with gender to predict neighborhood engagement independent of body size. We used data collected from the cross-sectional 2011 Phoenix Area Social Survey (PASS), which systematically sampled residents across four neighborhood types (core urban, urban fringe, suburban, retirement) across the Phoenix Metopolitian Area. Survey data was analyzed using logistic regression for 804 participants, including 35% for whom missing data was computed using multiple imputation. We found that as body size increases, women-but not men-have reduced engagement in their neighborhood, independent of bonding social capital and other key covariates (objective 1). We did not observe the interaction between gender and bonding social capital associated with neighborhood engagement (objective 2). Prior scholarship suggests obesity clusters in neighborhoods due to processes of social, economic, and environmental disadvantage. This finding suggests bi-directionality: obesity could, in turn, undermine neighborhood engagement through the mechanism of weight stigma and discrimination.

  10. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  11. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight. © 2015 World Obesity.

  12. Identifying subgroups of obesity using the product of triglycerides and glucose: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Han, Kyungdo; Yang, Hae Kyung; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Park, Yong-Moon

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether the TyG index, a product of the levels of triglycerides and glucose, may be a valuable marker for identifying metabolically obese but normal weight (MONW) or metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) individuals. A total of 17 029 nondiabetic subjects (7185 men and 9844 women) were selected from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2008-2010. Individuals with a normal body mass index (BMI) (≥18·5 and index was calculated as ln[fasting triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]. The levels of the TyG index paralleled with various metabolic risk parameters. The index was significantly higher in the MONW group and lower in the MHO group when compared with the non-MONW group and the non-MHO group, respectively. The odds ratios (ORs) of being categorized into the MONW group were approximately fourfold higher in the highest vs lowest quartiles of the TyG index (3·999: 95% CI, 2·508-6·376 in men; 4·737: 95% CI, 3·418-6·565 in women) among normal weight subjects. Conversely, there was a stepwise decrease in the OR of being categorized into the MHO group across the TyG index quartiles among obese subjects. These data highlight the value of the TyG index in discriminating those subjects with higher risks of metabolic diseases. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationship between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone in reproductive-aged African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Lia A; Carnethon, Mercedes R; de Chavez, Peter J; Ikhena, Deborah E; Neff, Lisa M; Baird, Donna D; Marsh, Erica E

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) among reproductive-aged African American women (AAW). From the women participating in an ongoing National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study, 1,654 AAW aged 23 to 35 were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements, personal health information, and serum AMH and adipokine levels were analyzed. The median body mass index (BMI) was 32.4 kg/m 2 , and the median AMH was 3.18 ng/mL. Participants with obesity had AMH concentrations that were 23.7% lower than those with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2 (2.9 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ng/mL). In multivariable linear regression models, current BMI (β = -0.015; 95% CI -0.021 to -0.009), BMI at age 18 (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008), heaviest reported lifetime weight (β = -0.002; 95% CI -0.003 to -0.001), and leptin (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.025 to -0.007) were inversely associated with AMH. There was no significant association between adiponectin and AMH. AMH was significantly lower (mean log = 0.91, SE = 0.11) in participants with obesity at age 18 and at enrollment when compared with those who were underweight or normal weight at age 18 but had obesity at enrollment (mean log = 1.16, SE = 0.12). In reproductive-aged AAW there is a significant association between obesity and AMH, suggesting that excess adiposity may compromise ovarian reserve. Effects of obesity on AMH may be cumulative. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  14. Meal frequency differentially alters postprandial triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Sims, Lauren J; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chockalingam, Anand; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare postprandial lipemia, oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and insulinemia between a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern in obese women. In a counterbalanced order, eight obese women completed two, 12-h conditions in which they consumed 1,500 calories (14% protein, 21% fat, and 65% carbohydrate) either as three 500 calorie liquid meals every 4-h or six 250 calorie liquid meals every 2-h. Blood samples were taken every 30 min and analyzed for triacylglycerol (TAG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, myeloperoxidase, paraoxonase-1 activity, and insulin. The TAG incremental area under the curve (iAUC) during the three meal condition (321 ± 129 mg/dl · 12 h) was significantly lower (P = 0.04) compared with the six meal condition (481 ± 155 mg/dl · 12 h). The insulin iAUC during the three meal condition (5,549 ± 1,007 pmol/l · 12 h) was significantly higher (P = 0.05) compared with the six meal condition (4,230 ± 757 pmol/l(.) 12 h). Meal frequency had no influence on the other biochemical variables. Collectively, a three and six isocaloric high-carbohydrate meal frequency pattern differentially alters postprandial TAG and insulin concentrations but has no effect on postprandial cholesterol, oxidative stress, or antioxidant activity in obese women. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. Ascending dose-controlled trial of beloranib, a novel obesity treatment for safety, tolerability, and weight loss in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T E; Kim, D D; Marjason, J; Proietto, J; Whitehead, J P; Vath, J E

    2013-09-01

    Evaluate the safety and tolerability of beloranib, a fumagillin-class methionine aminopetidase-2 (MetAP2) inhibitor, in obese women over 4 weeks. Thirty-one obese (mean BMI 38 kg/m2) women were randomized to intravenous 0.1, 0.3, or 0.9 mg/m2 beloranib or placebo twice weekly for 4 weeks (N = 7, 6, 9, and 9). The most frequent AEs were headache, infusion site injury, nausea, and diarrhea. Nausea and infusion site injury occurred more with beloranib than placebo. The most common reason for discontinuation was loss of venous access. There were no clinically significant abnormal laboratory findings. In subjects completing 4 weeks, median weight loss with 0.9 mg/m2 beloranib was -3.8 kg (95% CI -5.1, -0.9; N = 8) versus -0.6 kg with placebo (-4.5, -0.1; N = 6). Weight change for 0.1 and 0.3 mg/m2 beloranib was similar to placebo. Beloranib (0.9 mg/m2) was associated with a significant 42 and 18% reduction in triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol, as well as improvement in C-reactive protein and reduced sense of hunger. Changes in β-hydroxybutyrate, adiponectin, leptin, and fibroblast growth factor-21 were consistent with the putative mechanism of MetAP2 inhibition. Glucose and blood pressure were unchanged. Beloranib treatment was well tolerated and associated with rapid weight loss and improvements in lipids, C-reactive protein, and adiponectin. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Cerebrovascular Disorders in Women with Overweight and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Glugovska

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrоvascular diseases are one of the most maladaptive disorders in both men and women. Meanwhile, in the female population when compared to men, strokes occur much later. Strokes in women have higher incidence of traditional risk factors, such as arterial hypertension, atrial fibrillation, as well as the presence of specific factors, such as the use of oral contraceptives and pregnancies. In addition, in women compared with men the proportion of severe strokes is greater, the incidence of hospital medical complications and deaths is higher, as well as the number of cases of severe disability after stroke. In the formation of sex differences in the pathophysiology of stroke, there are involved both hormonal mechanisms, and other factors not related to the influence of reproductive hormones. Understanding these laws is important in order to develop a stratified approach to the management of female patients with cerebrоvascular disease.

  17. Fatty acid intake and metabolic syndrome among overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Maximino

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine relations between fatty acids intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS status among overweight and obese women (n = 223. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The physical and laboratory tests included anthropometry, body composition evaluation and measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulinemia and lipid profiles. A three-day food diary was used to evaluate fatty acids consumption. Statistical analysis included χ2 test and odds ratio measurements. Results: The women had 35.2 (6.9 years old and 15.2% presented MetS. Women with MetS presented higher serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin in addition to higher diastolic blood pressure in comparison to women without MetS. Overweight women with MetS consumed higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids - 24.3 g (24.7 - 36.4 versus overweight women without MetS - 23.9 g (23.8 - 26.8, polyunsaturated fatty acids - 16.7 g (14.6 - 21.1 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.6 g (13.8 - 15.8 and linoleic fatty acids - 15.9 g (6.5 versus overweight women without MetS - 13.1 g (5.1. Among obese women with MetS, higher intake of linoleic fatty acids was also noted - 17.6 g (6.1 versus obese women without MetS - 14.3 g (6.6 in addition to higher consumption of trans fatty acids - 4.7 g (4.8 - 6.3 versus obese women without MetS - 3.9 g (2.9 - 4.6. Increased quartiles of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, linoleic and trans fatty acid intake were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of MetS. Conclusion: Lipid intake may be related to MetS, although other factors also need to be considered, such as lifestyle, genetics and metabolism.

  18. Comparing men and women with binge-eating disorder and co-morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-03-01

    This study examined differences in clinical presentation of men and women with binge-eating disorder (BED) who participated in treatment research at a medical-school based program. Participants were 682 adults (n = 182 men, n = 500 women) with DSM-IV-defined BED. Doctoral-level research clinicians assessed eating-disorder psychopathology, including BED diagnosis, using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (SCID) and Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview. Research clinicians measured height and weight and participants completed a battery of established self-report measures. Men had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) than women; women had significantly higher eating-disorder psychopathology (EDE scales and global score) and depression than men. Differences in eating-disorder psychopathology and depression remained higher for women than men after adjusting for race/ethnicity and BMI. Frequency of binge-eating episodes, subjective binge-eating episodes, and overeating episodes did not differ significantly by sex. Women had younger ages of onset for dieting and binge-eating behaviors than men but ages of onset for obesity and BED did not significantly differ between men and women. There are some sex differences in clinical presentation and age-of-onset timeline of adults with BED. Men and women develop obesity and BED (at diagnostic threshold) around the same age but women begin dieting and binge-eating behaviors earlier than men. At presentation for treatment for BED, men and women did not differ in binge-eating frequency and although men and women differed significantly on BMI and eating-disorder psychopathology, the magnitude of these differences was quite modest. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An increase level of acylation stimulating protein is correlated with metabolic risk markers in North Indian obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Supriya; Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Gupta, Vandana; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sachan, Rekha

    2017-12-01

    The present study was to investigate the association between serum acylation stimulating protein (ASP) level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian obese women. This is a case control study, total n=322 women aged between 20 and 45 years (n=162 with metabolic syndrome & n=160 without metabolic syndrome) were recruited for the study according to National Cholesterol Education Program Treatment Panel (NCEPATP) guidelines. Serum ASP level were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results indicated that circulating ASP and other metabolic risk factors (waist circumference, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose etc) were significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome (WmetS) than in women without syndrome (WometS) (pwomen with metabolic syndrome. Conclusively circulating ASP was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity related disorders in North Indian obese women. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Polycystic ovary syndrome: an example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orio, Francesco; Cascella, Teresa; Giallauria, Francesco; Palomba, Stefano; De Lorenzo, Anna; Lucci, Rosa; Ambrosino, Elena; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo

    2006-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a good example of obesity-related cardiovascular complication affecting young women. PCOS is not only considered a reproductive problem but rather represents a complex endocrine, multifaceted syndrome with important health implications. Several evidences suggest an increased cardiovascular risk of cardiovascular disease associated with this syndrome, characterized by an impairment of heart structure and function, endothelial dysfunction and lipid abnormalities. All these features, probably linked to insulin-resistance, are often present in obese PCOS patients. Cardiovascular abnormalities represent important long-term sequelae of PCOS that need further investigations.

  1. [Changes of blood fatty acid in women with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikaelyan, N P; Terentev, A A; Nguen, K H; Mikaelyan, A V; Novikova, S A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (DM2) in women are accompanied by atherogenic dyslipidemia, with the activation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as disturbances in the antioxidant defense system (ADS). DM2 due to imbalance in LPO-ADS is accompanied by a high concentration of LPO products, decreased parameters of antioxidant systems and timpaired utilization of glucose by cells. The results obtained in this study suggest an important role of fatty acids and their metabolites in the pathogenesis of obesity and DM2, which should be taken into consideration during design and selection of appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures aimed at prevention or elimination of the violations.

  2. The role of hormones of adipose tissue in the development pregnancy complications in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in pregnancy is a risk factor for complications for both the mother and of the fetus. Adipose tissue hormones (leptin, adiponectin, resistin are secreted by the human placenta and regulate the function of trophoblast.The review presents data from the literature on the role of adipocytokines in the development of gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in obesity women. The article considers the criteria and algorithms for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes recommended by the World Health Organization and the International Association of research groups for diabetes and pregnancy.

  3. The impact of obesity on foot morphology in women aged 48 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Tománková

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is major risk factor for many diseases within society and represents extensive loads for the feet which lead to various foot disorders and deformities. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity as represented by percent body fat (PBF on foot morphology. Methods: The study sample included 139 Czech women aged 48-69 years. The women were divided into two groups by PBF: non-obese women (NOW (n = 66; PBF < 35% and obese women (OW (n = 73; PBF > 35%. Measurements included % PBF and width, length and angle dimensions of foot. The Chippaux-Smirak index (CSI was calculated for each foot. Results: We found significant differences between OW and NOW in these parameters: direct forefoot width (sin. p = .02, rpb = .20, direct heel width (sin. p = .01, rpb = .22; dex. p < .01, rpb = .22, hallux angle (sin. p = .01, rpb = .25 and CSI (sin. p < .01, rpb = .26; dex. p < .01, rpb = .27. The results showed that the mean values of the heel width and CSI were significantly higher in OW on both feet, the mean values of forefoot width only on the left foot. Conclusions: Results proved that obesity impacts all parts of the foot (heel, longitudinal foot arch, forefoot. Despite significant differences of the CSI between NOW and OW, the number of subjects with flat feet was in both groups negligible.

  4. Obesity-related differences between women and men in brain structure and goal-directed behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eHorstmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the regulation of body weight are well documented. Here, we assessed obesity-related influences of gender on brain structure as well as performance in the Iowa Gambling Task. This task requires evaluation of both immediate rewards and long-term outcomes and thus mirrors the trade-off between immediate reward from eating and the long-term effect of overeating on body weight. In women, but not in men, we show that the preference for salient immediate rewards in the face of negative long-term consequences is higher in obese than in lean subjects. In addition, we report structural differences in the left dorsal striatum (i.e. putamen and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for women only. Functionally, both regions are known to play complimentary roles in habitual and goal-directed control of behavior in motivational contexts. For women as well as men, gray matter volume correlates positively with measures of obesity in regions coding the value and saliency of food (i.e. nucleus accumbens, orbitofrontal cortex as well as in the hypothalamus (i.e. the brain's central homeostatic centre. These differences between lean and obese subjects in hedonic and homeostatic control systems may reflect a bias in eating behavior towards energy intake exceeding the actual homeostatic demand. Although we cannot infer from our results the etiology of the observed structural differences, our results resemble neural and behavioral differences well known from other forms of addiction, however, with marked differences between women and men. These findings are important for designing gender-appropriate treatments of obesity and possibly its recognition as a form of addiction.

  5. Dietary calcium but not elemental calcium from supplements is associated with body composition and obesity in Chinese women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Huang

    Full Text Available We assessed whether dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements associated with body composition and obesity in a Chinese population.A cross-sectional survey was performed in a population of 8940, aged 20 to 74 y. 8127 participants responded (90.9%. Height, weight, fat mass (FM, waist circumference (WC and hip circumference were measured. Obesity definition: body mass index (BMI ≥28 kg/m(2 (overall obesity; WC ≥85 cm for men or ≥80 cm for women (abdominal obesity І and waist hip ratio (WHR ≥0.90 for men or ≥0.85 for women (abdominal obesity П. The data on dietary calcium and calcium supplements were collected using food-frequency questionnaire and self-report questionnaire. Multivariate linear and multivariable logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between dietary calcium intake or calcium supplements and body composition and obesity.The average dietary calcium intake of all subjects was 430 mg/d. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, among women only, negative associations were observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and four measures of body composition (β, -0.086, P0.05. Similarly, among both men and women, we did not observe significant associations between calcium supplements and any measures of body composition or abdominal obesity (P>0.05.Dietary calcium from food rather than elemental calcium from calcium supplements has beneficial effects on the maintenance of body composition and preventing abdominal obesity in Chinese women.

  6. TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear-binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells from obese and non-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J; Pedersen, K K

    1989-01-01

    The specific nuclear-binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells, and the concentrations of TSH, thyroid hormones, and binding proteins were measured after overnight fasting in 12 obese and in 14 non-obese women, none of the subjects were taking any medicine. The concentrations of TSH and free...... plus bound-T3 (TT3) were significantly higher in the obese (p less than 0.05), concentrations of T4 and binding proteins did not differ. The NBT3 was significantly lower in the obese women; the maximal binding capacity (MBC) was 34.5 +/- 11.6 fmol/mg DNA in the obese subjects and 50.0 +/- 11.6 fmol....../mg DNA in the non-obese subjects (p less than 0.02). The binding affinities did not differ. We have previously shown that increasing T3 concentrations within the physiological range down-regulates NBT3. Therefore, the reduced NBT3 in the obese women was probably secondary to the increased TT3...

  7. Caloric restriction and aerobic exercise in sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic obese women: an observational and retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Garnier, Sophie; Joffroy, Sandra; Riesco, Éléonor; Sanguignol, Frédéric; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves; Andrieu, Sandrine; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Mauriège, Pascale

    2016-06-01

    Sarcopenic obese (SO) individuals are a unique subset of subjects that combines obesity and sarcopenia. Traditional weight loss programmes including aerobic exercises may worsen their condition by further reducing their lean mass. The objective of this observational and retrospective study was to verify the effect of a mixed weight loss programme combining caloric restriction and exercise on body composition, and lipid-lipoprotein profile of obese women according to their sarcopenic status. One hundred and forty-six obese women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2) and fat mass ≥ 40%) participated to the 3 week usual and institutionalized weight-reducing programme combining a dietary plan (1400 ± 200 kcal/day) and aerobic exercise (1 h/day, 6 days/week) of a specialized medical institution. The lean body mass index (LMI; lean mass/height(2)) was calculated, and women in the lowest tertile of LMI were considered SO. At baseline, SO women were older, and their body weight and LMI were lower than non-sarcopenic obese (N-SO) women (p women similarly lost fat mass and improved their lipid-lipoprotein profile (p women lost lean mass (p restriction and aerobic exercise may significantly reduce fat mass and improve lipid-lipoprotein profile in obese women, independently of their sarcopenic status. Such programmes may have deleterious effects on lean mass in N-SO subjects, only.

  8. Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Program in Obese Infertile Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, Meike A. Q.; van Oers, Anne M.; Groen, Henk; Burggraaff, Jan M.; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Perquin, Denise A. M.; Koks, Carolien A. M.; van Golde, Ron; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Schierbeek, Jaap M.; Oosterhuis, Gerrit J. E.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, Marieke F. G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Klijn, Nicole F.; Mercelina, Patricia E. A. M.; van Kasteren, Yvonne M.; Nap, Annemiek W.; Brinkhuis, Egbert A.; Vogel, Niels E. A.; Mulder, Robert J. A. B.; Gondrie, Ed T. C. M.; de Bruin, Jan P.; Sikkema, J. Marko; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Land, Jolande A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small lifestyle-intervention studies suggest that modest weight loss increases the chance of conception and may improve perinatal outcomes, but large randomized, controlled trials are lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned infertile women with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms

  9. Obesity and risk of breast cancer mortality in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic white women: the New Mexico Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina; Baumgartner, Kathy B

    2013-04-01

    Obesity is reported to be associated with poorer survival in women with breast cancer, regardless of menopausal status. Our purpose was to determine if the associations of obesity with breast cancer-specific, all-cause, and non-breast cancer mortality differ between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women with breast cancer. Data on lifestyle and medical history were collected for incident primary breast cancer cases (298 NHW, 279 Hispanic) in the New Mexico Women's Health Study. Mortality was ascertained through the National Death Index and New Mexico Tumor Registry over 13 years of follow-up. Adjusted Cox regression models indicated a trend towards increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality in obese NHW women (hazard ratio [HR] 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-4.35) but not in Hispanic women (HR 1.32; 95% CI 0.64-2.74). Obese NHW women had a statistically significant increased risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.12; 95% CI 1.15-3.90) while Hispanic women did not (HR 1.23; 95% CI 0.71-2.12). Results were similar for non-breast cancer mortality: NHW (HR 2.65; 95% CI 0.90-7.81); Hispanic (HR 2.18; 95% CI 0.77-6.10). Our results suggest that obesity is associated with increased risk for breast cancer-specific mortality in NHW women; however, this association is attenuated in Hispanic women.

  10. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  11. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight ( p = 0.007), body mass index ( p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures ( p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity ( p foods such as staple foods ( p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods ( p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  12. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007, body mass index (p = 0.003, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively, prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016, and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026 and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044 than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330. However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  13. Association between insulin resistance and preeclampsia in obese non-diabetic women receiving metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balani, Jyoti; Hyer, Steve; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Nicolaides, Kypros H; Johnson, Antoinette; Shehata, Hassan

    2017-12-01

    To examine whether the reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is mediated by changes in insulin resistance. This was a secondary analysis of obese pregnant women in a randomised trial (MOP trial). Fasting plasma glucose and insulin were measured in 384 of the 400 women who participated in the MOP trial. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was compared in the metformin and placebo groups and in those that developed preeclampsia versus those that did not develop preeclampsia. At 28 weeks, median HOMA-IR was significantly lower in the metformin group. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there was a significant contribution in the prediction of preeclampsia from maternal history of chronic hypertension and gestational weight gain, but not HOMA-IR either at randomisation ( p  = 0.514) or at 28 weeks ( p  = 0.643). Reduced incidence of preeclampsia in non-diabetic obese pregnant women treated with metformin is unlikely to be due to changes in insulin resistance.

  14. Addressing the problem of obesity and associated cardiometabolic risk in black South African women - time for action!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Julia H

    2017-01-01

    The PhD thesis of Gradidge, entitled 'Factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in an ageing cohort of black women living in Soweto, Johannesburg (Study of Women in and Entering Endocrine Transition [SWEET])', attempts to understand the determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a population of urban-dwelling black South African women. A conceptual framework is presented, which positions obesity as the central risk factor for MetS, and includes the possible influence of socioeconomic status, lifestyle behaviours and body size perceptions, as key determinants of obesity. This commentary focuses on the two main findings of Gradidge's thesis, namely, (i) physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and (ii) body composition and adiponectin, as risk factors for obesity and MetS in black South African women. Despite a high prevalence of obesity (48%), Gradidge showed that 75% of the women taking part in the study were meeting WHO guidelines on physical activity. This commentary suggests that the relationship between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk may be confounded by socioeconomic status. Alternatively, the intensity, and not necessarily the volume, of activity, as well as high rates of sedentary behaviour are posited as important determinants of obesity and MetS in black South African women. Accordingly, this commentary questions the veracity of the WHO guidelines on physical activity in developing countries, where most women meet the guidelines but have very poor cardiorespiratory fitness, are obese and are at high risk of MetS. Gradidge also showed that the most consistent and significant correlate of MetS in this cohort of middle-aged women was low serum levels of adiponectin. This commentary highlights various lifestyle interventions that have been shown to increase adiponectin levels. Finally, the importance of immediate action to address the problem of obesity and MetS is emphasised.

  15. Changes in resting and walking energy expenditure and walking speed during pregnancy in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Nuala M; Groves, Ainsley M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie K

    2011-09-01

    Energy-conserving processes reported in undernourished women during pregnancy are a recognized strategy for providing the energy required to support fetal development. Women who are obese before conceiving arguably have sufficient fat stores to support the energy demands of pregnancy without the need to provoke energy-conserving mechanisms. We tested the hypothesis that obese women would show behavioral adaptation [ie, a decrease in self-selected walking (SSW) speed] but not metabolic compensation [ie, a decrease in resting metabolic rate (RMR) or the metabolic cost of walking] during gestation. RMR, SSW speed, metabolic cost of walking, and anthropometric variables were measured in 23 women aged 31 ± 4 y with a BMI (in kg/m(2)) of 33.6 ± 2.5 (mean ± SD) at ≈15 and 30 wk of gestation. RMR was also measured in 2 cohorts of nonpregnant control subjects matched for the age, weight, and height of the pregnant cohort at 15 (n = 23) and 30 (n = 23) wk. Gestational weight gain varied widely (11.3 ± 5.4 kg), and 52% of the women gained more weight than is recommended. RMR increased significantly by an average of 177 ± 176 kcal/d (11 ± 12%; P 80% of the cohort, the net oxygen cost of walking decreased in the same proportion of women. Although the increase in RMR was greater than that explained by weight gain, evidence of both behavioral and biological compensation in the metabolic cost of walking was observed in obese women during gestation. The trial is registered with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN012606000271505.

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, A M; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Klijn, N F; van Kasteren, Y M; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A; Groen, H

    2017-07-01

    What is the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment in obese infertile women? Lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment as compared to prompt infertility treatment in obese infertile women is not a cost-effective strategy in terms of healthy live birth rate within 24 months after randomization, but is more likely to be cost-effective using a longer follow-up period and live birth rate as endpoint. In infertile couples, obesity decreases conception chances. We previously showed that lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment in obese infertile women did not increase the healthy singleton vaginal live birth rate at term, but increased natural conceptions, especially in anovulatory women. Cost-effectiveness analyses could provide relevant additional information to guide decisions regarding offering a lifestyle intervention to obese infertile women. The cost-effectiveness of lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment compared to prompt infertility treatment was evaluated based on data of a previous RCT, the LIFEstyle study. The primary outcome for effectiveness was the vaginal birth of a healthy singleton at term within 24 months after randomization (the healthy live birth rate). The economic evaluation was performed from a hospital perspective and included direct medical costs of the lifestyle intervention, infertility treatments, medication and pregnancy in the intervention and control group. In addition, we performed exploratory cost-effectiveness analyses of scenarios with additional effectiveness outcomes (overall live birth within 24 months and overall live birth conceived within 24 months) and of subgroups, i.e. of ovulatory and anovulatory women, women birth rates were 27 and 35% in the intervention group and the control group, respectively (effect difference of -8.1%, P birth rate. Mean costs per healthy live birth event were €15 932 in the intervention group and €15 912 in the

  17. Brain Functional Connectivity Is Modified by a Hypocaloric Mediterranean Diet and Physical Activity in Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, Natalia; Bernal-López, María R; Roé-Vellvé, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernández-García, Jose C; García-Arnés, Juan A; Ramos-Rodriguez, José R; Alfaro, Francisco; Santamaria-Fernández, Sonia; Steward, Trevor; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Garcia-Garcia, Isabel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco J; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the resting state has shown altered brain connectivity networks in obese individuals. However, the impact of a Mediterranean diet on cerebral connectivity in obese patients when losing weight has not been previously explored. The aim of this study was to examine the connectivity between brain structures before and six months after following a hypocaloric Mediterranean diet and physical activity program in a group of sixteen obese women aged 46.31 ± 4.07 years. Before and after the intervention program, the body mass index (BMI) (kg/m²) was 38.15 ± 4.7 vs. 34.18 ± 4.5 ( p diet and physical exercise.

  18. Physical activity and hypocaloric diet recovers osteoblasts homeostasis in women affected by abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimonte, Viviana M; Fittipaldi, Simona; Marocco, Chiara; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Fornari, Rachele; Guidetti, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Nicolai, Emanuele; Di Luigi, Luigi; Donini, Lorenzo M; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Greco, Emanuela A; Migliaccio, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease linked to metabolic chronic disorders such as diabetes, and hypertension. Also, it has recently been associated with skeletal alterations and low bone mineral density. We previously demonstrated that exposure of osteoblasts to sera of sedentary subjects affected by obesity alters cell homeostasis in vitro, leading to disruption of intracellular differentiation pathways and cellular activity. Thus, the purpose of the present study has been to evaluate whether sera of sedentary obese women, subjected to physical activity and hypocaloric diet, could recover osteoblast homeostasis in vitro as compared to the sera of same patients before intervention protocol. To this aim, obese women were evaluated at time 0 and after 4, 6, and 12 months of individualized prescribed physical activity and hypocaloric diet. Dual-energy-X-ray absorptiometry measurements were performed at each time point, as well as blood was collected at the same points. Cells were incubated with sera of subjects before and after physical activity as described: obese at baseline and after for 4, 6, and 12 months of physical activity and nutritional protocol intervention. Osteoblasts exposed to sera of patients, who displayed increased lean and decreased fat mass (from 55.5 ± 6.5 to 57.1 ± 5.6% p ≤ 0.05; from 44.5 ± 1.1 to 40.9 ± 2.6% p ≤ 0.01 respectively), showed a time-dependent increase of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, versus cells exposed to sera of obese patients before intervention protocol, suggesting recovery of osteoblast homeostasis upon improvement of body composition. An increase in β-catenin nuclear accumulation and nuclear translocation was also observed, accompanied by an increase in Adiponectin receptor 1 protein expression, suggesting positive effect on cell differentiation program. Furthermore, a decrease in sclerostin amount and an increase of type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide were depicted as compared to

  19. [Effect of treatment with diet on reducing levels of sex hormones in perimenopausal women with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Błońska, Aleksandra; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, fight against obesity is a big challenge for the developed countries. Perimenopausal women are especially prone to becoming overweight and obese. This is due to changes in hormone levels and alterations in the sex hormones synthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in overweight and obese women during menopause following the three month period of reducing diet. The study involved women aged 55±4,75 years. Group I - 33 overweight women (BMI 28,06±1,00 kg/m(2)). Group II - 32 obese women (BMI 34,22±3,79 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric measurements, body composition tested with Bodystat QuadScan 4000 analyzer and levels of sex hormones in the blood was determined before and after the three-months of reducing diet in both groups. Statistical data analysis was performed. After three-months of reducing diet it was noticed that levels of BMI, body fat, FSH, DHEA-S and androstenedione were decreased in a statistically significant manner. A significant increase in estradiol levels after reduction of visceral adipose tissue in both groups, overweight and obese women, was observed. However, only in the group of obese women, a decrease in BMI correlated with a significant increase in estradiol levels. Application of appropriate reducing diet in perimenopausal overweight and obese women has positive impact on visceral adipose tissue distribution and causes an increase in sex hormones levels. Perimenopausal overweight and obese women should pursue weight reduction to improve their chances of contracting cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  20. 24-h core temperature in obese and lean men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mindy E; Rodriguez, Sarah M; Zeiss, Dinah M; Wachsberg, Kelley N; Kushner, Robert F; Landsberg, Lewis; Linsenmeier, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Maintenance of core temperature is a major component of 24-h energy expenditure, and its dysregulation could contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity. The relationship among temperature, sex, and BMI, however, has not been fully elucidated in humans. This study investigated core temperature in obese and lean individuals at rest, during 20-min exercise, during sleep, and after food consumption. Twelve lean (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) and twelve obese (30.0-39.9 kg/m(2)) healthy participants, ages 25-40 years old, were admitted overnight in a clinical research unit. Females were measured in the follicular menstrual phase. Core temperature was measured every minute for 24 h using the CorTemp system, a pill-sized sensor that measures core temperature while in the gastrointestinal tract and delivers the measurement via a radio signal to an external recorder. Core temperature did not differ significantly between the obese and lean individuals at rest, postmeals, during exercise, or during sleep (P > 0.5), but core temperature averaged over the entire study was significantly higher (0.1-0.2 °C) in the obese (P = 0.023). Each individual's temperature varied considerably during the study, but at all times, and across the entire study, women were ~0.4 °C warmer than men (P < 0.0001). These data indicate that obesity is not associated with a lower core temperature but that women have a higher core temperature than men at rest, during sleep, during exercise, and after meals.

  1. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  2. Different cycle ergometer outcomes in severely obese men and women without documented cardiopulmonary morbidities before bariatric surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, JG; Dubois, EF; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; ten Hoor-Aukema, NM; Schweitzer, DH

    Study objectives: The number of severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery is increasing. No incremental cycle ergometer data are available in this category of patients. The current study was undertaken to provide information and to compare outcomes between severely obese men and women

  3. Effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational weight gain and mental health : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.F.L.; Devlieger, R.; Nuyts, E.; Witters, I.; Gyselaers, W.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle intervention could help obese pregnant women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy and improve their psychological comfort, but has not yet been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. We evaluated whether a targeted antenatal lifestyle intervention programme for obese

  4. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m 2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R 2 =0.474).

  5. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  6. Attenuated Low-Grade Inflammation Following Long-Term Dietary Intervention in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Caroline; Alvehus, Malin; Burén, Jonas; Ryberg, Mats; Larsson, Christel; Lindahl, Bernt; Mellberg, Caroline; Söderström, Ingegerd; Chorell, Elin; Olsson, Tommy

    2017-05-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation after menopause is associated with low-grade inflammation and increased risk of metabolic disorders. Effective long-term lifestyle treatment is therefore needed. Seventy healthy postmenopausal women (age 60 ± 5.6 years) with BMI 32.5 ± 5.5 were randomized to a Paleolithic-type diet (PD) or a prudent control diet (CD) for 24 months. Blood samples and fat biopsies were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 24 months to analyze inflammation-related parameters. Android fat decreased significantly more in the PD group (P = 0.009) during the first 6 months with weight maintenance at 24 months in both groups. Long-term significant effects (P obesity in postmenopausal women is linked to specific changes in inflammation-related adipose gene expression. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  7. Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transmission of obesity across generations is of concern. Offspring of obese women have short- and long-term increased morbidities. A high intake of carbohydrate during pregnancy combined with impaired glucose tolerance is postulated to result in high birth weight, which is linked...... to subsequent metabolic disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the association between carbohydrate intake in obese pregnant women and their offspring's body composition. DESIGN: Secondary analyses were performed in an observational setting of 222 pregnant women with a pregestational BMI (in kg/m(2...... mass was observed, but the associations became significant and increased in strength with higher intolerance (strata with 2-h glucose values between 6.7-7.7 and ≥7.8 mmol/L). CONCLUSION: In obese women, even those without gestational diabetes but with impaired glucose tolerance, a lower carbohydrate...

  8. Women, pharmacy and the World Wide Web: could they be the answer to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Hussainy, Safeera; Marriott, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to explore how giving women access to evidence-based information in weight management through pharmacies, and by utilising the World Wide Web, is a much needed step towards dealing with the obesity crisis. Women's needs should be considered when developing evidence-based information on weight. Excess weight places them at high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, infertility and complications following pregnancy and giving birth. Women are also an important population group because they influence decision-making around meal choices for their families and are the biggest consumers of weight-loss products, many of which can be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacies are readily accessible primary healthcare locations and given the pharmacist's expertise in being able to recognise underlying causes of obesity (e.g. medications, certain disease states), pharmacies are an ideal location to provide women with evidence-based information on all facets of weight management. Considering the exponential rise in the use of the World Wide Web, this information could be delivered as an online educational resource supported by other flexible formats. The time has come for the development of an online, evidence-based educational resource on weight management, which is combined with other flexible formats and targeted at women in general and according to different phases of their lives (pregnancy, post-partum, menopause). By empowering women with this knowledge it will allow them and their families to take better control of their health and wellbeing, and it may just be the much needed answer to complement already existing resources to help curb the obesity epidemic. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Obesity with Comorbid Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Narrative Review to Inform Dietetics Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Barbara; Shorter, Barbara; Isoldi, Kathy Keenan; Moldwin, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common problem among women; clinical treatment guidelines include weight reduction as a strategy for controlling urinary leakage. The purpose of this review was to gather evidence on the association between obesity and SUI and to ascertain whether there are any special considerations for implementing medical nutrition therapy with community-dwelling, obese, adult females with comorbid SUI. Five key findings emerged: epidemiologic studies consistently report statistically significant associations between obesity and SUI, randomized control trials found that weight loss appears to ameliorate SUI symptoms, the SUI-activity link may affect weight management, there is a potential interplay between SUI and the obesity-sleep connection, and dietary components are associated with the exacerbation of urinary symptoms. The pathogenesis of SUI and obesity-related contributions to urinary leakage is included in the introductory discussion. Lastly, insights on special considerations for implementing nutrition interventions with this population are offered. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  11. Contribution of overweight and obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and non-immigrant women in Berlin, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Katharina; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Borde, Theda; Brenne, Silke; David, Matthias; Razum, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    Maternal excessive weight and smoking are associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Germany, immigrant women have a higher prevalence of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity compared with autochthonous women. We compared the contribution of pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity to adverse pregnancy outcomes among immigrant and autochthonous women in Berlin/Germany. Data from 2586 immigrant women (from Turkey, Lebanon, other countries of origin) and 2676 autochthonous women delivering in three maternity hospitals of Berlin within 12 months (2011/2012) was used. Cox regression models were applied to estimate the association between overweight/obesity and smoking with the outcomes large-for-gestational-age (LGA), small-for-gestational-age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB) and extreme preterm-birth (E-PTB). Population attributive fractions (PAF) were calculated to quantify the proportion of the outcomes attributable to overweight/obesity and smoking, respectively. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 33.4% among autochthonous and 53.6% among Turkish women. Prevalence risk ratios of excessive weight were highest for LGA infants among immigrant and autochthonous women. The PAFs were -11.8% (SGA), +16.3% (LGA), +3.6% (PTB) and +16.5% (E-PTB) for the total study population. Overweight/obesity is strongly associated with an increased risk of delivering an LGA infant among both immigrant and autochthonous women. Compared with autochthonous women, the contribution of excessive weight to LGA is even higher among immigrant women, in whom PAFs of overweight/obesity even exceed those of smoking for some outcomes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Healthcare professionals experience with motivational interviewing in their encounter with obese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård

    2014-01-01

    healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed......Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...

  13. Abdominal obesity in older women: potential role for disrupted fatty acid reesterification in insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeckel, Catherine W; Dziura, James; DiPietro, Loretta

    2008-04-01

    Excess abdominal adiposity is a primary factor for insulin resistance in older age. Our objectives were to examine the role of abdominal obesity on adipose tissue, hepatic, and peripheral insulin resistance in aging, and to examine impaired free fatty acid metabolism as a mechanism in these relations. This was a cross-sectional study. The study was performed at a General Clinical Research Center. Healthy, inactive older (>60 yr) women (n = 25) who were not on hormone replacement therapy or glucose-lowering medication were included in the study. Women with abdominal circumference values above the median (>97.5 cm) were considered abdominally obese. Whole-body peripheral glucose utilization, adipose tissue lipolysis, and hepatic glucose production were measured using in vivo techniques according to a priori hypotheses. In the simple analysis, glucose utilization at the 40 mU insulin dose (6.3 +/- 2.8 vs. 9.1 +/- 3.4; P suppression of lipolysis (35 vs. 54%; P women with and without abdominal obesity, respectively. Using the glycerol appearance rate to free fatty acid ratio as an index of fatty acid reesterification revealed markedly blunted reesterification in the women with abdominal adiposity under all conditions: basal (0.95 +/- 0.29 vs. 1.35 +/- 0.47; P < 0.02); low- (2.58 +/- 2.76 vs. 6.95 +/- 5.56; P < 0.02); and high-dose (4.46 +/- 3.70 vs. 12.22 +/- 7.13; P < 0.01) hyperinsulinemia. Importantly, fatty acid reesterification was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with abdominal circumference and hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance, regardless of total body fat. These findings support the premise of dysregulated fatty acid reesterification with abdominal obesity as a pathophysiological link to perturbed glucose metabolism across multiple tissues in aging.

  14. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status

    OpenAIRE

    Horv?thov?, Mira; Ilavsk?, Silvia; ?tef?kov?, Korn?lia; Szabov?, Michaela; Krivo??kov?, Zora; Jahnov?, Eva; Tulinsk?, Jana; Spustov?, Viera; Gajdo?, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The signific...

  15. The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mazurina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.

  16. [The impact of experience in bearing child on the body mass index and obesity in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jian-qiang; Yin, Shi-an

    2009-02-01

    To analyze the relations of body mass index(BMI)and obese prevalence in differently aged women and explore the effective strategy for preventing obesity among adult Chinese women. This study was based on the data from 2002 National Nutrition and Health Survey. The method of multi-steps cluster sampling was adopted. Total subjects including unmarried women (n = 2474), married women without the experience of childbearing (n = 10,816), and married and bearing-child women (n = 4103), were 17,393. In urban areas, the average body weights of unmarried, married and without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child were (53.7 +/- 9.0) kg, (57.6 +/- 9.4) kg and (54.5 +/- 8.5) kg respectively; the body weights of unmarried, married and without childbearing experience were significantly higher than that of the married with born-child women (t = 12.25, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (21.1 +/- 3.3) kg/m(2), (22.8 +/- 3.4) kg/m(2) and (22.0 +/- 2.9) kg/m(2) respectively; the BMIs of married without childbearing experience and married with born-child women were significantly higher than that of unmarried women (t = 14.88, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (52.3 +/- 7.8) kg, (55.3 +/- 8.6) kg and (52.8 +/- 8.1) kg respectively; the body weights of unmarried, the married with born-child women were significantly higher than that of married without childbearing experience (t = 11.67, P unmarried, married without childbearing experience, and the married with born-child women were (21.2 +/- 2.8) kg/m(2), (22.5 +/- 3.1) kg/m(2), and (21.8 +/- 3.0) kg/m(2) respectively; the BMIs of married and the married with born-child were significantly higher than that of unmarried women (t = 13.80, P unmarried women (18.1%) was higher than that of married without childbearing experience and married with born-child group (7.3% vs. 9.1%; comparing with married

  17. Maternal obesity and postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal and caesarean delivery among nulliparous women at term: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fyfe Elaine M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing rates of postpartum haemorrhage in developed countries over the past two decades are not explained by corresponding changes in risk factors and conjecture has been raised that maternal obesity may be responsible. Few studies investigating risk factors for PPH have included BMI or investigated PPH risk among nulliparous women. The aim of this study was to determine in a cohort of nulliparous women delivering at term whether overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for major postpartum haemorrhage (PPH ≥1000ml after vaginal and caesarean section delivery. Methods The study population was nulliparous singleton pregnancies delivered at term at National Women’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand from 2006 to 2009 (N=11,363. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for risk factors for major PPH. Results There were 7238 (63.7% women of normal BMI, 2631 (23.2% overweight and 1494 (13.1% obese. Overall, PPH rates were increased in overweight and obese compared with normal-weight women (n=255 [9.7%], n=233 [15.6%], n=524 [7.2%], p Conclusion Nulliparous obese women have a twofold increase in risk of major PPH compared to women with normal BMI regardless of mode of delivery. Higher rates of PPH among obese women are not attributable to their higher rates of caesarean delivery. Obesity is an important high risk factor for PPH, and the risk following vaginal delivery is emphasised. We recommend in addition to standard practice of active management of third stage of labour, there should be increased vigilance and preparation for PPH management in obese women.

  18. The Cell Surface Markers Expression in Postmenopausal Women and Relation to Obesity and Bone Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváthová, Mira; Ilavská, Silvia; Štefíková, Kornélia; Szabová, Michaela; Krivošíková, Zora; Jahnová, Eva; Tulinská, Jana; Spustová, Viera; Gajdoš, Martin

    2017-07-11

    The age-related changes and hormonal deprivation in postmenopausal women are associated with the immune response alteration. The excessive fat accumulation, local and systemic inflammation may lead to dysregulation in immune function and relevant health problems, including obesity and osteoporosis. We analyzed the expression of cell surface markers in the venous blood specimens, stained with fluorophores-conjugated monoclonal antibodies and analysed by multicolour flow cytometry. The significant changes of cytotoxic, naive, and memory T-lymphocytes, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) were in postmenopausal women versus fertile women. Body mass index (BMI) affected markedly the cell surface expression of CD265/RANK. Osteoporosis is linked to reduced percentage of plasmacytoid DCs, and elevated natural Treg cells ( p < 0.05). The confounding factors such as women age, BMI, bone mineral density (BMD), waist size and tissue fat affect the expression of RANK on myeloid DCs and CD40L on T-lymphocytes that might be the immunophenotypic modulators after menopause.

  19. Beneficial impact of aerobic exercises on bone mineral density in obese premenopausal women under caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosny, Iman Abbas; Elghawabi, Hamed Samir; Younan, Wael Bahat Fahmy; Sabbour, Adly Aly; Gobrial, Mona Abdel Messih

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of caloric restriction diet versus caloric restriction diet combined with aerobic exercises on bone mineral density (BMD) in obese premenopausal women. Forty premenopausal obese women were classified randomly into two groups equal in number. The first group (group A) received caloric restriction diet, while the second (group B) received caloric restriction diet combined with a program of aerobic exercises, over 3 months. The variables measured in this study included age, weight, height, body mass index, fat weight, lean mass, fat percent, basal metabolic rate, and BMD. The comparison between group A and group B showed significantly higher post-treatment lean mass, basal metabolic rate, and BMD in weight-bearing bones (L2-L4 lumbar spine and total hip) in group B compared to group A. In contrast to the BMD of the weight-bearing bones, the BMD of the radius showed significant decrease between the pre- and post-treatment results in groups A and B with no significant differences between the two groups. A greater improvement in the BMD of weight-bearing bones was observed in obese premenopausal women undergoing caloric restriction combined with exercise than in those not undergoing exercise. Anaerobic exercises incorporated into weight loss programs help offset the adverse effects of dietary restriction on bone.

  20. Using pedometers to increase physical activity in overweight and obese women: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binns Colin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most public health guidelines recommend that adults participate in 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Establishing new ways to achieve these targets in sedentary populations need to be explored. This research evaluated whether the daily use of pedometers could increase physical activity and improve health outcomes in sedentary overweight and obese women. Methods Twenty six overweight and obese middle-aged women were randomized into two groups: The control group was not able to record their steps daily, whilst the pedometer group, were asked to record the number of steps on a daily basis for 12 weeks. Results Our data showed that the pedometer group significantly increased their steps/day, by 36%, at the end of the 12 weeks, whereas the control group's physical activity levels remained unchanged. There was no significant difference in weight or body fat composition in the pedometer group compared to the control group. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in the pedometer group (112.8 ± 2.44 mm Hg compared to the control group (117.3 ± 2.03 mm Hg (p = 0.003. Conclusion In conclusion, this pilot study shows that the combination of having step goals and immediate feedback from using a pedometer was effective in increasing physical activity levels in sedentary overweight and obese women. Trial registration ACTRN12609000176268

  1. Protein quantitative trait locus study in obesity during weight-loss identifies a leptin regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carayol, Jérôme; Chabert, Christian; Di Cara, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    of an organism. Proteome analysis especially can provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of complex traits like obesity. The role of genetic variation in determining protein level variation has not been assessed in obesity. To address this, we design a large-scale protein quantitative trait locus (p...

  2. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flannery, C

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women.

  3. Identifying and responding to barriers impacting women educators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on these reflections, this article explores the notion of academic citizenship as it relates to the status and practice of these five educators who teach at various institutions of higher education in Southern Africa. The article is divided into two parts. a) Part 1 identifies the barriers impacting the participants. It draws on ...

  4. Identifying risk factors for PTSD in women seeking medical help after rape

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Anna Tiihonen; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Söndergaard, Hans Peter; Helström, Lotti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rape has been found to be the trauma most commonly associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women. It is therefore important to be able to identify those women at greatest risk of developing PTSD. The aims of the present study were to analyze the PTSD prevalence six months after sexual assaults and identify the major risk factors for developing PTSD. Methods: Participants were 317 female victims of rape who sought help at the Emergency Clinic for Raped Women at S...

  5. Effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin hormone release and satiety in obese and normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikarek, Tomasz; Chudek, Jerzy; Owczarek, Aleksander; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-28

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary macronutrients on postprandial incretin responses and satiety and hunger sensation in obese and normal-weight women. A total of eleven obese and nine normal-weight women were recruited for the assessment of plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and insulin and the sensation of satiety and hunger using a visual analogue scale before and during a 6 h period after administration of three different macronutrient test meals. The AUCtotal GLP-1 and AUCtotal GIP values were decreased in obese women after the consumption of a fatty meal and all the test meals, respectively. However, the AUCtotal insulin value after a carbohydrate meal was greater in the obese group. The AUCtotal satiety value was decreased only after the intake of the protein meal in obese women when compared with normal-weight women. After the consumption of the fatty meal, a significant positive correlation between maximum satiety sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the obese group and that between minimum hunger sensation and the AUCtotal GLP-1 value in the normal-weight group were observed. In conclusion, the findings of the present study suggest that: (1) satiety sensation after consumption of carbohydrate and protein meals in the obese group is related to the postprandial insulin response, while after consumption of a fatty meal, it is related to the postprandial GLP-1 release; (2) the postprandial GIP response does not influence the sensation of satiety and hunger; (3) the reduced GLP-1 release after the intake of a fatty meal in obese individuals may explain impaired satiety sensation; (4) the impaired postprandial GIP response is not related to the consumption of macronutrients and may be the early indicator of incretin axis dysfunction in obese women.

  6. Enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women: an analysis informed by the theoretical domains framework and COM-B model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, C; McHugh, S; Anaba, A E; Clifford, E; O'Riordan, M; Kenny, L C; McAuliffe, F M; Kearney, P M; Byrne, M

    2018-05-21

    Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and other complications. Physical activity is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may help to prevent these complications but many women reduce their physical activity levels during pregnancy. Interventions targeting physical activity in pregnancy are on-going but few identify the underlying behaviour change mechanisms by which the intervention is expected to work. To enhance intervention effectiveness, recent tools in behavioural science such as the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) and COM-B model (capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour) have been employed to understand behaviours for intervention development. Using these behaviour change methods, this study aimed to identify the enablers and barriers to physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of overweight and obese women at different stages of pregnancy attending a public antenatal clinic in a large academic maternity hospital in Cork, Ireland. Interviews were recorded and transcribed into NVivo V.10 software. Data analysis followed the framework approach, drawing on the TDF and the COM-B model. Twenty one themes were identified and these mapped directly on to the COM-B model of behaviour change and ten of the TDF domains. Having the social opportunity to engage in physical activity was identified as an enabler; pregnant women suggested being active was easier when supported by their partners. Knowledge was a commonly reported barrier with women lacking information on safe activities during pregnancy and describing the information received from their midwife as 'limited'. Having the physical capability and physical opportunity to carry out physical activity were also identified as barriers; experiencing pain, a lack of time, having other children, and working prevented women from being active. A wide range of barriers

  7. Required friction during overground walking is lower among obese compared to non-obese older men, but does not differ with obesity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Sara L; Garman, Christina R; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L

    2017-07-01

    Obesity and aging have been independently associated with altered required friction during walking, but it is unclear how these factors interact to influence the likelihood of slipping. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences related to obesity and aging on required friction during overground walking. Fourteen older non-obese, 11 older obese, 20 younger non-obese, and 20 younger obese adults completed walking trials at both a self-selected and hurried speed. When walking at a hurried speed, older obese men walked at a slower gait speed and exhibited lower frictional demands compared both to older non-obese men and to younger obese men. No differences in required friction were found between non-obese and obese younger adults. These results suggest that the increased rate of falls among obese or older adults is not likely due to a higher risk of slip initiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve or prevent the health problems associated with obesity. Dietary changes, increased physical activity and behavior changes can ... more calories than you burn. And most Americans' diets are too high in calories and are ... factors Obesity usually results from a combination of causes and ...

  9. Weight reduction intervention for obese infertile women prior to IVF: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Snorri; Bergh, Christina; Friberg, Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Klajnbard, Anna; Karlström, Per-Olof; Kluge, Linda; Larsson, Ingrid; Loft, Anne; Mikkelsen-Englund, Anne-Lis; Stenlöf, Kaj; Wistrand, Anna; Thurin-Kjellberg, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF. Among obese women, fertility and obstetric outcomes are influenced negatively with increased risk of miscarriage and a higher risk of maternal and neonatal complications. A recent large randomized controlled trial found no effect of lifestyle intervention on live birth in infertile obese women. A prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial was performed between 2010 and 2016 in the Nordic countries. In total, 962 women were assessed for eligibility and 317 women were randomized. Computerized randomization with concealed allocation was performed in the proportions 1:1 to one of two groups: weight reduction intervention followed by IVF-treatment or IVF-treatment only. One cycle per patient was included. Nine infertility clinics in Sweden, Denmark and Iceland participated. Women under 38 years of age planning IVF, and having a BMI ≥30 and non-financial support from Impolin AB, during the conduct of the study, and personal fees from Merck outside the submitted work. Dr Friberg reports personal fees from Ferring, Merck, MSD, Finox and personal fees from Studentlitteratur, outside the submitted work. Dr Englund reports personal fees from Ferring, and non-financial support from Merck, outside the submitted work. Dr Bergh reports and has been reimbursed for: writing a newsletter twice a year (Ferring), lectures (Ferring, MSD, Merck), and Nordic working group meetings (Finox). Dr Karlström reports lectures (Ferring, Finox, Merck, MSD) and Nordic working group meetings (Ferring). Ms Kluge, Dr Einarsson, Dr Pinborg, Dr Klajnbard, Dr Stenlöf, Dr Larsson, Dr Loft and Dr Wistrand have nothing to disclose. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01566929. 23-03-2012. 05-10-2010. © The Author 2017. Published by

  10. Social and cultural construction of obesity among Pakistani Muslim women in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Alison F; Cox, Peter; Ellahi, Basma

    2011-10-01

    The present qualitative study explored health perceptions, diet and the social construction of obesity and how this relates to the initiation and maintenance of a healthier diet in UK Pakistani women. Pakistani women in Greater Manchester participated in focus group and one-to-one discussions. Semi-structured interviews employing fictional vignettes and body shape images were used to explore the participants' beliefs and practices regarding diet, overweight/obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Transcripts were analysed using phenomenological and sociological approaches. Interviews took place either in local community and Pakistani resource centres or in private homes. First- and second-generation women who were both active in the community and housebound. The women spoke English and/or Urdu. The fifty-five participants lacked the motivation to address weight gain and were unsure how to do so. There was a limited awareness of the link between weight gain and type 2 diabetes. Other barriers included the influence of Islam, culture and familial expectations on home cooking, perceptions that weight gain is inevitable (owing to ageing, childbirth or divine predestination) and the prioritisation of family concerns over individual lifestyle changes. As the findings of the present research did not correspond to existing educational and behaviour change models, a new Health Action Transition conceptual model is proposed. Health education programmes that aim to address obesity and its associated risks in the South Asian community must take into account the complex beliefs and practices and the multiple dimensions of religion, ethnic and social identity within this population. The present study provides further insight into these factors and proposes a novel model for use in designing and implementing education interventions for British Pakistani women.

  11. Lifestyle Behaviors in Metabolically Healthy and Unhealthy Overweight and Obese Women: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camhi, Sarah M; Crouter, Scott E; Hayman, Laura L; Must, Aviva; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined dietary data or objective measures of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Thus, the purpose is to determine whether PA, sedentary behavior and/or diet differ between MHO and MUO in a sample of young women. Forty-six overweight/obese (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) African American and Caucasian women 19-35 years were classified by cardiometabolic risk factors, including elevated blood pressure, triglyceride, glucose and C-reactive protein, low high density lipoprotein, and insulin resistance (MUO ≥2; MHO, lifestyle behaviors were tested with linear regression (continuous data) or logistic regression (categorical data) after adjusting for age, race, BMI, smoking and accelerometer wear and/or total kilocalories, as appropriate. Women were 26.7±4.7 years, with a mean BMI of 31.1±3.7 kg/m2, and 61% were African American. Compared to MUO (n = 9), MHO (n = 37; 80%) spent less mins/day in sedentary behavior (difference: -58.1±25.5, p = 0.02), more mins/day in light PA (difference: 38.2±16.1, p = 0.02), and had higher daily METs (difference: 0.21±0.09, p = 0.03). MHO had higher fiber intakes (g/day of total fiber, soluble fiber, fruit/vegetable fiber, bean fiber) and daily servings of vegetables; but lower daily dairy servings, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat and trans fats (g/day) compared to MUO. Compared to MUO, MHO young women demonstrate healthier lifestyle habits with less sedentary behavior, more time in light PA, and healthier dietary quality for fat type and fiber. Future studies are needed to replicate findings with larger samples that include men and women of diverse race/ethnic groups.

  12. [Assessment of realization of a reducing diet by obese women during treatment of excessive body mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowska, Lucyna; Stefańska, Ewa; Czapska, Danuta; Karczewski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the realization of the reducing diet recommended in the treatment of overweight or obesity (1500 kcal) with regard to the caloric value and the content of basic nutrients, vitamins and bioelements. The study was conducted on a group of 48 women. Daily food rations were evaluated based on a week's dietary register. Results were averaged in each patient and compared to the norms worked out by the Institute of Food and Feeding in Warsaw for subjects with low physical activity. The mean energetic value of the diets was found to meet the requirements. Approximately 50% of the obese women consumed high-protein, low-fat and low-carbohydrate food rations. The analysis of vitamin content in daily food rations showed insufficient intake of vitamin E (in 89.6% of women), thiamin (83.3%), riboflavin (93.7%), niacin (60.4%), vitamin B6 (87.5%), folic acid (89.6%) and vitamin C (72.9%). Vitamin A intake was higher than the recommended norm in 47.9% of women. The lowest realization was noted in the case of potassium (64.6% of rations below the norm), calcium (100% below the norm), magnesium (64.6% below the norm). However, dietary sodium and phosphate content in most obese women exceeded the norms. The intake was too low in the case of iron (in 91.7%), zinc (in 97.9%) and copper (in 100%). It seems that long-term compliance with such a diet requires additional individual supplementation.

  13. Evaluation of Hypocaloric Diet With Protein Supplementation in Middle-Aged Sarcopenic Obese Women: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sammarco, Rosa; Marra, Maurizio; Di Guglielmo, Maria Luisa; Naccarato, Marianna; Contaldo, Franco; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a nutritional program, which is characterized by a different modulation of proteins, in adult patients with sarcopenic obesity. Methods: We studied 18 obese women aged 41-74 years. Obesity was diagnosed as fat mass > 34.8% and sarcopenia was defined when lean body mass was Results: Weight significantly decreased in both groups. Women with high-protein diet preserved lean body mass compared to low-calorie diet and improved signif...

  14. Plasma concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and its relationship with zincemia in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Cristina Porto Feitosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In obesity, the excessive adipose tissue increases the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, which appear to alter the metabolism of minerals, such as zinc. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. This study investigated whether the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in plasma can to influence biochemical parameters of zinc in obese women. METHODS: Seventy-six pre-menopausal women, aged between 20 and 50 years, were divided into two groups: the case group, composed of obese women (n = 37 and the control group, composed of non-obese women (n = 39. Analysis of the plasmatic and erythrocytary zinc, and plasmatic cytokines were conducted by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: The plasmatic zinc and concentrations of IL-6 in plasma did not show significant differences between obese women and controls (p > 0.05. The erythrocytary zinc was 36.4±15.0µg/gHb in the case group, and 45.4±14.3µg/gHb (p = 0.025 in the control group. The concentrations of TNF-α in plasma were 42.0±11.9 pg/mL and 19.0±1.0 pg/mL in obese women and in controls, respectively (p < 0.001. The plasmatic zinc had a significant negative correlation with the values of TNF-α (r =-0.44, p = 0.015. CONCLUSION: Obese women presented lower concentrations of erythrocytary zinc than the control group. The study demonstrated a probable influence of the inflammatory process on metabolism of zinc in obese patients.

  15. Association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2017v19n4p450   The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between obesity, risk of falls and fear of falling in older women. Two hundred and twenty-six volunteers (68.05 ± 6.22 years, 68.06 ± 11.79 kg, 1.56 ± 0.06 m were classified as normal weight, overweight or obese, according to the body mass index. Risk of falls and fear of falling were evaluated using QuickScreen Clinical Falls Risk Assessment and Falls Efficiency Scale – International (FES-I, respectively. Comparisons between groups were conducted using Chi-square and ANOVA One-way tests. The significance level was set at p< 0.05. Obesity was associated with greater probability of falls (p< 0.001, which may be partly explained by decreased muscle strength (p< 0.001 and reaction time (p< 0.001. In addition, significant differences between groups was observed in FES-I score (p< 0.01, with obese women showing more pronounced fear of falling (30.10 ± 8.4 than normal weigh (25. 33 ± 7.11, p< 0.01 and overweight subjects (26.97 ± 7.05, p< 0.05. These findings corroborate previous evidence pointing obesity as a major risk factor for falls. Therefore, health professionals dealing with fall prevention should consider the effects of overweight.

  16. Perceived Barriers to Weight loss Programs for Overweight or Obese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sharifi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop appropriate obesity control and treat¬ment strategies, the key point is to understand the barriers perceived by overweight or obese people in trying to follow weight-loss programs. This study examined perceived barriers to weight-loss programs among over¬weight or obese women.Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 204 overweight or obese women aged 31.97± 10.62 yr, were selected randomly from the nutritional counseling centers in 2008 in Tabriz, Iran. The mean BMI was 33.83 ±5.75 kg/ m2. A structured questionnaire including questions on barriers to weight-loss diet and physical activity was filled out for each participant by face-to-face interview. Height and weight measured objectively and demo¬graphic details were obtained. Data analysis carried out using mul¬tiple re¬gression and factor analysis.Results: The most important perceived barriers to weight-loss diets were 'situational barriers', stress, depression, and food craving. High educational level was independent determinant of situational barriers (β=0.329, P=0.048. Employee women had a higher mean score on stress and de¬pres¬sion than students and housewives. Lack of time and exercising lonely were the most important items of "External barriers" and Lack of motiva¬tion was the most important item of "internal barriers" to physical activity. Employ¬ment and being student were highly associated with external bar¬riers (β=1.018, P<0.001 and β=0.541, P= 0.002. Moreover, older women who had low educational level, perceived more internal barriers. Conclusion: Weight reducing strategies should take into account the spe¬cific perceived barriers to weight-loss diets faced by overweight or obese women, particularly situational barriers, stress and depression and food craving; and lack of time and lack of motivation as barriers to physical ac¬tivity.

  17. Impact of Restricted Maternal Weight Gain on Fetal Growth and Perinatal Morbidity in Obese Women With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asbjörnsdóttir, Björg; Rasmussen, S.S.; Kelstrup, Louise

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVESince January 2008, obese women with type 2 diabetes were advised to gain 0-5 kg during pregnancy. The aim with this study was to evaluate fetal growth and perinatal morbidity in relation to gestational weight gain in these women.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA retrospective cohort comprised...... the records of 58 singleton pregnancies in obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) with type 2 diabetes giving birth between 2008 and 2011. Birth weight was evaluated by SD z score to adjust for gestational age and sex.RESULTSSeventeen women (29%) gained ≤5 kg, and the remaining 41 gained >5 kg. The median (range...... with pregnancies with maternal weight gain >5 kg.CONCLUSIONIn this pilot study in obese women with type 2 diabetes, maternal gestational weight gain ≤5 kg was associated with a more proportionate birth weight and less perinatal morbidity....

  18. Global differences between women and men in the prevalence of obesity: is there an association with gender inequality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garawi, F; Devries, K; Thorogood, N; Uauy, R

    2014-10-01

    In most populations the prevalence of obesity is greater in women than in men; however, the magnitude of the difference between the sexes varies significantly by country. We considered the role of gender inequality in explaining these disparities. We undertook an ecological analysis of internationally comparable obesity prevalence data to examine the association between indicators of gender inequality and the differences between men and women in obesity prevalence. Gender inequality was assessed using three measures: the Gender Inequality Index, the Global Gender Gap Index and the Social Institutions and Gender Index. We fitted multiple regression models to examine the association. We found that the prevalence of obesity across countries shows gendered patterning with greater prevalence and greater heterogeneity in women than in men (P<0.001). We also found that two of three measures of gender inequality were significantly associated with the sex differences in obesity prevalence across countries. The patterning of obesity across countries is gendered. However, the association between global measures of gender inequality and the sex gap in obesity is dependent on the measure used. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms that underpin the gendered nature of obesity prevalence.

  19. Similarity in percent body fat between white and Vietnamese women: implication for a universal definition of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho-Pham, Lan T; Lai, Thai Q; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Tuan V

    2010-06-01

    It has been widely assumed that for a given BMI, Asians have higher percent body fat (PBF) than whites, and that the BMI threshold for defining obesity in Asians should be lower than the threshold for whites. This study sought to test this assumption by comparing the PBF between US white and Vietnamese women. The study was designed as a comparative cross-sectional investigation. In the first study, 210 Vietnamese women ages between 50 and 85 were randomly selected from various districts in Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam). In the second study, 419 women of the same age range were randomly selected from the Rancho Bernardo Study (San Diego, CA). In both studies, lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (QDR 4500; Hologic). PBF was derived as FM over body weight. Compared with Vietnamese women, white women had much more FM (24.8 +/- 8.1 kg vs. 18.8 +/- 4.9 kg; P or=30, 19% of US white women and 5% of Vietnamese women were classified as obese. Approximately 54% of US white women and 53% of Vietnamese women had their PBF >35% (P = 0.80). Although white women had greater BMI, body weight, and FM than Vietnamese women, their PBF was virtually identical. Further research is required to derive a more appropriate BMI threshold for defining obesity for Asian women.

  20. The Impact of Metformin, Oral Contraceptives, and Lifestyle Modification on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Adolescent Women in Two Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Hoeger, Kathleen; Davidson, Kristen; Kochman, Lynda; Cherry, Tracy; Kopin, Laurie; Guzick, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents in adolescence, and obesity is a common finding. The benefits and risks of alternate approaches to the management of PCOS in obese adolescent women are not clear.

  1. Efficacy and perioperative safety of synthetic mid-urethral slings in obese women with stress urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weltz, V; Guldberg, R; Lose, G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Mid-urethral polypropylene sling is considered the surgical gold standard for treatment of SUI. We reviewed the current literature on efficacy at 1 year (or more......) and perioperative safety of synthetic mid-urethral sling procedures for SUI in obese women. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane databases was performed using the MeSH terms "Stress urinary incontinence", "Overweight", "Obesity" and "Surgery". We included 13 full-text papers published...... from January 1995 to May 2014. We defined two groups of women: non-obese (BMI below 30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI above 30 kg/m(2)). Data regarding subjective and objective cure and selected perioperative complications were pooled and compared. RESULTS: The pooled data from the 13 studies showed that 76...

  2. Food choice, eating behavior, and food liking differs between lean/normal and overweight/obese, low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, Heidi; Smith, Chery

    2013-06-01

    The higher rate of obesity among low-income women has widely been attributed to environmental barriers; however, many low-income women are still able to maintain a healthy weight despite obesogenic environments. To better understand personal and behavioral attributes related to food choice and weight, overweight/obese women and lean/normal weight women living in similar low-income environments, participated in focus groups, and taste testing sessions to investigate food liking (n=83). During focus groups, lean/normal weight participants reported that health was influential in food choice, while overweight/obese participants expressed cost as being more of a factor. Both BMI (kg/m(2)) groups reported that taste was of greatest importance. Personal factors, like emotional eating, and overeating were also discussed with differences noted between BMI (kg/m(2)) groups. Quantitative data also showed cost to be more important for overweight/obese women. Taste testing results revealed that overweight/obese participants had a higher overall liking for both healthy and less healthy foods, as well as other food categories. Additionally, these women had a higher liking of fat in the context of spreadable fats. Our results show that a variety of complex factors interact to influence eating behavior and present weight status of women living in similarly impoverished environments. However, findings from this exploratory study should be confirmed through further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Do factors related to endogenous and exogenous estrogens modify the relationship between obesity and risk of colorectal adenomas in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Lesley A; Terry, Paul D; Potter, John D; Bostick, Roberd M

    2007-04-01

    Obesity has consistently been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. In the absence of postmenopausal hormone use (PMH), adipose-derived estrogen is the primary determinant of circulating estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, perhaps ameliorating the mitogenic effects of obesity in this group. Using data from a case-control study in the United States, we examined associations among obesity, potential modifying effects of factors related to endogenous and exogenous estrogen levels, and risk of colorectal adenoma. Cases (n = 219) were women of ages 30 to 74 years with colonoscopy proven, incident, sporadic, pathology-confirmed, adenomatous polyps of the colon and rectum. Two control groups were recruited: colonoscopy-confirmed polyp-free women (n = 438) and age- and zip code frequency-matched women randomly selected from the community (n = 247). Multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for obese [body mass index (BMI) >or=30.0; compared with nonobese, BMI obesity among premenopausal women but decreased among postmenopausal women, especially if they also take PMH.

  4. Offspring body size and metabolic profile - effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvig, Mette

    2014-07-01

    Worldwide, the prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions. In Denmark one third of all pregnant women are overweight and 12 % are obese. Perhaps even more concerning, a dramatic rise in the prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has also been evident over recent decades. The obesity epidemic is not simply a consequence of poor diet or sedentary lifestyles. Obesity is a multifactorial condition in which environmental, biological and genetic factors all play essential roles. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DoHaD) hypothesis has highlighted the link between prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal exposure to certain environmental factors and subsequent development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, resulting in over-nutrition of the fetus, are major contributors to obesity and metabolic disturbances in the offspring. Pregnancy offers the opportunity to modify the intrauterine environment, and maternal lifestyle changes during gestation may confer health benefits to the child. The overall aim with this PhD thesis was to study the effects of maternal obesity on offspring body size and metabolic outcomes, with special emphasis on the effects of lifestyle intervention during pregnancy. The thesis is based on a literature review, description of own studies and three original papers/manuscripts (I, II and III). In paper I, we used data from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of maternal pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and smoking on neonatal abdominal circumference (AC) and weight at birth and to define reference curves for birth AC and weight in offspring of healthy, non-smoking, normal weight women. Data on 366,886 singletons were extracted and analyzed using multivariate linear regressions. We found that birth AC and weight increased with increasing pregestational BMI and decreased with smoking. Reference curves were

  5. A Potential Role for Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Progesterone Deficiency in Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nozomi; Harada, Miyuki; Hirota, Yasushi; Zhao, Lin; Azhary, Jerilee M K; Yoshino, Osamu; Izumi, Gentaro; Hirata, Tetsuya; Koga, Kaori; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in reproductive-aged women is associated with a shorter luteal phase and lower progesterone levels. Lipid accumulation in follicles of obese women compromises endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function, activating ER stress in granulosa cells. We hypothesized that ER stress activation in granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs) would modulate progesterone production and contribute to obesity-associated progesterone deficiency. Pretreatment with an ER stress inducer, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, inhibited human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated progesterone production in cultured human GLCs. Pretreatment of human GLCs with tunicamycin inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) messenger RNAs (mRNAs) without affecting expression of cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with tunicamycin also inhibited hCG-stimulated expression of StAR protein and 3β-HSD enzyme activity in cultured human GLCs, as determined by Western blot analysis and an enzyme immunoassay, respectively, but did not affect hCG-induced intracellular 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation. Furthermore, tunicamycin attenuated hCG-induced protein kinase A and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation, as determined by Western blot analysis. In vivo administration of tunicamycin to pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-treated immature mice prior to hCG treatment inhibited the hCG-stimulated increase in serum progesterone levels and hCG-induced expression of StAR and 3β-HSD mRNA in the ovary without affecting serum estradiol levels or the number of corpora lutea. Our findings indicate that ER stress in the follicles of obese women contributes to progesterone deficiency by inhibiting hCG-induced progesterone production in granulosa cells. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society.

  6. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, E.O.; Salazar, G.; Uauy, R.

    1999-01-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  7. Does the incremental shuttle walk test require maximal effort in young obese women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Jürgensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic disease with a multifaceted treatment approach that includes nutritional counseling, structured exercise training, and increased daily physical activity. Increased body mass elicits higher cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic demands to varying degrees during exercise. With functional capacity assessment, this variability can be evaluated so individualized guidance for exercise training and daily physical activity can be provided. The aim of the present study was to compare cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses obtained during a symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX on a treadmill to responses obtained by the incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT in obese women and to propose a peak oxygen consumption (VO2 prediction equation through variables obtained during the ISWT. Forty obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 performed one treadmill CPX and two ISWTs. Heart rate (HR, arterial blood pressure (ABP and perceived exertion by the Borg scale were measured at rest, during each stage of the exercise protocol, and throughout the recovery period. The predicted maximal heart rate (HRmax was calculated (210 – age in years (16 and compared to the HR response during the CPX. Peak VO2 obtained during CPX correlated significantly (P<0.05 with ISWT peak VO2 (r=0.79 as well as ISWT distance (r=0.65. The predictive model for CPX peak VO2, using age and ISWT distance explained 67% of the variability. The current study indicates the ISWT may be used to predict aerobic capacity in obese women when CPX is not a viable option.

  8. Metformin and weight loss in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: comparison of doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harborne, Lyndal R; Sattar, Naveed; Norman, Jane E; Fleming, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Metformin treatment of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is widespread, as determined by studies with diverse patient populations. No comparative examination of weight changes or metabolite responses to different doses has been reported. The aim of this study was to determine whether different doses of metformin (1500 or 2550 mg/d) would have different effects on body weight, circulating hormones, markers of inflammation, and lipid profiles. The study included prospective cohorts randomized to two doses of metformin. The study was performed at a university teaching hospital with patients from gynecology/endocrinology clinics. The patients studied were obese (body mass index, 30 to or =37 kg/m2; n = 41) women with PCOS. Patients were randomized to two doses of metformin, and parameters were assessed after 4 and 8 months. The main outcome measures were changes in body mass, circulating hormones, markers of inflammation, and lipid profiles. Intention to treat analyses showed significant weight loss in both dose groups. Only the obese subgroup showed a dose relationship (1.5 and 3.6 kg in 1500- and 2550-mg groups, respectively; P = 0.04). The morbidly obese group showed similar reductions (3.9 and 3.8 kg) in both groups. Suppression of androstenedione was significant with both metformin doses, but there was no clear dose relationship. Generally, beneficial changes in lipid profiles were not related to dose. Weight loss is a feature of protracted metformin therapy in obese women with PCOS, with greater weight reduction potentially achievable with higher doses. Additional studies are required to determine whether other aspects of the disorder may benefit from the higher dose of metformin.

  9. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, E O; Salazar, G; Uauy, R [Energy and Metabolism and Stable Isotopes Laboratory, Instituto de Nutricion y Tecnologia de los Alimentos (INTA), Santiago (Chile)

    1999-07-01

    It has been found that children and adults in the Chilean population are getting obese in a rapidly raising proportion. There is a cohort of children less than six years old, which are regularly controlled by the Ministry of Health. From this information and studies carried out at INTA, it is known that the prevalence is raising continuously. Unfortunately, this can not be ascertained in adults where the nutritional situation is assessed only in small groups, which are not representative of the general population. The problem with adults is that the healthy population does not attend to the medical clinics unless they are already ill. The studies conducted in Chilean adults have found that >40% of low socio-economic status (SES) women are suffering from obesity. A intriguing aspect in our situation is that although sedentarism is frequent in adult women (as a possible cause of positive energy balance), their intake is based on a high proportion of carbohydrates (CHO) but not much fat (50-70 g on average). It may be suggested that the excess CHO can be converted into fat through denovo lipogenesis but this process is less important as cause of obesity in humans. A more plausible cause of this problem is likely to be related to the diet. The oxidation hierarchy of macronutrients shows that whenever CHO and fat are available, the former will be firstly oxidised. This way, fat can be spared even when eaten in small amounts, accumulating in the mid-long term. Another important dietary aspect is provided by its fatty acids composition that according to animal studies, seems to modulate fat oxidation. In addition to these, glycemic effects of CHO eaten in combination with the same meal can further potentiate fat storage. This proposal aims to test the dietary effects mentioned above by using indirect calorimetry in tandem with stable isotopes methodologies in a group of normal weight and obese women. (author)

  10. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  11. Osteosarcopenic obesity and its relationship with dyslipidemia in women from different ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Dan; Hsieh, Peishan; Yu, Hongrong; Zhou, Lining; Gong, Jichun; Xu, Lin; Liu, Peng; Chen, Gang; Chen, Zhao; Deng, Qiongying

    2018-06-09

    To explore the prevalence and ethnic differences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) and dyslipidemia and their relationship among Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao minorities in China. A total of 2315 Maonan, Mulam, Hmong, and Yao women aged 20-95 from Guangxi were included in this study. Questionnaire survey was carried out and their blood lipids were tested. Body compositions were measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and T-score was assessed by ultrasonic examination, respectively. Our study showed ethnic-specific prevalence of OSO. In older women, the incidence rates of OSO in Mulam were 4.9, 12.6, and 11.5% in Maonan, Mulam, and Hmong ethnicity, respectively. In younger group, the incidence rates of OSO were 0.4, 0.4, and 0.6%, respectively. However, there is no prevalence of OSO in Yao women in two groups. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in younger women was 22.86, 29.89, 43.35, and 80.00% in group numbering one, two, and three, respectively. In older women, it was 29.13, 39.02, 41.37, and 52.38%, respectively. Based on logistic regression analysis, after controlling for covariates, dyslipidemia in younger group was positively associated with a higher number of adverse body composition, especially for OSO (OR = 12.53, 95%CI 1.34-116.99). Compared with normal women, OSO women in older group were also more likely to have dyslipidemia (OR = 6.75, 95%CI 3.19-14.31). OSO may be a risk factor for dyslipidemia in the ethnic groups. Thus, efforts to promote healthy aging should be focused on preventing obesity and maintaining bone health and muscle mass.

  12. Narcissism as a moderator of satisfaction with body image in young women with extreme underweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Lipowski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Body weight and age constitute main determinants of body image in women. We analyzed the role of narcissism as a moderator of body image in young women representing various extremes of body weight. The study included 325 women between 18 and 35 years, qualified into three BMI categories: obese women (BMI > 30.0, n = 72), severely underweight women who did not satisfy the remaining criteria of anorexia (BMI 22.7, n = 168). Satisfaction with body image was determined with Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire and Body Esteem Scale, while narcissism was measured with Narcissistic Personality Inventory. We revealed that narcissism has significant impact on the body image of women who are extremely underweight or obese. Vanity and Leadership were narcissism dimensions which played significant role in slim women, as compared to Vanity and Self-Sufficiency in obese women. The role of narcissism as a modulator of self-satisfaction with one's body varies depending on BMI level: extrem