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Sample records for identifying key variables

  1. Predicting suicidal ideation in primary care: An approach to identify easily assessable key variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Pascal; Shedden-Mora, Meike C; Löwe, Bernd

    To obtain predictors of suicidal ideation, which can also be used for an indirect assessment of suicidal ideation (SI). To create a classifier for SI based on variables of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) and sociodemographic variables, and to obtain an upper bound on the best possible performance of a predictor based on those variables. From a consecutive sample of 9025 primary care patients, 6805 eligible patients (60% female; mean age = 51.5 years) participated. Advanced methods of machine learning were used to derive the prediction equation. Various classifiers were applied and the area under the curve (AUC) was computed as a performance measure. Classifiers based on methods of machine learning outperformed ordinary regression methods and achieved AUCs around 0.87. The key variables in the prediction equation comprised four items - namely feelings of depression/hopelessness, low self-esteem, worrying, and severe sleep disturbances. The generalized anxiety disorder scale (GAD-7) and the somatic symptom subscale (PHQ-15) did not enhance prediction substantially. In predicting suicidal ideation researchers should refrain from using ordinary regression tools. The relevant information is primarily captured by the depression subscale and should be incorporated in a nonlinear model. For clinical practice, a classification tree using only four items of the whole PHQ may be advocated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A multivariate and stochastic approach to identify key variables to rank dairy farms on profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, A S; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A

    2013-05-01

    The economic efficiency of dairy farms is the main goal of farmers. The objective of this work was to use routinely available information at the dairy farm level to develop an index of profitability to rank dairy farms and to assist the decision-making process of farmers to increase the economic efficiency of the entire system. A stochastic modeling approach was used to study the relationships between inputs and profitability (i.e., income over feed cost; IOFC) of dairy cattle farms. The IOFC was calculated as: milk revenue + value of male calves + culling revenue - herd feed costs. Two databases were created. The first one was a development database, which was created from technical and economic variables collected in 135 dairy farms. The second one was a synthetic database (sDB) created from 5,000 synthetic dairy farms using the Monte Carlo technique and based on the characteristics of the development database data. The sDB was used to develop a ranking index as follows: (1) principal component analysis (PCA), excluding IOFC, was used to identify principal components (sPC); and (2) coefficient estimates of a multiple regression of the IOFC on the sPC were obtained. Then, the eigenvectors of the sPC were used to compute the principal component values for the original 135 dairy farms that were used with the multiple regression coefficient estimates to predict IOFC (dRI; ranking index from development database). The dRI was used to rank the original 135 dairy farms. The PCA explained 77.6% of the sDB variability and 4 sPC were selected. The sPC were associated with herd profile, milk quality and payment, poor management, and reproduction based on the significant variables of the sPC. The mean IOFC in the sDB was 0.1377 ± 0.0162 euros per liter of milk (€/L). The dRI explained 81% of the variability of the IOFC calculated for the 135 original farms. When the number of farms below and above 1 standard deviation (SD) of the dRI were calculated, we found that 21

  3. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  4. BENCHMARKING - PRACTICAL TOOLS IDENTIFY KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Ju. Malinina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a practical example of the application of benchmarking techniques. The object of study selected fashion store Company «HLB & M Hennes & Mauritz», located in the shopping center «Gallery», Krasnodar. Hennes & Mauritz. The purpose of this article is to identify the best ways to develop a fashionable brand clothing store Hennes & Mauritz on the basis of benchmarking techniques. On the basis of conducted market research is a comparative analysis of the data from different perspectives. The result of the author’s study is a generalization of the ndings, the development of the key success factors that will allow to plan a successful trading activities in the future, based on the best experience of competitors.

  5. Identifying Key Attributes for Protein Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Lopetcharat, K; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2015-06-01

    This study identified key attributes of protein beverages and evaluated effects of priming on liking of protein beverages. An adaptive choice-based conjoint study was conducted along with Kano analysis to gain insight on protein beverage consumers (n = 432). Attributes evaluated included label claim, protein type, amount of protein, carbohydrates, sweeteners, and metabolic benefits. Utility scores for levels and importance scores for attributes were determined. Subsequently, two pairs of clear acidic whey protein beverages were manufactured that differed by age of protein source or the amount of whey protein per serving. Beverages were evaluated by 151 consumers on two occasions with or without priming statements. One priming statement declared "great flavor," the other priming statement declared 20 g protein per serving. A two way analysis of variance was applied to discern the role of each priming statement. The most important attribute for protein beverages was sweetener type, followed by amount of protein, followed by type of protein followed by label claim. Beverages with whey protein, naturally sweetened, reduced sugar and ≥15 g protein per serving were most desired. Three consumer clusters were identified, differentiated by their preferences for protein type, sweetener and amount of protein. Priming statements positively impacted concept liking (P 0.05). Consistent with trained panel profiles of increased cardboard flavor with higher protein content, consumers liked beverages with 10 g protein more than beverages with 20 g protein (6.8 compared with 5.7, P appeal. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Problems Identifying Independent and Dependent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatham, Keith R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses one step from the scientific method--that of identifying independent and dependent variables--from both scientific and mathematical perspectives. It begins by analyzing an episode from a middle school mathematics classroom that illustrates the need for students and teachers alike to develop a robust understanding of…

  7. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  8. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  9. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...

  10. Modeling key processes causing climate change and variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, S.

    2013-09-01

    Greenhouse gas warming, internal climate variability and aerosol climate effects are studied and the importance to understand these key processes and being able to separate their influence on the climate is discussed. Aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM and the COSMOS millennium model consisting of atmospheric, ocean and carbon cycle and land-use models are applied and results compared to measurements. Topics at focus are climate sensitivity, quasiperiodic variability with a period of 50-80 years and variability at other timescales, climate effects due to aerosols over India and climate effects of northern hemisphere mid- and high-latitude volcanic eruptions. The main findings of this work are (1) pointing out the remaining challenges in reducing climate sensitivity uncertainty from observational evidence, (2) estimates for the amplitude of a 50-80 year quasiperiodic oscillation in global mean temperature ranging from 0.03 K to 0.17 K and for its phase progression as well as the synchronising effect of external forcing, (3) identifying a power law shape S(f) {proportional_to} f-{alpha} for the spectrum of global mean temperature with {alpha} {approx} 0.8 between multidecadal and El Nino timescales with a smaller exponent in modelled climate without external forcing, (4) separating aerosol properties and climate effects in India by season and location (5) the more efficient dispersion of secondary sulfate aerosols than primary carbonaceous aerosols in the simulations, (6) an increase in monsoon rainfall in northern India due to aerosol light absorption and a probably larger decrease due to aerosol dimming effects and (7) an estimate of mean maximum cooling of 0.19 K due to larger northern hemisphere mid- and high-latitude volcanic eruptions. The results could be applied or useful in better isolating the human-caused climate change signal, in studying the processes further and in more detail, in decadal climate prediction, in model evaluation and in emission policy

  11. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  12. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution Using Polarized Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidiella-Barranco, A.; Borelli, L. F. M.

    We discuss a continuous variables method of quantum key distribution employing strongly polarized coherent states of light. The key encoding is performed using the variables known as Stokes parameters, rather than the field quadratures. Their quantum counterpart, the Stokes operators Ŝi (i=1,2,3), constitute a set of non-commuting operators, being the precision of simultaneous measurements of a pair of them limited by an uncertainty-like relation. Alice transmits a conveniently modulated two-mode coherent state, and Bob randomly measures one of the Stokes parameters of the incoming beam. After performing reconciliation and privacy amplification procedures, it is possible to distill a secret common key. We also consider a non-ideal situation, in which coherent states with thermal noise, instead of pure coherent states, are used for encoding.

  13. Identifying key hospital service quality factors in online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yuchul; Hur, Cinyoung; Jung, Dain; Kim, Minki

    2015-04-07

    The volume of health-related user-created content, especially hospital-related questions and answers in online health communities, has rapidly increased. Patients and caregivers participate in online community activities to share their experiences, exchange information, and ask about recommended or discredited hospitals. However, there is little research on how to identify hospital service quality automatically from the online communities. In the past, in-depth analysis of hospitals has used random sampling surveys. However, such surveys are becoming impractical owing to the rapidly increasing volume of online data and the diverse analysis requirements of related stakeholders. As a solution for utilizing large-scale health-related information, we propose a novel approach to identify hospital service quality factors and overtime trends automatically from online health communities, especially hospital-related questions and answers. We defined social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. In addition, we developed text mining techniques to detect such factors that frequently occur in online health communities. After detecting these factors that represent qualitative aspects of hospitals, we applied a sentiment analysis to recognize the types of recommendations in messages posted within online health communities. Korea's two biggest online portals were used to test the effectiveness of detection of social media-based key quality factors for hospitals. To evaluate the proposed text mining techniques, we performed manual evaluations on the extraction and classification results, such as hospital name, service quality factors, and recommendation types using a random sample of messages (ie, 5.44% (9450/173,748) of the total messages). Service quality factor detection and hospital name extraction achieved average F1 scores of 91% and 78%, respectively. In terms of recommendation classification, performance (ie, precision) is 78% on average. Extraction and

  14. Spherical reconciliation for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhao; Shi Jian-Hong; Li Feng-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Information reconciliation is a significant step for a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. We propose a reconciliation method that allows two authorized parties to extract a consistent and secure binary key in a CV-QKD protocol, which is based on Gaussian-modulated coherent states and homodyne detection. This method named spherical reconciliation is based on spherical quantization and non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. With the suitable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and code rate of non-binary LDPC codes, spherical reconciliation algorithm has a high efficiency and can extend the transmission distance of CV-QKD. (paper)

  15. Identifying variables that influence manufacturing product quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article a risk analysis of the production process of selected products in a plant producing votive candles was conducted. The Pareto-Lorenz diagram and FMEA method were used which indicated the most important areas affecting the production of selected elements of candles. The synthesis of intangible factors affecting production in the audited company was also carried out with particular emphasis on the operation of the production system. The factors determining the validity of studies was examined, describing the principle of BOST 14 Toyota management. The most important areas of the company were identified, positively affecting the production process.

  16. Key clinical features to identify girls with CDKL5 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydeé; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothée; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlène; Héron, Delphine; N'guyen Morel, Marie Ange; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of CDKL5-associated encephalopathy. We screened the entire coding region of CDKL5 for mutations in 183 females with encephalopathy with early seizures by denaturing high liquid performance chromatography and direct sequencing, and we identified in 20 unrelated girls, 18 different mutations including 7 novel mutations. These mutations were identified in eight patients with encephalopathy with RTT-like features, five with infantile spasms and seven with encephalopathy with refractory epilepsy. Early epilepsy with normal interictal EEG and severe hypotonia are the key clinical features in identifying patients likely to have CDKL5 mutations. Our study also indicates that these patients clearly exhibit some RTT features such as deceleration of head growth, stereotypies and hand apraxia and that these RTT features become more evident in older and ambulatory patients. However, some RTT signs are clearly absent such as the so called RTT disease profile (period of nearly normal development followed by regression with loss of acquired fine finger skill in early childhood and characteristic intensive eye communication) and the characteristic evolution of the RTT electroencephalogram. Interestingly, in addition to the overall stereotypical symptomatology (age of onset and evolution of the disease) resulting from CDKL5 mutations, atypical forms of CDKL5-related conditions have also been observed. Our data suggest that phenotypic heterogeneity does not correlate with the nature or the position of the mutations or with the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, but most probably with the functional transcriptional and/or translational consequences of CDKL5

  17. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2015-01-01

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement...... a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances...

  18. Identifying key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming; An, Shoukuan; Li, Junquan

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify key genes associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by reanalyzing microarray data. Three gene expression profile datasets GSE66360, GSE34198, and GSE48060 were downloaded from GEO database. After data preprocessing, genes without heterogeneity across different platforms were subjected to differential expression analysis between the AMI group and the control group using metaDE package. P FI) network. Then, DEGs in each module were subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MiRNAs and transcription factors predicted to regulate target DEGs were identified. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was applied to verify the expression of genes. A total of 913 upregulated genes and 1060 downregulated genes were identified in the AMI group. A FI network consists of 21 modules and DEGs in 12 modules were significantly enriched in pathways. The transcription factor-miRNA-gene network contains 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p. RT-PCR validations showed that expression levels of FOXO3 and MYBL2 were significantly increased in AMI, and expression levels of hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p were obviously decreased in AMI. A total of 41 DEGs, such as SOCS3, VAPA, and COL5A2, are speculated to have roles in the pathogenesis of AMI; 2 transcription factors FOXO3 and MYBL2, and 2 miRNAs hsa-miR-21-5p and hsa-miR-30c-5p may be involved in the regulation of the expression of these DEGs.

  19. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2011-01-01

    Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.

  20. Identifying the key concerns of Irish persons with intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Iriarte, Edurne; O'Brien, Patricia; McConkey, Roy; Wolfe, Marie; O'Doherty, Siobhain

    2014-11-01

    Internationally, people with intellectual disability are socially marginalized, and their rights under the United Nations Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) are often ignored. This paper aims to define the key concerns of adults with an intellectual disability in relation to their participation in society using an inclusive research strategy for both data gathering and data analysis. A national study involving 23 focus groups and 168 persons was conducted on the island of Ireland with people with intellectual disability as co-facilitators. A thematic content analysis was undertaken of the verbatim transcripts initially by university co-researchers, and 19 themes were identified. Co-researchers with intellectual disability joined in identifying the eight core themes. These were as follows: living options, employment, relationships, citizenship, leisure time, money management, self-advocacy, and communication. The concerns are discussed within the framework of the CRPD, and implications for transforming service policy are drawn. Why we did the research In many countries, people with intellectual disability have difficulties doing things other people without disabilities do, for example to study, to get a job or to live independently. They also find that their rights are not respected under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (the Convention). We did this study to Learn what are the main issues for adults with intellectual disability in Ireland. Do research with people with intellectual disability. How we did the research People with intellectual disability and their supporters worked with university researchers to plan and do the research. We met with people in groups and 168 people told us about things important to them. What we found out We found that there were very important things that people talked about in the groups. We chose the most important: living options, employment, relationships, rights, leisure, money

  1. Risk and Performance Technologies: Identifying the Keys to Successful Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClain, Lynn; Smith, Art; O'Regan, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    The nuclear power industry has been utilizing risk and performance based technologies for over thirty years. Applications of these technologies have included risk assessment (e.g. Individual Plant Examinations), burden reduction (e.g. Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection, RI-ISI) and risk management (Maintenance Rule, 10CFR50.65). Over the last five to ten years the number of risk-informed (RI) burden reduction initiatives has increased. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of some of these applications have been questionable. This paper investigates those attributes necessary to support successful, cost-effective RI-applications. The premise to this paper is that by understanding the key attributes that support one successful application, insights can be gleaned that will streamline/coordinate future RI-applications. This paper is an extension to a paper presented at the Pressure Vessel and Piping (PVP-2001) Conference. In that paper, a number issues and opportunities were identified that needed to be assessed in order to support future (and efficient) RI-applications. It was noted in the paper that a proper understanding and resolution of these issues will facilitate implementation of risk and performance technology in the operation, maintenance and design disciplines. In addition, it will provide the foundation necessary to support regulatory review and approval. (authors)

  2. A Sensitivity Analysis Approach to Identify Key Environmental Performance Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life cycle assessment (LCA is widely used in design phase to reduce the product’s environmental impacts through the whole product life cycle (PLC during the last two decades. The traditional LCA is restricted to assessing the environmental impacts of a product and the results cannot reflect the effects of changes within the life cycle. In order to improve the quality of ecodesign, it is a growing need to develop an approach which can reflect the changes between the design parameters and product’s environmental impacts. A sensitivity analysis approach based on LCA and ecodesign is proposed in this paper. The key environmental performance factors which have significant influence on the products’ environmental impacts can be identified by analyzing the relationship between environmental impacts and the design parameters. Users without much environmental knowledge can use this approach to determine which design parameter should be first considered when (redesigning a product. A printed circuit board (PCB case study is conducted; eight design parameters are chosen to be analyzed by our approach. The result shows that the carbon dioxide emission during the PCB manufacture is highly sensitive to the area of PCB panel.

  3. Analysis of Secret Key Randomness Exploiting the Radio Channel Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghrid Mazloum

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, physical layer based techniques have started to be considered as a way to improve security in wireless communications. A well known problem is the management of ciphering keys, both regarding the generation and distribution of these keys. A way to alleviate such difficulties is to use a common source of randomness for the legitimate terminals, not accessible to an eavesdropper. This is the case of the fading propagation channel, when exact or approximate reciprocity applies. Although this principle has been known for long, not so many works have evaluated the effect of radio channel properties in practical environments on the degree of randomness of the generated keys. To this end, we here investigate indoor radio channel measurements in different environments and settings at either 2.4625 GHz or 5.4 GHz band, of particular interest for WIFI related standards. Key bits are extracted by quantizing the complex channel coefficients and their randomness is evaluated using the NIST test suite. We then look at the impact of the carrier frequency, the channel variability in the space, time, and frequency degrees of freedom used to construct a long secret key, in relation to the nature of the radio environment such as the LOS/NLOS character.

  4. Key Clinical Features to Identify Girls with "CDKL5" Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Nectoux, Juliette; Rosas-Vargas, Haydee; Milh, Mathieu; Boddaert, Nathalie; Girard, Benoit; Cances, Claude; Ville, Dorothee; Afenjar, Alexandra; Rio, Marlene; Heron, Delphine; Morel, Marie Ange N'Guyen; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Philippe, Christophe; Jonveaux, Philippe; Chelly, Jamel; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the human X-linked cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ("CDKL5") gene have been shown to cause infantile spasms as well as Rett syndrome (RTT)-like phenotype. To date, less than 25 different mutations have been reported. So far, there are still little data on the key clinical diagnosis criteria and on the natural history of…

  5. High-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, ZengLiang; Wang, XuYang; Yang, ShenShen; Li, YongMin

    2016-01-01

    Efficient reconciliation is a crucial step in continuous variable quantum key distribution. The progressive-edge-growth (PEG) algorithm is an efficient method to construct relatively short block length low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The qua-sicyclic construction method can extend short block length codes and further eliminate the shortest cycle. In this paper, by combining the PEG algorithm and qua-si-cyclic construction method, we design long block length irregular LDPC codes with high error-correcting capacity. Based on these LDPC codes, we achieve high-efficiency Gaussian key reconciliation with slice recon-ciliation based on multilevel coding/multistage decoding with an efficiency of 93.7%.

  6. Human-automation collaboration in manufacturing: identifying key implementation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Charalambous, George; Fletcher, Sarah; Webb, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Human-automation collaboration refers to the concept of human operators and intelligent automation working together interactively within the same workspace without conventional physical separation. This concept has commanded significant attention in manufacturing because of the potential applications, such as the installation of large sub-assemblies. However, the key human factors relevant to human-automation collaboration have not yet been fully investigated. To maximise effective implement...

  7. Identifying the Key Weaknesses in Network Security at Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Florence

    2000-01-01

    A new study identifies and ranks the 10 security gaps responsible for most outsider attacks on college computer networks. The list is intended to help campus system administrators establish priorities as they work to increase security. One network security expert urges that institutions utilize multiple security layers. (DB)

  8. Identifying key nodes in multilayer networks based on tensor decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dingjie; Wang, Haitao; Zou, Xiufen

    2017-06-01

    The identification of essential agents in multilayer networks characterized by different types of interactions is a crucial and challenging topic, one that is essential for understanding the topological structure and dynamic processes of multilayer networks. In this paper, we use the fourth-order tensor to represent multilayer networks and propose a novel method to identify essential nodes based on CANDECOMP/PARAFAC (CP) tensor decomposition, referred to as the EDCPTD centrality. This method is based on the perspective of multilayer networked structures, which integrate the information of edges among nodes and links between different layers to quantify the importance of nodes in multilayer networks. Three real-world multilayer biological networks are used to evaluate the performance of the EDCPTD centrality. The bar chart and ROC curves of these multilayer networks indicate that the proposed approach is a good alternative index to identify real important nodes. Meanwhile, by comparing the behavior of both the proposed method and the aggregated single-layer methods, we demonstrate that neglecting the multiple relationships between nodes may lead to incorrect identification of the most versatile nodes. Furthermore, the Gene Ontology functional annotation demonstrates that the identified top nodes based on the proposed approach play a significant role in many vital biological processes. Finally, we have implemented many centrality methods of multilayer networks (including our method and the published methods) and created a visual software based on the MATLAB GUI, called ENMNFinder, which can be used by other researchers.

  9. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Paolo; Brambilla, Mattia; Rolando, Antonio; Girardello, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds). For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community. PMID:26966659

  10. Identifying key conservation threats to Alpine birds through expert knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan E. Chamberlain

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine biodiversity is subject to a range of increasing threats, but the scarcity of data for many taxa means that it is difficult to assess the level and likely future impact of a given threat. Expert opinion can be a useful tool to address knowledge gaps in the absence of adequate data. Experts with experience in Alpine ecology were approached to rank threat levels for 69 Alpine bird species over the next 50 years for the whole European Alps in relation to ten categories: land abandonment, climate change, renewable energy, fire, forestry practices, grazing practices, hunting, leisure, mining and urbanization. There was a high degree of concordance in ranking of perceived threats among experts for most threat categories. The major overall perceived threats to Alpine birds identified through expert knowledge were land abandonment, urbanization, leisure and forestry, although other perceived threats were ranked highly for particular species groups (renewable energy and hunting for raptors, hunting for gamebirds. For groups of species defined according to their breeding habitat, open habitat species and treeline species were perceived as the most threatened. A spatial risk assessment tool based on summed scores for the whole community showed threat levels were highest for bird communities of the northern and western Alps. Development of the approaches given in this paper, including addressing biases in the selection of experts and adopting a more detailed ranking procedure, could prove useful in the future in identifying future threats, and in carrying out risk assessments based on levels of threat to the whole bird community.

  11. Identifying causal linkages between environmental variables and African conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguy-Robertson, A. L.; Dartevelle, S.

    2017-12-01

    Environmental variables that contribute to droughts, flooding, and other natural hazards are often identified as factors contributing to conflict; however, few studies attempt to quantify these causal linkages. Recent research has demonstrated that the environment operates within a dynamical system framework and the influence of variables can be identified from convergent cross mapping (CCM) between shadow manifolds. We propose to use CCM to identify causal linkages between environmental variables and incidences of conflict. This study utilizes time series data from Climate Forecast System ver. 2 and MODIS satellite sensors processed using Google Earth Engine to aggregate country and regional trends. These variables are then compared to Armed Conflict Location & Event Data Project observations at similar scales. Results provide relative rankings of variables and their linkage to conflict. Being able to identify which factors contributed more strongly to a conflict can allow policy makers to prepare solutions to mitigate future crises. Knowledge of the primary environmental factors can lead to the identification of other variables to examine in the causal network influencing conflict.

  12. Predicting Spatial Distribution of Key Honeybee Pests in Kenya Using Remotely Sensed and Bioclimatic Variables: Key Honeybee Pests Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Makori

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bee keeping is indispensable to global food production. It is an alternate income source, especially in rural underdeveloped African settlements, and an important forest conservation incentive. However, dwindling honeybee colonies around the world are attributed to pests and diseases whose spatial distribution and influences are not well established. In this study, we used remotely sensed data to improve the reliability of pest ecological niche (EN models to attain reliable pest distribution maps. Occurrence data on four pests (Aethina tumida, Galleria mellonella, Oplostomus haroldi and Varroa destructor were collected from apiaries within four main agro-ecological regions responsible for over 80% of Kenya’s bee keeping. Africlim bioclimatic and derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI variables were used to model their ecological niches using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt. Combined precipitation variables had a high positive logit influence on all remotely sensed and biotic models’ performance. Remotely sensed vegetation variables had a substantial effect on the model, contributing up to 40.8% for G. mellonella and regions with high rainfall seasonality were predicted to be high-risk areas. Projections (to 2055 indicated that, with the current climate change trend, these regions will experience increased honeybee pest risk. We conclude that honeybee pests could be modelled using bioclimatic data and remotely sensed variables in MaxEnt. Although the bioclimatic data were most relevant in all model results, incorporating vegetation seasonality variables to improve mapping the ‘actual’ habitat of key honeybee pests and to identify risk and containment zones needs to be further investigated.

  13. Identify the dominant variables to predict stream water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Flagler, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stream water temperature is a critical variable controlling water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems. Accurate prediction of water temperature and the assessment of the impacts of environmental variables on water temperature variation are critical for water resources management, particularly in the context of water quality and aquatic ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study is to measure stream water temperature and air temperature and to examine the importance of streamflow on stream water temperature prediction. The measured stream water temperature and air temperature will be used to test two hypotheses: 1) streamflow is a relatively more important factor than air temperature in regulating water temperature, and 2) by combining air temperature and streamflow data stream water temperature can be more accurately estimated. Water and air temperature data loggers are placed at two USGS stream gauge stations #01362357and #01362370, located in the upper Esopus Creek watershed in Phonecia, NY. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series model is used to analyze the measured water temperature data, identify the dominant environmental variables, and predict the water temperature with identified dominant variable. The preliminary results show that streamflow is not a significant variable in predicting stream water temperature at both USGS gauge stations. Daily mean air temperature is sufficient to predict stream water temperature at this site scale.

  14. Identifying associations between sport sponsorship decision-making variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Van Heerden

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Sport sponsorship spending in South Africa has increased steadily. This paper discusses the findings of an exploratory study into key sponsorship decision-areas, namely the setting of sponsorship objectives, the integration of marketing communication variables into sponsorship to create a leverage effect, and the measurement of sponsorship success. It is argued that for a sponsorship to be successful certain associations should exist between these key decision-making areas and also among elements internal to each of these areas. The main findings are that the respondents indicated a bias towards setting media related objectives that will subsequently enable the sponsors to use media-related measurement tools. It is recommended that sponsors should develop alternative methods to measure the effectiveness of their sponsorships.

  15. Discovering New Variable Stars at Key Stage 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Katy; Hood, Rosie; Wilson, Thomas; Holdship, Jonathan; Hutton, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Details of the London pilot of the "Discovery Project" are presented, where university-based astronomers were given the chance to pass on some real and applied knowledge of astronomy to a group of selected secondary school pupils. It was aimed at students in Key Stage 3 of their education, allowing them to be involved in real…

  16. AIC identifies optimal representation of longitudinal dietary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, John; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Marshall, Teresa; Warren, John; Levy, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) is a well-known tool for variable selection in multivariable modeling as well as a tool to help identify the optimal representation of explanatory variables. However, it has been discussed infrequently in the dental literature. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of AIC in determining the optimal representation of dietary variables in a longitudinal dental study. The Iowa Fluoride Study enrolled children at birth and dental examinations were conducted at ages 5, 9, 13, and 17. Decayed or filled surfaces (DFS) trend clusters were created based on age 13 DFS counts and age 13-17 DFS increments. Dietary intake data (water, milk, 100 percent-juice, and sugar sweetened beverages) were collected semiannually using a food frequency questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were fit to predict DFS cluster membership (n=344). Multiple approaches could be used to represent the dietary data including averaging across all collected surveys or over different shorter time periods to capture age-specific trends or using the individual time points of dietary data. AIC helped identify the optimal representation. Averaging data for all four dietary variables for the whole period from age 9.0 to 17.0 provided a better representation in the multivariable full model (AIC=745.0) compared to other methods assessed in full models (AICs=750.6 for age 9 and 9-13 increment dietary measurements and AIC=762.3 for age 9, 13, and 17 individual measurements). The results illustrate that AIC can help researchers identify the optimal way to summarize information for inclusion in a statistical model. The method presented here can be used by researchers performing statistical modeling in dental research. This method provides an alternative approach for assessing the propriety of variable representation to significance-based procedures, which could potentially lead to improved research in the dental community. © 2017 American

  17. Simultaneous classical communication and quantum key distribution using continuous variables*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bing

    2016-10-01

    Presently, classical optical communication systems employing strong laser pulses and quantum key distribution (QKD) systems working at single-photon levels are very different communication modalities. Dedicated devices are commonly required to implement QKD. In this paper, we propose a scheme which allows classical communication and QKD to be implemented simultaneously using the same communication infrastructure. More specially, we propose a coherent communication scheme where both the bits for classical communication and the Gaussian distributed random numbers for QKD are encoded on the same weak coherent pulse and decoded by the same coherent receiver. Simulation results based on practical system parameters show that both deterministic classical communication with a bit error rate of 10-9 and secure key distribution could be achieved over tens of kilometers of single-mode fibers. It is conceivable that in the future coherent optical communication network, QKD will be operated in the background of classical communication at a minimal cost.

  18. Variability and Uncertainties of Key Hydrochemical Parameters for SKB Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bath, Adrian [Intellisci Ltd, Willoughby on the Wolds, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Hermansson, Hans-Peter [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The work described in this report is a development of SKI's capability for the review and evaluation of data that will constitute part of SKB's case for selection of a suitable site and application to construct a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. The aim has been to integrate a number of different approaches to interpreting and evaluating hydrochemical data, especially with respect to the parameters that matter most in assessing the suitability of a site and in understanding the geochemistry and groundwater conditions at a site. It has been focused on taking an independent view of overall uncertainties in reported data, taking account of analytical, sampling and other random and systematic sources of error. This evaluation was carried out initially with a compilation and general inspection of data from the Simpevarp, Forsmark and Laxemar sites plus data from older 'historical' boreholes in the Aespoe area. That was followed by a more specific interpretation by means of geochemical calculations which test the robustness of certain parameters, namely pH and redox/Eh. Geochemical model calculations have been carried out with widely available computer software. Data sources and their handling were also considered, especially access to SKB's SICADA database. In preparation for the use of geochemical modelling programs and to establish comparability of model results with those reported by SKB, the underlying thermodynamic databases were compared with each other and with other generally accepted databases. Comparisons of log K data for selected solid phases and solution complexes from the different thermodynamic databases were made. In general, there is a large degree of comparability between the databases, but there are some significant, and in a few cases large, differences. The present situation is however adequate for present purposes. The interpretation of redox equilibria is dependent on identifying the relevant solid phases and

  19. Identifying populations sensitive to environmental chemicals by simulating toxicokinetic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Caroline L; Pearce, Robert G; Setzer, R Woodrow; Wetmore, Barbara A; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-09-01

    The thousands of chemicals present in the environment (USGAO, 2013) must be triaged to identify priority chemicals for human health risk research. Most chemicals have little of the toxicokinetic (TK) data that are necessary for relating exposures to tissue concentrations that are believed to be toxic. Ongoing efforts have collected limited, in vitro TK data for a few hundred chemicals. These data have been combined with biomonitoring data to estimate an approximate margin between potential hazard and exposure. The most "at risk" 95th percentile of adults have been identified from simulated populations that are generated either using standard "average" adult human parameters or very specific cohorts such as Northern Europeans. To better reflect the modern U.S. population, we developed a population simulation using physiologies based on distributions of demographic and anthropometric quantities from the most recent U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. This allowed incorporation of inter-individual variability, including variability across relevant demographic subgroups. Variability was analyzed with a Monte Carlo approach that accounted for the correlation structure in physiological parameters. To identify portions of the U.S. population that are more at risk for specific chemicals, physiologic variability was incorporated within an open-source high-throughput (HT) TK modeling framework. We prioritized 50 chemicals based on estimates of both potential hazard and exposure. Potential hazard was estimated from in vitro HT screening assays (i.e., the Tox21 and ToxCast programs). Bioactive in vitro concentrations were extrapolated to doses that produce equivalent concentrations in body tissues using a reverse dosimetry approach in which generic TK models are parameterized with: 1) chemical-specific parameters derived from in vitro measurements and predicted from chemical structure; and 2) with

  20. Identifying key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass feedstocks for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David R.; Curtright, Aimee E.; Willis, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production emissions dominate transportation and processing emissions. • Choice of feedstock, geographic location and prior land use drive emissions profile. • Within scenarios, emissions variability is driven by uncertainty in yields. • Favorable scenarios maximize carbon storage from direct land-use change. • Similarly, biomass production should attempt to minimize indirect land-use change. -- Abstract: Many policies in the United States, at both the federal and state levels, encourage the adoption of renewable energy from biomass. Though largely motivated by a desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these policies do not explicitly identify scenarios in which the use of biomass will produce the greatest benefits. We have modeled “farm-to-hopper” emissions associated with seven biomass feedstocks, under a wide variety of scenarios and production choices, to characterize the uncertainty in emissions. We demonstrate that only a handful of factors have a significant impact on life cycle emissions: choice of feedstock, geographic location, prior land use, and time dynamics. Within a given production scenario, the remaining variability in emissions is driven by uncertainty in feedstock yields and the release rate of N 2 O into the atmosphere from nitrogen fertilizers. With few exceptions, transport and processing choices have relatively little impact on total emissions. These results illustrate the key decisions that will determine the success of biomass programs in reducing the emissions profile of energy production, and our publicly available model provides a useful tool for identifying the most beneficial production scenarios. While model data and results are restricted to biomass production in the contiguous United States, we provide qualitative guidance for identifying favorable production scenarios that should be applicable in other regions

  1. Tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheated secret keys and shared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Liu, Chong-An

    2013-01-01

    A (t,n) secret image-sharing scheme shares a secret image to n participants, and the t users recover the image. During the recovery procedure of a conventional secret image-sharing scheme, cheaters may use counterfeit secret keys or modified shared images to cheat other users' secret keys and shared images. A cheated secret key or shared image leads to an incorrect secret image. Unfortunately, the cheater cannot be identified. We present an exponent and modulus-based scheme to provide a tamper-proof secret image-sharing scheme for identifying cheaters on secret keys or shared images. The proposed scheme allows users to securely select their secret key. This assignment can be performed over networks. Modulus results of each shared image is calculated to recognize cheaters of a shared image. Experimental results indicate that the proposed scheme is excellent at identifying cheated secret keys and shared images.

  2. Marine Extremes and Natural Hazards: when the key is variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marone, Eduardo; Camargo, Ricardo; Salcedo Castro, Julio

    2014-05-01

    At EGU2013 we used the work we are conducting regarding marine extreme events and natural hazards to exploit the distance that separate the scientific community and the non academic society, trying to show where bridges need to be built an how an ethical behavior among the scientists needs to be in place to succeed. We concluded that our actions as scientists have not been the most appropriate in communicating outside the academy our results, particularly when our findings have to do with natural hazards which could contribute to loss of life and the environmental quality that sustains it. Even if one of the barriers that separate the academy from society is the "language", too cryptic even for a well educated (not scientific) citizen in many cases, we scientists complicated even more the problems when we stop worrying about some basic concepts regarding the scientific method once upon a time were teach at basic school levels, particularly concerning differences as accuracy and precision, or the concept of uncertainty and the errors which permeate any observation or scientific "prediction". Science teaching at basic levels was not lost, but changed in the XXth century, concentrating in the so many new advancements and abandoning classical but necessary learning processes just about how sciences is done and why. When studying marine extreme events, we use statistic, stochastic methods, deterministic analysis, logical and numerical modeling, etc. However, our results are still very far away of being accurate, while our precision, however is improving just a little, it is still far away of ideal. That appears to be somehow obvious if we look just the observed vs. the modeled data. Nevertheless, if we look not the absolute values of our results, but the "rhythm" of their variability and compare these cadences with the beats observed in nature, new patterns arose, and clues about how to act regarding natural hazards and extreme events became more clear. We are being

  3. A continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution based on two-mode squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Li-Hua; Song, Han-Chong; Liu, Ye; Zhou, Nan-Run; He, Chao-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of deterministic keys is of significance in personal communications, but the existing continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols can only generate random keys. By exploiting the entanglement properties of two-mode squeezed states, a continuous variable quantum deterministic key distribution (CVQDKD) scheme is presented for handing over the pre-determined key to the intended receiver. The security of the CVQDKD scheme is analyzed in detail from the perspective of information theory. It shows that the scheme can securely and effectively transfer pre-determined keys under ideal conditions. The proposed scheme can resist both the entanglement and beam splitter attacks under a relatively high channel transmission efficiency. (paper)

  4. Identifying Key Performance Indicators for Holistic Hospital Management with a Modified DEMATEL Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Sheng-Li; You, Xiao-Yue; Liu, Hu-Chen; Huang, Jia

    2017-08-19

    Performance analysis is an important way for hospitals to achieve higher efficiency and effectiveness in providing services to their customers. The performance of the healthcare system can be measured by many indicators, but it is difficult to improve them simultaneously due to the limited resources. A feasible way is to identify the central and influential indicators to improve healthcare performance in a stepwise manner. In this paper, we propose a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) approach to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) for holistic hospital management. First, through integrating evidential reasoning approach and interval 2-tuple linguistic variables, various assessments of performance indicators provided by healthcare experts are modeled. Then, the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technique is adopted to build an interactive network and visualize the causal relationships between the performance indicators. Finally, an empirical case study is provided to demonstrate the proposed approach for improving the efficiency of healthcare management. The results show that "accidents/adverse events", "nosocomial infection", ''incidents/errors", "number of operations/procedures" are significant influential indicators. Also, the indicators of "length of stay", "bed occupancy" and "financial measures" play important roles in performance evaluation of the healthcare organization. The proposed decision making approach could be considered as a reference for healthcare administrators to enhance the performance of their healthcare institutions.

  5. Structural identifiability of cyclic graphical models of biological networks with latent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulin; Lu, Na; Miao, Hongyu

    2016-06-13

    Graphical models have long been used to describe biological networks for a variety of important tasks such as the determination of key biological parameters, and the structure of graphical model ultimately determines whether such unknown parameters can be unambiguously obtained from experimental observations (i.e., the identifiability problem). Limited by resources or technical capacities, complex biological networks are usually partially observed in experiment, which thus introduces latent variables into the corresponding graphical models. A number of previous studies have tackled the parameter identifiability problem for graphical models such as linear structural equation models (SEMs) with or without latent variables. However, the limited resolution and efficiency of existing approaches necessarily calls for further development of novel structural identifiability analysis algorithms. An efficient structural identifiability analysis algorithm is developed in this study for a broad range of network structures. The proposed method adopts the Wright's path coefficient method to generate identifiability equations in forms of symbolic polynomials, and then converts these symbolic equations to binary matrices (called identifiability matrix). Several matrix operations are introduced for identifiability matrix reduction with system equivalency maintained. Based on the reduced identifiability matrices, the structural identifiability of each parameter is determined. A number of benchmark models are used to verify the validity of the proposed approach. Finally, the network module for influenza A virus replication is employed as a real example to illustrate the application of the proposed approach in practice. The proposed approach can deal with cyclic networks with latent variables. The key advantage is that it intentionally avoids symbolic computation and is thus highly efficient. Also, this method is capable of determining the identifiability of each single parameter and

  6. Experimental infections with Mycoplasma agalactiae identify key factors involved in host-colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Baranowski

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underlying pathogenic processes in mycoplasma infections are poorly understood, mainly because of limited sequence similarities with classical, bacterial virulence factors. Recently, large-scale transposon mutagenesis in the ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma agalactiae identified the NIF locus, including nifS and nifU, as essential for mycoplasma growth in cell culture, while dispensable in axenic media. To evaluate the importance of this locus in vivo, the infectivity of two knock-out mutants was tested upon experimental infection in the natural host. In this model, the parental PG2 strain was able to establish a systemic infection in lactating ewes, colonizing various body sites such as lymph nodes and the mammary gland, even when inoculated at low doses. In these PG2-infected ewes, we observed over the course of infection (i the development of a specific antibody response and (ii dynamic changes in expression of M. agalactiae surface variable proteins (Vpma, with multiple Vpma profiles co-existing in the same animal. In contrast and despite a sensitive model, none of the knock-out mutants were able to survive and colonize the host. The extreme avirulent phenotype of the two mutants was further supported by the absence of an IgG response in inoculated animals. The exact role of the NIF locus remains to be elucidated but these data demonstrate that it plays a key role in the infectious process of M. agalactiae and most likely of other pathogenic mycoplasma species as many carry closely related homologs.

  7. Identifying Midshipmen for Academic Assistance Using Entry Variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Arthur

    2001-01-01

    .... Categorical values from the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI), SAT scores and high school rank were incorporated as independent variables in a linear regression model with dependent variable Cumulative Quality Point Rating (CQPR...

  8. Psychological Variables for Identifying Susceptibility to Mental Disorders in Medical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sender

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study analyses some psychological variables related to susceptibility to mental disorders in medical students. Methods: A sample of 209 first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, and three questionnaires: Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and UNCAHS scale of STRAIN. Results: Thirty percent of the students suffered from emotional distress as measured by de GHQ-28, and showed significantly higher scores on trait anxiety, sensitivity to punishment and reward scales, and had higher levels of strain both in the academic environment and their personal life. Women scored significantly higher than men on trait anxiety and sensitivity to reward. Logistical regression found that trait anxiety and strain in non-academic life were the best predictors of the development of a mental disorder. Conclusions: The study confirms the usefulness of the STAI for detecting psychological distress and the validity of the SPSRQ for identifying subjects likely to present emotional distress when facing high environmental demands. Subjects most likely to present with mental illness are those who evaluate their personal (non-academic lives as more stressful.

  9. Quantum hacking: Saturation attack on practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hao; Kumar, Rupesh; Alléaume, Romain

    2016-07-01

    We identify and study a security loophole in continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) implementations, related to the imperfect linearity of the homodyne detector. By exploiting this loophole, we propose an active side-channel attack on the Gaussian-modulated coherent-state CVQKD protocol combining an intercept-resend attack with an induced saturation of the homodyne detection on the receiver side (Bob). We show that an attacker can bias the excess noise estimation by displacing the quadratures of the coherent states received by Bob. We propose a saturation model that matches experimental measurements on the homodyne detection and use this model to study the impact of the saturation attack on parameter estimation in CVQKD. We demonstrate that this attack can bias the excess noise estimation beyond the null key threshold for any system parameter, thus leading to a full security break. If we consider an additional criterion imposing that the channel transmission estimation should not be affected by the attack, then the saturation attack can only be launched if the attenuation on the quantum channel is sufficient, corresponding to attenuations larger than approximately 6 dB. We moreover discuss the possible countermeasures against the saturation attack and propose a countermeasure based on Gaussian postselection that can be implemented by classical postprocessing and may allow one to distill the secret key when the raw measurement data are partly saturated.

  10. A User Centered Innovation Approach Identifying Key User Values for the E-Newspaper

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Ihlström Eriksson; Jesper Svensson

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the pre-adoption phase of the e-newspaper, i.e. a newspaper published with e-paper technology. The research question of this article is: In what way can a user centered innovation process contribute to identifying key values in mobile innovations? The aim of this article is threefold: firstly, to identify key values for the e-newspaper, secondly, to examine the intention to adopt a new possible innovation and thirdly, to explore user centered design processes ability to captur...

  11. Modified Principal Component Analysis for Identifying Key Environmental Indicators and Application to a Large-Scale Tidal Flat Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the key environmental indicators (KEIs from a large number of environmental variables is important for environmental management in tidal flat reclamation areas. In this study, a modified principal component analysis approach (MPCA has been developed for determining the KEIs. The MPCA accounts for the two important attributes of the environmental variables: pollution status and temporal variation, in addition to the commonly considered numerical divergence attribute. It also incorporates the distance correlation (dCor to replace the Pearson’s correlation to measure the nonlinear interrelationship between the variables. The proposed method was applied to the Tiaozini sand shoal, a large-scale tidal flat reclamation region in China. Five KEIs were identified as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Cd, petroleum in the water column, Hg, and total organic carbon in the sediment. The identified KEIs were shown to respond well to the biodiversity of phytoplankton. This demonstrated that the identified KEIs adequately represent the environmental condition in the coastal marine system. Therefore, the MPCA is a practicable method for extracting effective indicators that have key roles in the coastal and marine environment.

  12. Key Issues in Empirically Identifying Chronically Low-Performing and Turnaround Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    One of the US Department of Education's key priorities is turning around the nation's persistently low-achieving schools, yet exactly how to identify low-performing schools is a task left to state policy makers, and a myriad of definitions have been utilized. In addition, exactly how to recognize when a school begins to turn around is not well…

  13. A new approach to hazardous materials transportation risk analysis: decision modeling to identify critical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Renee M; Besterfield-Sacre, Mary E

    2009-03-01

    We take a novel approach to analyzing hazardous materials transportation risk in this research. Previous studies analyzed this risk from an operations research (OR) or quantitative risk assessment (QRA) perspective by minimizing or calculating risk along a transport route. Further, even though the majority of incidents occur when containers are unloaded, the research has not focused on transportation-related activities, including container loading and unloading. In this work, we developed a decision model of a hazardous materials release during unloading using actual data and an exploratory data modeling approach. Previous studies have had a theoretical perspective in terms of identifying and advancing the key variables related to this risk, and there has not been a focus on probability and statistics-based approaches for doing this. Our decision model empirically identifies the critical variables using an exploratory methodology for a large, highly categorical database involving latent class analysis (LCA), loglinear modeling, and Bayesian networking. Our model identified the most influential variables and countermeasures for two consequences of a hazmat incident, dollar loss and release quantity, and is one of the first models to do this. The most influential variables were found to be related to the failure of the container. In addition to analyzing hazmat risk, our methodology can be used to develop data-driven models for strategic decision making in other domains involving risk.

  14. The Promise of Virtual Teams: Identifying Key Factors in Effectiveness and Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Frank M.; Bravington, Desmond; Silvis, Ulrik

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the investigation is to identify enabling and disenabling factors in the development and operation of virtual teams; to evaluate the importance of factors such as team development, cross-cultural variables, leadership, communication and social cohesion as contributors to virtual team effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach:…

  15. Integrated systems approach identifies risk regulatory pathways and key regulators in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Dianming; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Shuyuan; Yu, Xuexin; Dai, Enyu; Liu, Xinyi; Luo, Shanshun; Jiang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. However, the molecular mechanisms of CAD remain elusive. Regulatory pathways are known to play crucial roles in many pathogenic processes. Thus, inferring risk regulatory pathways is an important step toward elucidating the mechanisms underlying CAD. With advances in high-throughput data, we developed an integrated systems approach to identify CAD risk regulatory pathways and key regulators. Firstly, a CAD-related core subnetwork was identified from a curated transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) regulatory network based on a random walk algorithm. Secondly, candidate risk regulatory pathways were extracted from the subnetwork by applying a breadth-first search (BFS) algorithm. Then, risk regulatory pathways were prioritized based on multiple CAD-associated data sources. Finally, we also proposed a new measure to prioritize upstream regulators. We inferred that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) may be a key regulator in the dysregulation of risk regulatory pathways. This study takes a closer step than the identification of disease subnetworks or modules. From the risk regulatory pathways, we could understand the flow of regulatory information in the initiation and progression of the disease. Our approach helps to uncover its potential etiology. We developed an integrated systems approach to identify risk regulatory pathways. We proposed a new measure to prioritize the key regulators in CAD. PTEN may be a key regulator in dysregulation of the risk regulatory pathways.

  16. Identifying Key Features of Effective Active Learning: The Effects of Writing and Peer Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangle, Wiline M.; Wyatt, Kevin H.; Powell, Karli N.; Sherwood, Rachel E.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. PMID:25185230

  17. Elimination of mode coupling in multimode continuous-variable key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, Radim; Mista, Ladislav; Marek, Petr

    2005-01-01

    A multimode channel can be utilized to substantially increase the capacity of quantum continuous-variable key distribution. Beyond losses in the channel, an uncontrollable coupling between the modes of the channel typically degrades the capacity of multimode channels. For the key distribution protocol with simultaneous measurement of both complementary quadratures we propose a feasible method to eliminate any undesirable mode coupling by only the receiver's appropriate measurement and data manipulation. It can be used to substantially increase the capacity of the channel, which has an important application in practical continuous-variable quantum cryptography

  18. Iterative key-residues interrogation of a phytase with thermostability increasing substitutions identified in directed evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivange, Amol V; Roccatano, Danilo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial phytases have attracted industrial interest as animal feed supplement due to their high activity and sufficient thermostability (required for feed pelleting). We devised an approach named KeySIDE,  an iterative Key-residues interrogation of the wild type with Substitutions Identified in Directed Evolution for improving Yersinia mollaretii phytase (Ymphytase) thermostability by combining key beneficial substitutions and elucidating their individual roles. Directed evolution yielded in a discovery of nine positions in Ymphytase and combined iteratively to identify key positions. The "best" combination (M6: T77K, Q154H, G187S, and K289Q) resulted in significantly improved thermal resistance; the residual activity improved from 35 % (wild type) to 89 % (M6) at 58 °C and 20-min incubation. Melting temperature increased by 3 °C in M6 without a loss of specific activity. Molecular dynamics simulation studies revealed reduced flexibility in the loops located next to helices (B, F, and K) which possess substitutions (Helix-B: T77K, Helix-F: G187S, and Helix-K: K289E/Q). Reduced flexibility in the loops might be caused by strengthened hydrogen bonding network (e.g., G187S and K289E/K289Q) and a salt bridge (T77K). Our results demonstrate a promising approach to design phytases in food research, and we hope that the KeySIDE might become an attractive approach for understanding of structure-function relationships of enzymes.

  19. Identifying key performance indicators for nursing and midwifery care using a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCance, Tanya; Telford, Lorna; Wilson, Julie; Macleod, Olive; Dowd, Audrey

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain consensus on key performance indicators that are appropriate and relevant for nursing and midwifery practice in the current policy context. There is continuing demand to demonstrate effectiveness and efficiency in health and social care and to communicate this at boardroom level. Whilst there is substantial literature on the use of clinical indicators and nursing metrics, there is less evidence relating to indicators that reflect the patient experience. A consensus approach was used to identify relevant key performance indicators. A nominal group technique was used comprising two stages: a workshop involving all grades of nursing and midwifery staff in two HSC trusts in Northern Ireland (n = 50); followed by a regional Consensus Conference (n = 80). During the workshop, potential key performance indicators were identified. This was used as the basis for the Consensus Conference, which involved two rounds of consensus. Analysis was based on aggregated scores that were then ranked. Stage one identified 38 potential indicators and stage two prioritised the eight top-ranked indicators as a core set for nursing and midwifery. The relevance and appropriateness of these indicators were confirmed with nurses and midwives working in a range of settings and from the perspective of service users. The eight indicators identified do not conform to the majority of other nursing metrics generally reported in the literature. Furthermore, they are strategically aligned to work on the patient experience and are reflective of the fundamentals of nursing and midwifery practice, with the focus on person-centred care. Nurses and midwives have a significant contribution to make in determining the extent to which these indicators are achieved in practice. Furthermore, measurement of such indicators provides an opportunity to evidence of the unique impact of nursing/midwifery care on the patient experience. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Postsecondary Students With Psychiatric Disabilities Identify Core Services and Key Ingredients to Supporting Education Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biebel, Kathleen; Mizrahi, Raphael; Ringeisen, Heather

    2017-10-26

    Accessing and successfully completing postsecondary educational opportunities may be challenging for those living with psychiatric disabilities. This exploratory study highlights the experiences of individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in postsecondary educational support initiatives. Investigators conducted case studies with 3 education support initiatives across the United States. Focus groups revealed what concrete supported education services were helpful and key ingredients in delivering education supports. Access to specialists, mindfulness techniques, help with time management and procrastination, and facilitating classroom accommodations were identified as critical. Developing authentic relationships with supported education staff, flexibility in service delivery and access to student peers living with psychiatric disabilities were noted as key ingredients in service delivery. Incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention, therein providing more supports to students with psychiatric disabilities achieving their postsecondary education goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Methods of Developing User-Friendly Keys to Identify Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas L. from Photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R. Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying individual animals is important in understanding their ecology and behaviour, as well as providing estimates of population sizes for conservation efforts. We produce identification keys from photographs of green sea turtles to identify them while foraging in Akumal Bay, Mexico. We create three keys, which (a minimise the length of the key, (b present the most obvious differential characteristics first, and (c remove the strict dichotomy from key b. Keys were capable of identifying >99% of turtles in >2500 photographs during the six-month study period. The keys differed significantly in success rate for students to identify individual turtles, with key (c being the best with >70% success and correctly being followed further than other keys before making a mistake. User-friendly keys are, therefore, a suitable method for the photographic identification of turtles and could be used for other large marine vertebrates in conservation or behavioural studies.

  2. Organisationally relevant variables and Keyes's Mental Health Continuum Scale: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo J.W. Strümpfer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In an exploratory study on a sample of convenience (n = 165, 11 self-report variables with presumed organisational  relevance were  related,  as  predictors,  to  the  three  subscores  and  summed  score of  the Keyes  (2005a, 2005b; 2007 Mental Health Continuum  scale  (long  form. Keyes's  scale was administered five to seven days after the first set of scales. The predictor scores were reduced to three factorial scores, labelled positive orientation, negative orientation and positive striving. When classified thus, the predictor variables showed significant and meaningful relationships with some or all of the Keyes subscores and the total score, although few reached medium effect sizes.

  3. Identifying key features of effective active learning: the effects of writing and peer discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Debra L; Pangle, Wiline M; Wyatt, Kevin H; Powell, Karli N; Sherwood, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    We investigated some of the key features of effective active learning by comparing the outcomes of three different methods of implementing active-learning exercises in a majors introductory biology course. Students completed activities in one of three treatments: discussion, writing, and discussion + writing. Treatments were rotated weekly between three sections taught by three different instructors in a full factorial design. The data set was analyzed by generalized linear mixed-effect models with three independent variables: student aptitude, treatment, and instructor, and three dependent (assessment) variables: change in score on pre- and postactivity clicker questions, and coding scores on in-class writing and exam essays. All independent variables had significant effects on student performance for at least one of the dependent variables. Students with higher aptitude scored higher on all assessments. Student scores were higher on exam essay questions when the activity was implemented with a writing component compared with peer discussion only. There was a significant effect of instructor, with instructors showing different degrees of effectiveness with active-learning techniques. We suggest that individual writing should be implemented as part of active learning whenever possible and that instructors may need training and practice to become effective with active learning. © 2014 D. L. Linton et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original mult...

  5. GuiaTreeKey, a multi-access electronic key to identify tree genera in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Julien; Brousseau, Louise; Baraloto, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Amazonia is one of the most species-rich ecosystems on earth, with an estimated 16000 tree species. Due to this high diversity, botanical identification of trees in the Amazon is difficult, even to genus, often requiring the assistance of parataxonomists or taxonomic specialists. Advances in informatics tools offer a promising opportunity to develop user-friendly electronic keys to improve Amazonian tree identification. Here, we introduce an original multi-access electronic key for the identification of 389 tree genera occurring in French Guiana terra-firme forests, based on a set of 79 morphological characters related to vegetative, floral and fruit characters. Its purpose is to help Amazonian tree identification and to support the dissemination of botanical knowledge to non-specialists, including forest workers, students and researchers from other scientific disciplines. The electronic key is accessible with the free access software Xper ², and the database is publicly available on figshare: https://figshare.com/s/75d890b7d707e0ffc9bf (doi: 10.6084/m9.figshare.2682550).

  6. Identifying and characterizing key nodes among communities based on electrical-circuit networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fenghui; Wang, Wenxu; Di, Zengru; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Complex networks with community structures are ubiquitous in the real world. Despite many approaches developed for detecting communities, we continue to lack tools for identifying overlapping and bridging nodes that play crucial roles in the interactions and communications among communities in complex networks. Here we develop an algorithm based on the local flow conservation to effectively and efficiently identify and distinguish the two types of nodes. Our method is applicable in both undirected and directed networks without a priori knowledge of the community structure. Our method bypasses the extremely challenging problem of partitioning communities in the presence of overlapping nodes that may belong to multiple communities. Due to the fact that overlapping and bridging nodes are of paramount importance in maintaining the function of many social and biological networks, our tools open new avenues towards understanding and controlling real complex networks with communities accompanied with the key nodes.

  7. Identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khalilazar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Main purpose of this research is identifying and weighting of key performance indicators of knowledge management2.0 in organizations. According to widespread permeation of technology, especially social media in different organizational dimensions and functional view to this phenomenon in knowledge management, performance measurement of this kind of media in order to meet organizational goals seems necessary. KM2.0 key performance indicators in this article has been identified and weighted through Delphi methodology, via questionnaire in three rounds. KM2.0 KPIs which are identified and weighted in this article are applicable in organizations that are eager to implement KM2.0 initiative and they can measure the performance of KM2.0 activities therefore this research is applicable in goal oriented approach. According to the results, KM2.0 participation process consists of 3 stages and 8 steps as mentioned below: First stage which is presence, consists of 3 steps which are registration, visit and download. Second stage which is feedback consists of 3 steps which are conversation, applause and amplification. Finally, third stage which is creation consists of 2 steps which are codification and personalization. Ultimate contribution of this research is identifying and weighting KPIs of KM2.0 in conceptual framework of KM2.0. Based on developing a conceptual framework and participation process in KM2.0 and listing related KPIs as an applicable solution in order to measure and improve the performance of organizational social media, this research has unique innovation among related and other articles.

  8. Identifying Key Drivers of Return Reversal with Dynamical Bayesian Factor Graph.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhao

    Full Text Available In the stock market, return reversal occurs when investors sell overbought stocks and buy oversold stocks, reversing the stocks' price trends. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify key drivers of return reversal by incorporating a comprehensive set of factors derived from different economic theories into one unified dynamical Bayesian factor graph. We then use the model to depict factor relationships and their dynamics, from which we make some interesting discoveries about the mechanism behind return reversals. Through extensive experiments on the US stock market, we conclude that among the various factors, the liquidity factors consistently emerge as key drivers of return reversal, which is in support of the theory of liquidity effect. Specifically, we find that stocks with high turnover rates or high Amihud illiquidity measures have a greater probability of experiencing return reversals. Apart from the consistent drivers, we find other drivers of return reversal that generally change from year to year, and they serve as important characteristics for evaluating the trends of stock returns. Besides, we also identify some seldom discussed yet enlightening inter-factor relationships, one of which shows that stocks in Finance and Insurance industry are more likely to have high Amihud illiquidity measures in comparison with those in other industries. These conclusions are robust for return reversals under different thresholds.

  9. Identifying Key Stakeholder Groups for Implementing a Place Branding Policy in Saint Petersburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulibanova V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Regional brands have become a valuable intangible asset and a crucial competitive resource for forging partnerships. An effective place branding policy is impossible without a precise understanding of the interests of stakeholder groups. It is essential to realize that each region is unique in its own way. Territories differ in the structure of stakeholders, their influence on regional development, and the range of leverages over regional decision-makers. This study aims to give a more precise definition of key groups of stakeholders in Saint Petersburg place branding, and to identify them. The authors employ the method of theoretical and empirical typology of a territory’s stakeholders within a theoretical framework proposed by E. Freeman, P. Kotler, S. Zenker, and E. Brown. The article defines the concept of key regional stakeholders and identifies them. The proposed target audience (stakeholder group model for a place branding policy is tested on the case of Saint Petersburg. The authors show that each target audience of place marketing requires an individual policy. This is explained by the fact that each group enjoys its unique features that should be taken into account when creating and transmitting messages.

  10. Study on the security of discrete-variable quantum key distribution over non-Markovian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Peng; Zhu Jun; He Guangqiang; Zeng Guihua

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic of the secret key rate of the discrete-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over the non-Markovian quantum channel is investigated. In particular, we calculate the secret key rate for the six-state protocol over non-Markovian depolarizing channels with coloured noise and Markovian depolarizing channels with Gaussian white noise, respectively. We find that the secure secret key rate for the non-Markovian depolarizing channel will be larger than the Markovian one under the same conditions even when their upper bounds of tolerable quantum bit error rate are equal. This indicates that this coloured noise in the non-Markovian depolarizing channel can enhance the security of communication. Moreover, we show that the secret key rate fluctuates near the secure point when the coupling strength of the system with the environment is high. The results demonstrate that the non-Markovian effects of the transmission channel can have a positive impact on the security of discrete-variable QKD. (paper)

  11. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2009-01-01

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  12. Robust shot-noise measurement for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Jacques, Sébastien; Jouguet, Paul

    2015-02-01

    We study a practical method to measure the shot noise in real time in continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems. The amount of secret key that can be extracted from the raw statistics depends strongly on this quantity since it affects in particular the computation of the excess noise (i.e., noise in excess of the shot noise) added by an eavesdropper on the quantum channel. Some powerful quantum hacking attacks relying on faking the estimated value of the shot noise to hide an intercept and resend strategy were proposed. Here, we provide experimental evidence that our method can defeat the saturation attack and the wavelength attack.

  13. Quantum cryptography with a predetermined key, using continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. D.

    2000-12-01

    Correlations of the type discussed by EPR in their original 1935 paradox for continuous variables exist for the quadrature phase amplitudes of two spatially separated fields. These correlations were first experimentally reported in 1992. We propose to use such EPR beams in quantum cryptography, to transmit with high efficiency messages in such a way that the receiver and sender may later determine whether eavesdropping has occurred. The merit of the new proposal is in the possibility of transmitting a reasonably secure yet predetermined key. This would allow relay of a cryptographic key over long distances in the presence of lossy channels.

  14. Security bound of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states and channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Yong; Yang Jian; Guo Hong, E-mail: hongguo@pku.edu.c [CREAM Group, State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks (Peking University) and Institute of Quantum Electronics, School of Electronics Engineering and Computer Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2009-12-14

    Security of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol based on noisy coherent states and channel is analysed. Assuming that the noise of coherent states is induced by Fred, a neutral party relative to others, we prove that the prepare-and-measurement scheme (P and M) and entanglement-based scheme (E-B) are equivalent. Then, we show that this protocol is secure against Gaussian collective attacks even if the channel is lossy and noisy, and, further, a lower bound to the secure key rate is derived.

  15. Identifying key radiogenomic associations between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Ravi K.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Helvie, Mark A.; Kim, Renaid

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the key radiogenomic associations for breast cancer between DCE-MRI and micro-RNA expressions is the foundation for the discovery of radiomic features as biomarkers for assessing tumor progression and prognosis. We conducted a study to analyze the radiogenomic associations for breast cancer using the TCGA-TCIA data set. The core idea that tumor etiology is a function of the behavior of miRNAs is used to build the regression models. The associations based on regression are analyzed for three study outcomes: diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The diagnosis group consists of miRNAs associated with clinicopathologic features of breast cancer and significant aberration of expression in breast cancer patients. The prognosis group consists of miRNAs which are closely associated with tumor suppression and regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. The treatment group consists of miRNAs that contribute significantly to the regulation of metastasis thereby having the potential to be part of therapeutic mechanisms. As a first step, important miRNA expressions were identified and their ability to classify the clinical phenotypes based on the study outcomes was evaluated using the area under the ROC curve (AUC) as a figure-of-merit. The key mapping between the selected miRNAs and radiomic features were determined using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression analysis within a two-loop leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. These key associations indicated a number of radiomic features from DCE-MRI to be potential biomarkers for the three study outcomes.

  16. Identifying Regional Key Eco-Space to Maintain Ecological Security Using GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological security and environmental sustainability are the foundations of sustainable development. With the acceleration of urbanization, increasing human activities have promoted greater impacts on the eco-spaces that maintain ecological security. Regional key eco-space has become the primary need to maintain environmental sustainability and can offer society with continued ecosystem services. In this paper, considering the security of water resources, biodiversity conservation, disaster avoidance and protection and natural recreation, an integrated index of eco-space importance was established and a method for identifying key eco-space was created using GIS, with Lanzhou City, China as a case study. The results show that the area of core eco-space in the Lanzhou City is approximately 50,908.7 hm2, accounting for 40% of the region’s total area. These areas mainly consist of geological hazard protection zones and the core zones of regional river systems, wetlands, nature reserves, forest parks and scenic spots. The results of this study provide some guidance for the management of ecological security, ecological restoration and environmental sustainability.

  17. [Key effect genes responding to nerve injury identified by gene ontology and computer pattern recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qian; Peng, Jin; Zhou, Xue; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2012-07-01

    In order to screen out important genes from large gene data of gene microarray after nerve injury, we combine gene ontology (GO) method and computer pattern recognition technology to find key genes responding to nerve injury, and then verify one of these screened-out genes. Data mining and gene ontology analysis of gene chip data GSE26350 was carried out through MATLAB software. Cd44 was selected from screened-out key gene molecular spectrum by comparing genes' different GO terms and positions on score map of principal component. Function interferences were employed to influence the normal binding of Cd44 and one of its ligands, chondroitin sulfate C (CSC), to observe neurite extension. Gene ontology analysis showed that the first genes on score map (marked by red *) mainly distributed in molecular transducer activity, receptor activity, protein binding et al molecular function GO terms. Cd44 is one of six effector protein genes, and attracted us with its function diversity. After adding different reagents into the medium to interfere the normal binding of CSC and Cd44, varying-degree remissions of CSC's inhibition on neurite extension were observed. CSC can inhibit neurite extension through binding Cd44 on the neuron membrane. This verifies that important genes in given physiological processes can be identified by gene ontology analysis of gene chip data.

  18. High performance reconciliation for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with LDPC code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dakai; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-03-01

    Reconciliation is a significant procedure in a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. It is employed to extract secure secret key from the resulted string through quantum channel between two users. However, the efficiency and the speed of previous reconciliation algorithms are low. These problems limit the secure communication distance and the secure key rate of CV-QKD systems. In this paper, we proposed a high-speed reconciliation algorithm through employing a well-structured decoding scheme based on low density parity-check (LDPC) code. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced obviously. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, our method may reach a reconciliation speed of 25 Mb/s for a CV-QKD system, which is currently the highest level and paves the way to high-speed CV-QKD.

  19. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with discrete modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Takuya; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Matsubara, Takuto; Ono, Motoharu; Oguri, Yusuke; Namiki, Ryo; Kasai, Kenta; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system that employs discrete quadrature-amplitude modulation and homodyne detection of coherent states of light. We experimentally demonstrated automated secure key generation with a rate of 50 kbps when a quantum channel is a 10 km optical fibre. The CV-QKD system utilises a four-state and post-selection protocol and generates a secure key against the entangling cloner attack. We used a pulsed light source of 1550 nm wavelength with a repetition rate of 10 MHz. A commercially available balanced receiver is used to realise shot-noise-limited pulsed homodyne detection. We used a non-binary LDPC code for error correction (reverse reconciliation) and the Toeplitz matrix multiplication for privacy amplification. A graphical processing unit card is used to accelerate the software-based post-processing.

  20. Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossier, S; Debuisschert, T; Diamanti, E; Villing, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    We have designed and realized a prototype that implements a continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol based on coherent states and reverse reconciliation. The system uses time and polarization multiplexing for optimal transmission and detection of the signal and phase reference, and employs sophisticated error-correction codes for reconciliation. The security of the system is guaranteed against general coherent eavesdropping attacks. The performance of the prototype was tested over preinstalled optical fibres as part of a quantum cryptography network combining different QKD technologies. The stable and automatic operation of the prototype over 57 h yielded an average secret key distribution rate of 8 kbit s -1 over a 3 dB loss optical fibre, including the key extraction process and all quantum and classical communication. This system is therefore ideal for securing communications in metropolitan size networks with high-speed requirements.

  1. Quantum key distribution using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, L. F. M.; Aguiar, L. S.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we present a quantum key distribution protocol using continuous-variable non-Gaussian states, homodyne detection and post-selection. The employed signal states are the photon added then subtracted coherent states (PASCS) in which one photon is added and subsequently one photon is subtracted from the field. We analyze the performance of our protocol, compared with a coherent state-based protocol, for two different attacks that could be carried out by the eavesdropper (Eve). We calculate the secret key rate transmission in a lossy line for a superior channel (beam-splitter) attack, and we show that we may increase the secret key generation rate by using the non-Gaussian PASCS rather than coherent states. We also consider the simultaneous quadrature measurement (intercept-resend) attack, and we show that the efficiency of Eve's attack is substantially reduced if PASCS are used as signal states.

  2. Identifying the key personnel in a nurse-initiated hospital waste reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott-Levy, Ruth; Fazzini, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States generate more than 6600 tons of trash a day and approximately 85% of the waste is nonhazardous solid waste such as food, cardboard, and plastic. Treatment and management of hospital waste can lead to environmental problems for the communities that receive the waste. One health system's shared governance model provided the foundation to develop a nurse-led hospital waste reduction program that focused on point-of-care waste management. Waste reduction program development required working with a variety of departments within and external to the health system. The interdisciplinary approach informed the development of the waste reduction program. This article identifies the key departments that were necessary to include when developing a hospital waste reduction program.

  3. Identifying Determinants of Organizational Development as the Key Developers of Employee Soft Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahjahan Laghari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to identify the determinants of organizational development as the key developers of employee soft skills. Various studies have been taken where determinants of organizational development defining soft skills in employees are discussed. However, the current study is different in Pakistani industry context as the link was missing about the determinants of organizational development which in synchronized way help in developing soft skills in employees of firm. This research uses explanatory approach; incorporating secondary data extracted under the light of existing school of thoughts paired with quantification through data collected from respondents in Pakistani corporate sector. Hypotheses are tested using structural equation model (SEM technique. Results This research showed an affirmative link between determinants of organizational development and development of soft skills in employees. Finally, the study proposes enriching insights on few missing links that can be researched and triggered achieving maximized outcomes.

  4. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro; Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki; Kono, Hiroshi; Bataller, Ramon; Rusyn, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl 4 (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl 4 . We observed that combined treatment with CCl 4 and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis

  5. A mouse model of alcoholic liver fibrosis-associated acute kidney injury identifies key molecular pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Shinji; Chappell, Grace A.; Iwata, Yasuhiro [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States); Uehara, Takeki; Kato, Yuki [Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka (Japan); Kono, Hiroshi [First Department of Surgery, University of Yamanashi, Yamanashi (Japan); Bataller, Ramon [Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: irusyn@tamu.edu [Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Clinical data strongly indicate that acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis, an acute-on-chronic form of liver failure in patients with advanced alcoholic fibrosis. Development of targeted therapies for AKI in this setting is hampered by the lack of an animal model. To enable research into molecular drivers and novel therapies for fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI, we aimed to combine carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced fibrosis with chronic intra-gastric alcohol feeding. Male C57BL/6J mice were administered a low dose of CCl{sub 4} (0.2 ml/kg 2 × week/6 weeks) followed by alcohol intragastrically (up to 25 g/kg/day for 3 weeks) and with continued CCl{sub 4}. We observed that combined treatment with CCl{sub 4} and alcohol resulted in severe liver injury, more pronounced than using each treatment alone. Importantly, severe kidney injury was evident only in the combined treatment group. This mouse model reproduced distinct pathological features consistent with AKI in human alcoholic hepatitis. Transcriptomic analysis of kidneys revealed profound effects in the combined treatment group, with enrichment for damage-associated pathways, such as apoptosis, inflammation, immune-response and hypoxia. Interestingly, Havcr1 and Lcn2, biomarkers of AKI, were markedly up-regulated. Overall, this study established a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI and identified key mechanistic pathways. - Highlights: • Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a critical complication in alcoholic hepatitis • We developed a novel mouse model of fibrosis- and alcohol-associated AKI • This model reproduces key molecular and pathological features of human AKI • This animal model can help identify new targeted therapies for alcoholic hepatitis.

  6. Exploring the effects of spatial autocorrelation when identifying key drivers of wildlife crop-raiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songhurst, Anna; Coulson, Tim

    2014-03-01

    Few universal trends in spatial patterns of wildlife crop-raiding have been found. Variations in wildlife ecology and movements, and human spatial use have been identified as causes of this apparent unpredictability. However, varying spatial patterns of spatial autocorrelation (SA) in human-wildlife conflict (HWC) data could also contribute. We explicitly explore the effects of SA on wildlife crop-raiding data in order to facilitate the design of future HWC studies. We conducted a comparative survey of raided and nonraided fields to determine key drivers of crop-raiding. Data were subsampled at different spatial scales to select independent raiding data points. The model derived from all data was fitted to subsample data sets. Model parameters from these models were compared to determine the effect of SA. Most methods used to account for SA in data attempt to correct for the change in P-values; yet, by subsampling data at broader spatial scales, we identified changes in regression estimates. We consequently advocate reporting both model parameters across a range of spatial scales to help biological interpretation. Patterns of SA vary spatially in our crop-raiding data. Spatial distribution of fields should therefore be considered when choosing the spatial scale for analyses of HWC studies. Robust key drivers of elephant crop-raiding included raiding history of a field and distance of field to a main elephant pathway. Understanding spatial patterns and determining reliable socio-ecological drivers of wildlife crop-raiding is paramount for designing mitigation and land-use planning strategies to reduce HWC. Spatial patterns of HWC are complex, determined by multiple factors acting at more than one scale; therefore, studies need to be designed with an understanding of the effects of SA. Our methods are accessible to a variety of practitioners to assess the effects of SA, thereby improving the reliability of conservation management actions.

  7. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of 'Greening the Grid - Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues'. To foster sustainable, low-emission development, many countries are establishing ambitious renewable energy targets for their electricity supply. Because solar and wind tend to be more variable and uncertain than conventional sources, meeting these targets will involve changes to power system planning and operations. Grid integration is the practice of developing efficient ways to deliver variable renewable energy (VRE) to the grid. Good integration methods maximize the cost-effectiveness of incorporating VRE into the power system while maintaining or increasing system stability and reliability. When considering grid integration, policy makers, regulators, and system operators consider a variety of issues, which can be organized into four broad topics: New Renewable Energy Generation, New Transmission, Increased System Flexibility, and Planning for a High RE Future.

  8. Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Uncertainty and Variability in Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Models: Key Issues and Case Studies. This report summarizes some of the recent progress in characterizing uncertainty and variability in physi...

  9. Predictive model identifies key network regulators of cardiomyocyte mechano-signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical strain is a potent stimulus for growth and remodeling in cells. Although many pathways have been implicated in stretch-induced remodeling, the control structures by which signals from distinct mechano-sensors are integrated to modulate hypertrophy and gene expression in cardiomyocytes remain unclear. Here, we constructed and validated a predictive computational model of the cardiac mechano-signaling network in order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying signal integration. The model identifies calcium, actin, Ras, Raf1, PI3K, and JAK as key regulators of cardiac mechano-signaling and characterizes crosstalk logic imparting differential control of transcription by AT1R, integrins, and calcium channels. We find that while these regulators maintain mostly independent control over distinct groups of transcription factors, synergy between multiple pathways is necessary to activate all the transcription factors necessary for gene transcription and hypertrophy. We also identify a PKG-dependent mechanism by which valsartan/sacubitril, a combination drug recently approved for treating heart failure, inhibits stretch-induced hypertrophy, and predict further efficacious pairs of drug targets in the network through a network-wide combinatorial search.

  10. Modelling Creativity: Identifying Key Components through a Corpus-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanous, Anna; Keller, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Creativity is a complex, multi-faceted concept encompassing a variety of related aspects, abilities, properties and behaviours. If we wish to study creativity scientifically, then a tractable and well-articulated model of creativity is required. Such a model would be of great value to researchers investigating the nature of creativity and in particular, those concerned with the evaluation of creative practice. This paper describes a unique approach to developing a suitable model of how creative behaviour emerges that is based on the words people use to describe the concept. Using techniques from the field of statistical natural language processing, we identify a collection of fourteen key components of creativity through an analysis of a corpus of academic papers on the topic. Words are identified which appear significantly often in connection with discussions of the concept. Using a measure of lexical similarity to help cluster these words, a number of distinct themes emerge, which collectively contribute to a comprehensive and multi-perspective model of creativity. The components provide an ontology of creativity: a set of building blocks which can be used to model creative practice in a variety of domains. The components have been employed in two case studies to evaluate the creativity of computational systems and have proven useful in articulating achievements of this work and directions for further research.

  11. Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisier, Raphaëlle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Rémi; van Nimwegen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and β-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:24464994

  12. Identifying key areas for active interprofessional learning partnerships: A facilitated dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Kathryn; Angus, Allyson; Breckenridge, Jenna; Davey, Peter; Tully, Vicki; Muir, Fiona

    2016-11-01

    Student and service user involvement is recognised as an important factor in creating interprofessional education (IPE) opportunities. We used a team-based learning approach to bring together undergraduate health professional students, early career professionals (ECPs), public partners, volunteers, and carers to explore learning partnerships. Influenced by evaluative inquiry, this qualitative study used a free text response to allow participants to give their own opinion. A total of 153 participants (50 public partners and 103 students and professionals representing 11 healthcare professions) took part. Participants were divided into mixed groups of six (n = 25) and asked to identify areas where students, professionals, and public could work together to improve health professional education. Each group documented their discussions by summarising agreed areas and next steps. Responses were collected and transcribed for inductive content analysis. Seven key themes (areas for joint working) were identified: communication, public as partners, standards of conduct, IPE, quality improvement, education, and learning environments. The team-based learning format enabled undergraduate and postgraduate health professionals to achieve consensus with public partners on areas for IPE and collaboration. Some of our results may be context-specific but the approach is generalisable to other areas.

  13. Identifying emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilgün; Hiçdurmaz, Duygu

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional intelligence skills of Turkish clinical nurses according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Emotional intelligence is "the ability of a person to comprehend self-emotions, to show empathy towards the feelings of others, and to control self-emotions in a way that enriches life." Nurses with a higher emotional intelligence level offer more efficient and professional care, and they accomplish more in their social and professional lives. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study. The Introductory Information Form and the Bar-On emotional intelligence Inventory were used to collect data between 20th June and 20th August 2012. The study was conducted with 312 nurses from 37 hospitals located within the borders of the metropolitan municipality in Ankara. There were no significant differences between emotional intelligence scores of the nurses according to demographic variables such as age, gender, marital status, having children. Thus, sociodemographic factors did not appear to be key factors, but some professional variables did. Higher total emotional intelligence scores were observed in those who had 10 years or longer experience, who found oneself successful in professional life, who stated that emotional intelligence is an improvable skill and who previously received self-improvement training. Interpersonal skills were higher in those with a graduate degree and in nurses working in polyclinics and paediatric units. These findings indicate which groups require improvement in emotional intelligence skills and which skills need improvement. Additionally, these results provide knowledge and create awareness about emotional intelligence skills of nurses and the distribution of these skills according to sociodemographic and professional variables. Implementation of emotional intelligence improvement programmes targeting the determined clinical nursing groups by nursing administrations can help the increase in

  14. Key identifiers and spelling conventions in MXit-lingo as found in conversations with Dr Math

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Butgereit

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different human languages look different from other human languages. To use a term from the computer industry, each human language has its own “look and feel”. European English speakers can easily recognise a phrase such as “Comment allez-vous?” as being written in French while the phrase “¿Habla usted español?” is written in Spanish. Each language has its own letter frequencies, word frequencies and other identifiers. This paper describes key identifiers in MXit lingo as found in Dr Math conversations. MXit is a mobile instant messaging system which originated in South Africa and is expanding to other countries. Dr Math is a mobile tutoring system which uses MXit as a communication protocol. Primary and secondary school pupils can receive help with the mathematics homework using the Dr Math tutoring system. The pupils use MXit on their cell phones and the tutors use traditional Internet workstations. After exploring how MXit lingo is written, this paper will briefly explore why MXit lingo is written the way it is. By identifying and describing the orthographic conventions visible in the spelling of MXit lingo, although with some theoretical support, insight into the purposeful and functional nature of written, mobile communication will be revealed. In highlighting spelling that is influenced by Black South African English, an attempt will be made to contribute to the empirical development of a field of study that explores the construction of words used in South African mobile communication. Keywords: MXit, Math, letters, writing, orthography Disciplines: Linguistics, mathematics, information technology

  15. Framework for Identifying Key Environmental Concerns in Marine Renewable Energy Projects- Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Sharon; Previsic, Mirko; Nelson, Peter; Woo, Sheri

    2010-06-17

    Marine wave and tidal energy technology could interact with marine resources in ways that are not well understood. As wave and tidal energy conversion projects are planned, tested, and deployed, a wide range of stakeholders will be engaged; these include developers, state and federal regulatory agencies, environmental groups, tribal governments, recreational and commercial fishermen, and local communities. Identifying stakeholders’ environmental concerns in the early stages of the industry’s development will help developers address and minimize potential environmental effects. Identifying important concerns will also assist with streamlining siting and associated permitting processes, which are considered key hurdles by the industry in the U.S. today. In September 2008, RE Vision consulting, LLC was selected by the Department of Energy (DoE) to conduct a scenario-based evaluation of emerging hydrokinetic technologies. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify and characterize environmental impacts that are likely to occur, demonstrate a process for analyzing these impacts, identify the “key” environmental concerns for each scenario, identify areas of uncertainty, and describe studies that could address that uncertainty. This process is intended to provide an objective and transparent tool to assist in decision-making for siting and selection of technology for wave and tidal energy development. RE Vision worked with H. T. Harvey & Associates, to develop a framework for identifying key environmental concerns with marine renewable technology. This report describes the results of this study. This framework was applied to varying wave and tidal power conversion technologies, scales, and locations. The following wave and tidal energy scenarios were considered: 4 wave energy generation technologies 3 tidal energy generation technologies 3 sites: Humboldt coast, California (wave); Makapu’u Point, Oahu, Hawaii (wave); and the Tacoma Narrows, Washington (tidal

  16. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with virtual photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijia; Zhang, Yichen; Xu, Bingjie; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2018-04-01

    The method of improving the performance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols by postselection has been recently proposed and verified. In continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocols, the measurement results are obtained from untrusted third party Charlie. There is still not an effective method of improving CV-MDI QKD by the postselection with untrusted measurement. We propose a method to improve the performance of coherent-state CV-MDI QKD protocol by virtual photon subtraction via non-Gaussian postselection. The non-Gaussian postselection of transmitted data is equivalent to an ideal photon subtraction on the two-mode squeezed vacuum state, which is favorable to enhance the performance of CV-MDI QKD. In CV-MDI QKD protocol with non-Gaussian postselection, two users select their own data independently. We demonstrate that the optimal performance of the renovated CV-MDI QKD protocol is obtained with the transmitted data only selected by Alice. By setting appropriate parameters of the virtual photon subtraction, the secret key rate and tolerable excess noise are both improved at long transmission distance. The method provides an effective optimization scheme for the application of CV-MDI QKD protocols.

  17. Key Variables for Decision-Making on Urban Renewal in China: A Case Study of Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the Chinese government leads urban renewal via a top-down management style with the government playing the role of decision-maker. The decision-making opinions held by groups of stakeholders are divided, which creates many social problems, project technical issues and even civil disorder. This paper uses factor analysis to extract the key variables for decision-making on urban renewal and the entropy weight method to sort these key variables by importance. Based on this order, the differing opinions of stakeholders regarding urban renewal decision-making are explored. First, contradictory opinions exist concerning the importance of the ecological environment, housing and facilities, social welfare and commercial activities, which are the main driving forces behind urban renewal, due to the groups of stakeholders having different interest demands. Second, these varying interest demands of the stakeholders affect the urban renewal decision-making results. Finally, compensation to people for the demolition of their homes, infrastructure supplements and the investment behaviour of developers display the greatest lack of consensus of all the variables tested in urban renewal decision-making between different stakeholders.

  18. Environmental Variability in the Florida Keys: Impacts on Coral Reef Resilience and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, I. M.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    2005-12-01

    Environmental variability contributes to both mass mortality and resilience in tropical coral reef communities. We assess variations in sea surface temperature (SST) and ocean color in the Florida Keys using satellite imagery, and provide insight into how this variability is associated with locations of resilient coral communities (those unaffected by or able to recover from major events). The project tests the hypothesis that areas with historically low environmental variability promote lower levels of coral reef resilience. Time series of SST from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors and ocean color derived quantities (e.g., turbidity and chlorophyll) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field of View Sensor (SeaWiFS) are being constructed over the entire Florida Keys region for a period of twelve and nine years, respectively. These data will be compared with historical coral cover data derived from Landsat imagery (1984-2002). Improved understanding of the causes of coral reef decline or resilience will help protect and manage these natural treasures.

  19. Finite-size analysis of continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Yichen; Zhao, Yijia; Wang, Xiangyu; Yu, Song; Guo, Hong

    2017-10-01

    We study the impact of the finite-size effect on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, mainly considering the finite-size effect on the parameter estimation procedure. The central-limit theorem and maximum likelihood estimation theorem are used to estimate the parameters. We also analyze the relationship between the number of exchanged signals and the optimal modulation variance in the protocol. It is proved that when Charlie's position is close to Bob, the CV-MDI QKD protocol has the farthest transmission distance in the finite-size scenario. Finally, we discuss the impact of finite-size effects related to the practical detection in the CV-MDI QKD protocol. The overall results indicate that the finite-size effect has a great influence on the secret-key rate of the CV-MDI QKD protocol and should not be ignored.

  20. Using sensitivity analysis to identify key factors for the propagation of a plant epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Loup; Bruchou, Claude; Dallot, Sylvie; Pleydell, David R J; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Thébaud, Gaël

    2018-01-01

    Identifying the key factors underlying the spread of a disease is an essential but challenging prerequisite to design management strategies. To tackle this issue, we propose an approach based on sensitivity analyses of a spatiotemporal stochastic model simulating the spread of a plant epidemic. This work is motivated by the spread of sharka, caused by plum pox virus , in a real landscape. We first carried out a broad-range sensitivity analysis, ignoring any prior information on six epidemiological parameters, to assess their intrinsic influence on model behaviour. A second analysis benefited from the available knowledge on sharka epidemiology and was thus restricted to more realistic values. The broad-range analysis revealed that the mean duration of the latent period is the most influential parameter of the model, whereas the sharka-specific analysis uncovered the strong impact of the connectivity of the first infected orchard. In addition to demonstrating the interest of sensitivity analyses for a stochastic model, this study highlights the impact of variation ranges of target parameters on the outcome of a sensitivity analysis. With regard to sharka management, our results suggest that sharka surveillance may benefit from paying closer attention to highly connected patches whose infection could trigger serious epidemics.

  1. Integration of quantum key distribution and private classical communication through continuous variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyi; Gong, Feng; Lu, Anjiang; Zhang, Damin; Zhang, Zhengping

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a scheme that integrates quantum key distribution and private classical communication via continuous variables. The integrated scheme employs both quadratures of a weak coherent state, with encrypted bits encoded on the signs and Gaussian random numbers encoded on the values of the quadratures. The integration enables quantum and classical data to share the same physical and logical channel. Simulation results based on practical system parameters demonstrate that both classical communication and quantum communication can be implemented over distance of tens of kilometers, thus providing a potential solution for simultaneous transmission of quantum communication and classical communication.

  2. Silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed polarization-based discrete variable quantum key distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M; DeRose, Christopher T; Boynton, Nicholas; Urayama, Junji; Camacho, Ryan; Pomerene, Andrew; Starbuck, Andrew L; Trotter, Douglas C; Davids, Paul S; Lentine, Anthony L

    2017-05-29

    We demonstrate a silicon photonic transceiver circuit for high-speed discrete variable quantum key distribution that employs a common structure for transmit and receive functions. The device is intended for use in polarization-based quantum cryptographic protocols, such as BB84. Our characterization indicates that the circuit can generate the four BB84 states (TE/TM/45°/135° linear polarizations) with >30 dB polarization extinction ratios and gigabit per second modulation speed, and is capable of decoding any polarization bases differing by 90° with high extinction ratios.

  3. Noiseless Linear Amplifiers in Entanglement-Based Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method to improve the performance of two entanglement-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols using noiseless linear amplifiers. The two entanglement-based schemes consist of an entanglement distribution protocol with an untrusted source and an entanglement swapping protocol with an untrusted relay. Simulation results show that the noiseless linear amplifiers can improve the performance of these two protocols, in terms of maximal transmission distances, when we consider small amounts of entanglement, as typical in realistic setups.

  4. Ash fouling monitoring and key variables analysis for coal fired power plant boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yuanhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash deposition on heat transfer surfaces is still a significant problem in coal-fired power plant utility boilers. The effective ways to deal with this problem are accurate on-line monitoring of ash fouling and soot-blowing. In this paper, an online ash fouling monitoring model based on dynamic mass and energy balance method is developed and key variables analysis technique is introduced to study the internal behavior of soot-blowing system. In this process, artificial neural networks (ANN are used to optimize the boiler soot-blowing model and mean impact values method is utilized to determine a set of key variables. The validity of the models has been illustrated in a real case-study boiler, a 300MW Chinese power station. The results on same real plant data show that both models have good prediction accuracy, while the ANN model II has less input parameters. This work will be the basis of a future development in order to control and optimize the soot-blowing of the coal-fired power plant utility boilers.

  5. Identifying the impacts of climate change on key pests and diseases of plant and animal industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, Jo; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Finlay, Kyla; Azuloas, Joe; Constable, Fiona; Rijswijk, Bonny Rowles-Van

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major threat to natural and agricultural systems. Understanding these threats will enable government and primary industries to better prepare and adapt to climate change. While observations of climate change are well documented, the potential effects on pests, pathogens and their hosts are not clearly understood. To address this, a review of the potential impacts on plant biosecurity was undertaken to determine the effects of climate change on the behaviour and distribution of emergent plant pests and pathogens. The review identified increasing C02 and temperature, decreasing frost events, heavy and unseasonal rains, increased humidity, drought, cyclones and hurricanes, and warmer winter temperatures as influencing the behaviour of plant pests and pathogens. To study the effects of these changes in detail, three key plant biosecurity threats were analysed in case studies; wheat stripe rust, silver leaf whitefly and citrus canker. The predicted distribution of citrus canker was examined with increasing temperature scenarios using the bioclimatic model CLIMEX. The model predicted a southerly shift in the geographic range of the causal organism which would threaten the major southern citrus growing regions in future climates. A similar study on Bluetongue disease of sheep, spread by the Culicoides midge, also predicted a southerly shift in the vector's geographic range. Significant limitations were identified with bioclimatic modelling when examining the effects of climate change on pests and diseases. The model was unable to assess the plant and animal response to increasing temperature in conjunction with the pest. Also the influence of temperature on the life cycle of the organism, pathogenicity of strains, competition with other species, host coverage and the general effect on the biology of the organism could not be assessed. To begin to address this, a dynamic model was constructed using daily

  6. Pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution with a real local oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    We propose a pilot-multiplexed continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) scheme based on a local local oscillator (LLO). Our scheme utilizes time-multiplexing and polarization-multiplexing techniques to dramatically isolate the quantum signal from the pilot, employs two heterodyne detectors to separately detect the signal and the pilot, and adopts a phase compensation method to almost eliminate the multifrequency phase jitter. In order to analyze the performance of our scheme, a general LLO noise model is constructed. Besides the phase noise and the modulation noise, the photon-leakage noise from the reference path and the quantization noise due to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) are also considered, which are first analyzed in the LLO regime. Under such general noise model, our scheme has a higher key rate and longer secure distance compared with the preexisting LLO schemes. Moreover, we also conduct an experiment to verify our pilot-multiplexed scheme. Results show that it maintains a low level of the phase noise and is expected to obtain a 554-Kbps secure key rate within a 15-km distance under the finite-size effect.

  7. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Key Monetary Variables on the Economic Growth of the CEMAC Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forgha Godfrey NJIMANTED

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to empirically explore the impact of key monetary policy variables on the economic growth in the CEMAC zone from the period of 1981 to 2015. Carried out using the Ex post facto research design based on the principal components selection approach, the study interacts money supply, interest rate, economic growth, and inflation rate, among themselves and their lagged values using the Vector Auto-regressive (VAR analytical technique. The Classical quantity theory of money, the Cambridge Cash Balanced, the liquidity preference theory and the Monetarists as theoretical frameworks were explored to appreciate the time trends of the selected variables on the economic growth of the CEMAC zone. Based on the (VAR methodology, the study reveals that key monetary policy variables influence economic growth of the CEMAC zone in different ways with inflation rate as the impact factor. On the basis of the above findings and the evidence from other studies, lending and inflation rate generated substantial destabilizing impacts on the economic growth, suggesting that the monetary authorities should play a critical role in creating an enabling environment for growth. The determination of the optimal lending rate should reflect the overall internal rate of returns in the productive sectors with due attention to market fundamentals. In line with this, the Central Bank of CEMAC should be given complete instrumental autonomy to operate depending on a set of in-built targets by the individual countries of the zone. Effective monetary targeting and accommodating monetary policies should be designed and implemented as the need arises with little or no political motives.

  9. Hillslope characterization: Identifying key controls on local-scale plant communities' distribution using remote sensing and subsurface data fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, N.; Wainwright, H. M.; Dafflon, B.; Leger, E.; Peterson, J.; Steltzer, H.; Wilmer, C.; Williams, K. H.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous watershed systems are characterized by extreme heterogeneity in hydrological and pedological properties that influence biotic activities, plant communities and their dynamics. To gain predictive understanding of how ecosystem and watershed system evolve under climate change, it is critical to capture such heterogeneity and to quantify the effect of key environmental variables such as topography, and soil properties. In this study, we exploit advanced geophysical and remote sensing techniques - coupled with machine learning - to better characterize and quantify the interactions between plant communities' distribution and subsurface properties. First, we have developed a remote sensing data fusion framework based on the random forest (RF) classification algorithm to estimate the spatial distribution of plant communities. The framework allows the integration of both plant spectral and structural information, which are derived from multispectral satellite images and airborne LiDAR data. We then use the RF method to evaluate the estimated plant community map, exploiting the subsurface properties (such as bedrock depth, soil moisture and other properties) and geomorphological parameters (such as slope, curvature) as predictors. Datasets include high-resolution geophysical data (electrical resistivity tomography) and LiDAR digital elevation maps. We demonstrate our approach on a mountain hillslope and meadow within the East River watershed in Colorado, which is considered to be a representative headwater catchment in the Upper Colorado Basin. The obtained results show the existence of co-evolution between above and below-ground processes; in particular, dominant shrub communities in wet and flat areas. We show that successful integration of remote sensing data with geophysical measurements allows identifying and quantifying the key environmental controls on plant communities' distribution, and provides insights into their potential changes in the future

  10. Improvement of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using optical amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi-Chen; Yu, Song; Gu, Wanyi; Li, Zhengyu; Sun, Maozhu; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong; Weedbrook, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The imperfections of a receiver's detector affect the performance of two-way continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols and are difficult to adjust in practical situations. We propose a method to improve the performance of two-way CV-QKD by adding a parameter-adjustable optical amplifier at the receiver. A security analysis is derived against a two-mode collective entangling cloner attack. Our simulations show that the proposed method can improve the performance of protocols as long as the inherent noise of the amplifier is lower than a critical value, defined as the tolerable amplifier noise. Furthermore, the optimal performance can approach the scenario where a perfect detector is used. (paper)

  11. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in uniform fast-fading channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasiou, Panagiotis; Weedbrook, Christian; Pirandola, Stefano

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the performance of several continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols in the presence of uniform fading channels. These are lossy channels whose transmissivity changes according to a uniform probability distribution. We assume the worst-case scenario where an eavesdropper induces a fast-fading process, where she chooses the instantaneous transmissivity while the remote parties may only detect the mean statistical effect. We analyze coherent-state protocols in various configurations, including the one-way switching protocol in reverse reconciliation, the measurement-device-independent protocol in the symmetric configuration, and its extension to a three-party network. We show that, regardless of the advantage given to the eavesdropper (control of the fading), these protocols can still achieve high rates under realistic attacks, within reasonable values for the variance of the probability distribution associated with the fading process.

  12. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with photon subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Huang, Peng; Bai, Dong-Yun; Wang, Shi-Yu; Bao, Wan-Su; Zeng, Gui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    It has been found that non-Gaussian operations can be applied to increase and distill entanglement between Gaussian entangled states. We show the successful use of the non-Gaussian operation, in particular, photon subtraction operation, on the continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI-QKD) protocol. The proposed method can be implemented based on existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the photon subtraction operation can remarkably increase the maximal transmission distance of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol, which precisely make up for the shortcoming of the original CV-MDI-QKD protocol, and one-photon subtraction operation has the best performance. Moreover, the proposed protocol provides a feasible method for the experimental implementation of the CV-MDI-QKD protocol.

  13. Self-referenced continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijun; Wang, Xudong; Li, Jiawei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We propose a scheme to remove the demand of transmitting a high-brightness local oscillator (LO) in continuous-variable measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (CV-MDI QKD) protocol, which we call as the self-referenced (SR) CV-MDI QKD. We show that our scheme is immune to the side-channel attacks, such as the calibration attacks, the wavelength attacks and the LO fluctuation attacks, which are all exploiting the security loopholes introduced by transmitting the LO. Besides, the proposed scheme waives the necessity of complex multiplexer and demultiplexer, which can greatly simplify the QKD processes and improve the transmission efficiency. The numerical simulations under collective attacks show that all the improvements brought about by our scheme are only at the expense of slight transmission distance shortening. This scheme shows an available method to mend the security loopholes incurred by transmitting LO in CV-MDI QKD.

  14. Practical security analysis of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with jitter in clock synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Cailang; Guo, Ying; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Duan; Zhang, Ling; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-03-01

    How to narrow the gap of security between theory and practice has been a notoriously urgent problem in quantum cryptography. Here, we analyze and provide experimental evidence of the clock jitter effect on the practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) system. The clock jitter is a random noise which exists permanently in the clock synchronization in the practical CV-QKD system, it may compromise the system security because of its impact on data sampling and parameters estimation. In particular, the practical security of CV-QKD with different clock jitter against collective attack is analyzed theoretically based on different repetition frequencies, the numerical simulations indicate that the clock jitter has more impact on a high-speed scenario. Furthermore, a simplified experiment is designed to investigate the influence of the clock jitter.

  15. Practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution without finite sampling bandwidth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huasheng; Wang, Chao; Huang, Peng; Huang, Duan; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-09-05

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, finite sampling bandwidth of the employed analog-to-digital converter at the receiver's side may lead to inaccurate results of pulse peak sampling. Then, errors in the parameters estimation resulted. Subsequently, the system performance decreases and security loopholes are exposed to eavesdroppers. In this paper, we propose a novel data acquisition scheme which consists of two parts, i.e., a dynamic delay adjusting module and a statistical power feedback-control algorithm. The proposed scheme may improve dramatically the data acquisition precision of pulse peak sampling and remove the finite sampling bandwidth effects. Moreover, the optimal peak sampling position of a pulse signal can be dynamically calibrated through monitoring the change of the statistical power of the sampled data in the proposed scheme. This helps to resist against some practical attacks, such as the well-known local oscillator calibration attack.

  16. Entanglement-distillation attack on continuous-variable quantum key distribution in a turbulent atmospheric channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Xie, Cailang; Liao, Qin; Zhao, Wei; Zeng, Guihua; Huang, Duan

    2017-08-01

    The survival of Gaussian quantum states in a turbulent atmospheric channel is of crucial importance in free-space continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD), in which the transmission coefficient will fluctuate in time, thus resulting in non-Gaussian quantum states. Different from quantum hacking of the imperfections of practical devices, here we propose a different type of attack by exploiting the security loopholes that occur in a real lossy channel. Under a turbulent atmospheric environment, the Gaussian states are inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which would cause a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. Therefore, an eavesdropper can perform an intercept-resend attack by applying an entanglement-distillation operation on the transmitted non-Gaussian mixed states, which allows the eavesdropper to bias the estimation of the parameters and renders the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure. Our proposal highlights the practical CV QKD vulnerabilities with free-space quantum channels, including the satellite-to-earth links, ground-to-ground links, and a link from moving objects to ground stations.

  17. Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution via a Gaussian de Finetti Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2017-05-01

    Establishing the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution against general attacks in a realistic finite-size regime is an outstanding open problem in the field of theoretical quantum cryptography if we restrict our attention to protocols that rely on the exchange of coherent states. Indeed, techniques based on the uncertainty principle are not known to work for such protocols, and the usual tools based on de Finetti reductions only provide security for unrealistically large block lengths. We address this problem here by considering a new type of Gaussian de Finetti reduction, that exploits the invariance of some continuous-variable protocols under the action of the unitary group U (n ) (instead of the symmetric group Sn as in usual de Finetti theorems), and by introducing generalized S U (2 ,2 ) coherent states. Crucially, combined with an energy test, this allows us to truncate the Hilbert space globally instead as at the single-mode level as in previous approaches that failed to provide security in realistic conditions. Our reduction shows that it is sufficient to prove the security of these protocols against Gaussian collective attacks in order to obtain security against general attacks, thereby confirming rigorously the widely held belief that Gaussian attacks are indeed optimal against such protocols.

  18. Identifying Key Features of Student Performance in Educational Video Games and Simulations through Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Deirdre; Chung, Gregory K. W. K.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment cycle of "evidence-centered design" (ECD) provides a framework for treating an educational video game or simulation as an assessment. One of the main steps in the assessment cycle of ECD is the identification of the key features of student performance. While this process is relatively simple for multiple choice tests, when…

  19. Identifying Key Stakeholders in Blended Tertiary Environments: Experts' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuapawa, Kimberley

    2017-01-01

    Although key stakeholders in blended tertiary environments (BTEs) fulfil an extraordinary role in higher education, significant gaps in knowledge about their identities may be impeding the provision of stakeholder support, limiting their ability to promote effective learning and teaching. As online growth intensifies, it is critical that tertiary…

  20. Predicting establishment of non-native fishes in Greece: identifying key features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Gkenas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-native fishes are known to cause economic damage to human society and are considered a major threat to biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. The growing concern about these impacts has driven to an investigation of the biological traits that facilitate the establishment of non-native fish. However, invalid assessment in choosing the appropriate statistical model can lead researchers to ambiguous conclusions. Here, we present a comprehensive comparison of traditional and alternative statistical methods for predicting fish invasions using logistic regression, classification trees, multicorrespondence analysis and random forest analysis to determine characteristics of successful and failed non-native fishes in Hellenic Peninsula through establishment. We defined fifteen categorical predictor variables with biological relevance and measures of human interest. Our study showed that accuracy differed according to the model and the number of factors considered. Among all the models tested, random forest and logistic regression performed best, although all approaches predicted non-native fish establishment with moderate to excellent results. Detailed evaluation among the models corresponded with differences in variables importance, with three biological variables (parental care, distance from nearest native source and maximum size and two variables of human interest (prior invasion success and propagule pressure being important in predicting establishment. The analyzed statistical methods presented have a high predictive power and can be used as a risk assessment tool to prevent future freshwater fish invasions in this region with an imperiled fish fauna.

  1. Simulated and observed trends in key variables of the Arctic marine carbon cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goris, Nadine; Heinze, Christoph; Lauvset, Siv; Petrenko, Dmitry; Pozdnyakov, Dmitry; Schwinger, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    For the Arctic region, a thorough monitoring of the marine carbon cycle is important, as the general "polar amplification" of climate change also translates into the biogeochemical realm. As compared to the global ocean, the sink for human-produced CO2 is fairly small in the Arctic Ocean itself. Nevertheless, it is important to follow up this Arctic sink as a further control of the regional carbon budget and to record changes in the marine carbon cycle on the way towards a "blue Arctic". Since observations on the Arctic are rare, the EU FP7 MONARCH-A project tries to enable adequate descriptions of the status and evolution of the Arctic region Earth system components by generating time series of observation datasets and model hindcasts. In terms of the marine carbon cycle, this analysis focuses mainly on the key variables pCO2 and primary productivity. For oceanic pCO2, the comprehensive data-sets SOCAT and LDEO were combined, while measurements of atmospheric CO2 were collected from the GLOBALVIEW-CO2 data integration project. Monthly Primary Production fields were retrieved from the sensors MODIS and SeaWiFs. In order to get an overall picture of the behavior and trends of those key variables, in addition the physical-biogeochemical model MICOM-HAMOCC-M was employed. The investigation showed that both oceanic and atmospheric pCO2 are consistent variables which have a regular annual cycle and a similar behaviour all over the Arctic for both model and data. In contrast, primary production shows an irregular annual cycle in both range and form, varying over the Arctic. While a few well distributed measurement stations with continuous observations are sufficient to get a comprehensive picture for consistent variables like pCO2, it is relatively difficult and costly to get a comprehensive record of non-consistent variables. Since the provided data-set for primary production covers a relatively short time-scale, it was neither possible to confidently validate the model

  2. Identifying key research objectives to make European forests greener for bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Russo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bats are a biodiverse mammal order providing key ecosystem services such as pest suppression, pollination and seed dispersal. Bats are also very sensitive to human actions, and significant declines in many bat populations have been recorded consequently. Many bat species find crucial roosting and foraging opportunities in European forests. Such forests have historically been exploited by humans and are still influenced by harvesting. One of the consequences of this pressure is the loss of key habitat resources, often making forests inhospitable to bats. Despite the legal protection granted to bats across Europe, the impacts of forestry on bats are still often neglected. Because forest exploitation influences forest structure at several spatial scales, economically viable forestry could become more sustainable and even favour bats. We highlight that a positive future for bat conservation that simultaneously benefits forestry is foreseeable, although more applied research is needed to develop sound management. Key future research topics include the detection of factors influencing the carrying capacity of forests, and determining the impacts of forest management and the economic importance of bats in forests. Predictive tools to inform forest managers are much needed, together with greater synergies between forest managers and bat conservationists.

  3. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  4. Identifying Key Flavors in Strawberries Driving Liking via Internal and External Preference Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Penelope; Cicerale, Sara; Pang, Edwin; Keast, Russell

    2018-04-01

    Australian consumers desire the development of a more flavorsome Australian strawberry cultivar. To aid in the development of well-liked strawberries, the attributes driving liking need to be identified. The objective of this research is to apply Preference Mapping (PM) techniques to the descriptive profile of commercial and newly bred strawberry cultivars, together with consumer preference data to determine the flavors contributing to liking. A trained sensory panel (n = 12) used Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) methodology to evaluate two appearance, seven aroma, five texture, 10 flavor and 10 aftertaste attributes of three commercial strawberry cultivars and six elite breeding lines grown in Victoria, Australia. Strawberry consumers (n = 150) assessed their liking of the same strawberry cultivars. QDA® significantly discriminated strawberries on 28 of the 34 sensory attributes. There were significant differences in hedonic ratings of strawberries (F(8,714) = 11.5, P = 0.0001), with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifying three consumer clusters each displaying differing patterns of preference. Internal and external PM techniques were applied to the data to identify the attributes driving consumer acceptability. Sweet, berry, caramel, fruity and floral attributes were identified as most contributing to liking. Sour, citrus, green, astringent, firm and gritty attributes were conversely associated with a reduction in consumer liking. Elite Lines 2 and 6 have been identified as having the broadest appeal, satisfying between 60% and 70% of consumers in the population assessed, thus the introduction of these cultivars should satisfy the largest group of consumers in the Australian market. The results of this research could be applied to breeding programs, to ensure newly bred cultivars express characteristics that were identified as well-liked amongst consumers. In addition, this research provides evidence for marketing strawberries by

  5. Labont? Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to — and opportunities for —health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ...

  6. Four-State Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Photon Subtraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Yijun; Liao, Qin; Guo, Ying

    2018-06-01

    Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) is one of the discretely modulated CVQKD which generates four nonorthogonal coherent states and exploits the sign of the measured quadrature of each state to encode information rather than uses the quadrature \\hat {x} or \\hat {p} itself. It has been proven that four-state CVQKD is more suitable than Gaussian modulated CVQKD in terms of transmission distance. In this paper, we propose an improved four-state CVQKD using an non-Gaussian operation, photon subtraction. A suitable photon-subtraction operation can be exploited to improve the maximal transmission of CVQKD in point-to-point quantum communication since it provides a method to enhance the performance of entanglement-based (EB) CVQKD. Photon subtraction not only can lengthen the maximal transmission distance by increasing the signal-to-noise rate but also can be easily implemented with existing technologies. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme can lengthen the maximum transmission distance. Furthermore, by taking finite-size effect into account we obtain a tighter bound of the secure distance, which is more practical than that obtained in the asymptotic limit.

  7. Identifying key performance indicators in food technology contract R&D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipse, S.M.; Sanden, van der M.C.A.; Velden, van der T.; Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.; Osseweijer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Innovating companies increasingly rely on outsourcing to Contract Research Organisations (CROs) for their Research and Development (R&D), which are largely understudied. This paper presents the outcome of a case study in the field of food technology contract research, identifying context

  8. Mergeomics: a web server for identifying pathological pathways, networks, and key regulators via multidimensional data integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Douglas; Bhattacharya, Anindya; Shu, Le; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Yang, Xia

    2016-09-09

    Human diseases are commonly the result of multidimensional changes at molecular, cellular, and systemic levels. Recent advances in genomic technologies have enabled an outpour of omics datasets that capture these changes. However, separate analyses of these various data only provide fragmented understanding and do not capture the holistic view of disease mechanisms. To meet the urgent needs for tools that effectively integrate multiple types of omics data to derive biological insights, we have developed Mergeomics, a computational pipeline that integrates multidimensional disease association data with functional genomics and molecular networks to retrieve biological pathways, gene networks, and central regulators critical for disease development. To make the Mergeomics pipeline available to a wider research community, we have implemented an online, user-friendly web server ( http://mergeomics. idre.ucla.edu/ ). The web server features a modular implementation of the Mergeomics pipeline with detailed tutorials. Additionally, it provides curated genomic resources including tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci, ENCODE functional annotations, biological pathways, and molecular networks, and offers interactive visualization of analytical results. Multiple computational tools including Marker Dependency Filtering (MDF), Marker Set Enrichment Analysis (MSEA), Meta-MSEA, and Weighted Key Driver Analysis (wKDA) can be used separately or in flexible combinations. User-defined summary-level genomic association datasets (e.g., genetic, transcriptomic, epigenomic) related to a particular disease or phenotype can be uploaded and computed real-time to yield biologically interpretable results, which can be viewed online and downloaded for later use. Our Mergeomics web server offers researchers flexible and user-friendly tools to facilitate integration of multidimensional data into holistic views of disease mechanisms in the form of tissue-specific key regulators

  9. Identify and rank key factors influencing the adoption of cloud computing for a healthy Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Shukuhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing as a new technology with Internet infrastructure and new approaches can be significant benefits in providing medical services electronically. Aplying this technology in E-Health requires consideration of various factors. The main objective of this study is to identify and rank the factors influencing the adoption of e-health cloud. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE framework and Human-Organization-Technology fit (HOT-fit model, 16 sub-factors were identified in four major factors. With survey of 60 experts, academics and experts in health information technology and with the help of fuzzy analytic hierarchy process had ranked these sub-factors and factors. In the literature, considering newness this study, no internal or external study, have not alluded these number of criteria. The results show that when deciding to adopt cloud computing in E-Health, respectively, must be considered technological, human, organizational and environmental factors.

  10. Evaluating predictive models for solar energy growth in the US states and identifying the key drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Joheen; Banerji, Sugata

    2018-03-01

    Driven by a desire to control climate change and reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, governments around the world are increasing the adoption of renewable energy sources. However, among the US states, we observe a wide disparity in renewable penetration. In this study, we have identified and cleaned over a dozen datasets representing solar energy penetration in each US state, and the potentially relevant socioeconomic and other factors that may be driving the growth in solar. We have applied a number of predictive modeling approaches - including machine learning and regression - on these datasets over a 17-year period and evaluated the relative performance of the models. Our goals were: (1) identify the most important factors that are driving the growth in solar, (2) choose the most effective predictive modeling technique for solar growth, and (3) develop a model for predicting next year’s solar growth using this year’s data. We obtained very promising results with random forests (about 90% efficacy) and varying degrees of success with support vector machines and regression techniques (linear, polynomial, ridge). We also identified states with solar growth slower than expected and representing a potential for stronger growth in future.

  11. Identifying Variability in Mental Models Within and Between Disciplines Caring for the Cardiac Surgical Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Evans K H; Harder, Kathleen A; Apostolidou, Ioanna; Wahr, Joyce A; Shook, Douglas C; Farivar, R Saeid; Perry, Tjorvi E; Konia, Mojca R

    2017-07-01

    The cardiac operating room is a complex environment requiring efficient and effective communication between multiple disciplines. The objectives of this study were to identify and rank critical time points during the perioperative care of cardiac surgical patients, and to assess variability in responses, as a correlate of a shared mental model, regarding the importance of these time points between and within disciplines. Using Delphi technique methodology, panelists from 3 institutions were tasked with developing a list of critical time points, which were subsequently assigned to pause point (PP) categories. Panelists then rated these PPs on a 100-point visual analog scale. Descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages, medians, and interquartile ranges (IQRs). We defined low response variability between panelists as an IQR ≤ 20, moderate response variability as an IQR > 20 and ≤ 40, and high response variability as an IQR > 40. Panelists identified a total of 12 PPs. The PPs identified by the highest number of panelists were (1) before surgical incision, (2) before aortic cannulation, (3) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) initiation, (4) before CPB separation, and (5) at time of transfer of care from operating room (OR) to intensive care unit (ICU) staff. There was low variability among panelists' ratings of the PP "before surgical incision," moderate response variability for the PPs "before separation from CPB," "before transfer from OR table to bed," and "at time of transfer of care from OR to ICU staff," and high response variability for the remaining 8 PPs. In addition, the perceived importance of each of these PPs varies between disciplines and between institutions. Cardiac surgical providers recognize distinct critical time points during cardiac surgery. However, there is a high degree of variability within and between disciplines as to the importance of these times, suggesting an absence of a shared mental model among disciplines caring for

  12. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Heidi Holst; Madsen, Dicte; Gauffriau, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    , and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character......Unique identifiers (UID) are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case...... also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication. The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature...

  13. Co-extinction in a host-parasite network: identifying key hosts for network stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Tad; Cornelius, Emily

    2015-08-17

    Parasites comprise a substantial portion of total biodiversity. Ultimately, this means that host extinction could result in many secondary extinctions of obligate parasites and potentially alter host-parasite network structure. Here, we examined a highly resolved fish-parasite network to determine key hosts responsible for maintaining parasite diversity and network structure (quantified here as nestedness and modularity). We evaluated four possible host extinction orders and compared the resulting co-extinction dynamics to random extinction simulations; including host removal based on estimated extinction risk, parasite species richness and host level contributions to nestedness and modularity. We found that all extinction orders, except the one based on realistic extinction risk, resulted in faster declines in parasite diversity and network structure relative to random biodiversity loss. Further, we determined species-level contributions to network structure were best predicted by parasite species richness and host family. Taken together, we demonstrate that a small proportion of hosts contribute substantially to network structure and that removal of these hosts results in rapid declines in parasite diversity and network structure. As network stability can potentially be inferred through measures of network structure, our findings may provide insight into species traits that confer stability.

  14. Genomic Landscape Survey Identifies SRSF1 as a Key Oncodriver in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Jiang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is an aggressive disease with poor survival. A few sequencing studies performed on limited number of samples have revealed potential disease-driving genes in SCLC, however, much still remains unknown, particularly in the Asian patient population. Here we conducted whole exome sequencing (WES and transcriptomic sequencing of primary tumors from 99 Chinese SCLC patients. Dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes TP53 and RB1 was observed in 82% and 62% of SCLC patients, respectively, and more than half of the SCLC patients (62% harbored TP53 and RB1 mutation and/or copy number loss. Additionally, Serine/Arginine Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1 DNA copy number gain and mRNA over-expression was strongly associated with poor survival using both discovery and validation patient cohorts. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that SRSF1 is important for tumorigenicity of SCLC and may play a key role in DNA repair and chemo-sensitivity. These results strongly support SRSF1 as a prognostic biomarker in SCLC and provide a rationale for personalized therapy in SCLC.

  15. A matter of definition--key elements identified in a discourse analysis of definitions of palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, T; Jünger, S; Ostgathe, C; Elsner, F; Radbruch, L

    2008-04-01

    For more than 30 years, the term "palliative care" has been used. From the outset, the term has undergone a series of transformations in its definitions and consequently in its tasks and goals. There remains a lack of consensus on a definition. The aim of this article is to analyse the definitions of palliative care in the specialist literature and to identify the key elements of palliative care using discourse analysis: a qualitative methodology. The literature search focused on definitions of the term 'palliative medicine' and 'palliative care' in the World Wide Web and medical reference books in English and German. A total of 37 English and 26 German definitions were identified and analysed. Our study confirmed the lack of a consistent meaning concerning the investigated terms, reflecting on-going discussion about the nature of the field among palliative care practitioners. Several common key elements were identified. Four main categories emerged from the discourse analysis of the definition of palliative care: target groups, structure, tasks and expertise. In addition, the theoretical principles and goals of palliative care were discussed and found to be key elements, with relief and prevention of suffering and improvement of quality of life as main goals. The identified key elements can contribute to the definition of the concept 'palliative care'. Our study confirms the importance of semantic and ethical influences on palliative care that should be considered in future research on semantics in different languages.

  16. Identifying key genes in rheumatoid arthritis by weighted gene co-expression network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunhui; Lv, Qi; Teng, Songsong; Yu, Yinxian; Niu, Kerun; Yi, Chengqin

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to identify rheumatoid arthritis (RA) related genes based on microarray data using the WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) method. Two gene expression profile datasets GSE55235 (10 RA samples and 10 healthy controls) and GSE77298 (16 RA samples and seven healthy controls) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Characteristic genes were identified using metaDE package. WGCNA was used to find disease-related networks based on gene expression correlation coefficients, and module significance was defined as the average gene significance of all genes used to assess the correlation between the module and RA status. Genes in the disease-related gene co-expression network were subject to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Characteristic genes were also mapped to the Connectivity Map to screen small molecules. A total of 599 characteristic genes were identified. For each dataset, characteristic genes in the green, red and turquoise modules were most closely associated with RA, with gene numbers of 54, 43 and 79, respectively. These genes were enriched in totally enriched in 17 Gene Ontology terms, mainly related to immune response (CD97, FYB, CXCL1, IKBKE, CCR1, etc.), inflammatory response (CD97, CXCL1, C3AR1, CCR1, LYZ, etc.) and homeostasis (C3AR1, CCR1, PLN, CCL19, PPT1, etc.). Two small-molecule drugs sanguinarine and papaverine were predicted to have a therapeutic effect against RA. Genes related to immune response, inflammatory response and homeostasis presumably have critical roles in RA pathogenesis. Sanguinarine and papaverine have a potential therapeutic effect against RA. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Identifying key topics for a description of sexual behavior among Danish adolescents: A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede

    . Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one...... one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description...

  18. Improvements in Key Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Variables Following Cardiac Rehabilitation in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dejana; Kumar, Nikhil; Chaudhry, Sundeep; Bagai, Akshay; Arena, Ross; Kumar, Naresh

    2018-05-11

    Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) post-cardiac rehabilitation (post-CR) are used to gauge therapeutic efficacy. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of supervised CR on other cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) variables, specifically those that reflect ventilatory efficiency and VO2 changes in relation to changes in work rate (WR). Patients (n = 142; mean age 63 ± 9 y; 23% female) with coronary artery disease (CAD) participated in supervised CR for 3 to 6 mo completing 60 ± 17 sessions (range: 32-96 sessions), with intensity derived from the baseline CPX. CPX was completed at baseline and post-CR on a cycle ergometer. The minimum heart rate (HR) during cycling was set 5 to 10 beats/min above the HR at ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) while the maximum HR remained below the ischemic threshold observed during CPX, and this intensity was maintained for 25 min. VO2peak, peak O2 pulse, the minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and the ΔVO2/ΔWR slope were determined at baseline and post-CR. Following CR, there were significant improvements (all P < .001) in VO2peak (17.7 ± 4.7 mL/kg/min vs 20.9 ± 5.4 mL/kg/min), peak O2 pulse (11.6 ± 3.2 mL/beat vs 13.4 ± 3.6 mL/beat), VE/VCO2 slope (28.4 ± 5.3 vs 27.5 ± 4.7), OUES (1.8 ± 0.5 vs 2.0 ± 0.6), and ΔVO2/ΔWR slope (9.1 ± 1.2 mL/min/W vs 9.6 ± 1.1 mL/min/W). Key markers of ventilatory efficiency and VO2 kinetics during CPX significantly improve following CR. Expanding the list of variables assessed via CPX may provide better resolution in validation of CR therapeutic efficacy in patients with CAD.

  19. Identifying Key Proteins in Hg Methylation Pathways of Desulfovibrio by Global Proteomics, Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, Anne O. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Microbiology; Miller, Susan M. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry; Wall, Judy [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Lipton, Mary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-18

    Elemental mercury, Hg(0) is a contaminant at many DOE sites, especially at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) where the spread of spilled Hg and its effects on microbial populations have been monitored for decades. To explore the microbial interactions with Hg, we have devised a global proteomic approach capable of directly detecting Hg-adducts of proteins. This technique developed in the facultative anaerobe, Escherichia coli, allows us to identify the proteins most vulnerable to acute exposure to organomercurials phenyl- and ethyl-mercury (as surrogates for the highly neurotoxic methyl-Hg) (Polacco, et al, 2011). We have found >300 such proteins in all metabolic functional groups and cellular compartments; most are highly conserved and can serve as markers for acute Hg exposure (Zink, et al. 2016, in preparation). We have also discovered that acute Hg exposure severely disrupts thiol, iron and redox homeostases, and electrolyte balance (LaVoie, et al., 2015) Thus, we proposed to bring these techniques to bear on the central problem of identifying the cellular proteins involved in bacterial uptake and methylation of mercury and its release from the cell.

  20. Identifying key components for an effective case report poster: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Lisa L; Paranjape, Anuradha; Estrada, Carlos

    2009-03-01

    Residents demonstrate scholarly activity by presenting posters at academic meetings. Although recommendations from national organizations are available, evidence identifying which components are most important is not. To develop and test an evaluation tool to measure the quality of case report posters and identify the specific components most in need of improvement. Faculty evaluators reviewed case report posters and provided on-site feedback to presenters at poster sessions of four annual academic general internal medicine meetings. A newly developed ten-item evaluation form measured poster quality for specific components of content, discussion, and format (5-point Likert scale, 1 = lowest, 5 = highest). Evaluation tool performance, including Cronbach alpha and inter-rater reliability, overall poster scores, differences across meetings and evaluators and specific components of the posters most in need of improvement. Forty-five evaluators from 20 medical institutions reviewed 347 posters. Cronbach's alpha of the evaluation form was 0.84 and inter-rater reliability, Spearman's rho 0.49 (p words. Our evaluation tool provides empirical data to guide trainees as they prepare posters for presentation which may improve poster quality and enhance their scholarly productivity.

  1. Identifying Key Issues and Potential Solutions for Integrated Arrival, Departure, Surface Operations by Surveying Stakeholder Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    predictability and suggested several key attributes that were necessary to make the concept successful. The goals and objectives of the planned ATD-2 sub-project will incorporate the results of this stakeholder feedback.

  2. Rubella vaccination in India: identifying broad consequences of vaccine introduction and key knowledge gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, A K; Pramanik, S; Lessler, J; Ferrari, M; Grenfell, B T; Metcalf, C J E

    2018-01-01

    Rubella virus infection typically presents as a mild illness in children; however, infection during pregnancy may cause the birth of an infant with congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). As of February 2017, India began introducing rubella-containing vaccine (RCV) into the public-sector childhood vaccination programme. Low-level RCV coverage among children over several years can result in an increase in CRS incidence by increasing the average age of infection without sufficiently reducing rubella incidence. We evaluated the impact of RCV introduction on CRS incidence across India's heterogeneous demographic and epidemiological contexts. We used a deterministic age-structured model that reflects Indian states' rural and urban area-specific demography and vaccination coverage levels to simulate rubella dynamics and estimate CRS incidence with and without RCV introduction to the public sector. Our analysis suggests that current low-level private-sector vaccination has already slightly increased the burden of CRS in India. We additionally found that the effect of public-sector RCV introduction depends on the basic reproductive number, R 0, of rubella. If R 0 is five, a value empirically estimated from an array of settings, CRS incidence post-RCV introduction will likely decrease. However, if R 0 is seven or nine, some states may experience short-term or annual increases in CRS, even if a long-term total reduction in cases (30 years) is expected. Investment in population-based serological surveys and India's fever/rash surveillance system will be key to monitoring the success of the vaccination programme.

  3. From spatially variable streamflow to distributed hydrological models: Analysis of key modeling decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenicia, Fabrizio; Kavetski, Dmitri; Savenije, Hubert H. G.; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    This paper explores the development and application of distributed hydrological models, focusing on the key decisions of how to discretize the landscape, which model structures to use in each landscape element, and how to link model parameters across multiple landscape elements. The case study considers the Attert catchment in Luxembourg—a 300 km2 mesoscale catchment with 10 nested subcatchments that exhibit clearly different streamflow dynamics. The research questions are investigated using conceptual models applied at hydrologic response unit (HRU) scales (1-4 HRUs) on 6 hourly time steps. Multiple model structures are hypothesized and implemented using the SUPERFLEX framework. Following calibration, space/time model transferability is tested using a split-sample approach, with evaluation criteria including streamflow prediction error metrics and hydrological signatures. Our results suggest that: (1) models using geology-based HRUs are more robust and capture the spatial variability of streamflow time series and signatures better than models using topography-based HRUs; this finding supports the hypothesis that, in the Attert, geology exerts a stronger control than topography on streamflow generation, (2) streamflow dynamics of different HRUs can be represented using distinct and remarkably simple model structures, which can be interpreted in terms of the perceived dominant hydrologic processes in each geology type, and (3) the same maximum root zone storage can be used across the three dominant geological units with no loss in model transferability; this finding suggests that the partitioning of water between streamflow and evaporation in the study area is largely independent of geology and can be used to improve model parsimony. The modeling methodology introduced in this study is general and can be used to advance our broader understanding and prediction of hydrological behavior, including the landscape characteristics that control hydrologic response, the

  4. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kammann, Ulrike [Thünen-Institute of Fisheries Ecology, Palmaille 9, 22767 Hamburg (Germany); Hudjetz, Sebastian [Department of Ecosystem Analysis, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt – Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Cofalla, Catrina [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg [Federal Institute of Hydrology (BFG), Department G3: Biochemistry, Ecotoxicology, Am Mainzer Tor 1, 56068 Koblenz (Germany); Schüttrumpf, Holger [Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe-Straße 1, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Preuss, Thomas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research,ABBt- Aachen Biology and Biotechnology, RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios.

  5. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic models help identifying the key factors affecting contaminant uptake during flood events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, Markus; Eichbaum, Kathrin; Kammann, Ulrike; Hudjetz, Sebastian; Cofalla, Catrina; Buchinger, Sebastian; Reifferscheid, Georg; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Preuss, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PBTK model for trout was coupled with a sediment equilibrium partitioning model. • The influence of physical exercise on pollutant uptake was studies using the model. • Physical exercise during flood events can increase the level of biliary metabolites. • Cardiac output and effective respiratory volume were identified as relevant factors. • These confounding factors need to be considered also for bioconcentration studies. - Abstract: As a consequence of global climate change, we will be likely facing an increasing frequency and intensity of flood events. Thus, the ecotoxicological relevance of sediment re-suspension is of growing concern. It is vital to understand contaminant uptake from suspended sediments and relate it to effects in aquatic biota. Here we report on a computational study that utilizes a physiologically based toxicokinetic model to predict uptake, metabolism and excretion of sediment-borne pyrene in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To this end, data from two experimental studies were compared with the model predictions: (a) batch re-suspension experiments with constant concentration of suspended particulate matter at two different temperatures (12 and 24 °C), and (b) simulated flood events in an annular flume. The model predicted both the final concentrations and the kinetics of 1-hydroxypyrene secretion into the gall bladder of exposed rainbow trout well. We were able to show that exhaustive exercise during exposure in simulated flood events can lead to increased levels of biliary metabolites and identified cardiac output and effective respiratory volume as the two most important factors for contaminant uptake. The results of our study clearly demonstrate the relevance and the necessity to investigate uptake of contaminants from suspended sediments under realistic exposure scenarios

  6. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  7. Variables Associated with First Year Teacher Morale Which Can Be Identified in a Teacher Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Schuck, Robert F.

    This paper presents a study of the personal variables associated with first-year teacher morale that can be identified early in the training programs of novice teachers. This study is based on data derived from 96 (76.6 percent) of the graduates teaching in Mississippi. Data were collected through the use of five special instruments: (1)…

  8. Examining Preservice Science Teachers' Skills of Formulating Hypotheses and Identifying Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine preservice science teachers' skills of formulating hypotheses and identifying variables. The research has a phenomenological research design. The data was gathered qualitatively. In this study, preservice science teachers were first given two scenarios (Scenario-1 & Scenario-2) containing two different…

  9. Preparedness for physiotherapy in private practice: Novices identify key factors in an interpretive description study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robyn; McElroy, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    Physiotherapists in Australia deliver services to a diverse range of clients, across many settings, however little research exists examining graduate preparedness for practice, even in the populous field of private practice. To explore novice physiotherapist perspectives on preparedness for work in private practice. The qualitative approach of interpretive description was used to guide in-depth interviews with 8 novice physiotherapists from 3 universities working in 5 private practices in Melbourne. All interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically. Four main themes influencing graduate preparedness for work in private practice were identified: 1) non-curricular experiences (e.g. sports training) 2) elective curricular: practicum experiences; 3) curricular: attainment of skills specific to private practice; and 4) the private practice setting: supportive colleagues. This combination of non-curricular, curricular, and practice setting factors offered the necessary scaffolding for the graduates to report feeling prepared for work in private practice. Non-curricular activities, radiological instruction, clinical placements, building supportive colleague relations and professional development in private practice are recommended as potential means of building preparedness in novice therapists. Findings have implications for physiotherapy students, educators and private practice clinics looking to recruit new graduates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacy patronage: identifying key factors in the decision making process using the determinant attribute approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franic, Duska M; Haddock, Sarah M; Tucker, Leslie Tootle; Wooten, Nathan

    2008-01-01

    To use the determinant attribute approach, a research method commonly used in marketing to identify the wants of various consumer groups, to evaluate consumer pharmacy choice when having a prescription order filled in different pharmacy settings. Cross sectional. Community independent, grocery store, community chain, and discount store pharmacies in Georgia between April 2005 and April 2006. Convenience sample of adult pharmacy consumers (n = 175). Survey measuring consumer preferences on 26 attributes encompassing general pharmacy site features (16 items), pharmacist characteristics (5 items), and pharmacy staff characteristics (5 items). 26 potential determinant attributes for pharmacy selection. 175 consumers were surveyed at community independent (n = 81), grocery store (n = 44), community chain (n = 27), or discount store (n = 23) pharmacy settings. The attributes of pharmacists and staff at all four pharmacy settings were shown to affect pharmacy patronage motives, although consumers frequenting non-community independent pharmacies were also motivated by secondary convenience factors, e.g., hours of operation, and prescription coverage. Most consumers do not perceive pharmacies as merely prescription-distribution centers that vary only by convenience. Prescriptions are not just another economic good. Pharmacy personnel influence pharmacy selection; therefore, optimal staff selection and training is likely the greatest asset and most important investment for ensuring pharmacy success.

  11. Using the Delphi Technique to Identify Key Elements for Effective and Sustainable Visitor Use Planning Frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P. Fefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas around the world receive nearly 800 billion visits/year, with international tourism continuing to increase. While protected areas provide necessary benefits to communities and visitors, the increased visitation may negatively impact the resource and the recreational experience, hence the need to manage visitor use in protected areas around the world. This research focused on obtaining information from experts to document their experiences utilizing one visitor use planning framework: Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP. Using the Delphi Technique, 31 experts from seven regions around the world were asked to identify elements necessary for effective visitor management, as well as elements that facilitated or limited success when using VERP. Elements were categorized and rated in terms of importance. Scoring of the final categories was analyzed using Wilcoxon and Median non-parametric statistical tests. Results suggest that planning challenges stem from limitations in organizational capacity to support a long-term, adaptive management process, inferring that VERP may be sufficiently developed, but implementation capacity may not. The results can be used to refine existing frameworks, and to aid in the development of new recreation frameworks.

  12. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Adriana Hernández-Cuevas

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron, low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron, iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron, and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  13. Gene expression profiling in Entamoeba histolytica identifies key components in iron uptake and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Weber, Christian; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillen, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an ameboid parasite that causes colonic dysentery and liver abscesses in humans. The parasite encounters dramatic changes in iron concentration during its invasion of the host, with relatively low levels in the intestinal lumen and then relatively high levels in the blood and liver. The liver notably contains sources of iron; therefore, the parasite's ability to use these sources might be relevant to its survival in the liver and thus the pathogenesis of liver abscesses. The objective of the present study was to identify factors involved in iron uptake, use and storage in E. histolytica. We compared the respective transcriptomes of E. histolytica trophozoites grown in normal medium (containing around 169 µM iron), low-iron medium (around 123 µM iron), iron-deficient medium (around 91 µM iron), and iron-deficient medium replenished with hemoglobin. The differentially expressed genes included those coding for the ATP-binding cassette transporters and major facilitator transporters (which share homology with bacterial siderophores and heme transporters) and genes involved in heme biosynthesis and degradation. Iron deficiency was associated with increased transcription of genes encoding a subset of cell signaling molecules, some of which have previously been linked to adaptation to the intestinal environment and virulence. The present study is the first to have assessed the transcriptome of E. histolytica grown under various iron concentrations. Our results provide insights into the pathways involved in iron uptake and metabolism in this parasite.

  14. Identifying key soil cyanobacteria easy to isolate and culture for arid soil restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero-Ramos, Beatriz; Ángeles Muñoz-Martín, M.; Chamizo, Sonia; Román, Raúl; Rodriguez-Caballero, Emilio; Mateo, Pilar; Cantón, Yolanda

    2017-04-01

    Drylands represent an important fraction of the Earth land's surface. Low cover of vascular plants characterizes these regions, and the large open areas among plants are often colonized by cyanobacteria, mosses, lichens, algae, bryophytes, bacteria and fungi, known as biocrusts. Because these communities are on or within the soil surface, they contribute to improve physicochemical properties of the uppermost soil layers and have important effects on soil fertility and stability, so they could play an important role on soil restoration. Cyanobacteria appear to be a cross component of biocrusts and they have been demonstrated to enhance water availability, soil fertility (fixing atmospheric C and N), and soil aggregation (thanks to their filamentous morphology and the exopolysaccharides they excrete), and significantly reduce water and wind erosion. Besides, they are able to tolerate high temperatures and UV radiation. All these features convert cyanobacteria in pioneer organisms capable of colonizing degraded soils and may be crucial in facilitating the succession of more developed organisms such as vascular plants. Therefore, the use of native cyanobacteria, already adapted to site environmental conditions, could guarantee a successful restoration approach of degraded soils. However, previous to their application for soil restoration, the most representative species inhabiting these soils should be identified. The objective of this study was to identify (morphologically and genetically) and isolate representative native cyanobacteria species from arid soils in SE Spain, characterized for being easily isolated and cultured with the aim of using them to inoculate degraded arid soil. We selected two study areas in Almería, SE Spain, where biocrust cover most of the open spaces between plants: El Cautivo experimental site located in the Tabernas desert and a limestone quarry located at the southeastern edge of the Gádor massif. The first site is characterized by

  15. Probing molecular mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone: biophysical modeling identifies key regulators of functional dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Dixit

    Full Text Available Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could play a universal role in coordinating functional dynamics, principal collective motions and allosteric signaling of Hsp90. We have found that these functional motifs may be utilized by the molecular chaperone machinery to act collectively as central regulators of Hsp90 dynamics and activity, including the inter-domain communications, control of ATP hydrolysis, and protein client binding. These findings have provided support to a long-standing assertion that allosteric regulation and catalysis may have emerged via common evolutionary routes. The interaction networks regulating functional motions of Hsp90 may be determined by the inherent structural architecture of the molecular chaperone. At the same time, the thermodynamics-based "conformational selection" of functional states is likely to be activated based on the nature of the binding partner. This mechanistic model of Hsp90 dynamics and function is consistent with the notion that allosteric networks orchestrating cooperative protein motions can be formed by evolutionary conserved and sparsely connected residue clusters. Hence, allosteric signaling through a small network of distantly connected

  16. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  17. Simulation-based Assessment to Reliably Identify Key Resident Performance Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Richard H; Muret-Wagstaff, Sharon L; Boulet, John R; Cooper, Jeffrey B; Petrusa, Emil R; Baker, Keith H; Davidyuk, Galina; Dearden, Jennifer L; Feinstein, David M; Jones, Stephanie B; Kimball, William R; Mitchell, John D; Nadelberg, Robert L; Wiser, Sarah H; Albrecht, Meredith A; Anastasi, Amanda K; Bose, Ruma R; Chang, Laura Y; Culley, Deborah J; Fisher, Lauren J; Grover, Meera; Klainer, Suzanne B; Kveraga, Rikante; Martel, Jeffrey P; McKenna, Shannon S; Minehart, Rebecca D; Mitchell, John D; Mountjoy, Jeremi R; Pawlowski, John B; Pilon, Robert N; Shook, Douglas C; Silver, David A; Warfield, Carol A; Zaleski, Katherine L

    2018-04-01

    Obtaining reliable and valid information on resident performance is critical to patient safety and training program improvement. The goals were to characterize important anesthesia resident performance gaps that are not typically evaluated, and to further validate scores from a multiscenario simulation-based assessment. Seven high-fidelity scenarios reflecting core anesthesiology skills were administered to 51 first-year residents (CA-1s) and 16 third-year residents (CA-3s) from three residency programs. Twenty trained attending anesthesiologists rated resident performances using a seven-point behaviorally anchored rating scale for five domains: (1) formulate a clear plan, (2) modify the plan under changing conditions, (3) communicate effectively, (4) identify performance improvement opportunities, and (5) recognize limits. A second rater assessed 10% of encounters. Scores and variances for each domain, each scenario, and the total were compared. Low domain ratings (1, 2) were examined in detail. Interrater agreement was 0.76; reliability of the seven-scenario assessment was r = 0.70. CA-3s had a significantly higher average total score (4.9 ± 1.1 vs. 4.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.01, effect size = 0.33). CA-3s significantly outscored CA-1s for five of seven scenarios and domains 1, 2, and 3. CA-1s had a significantly higher proportion of worrisome ratings than CA-3s (chi-square = 24.1, P < 0.01, effect size = 1.50). Ninety-eight percent of residents rated the simulations more educational than an average day in the operating room. Sensitivity of the assessment to CA-1 versus CA-3 performance differences for most scenarios and domains supports validity. No differences, by experience level, were detected for two domains associated with reflective practice. Smaller score variances for CA-3s likely reflect a training effect; however, worrisome performance scores for both CA-1s and CA-3s suggest room for improvement.

  18. Identifying Pertinent Variables for Nonresponse Follow-Up Surveys. Lessons Learned from 4 Cases in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Vandenplas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All social surveys suffer from different types of errors, of which one of the most studied is non-response bias. Non-response bias is a systematic error that occurs because individuals differ in their accessibility and propensity to participate in a survey according to their own characteristics as well as those from the survey itself. The extent of the problem heavily depends on the correlation between response mechanisms and key survey variables. However, non-response bias is difficult to measure or to correct for due to the lack of relevant data about the whole target population or sample. In this paper, non-response follow-up surveys are considered as a possible source of information about non-respondents. Non-response follow-ups, however, suffer from two methodological issues: they themselves operate through a response mechanism that can cause potential non-response bias, and they pose a problem of comparability of measure, mostly because the survey design differs between main survey and non-response follow-up. In order to detect possible bias, the survey variables included in non-response surveys have to be related to the mechanism of participation, but not be sensitive to measurement effects due to the different designs. Based on accumulated experience of four similar non-response follow-ups, we studied the survey variables that fulfill these conditions. We differentiated socio-demographic variables that are measurement-invariant but have a lower correlation with non-response and variables that measure attitudes, such as trust, social participation, or integration in the public sphere, which are more sensitive to measurement effects but potentially more appropriate to account for the non-response mechanism. Our results show that education level, work status, and living alone, as well as political interest, satisfaction with democracy, and trust in institutions are pertinent variables to include in non-response follow-ups of general social

  19. A Simple Key for Identifying the Sibling Species of the Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae (Giles Complex by Polytene Chromosome Cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Music Temitope OBEMBE

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that Anopheles gambiae complex sibling species are the major Plasmodium malaria vectors in Africa; however, not all the sibling species transmit the infection. Easier molecular methods, PCR-based assays, have been developed to distinguish the several members of the A. gambiae complex. However, malaria vector research in less developed countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, is being hampered by the lack of PCR facilities in laboratories and the cost of carrying out the assay within lack of funding. Hence, the present study was designed to develop a simple identification key, based on an affordable method of polytene chromosome cytotaxonomy, for identifying the major P. falciparum vectors. The Identification Key was successfully used to identify two members of the A. gambiae complex, A. gambiae sensu stricto and A. arabiensis, which are the most potent malaria vectors in Africa; even so, it could not be used to establish the infective and the refractory strains.

  20. Improving the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states using a noiseless amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    By employing a nondeterministic noiseless linear amplifier, we propose to increase the maximum transmission distance of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with noisy coherent states. With the covariance matrix transformation, the expression of secret key rate under reverse reconciliation is derived against collective entangling cloner attacks. We show that the noiseless linear amplifier can compensate the detrimental effect of the preparation noise with an enhancement of the maximum transmission distance and the noise resistance. - Highlights: • Noiseless amplifier is applied in noisy coherent state quantum key distribution. • Negative effect of preparation noise is compensated by noiseless amplification. • Maximum transmission distance and noise resistance are both enhanced

  1. A genetic screen identifies BRCA2 and PALB2 as key regulators of G2 checkpoint maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menzel, Tobias; Nähse-Kumpf, Viola; Kousholt, Arne Nedergaard

    2011-01-01

    To identify key connections between DNA-damage repair and checkpoint pathways, we performed RNA interference screens for regulators of the ionizing radiation-induced G2 checkpoint, and we identified the breast cancer gene BRCA2. The checkpoint was also abrogated following depletion of PALB2......, an interaction partner of BRCA2. BRCA2 and PALB2 depletion led to premature checkpoint abrogation and earlier activation of the AURORA A-PLK1 checkpoint-recovery pathway. These results indicate that the breast cancer tumour suppressors and homologous recombination repair proteins BRCA2 and PALB2 are main...

  2. Protocol for a thematic synthesis to identify key themes and messages from a palliative care research network.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Emma

    2016-10-21

    Research networks that facilitate collaborative research are increasing both regionally and globally and such collaborations contribute greatly to knowledge transfer particularly in health research. The Palliative Care Research Network is an Irish-based network that seeks to create opportunities and engender a collaborative environment to encourage innovative research that is relevant for policy and practice. The current review outlines a methodology to identify cross-cutting messages to identify how dissemination outputs can be optimized to ensure that key messages from this research reaches all knowledge users.

  3. Use of a scenario-neutral approach to identify the key hydro-meteorological attributes that impact runoff from a natural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Danlu; Westra, Seth; Maier, Holger R.

    2017-11-01

    Scenario-neutral approaches are being used increasingly for assessing the potential impact of climate change on water resource systems, as these approaches allow the performance of these systems to be evaluated independently of climate change projections. However, practical implementations of these approaches are still scarce, with a key limitation being the difficulty of generating a range of plausible future time series of hydro-meteorological data. In this study we apply a recently developed inverse stochastic generation approach to support the scenario-neutral analysis, and thus identify the key hydro-meteorological variables to which the system is most sensitive. The stochastic generator simulates synthetic hydro-meteorological time series that represent plausible future changes in (1) the average, extremes and seasonal patterns of rainfall; and (2) the average values of temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH) and wind speed (uz) as variables that drive PET. These hydro-meteorological time series are then fed through a conceptual rainfall-runoff model to simulate the potential changes in runoff as a function of changes in the hydro-meteorological variables, and runoff sensitivity is assessed with both correlation and Sobol' sensitivity analyses. The method was applied to a case study catchment in South Australia, and the results showed that the most important hydro-meteorological attributes for runoff were winter rainfall followed by the annual average rainfall, while the PET-related meteorological variables had comparatively little impact. The high importance of winter rainfall can be related to the winter-dominated nature of both the rainfall and runoff regimes in this catchment. The approach illustrated in this study can greatly enhance our understanding of the key hydro-meteorological attributes and processes that are likely to drive catchment runoff under a changing climate, thus enabling the design of tailored climate impact assessments to specific

  4. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-30

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  5. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Tobias; Händchen, Vitus; Duhme, Jörg; Furrer, Fabian; Franz, Torsten; Pacher, Christoph; Werner, Reinhard F.; Schnabel, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our implementation is based on the distribution of continuous-variable Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled light. It is one-sided device independent, which means the security of the generated key is independent of any memoryfree attacks on the remote detector. Since continuous-variable encoding is compatible with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components.

  6. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hong-Xin; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Chou Chun

    2016-01-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. (paper)

  7. Quantum hacking of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution using Trojan-horse attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong-Xin; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Chou, Chun

    2016-08-01

    We present a Trojan-horse attack on the practical two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution system. Our attack mainly focuses on the imperfection of the practical system that the modulator has a redundancy of modulation pulse-width, which leaves a loophole for the eavesdropper inserting a Trojan-horse pulse. Utilizing the unique characteristics of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution that Alice only takes modulation operation on the received mode without any measurement, this attack allows the eavesdropper to render all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure without being detected. After analyzing the feasibility of the attack, the corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB338002) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304397 and 61505261).

  8. Controls on the spatial variability of key soil properties: comparing field data with a mechanistic soilscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, T.; Román, A.; Giraldez, J. V.

    2016-12-01

    There is a need for better understanding the processes influencing soil formation and the resulting distribution of soil properties. Soil properties can exhibit strong spatial variation, even at the small catchment scale. Especially soil carbon pools in semi-arid, mountainous areas are highly uncertain because bulk density and stoniness are very heterogeneous and rarely measured explicitly. In this study, we explore the spatial variability in key soil properties (soil carbon stocks, stoniness, bulk density and soil depth) as a function of processes shaping the critical zone (weathering, erosion, soil water fluxes and vegetation patterns). We also compare the potential of a geostatistical versus a mechanistic soil formation model (MILESD) for predicting these key soil properties. Soil core samples were collected from 67 locations at 6 depths. Total soil organic carbon stocks were 4.38 kg m-2. Solar radiation proved to be the key variable controlling soil carbon distribution. Stone content was mostly controlled by slope, indicating the importance of erosion. Spatial distribution of bulk density was found to be highly random. Finally, total carbon stocks were predicted using a random forest model whose main covariates were solar radiation and NDVI. The model predicts carbon stocks that are double as high on north versus south-facing slopes. However, validation showed that these covariates only explained 25% of the variation in the dataset. Apparently, present-day landscape and vegetation properties are not sufficient to fully explain variability in the soil carbon stocks in this complex terrain under natural vegetation. This is attributed to a high spatial variability in bulk density and stoniness, key variables controlling carbon stocks. Similar results were obtained with the mechanistic soil formation model MILESD, suggesting that more complex models might be needed to further explore this high spatial variability.

  9. Security proof of continuous-variable quantum key distribution using three coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brádler, Kamil; Weedbrook, Christian

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a ternary quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol and asymptotic security proof based on three coherent states and homodyne detection. Previous work had considered the binary case of two coherent states and here we nontrivially extend this to three. Our motivation is to leverage the practical benefits of both discrete and continuous (Gaussian) encoding schemes creating a best-of-both-worlds approach; namely, the postprocessing of discrete encodings and the hardware benefits of continuous ones. We present a thorough and detailed security proof in the limit of infinite signal states which allows us to lower bound the secret key rate. We calculate this is in the context of collective eavesdropping attacks and reverse reconciliation postprocessing. Finally, we compare the ternary coherent state protocol to other well-known QKD schemes (and fundamental repeaterless limits) in terms of secret key rates and loss.

  10. An improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol with added noise in homodyne detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Maozhu; Peng Xiang; Guo Hong

    2013-01-01

    We propose an improved two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) protocol by adding proper random noise on the receiver’s homodyne detection, the security of which is analysed against general collective attacks. The simulation result under the collective entangling cloner attack indicates that despite the correlation between two-way channels decreasing the secret key rate relative to the uncorrelated channels slightly, the performance of the two-way protocol is still far beyond that of the one-way protocols. Importantly, the added noise in detection is beneficial for the secret key rate and the tolerable excess noise of this two-way protocol. With the reasonable reconciliation efficiency of 90%, the two-way CV QKD with added noise allows the distribution of secret keys over 60 km fibre distance. (paper)

  11. Implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with composable and one-sided-device-independent security against coherent attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Haendchen, Vitus; Duhme, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Secret communication over public channels is one of the central pillars of a modern information society. Using quantum key distribution this is achieved without relying on the hardness of mathematical problems, which might be compromised by improved algorithms or by future quantum computers. State......-of-the-art quantum key distribution requires composable security against coherent attacks for a finite number of distributed quantum states as well as robustness against implementation side channels. Here we present an implementation of continuous-variable quantum key distribution satisfying these requirements. Our...... with conventional optical communication technology, our work is a step towards practical implementations of quantum key distribution with state-of-the-art security based solely on telecom components....

  12. Continuous-variable quantum authentication of physical unclonable keys: Security against an emulation attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, Georgios M.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a recently proposed entity authentication protocol in which a physical unclonable key is interrogated by random coherent states of light, and the quadratures of the scattered light are analyzed by means of a coarse-grained homodyne detection. We derive a sufficient condition for the protocol to be secure against an emulation attack in which an adversary knows the challenge-response properties of the key and moreover, he can access the challenges during the verification. The security analysis relies on Holevo's bound and Fano's inequality, and suggests that the protocol is secure against the emulation attack for a broad range of physical parameters that are within reach of today's technology.

  13. Identifying psychosocial variables that predict safer-sex intentions in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil eBrüll

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Young people are especially vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections. The triad of deliberate and effective safer-sex behavior encompasses condom use, combined with additional information about a partner’s sexual health, and the kind of sex acts usually performed. To identify psychosocial predictors of young people’s intentions to have safer sex, as related to this triad we conducted an online study with 211 sexually active participants aged between 18 and 24 years. Predictors (i.e. perceived behavioural control, subjective norms and intention taken from Fishbein and Ajzen’s Reasoned Action Approach (RAA, were combined with more distal variables (e.g. behavioral inhibition, sensation seeking, parental monitoring, and knowledge about sexually transmitted infections. Beyond the highly predictive power of RAA variables, additional variance was explained by the number of instances of unprotected sexual intercourse during the last twelve months and reasons for using barrier protection during first sexual intercourse. In particular, past condom nonuse behavior moderated perceived behavioral control related to intended condom use. Further, various distal variables showed significant univariate associations with intentions related to the three behaviors of interest. It may, therefore, be helpful to include measures of past behavior as well as certain additional distal variables in future safer-sex programs designed to promote health sustaining sexual behavior.

  14. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Pipingas, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth V; Farrow, Maree; Silberstein, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the use of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) reaction time variability (intraindividual variability or standard deviation of reaction time), as a measure of vigilance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and stimulant medication response, utilizing a simple CPT X-task vs an A-X-task. Comparative analyses of two separate X-task vs A-X-task data sets, and subgroup analyses of performance on and off medication were conducted. The CPT X-task reaction time variability had a direct relationship to ADHD clinician severity ratings, unlike the CPT A-X-task. Variability in X-task performance was reduced by medication compared with the children's unmedicated performance, but this effect did not reach significance. When the coefficient of variation was applied, severity measures and medication response were significant for the X-task, but not for the A-X-task. The CPT-X-task is a useful clinical screening test for ADHD and medication response. In particular, reaction time variability is related to default mode interference. The A-X-task is less useful in this regard.

  15. Variability in the ecophysiology of Halimeda spp. (Chlorophyta, Bryopsidales) on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beach, K; Walters, L; Vroom, P; Coyer, J; Hunter, C

    The photosynthetic performance, pigmentation, and growth of a Halimeda community were studied over a depth gradient on Conch Reef, Florida Keys, USA during summer-fall periods of 5 consecutive years. The physiology and growth of H. tuna (Ellis & Solander) Lamouroux and H. opuntia (L.) Lamouroux on

  16. Garbage in, Garbage out? Questioning Key Variable Face Validity in Contemporary Quantitative Crowdfunding Research

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David; Sloan, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Current Crowdfunding research, usually firmly rooted in quantitative analysis of backing progress towards a set funding goal, completely misses key business issues and makes substantial assumptions regarding the definition of success which are starkly naive and lacking in a understanding of how these systems are gamed by entrepreneurs to maximise both their commercial exposure and raised funds.

  17. Song practice promotes acute vocal variability at a key stage of sensorimotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie E Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trial by trial variability during motor learning is a feature encoded by the basal ganglia of both humans and songbirds, and is important for reinforcement of optimal motor patterns, including those that produce speech and birdsong. Given the many parallels between these behaviors, songbirds provide a useful model to investigate neural mechanisms underlying vocal learning. In juvenile and adult male zebra finches, endogenous levels of FoxP2, a molecule critical for language, decrease two hours after morning song onset within area X, part of the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway dedicated to song. In juveniles, experimental 'knockdown' of area X FoxP2 results in abnormally variable song in adulthood. These findings motivated our hypothesis that low FoxP2 levels increase vocal variability, enabling vocal motor exploration in normal birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After two hours in either singing or non-singing conditions (previously shown to produce differential area X FoxP2 levels, phonological and sequential features of the subsequent songs were compared across conditions in the same bird. In line with our prediction, analysis of songs sung by 75 day (75d birds revealed that syllable structure was more variable and sequence stereotypy was reduced following two hours of continuous practice compared to these features following two hours of non-singing. Similar trends in song were observed in these birds at 65d, despite higher overall within-condition variability at this age. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together with previous work, these findings point to the importance of behaviorally-driven acute periods during song learning that allow for both refinement and reinforcement of motor patterns. Future work is aimed at testing the observation that not only does vocal practice influence expression of molecular networks, but that these networks then influence subsequent variability in these skills.

  18. Can we identify non-stationary dynamics of trial-to-trial variability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emili Balaguer-Ballester

    Full Text Available Identifying sources of the apparent variability in non-stationary scenarios is a fundamental problem in many biological data analysis settings. For instance, neurophysiological responses to the same task often vary from each repetition of the same experiment (trial to the next. The origin and functional role of this observed variability is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience. The nature of such trial-to-trial dynamics however remains largely elusive to current data analysis approaches. A range of strategies have been proposed in modalities such as electro-encephalography but gaining a fundamental insight into latent sources of trial-to-trial variability in neural recordings is still a major challenge. In this paper, we present a proof-of-concept study to the analysis of trial-to-trial variability dynamics founded on non-autonomous dynamical systems. At this initial stage, we evaluate the capacity of a simple statistic based on the behaviour of trajectories in classification settings, the trajectory coherence, in order to identify trial-to-trial dynamics. First, we derive the conditions leading to observable changes in datasets generated by a compact dynamical system (the Duffing equation. This canonical system plays the role of a ubiquitous model of non-stationary supervised classification problems. Second, we estimate the coherence of class-trajectories in empirically reconstructed space of system states. We show how this analysis can discern variations attributable to non-autonomous deterministic processes from stochastic fluctuations. The analyses are benchmarked using simulated and two different real datasets which have been shown to exhibit attractor dynamics. As an illustrative example, we focused on the analysis of the rat's frontal cortex ensemble dynamics during a decision-making task. Results suggest that, in line with recent hypotheses, rather than internal noise, it is the deterministic trend which most likely underlies

  19. Variable Stars in (Not Only) Dwarf Galaxies : Key Tools to Constrain Distances and Stellar Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiorentino, G.; Koleva, M; Prugniel, P; Vauglin,

    2011-01-01

    The important role of Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars and what they teach us about dwarf galaxies is discussed. Despite ever improving star formation histories of Local Group dwarf galaxies uncertainties remain, in particular in the identification and characterisation of the oldest stellar

  20. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kocsis, Bence [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt [Institute of Physics, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-05-07

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range approx(10{sup 4}-10{sup 7}) M{sub o-dot}/(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  1. Identifying decaying supermassive black hole binaries from their variable electromagnetic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haiman, Zoltan; Menou, Kristen; Kocsis, Bence; Lippai, Zoltan; Frei, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) with masses in the mass range ∼(10 4 -10 7 ) M o-dot /(1 + z), produced in galaxy mergers, are thought to complete their coalescence due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs). The anticipated detection of the GWs by the future Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will constitute a milestone for fundamental physics and astrophysics. While the GW signatures themselves will provide a treasure trove of information, if the source can be securely identified in electromagnetic (EM) bands, this would open up entirely new scientific opportunities, to probe fundamental physics, astrophysics and cosmology. We discuss several ideas, involving wide-field telescopes, that may be useful in locating electromagnetic counterparts to SMBHBs detected by LISA. In particular, the binary may produce a variable electromagnetic flux, such as a roughly periodic signal due to the orbital motion prior to coalescence, or a prompt transient signal caused by shocks in the circumbinary disc when the SMBHB recoils and 'shakes' the disc. We discuss whether these time-variable EM signatures may be detectable, and how they can help in identifying a unique counterpart within the localization errors provided by LISA. We also discuss a possibility of identifying a population of coalescing SMBHBs statistically, in a deep optical survey for periodically variable sources, before LISA detects the GWs directly. The discovery of such sources would confirm that gas is present in the vicinity and is being perturbed by the SMBHB-serving as a proof of concept for eventually finding actual LISA counterparts.

  2. Using Range-Wide Abundance Modeling to Identify Key Conservation Areas for the Micro-Endemic Bolson Tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthya A Ureña-Aranda

    Full Text Available A widespread biogeographic pattern in nature is that population abundance is not uniform across the geographic range of species: most occurrence sites have relatively low numbers, whereas a few places contain orders of magnitude more individuals. The Bolson tortoise Gopherus flavomarginatus is endemic to a small region of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico, where habitat deterioration threatens this species with extinction. In this study we combined field burrows counts and the approach for modeling species abundance based on calculating the distance to the niche centroid to obtain range-wide abundance estimates. For the Bolson tortoise, we found a robust, negative relationship between observed burrows abundance and distance to the niche centroid, with a predictive capacity of 71%. Based on these results we identified four priority areas for the conservation of this microendemic and threatened tortoise. We conclude that this approach may be a useful approximation for identifying key areas for sampling and conservation efforts in elusive and rare species.

  3. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  4. Lake variability: Key factors controlling mercury concentrations in New York State fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonin, Howard A.; Loukmas, Jefferey J.; Skinner, Lawrence C.; Roy, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    A 4 year study surveyed 131 lakes across New York State beginning in 2003 to improve our understanding of mercury and gather information from previously untested waters. Our study focused on largemouth and smallmouth bass, walleye and yellow perch, common piscivorous fish shown to accumulate high mercury concentrations and species important to local fisheries. Fish from Adirondack and Catskill Forest Preserve lakes generally had higher mercury concentrations than those from lakes in other areas of the state. Variability between nearby individual lakes was observed, and could be due to differences in water chemistry, lake productivity or the abundance of wetlands in the watershed. We found the following factors impact mercury bioaccumulation: fish length, lake pH, specific conductivity, chlorophyll a, mercury concentration in the water, presence of an outlet dam and amount of contiguous wetlands. - Lake water chemistry variables, dams, and wetlands play major roles in determining fish mercury concentrations

  5. Identifying optimal remotely-sensed variables for ecosystem monitoring in Colorado Plateau drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitras, Travis; Villarreal, Miguel; Waller, Eric K.; Nauman, Travis; Miller, Mark E.; Duniway, Michael C.

    2018-01-01

    Water-limited ecosystems often recover slowly following anthropogenic or natural disturbance. Multitemporal remote sensing can be used to monitor ecosystem recovery after disturbance; however, dryland vegetation cover can be challenging to accurately measure due to sparse cover and spectral confusion between soils and non-photosynthetic vegetation. With the goal of optimizing a monitoring approach for identifying both abrupt and gradual vegetation changes, we evaluated the ability of Landsat-derived spectral variables to characterize surface variability of vegetation cover and bare ground across a range of vegetation community types. Using three year composites of Landsat data, we modeled relationships between spectral information and field data collected at monitoring sites near Canyonlands National Park, UT. We also developed multiple regression models to assess improvement over single variables. We found that for all vegetation types, percent cover bare ground could be accurately modeled with single indices that included a combination of red and shortwave infrared bands, while near infrared-based vegetation indices like NDVI worked best for quantifying tree cover and total live vegetation cover in woodlands. We applied four models to characterize the spatial distribution of putative grassland ecological states across our study area, illustrating how this approach can be implemented to guide dryland ecosystem management.

  6. Clinical Impact of Speed Variability to Identify Ultramarathon Runners at Risk for Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen-Kuang Hou

    Full Text Available Ultramarathon is a high endurance exercise associated with a wide range of exercise-related problems, such as acute kidney injury (AKI. Early recognition of individuals at risk of AKI during ultramarathon event is critical for implementing preventative strategies.To investigate the impact of speed variability to identify the exercise-related acute kidney injury anticipatively in ultramarathon event.This is a prospective, observational study using data from a 100 km ultramarathon in Taipei, Taiwan. The distance of entire ultramarathon race was divided into 10 splits. The mean and variability of speed, which was determined by the coefficient of variation (CV in each 10 km-split (25 laps of 400 m oval track were calculated for enrolled runners. Baseline characteristics and biochemical data were collected completely 1 week before, immediately post-race, and one day after race. The main outcome was the development of AKI, defined as Stage II or III according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN criteria. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent association between variables and AKI development.26 ultramarathon runners were analyzed in the study. The overall incidence of AKI (in all Stages was 84.6% (22 in 26 runners. Among these 22 runners, 18 runners were determined as Stage I, 4 runners (15.4% were determined as Stage II, and none was in Stage III. The covariates of BMI (25.22 ± 2.02 vs. 22.55 ± 1.96, p = 0.02, uric acid (6.88 ± 1.47 vs. 5.62 ± 0.86, p = 0.024, and CV of speed in specific 10-km splits (from secondary 10 km-split (10th - 20th km-split to 60th - 70th km-split were significantly different between runners with or without AKI (Stage II in univariate analysis and showed discrimination ability in ROC curve. In the following multivariate analysis, only CV of speed in 40th - 50th km-split continued to show a significant association to the development of AKI (Stage II (p = 0.032.The development of exercise

  7. Analysis of individual cells identifies cell-to-cell variability following induction of cellular senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Christopher D; Flynn, James M; Morrissey, Christapher; Lebofsky, Ronald; Shuga, Joe; Dong, Xiao; Unger, Marc A; Vijg, Jan; Melov, Simon; Campisi, Judith

    2017-10-01

    Senescent cells play important roles in both physiological and pathological processes, including cancer and aging. In all cases, however, senescent cells comprise only a small fraction of tissues. Senescent phenotypes have been studied largely in relatively homogeneous populations of cultured cells. In vivo, senescent cells are generally identified by a small number of markers, but whether and how these markers vary among individual cells is unknown. We therefore utilized a combination of single-cell isolation and a nanofluidic PCR platform to determine the contributions of individual cells to the overall gene expression profile of senescent human fibroblast populations. Individual senescent cells were surprisingly heterogeneous in their gene expression signatures. This cell-to-cell variability resulted in a loss of correlation among the expression of several senescence-associated genes. Many genes encoding senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) factors, a major contributor to the effects of senescent cells in vivo, showed marked variability with a subset of highly induced genes accounting for the increases observed at the population level. Inflammatory genes in clustered genomic loci showed a greater correlation with senescence compared to nonclustered loci, suggesting that these genes are coregulated by genomic location. Together, these data offer new insights into how genes are regulated in senescent cells and suggest that single markers are inadequate to identify senescent cells in vivo. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Identifying individuality and variability in team tactics by means of statistical shape analysis and multilayer perceptrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Jörg M; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I

    2012-04-01

    Offensive and defensive systems of play represent important aspects of team sports. They include the players' positions at certain situations during a match, i.e., when players have to be on specific positions on the court. Patterns of play emerge based on the formations of the players on the court. Recognition of these patterns is important to react adequately and to adjust own strategies to the opponent. Furthermore, the ability to apply variable patterns of play seems to be promising since they make it harder for the opponent to adjust. The purpose of this study is to identify different team tactical patterns in volleyball and to analyze differences in variability. Overall 120 standard situations of six national teams in women's volleyball are analyzed during a world championship tournament. Twenty situations from each national team are chosen, including the base defence position (start configuration) and the two players block with middle back deep (end configuration). The shapes of the defence formations at the start and end configurations during the defence of each national team as well as the variability of these defence formations are statistically analyzed. Furthermore these shapes data are used to train multilayer perceptrons in order to test whether artificial neural networks can recognize the teams by their tactical patterns. Results show significant differences between the national teams in both the base defence position at the start and the two players block with middle back deep at the end of the standard defence situation. Furthermore, the national teams show significant differences in variability of the defence systems and start-positions are more variable than the end-positions. Multilayer perceptrons are able to recognize the teams at an average of 98.5%. It is concluded that defence systems in team sports are highly individual at a competitive level and variable even in standard situations. Artificial neural networks can be used to recognize

  9. Practical performance of real-time shot-noise measurement in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Peng; Zhou, Yingming; Liu, Weiqi; Zeng, Guihua

    2018-01-01

    In a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CVQKD) system, real-time shot-noise measurement (RTSNM) is an essential procedure for preventing the eavesdropper exploiting the practical security loopholes. However, the performance of this procedure itself is not analyzed under the real-world condition. Therefore, we indicate the RTSNM practical performance and investigate its effects on the CVQKD system. In particular, due to the finite-size effect, the shot-noise measurement at the receiver's side may decrease the precision of parameter estimation and consequently result in a tight security bound. To mitigate that, we optimize the block size for RTSNM under the ensemble size limitation to maximize the secure key rate. Moreover, the effect of finite dynamics of amplitude modulator in this scheme is studied and its mitigation method is also proposed. Our work indicates the practical performance of RTSNM and provides the real secret key rate under it.

  10. Security analysis of orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing-based continuous-variable quantum key distribution with imperfect modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Mao, Yu; Huang, Duan; Li, Jiawei; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Ying

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a reliable scheme for continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD) by using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). As a spectrally efficient multiplexing technique, OFDM allows a large number of closely spaced orthogonal subcarrier signals used to carry data on several parallel data streams or channels. We place emphasis on modulator impairments which would inevitably arise in the OFDM system and analyze how these impairments affect the OFDM-based CV-QKD system. Moreover, we also evaluate the security in the asymptotic limit and the Pirandola-Laurenza-Ottaviani-Banchi upper bound. Results indicate that although the emergence of imperfect modulation would bring about a slight decrease in the secret key bit rate of each subcarrier, the multiplexing technique combined with CV-QKD results in a desirable improvement on the total secret key bit rate which can raise the numerical value about an order of magnitude.

  11. Security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution: towards a de Finetti theorem for rotation symmetry in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leverrier, A; Karpov, E; Cerf, N J; Grangier, P

    2009-01-01

    Proving the unconditional security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is a highly challenging task as one needs to determine the most efficient attack compatible with experimental data. This task is even more demanding for continuous-variable QKD as the Hilbert space where the protocol is described is infinite dimensional. A possible strategy to address this problem is to make an extensive use of the symmetries of the protocol. In this paper, we investigate a rotation symmetry in phase space that is particularly relevant to continuous-variable QKD, and explore the way towards a new quantum de Finetti theorem that would exploit this symmetry and provide a powerful tool to assess the security of continuous-variable protocols. As a first step, a single-party asymptotic version of this quantum de Finetti theorem in phase space is derived.

  12. Clonal structure and variable fertilization success in Florida Keys broadcast-spawning corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. W.; Baums, I. B.; Pausch, R. E.; Bright, A. J.; Cameron, C. M.; Williams, D. E.; Moffitt, Z. J.; Woodley, C. M.

    2018-03-01

    Keystone reef-building corals in the Caribbean are predominantly self-incompatible broadcast spawners and a majority are threatened due to both acute adult mortality and poor recruitment. As population densities decline, concerns about fertilization limitation and effective population size in these species increase and would be further exacerbated by either high clonality or gametic incompatibility of parental genotypes. This study begins to address these concerns for two Caribbean broadcasting species by characterizing clonal structure and quantifying experimental pairwise fertilization success. Orbicella faveolata showed surprisingly high and contrasting levels of clonality between two sampled sites; Acropora palmata was previously known to be highly clonal. Individual pairwise crosses of synchronously spawning genotypes of each species were conducted by combining aliquots of gamete bundles immediately after spawning, and showed high and significant variability in fertilization success. Over half of the individual crosses of O. faveolata and about one-third of A. palmata crosses yielded ≤ 40% fertilization. Total sperm concentration was quantified in only a subset of O. faveolata crosses (range of 1-6 × 107 mL-1), but showed no correlation with fertilization success. We interpret that both parental incompatibility and individual genotypes with low-quality gametes are likely to have contributed to the variable fertilization observed with important implications for conservation. Differential fertilization success implies effective population size may be considerably smaller than hoped and population enhancement efforts need to incorporate many more parental genotypes at the patch scale to ensure successful larval production than indicated by estimates based simply on preserving levels of standing genetic diversity.

  13. Identifying key factors and strategies for reducing industrial CO2 emissions from a non-Kyoto protocol member's (Taiwan) perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Sue J.; Lu, I.J.; Lewis, Charles

    2006-01-01

    In this study we use Divisia index approach to identify key factors affecting CO 2 emission changes of industrial sectors in Taiwan. The changes of CO 2 emission are decomposed into emission coefficient, energy intensity, industrial structure and economic growth. Furthermore, comparisons with USA, Japan, Germany, the Netherlands and South Korea are made to have a better understanding of emission tendency in these countries and to help formulate our CO 2 reduction strategies for responding to the international calls for CO 2 cuts. The results show that economic growth and high energy intensity were two key factors for the rapid increase of industrial CO 2 emission in Taiwan, while adjustment of industrial structure was the main component for the decrease. Although economic development is important, Taiwan must keep pace with the international trends for CO 2 reduction. Among the most important strategies are continuous efforts to improve energy intensity, fuel mix toward lower carbon, setting targets for industrial CO 2 cuts, and advancing green technology through technology transfer. Also, the clean development mechanism (CDM) is expected to play an important role in the future

  14. Empirical downscaling of atmospheric key variables above a tropical glacier surface (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, M.; Kaser, G.; Mölg, T.; Juen, I.; Wagnon, P.

    2009-04-01

    Glaciers in the outer tropical Cordillera Blanca (Peru, South America) are of major socio-economic importance, since glacier runoff represents the primary water source during the dry season, when little or no rainfall occurs. Due to their location at high elevations, the glaciers moreover provide important information about climate change in the tropical troposphere, where measurements are sparse. This study targets the local reconstruction of air temperature, specific humidity and wind speed above the surface of an outer tropical glacier from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data as large scale predictors. Since a farther scope is to provide input data for process based glacier mass balance modelling, the reconstruction pursues a high temporal resolution. Hence an empirical downscaling scheme is developed, based on a few years' time series of hourly observations from automatic weather stations, located at the glacier Artesonraju and nearby moraines (Northern Cordillera Blanca). Principal component and multiple regression analyses are applied to define the appropriate spatial downscaling domain, suitable predictor variables, and the statistical transfer functions. The model performance is verified using an independent data set. The best predictors are lower tropospheric air temperature and specific humidity, at reanalysis model grid points that represent the Bolivian Altiplano, located in the South of the Cordillera Blanca. The developed downscaling model explaines a considerable portion (more than 60%) of the diurnal variance of air temperature and specific humidity at the moraine stations, and air temperature above the glacier surface. Specific humidity above the glacier surface, however, can be reconstructed well in the seasonal, but not in the required diurnal time resolution. Wind speed can only be poorly determined by the large scale predictors (r² lower than 0.3) at both sites. We assume a complex local interaction between valley and glacier wind system to be the main

  15. Maxillary Implant-Supported Fixed Prosthesis: A Survey of Reviews and Key Variables for Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, German O; Avrampou, Marianna; Taylor, James C; Elpers, Julie; Thalji, Ghadeer; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2016-01-01

    This review was conducted to provide information to support the establishment of clinical guidelines for the treatment of maxillary edentulism using implant-supported fixed dental prostheses. Initial efforts were directed toward a systematic review with a defined PICO question: "For maxillary edentulous patients with dental implants treated using a fixed prosthesis, what is the impact of prosthesis design on prosthesis survival and complications?" Following a title search of more than 3,000 titles identified by electronic search of PubMed, 180 articles were identified that addressed the clinical evaluation of maxillary dental implant prostheses. The broad methodologic heterogeneity and clinical variation among reports precluded this approach for a systematic review. The information was extracted using a standardized extraction table by two pairs of investigators, and the reported outcomes were then summarized according to reported outcomes for implant prostheses supported by four, six, or eight implants using unitary or segmented prostheses. This review indicated that high prosthetic survival is observed using all approaches. The advantages of using fewer implants and a unitary prosthesis are revealed in the surgical phases, and complications commonly involve the fracture or detachment of acrylic teeth and reduced access for proper oral hygiene and related biologic complications. Using six implants typically involved grafting of posterior regions with advantages of reduced cantilevers and redundancy of implant support. Reduced prosthesis survival in these cases was associated with poor implant distribution. Segmented prostheses supported by six or more implants offered greater prosthetic survival, perhaps due to posterior implant placement. Advantages of a segmented prosthesis included pragmatic issues of accommodating divergent implants, attaining passive fit, combining prosthetic materials, and relative simplicity of repair. The existing literature demonstrated

  16. Identifying the variables associated with pain during transrectal ultrasonography of the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou CP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chen-Pang Hou,1,2 Yu-Hsiang Lin,1,2 Meng-Chiao Hsieh,3 Chien-Lun Chen,1,2 Phei-Lang Chang,1,2 Ying-Chen Huang,2 Ke-Hung Tsui1,21Department of Urology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, 2School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, 3Division of Colon and Rectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Chiayi, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the degree of pain experienced by the patients receiving transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS of the prostate by applying a visual analog scale. We also identified the clinical parameters influencing pain during the TRUS examination.Materials and methods: Records were obtained from a prospective database for male patients who received TRUS of prostate in the outpatient department of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, from January 2014 to June 2014. The patients underwent a detailed physical examination and medical history review. Immediately after the TRUS examination, the patients completed questionnaires based on a ten-point visual analog pain scale. The variables of interest were age, body mass index, prostate volume, prostate sagittal length, prostate-specific antigen, previous TRUS experience, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, prostate calcification, and image artifact caused by stool in the rectum. All variables were correlated to the visual analog scale by applying multivariate regression analysis.Results: By using linear regression analysis, we identified the independent factors that affected the pain score during the TRUS examination. The patients who received the examination for the first time or had longer prostate sagittal lengths, external hemorrhoids, anal surgical history, or stool stored in the rectum experienced more pain during the TRUS examination. Furthermore, the pain was reduced when we provided the patients with a detailed explanation before the procedure and

  17. In-Silico Integration Approach to Identify a Key miRNA Regulating a Gene Network in Aggressive Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprico, Antonio; Bontempi, Gianluca; Castiglioni, Isabella

    2018-01-01

    Like other cancer diseases, prostate cancer (PC) is caused by the accumulation of genetic alterations in the cells that drives malignant growth. These alterations are revealed by gene profiling and copy number alteration (CNA) analysis. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that also microRNAs have an important role in PC development. Despite efforts to profile PC, the alterations (gene, CNA, and miRNA) and biological processes that correlate with disease development and progression remain partially elusive. Many gene signatures proposed as diagnostic or prognostic tools in cancer poorly overlap. The identification of co-expressed genes, that are functionally related, can identify a core network of genes associated with PC with a better reproducibility. By combining different approaches, including the integration of mRNA expression profiles, CNAs, and miRNA expression levels, we identified a gene signature of four genes overlapping with other published gene signatures and able to distinguish, in silico, high Gleason-scored PC from normal human tissue, which was further enriched to 19 genes by gene co-expression analysis. From the analysis of miRNAs possibly regulating this network, we found that hsa-miR-153 was highly connected to the genes in the network. Our results identify a four-gene signature with diagnostic and prognostic value in PC and suggest an interesting gene network that could play a key regulatory role in PC development and progression. Furthermore, hsa-miR-153, controlling this network, could be a potential biomarker for theranostics in high Gleason-scored PC. PMID:29562723

  18. Research review: the shared environment as a key source of variability in child and adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, S Alexandra

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral genetic research has historically concluded that the more important environmental influences were nonshared or result in differences between siblings, whereas environmental influences that create similarities between siblings (referred to as shared environmental influences) were indistinguishable from zero. Recent theoretical and meta-analytic work {Burt. Psychological Bulletin [135 (2009) 608]} has challenged this conclusion as it relates to child and adolescent psychopathology, however, arguing that the shared environment is a moderate, persistent, and identifiable source of individual differences in such outcomes prior to adulthood. The current review seeks to bolster research on the shared environment by highlighting both the logistic advantages inherent in studies of the shared environment, as well as the use of nontraditional but still genetically informed research designs to study shared environmental influences. Although often moderate in magnitude prior to adulthood and free of unsystematic measurement error, shared environmental influences are nevertheless likely to have been underestimated in prior research. Moreover, the shared environment is likely to include proximal effects of the family, as well as the effects of more distal environmental contexts such as neighborhood and school. These risk and protective factors could influence the child either as main effects or as moderators of genetic influence (i.e. gene-environment interactions). Finally, because the absence of genetic relatedness in an otherwise nonindependent dataset also qualifies as 'genetically informed', studies of the shared environment are amenable to the use of novel and non-traditional designs (with appropriate controls for selection). The shared environment makes important contributions to most forms of child and adolescent psychopathology. Empirical examinations of the shared environment would thus be of real and critical value for understanding the development and

  19. Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by PLSR with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shihong; Lu, Changqi; Li, Meifeng; Ye, Yulong; Wei, Xu; Tong, Huarong

    2018-04-13

    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) is the most frequently used method to estimate the sensory contribution of single odorant, but disregards the interactions between volatiles. In order to select the key volatiles responsible for the aroma attributes of Congou black tea (Camellia sinensis), instrumental, sensory and multivariate statistical approaches were applied. By sensory analysis, nine panelists developed 8 descriptors, namely, floral, sweet, fruity, green, roasted, oil, spicy, and off-odor. Linalool, (E)-furan linalool oxide, (Z)-pyran linalool oxide, methyl salicylate, β-myrcene, phenylethyl alcohol which identified from the most representative samples by GC-O procedure, were the essential aroma-active compounds in the formation of basic Congou black tea aroma. In addition, 136 volatiles were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), among which 55 compounds were determined as the key factors for the six sensory attributes by partial least-square regression (PLSR) with variable importance of projection (VIP) scores. Our results demonstrated that HS-SPME/GC-MS/GC-O was a fast approach for isolation and quantification aroma-active compounds. PLSR method was also considered to be a useful tool in selecting important variables for sensory attributes. These two strategies allowed us to comprehensively evaluate the sensorial contribution of single volatile from different perspectives, can be applied to related products for comprehensive quality control. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Identifying novel phenotypes of acute heart failure using cluster analysis of clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Latif, A H M Mahbub; Urayama, Kevin Y; Aoki, Jiro; Yahagi, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Taishi; Sato, Yu; Tanaka, Tetsu; Koseki, Keita; Komiyama, Kota; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Tanabe, Kengo

    2018-07-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a heterogeneous disease caused by various cardiovascular (CV) pathophysiology and multiple non-CV comorbidities. We aimed to identify clinically important subgroups to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of AHF and inform clinical decision-making. We evaluated detailed clinical data of 345 consecutive AHF patients using non-hierarchical cluster analysis of 77 variables, including age, sex, HF etiology, comorbidities, physical findings, laboratory data, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and treatment during hospitalization. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to estimate the association between the clusters and clinical outcomes. Three clusters were identified. Cluster 1 (n=108) represented "vascular failure". This cluster had the highest average systolic blood pressure at admission and lung congestion with type 2 respiratory failure. Cluster 2 (n=89) represented "cardiac and renal failure". They had the lowest ejection fraction (EF) and worst renal function. Cluster 3 (n=148) comprised mostly older patients and had the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation and preserved EF. Death or HF hospitalization within 12-month occurred in 23% of Cluster 1, 36% of Cluster 2 and 36% of Cluster 3 (p=0.034). Compared with Cluster 1, risk of death or HF hospitalization was 1.74 (95% CI, 1.03-2.95, p=0.037) for Cluster 2 and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.13-2.93, p=0.014) for Cluster 3. Cluster analysis may be effective in producing clinically relevant categories of AHF, and may suggest underlying pathophysiology and potential utility in predicting clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Polarized training has greater impact on key endurance variables than threshold, high intensity or high volume training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eStöggl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletes integrate four conditioning concepts in their training programs: high-volume training (HVT, ‘threshold-training’ (THR, high-intensity interval training (HIIT and a combination of these aforementioned concepts known as polarized training (POL. The purpose of this study was to explore which of these four training concepts provides the greatest response on key components of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Forty eight runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers (peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 62.6±7.1 mL∙min-1∙kg-1 were randomly assigned to one of four groups performing over nine weeks. An incremental test, work economy and a VO2peak tests were performed. Training intensity was heart rate controlled. Results: POL demonstrated the greatest increase in VO2peak (+6.8 ml∙min∙kg-1 or 11.7%, P0.05. Conclusion: POL resulted in the greatest improvements in most key variables of endurance performance in well-trained endurance athletes. THR or HVT did not lead to further improvements in performance related variables.

  2. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Where's the Noise? Key Features of Spontaneous Activity and Neural Variability Arise through Learning in a Deterministic Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Hartmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Even in the absence of sensory stimulation the brain is spontaneously active. This background "noise" seems to be the dominant cause of the notoriously high trial-to-trial variability of neural recordings. Recent experimental observations have extended our knowledge of trial-to-trial variability and spontaneous activity in several directions: 1. Trial-to-trial variability systematically decreases following the onset of a sensory stimulus or the start of a motor act. 2. Spontaneous activity states in sensory cortex outline the region of evoked sensory responses. 3. Across development, spontaneous activity aligns itself with typical evoked activity patterns. 4. The spontaneous brain activity prior to the presentation of an ambiguous stimulus predicts how the stimulus will be interpreted. At present it is unclear how these observations relate to each other and how they arise in cortical circuits. Here we demonstrate that all of these phenomena can be accounted for by a deterministic self-organizing recurrent neural network model (SORN, which learns a predictive model of its sensory environment. The SORN comprises recurrently coupled populations of excitatory and inhibitory threshold units and learns via a combination of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP and homeostatic plasticity mechanisms. Similar to balanced network architectures, units in the network show irregular activity and variable responses to inputs. Additionally, however, the SORN exhibits sequence learning abilities matching recent findings from visual cortex and the network's spontaneous activity reproduces the experimental findings mentioned above. Intriguingly, the network's behaviour is reminiscent of sampling-based probabilistic inference, suggesting that correlates of sampling-based inference can develop from the interaction of STDP and homeostasis in deterministic networks. We conclude that key observations on spontaneous brain activity and the variability of neural

  4. Metabolic profiles of triple-negative and luminal A breast cancer subtypes in African-American identify key metabolic differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyari, Fariba; Gowda, G A Nagana; Olopade, Olufunmilayo F; Berg, Richard; Yang, Howard H; Lee, Maxwell P; Ngwa, Wilfred F; Mittal, Suresh K; Raftery, Daniel; Mohammed, Sulma I

    2018-02-20

    Breast cancer, a heterogeneous disease with variable pathophysiology and biology, is classified into four major subtypes. While hormonal- and antibody-targeted therapies are effective in the patients with luminal and HER-2 subtypes, the patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype do not benefit from these therapies. The incidence rates of TNBC subtype are higher in African-American women, and the evidence indicates that these women have worse prognosis compared to women of European descent. The reasons for this disparity remain unclear but are often attributed to TNBC biology. In this study, we performed metabolic analysis of breast tissues to identify how TNBC differs from luminal A breast cancer (LABC) subtypes within the African-American and Caucasian breast cancer patients, respectively. We used High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to perform the metabolomic analysis of breast cancer and adjacent normal tissues (total n=82 samples). TNBC and LABC subtypes in African American women exhibited different metabolic profiles. Metabolic profiles of these subtypes were also distinct from those revealed in Caucasian women. TNBC in African-American women expressed higher levels of glutathione, choline, and glutamine as well as profound metabolic alterations characterized by decreased mitochondrial respiration and increased glycolysis concomitant with decreased levels of ATP. TNBC in Caucasian women was associated with increased pyrimidine synthesis. These metabolic alterations could potentially be exploited as novel treatment targets for TNBC.

  5. A systems toxicology approach identifies Lyn as a key signaling phosphoprotein modulated by mercury in a B lymphocyte cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Joseph A.; Stemmer, Paul M. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Dombkowski, Alan [Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Caruthers, Nicholas J. [Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Gill, Randall [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Rosenspire, Allen J., E-mail: arosenspire@wayne.edu [Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Network and protein–protein interaction analyses of proteins undergoing Hg{sup 2+}-induced phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in Hg{sup 2+}-intoxicated mouse WEHI-231 B cells identified Lyn as the most interconnected node. Lyn is a Src family protein tyrosine kinase known to be intimately involved in the B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. Under normal signaling conditions the tyrosine kinase activity of Lyn is controlled by phosphorylation, primarily of two well known canonical regulatory tyrosine sites, Y-397 and Y-508. However, Lyn has several tyrosine residues that have not yet been determined to play a major role under normal signaling conditions, but are potentially important sites for phosphorylation following mercury exposure. In order to determine how Hg{sup 2+} exposure modulates the phosphorylation of additional residues in Lyn, a targeted MS assay was developed. Initial mass spectrometric surveys of purified Lyn identified 7 phosphorylated tyrosine residues. A quantitative assay was developed from these results using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) strategy. WEHI-231 cells were treated with Hg{sup 2+}, pervanadate (a phosphatase inhibitor), or anti-Ig antibody (to stimulate the BCR). Results from these studies showed that the phosphoproteomic profile of Lyn after exposure of the WEHI-231 cells to a low concentration of Hg{sup 2+} closely resembled that of anti-Ig antibody stimulation, whereas exposure to higher concentrations of Hg{sup 2+} led to increases in the phosphorylation of Y-193/Y-194, Y-501 and Y-508 residues. These data indicate that mercury can disrupt a key regulatory signal transduction pathway in B cells and point to phospho-Lyn as a potential biomarker for mercury exposure. - Highlights: • Inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) induces changes in the WEHI-231 B cell phosphoproteome. • The B cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway was the pathway most affected by Hg{sup 2+}. • The Src family phosphoprotein kinase Lyn was the

  6. Practices for Identifying and Rejecting Hemolyzed Specimens Are Highly Variable in Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howanitz, Peter J; Lehman, Christopher M; Jones, Bruce A; Meier, Frederick A; Horowitz, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Hemolysis is an important clinical laboratory quality attribute that influences result reliability. To determine hemolysis identification and rejection practices occurring in clinical laboratories. We used the College of American Pathologists Survey program to distribute a Q-Probes-type questionnaire about hemolysis practices to Chemistry Survey participants. Of 3495 participants sent the questionnaire, 846 (24%) responded. In 71% of 772 laboratories, the hemolysis rate was less than 3.0%, whereas in 5%, it was 6.0% or greater. A visual scale, an instrument scale, and combination of visual and instrument scales were used to identify hemolysis in 48%, 11%, and 41% of laboratories, respectively. A picture of the hemolysis level was used as an aid to technologists' visual interpretation of hemolysis levels in 40% of laboratories. In 7.0% of laboratories, all hemolyzed specimens were rejected; in 4% of laboratories, no hemolyzed specimens were rejected; and in 88% of laboratories, some specimens were rejected depending on hemolysis levels. Participants used 69 different terms to describe hemolysis scales, with 21 terms used in more than 10 laboratories. Slight and moderate were the terms used most commonly. Of 16 different cutoffs used to reject hemolyzed specimens, moderate was the most common, occurring in 30% of laboratories. For whole blood electrolyte measurements performed in 86 laboratories, 57% did not evaluate the presence of hemolysis, but for those that did, the most common practice in 21 laboratories (24%) was centrifuging and visually determining the presence of hemolysis in all specimens. Hemolysis practices vary widely. Standard assessment and consistent reporting are the first steps in reducing interlaboratory variability among results.

  7. Recurrent neural network approach to quantum signal: coherent state restoration for continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weizhao; Huang, Chunhui; Hou, Kun; Shi, Liting; Zhao, Huihui; Li, Zhengmei; Qiu, Jianfeng

    2018-05-01

    In continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV-QKD), weak signal carrying information transmits from Alice to Bob; during this process it is easily influenced by unknown noise which reduces signal-to-noise ratio, and strongly impacts reliability and stability of the communication. Recurrent quantum neural network (RQNN) is an artificial neural network model which can perform stochastic filtering without any prior knowledge of the signal and noise. In this paper, a modified RQNN algorithm with expectation maximization algorithm is proposed to process the signal in CV-QKD, which follows the basic rule of quantum mechanics. After RQNN, noise power decreases about 15 dBm, coherent signal recognition rate of RQNN is 96%, quantum bit error rate (QBER) drops to 4%, which is 6.9% lower than original QBER, and channel capacity is notably enlarged.

  8. Directional semivariogram analysis to identify and rank controls on the spatial variability of fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, John R.; Fischer, Mark P.; Pollyea, Ryan M.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the directional semivariogram is deployed to investigate the spatial variability of map-scale fracture network attributes in the Paradox Basin, Utah. The relative variability ratio (R) is introduced as the ratio of integrated anisotropic semivariogram models, and R is shown to be an effective metric for quantifying the magnitude of spatial variability for any two azimuthal directions. R is applied to a GIS-based data set comprising roughly 1200 fractures, in an area which is bounded by a map-scale anticline and a km-scale normal fault. This analysis reveals that proximity to the fault strongly influences the magnitude of spatial variability for both fracture intensity and intersection density within 1-2 km. Additionally, there is significant anisotropy in the spatial variability, which is correlated with trends of the anticline and fault. The direction of minimum spatial correlation is normal to the fault at proximal distances, and gradually rotates and becomes subparallel to the fold axis over the same 1-2 km distance away from the fault. We interpret these changes to reflect varying scales of influence of the fault and the fold on fracture network development: the fault locally influences the magnitude and variability of fracture network attributes, whereas the fold sets the background level and structure of directional variability.

  9. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE sites, overall

  10. Variability in surface infrared reflectance of thirteen nitrile rubber gloves at key wavelengths for analysis of captan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface variability of 13 powder-free, unlined, and unsupported nitrile rubber gloves using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectrophotometry at key wavelengths for analysis of captan contamination. The within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was measured at 740, 1124, 1252, and 1735 cm(-1), the characteristic captan reflectance minima wavelengths. Three glove brands were assessed after conditioning overnight at relative humidity (RH) values ranging from 2 +/- 1 to 87 +/- 4% and temperatures ranging from -8.6 +/- 0.7 to 59.2 +/- 0.9 degrees C. For all gloves, 1735 cm(-1) provided the lowest background absorbance and greatest potential sensitivity for captan analysis on the outer glove surface: absorbances ranged from 0.0074 +/- 0.0005 (Microflex) to 0.0195 +/- 0.0024 (SafeSkin); average within-glove coefficients of variation (CV) ranged from 2.7% (Best, range 0.9-5.3%) to 10% (SafeSkin, 1.2-17%); within-glove CVs greater than 10% were for one brand (SafeSkin); within-lot CVs ranged from 2.8% (Best N-Dex) to 28% (SafeSkin Blue); and between-lot variation was statistically significant (p < or = 0.05) for all but two SafeSkin lots. The RH had variable effects dependent on wavelength, being minimal at 1735, 1252, and 1124 cm(-1) and highest at 3430 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). There was no significant effect of temperature conditioning. Substantial within-glove, within-lot, and between-lot variability was observed. Thus, surface analysis using ATR-FT-IR must treat glove brands and lots as different. ATR-FT-IR proved to be a useful real-time analytical tool for measuring glove variability, detecting surface humidity effects, and choosing selective and sensitive wavelengths for analysis of nonvolatile surface contaminants.

  11. Harmonising and semantically linking key variables from in-situ observing networks of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System, AtlantOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Louise; Buck, Justin

    2017-04-01

    Atlantic Ocean observation is currently undertaken through loosely-coordinated, in-situ observing networks, satellite observations and data management arrangements at regional, national and international scales. The EU Horizon 2020 AtlantOS project aims to deliver an advanced framework for the development of an Integrated Atlantic Ocean Observing System that strengthens the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and contributes to the aims of the Galway Statement on Atlantic Ocean Cooperation. One goal is to ensure that data from different and diverse in-situ observing networks are readily accessible and useable to a wider community, including the international ocean science community and other stakeholders in this field. To help achieve this goal, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) produced a parameter matrix to harmonise data exchange, data flow and data integration for the key variables acquired by multiple in-situ AtlantOS observing networks such as ARGO, Seafloor Mapping and OceanSITES. Our solution used semantic linking of controlled vocabularies and metadata for parameters that were "mappable" to existing EU and international standard vocabularies. An AtlantOS Essential Variables list of terms (aggregated level) based on Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Essential Climate Variables (ECV), GOOS Essential Ocean Variables (EOV) and other key network variables was defined and published on the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) Vocabulary Server (version 2.0) as collection A05 (http://vocab.nerc.ac.uk/collection/A05/current/). This new vocabulary was semantically linked to standardised metadata for observed properties and units that had been validated by the AtlantOS community: SeaDataNet parameters (P01), Climate and Forecast (CF) Standard Names (P07) and SeaDataNet units (P06). Observed properties were mapped to biological entities from the internationally assured AphiaID from the WOrld Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), http

  12. Identifying key factors for mobilising under-utilised low carbon land resources : A case study on Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Chun Sheng; Junginger, Martin; Potter, Lesley; Faaij, André; Wicke, Birka

    2018-01-01

    Mobilising under-utilised low carbon (ULC) land for future agricultural expansion helps minimising further carbon stock loss. This study examined the regency cases in Kalimantan, a carbon loss hotspot, to understand the key factors for mobilising ULC land via narrative interviews with a range of

  13. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  14. Identifying Factors Causing Variability in Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Fluxes in a Polygonal Tundra Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Vaughn, L. S.; Curtis, J. B.; Torn, M. S.; Dafflon, B.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) flux variations in Arctic tundra environments are important to understand because of the vast amount of soil carbon stored in these regions and the potential of these regions to convert from a global carbon sink to a source under warmer conditions. Multiple factors potentially contribute to GHG flux variations observed in these environments, including snowmelt timing, growing season length, active layer thickness, water table variations, and temperature fluctuations. The objectives of this study are to investigate temporal variability in CO2 and CH4 fluxes at Barrow, AK over three successive growing seasons (2012-14) and to determine the factors influencing this variability using a novel entropy-based classification scheme. We analyzed soil, vegetation, and climate parameters as well as GHG fluxes at multiple locations within low-, flat- and high-centered polygons at Barrow, AK as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arctic project. Entropy results indicate that different environmental factors govern variability in GHG fluxes under different spatiotemporal settings. In particular, flat-centered polygons are more likely to become significant sources of CO2 during warm and dry years as opposed to high-centered polygons that contribute considerably to CO2 emissions during cold and wet years. In contrast, the highest CH4 emissions were always associated with low-centered polygons. Temporal variability in CO2 fluxes was primarily associated with factors affecting soil temperature and/or vegetation dynamics during early and late season periods. Temporal variability in CH4 fluxes was primarily associated with changes in vegetation cover and its covariability with primary controls such as seasonal thaw—rather than direct response to changes in soil moisture. Overall, entropy results document which factors became important under different spatiotemporal settings, thus providing clues concerning the manner in which ecosystem

  15. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A pilot study using scripted ventilation conditions to identify key factors affecting indoor pollutant concentration and air exchange rate in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ted; Myers, Jeffrey; Kelly, Thomas; Wisbith, Anthony; Ollison, Will

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted using an occupied, single-family test house in Columbus, OH, to determine whether a script-based protocol could be used to obtain data useful in identifying the key factors affecting air-exchange rate (AER) and the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of selected traffic-related air pollutants. The test script called for hourly changes to elements of the test house considered likely to influence air flow and AER, including the position (open or closed) of each window and door and the operation (on/off) of the furnace, air conditioner, and ceiling fans. The script was implemented over a 3-day period (January 30-February 1, 2002) during which technicians collected hourly-average data for AER, indoor, and outdoor air concentrations for six pollutants (benzene, formaldehyde (HCHO), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen oxides (NO(x))), and selected meteorological variables. Consistent with expectations, AER tended to increase with the number of open exterior windows and doors. The 39 AER values measured during the study when all exterior doors and windows were closed varied from 0.36 to 2.29 h(-1) with a geometric mean (GM) of 0.77 h(-1) and a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 1.435. The 27 AER values measured when at least one exterior door or window was opened varied from 0.50 to 15.8 h(-1) with a GM of 1.98 h(-1) and a GSD of 1.902. AER was also affected by temperature and wind speed, most noticeably when exterior windows and doors were closed. Results of a series of stepwise linear regression analyses suggest that (1) outdoor pollutant concentration and (2) indoor pollutant concentration during the preceding hour were the "variables of choice" for predicting indoor pollutant concentration in the test house under the conditions of this study. Depending on the pollutant and ventilation conditions, one or more of the following variables produced a small, but

  17. Identifying market segments in consumer markets: variable selection and data interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Tonks, D G

    2004-01-01

    Market segmentation is often articulated as being a process which displays the recognised features of classical rationalism but in part; convention, convenience, prior experience and the overarching impact of rhetoric will influence if not determine the outcomes of a segmentation exercise. Particular examples of this process are addressed critically in this paper which concentrates on the issues of variable choice for multivariate approaches to market segmentation and also the methods used fo...

  18. Identifying environmental and geochemical variables governing metal concentrations in a stream draining headwaters in NW Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Varela, F.; Rodríguez-Blanco, M.L.; Taboada-Castro, M.M.; Taboada-Castro, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • All metals occur in association with suspended sediment. • DOC and SS appeared to influence the partitioning of metals. • The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. • The most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. • Enrichment factor values suggest a natural origin for the particulate metals. - Abstract: Headwater stream, draining from a rural catchment in NW Spain, was sampled during baseflow and storm-event conditions to investigate the temporal variability in dissolved and particulate Al, Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations and the role of discharge (Q), pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended sediment (SS) in the transport of dissolved and particulate metals. Under baseflow and storm-event conditions, concentrations of the five metals were highly variable. The results of this study reveal that all metal concentrations are correlated with SS. DOC and SS appeared to influence both the metal concentrations and the partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate. The SS was a good predictor of particulate metal levels. Distribution coefficients (K D ) were similar between metals (4.72–6.55) and did not change significantly as a function of discharge regime. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the most important variable to explain storm-event K D for Al and Fe is DOC. The positive relationships found between metals, in each fraction, indicate that these elements mainly come from the same source. Metal concentrations in the stream were relatively low

  19. Patch-reef morphology as a proxy for Holocene sea-level variability, Northern Florida Keys, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J.C.; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, M.; Wright, C.W.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A portion of the northern Florida Keys reef tract was mapped with the NASA Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) and the morphology of patch reefs was related to variations in Holocene sea level. Following creation of a lidar digital elevation model (DEM), geospatial analyses delineated morphologic attributes of 1,034 patch reefs (reef depth, basal area, height, volume, and topographic complexity). Morphometric analysis revealed two morphologically different populations of patch reefs associated with two distinct depth intervals above and below a water depth of 7.7 m. Compared to shallow reefs, the deep reefs were smaller in area and volume and showed no trend in topographic complexity relative to water depth. Shallow reefs were more variable in area and volume and became flatter and less topographically complex with decreasing water depth. The knoll-like morphology of deep reefs was interpreted as consistent with steady and relatively rapidly rising early Holocene sea level that restricted the lateral growth of reefs. The morphology of shallow 'pancake-shaped' reefs at the highest platform elevations was interpreted as consistent with fluctuating sea level during the late Holocene. Although the ultimate cause for the morphometric depth trends remains open to interpretation, these interpretations are compatible with a recent eustatic sea-level curve that hindcasts fluctuating late Holocene sea level. Thus it is suggested that the morphologic differences represent two stages of reef accretion that occurred during different sea-level conditions. ?? 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  20. Key indicator tools for shallow slope failure assessment using soil chemical property signatures and soil colour variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rashidi; Hasni, Shah Irani; Baharuddin, Zainul Mukrim; Hashim, Khairusy Syakirin Has-Yun; Mahamod, Lukman Hakim

    2017-10-01

    Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources and tourism activities. The extent of damages that resulted from this catastrophe can be lessened if a long-term early warning system to predict landslide prone areas is implemented. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between Oxisols properties and soil colour variables to be manipulated as key indicators to forecast shallow slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along the North-South Highway (PLUS) and East-West Highway (LPT). Analysis of variance established highly significant difference (P shallow slope failure were high value of L*(62), low values of c* (20) and h* (66), low concentration of iron (53 mg kg -1 ) and aluminium oxide (37 mg kg -1 ), low soil TOC (0.5%), low CEC (3.6 cmol/kg), slightly acidic soil pH (4.9), high amount of sand fraction (68%) and low amount of clay fraction (20%).

  1. USING THE PARETO DIAGRAM AND FMEA (FAILURE MODE AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS TO IDENTIFY KEY DEFECTS IN A PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał ZASADZIEŃ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies conducted in a company manufacturing aluminium forgings for the automotive industry. The aim of the research was to identify the defects which form during the production process as well as the locations and causes of their occurrence. Selected quality management tools were used in the process. Based on the FMEA and the costs generated by the identified defects, a hierarchy of them was created for the company along with a proposal of improvements in case of the most significant ones in order to reduce their number and increase the detection efficiency.

  2. Predicting General Academic Performance and Identifying the Differential Contribution of Participating Variables Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Mariel F.; Kyndt, Eva; Cascallar, Eduardo C.; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have explored the contribution of different factors from diverse theoretical perspectives to the explanation of academic performance. These factors have been identified as having important implications not only for the study of learning processes, but also as tools for improving curriculum designs, tutorial systems, and students'…

  3. Social Networking Privacy Control: Exploring University Variables Related to Young Adults' Sharing of Personally Identifiable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Melisa S.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of the Internet, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs) like Facebook, create opportunities for individuals to share private and identifiable information with a closed or open community. Internet crime has been on the rise and research has shown that criminals are using individuals' personal information pulled from social…

  4. Interannual variability in seagrass carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourqurean, J. W.; Fourqurean, J. W.; Anderson, W. T.; Anderson, W. T.

    2001-12-01

    The shallow marine waters surrounding the southern tip of Florida provide an ideal environment for seagrasses, which are the most common benthic community in the region. Yet, these communities are susceptible to a variety of anthropogenic disturbances, especially changes in water quality caused by an increase the nutrient flux to the near shore environment. In order to better understand the carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratio in marine plants, an extensive times series analysis was constructed from quarterly sampling of Thalassia testudinum (the dominate species in the study area) from 1996 through 1998. Sites for study where selected from permanent stations within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS), from both sides of the Florida Keys - two stations on the bay side and two stations on the reef side. These data will also help to constrain elements of the carbon and nitrogen cycles affecting this region. The data analyzed over the three year study period show unique cyclic trends associated with seasonal changes in primary productivity and potentially changes in the nitrogen and carbon pools. Additionally, the analysis of our time series indicates that isotope food web studies need to take into account spatial and temporal changes when evaluating trophic levels. The mean carbon and nitrogen isotope values of T. testudinum from all 4 stations vary respectively from -7.2 per mil to -10.41 and 1.1 per mil to 2.2 per mil (n = 48). However, certain stations displayed anonymously depleted nitrogen isotope values, values as low as -1.2 per mil. These values potentially indicated that biogeochmical processes like N fixation, ammonification and denitrification cause regional pattern in the isotopic composition of the source DIN. Both carbon and nitrogen isotopes displayed seasonal enrichment-depletion trends, with maximum enrichment occurring during the summer. The overall seasonal variation for carbon 13 from the different stations ranged from 1 per mil to

  5. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M.; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M.; Holland, Paulene J.; Birlea, Stanca A.; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M.; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Wietze van der Veen, J. P.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E. Helen; Gawkrodger, David J.; Weetman, Anthony P.; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R.; McCormack, Wayne T.; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B.; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R.; Santorico, Stephanie A.; Spritz, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from the destruction of melanocytes, with epidemiological association with other autoimmune diseases. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1 and GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in

  6. A Large-Scale RNAi Screen Identifies SGK1 as a Key Survival Kinase for GBM Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Shreya; Goel-Bhattacharya, Surbhi; Sengupta, Sejuti; Cochran, Brent H

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary malignant brain cancer and has a very poor prognosis. A subpopulation of cells known as GBM stem-like cells (GBM-SC) have the capacity to initiate and sustain tumor growth and possess molecular characteristics similar to the parental tumor. GBM-SCs are known to be enriched in hypoxic niches and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. Therefore, to identify genetic determinants important for the proliferation and survival of GBM stem cells, an unbiased pooled shRNA screen of 10,000 genes was conducted under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions. A number of essential genes were identified that are required for GBM-SC growth, under either or both oxygen conditions, in two different GBM-SC lines. Interestingly, only about a third of the essential genes were common to both cell lines. The oxygen environment significantly impacts the cellular genetic dependencies as 30% of the genes required under hypoxia were not required under normoxic conditions. In addition to identifying essential genes already implicated in GBM such as CDK4, KIF11 , and RAN , the screen also identified new genes that have not been previously implicated in GBM stem cell biology. The importance of the serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) for cellular survival was validated in multiple patient-derived GBM stem cell lines using shRNA, CRISPR, and pharmacologic inhibitors. However, SGK1 depletion and inhibition has little effect on traditional serum grown glioma lines and on differentiated GBM-SCs indicating its specific importance in GBM stem cell survival. Implications: This study identifies genes required for the growth and survival of GBM stem cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions and finds SGK1 as a novel potential drug target for GBM. Mol Cancer Res; 16(1); 103-14. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. How cannabis causes paranoia: using the intravenous administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to identify key cognitive mechanisms leading to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Daniel; Dunn, Graham; Murray, Robin M; Evans, Nicole; Lister, Rachel; Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel; Godlewska, Beata; Cornish, Robert; Williams, Jonathan; Di Simplicio, Martina; Igoumenou, Artemis; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M; Harrison, Paul J; Harmer, Catherine J; Cowen, Philip; Morrison, Paul D

    2015-03-01

    Paranoia is receiving increasing attention in its own right, since it is a central experience of psychotic disorders and a marker of the health of a society. Paranoia is associated with use of the most commonly taken illicit drug, cannabis. The objective was to determine whether the principal psychoactive ingredient of cannabis-∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-causes paranoia and to use the drug as a probe to identify key cognitive mechanisms underlying paranoia. A randomized, placebo-controlled, between-groups test of the effects of intravenous THC was conducted. A total of 121 individuals with paranoid ideation were randomized to receive placebo, THC, or THC preceded by a cognitive awareness condition. Paranoia was assessed extensively via a real social situation, an immersive virtual reality experiment, and standard self-report and interviewer measures. Putative causal factors were assessed. Principal components analysis was used to create a composite paranoia score and composite causal variables to be tested in a mediation analysis. THC significantly increased paranoia, negative affect (anxiety, worry, depression, negative thoughts about the self), and a range of anomalous experiences, and reduced working memory capacity. The increase in negative affect and in anomalous experiences fully accounted for the increase in paranoia. Working memory changes did not lead to paranoia. Making participants aware of the effects of THC had little impact. In this largest study of intravenous THC, it was definitively demonstrated that the drug triggers paranoid thoughts in vulnerable individuals. The most likely mechanism of action causing paranoia was the generation of negative affect and anomalous experiences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  8. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. RNA sequencing of Populus x canadensis roots identifies key molecular mechanisms underlying physiological adaption to excess zinc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariani

    Full Text Available Populus x canadensis clone I-214 exhibits a general indicator phenotype in response to excess Zn, and a higher metal uptake in roots than in shoots with a reduced translocation to aerial parts under hydroponic conditions. This physiological adaptation seems mainly regulated by roots, although the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are still poorly understood. Here, differential expression analysis using RNA-sequencing technology was used to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the response to excess Zn in root. In order to maximize specificity of detection of differentially expressed (DE genes, we consider the intersection of genes identified by three distinct statistical approaches (61 up- and 19 down-regulated and validate them by RT-qPCR, yielding an agreement of 93% between the two experimental techniques. Gene Ontology (GO terms related to oxidation-reduction processes, transport and cellular iron ion homeostasis were enriched among DE genes, highlighting the importance of metal homeostasis in adaptation to excess Zn by P. x canadensis clone I-214. We identified the up-regulation of two Populus metal transporters (ZIP2 and NRAMP1 probably involved in metal uptake, and the down-regulation of a NAS4 gene involved in metal translocation. We identified also four Fe-homeostasis transcription factors (two bHLH38 genes, FIT and BTS that were differentially expressed, probably for reducing Zn-induced Fe-deficiency. In particular, we suggest that the down-regulation of FIT transcription factor could be a mechanism to cope with Zn-induced Fe-deficiency in Populus. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in adaption to excess Zn in Populus spp., but could also constitute a starting point for the identification and characterization of molecular markers or biotechnological targets for possible improvement of phytoremediation performances of poplar trees.

  10. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  11. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M; Holland, Paulene J; Birlea, Stanca A; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Wietze van der Veen, J P; Bennett, Dorothy C; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E Helen; Gawkrodger, David J; Weetman, Anthony P; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R; McCormack, Wayne T; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R; Santorico, Stephanie A; Spritz, Richard A

    2016-11-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from the destruction of melanocytes, with epidemiological association with other autoimmune diseases. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1 and GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in patients of European ancestry. We carried out a third GWAS (GWAS3) in European-ancestry subjects, with augmented GWAS1 and GWAS2 controls, genome-wide imputation, and meta-analysis of all three GWAS, followed by an independent replication. The combined analyses, with 4,680 cases and 39,586 controls, identified 23 new significantly associated loci and 7 suggestive loci. Most encode immune and apoptotic regulators, with some also associated with other autoimmune diseases, as well as several melanocyte regulators. Bioinformatic analyses indicate a predominance of causal regulatory variation, some of which corresponds to expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) at these loci. Together, the identified genes provide a framework for the genetic architecture and pathobiology of vitiligo, highlight relationships with other autoimmune diseases and melanoma, and offer potential targets for treatment.

  12. Genome-wide association studies of autoimmune vitiligo identify 23 new risk loci and highlight key pathways and regulatory variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Andersen, Genevieve; Yorgov, Daniel; Ferrara, Tracey M; Ben, Songtao; Brownson, Kelly M; Holland, Paulene J; Birlea, Stanca A; Siebert, Janet; Hartmann, Anke; Lienert, Anne; van Geel, Nanja; Lambert, Jo; Luiten, Rosalie M; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; van der Veen, JP Wietze; Bennett, Dorothy C; Taïeb, Alain; Ezzedine, Khaled; Kemp, E Helen; Gawkrodger, David J; Weetman, Anthony P; Kõks, Sulev; Prans, Ele; Kingo, Külli; Karelson, Maire; Wallace, Margaret R; McCormack, Wayne T; Overbeck, Andreas; Moretti, Silvia; Colucci, Roberta; Picardo, Mauro; Silverberg, Nanette B; Olsson, Mats; Valle, Yan; Korobko, Igor; Böhm, Markus; Lim, Henry W.; Hamzavi, Iltefat; Zhou, Li; Mi, Qing-Sheng; Fain, Pamela R.; Santorico, Stephanie A; Spritz, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease in which depigmented skin results from destruction of melanocytes1, with epidemiologic association with other autoimmune diseases2. In previous linkage and genome-wide association studies (GWAS1, GWAS2), we identified 27 vitiligo susceptibility loci in patients of European (EUR) ancestry. We carried out a third GWAS (GWAS3) in EUR subjects, with augmented GWAS1 and GWAS2 controls, genome-wide imputation, and meta-analysis of all three GWAS, followed by an independent replication. The combined analyses, with 4,680 cases and 39,586 controls, identified 23 new loci and 7 suggestive loci, most encoding immune and apoptotic regulators, some also associated with other autoimmune diseases, as well as several melanocyte regulators. Bioinformatic analyses indicate a predominance of causal regulatory variation, some corresponding to eQTL at these loci. Together, the identified genes provide a framework for vitiligo genetic architecture and pathobiology, highlight relationships to other autoimmune diseases and melanoma, and offer potential targets for treatment. PMID:27723757

  13. Identifying the most informative variables for decision-making problems – a survey of recent approaches and accompanying problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pudil, Pavel; Somol, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2008), s. 37-55 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : variable selection * decision making Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/RO/pudil-identifying%20the%20most%20informative%20variables%20for%20decision- making %20problems%20a%20survey%20of%20recent%20approaches%20and%20accompanying%20problems.pdf

  14. Structural characterization of POM6 Fab and mouse prion protein complex identifies key regions for prions conformational conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Pravas Kumar; Swayampakula, Mridula; Aguzzi, Adriano; James, Michael N G

    2018-05-01

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP C into its pathogenic isoform PrP S c is the hallmark of prion diseases, fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting many mammalian species including humans. Anti-prion monoclonal antibodies can arrest the progression of prion diseases by stabilizing the cellular form of the prion protein. Here, we present the crystal structure of the POM6 Fab fragment, in complex with the mouse prion protein (moPrP). The prion epitope of POM6 is in close proximity to the epitope recognized by the purportedly toxic antibody fragment, POM1 Fab also complexed with moPrP. The POM6 Fab recognizes a larger binding interface indicating a likely stronger binding compared to POM1. POM6 and POM1 exhibit distinct biological responses. Structural comparisons of the bound mouse prion proteins from the POM6 Fab:moPrP and POM1 Fab:moPrP complexes reveal several key regions of the prion protein that might be involved in initiating mis-folding events. The structural data of moPrP:POM6 Fab complex are available in the PDB under the accession number www.rcsb.org/pdb/search/structidSearch.do?structureId=6AQ7. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Community landscapes: an integrative approach to determine overlapping network module hierarchy, identify key nodes and predict network dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István A Kovács

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Network communities help the functional organization and evolution of complex networks. However, the development of a method, which is both fast and accurate, provides modular overlaps and partitions of a heterogeneous network, has proven to be rather difficult. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we introduce the novel concept of ModuLand, an integrative method family determining overlapping network modules as hills of an influence function-based, centrality-type community landscape, and including several widely used modularization methods as special cases. As various adaptations of the method family, we developed several algorithms, which provide an efficient analysis of weighted and directed networks, and (1 determine persvasively overlapping modules with high resolution; (2 uncover a detailed hierarchical network structure allowing an efficient, zoom-in analysis of large networks; (3 allow the determination of key network nodes and (4 help to predict network dynamics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The concept opens a wide range of possibilities to develop new approaches and applications including network routing, classification, comparison and prediction.

  16. Identifying a key physical factor sensitive to the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation simulation in climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Go-Un; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    A key physical factor in regulating the performance of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) simulation is examined by using 26 climate model simulations from the World Meteorological Organization's Working Group for Numerical Experimentation/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric System Study (WGNE and MJO-Task Force/GASS) global model comparison project. For this, intraseasonal moisture budget equation is analyzed and a simple, efficient physical quantity is developed. The result shows that MJO skill is most sensitive to vertically integrated intraseasonal zonal wind convergence (ZC). In particular, a specific threshold value of the strength of the ZC can be used as distinguishing between good and poor models. An additional finding is that good models exhibit the correct simultaneous convection and large-scale circulation phase relationship. In poor models, however, the peak circulation response appears 3 days after peak rainfall, suggesting unfavorable coupling between convection and circulation. For an improving simulation of the MJO in climate models, we propose that this delay of circulation in response to convection needs to be corrected in the cumulus parameterization scheme.

  17. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Sarah J; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Ralph, T C

    2017-01-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates. (paper)

  18. RNA-Seq analysis identifies key genes associated with haustorial development in the root hemiparasite Santalum album

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua eZhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Santalum album (sandalwood is one of the economically important plant species in the Santalaceae for its production of highly valued perfume oils. Sandalwood is also a hemiparasitic tree that obtains some of its water and simple nutrients by tapping into other plants through haustoria which are highly specialized organs in parasitic angiosperms. However, an understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in haustorium development is limited. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analyses were performed to identify changes in gene expression and metabolic pathways associated with the development of the S. album haustorium. A total of 56,011 non-redundant contigs with a mean contig size of 618 bp were obtained by de novo assembly of the transcriptome of haustoria and non-haustorial seedling roots. A substantial number of the identified differentially expressed genes were involved in cell wall metabolism and protein metabolism, as well as mitochondrial electron transport functions. Phytohormone-mediated regulation might play an important role during haustorial development. Especially, auxin signaling is likely to be essential for haustorial initiation, and genes related to cytokinin and gibberellin biosynthesis and metabolism are involved in haustorial development. Our results suggest that genes encoding nodulin-like proteins may be important for haustorial morphogenesis in S. album. The obtained sequence data will become a rich resource for future research in this interesting species. This information improves our understanding of haustorium development in root hemiparasitic species and will allow further exploration of the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying plant parasitism.

  19. Genomics and relative expression analysis identifies key genes associated with high female to male flower ratio in Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Manali; Sood, Hemant; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-04-01

    Jatropha curcas, has been projected as a major source of biodiesel due to high seed oil content (42 %). A major roadblock for commercialization of Jatropha-based biodiesel is low seed yield per inflorescence, which is affected by low female to male flower ratio (1:25-30). Molecular dissection of female flower development by analyzing genes involved in phase transitions and floral organ development is, therefore, crucial for increasing seed yield. Expression analysis of 42 genes implicated in floral organ development and sex determination was done at six floral developmental stages of a J. curcas genotype (IC561235) with inherently higher female to male flower ratio (1:8-10). Relative expression analysis of these genes was done on low ratio genotype. Genes TFL1, SUP, AP1, CRY2, CUC2, CKX1, TAA1 and PIN1 were associated with reproductive phase transition. Further, genes CUC2, TAA1, CKX1 and PIN1 were associated with female flowering while SUP and CRY2 in female flower transition. Relative expression of these genes with respect to low female flower ratio genotype showed up to ~7 folds increase in transcript abundance of SUP, TAA1, CRY2 and CKX1 genes in intermediate buds but not a significant increase (~1.25 folds) in female flowers, thereby suggesting that these genes possibly play a significant role in increased transition towards female flowering by promoting abortion of male flower primordia. The outcome of study has implications in feedstock improvement of J. curcas through functional validation and eventual utilization of key genes associated with female flowering.

  20. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  1. A Video Analysis of Intra- and Interprofessional Leadership Behaviors Within "The Burns Suite": Identifying Key Leadership Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadideen, Hazim; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Saadeddin, Munir; Loon, Mark; Kneebone, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is particularly important in complex highly interprofessional health care contexts involving a number of staff, some from the same specialty (intraprofessional), and others from different specialties (interprofessional). The authors recently published the concept of "The Burns Suite" (TBS) as a novel simulation tool to deliver interprofessional and teamwork training. It is unclear which leadership behaviors are the most important in an interprofessional burns resuscitation scenario, and whether they can be modeled on to current leadership theory. The purpose of this study was to perform a comprehensive video analysis of leadership behaviors within TBS. A total of 3 burns resuscitation simulations within TBS were recorded. The video analysis was grounded-theory inspired. Using predefined criteria, actions/interactions deemed as leadership behaviors were identified. Using an inductive iterative process, 8 main leadership behaviors were identified. Cohen's κ coefficient was used to measure inter-rater agreement and calculated as κ = 0.7 (substantial agreement). Each video was watched 4 times, focusing on 1 of the 4 team members per viewing (senior surgeon, senior nurse, trainee surgeon, and trainee nurse). The frequency and types of leadership behavior of each of the 4 team members were recorded. Statistical significance to assess any differences was assessed using analysis of variance, whereby a p Leadership behaviors were triangulated with verbal cues and actions from the videos. All 3 scenarios were successfully completed. The mean scenario length was 22 minutes. A total of 362 leadership behaviors were recorded from the 12 participants. The most evident leadership behaviors of all team members were adhering to guidelines (which effectively equates to following Advanced Trauma and Life Support/Emergency Management of Severe Burns resuscitation guidelines and hence "maintaining standards"), followed by making decisions. Although in terms of total

  2. Diagnostic Value of Selected Echocardiographic Variables to Identify Pulmonary Hypertension in Dogs with Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Höglund, K; Häggström, J; Ljungvall, I

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly associated with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD). Because dogs with PH present without measureable tricuspid regurgitation (TR), it would be useful to investigate echocardiographic variables that can identify PH. To investigate associations between estimated systolic TR pressure gradient (TRPG) and dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables. 156 privately owned dogs. Prospective observational study comparing the estimations of TRPG with dog characteristics and selected echocardiographic variables in dogs with MMVD and measureable TR. Tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient was significantly (P modeled as linear variables LA/Ao (P modeled as second order polynomial variables: AT/DT (P = .0039) and LVIDDn (P value for the final model was 0.45 and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the model's performance to predict PH, defined as 36, 45, and 55 mmHg as fair (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.80), good (AUC = 0.86), and excellent (AUC = 0.92), respectively. In dogs with MMVD, the presence of PH might be suspected with the combination of decreased PA AT/DT, increased RVIDDn and LA/Ao, and a small or great LVIDDn. Copyright © 2015 The Authors Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Comparative and functional genomics of Legionella identified eukaryotic like proteins as key players in host-pathogen interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eGomez-Valero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Although best known for its ability to cause severe pneumonia in people whose immune defenses are weakened, Legionella pneumophila and Legionella longbeachae are two species of a large genus of bacteria that are ubiquitous in nature, where they parasitize protozoa. Adaptation to the host environment and exploitation of host cell functions are critical for the success of these intracellular pathogens. The establishment and publication of the complete genome sequences of L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae isolates paved the way for major breakthroughs in understanding the biology of these organisms. In this review we present the knowledge gained from the analyses and comparison of the complete genome sequences of different L. pneumophila and L. longbeachae strains. Emphasis is given on putative virulence and Legionella life cycle related functions, such as the identification of an extended array of eukaryotic-like proteins, many of which have been shown to modulate host cell functions to the pathogen's advantage. Surprisingly, many of the eukaryotic domain proteins identified in L. pneumophila as well as many substrates of the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system essential for intracellular replication are different between these two species, although they cause the same disease. Finally, evolutionary aspects regarding the eukaryotic like proteins in Legionella are discussed.

  4. Identifying and Prioritizing the Key Factors Influencing Customer Decision Making in Buying Organizational Software (A survey about HAMKARAN Co.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahryar Azizi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of adopting information systems, specially packed software, facilitate managing the organizational process, hence, identification the factors influence customer buying decision is vital for software providers. This mixed method study tried to identify the factors affecting decision making of buying new organizational software, classify and rank them beside. In-depth interviews with 10 customers of Hamkaran system that had the potential of buying new software have been done and content analysis of these interviews revealed some factors in five categories that became the base of questionnaire design. This study is applied in view of aim, and is descriptive-survey in view of entity. Sample of 177 customers of System Group Co. have been chosen for the study. Kruskal-Wallis test and T test of normality showed all factors to be effective. Then the factors have been prioritized using Frideman test which are as follows: buyer`s internal organizational factors, product feature, factors related to sellers organization, factors related to process and selling promotion, market and environmental factors.

  5. A molecular key for building hyphae aggregates: the role of the newly identified Streptomyces protein HyaS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebsch, Ilona; Overbeck, Jens; Piepmeyer, Sophie; Meschke, Holger; Schrempf, Hildgund

    2009-05-01

    Streptomycetes produce many metabolites with medical and biotechnological applications. During fermentations, their hyphae build aggregates, a process in which the newly identified protein HyaS plays an important role. The corresponding hyaS gene is present within all investigated Streptomyces species. Reporter fusions indicate that transcription of hyaS occurs within substrate hyphae of the Streptomyces lividans wild type (WT). The HyaS protein is dominantly associated with the substrate hyphae. The WT strain forms cylindrically shaped clumps of densely packed substrate hyphae, often fusing to higher aggregates (pellets), which remain stably associated during shaking. Investigations by electron microscopy suggest that HyaS induces tight fusion-like contacts among substrate hyphae. In contrast, the pellets of the designed hyaS disruption mutant ΔH are irregular in shape, contain frequently outgrowing bunches of hyphae, and fuse less frequently. ΔH complemented with a plasmid carrying hyaS resembles the WT phenotype. Biochemical studies indicate that the C-terminal region of HyaS has amine oxidase activity. Investigations of ΔH transformants, each carrying a specifically mutated gene, lead to the conclusion that the in situ oxidase activity correlates with the pellet-inducing role of HyaS, and depends on the presence of certain histidine residues. Furthermore, the level of undecylprodigiosin, a red pigment with antibiotic activity, is influenced by the engineered hyaS subtype within a strain. These data present the first molecular basis for future manipulation of pellets, and concomitant production of secondary metabolites during biotechnological processes. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A formal method for identifying distinct states of variability in time-varying sources: SGR A* as an example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, L.; Witzel, G.; Ghez, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Longstaff, F. A. [UCLA Anderson School of Management, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1481 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Continuously time variable sources are often characterized by their power spectral density and flux distribution. These quantities can undergo dramatic changes over time if the underlying physical processes change. However, some changes can be subtle and not distinguishable using standard statistical approaches. Here, we report a methodology that aims to identify distinct but similar states of time variability. We apply this method to the Galactic supermassive black hole, where 2.2 μm flux is observed from a source associated with Sgr A* and where two distinct states have recently been suggested. Our approach is taken from mathematical finance and works with conditional flux density distributions that depend on the previous flux value. The discrete, unobserved (hidden) state variable is modeled as a stochastic process and the transition probabilities are inferred from the flux density time series. Using the most comprehensive data set to date, in which all Keck and a majority of the publicly available Very Large Telescope data have been merged, we show that Sgr A* is sufficiently described by a single intrinsic state. However, the observed flux densities exhibit two states: noise dominated and source dominated. Our methodology reported here will prove extremely useful to assess the effects of the putative gas cloud G2 that is on its way toward the black hole and might create a new state of variability.

  7. Change in intraindividual variability over time as a key metric for defining performance-based cognitive fatigability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive fatigability is conventionally quantified as the increase over time in either mean reaction time (RT) or error rate from two or more time periods during sustained performance of a prolonged cognitive task. There is evidence indicating that these mean performance measures may not sufficiently reflect the response characteristics of cognitive fatigue. We hypothesized that changes in intraindividual variability over time would be a more sensitive and ecologically meaningful metric for investigations of fatigability of cognitive performance. To test the hypothesis fifteen young adults were recruited. Trait fatigue perceptions in various domains were assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Index (MFI). Behavioral data were then recorded during performance of a three-hour continuous cued Stroop task. Results showed that intraindividual variability, as quantified by the coefficient of variation of RT, increased linearly over the course of three hours and demonstrated a significantly greater effect size than mean RT or accuracy. Change in intraindividual RT variability over time was significantly correlated with relevant subscores of the MFI including reduced activity, reduced motivation and mental fatigue. While change in mean RT over time was also correlated with reduced motivation and mental fatigue, these correlations were significantly smaller than those associated with intraindividual RT variability. RT distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian model further revealed that change in intraindividual variability over time reflects an increase in the exponential component of variance and may reflect attentional lapses or other breakdowns in cognitive control. These results suggest that intraindividual variability and its change over time provide important metrics for measuring cognitive fatigability and may prove useful for inferring the underlying neuronal mechanisms of both perceptions of fatigue and objective changes in performance. Copyright © 2014

  8. The building blocks of a 'Liveable Neighbourhood': Identifying the key performance indicators for walking of an operational planning policy in Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Foster, Sarah; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-11-01

    Planning policy makers are requesting clearer guidance on the key design features required to build neighbourhoods that promote active living. Using a backwards stepwise elimination procedure (logistic regression with generalised estimating equations adjusting for demographic characteristics, self-selection factors, stage of construction and scale of development) this study identified specific design features (n=16) from an operational planning policy ("Liveable Neighbourhoods") that showed the strongest associations with walking behaviours (measured using the Neighbourhood Physical Activity Questionnaire). The interacting effects of design features on walking behaviours were also investigated. The urban design features identified were grouped into the "building blocks of a Liveable Neighbourhood", reflecting the scale, importance and sequencing of the design and implementation phases required to create walkable, pedestrian friendly developments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Abundance of Toxic Genotypes Is a Key Contributor to Anatoxin Variability in Phormidium-Dominated Benthic Mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A. Wood

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of benthic proliferations of the anatoxin-producing cyanobacterium Phormidium are increasing in cobble-bed rivers worldwide. Studies to date have shown high spatial and temporal variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats. In this study we determined anatoxin quotas (toxins per cell in field samples and compared these results to the conventionally-used concentrations (assessed per dry weight of mat. Three mats were selected at sites in two rivers and were sampled every 2–3 h for 24–26 h. The samples were lyophilized and ground to a fine homogenous powder. Two aliquots of known weights were analyzed for anatoxin congeners using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, or digital droplet PCR with Phormidium-specific anaC primers to measure absolute quantities of gene copies. Anatoxin concentrations in the mats varied 59- and 303-fold in the two rivers over the study periods. A similar pattern was observed among gene copies (53- and 2828-fold. When converted to anatoxin quotas there was markedly less variability (42- and 16-fold, but significantly higher anatoxin quotas were observed in mats from the second river (p < 0.001, Student’s t-test. There were no obvious temporal patterns with high and low anatoxin concentrations or quotas measured at each sampling time and across the study period. These results demonstrate that variability in anatoxin concentrations among mats is primarily due to the abundance of toxic genotypes. No consistent modulation in anatoxin production was observed during the study, although significant differences in anatoxin quotas among rivers suggest that site-specific physiochemical or biological factors may influence anatoxin production.

  10. Genome-wide expression profiling analysis to identify key genes in the anti-HIV mechanism of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lijie; Wang, Yunqi; Li, Yi; Dong, Ya; Yang, Aimin; Zhang, Jie; Li, Fengying; Zhang, Rongqiang

    2018-07-01

    Comprehensive bioinformatics analyses were performed to explore the key biomarkers in response to HIV infection of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. The numbers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of HIV infected individuals were analyzed and the GEO database (GSE6740) was screened for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Gene Ontology enrichment, KEGG pathway analyses, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to identify the key pathway and core proteins in anti-HIV virus process of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Finally, we analyzed the expressions of key proteins in HIV-infected T cells (GSE6740 dataset) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells(PBMCs) (GSE511 dataset). 1) CD4 + T cells counts and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells decreased while CD8 + T cells counts increased in HIV positive individuals; 2) 517 DEGs were found in HIV infected CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at acute and chronic stage with the criterial of P-value T cells. The main biological processes of the DEGs were response to virus and defense response to virus. At chronic stage, ISG15 protein, in conjunction with IFN-1 pathway might play key roles in anti-HIV responses of CD4 + T cells; and 4) The expression of ISG15 increased in both T cells and PBMCs after HIV infection. Gene expression profile of CD4 + and CD8 + T cells changed significantly in HIV infection, in which ISG15 gene may play a central role in activating the natural antiviral process of immune cells. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identifying the key factors in increasing recycling and reducing residual household waste: a case study of the Flemish region of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, X; Jacobsen, R; Verhelst, P

    2011-10-01

    The competent waste authority in the Flemish region of Belgium created the 'Implementation plan household waste 2003-2007' and the 'Implementation plan sustainable management 2010-2015' to comply with EU regulation. It incorporates European and regional requirements and describes strategies, goals, actions and instruments for the collection and treatment of household waste. The central mandatory goal is to reduce and maintain the amount of residual household waste to 150 kg per capita per year between 2010-2015. In literature, a reasonable body of information has been published on the effectiveness and efficiency of a variety of policy instruments, but the information is complex, often contradictory and difficult to interpret. The objective of this paper is to identify, through the development of a binary logistic regression model, those variables of the waste collection scheme that help municipalities to reach the mandatory 150 kg goal. The model covers a number of variables for household characteristics, provision of recycling services, frequency of waste collection and charging for waste services. This paper, however, is not about waste prevention and reuse. The dataset originates from 2003. Four out of 12 variables in the model contributed significantly: income per capita, cost of residual waste collection, collection frequency and separate curbside collection of organic waste. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soft Sensing of Key State Variables in Fermentation Process Based on Relevance Vector Machine with Hybrid Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglin ZHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To resolve the online detection difficulty of some important state variables in fermentation process with traditional instruments, a soft sensing modeling method based on relevance vector machine (RVM with a hybrid kernel function is presented. Based on the characteristic analysis of two commonly-used kernel functions, that is, local Gaussian kernel function and global polynomial kernel function, a hybrid kernel function combing merits of Gaussian kernel function and polynomial kernel function is constructed. To design optimal parameters of this kernel function, the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is applied. The proposed modeling method is used to predict the value of cell concentration in the Lysine fermentation process. Simulation results show that the presented hybrid-kernel RVM model has a better accuracy and performance than the single kernel RVM model.

  13. Registration in the Danish Regional Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Dermatology Database: completeness of registration and accuracy of key variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna L Lamberg

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna L Lamberg1, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton2, Anne B Olesen11Department of Dermatology, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, C, DenmarkObjective: To validate a clinical database for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC with the aim of monitoring and predicting the prognosis of NMSC treated by dermatologists in clinics in the central and north Denmark regions.Methods: We assessed the completeness of registration of patients and follow-up visits, and positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV, sensitivity, and specificity of registrations in the database. We used the Danish Pathology Registry (DPR (n = 288 and a review of randomly selected medical records (n = 67 from two clinics as gold standards.Results: The completeness of registration of patients was 62% and 76% with DPR and medical record review as gold standards, respectively. The completeness of registration of 1st and 2nd follow up visits was 85% and 69%, respectively. The PPV and NPV ranged from 85% to 99%, and the sensitivity and specificity from 67% to 100%.Conclusion: Overall, the accuracy of variables registered in the NMSC database was satisfactory but completeness of patient registration and follow-up visits were modest. The NMSC database is a potentially valuable tool for monitoring and facilitating improvement of NMSC treatment in dermatology clinics. However, there is still room for improvement of registration of both patients and their follow-up visits.Keywords: nonmelanoma skin cancer, validation, database, positive predictive value, completeness

  14. A comparison study on detection of key geochemical variables and factors through three different types of factor analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzade, Zohre; Mokhtari, Ahmad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Large numbers of variables have been measured to explain different phenomena. Factor analysis has widely been used in order to reduce the dimension of datasets. Additionally, the technique has been employed to highlight underlying factors hidden in a complex system. As geochemical studies benefit from multivariate assays, application of this method is widespread in geochemistry. However, the conventional protocols in implementing factor analysis have some drawbacks in spite of their advantages. In the present study, a geochemical dataset including 804 soil samples collected from a mining area in central Iran in order to search for MVT type Pb-Zn deposits was considered to outline geochemical analysis through various fractal methods. Routine factor analysis, sequential factor analysis, and staged factor analysis were applied to the dataset after opening the data with (additive logratio) alr-transformation to extract mineralization factor in the dataset. A comparison between these methods indicated that sequential factor analysis has more clearly revealed MVT paragenesis elements in surface samples with nearly 50% variation in F1. In addition, staged factor analysis has given acceptable results while it is easy to practice. It could detect mineralization related elements while larger factor loadings are given to these elements resulting in better pronunciation of mineralization.

  15. Identifying the sources driving observed PM2.5 temporal variability over Halifax, Nova Scotia, during BORTAS-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Gibson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The source attribution of observed variability of total PM2.5 concentrations over Halifax, Nova Scotia, was investigated between 11 July and 26 August 2011 using measurements of PM2.5 mass and PM2.5 chemical composition (black carbon, organic matter, anions, cations and 33 elements. This was part of the BORTAS-B (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites experiment, which investigated the atmospheric chemistry and transport of seasonal boreal wildfire emissions over eastern Canada in 2011. The US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF receptor model was used to determine the average mass (percentage source contribution over the 45 days, which was estimated to be as follows: long-range transport (LRT pollution: 1.75 μg m−3 (47%; LRT pollution marine mixture: 1.0 μg m−3 (27.9%; vehicles: 0.49 μg m−3 (13.2%; fugitive dust: 0.23 μg m−3 (6.3%; ship emissions: 0.13 μg m−3 (3.4%; and refinery: 0.081 μg m−3 (2.2%. The PMF model describes 87% of the observed variability in total PM2.5 mass (bias = 0.17 and RSME = 1.5 μg m−3. The factor identifications are based on chemical markers, and they are supported by air mass back trajectory analysis and local wind direction. Biomass burning plumes, found by other surface and aircraft measurements, were not significant enough to be identified in this analysis. This paper presents the results of the PMF receptor modelling, providing valuable insight into the local and upwind sources impacting surface PM2.5 in Halifax and a vital comparative data set for the other collocated ground-based observations of atmospheric composition made during BORTAS-B.

  16. A quantitative correlational investigation of the definition of key decision variables used for the determination of wind energy systems' feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kathleen M.

    Several factors are critical in determining if a wind farm has a high probability of success. These factors include wind energy potential or wind class, sales price, cost of the wind energy generated, market for selling the wind, capacity factor or efficiency of the turbines, capital investment cost, debt and financing, and governmental factors such as taxes and incentives. This research studied the critical factors of thirty-three land based wind farms in the United States with over 20 mega-watts (MW) of capacity that have become operational since 1999. The goal was to develop a simple yet effective decision model using the critical factors to predict an internal rate of return (IRR) and the impact of having a tax credit to supplement the revenue stream. The study found that there are five critical factors that are significantly correlated with the internal rate of return (IRR) of a wind farm project. The critical factors are wind potential or wind class, cost of the wind energy generated, capacity factor or efficiency of the wind turbines, cost of capital investment, and the existence of a federal production tax credit (PTC). The decision model was built using actual wind farm data and industry standards whereby a score from zero to one hundred was coded for each of values except for the production tax credit. Since all the projects qualified for the production tax credit prior to their start up, it was no longer a variable. However, without the presence of this tax credit, the data imply that the projects would not be profitable within the first ten to fifteen years of operation. The scores for each of the categories were totaled and regressed against a calculated internal rate of return. There was ninety-seven percent correlation which was supported by simulation analysis. While this model is not intended to supplant rigorous accounting and financial study, it will help quickly determine if a site has potential and save many hours of analytical work.

  17. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Integrated network analysis identifies fight-club nodes as a class of hubs encompassing key putative switch genes that induce major transcriptome reprogramming during grapevine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-12-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named "fight-club hubs" characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named "switch genes" was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene Network Construction from Microarray Data Identifies a Key Network Module and Several Candidate Hub Genes in Age-Associated Spatial Learning Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Raihan; Singh, Shiva M

    2017-01-01

    As humans age many suffer from a decrease in normal brain functions including spatial learning impairments. This study aimed to better understand the molecular mechanisms in age-associated spatial learning impairment (ASLI). We used a mathematical modeling approach implemented in Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to create and compare gene network models of young (learning unimpaired) and aged (predominantly learning impaired) brains from a set of exploratory datasets in rats in the context of ASLI. The major goal was to overcome some of the limitations previously observed in the traditional meta- and pathway analysis using these data, and identify novel ASLI related genes and their networks based on co-expression relationship of genes. This analysis identified a set of network modules in the young, each of which is highly enriched with genes functioning in broad but distinct GO functional categories or biological pathways. Interestingly, the analysis pointed to a single module that was highly enriched with genes functioning in "learning and memory" related functions and pathways. Subsequent differential network analysis of this "learning and memory" module in the aged (predominantly learning impaired) rats compared to the young learning unimpaired rats allowed us to identify a set of novel ASLI candidate hub genes. Some of these genes show significant repeatability in networks generated from independent young and aged validation datasets. These hub genes are highly co-expressed with other genes in the network, which not only show differential expression but also differential co-expression and differential connectivity across age and learning impairment. The known function of these hub genes indicate that they play key roles in critical pathways, including kinase and phosphatase signaling, in functions related to various ion channels, and in maintaining neuronal integrity relating to synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Taken together, they

  20. Bi-directional gene set enrichment and canonical correlation analysis identify key diet-sensitive pathways and biomarkers of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaora Peadar Ó

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of bioinformatics methods are available to generate appropriate lists of genes from a microarray experiment. While these lists represent an accurate primary analysis of the data, fewer options exist to contextualise those lists. The development and validation of such methods is crucial to the wider application of microarray technology in the clinical setting. Two key challenges in clinical bioinformatics involve appropriate statistical modelling of dynamic transcriptomic changes, and extraction of clinically relevant meaning from very large datasets. Results Here, we apply an approach to gene set enrichment analysis that allows for detection of bi-directional enrichment within a gene set. Furthermore, we apply canonical correlation analysis and Fisher's exact test, using plasma marker data with known clinical relevance to aid identification of the most important gene and pathway changes in our transcriptomic dataset. After a 28-day dietary intervention with high-CLA beef, a range of plasma markers indicated a marked improvement in the metabolic health of genetically obese mice. Tissue transcriptomic profiles indicated that the effects were most dramatic in liver (1270 genes significantly changed; p Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of

  1. Hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) and its application to predicting key process variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan-Lin; Xu, Yuan; Geng, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Qun-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) is proposed. Firstly, an improved functional link neural network with small norm of expanded weights and high input-output correlation (SNEWHIOC-FLNN) was proposed for enhancing the generalization performance of FLNN. Unlike the traditional FLNN, the expanded variables of the original inputs are not directly used as the inputs in the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model. The original inputs are attached to some small norm of expanded weights. As a result, the correlation coefficient between some of the expanded variables and the outputs is enhanced. The larger the correlation coefficient is, the more relevant the expanded variables tend to be. In the end, the expanded variables with larger correlation coefficient are selected as the inputs to improve the performance of the traditional FLNN. In order to test the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model, three UCI (University of California, Irvine) regression datasets named Housing, Concrete Compressive Strength (CCS), and Yacht Hydro Dynamics (YHD) are selected. Then a hybrid model based on the improved FLNN integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) was built. In IFLNN-PLS model, the connection weights are calculated using the partial least square method but not the error back propagation algorithm. Lastly, IFLNN-PLS was developed as an intelligent measurement model for accurately predicting the key variables in the Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) process and the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) process. Simulation results illustrated that the IFLNN-PLS could significant improve the prediction performance. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnosing climate change impacts and identifying adaptation strategies by involving key stakeholder organisations and farmers in Sikkim, India: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhoni, Adani; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2018-06-01

    Narrowing the gap between research, policy making and implementing adaptation remains a challenge in many parts of the world where climate change is likely to severely impact water security. This research aims to narrow this gap by matching the adaptation strategies being framed by policy makers to that of the perspectives of development agencies, researchers and farmers in the Himalayan state of Sikkim in India. Our case study examined the perspectives of various stakeholders for climate change impacts, current adaptation strategies, knowledge gaps and adaptation barriers, particularly in the context of implementing the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change through semi-structured interviews carried out with decision makers in the Sikkim State Government, researchers, consultants, local academia, development agencies and farmers. Using Stakeholders Network Analysis tools, this research unravels the complexities of perceiving climate change impacts, identifying strategies, and implementing adaptation. While farmers are less aware about the global phenomenon of climate change impacts for water security, their knowledge of the local conditions and their close interaction with the State Government Agriculture Department provides them opportunities. Although important steps are being initiated through the Sikkim State Action Plan on Climate Change it is yet to deliver effective means of adaptation implementation and hence, strengthening the networks of close coordination between the various implementing agencies will pay dividends. Knowledge gaps and the need for capacity building identified in this research, based on the understandings of key stakeholders are highly relevant to both the research community and for informing policy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Offshore limit of coastal ocean variability identified from hydrography and altimeter data in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, M.K.; Swamy, G.N.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    In this communication, we describe a hitherto-unknown offshore limit to the coastal ocean variability signatures away from the continental shelf in the eastern Arabian Sea, based on hydrographic observations and satellite altimeter (TOPEX...

  4. Integrated RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq Analysis Identifies Chilling and Freezing Responsive Key Molecular Players and Pathways in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Yu; Shen, Jiazhi; Zhang, Yinfei; Jia, Sisi; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang

    2015-01-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L) O. Kuntze, Theaceae] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverages worldwide. Cold stress is one of the most severe abiotic stresses that limit tea plants’ growth, survival and geographical distribution. However, the genetic regulatory network and signaling pathways involved in cold stress responses in tea plants remain unearthed. Using RNA-Seq, DGE and sRNA-Seq technologies, we performed an integrative analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiling and their regulatory network of tea plants under chilling (4℃) and freezing (-5℃) stress. Differentially expressed (DE) miRNA and mRNA profiles were obtained based on fold change analysis, miRNAs and target mRNAs were found to show both coherent and incoherent relationships in the regulatory network. Furthermore, we compared several key pathways (e.g., ‘Photosynthesis’), GO terms (e.g., ‘response to karrikin’) and transcriptional factors (TFs, e.g., DREB1b/CBF1) which were identified as involved in the early chilling and/or freezing response of tea plants. Intriguingly, we found that karrikins, a new group of plant growth regulators, and β-primeverosidase (BPR), a key enzyme functionally relevant with the formation of tea aroma might play an important role in both early chilling and freezing response of tea plants. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis further confirmed the results from RNA-Seq and sRNA-Seq analysis. This is the first study to simultaneously profile the expression patterns of both miRNAs and mRNAs on a genome-wide scale to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of early responses of tea plants to cold stress. In addition to gaining a deeper insight into the cold resistant characteristics of tea plants, we provide a good case study to analyse mRNA/miRNA expression and profiling of non-model plant species using next-generation sequencing technology. PMID:25901577

  5. Identifying key controls on the behavior of an acidic-U(VI) plume in the Savannah River Site using reactive transport modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Sergio A; Wainwright, Haruko; Spycher, Nicolas; Faybishenko, Boris; Hubbard, Susan S; Denham, Miles E

    2013-08-01

    Acidic low-level waste radioactive waste solutions were discharged to three unlined seepage basins at the F-Area of the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, from 1955 through 1989. Despite many years of active remediation, the groundwater remains acidic and contaminated with significant levels of U(VI) and other radionuclides. Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) is a desired closure strategy for the site, based on the premise that regional flow of clean background groundwater will eventually neutralize the groundwater acidity, immobilizing U(VI) through adsorption. An in situ treatment system is currently in place to accelerate this in the downgradient portion of the plume and similar measures could be taken upgradient if necessary. Understanding the long-term pH and U(VI) adsorption behavior at the site is critical to assess feasibility of MNA along with the in-situ remediation treatments. This paper presents a reactive transport (RT) model and uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses to explore key controls on the U(VI)-plume evolution and long-term mobility at this site. Two-dimensional numerical RT simulations are run including the saturated and unsaturated (vadose) zones, U(VI) and H(+) adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments, dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals, and key hydrodynamic processes are considered. UQ techniques are applied using a new open-source tool that is part of the developing ASCEM reactive transport modeling and analysis framework to: (1) identify the complex physical and geochemical processes that control the U(VI) plume migration in the pH range where the plume is highly mobile, (2) evaluate those physical and geochemical parameters that are most controlling, and (3) predict the future plume evolution constrained by historical, chemical and hydrological data. The RT simulation results show a good agreement with the observed historical pH and concentrations of U(VI), nitrates

  6. Sulfur Denitrosylation by an Engineered Trx-like DsbG Enzyme Identifies Nucleophilic Cysteine Hydrogen Bonds as Key Functional Determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaye, Céline; Van Molle, Inge; Tamu Dufe, Veronica; Wahni, Khadija; Boudier, Ariane; Leroy, Pierre; Collet, Jean-François; Messens, Joris

    2016-07-15

    Exposure of bacteria to NO results in the nitrosylation of cysteine thiols in proteins and low molecular weight thiols such as GSH. The cells possess enzymatic systems that catalyze the denitrosylation of these modified sulfurs. An important player in these systems is thioredoxin (Trx), a ubiquitous, cytoplasmic oxidoreductase that can denitrosylate proteins in vivo and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in vitro However, a periplasmic or extracellular denitrosylase has not been identified, raising the question of how extracytoplasmic proteins are repaired after nitrosative damage. In this study, we tested whether DsbG and DsbC, two Trx family proteins that function in reducing pathways in the Escherichia coli periplasm, also possess denitrosylating activity. Both DsbG and DsbC are poorly reactive toward GSNO. Moreover, DsbG is unable to denitrosylate its specific substrate protein, YbiS. Remarkably, by borrowing the CGPC active site of E. coli Trx-1 in combination with a T200M point mutation, we transformed DsbG into an enzyme highly reactive toward GSNO and YbiS. The pKa of the nucleophilic cysteine, as well as the redox and thermodynamic properties of the engineered DsbG are dramatically changed and become similar to those of E. coli Trx-1. X-ray structural insights suggest that this results from a loss of two direct hydrogen bonds to the nucleophilic cysteine sulfur in the DsbG mutant. Our results highlight the plasticity of the Trx structural fold and reveal that the subtle change of the number of hydrogen bonds in the active site of Trx-like proteins is the key factor that thermodynamically controls reactivity toward nitrosylated compounds. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  8. Key Variables Screening of Near-Infrared Models for Simultaneous Determination of Quality Parameters in Traditional Chinese Food “Fuzhu”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahua Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional Chinese food Fuzhu is a dried soy protein-lipid film formed during the heating of soymilk. This study investigates whether a simple and accurate model can nondestructively determine the quality parameters of intact Fuzhu. The diffused reflectance spectra (1000–2499 nm of intact Fuzhu were collected by a commercial near-infrared (NIR spectrometer. Among various preprocessing methods, the derivative by wavelet transform method optimally enhanced the characteristic signals of Fuzhu spectra. Uninformative variable elimination based on Monte Carlo (MC-UVE, random frog (RF, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS were proposed to select key variables for partial least squares (PLS calculation. The strong performance of the developed models is attributed to the high ratios of prediction to deviation values (3.32–3.51 for protein, 3.62–3.89 for lipid, and 4.27–4.55 for moisture. The prediction set was used to assess the performances of the best models of protein (CARS-PLS, lipid (RF-PLS, and moisture (CARS-PLS, which resulted in greater coefficients of determination of 0.958, 0.966, and 0.976, respectively, and lower root mean square errors of prediction of 0.656%, 0.442%, and 0.123%, respectively. Combined with chemometrics methods, the NIR technique is promising for simultaneous testing of quality parameters of intact Fuzhu.

  9. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  10. Effects of TiO2 nanoparticles and sunscreens on coastal marine microalgae: Ultraviolet radiation is key variable for toxicity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendra, M; Sánchez-Quiles, D; Blasco, J; Moreno-Garrido, I; Lubián, L M; Pérez-García, S; Tovar-Sánchez, A

    2017-01-01

    Given the large numbers of sunbathers on beaches, sunscreen compounds are being released into the coastal aquatic environment in significant amounts. Until now the effect of these potential pollutants on microbiota has been not well-known. Phytoplankton is a key component of the microbiota community. It forms the basis of the aquatic trophic networks, and any change in the natural population of phytoplankton can affect the structure of aquatic biota. This paper describes an experiment performed outdoors (in natural sunlight conditions including ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and with UVR blocked) on mixed microalgae populations (four species from different key marine taxonomic groups, Nannochloropsis gaditana, Chaetoceros gracilis, Pleurochrysis roscoffensis and Amphidinium carterae), for three days, exposed to a range of concentrations of three commercial sunscreens (with variable TiO 2 concentrations: highest concentration for sunscreen C, followed by sunscreen A; and sunscreen B did not contain TiO 2 in its composition). With regard to UVR effect, in the absence of sunscreens, the most sensitive species is the centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, and the least is Nannochloropsis gaditana; this last species presented the same behavior in the absence of UVR and with high sunscreen concentrations. The toxicity gradient obtained for sunscreens and nanoparticles under UVR is: TiO 2 NPs>Sunscreen C>Sunscreen A>Sunscreen B. The differential sensitivity of microalgae to sunscreens and TiO 2 NPs can produce a change in the dynamics of phytoplankton populations and provoke undesirable ecological effects (such as giving dinoflagellates more prominence). The effects of UVR, commonly neglected in bioassays, could alter the results in important ways and should be considered when performing environmentally-relevant bioassays. The toxicity mediated by hydrogen peroxide production associated with the concentration of TiO 2 NPs cannot be considered the only factor responsible for

  11. Identifying uncertainty of the mean of some water quality variables along water quality monitoring network of Bahr El Baqar drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein G. Karaman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Assigning objectives to the environmental monitoring network is the pillar of the design to these kinds of networks. Conflicting network objectives may affect the adequacy of the design in terms of sampling frequency and the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations which in turn affect the accuracy of the data and the information extracted. The first step in resolving this problem is to identify the uncertainty inherent in the network as the result of the vagueness of the design objective. Entropy has been utilized and adopted over the past decades to identify uncertainty in similar water data sets. Therefore it is used to identify the uncertainties inherent in the water quality monitoring network of Bahr El-Baqar drain located in the Eastern Delta. Toward investigating the applicability of the Entropy methodology, comprehensive analysis at the selected drain as well as their data sets is carried out. Furthermore, the uncertainty calculated by the entropy function will be presented by the means of the geographical information system to give the decision maker a global view to these uncertainties and to open the door to other researchers to find out innovative approaches to lower these uncertainties reaching optimal monitoring network in terms of the spatial distribution of the monitoring stations.

  12. A novel de novo activating mutation in STAT3 identified in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark A; Pigors, Manuela; Houssen, Maha E; Manson, Ania; Kelsell, David; Longhurst, Hilary; Morgan, Noel G

    2018-02-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterised by repeated infection associated with primary acquired hypogammaglobulinemia. CVID frequently has a complex aetiology but, in certain cases, it has a monogenic cause. Recently, variants within the gene encoding the transcription factor STAT3 were implicated in monogenic CVID. Here, we describe a patient presenting with symptoms synonymous with CVID, who displayed reduced levels of IgG and IgA, repeated viral infections and multiple additional co-morbidities. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in the coiled-coil domain of STAT3 (c.870A>T; p.K290N). Accordingly, the K290N variant of STAT3 was generated, and a STAT3 responsive dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that the variant strongly enhances STAT3 transcriptional activity both under basal and stimulated (with IL-6) conditions. Overall, these data complement earlier studies in which CVID-associated STAT3 mutations are predicted to enhance transcriptional activity, suggesting that such patients may respond favourably to IL-6 receptor antagonists (e.g. tocilizumab). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Observer variability identifying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-old children born extremely preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Alan; Hunter, Scott J; Scott, Megan N; Hooper, Stephen R; Joseph, Robert M; O'Shea, Thomas Michael; Allred, Elizabeth N; Kuban, Karl

    2017-08-01

    A DSM-5 diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) requires that symptoms be present in two settings. We wanted to see how teachers and parents compare on their assessments. We evaluated how well Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) reports from 871 parents and 634 teachers of 10-year-old children born before the 28th week of gestation provided information about indicators of school dysfunction. Kappa values for parent and teacher agreement of any ADHD were at best fair to poor (<0.41). Nevertheless, ADHD identified by each alone provided a moderate amount of information about such indicators of school dysfunction as grade repetition. Only occasionally did agreement provide more information than provided by only one reporter. Mother's social class and intelligence level did not discriminate between parents who did and did not agree with the teacher. ADHD identified by a single observer can provide appreciable information about a range of the child's functions needed for success in school and, therefore, should not be discounted when another observer does not consider the child to have ADHD symptoms. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Transcriptome association analysis identifies miR-375 as a major determinant of variable acetaminophen glucuronidation by human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Ioannis; Freytsis, Marina; Court, Michael H

    2016-10-01

    Acetaminophen is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in many countries including the United States. Hepatic glucuronidation by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A subfamily enzymes is the major route of acetaminophen elimination. Reduced glucuronidation may predispose some individuals to acetaminophen-induced ALF, but mechanisms underlying reduced glucuronidation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that specific microRNAs (miRNAs) may reduce UGT1A activity by direct effects on the UGT1A 3'-UTR shared by all UGT1A enzyme transcripts, or by indirect effects on transcription factors regulating UGT1A expression. We performed an unbiased miRNA whole transcriptome association analysis using a bank of human livers with known acetaminophen glucuronidation activities. Of 754 miRNAs evaluated, 9 miRNAs were identified that were significantly overexpressed (p2-fold) in livers with low acetaminophen glucuronidation activities compared with those with high activities. miR-375 showed the highest difference (>10-fold), and was chosen for further mechanistic validation. We demonstrated using in silico analysis and luciferase reporter assays that miR-375 has a unique functional binding site in the 3'-UTR of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) gene. Furthermore overexpression of miR-375 in LS180 cells demonstrated significant repression of endogenous AhR protein (by 40%) and mRNA (by 10%), as well as enzyme activity and/or mRNA of AhR regulated enzymes including UGT1A1, UGT1A6, and CYP1A2, without affecting UGT2B7, which is not regulated by AhR. Thus miR-375 is identified as a novel repressor of UGT1A-mediated hepatic acetaminophen glucuronidation through reduced AhR expression, which could predispose some individuals to increased risk for acetaminophen-induced ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Inter Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Yellow Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    resolution in SMG-WOD, and thus less data levels for such shallow water . A comprehensive collection of salinity images by years can be found in the...DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) This research investigates the inter-annual acoustic variability in the Yellow Sea identified from...is a semi-enclosed basin located between China and Korea with a mean depth of 40m; acoustics are driven by shallow water dynamics and interaction with

  17. Use of gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify key odorant compounds in dark chocolate. Comparison of samples before and after conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counet, Christine; Callemien, Delphine; Ouwerx, Caroline; Collin, Sonia

    2002-04-10

    After vacuum distillation and liquid-liquid extraction, the volatile fractions of dark chocolates were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed the presence of 33 potent odorants in the neutral/basic fraction. Three of these had a strong chocolate flavor: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. Many others were characterized by cocoa/praline-flavored/nutty/coffee notes: 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethylpyrazine, 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, and furfurylpyrrole. Comparisons carried out before and after conching indicate that although no new key odorant is synthesized during the heating process, levels of 2-phenyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal, Furaneol, and branched pyrazines are significantly increased while most Strecker aldehydes are lost by evaporation.

  18. Identifying and Supporting English Learner Students with Learning Disabilities: Key Issues in the Literature and State Practice. REL 2015-086

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Elizabeth; Haas, Eric; Ferriere, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While the literature on learning disabilities and on second-language acquisition is relatively extensive within the field of education, less is known about the specific characteristics and representation of English learner students with learning disabilities. Because there are no definitive resources and processes for identifying and determining…

  19. Identification of miRNA Signatures Associated with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Chemoresistance with Further Biological and Functional Validation of Identified Key miRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    separated on 12% SDS PAGE gels and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes. After blocking with 5% non- fat milk (Labscientific, Inc) in TBS-Tween buffer... Raw mass spectrometric data were processed and analyzed for variations in the spectral counts of peptides between sample sets and bioinformatics was...accomplished using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA). Results: The total numbers of proteins and peptides identified are listed in the table

  20. Identifying the key processes for technology transfer through spin-offs in academic institutions : a case study in Flanders and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Meysman, Jasmine; Cleyn, De, Sven H.; Braet, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The position and role of technology transfer offices within universities and academic institutions have changed under influence of todays society, with diminishing government subsidies and technology transfer related policies having their impact on the technology transfer processes. In order to find out what the effect of this impact is, we performed a multiple-case study on six technology transfer offices in Flanders and The Netherlands. As a result of the study, we identified two ...

  1. Identifying the Areas Benefitting from the Prevention of Wind Erosion by the Key Ecological Function Area for the Protection of Desertification in Hunshandake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the spatial flow of ecosystem services can help to identify the spatial relationships between service-providing areas (SPAs and service-benefitting areas (SBAs. In this study, we used the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT model to stimulate the flow paths of the wind erosion prevented by ecosystems in Hunshandake, China. By interpolating these paths, the SBAs were identified, and their benefits in terms of land cover, population, and Gross Domestic Product (GDP were determined. The results indicated that the flow paths mostly extended to the eastern part of the study area, and the estimated cover of the SBAs was 39.21% of the total area of China. The grid cells through which many (≥10% of the trajectories passed were mainly located in the western part of north-eastern China and the eastern part of northern China. The benefitting population accounted for 74.51% of the total population of China, and the GDP was 67.11% of the total in 2010. Based on this research, we described a quantitative relationship between the SPAs and the SBAs and identified the actual beneficiaries. This work may provide scientific knowledge that can be used by decision makers to develop management strategies, such as ecological compensation to mitigate damage from sandstorms in the study area.

  2. Kinome-wide shRNA Screen Identifies the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL as a Key Regulator for Mesenchymal Glioblastoma Stem-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is a highly lethal cancer for which novel therapeutics are urgently needed. Two distinct subtypes of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs were recently identified: mesenchymal (MES and proneural (PN. To identify mechanisms to target the more aggressive MES GSCs, we combined transcriptomic expression analysis and kinome-wide short hairpin RNA screening of MES and PN GSCs. In comparison to PN GSCs, we found significant upregulation and phosphorylation of the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL in MES GSCs. Knockdown of AXL significantly decreased MES GSC self-renewal capacity in vitro and inhibited the growth of glioblastoma patient-derived xenografts. Moreover, inhibition of AXL with shRNA or pharmacologic inhibitors also increased cell death significantly more in MES GSCs. Clinically, AXL expression was elevated in the MES GBM subtype and significantly correlated with poor prognosis in multiple cancers. In conclusion, we identified AXL as a potential molecular target for novel approaches to treat glioblastoma and other solid cancers.

  3. Labonté Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order Comment on "Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis Raphael

    2016-11-02

    For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to - and opportunities for -health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations. In his recent commentary, Labonté shows how the United Nations' 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) can offer a new direction for health promoters in these difficult times. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  4. Integrated analysis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma identifies key variants and pathways linked to risk habits, HPV, clinical parameters and tumor recurrence [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja Krishnan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC are a homogeneous group of tumors characterized by aggressive behavior, early spread to lymph nodes and a higher rate of regional failure. Additionally, the incidence of OTSCC among younger population (<50yrs is on the rise; many of whom lack the typical associated risk factors of alcohol and/or tobacco exposure. We present data on single nucleotide variations (SNVs, indels, regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH, and copy number variations (CNVs from fifty-paired oral tongue primary tumors and link the significant somatic variants with clinical parameters, epidemiological factors including human papilloma virus (HPV infection and tumor recurrence. Apart from the frequent somatic variants harbored in TP53, CASP8, RASA1, NOTCH and CDKN2A genes, significant amplifications and/or deletions were detected in chromosomes 6-9, and 11 in the tumors. Variants in CASP8 and CDKN2A were mutually exclusive. CDKN2A, PIK3CA, RASA1 and DMD variants were exclusively linked to smoking, chewing, HPV infection and tumor stage. We also performed a whole-genome gene expression study that identified matrix metalloproteases to be highly expressed in tumors and linked pathways involving arachidonic acid and NF-k-B to habits and distant metastasis, respectively. Functional knockdown studies in cell lines demonstrated the role of CASP8 in a HPV-negative OTSCC cell line. Finally, we identified a 38-gene minimal signature that predicts tumor recurrence using an ensemble machine-learning method. Taken together, this study links molecular signatures to various clinical and epidemiological factors in a homogeneous tumor population with a relatively high HPV prevalence.

  5. Network analysis of patient flow in two UK acute care hospitals identifies key sub-networks for A&E performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Daniel M; Stringer, Clive; Beeknoo, Neeraj; Teo, James; Dobson, Richard J B

    2017-01-01

    The topology of the patient flow network in a hospital is complex, comprising hundreds of overlapping patient journeys, and is a determinant of operational efficiency. To understand the network architecture of patient flow, we performed a data-driven network analysis of patient flow through two acute hospital sites of King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. Administration databases were queried for all intra-hospital patient transfers in an 18-month period and modelled as a dynamic weighted directed graph. A 'core' subnetwork containing only 13-17% of all edges channelled 83-90% of the patient flow, while an 'ephemeral' network constituted the remainder. Unsupervised cluster analysis and differential network analysis identified sub-networks where traffic is most associated with A&E performance. Increased flow to clinical decision units was associated with the best A&E performance in both sites. The component analysis also detected a weekend effect on patient transfers which was not associated with performance. We have performed the first data-driven hypothesis-free analysis of patient flow which can enhance understanding of whole healthcare systems. Such analysis can drive transformation in healthcare as it has in industries such as manufacturing.

  6. Identifying Keys to Success in Innovative Teaching: Student Engagement and Instructional Practices as Predictors of Student Learning in a Course Using a Team-Based Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa M. Alvarez-Bell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When implementing innovative teaching techniques, instructors often seek to gauge the success of their methods. Proposing one approach to assessing classroom innovation, this study examines the ability of students’ ratings of engagement and instructional practices to predict their learning in a cooperative (team-based framework. After identifying the factor structures underlying measures of student engagement and instructional practices, these factors were used as predictors of self-reported student learning in a general chemistry course delivered using a team-based learning approach. Exploratory factor analyses showed a four-factor structure of engagement: teamwork involvement, investment in the learning process, feelings about team-based learning, level of academic challenge; and a three-factor structure of instructional practices: instructional guidance, fostering self-directed learning skills, and cognitive level. Multiple linear regression revealed that feelings about team-based learning and perceptions of instructional guidance had significant effects on learning, beyond other predictors, while controlling gender, GPA, class level, number of credit hours, whether students began college at their current institution, expected highest level of education, racial or ethnic identification, and parental level of education. These results yield insight into student perceptions about team-based learning, and how to measure learning in a team-based learning framework, with implications for how to evaluate innovative instructional methods.

  7. Paving the Way to Successful Implementation: Identifying Key Barriers to Use of Technology-Based Therapeutic Tools for Behavioral Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Alex; Lord, Sarah; Torrey, John; Marsch, Lisa; Lardiere, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify barriers to use of technology for behavioral health care from the perspective of care decision makers at community behavioral health organizations. As part of a larger survey of technology readiness, 260 care decision makers completed an open-ended question about perceived barriers to use of technology. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), qualitative analyses yielded barrier themes related to characteristics of technology (e.g., cost and privacy), potential end users (e.g., technology literacy and attitudes about technology), organization structure and climate (e.g., budget and infrastructure), and factors external to organizations (e.g., broadband accessibility and reimbursement policies). Number of reported barriers was higher among respondents representing agencies with lower annual budgets and smaller client bases relative to higher budget, larger clientele organizations. Individual barriers were differentially associated with budget, size of client base, and geographic location. Results are discussed in light of implementation science frameworks and proactive strategies to address perceived obstacles to adoption and use of technology-based behavioral health tools.

  8. Remote sensing and avian influenza: A review of image processing methods for extracting key variables affecting avian influenza virus survival in water from Earth Observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Annelise; Goutard, Flavie; Chamaillé, Lise; Baghdadi, Nicolas; Lo Seen, Danny

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of water in the transmission of avian influenza (AI) viruses and the existence of often interacting variables that determine the survival rate of these viruses in water; the two main variables are temperature and salinity. Remote sensing has been used to map and monitor water bodies for several decades. In this paper, we review satellite image analysis methods used for water detection and characterization, focusing on the main variables that influence AI virus survival in water. Optical and radar imagery are useful for detecting water bodies at different spatial and temporal scales. Methods to monitor the temperature of large water surfaces are also available. Current methods for estimating other relevant water variables such as salinity, pH, turbidity and water depth are not presently considered to be effective.

  9. The interprocess NIR sampling as an alternative approach to multivariate statistical process control for identifying sources of product-quality variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Snežana; Kerč, Janez; Horvat, Matej

    2017-03-01

    We are presenting a new approach of identifying sources of variability within a manufacturing process by NIR measurements of samples of intermediate material after each consecutive unit operation (interprocess NIR sampling technique). In addition, we summarize the development of a multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model for the production of enteric-coated pellet product of the proton-pump inhibitor class. By developing provisional NIR calibration models, the identification of critical process points yields comparable results to the established MSPC modeling procedure. Both approaches are shown to lead to the same conclusion, identifying parameters of extrusion/spheronization and characteristics of lactose that have the greatest influence on the end-product's enteric coating performance. The proposed approach enables quicker and easier identification of variability sources during manufacturing process, especially in cases when historical process data is not straightforwardly available. In the presented case the changes of lactose characteristics are influencing the performance of the extrusion/spheronization process step. The pellet cores produced by using one (considered as less suitable) lactose source were on average larger and more fragile, leading to consequent breakage of the cores during subsequent fluid bed operations. These results were confirmed by additional experimental analyses illuminating the underlying mechanism of fracture of oblong pellets during the pellet coating process leading to compromised film coating.

  10. Low-frequency variability in North Sea and Baltic Sea identified through simulations with the 3-D coupled physical–biogeochemical model ECOSMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Daewel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we present results from a long-term model simulation of the 3-D coupled ecosystem model ECOSMO II for a North Sea and Baltic Sea set-up. The model allows both multi-decadal hindcast simulation of the marine system and specific process studies under controlled environmental conditions. Model results have been analysed with respect to long-term multi-decadal variability in both physical and biological parameters with the help of empirical orthogonal function (EOF analysis. The analysis of a 61-year (1948–2008 hindcast reveals a quasi-decadal variation in salinity, temperature and current fields in the North Sea in addition to singular events of major changes during restricted time frames. These changes in hydrodynamic variables were found to be associated with changes in ecosystem productivity that are temporally aligned with the timing of reported regime shifts in the areas. Our results clearly indicate that for analysing ecosystem productivity, spatially explicit methods are indispensable. Especially in the North Sea, a correlation analysis between atmospheric forcing and primary production (PP reveals significant correlations between PP and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and wind forcing for the central part of the region, while the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO and air temperature are correlated to long-term changes in PP in the southern North Sea frontal areas. Since correlations cannot serve to identify causal relationship, we performed scenario model runs perturbing the temporal variability in forcing condition to emphasize specifically the role of solar radiation, wind and eutrophication. The results revealed that, although all parameters are relevant for the magnitude of PP in the North Sea and Baltic Sea, the dominant impact on long-term variability and major shifts in ecosystem productivity was introduced by modulations of the wind fields.

  11. Periodización de la formación de posgrado del médico en etapa de especialización en medicina general integral: dimensiones, variables y claves hermenéuticas Division into periods of the post degree training for the doctor in the specialization stage in General Comprehensive Medicine: volume, variables and hermeneutical keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilia Victoria Escobar Yéndez

    Full Text Available Los profesionales que ejercen la medicina general integral, han tenido a su cargo la enorme responsabilidad de transformar la atávica concepción de la medicina prevaleciente durante varios lustros en un nuevo esquema con enfoque integral del individuo, su familia y la comunidad. Para este trabajo se identificaron 3 hitos de periodización e igual número de etapas; pero también dimensiones, variables y claves hermenéuticas del proceso de formación de posgrado del médico en etapa de especialización en medicina general integral, con especial énfasis en el desarrollo de competencias investigativas.The professionals who practice the General Comprehensive Medicine, have been in charge of the enormous responsibility of transforming the atavistic idea of the prevalent medicine during several years into a new outline with a comprehensive approach to the individual, his family and the community. For this work 3 landmarks for a division into periods and the same number of stages were identified, as well as, dimensions, variables and hermeneutical keys of the post degree training process for the doctor in specialization stage in General Comprehensive Medicine, with special emphasis in the development of investigative power.

  12. Evaluation of unique identifiers used as keys to match identical publications in Pure and SciVal – a case study from health science [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Holst Madsen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Unique identifiers (UID are seen as an effective key to match identical publications across databases or identify duplicates in a database. The objective of the present study is to investigate how well UIDs work as match keys in the integration between Pure and SciVal, based on a case with publications from the health sciences. We evaluate the matching process based on information about coverage, precision, and characteristics of publications matched versus not matched with UIDs as the match keys. We analyze this information to detect errors, if any, in the matching process. As an example we also briefly discuss how publication sets formed by using UIDs as the match keys may affect the bibliometric indicators number of publications, number of citations, and the average number of citations per publication.  The objective is addressed in a literature review and a case study. The literature review shows that only a few studies evaluate how well UIDs work as a match key. From the literature we identify four error types: Duplicate digital object identifiers (DOI, incorrect DOIs in reference lists and databases, DOIs not registered by the database where a bibliometric analysis is performed, and erroneous optical or special character recognition. The case study explores the use of UIDs in the integration between the databases Pure and SciVal. Specifically journal publications in English are matched between the two databases. We find all error types except erroneous optical or special character recognition in our publication sets. In particular the duplicate DOIs constitute a problem for the calculation of bibliometric indicators as both keeping the duplicates to improve the reliability of citation counts and deleting them to improve the reliability of publication counts will distort the calculation of average number of citations per publication. The use of UIDs as a match key in citation linking is implemented in many settings, and the availability of

  13. Identifying Key Actors in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-29

    Department of Defense (DOD) present social situations that are outside the scope and violate the assumptions of existing formal social science models. SNA by...assumptions of these existing social science models. SNA by its very construction focuses on dyadic relations and standard SNA metrics are focused only on...problematic for our purposes of determining relative valuations among vertices, but it is in contrast to the behavior of valuations like the Shapley value

  14. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  15. Accounting for data variability, a key factor in in vivo/in vitro relationships: application to the skin sensitization potency (in vivo LLNA versus in vitro DPRA) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, S; Detroyer, A; Piroird, C; Gomes, C; Eilstein, J; Pauloin, T; Kuseva, C; Ivanova, H; Popova, I; Karakolev, Y; Ringeissen, S; Mekenyan, O

    2016-12-01

    When searching for alternative methods to animal testing, confidently rescaling an in vitro result to the corresponding in vivo classification is still a challenging problem. Although one of the most important factors affecting good correlation is sample characteristics, they are very rarely integrated into correlation studies. Usually, in these studies, it is implicitly assumed that both compared values are error-free numbers, which they are not. In this work, we propose a general methodology to analyze and integrate data variability and thus confidence estimation when rescaling from one test to another. The methodology is demonstrated through the case study of rescaling the in vitro Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) reactivity to the in vivo Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) skin sensitization potency classifications. In a first step, a comprehensive statistical analysis evaluating the reliability and variability of LLNA and DPRA as such was done. These results allowed us to link the concept of gray zones and confidence probability, which in turn represents a new perspective for a more precise knowledge of the classification of chemicals within their in vivo OR in vitro test. Next, the novelty and practical value of our methodology introducing variability into the threshold optimization between the in vitro AND in vivo test resides in the fact that it attributes a confidence probability to the predicted classification. The methodology, classification and screening approach presented in this study are not restricted to skin sensitization only. They could be helpful also for fate, toxicity and health hazard assessment where plenty of in vitro and in chemico assays and/or QSARs models are available. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  17. Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christina; Barkema, Herman W; Stevenson, Karen; Zadoks, Ruth N; Biek, Roman; Kao, Rowland; Trewby, Hannah; Haupstein, Deb; Kelton, David F; Fecteau, Gilles; Labrecque, Olivia; Keefe, Greg P; McKenna, Shawn L B; De Buck, Jeroen

    2015-03-08

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne's disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including "bison type" isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1-2 to 239-240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd. The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne's disease control. VNTR typing often failed to

  18. Magnetic studies of archaeological obsidian: Variability of eruptive conditions within obsidian flows is key to high-resolution artifact sourcing (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Frahm, E.; Muth, M.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have endeavored to use petrophysical traits of obsidian, particularly its magnetic properties, as an alternative to conventional geochemical sourcing, one of the greatest successes in archaeological science. Magnetic approaches, however, have not seen widespread application due to their mixed success. In a time when geochemical analyses can be conducted non-destructively, in the field, and in a minute or two, magnetic measurements of obsidian must offer novel archaeological insights to be worthwhile, not merely act as a less successful version of geochemistry. To this end, we report the findings of a large-scale study of obsidian magnetism, which includes 912 geological obsidian specimens and 97 artifacts measured for six simple magnetic parameters. Based on these results, we propose, rather than using magnetic properties to source artifacts to a particular obsidian flow (inter-flow sourcing), these properties are best used to differentiate quarrying sites within an individual flow (intra-flow sourcing). The magnetic properties within an individual flow are highly variable, due to the fact that a single flow experiences a wide array of cooling rates, absolute temperatures, viscosities, deformation, and oxidation. These conditions affect the concentrations, compositions, size distributions, shapes, and spatial arrangements of magnetic grains within an obsidian specimen and, thus, its intrinsic magnetic properties. This variability decreases dramatically at spatial scales of individual outcrops, and decreases even further at scales of hand samples. Thus, magnetic data appear to shift the scale of obsidian sourcing from flows to quarries and, in turn, enable new insights into raw-material procurement strategies, group mobility, lithic technology, and the organization of space and production. From a geologic perspective, the magnetic variability of obsidian can be broadly interpreted within the context of the igneous processes that were active during

  19. Key issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Successful modeling of the thermo-mechanical and hydrochemical behavior of radioactive waste repositories in hard rock is possible in principle. Because such predictions lie outside the realm of experience, their adequacy depends entirely upon a thorough understanding of three fundamental questions: an understanding of the chemical and physical processess that determine the behavior of rock and all its complexities; accurate and realistic numerical models of the geologic media within which a repository may be built; and sufficient in-situ data covering the entire geologic region affected by, or effecting the behavior of a repository. At present sufficient is known to be able to identify most of those areas which require further attention. These areas extend all the way from a complete understanding of the chemical and physical processes determining the behavior of rock through to the exploration mapping and testing that must be done during the development of any potential repository. Many of the techniques, laboratory equipment, field instrumentation, and numerical methods needed to accomplish this do not exist at present. Therefore it is necessary to accept that a major investment in scientific research is required to generate this information over the next few years. The spectrum of scientific and engineering activities is wide extending from laboratory measurements through the development of numerical models to the measurement of data in-situ, but there is every prospect that sufficient can be done to resolve these key issues. However, to do so requires overt recognition of the many gaps which exist in our knowledge and abilities today, and of the need to bridge these gaps and of the significant costs involved in doing so

  20. SRBreak: A read-depth and split-read framework to identify breakpoints of different events inside simple copy-number variable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOANG T NGUYEN

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy-number variation (CNV has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High throughput sequencing (HTS technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structures of genomes as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximise information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92%, 100% and 82%, respectively.The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

  1. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Variability in the contribution of different life stages to population growth as a key factor in the invasion success of Pinus strobus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Münzbergová

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing number of studies attempting to model population growth in various organisms, we still know relatively little about the population dynamics of long-lived species that reproduce only in the later stages of their life cycle, such as trees. Predictions of the dynamics of these species are, however, urgently needed for planning management actions when species are either endangered or invasive. In long-lived species, a single management intervention may have consequences for several decades, and detailed knowledge of long-term performance can therefore elucidate possible outcomes during the management planning phase.We studied the population dynamics of an invasive tree species, Pinus strobus, in three habitat types represented by their position along the elevation gradient occupied by the species. In agreement with previous studies on the population dynamics of long-lived perennials, our results show that the survival of the largest trees exhibits the highest elasticity in all of the studied habitats. In contrast, life table response experiments (LTRE analysis showed that different stages contribute the most to population growth rates in different habitats, with generative reproduction being more important in lower slopes and valley bottoms and survival being more important on rock tops and upper slopes.The results indicate that P. strobus exhibits different growth strategies in different habitats that result in similar population growth rates. We propose that this plasticity in growth strategies is a key factor in the invasion success of the white pine. In all of the investigated habitats, the population growth rates are above 1, indicating that the population of the species is still increasing and has the ability to spread and occupy a wide range of habitats.

  3. Beyond imperviousness: A statistical approach to identifying functional differences between development morphologies on variable source area-type response in urbanized watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence has shown linkages between urbanization, hydrological regime change, and degradation of water quality and aquatic habitat. Percent imperviousness, has long been suggested as the dominant source of these negative changes. However, recent research identifying alternative pathways of runoff production at the watershed scale have called into question percent impervious surface area's primacy in urban runoff production compared to other aspects of urbanization including change in vegetative cover, imported water and water leakages, and the presence of drainage infrastructure. In this research I show how a robust statistical methodology can detect evidence of variable source area (VSA)-type hydrologic response associated with incremental hydraulic connectivity in watersheds. I then use logistic regression to explore how evidence of VSA-type response relates to the physical and meterological characteristics of the watershed. I find that impervious surface area is highly correlated with development, but does not add significant explanatory power beyond percent developed in predicting VSA-type response. Other aspects of development morphology, including percent developed open space and type of drainage infrastructure also do not add to the explanatory power of undeveloped land in predicting VSA-type response. Within only developed areas, the effect of developed open space was found to be more similar to that of total impervious area than to undeveloped land. These findings were consistent when tested across a national cross-section of urbanized watersheds, a higher resolution dataset of Baltimore Metropolitan Area watersheds, and a subsample of watersheds confirmed not to be served by combined sewer systems. These findings suggest that land development policies that focus on lot coverage should be revisited, and more focus should be placed on preserving native vegetation and soil conditions alongside development.

  4. Identifying barriers to large-scale integration of variable renewable electricity into the electricity market : A literature review of market design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, J.; Harmsen, R.; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Worrell, E.; van den Broek, M.A.

    For reaching the 2 °C climate target, the robust growth of electricity generation from variable renewable energy sources (VRE) in the power sector is expected to continue. Accommodation of the power system to the variable, uncertain and locational-dependent outputs of VRE causes integration costs.

  5. Integrated Network Analysis Identifies Fight-Club Nodes as a Class of Hubs Encompassing Key Putative Switch Genes That Induce Major Transcriptome Reprogramming during Grapevine Development[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Zenoni, Sara; Fasoli, Marianna; Massonnet, Mélanie; Farina, Lorenzo; Castiglione, Filippo; Pezzotti, Mario; Paci, Paola

    2014-01-01

    We developed an approach that integrates different network-based methods to analyze the correlation network arising from large-scale gene expression data. By studying grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) gene expression atlases and a grapevine berry transcriptomic data set during the transition from immature to mature growth, we identified a category named “fight-club hubs” characterized by a marked negative correlation with the expression profiles of neighboring genes in the network. A special subset named “switch genes” was identified, with the additional property of many significant negative correlations outside their own group in the network. Switch genes are involved in multiple processes and include transcription factors that may be considered master regulators of the previously reported transcriptome remodeling that marks the developmental shift from immature to mature growth. All switch genes, expressed at low levels in vegetative/green tissues, showed a significant increase in mature/woody organs, suggesting a potential regulatory role during the developmental transition. Finally, our analysis of tomato gene expression data sets showed that wild-type switch genes are downregulated in ripening-deficient mutants. The identification of known master regulators of tomato fruit maturation suggests our method is suitable for the detection of key regulators of organ development in different fleshy fruit crops. PMID:25490918

  6. Key variables of organisation design in servitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreye, Melanie; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    Manufacturing companies offering additional service with their products need to change their organisation design to accommodate for the service business. Using the star model, this paper investigates organisation design in terms of strategy, structure, processes, rewards and people as a response ...

  7. Students Perspectives toward Key Personal Finance Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald; Hite, Nancy Groneman; Slocombe, Tom; Railsback, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In the current economic climate, young people's attitudes and habits related to money management seem to be of great interest. The primary purpose of this study is to advance the knowledge base in the area of personal finance education. Methodology: This survey was administered by English teachers to a convenience sample population of 326…

  8. Identifying the independent effect of HbA1c variability on adverse health outcomes in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, J C; Pizer, S D; Conlin, P R

    2016-12-01

    To characterize the relationship between HbA 1c variability and adverse health outcomes among US military veterans with Type 2 diabetes. This retrospective cohort study used Veterans Affairs and Medicare claims for veterans with Type 2 diabetes taking metformin who initiated a second diabetes medication (n = 50 861). The main exposure of interest was HbA 1c variability during a 3-year baseline period. HbA 1c variability, categorized into quartiles, was defined as standard deviation, coefficient of variation and adjusted standard deviation, which accounted for the number and mean number of days between HbA 1c tests. Cox proportional hazard models predicted mortality, hospitalization for ambulatory care-sensitive conditions, and myocardial infarction or stroke and were controlled for mean HbA 1c levels and the direction of change in HbA 1c levels during the baseline period. Over a mean 3.3 years of follow-up, all HbA 1c variability measures significantly predicted each outcome. Using the adjusted standard deviation measure for HbA 1c variability, the hazard ratios for the third and fourth quartile predicting mortality were 1.14 (95% CI 1.04, 1.25) and 1.42 (95% CI 1.28, 1.58), for myocardial infarction and stroke they were 1.25 (95% CI 1.10, 1.41) and 1.23 (95% CI 1.07, 1.42) and for ambulatory-care sensitive condition hospitalization they were 1.10 (95% CI 1.03, 1.18) and 1.11 (95% CI 1.03, 1.20). Higher baseline HbA 1c levels independently predicted the likelihood of each outcome. In veterans with Type 2 diabetes, greater HbA 1c variability was associated with an increased risk of adverse long-term outcomes, independently of HbA 1c levels and direction of change. Limiting HbA 1c fluctuations over time may reduce complications. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  9. Inter-Annual Variability of the Acoustic Propagation in the Mediterranean Sea Identified from a Synoptic Monthly Gridded Database as Compared with GDEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    processes at the boundary between water masses. Potential temperature and salinity can be used to define spiciness. Positive spiciness corresponds to...1995 and 2000–2014. Point D, which is located in deep water of the central part, shows great variability in 1990–2014. Point E is in very shallow water...9  3.  Eastern Mediterranean Deep Water (EMDW) .........................11  4.  Levantine Surface Water (LSW

  10. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosmain, Cecile-Aline

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  11. Sign and magnitude scaling properties of heart rate variability in patients with end-stage renal failure: Are these properties useful to identify pathophysiological adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Claudia; Echeverría, Juan C.; Infante, Oscar; Pérez-Grovas, Héctor; González-Gómez, Hortensia

    2017-09-01

    The scaling properties of heart rate variability data are reliable dynamical features to predict mortality and for the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this manuscript was to determine if the scaling properties, as provided by the sign and magnitude analysis, can be used to differentiate between pathological changes and those adaptations basically introduced by modifications of the mean heart rate in distinct manoeuvres (active standing or hemodialysis treatment, HD), as well as clinical conditions (end stage renal disease, ESRD). We found that in response to active standing, the short-term scaling index (α1) increased in healthy subjects and in ESRD patients only after HD. The sign short-term scaling exponent (α1sign) increased in healthy subjects and ESRD patients, showing a less anticorrelated behavior in active standing. Both α1 and α1sign did show covariance with the mean heart rate in healthy subjects, while in ESRD patients, this covariance was observed only after HD. A reliable estimation of the magnitude short-term scaling exponent (α1magn) required the analysis of time series with a large number of samples (>3000 data points). This exponent was similar for both groups and conditions and did not show covariance with the mean heart rate. A surrogate analysis confirmed the presence of multifractal properties (α1magn > 0.5) in the time series of healthy subjects and ESDR patients. In conclusion, α1 and α1sign provided insights into the physiological adaptations during active standing, which revealed a transitory impairment before HD in ESRD patients. The presence of multifractal properties indicated that a reduced short-term variability does not necessarily imply a declined regulatory complexity in these patients.

  12. Language and speech outcomes of children with hearing loss and additional disabilities: Identifying the variables that influence performance at 5 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupples, Linda; Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Button, Laura; Leigh, Greg; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined language and speech outcomes in young children with hearing loss and additional disabilities. Design Receptive and expressive language skills and speech output accuracy were evaluated using direct assessment and caregiver report. Results were analysed first for the entire participant cohort, and then to compare results for children with hearing aids (HAs) versus cochlear implants (CIs). Study sample A population-based cohort of 146 5-year-old children with hearing loss and additional disabilities took part. Results Across all participants, multiple regressions showed that better language outcomes were associated with milder hearing loss, use of oral communication, higher levels of cognitive ability and maternal education, and earlier device fitting. Speech output accuracy was associated with use of oral communication only. Average outcomes were similar for children with HAs versus CIs, but their associations with demographic variables differed. For HA users, results resembled those for the whole cohort. For CI users, only use of oral communication and higher cognitive ability levels were significantly associated with better language outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of early device fitting for children with additional disabilities. Strong conclusions cannot be drawn for CI users given the small number of participants with complete data. PMID:27630013

  13. Interindividual variability in the prevalence of OPRM1 and CYP2B6 gene variations may identify drug-susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, H; Liang, W J; Pounder, D J; Seneviratne, C; Osselton, D

    2011-09-01

    Methadone is used worldwide for the treatment of heroin addiction; however, fatal poisonings are increasingly reported. The prevalence of CYP2B6 and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene variations were examined between a postmortem population where the deaths were associated with methadone and a live nondrug-using control population using Taqman™ SNP Genotyping assays. The CYP2B6*6 allele was higher in the postmortem population, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.92). The CYP2B6 T750C promoter variation was similar in frequency for both populations. Linkage between T750C and CYP2B6*6 was identified for both populations (P < 0.01). The prevalence of the OPRM1 A118G variation was significantly higher in the control population (P = 0.0046), which might indicate a protective mechanism against opioid toxicity. Individual susceptibility to methadone may be determined by screening for CYP2B6*6.

  14. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 sile...

  15. Identifying PHM market and network opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, Mark E; Krishnaswamy, Anand; Poziemski, John; York, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Two key processes for healthcare organizations seeking to assume a financially sustainable role in population health management (PHM), after laying the groundwork for the effort, are to identify potential PHM market opportunities and determine the scope of the PHM network. Key variables organizations should consider with respect to market opportunities include the patient population, the overall insurance/employer market, and available types of insurance products. Regarding the network's scope, organizations should consider both traditional strategic criteria for a viable network and at least five additional criteria: network essentiality and PHM care continuum, network adequacy, service distribution right-sizing, network growth strategy, and organizational agility.

  16. Variable stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feast, M.W.; Wenzel, W.; Fernie, J.D.; Percy, J.R.; Smak, J.; Gascoigne, S.C.B.; Grindley, J.E.; Lovell, B.; Sawyer Hogg, H.B.; Baker, N.; Fitch, W.S.; Rosino, L.; Gursky, H.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of variable stars is presented. A fairly complete summary of major developments and discoveries during the period 1973-1975 is given. The broad developments and new trends are outlined. Essential problems for future research are identified. (B.R.H. )

  17. Labonté Identifies Key Issues for Health Promoters in the New World Order; Comment on “Health Promotion in an Age of Normative Equity and Rampant Inequality”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available For over 35 years Ronald Labonté has been critically analyzing the state of health promotion in Canada and the world. In 1981, he identified the shortcomings of the groundbreaking Lalonde Report by warning of the seductive appeal of so-called lifestyle approaches to health. Since then, he has left a trail of critical work identifying the barriers to — and opportunities for —health promotion work. More recently, he has shown how the rise of economic globalization and acceptance of neo-liberal ideology has come to threaten the health of those in both developed and developing nations. In his recent commentary, Labonté shows how the United Nations’ 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs can offer a new direction for health promoters in these difficult times.

  18. A Novel Application of a Hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Technique: Identifying Key Success Factors in the Strategic Alignment of Collaborative Heterarchical Transportation Networks for Supply Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Yasanur Kayikci; Volker Stix; Larry J. LeBlanc; Michael R. Bartolacci

    2014-01-01

    This research studies heterarchical collaboration in logistical transport. Specifically, it utilizes a hybrid Delphi-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) approach to explore the relevant criteria for the formation and maintenance of a strategic alignment for heterarchical transport collaboration. The importance of this work is that it applies a novel hybrid approach for identifying criteria for success to a little-studied form of supply chain collaboration: heterarchical collaborative transport. ...

  19. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  20. Optimal grazing management strategies: evaluating key concepts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, overstocking will override key management initiatives, such as effective recovery periods, leading to rangeland degradation. Thus, in variable climates, stocking rate should be set conservatively to allow easier adaptation of animal numbers to rainfall variability from year to year. We suggest several key concepts that ...

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of Hsp40 J-domain mutants identifies disruption of the critical HPD-motif as the key factor for impaired curing in vivo of the yeast prion [URE3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, You-Lin; Wang, Hao; Riedy, Michael; Roberts, Brittany-Lee; Sun, Yuna; Song, Yong-Bo; Jones, Gary W; Masison, Daniel C; Song, Youtao

    2018-05-01

    Genetic screens using Saccharomyces cerevisiae have identified an array of Hsp40 (Ydj1p) J-domain mutants that are impaired in the ability to cure the yeast [URE3] prion through disrupting functional interactions with Hsp70. However, biochemical analysis of some of these Hsp40 J-domain mutants has so far failed to provide major insight into the specific functional changes in Hsp40-Hsp70 interactions. To explore the detailed structural and dynamic properties of the Hsp40 J-domain, 20 ns molecular dynamic simulations of 4 mutants (D9A, D36A, A30T, and F45S) and wild-type J-domain were performed, followed by Hsp70 docking simulations. Results demonstrated that although the Hsp70 interaction mechanism of the mutants may vary, the major structural change was targeted to the critical HPD motif of the J-domain. Our computational analysis fits well with previous yeast genetics studies regarding highlighting the importance of J-domain function in prion propagation. During the molecular dynamics simulations several important residues were identified and predicted to play an essential role in J-domain structure. Among these residues, Y26 and F45 were confirmed, using both in silico and in vivo methods, as being critical for Ydj1p function.

  2. Genetic and pharmacological screens converge in identifying FLIP, BCL2 and IAP proteins as key regulators of sensitivity to the TRAIL-inducing anti-cancer agent ONC201/TIC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, AP; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Fritz, Jennifer L.; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2015-01-01

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes including the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib co-treatment to enhance anticancer responses. PMID:25681273

  3. Genetic and Pharmacological Screens Converge in Identifying FLIP, BCL2, and IAP Proteins as Key Regulators of Sensitivity to the TRAIL-Inducing Anticancer Agent ONC201/TIC10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Talekar, Mala; van den Heuvel, A Pieter J; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Fritz, Jennifer L; Beck, Adam; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-04-15

    ONC201/TIC10 is a small-molecule inducer of the TRAIL gene under current investigation as a novel anticancer agent. In this study, we identify critical molecular determinants of ONC201 sensitivity offering potential utility as pharmacodynamic or predictive response markers. By screening a library of kinase siRNAs in combination with a subcytotoxic dose of ONC201, we identified several kinases that ablated tumor cell sensitivity, including the MAPK pathway-inducer KSR1. Unexpectedly, KSR1 silencing did not affect MAPK signaling in the presence or absence of ONC201, but instead reduced expression of the antiapoptotic proteins FLIP, Mcl-1, Bcl-2, cIAP1, cIAP2, and survivin. In parallel to this work, we also conducted a synergy screen in which ONC201 was combined with approved small-molecule anticancer drugs. In multiple cancer cell populations, ONC201 synergized with diverse drug classes, including the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Notably, combining ONC201 and sorafenib led to synergistic induction of TRAIL and its receptor DR5 along with a potent induction of cell death. In a mouse xenograft model of hepatocellular carcinoma, we demonstrated that ONC201 and sorafenib cooperatively and safely triggered tumor regressions. Overall, our results established a set of determinants for ONC201 sensitivity that may predict therapeutic response, particularly in settings of sorafenib cotreatment to enhance anticancer responses. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Imperfect DNA mirror repeats in the gag gene of HIV-1 (HXB2 identify key functional domains and coincide with protein structural elements in each of the mature proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Dorothy M

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A DNA mirror repeat is a sequence segment delimited on the basis of its containing a center of symmetry on a single strand, e.g. 5'-GCATGGTACG-3'. It is most frequently described in association with a functionally significant site in a genomic sequence, and its occurrence is regarded as noteworthy, if not unusual. However, imperfect mirror repeats (IMRs having ≥ 50% symmetry are common in the protein coding DNA of monomeric proteins and their distribution has been found to coincide with protein structural elements – helices, β sheets and turns. In this study, the distribution of IMRs is evaluated in a polyprotein – to determine whether IMRs may be related to the position or order of protein cleavage or other hierarchal aspects of protein function. The gag gene of HIV-1 [GenBank:K03455] was selected for the study because its protein motifs and structural components are well documented. Results There is a highly specific relationship between IMRs and structural and functional aspects of the Gag polyprotein. The five longest IMRs in the polyprotein translate a key functional segment in each of the five cleavage products. Throughout the protein, IMRs coincide with functionally significant segments of the protein. A detailed annotation of the protein, which combines structural, functional and IMR data illustrates these associations. There is a significant statistical correlation between the ends of IMRs and the ends of PSEs in each of the mature proteins. Weakly symmetric IMRs (≥ 33% are related to cleavage positions and processes. Conclusion The frequency and distribution of IMRs in HIV-1 Gag indicates that DNA symmetry is a fundamental property of protein coding DNA and that different levels of symmetry are associated with different functional aspects of the gene and its protein. The interaction between IMRs and protein structure and function is precise and interwoven over the entire length of the polyprotein. The

  5. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haipeng; Han Chongzhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  6. Determination and estimation of the key-variables, in a natural gas small vehicles conversion, based on the stated preference technique; Determinacao e estimacao das variaveis de decisao, na conversao de veiculos de pequeno porte para gas natural, utilizando a tecnica de preferencia declarada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Carlos Andre Marques; Nobre, Junior, Ernesto Ferreira; Arruda, Joao Bosco Furtado [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Transportes. Nucleo de Pesquisa em Logistica, Transporte e Desenvolvimento (NUPELTD); br, nobre@det ufc; br, barruda@det ufc

    2003-07-01

    The recent crisis in the Brazilian energy sector had shown the scarce alternative sources available in the country to satisfy its present and future demands. Particularly, in the automotive sector, many of the developed and developing countries are searching for means to avoid the extreme dependence of oil based fuel, not only because of its increasing costs but also due to the necessity to support clean environmental policies. This work aims to determine the key-variables in the process of individual decision making, where the individuals are imposed to a situation of choice of what fuel to use and the formatation of the experiment based on the stated preference technique, with the objective of estimate the weights of main key-variables in a individual decision making concerning the choice of automotive fuel sources. The focus is on the appeal of VNG fuel to potential demand (author)

  7. Identifying key processes in the hydrochemistry of a basin through ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    through the combined use of factor and regression models. Sandow Mark ... Department of Earth Science, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana. ∗ ... influence groundwater hydrochemistry and deter- mine its .... 1600 mm) due to the differences in climatic zones. .... dropped so that it does not cloud the results of the.

  8. Identifying Key Factors Relevant for Base Camp Siting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    centers. 3.2.6.3 Religious and historical sites Respecting sacred sites helps build rapport with the host nation. 3.2.6.4 Local infrastructure...churches, mosques, national libraries, hospitals, cemeteries, historical ruins, religious sites, cultural areas, and other protected sites...controlled and protected wells. • Electricity: town engineer • Academic: government and religious leaders • Trash: private business (local

  9. Family planning dialogue: Identifying the key determinants of young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    planning information and services for sexually active young women – in ... towards ensuring the equitable distribution of resources and accessible basic services. 99 ...... denial and disengagement affecting intergenerational dialogue in many ...

  10. Identifying depression among adolescents using three key questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugen, Wenche; Haavet, Ole Rikard; Sirpal, Manjit Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Depression rammer mange voksne mennesker. Dette studie, som er omtalt i BMJ, viser, at et spørgeskema med blot tre spørgsmål ret præcist kan identificere voksne med depression. Undersøgelsen viser også, at de samme spørgsmål med fordel kan stilles verbalt ved diagnosticering af depression hos unge...... mennesker. Studiet ledsages af en redaktionel kommentar, der understreger betydningen af diagnosticering af depression hos mennesker. Mange unge har kun sjældent kontakt med deres praktiserende læge. Derfor kan mange gå i lang tid med depression, uden at det bliver opdaget og behandlet. De tre enkle...... spørgsmål, der kredser om interesse (eller mangel på interesse) for daglige aktiviteter og følelser som nedtrykthed eller håbløshed, kan være et godt pejlemærke for evt. depression hos unge, som ellers let kan blive overset....

  11. Diagnostic screening identifies a wide range of mutations involving the SHOX gene, including a common 47.5 kb deletion 160 kb downstream with a variable phenotypic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, David J; Baker, Kevin R; Harvey, John F; Thomas, N Simon

    2013-06-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) results from heterozygous mutations of the SHOX gene, with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity resulting in the more severe form, Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD). These mutations typically take the form of whole or partial gene deletions, point mutations within the coding sequence, or large (>100 kb) 3' deletions of downstream regulatory elements. We have analyzed the coding sequence of the SHOX gene and its downstream regulatory regions in a cohort of 377 individuals referred with symptoms of LWD, LMD or short stature. A causative mutation was identified in 68% of the probands with LWD or LMD (91/134). In addition, a 47.5 kb deletion was found 160 kb downstream of the SHOX gene in 17 of the 377 patients (12% of the LWD referrals, 4.5% of all referrals). In 14 of these 17 patients, this was the only potentially causative abnormality detected (13 had symptoms consistent with LWD and one had short stature only), but the other three 47.5 kb deletions were found in patients with an additional causative SHOX mutation (with symptoms of LWD rather than LMD). Parental samples were available on 14/17 of these families, and analysis of these showed a more variable phenotype ranging from apparently unaffected to LWD. Breakpoint sequence analysis has shown that the 47.5 kb deletion is identical in all 17 patients, most likely due to an ancient founder mutation rather than recurrence. This deletion was not seen in 471 normal controls (P<0.0001), providing further evidence for a phenotypic effect, albeit one with variable penetration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  13. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  14. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Durdyev, Serdar; Mohamed, Sherif; Lay, Meng Leang; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-01-01

    Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to f...

  15. Biometry, the safe key

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Fraile-Hurtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biometry is the next step in authentication, why do not we take this stepforward in our communication security systems? Keys are the main disadvantage in the cryptography, what if we were our own key?

  16. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  17. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  18. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  19. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  20. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  1. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  2. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  3. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  4. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  5. Quality of life: a key variable to consider in the evaluation of adjustment in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and in the development of relevant support and assistance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappe, Emilie; Wolff, Marion; Bobet, René; Adrien, Jean-Louis

    2011-10-01

    Our primary objective was to identify cognitive and behavioural profiles that affect adjustment, in order to make relevant recommendations about support and assistance for parents of autistic children. One hundred and sixty French parents completed a battery of questionnaires and self-report measures developed or adapted to assess (1) the child and family situations; (2) perceived stress; (3) perceived social support; (4) perceived control; (5) coping strategies; and (6) quality of life. The psychometric properties of the instruments we used proved to be adequate. Our results support the pre-existing data and our findings may prove to be of interest to clinicians. Our primary finding was that emotion-focused coping strategies seem to be less effective. Parents who employed emotion-focused strategies were more stressed and more disturbed in most parts of their life. They also experienced more guilt and reported more false beliefs about PDD. Our data underscore the need for psychoeducation programmes for parents, focused on handling stress and emotions, modifying false beliefs and solving the daily problems that arise from PDD. We propose a 5-axis intervention model for parents of children with PDD, based on cognitive-behavioural therapies and on a stress management programme.

  6. Quantum dense key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility

  7. Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical variability of hydro-meteorological variables as indicators of climate change in north-east Sokoto-Rima basin, Nigeria. ... water resources development including water supply project, agriculture and tourism in the study area. Key word: Climate change, Climatic variability, Actual evapotranspiration, Global warming ...

  8. Key improvements to XTR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Verheul, E.R.; Okamoto, T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes improved methods for XTR key representation and parameter generation (cf. [4]). If the field characteristic is properly chosen, the size of the XTR public key for signature applications can be reduced by a factor of three at the cost of a small one time computation for the

  9. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  10. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  11. Key Facts about Tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Key Facts About Tularemia Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This fact ... and Prevention (CDC) Tularemia Web site . What is Tularemia? Tularemia is a potentially serious illness that occurs ...

  12. Key technologies book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    In this book can be found all the useful information on the French industry key technologies of the years 2000-2005. 136 technologies at the junction of the science advances and of the markets expectations are divided into 9 sectors. Among them, only 4 are interesting here: the environment, the transports, the materials and the energy. In 1995, the secretary's office of State for industry has published a first synthesis book on these key technologies. This 1997 new key technologies book extends and completes the initial study. For each key technology, an encyclopedic sheet is given. Each sheet combines thus some exact and practical information on: advance state of the technology, market characteristics, development forecasts, occupation and involved sectors, technology acquisition cost, research programs but also contacts of the main concerned efficiency poles. (O.M.)

  13. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glattes, G.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of project financing for the share of the Canadian subsidiary of Uranerzbergbau-GmbH, Bonn, in the uranium mining and milling facility at Key Lake, Saskatchewan, by a Canadian bank syndicate. (orig.) [de

  14. Analysis of key variables controlling phosphorus removal in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the influence of hydraulic retention time (HRT), solar radiation, and water temperature on phosphorus removal from two experimental high rate oxidation ponds (HROP) with clarifiers. Both HROPs were operated for a period of one year with different HRTs (3 to 10 d), but under the same environmental ...

  15. Key variables influencing patterns of lava dome growth and collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, T.; Elsworth, D.; Voight, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava domes are conical structures that grow by the infusion of viscous silicic or intermediate composition magma from a central volcanic conduit. Dome growth can be characterized by repeated cycles of growth punctuated by collapse, as the structure becomes oversized for its composite strength. Within these cycles, deformation ranges from slow long term deformation to sudden deep-seated collapses. Collapses may range from small raveling failures to voluminous and fast-moving pyroclastic flows with rapid and long-downslope-reach from the edifice. Infusion rate and magma rheology together with crystallization temperature and volatile content govern the spatial distribution of strength in the structure. Solidification, driven by degassing-induced crystallization of magma leads to the formation of a continuously evolving frictional talus as a hard outer shell. This shell encapsulates the cohesion-dominated soft ductile core. Here we explore the mechanics of lava dome growth and failure using a two-dimensional particle-dynamics model. This meshless model follows the natural evolution of a brittle carapace formed by loss of volatiles and rheological stiffening and avoids difficulties of hour-glassing and mesh-entangelment typical in meshed models. We test the fidelity of the model against existing experimental and observational models of lava dome growth. The particle-dynamics model follows the natural development of dome growth and collapse which is infeasible using simple analytical models. The model provides insight into the triggers that lead to the transition in collapse mechasnism from shallow flank collapse to deep seated sector collapse. Increase in material stiffness due to decrease in infusion rate results in the transition of growth pattern from endogenous to exogenous. The material stiffness and strength are strongly controlled by the magma infusion rate. Increase in infusion rate decreases the time available for degassing induced crystallization leading to a transition in the growth pattern, while a decrease in infusion rate results in larger crystals causing the material to stiffen leading to formation of spines. Material stiffness controls the growth direction of the viscous plug in the lava dome interior. Material strength and stiffness controled by rate of infusion influence lava dome growth more significantly than coefficient of frictional of the talus.

  16. Lithology and temperature: How key mantle variables control rift volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorttle, O.; Hoggard, M.; Matthews, S.; Maclennan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Continental rifting is often associated with extensive magmatic activity, emplacing millions of cubic kilometres of basalt and triggering environmental change. The lasting geological record of this volcanic catastrophism are the large igneous provinces found at the margins of many continents and abrupt extinctions in the fossil record, most strikingly that found at the Permo-Triassic boundary. Rather than being considered purely a passive plate tectonic phenomenon, these episodes are frequently explained by the involvement of mantle plumes, upwellings of mantle rock made buoyant by their high temperatures. However, there has been debate over the relative role of the mantle's temperature and composition in generating the large volumes of magma involved in rift and intra-plate volcanism, and even when the mantle is inferred to be hot, this has been variously attributed to mantle plumes or continental insulation effects. To help resolve these uncertainties we have combined geochemical, geophysical and modelling results in a two stage approach: Firstly, we have investigated how mantle composition and temperature contribute to melting beneath Iceland, the present day manifestation of the mantle plume implicated in the 54Ma break up of the North Atlantic. By considering both the igneous crustal production on Iceland and the chemistry of its basalts we have been able to place stringent constraints on the viable temperature and lithology of the Icelandic mantle. Although a >100°C excess temperature is required to generate Iceland's thick igneous crust, geochemistry also indicates that pyroxenite comprises 10% of its source. Therefore, the dynamics of rifting on Iceland are modulated both by thermal and compositional mantle anomalies. Secondly, we have performed a global assessment of the mantle's post break-up thermal history to determine the amplitude and longevity of continental insulation in driving excess volcanism. Using seismically constrained igneous crustal thicknesses as a proxy for mantle temperature, we find that break-up is rarely accompanied by significant thermal excesses. Importantly, even when high breakup temperatures are inferred within several million years these have decayed to background levels, limiting the long-term significance of continental insulation on rifting.

  17. Detector decoy quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroder, Tobias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert; Curty, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Photon number resolving detectors can enhance the performance of many practical quantum cryptographic setups. In this paper, we employ a simple method to estimate the statistics provided by such a photon number resolving detector using only a threshold detector together with a variable attenuator. This idea is similar in spirit to that of the decoy state technique, and is especially suited to those scenarios where only a few parameters of the photon number statistics of the incoming signals have to be estimated. As an illustration of the potential applicability of the method in quantum communication protocols, we use it to prove security of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution scheme with an untrusted source without the need for a squash model and by solely using this extra idea. In this sense, this detector decoy method can be seen as a different conceptual approach to adapt a single-photon security proof to its physical, full optical implementation. We show that in this scenario, the legitimate users can now even discard the double click events from the raw key data without compromising the security of the scheme, and we present simulations on the performance of the BB84 and the 6-state quantum key distribution protocols.

  18. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  19. Identifying suitable sites for Florida panther reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; van Manen, Frank T.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2006-01-01

    A major objective of the 1995 Florida Panther (Puma concolor cory) Recovery Plan is the establishment of 2 additional panther populations within the historic range. Our goal was to identify prospective sites for Florida panther reintroduction within the historic range based on quantitative landscape assessments. First, we delineated 86 panther home ranges using telemetry data collected from 1981 to 2001 in south Florida to develop a Mahalanobis distance (D2) habitat model, using 4 anthropogenic variables and 3 landscape variables mapped at a 500-m resolution. From that analysis, we identified 9 potential reintroduction sites of sufficient size to support a panther population. We then developed a similar D2 model at a higher spatial resolution to quantify the area of favorable panther habitat at each site. To address potential for the population to expand, we calculated the amount of favorable habitat adjacent to each prospective reintroduction site within a range of dispersal distances of female panthers. We then added those totals to the contiguous patches to estimate the total amount of effective panther habitat at each site. Finally, we developed an expert-assisted model to rank and incorporate potentially important habitat variables that were not appropriate for our empirical analysis (e.g., area of public lands, livestock density). Anthropogenic factors heavily influenced both the landscape and the expert-assisted models. Of the 9 areas we identified, the Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge, Ozark National Forest, and Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge regions had the highest combination of effective habitat area and expert opinion scores. Sensitivity analyses indicated that variability among key model parameters did not affect the high ranking of those sites. Those sites should be considered as starting points for the field evaluation of potential reintroduction sites.

  20. Eight Key Facets of Small Business Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, James Calvert

    1980-01-01

    Identifies eight key facets of small business management and suggests activities that may be used to assist in their development. The key facets are (1) product or service, (2) competition, (3) marketing strategies, (4) personnel needs, (5) equipment and facility needs, (6) finances, (7) planning, and (8) entrepreneurship. (JOW)

  1. Comparison is key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark H; Stenner, A Jackson

    2014-01-01

    Several concepts from Georg Rasch's last papers are discussed. The key one is comparison because Rasch considered the method of comparison fundamental to science. From the role of comparison stems scientific inference made operational by a properly developed frame of reference producing specific objectivity. The exact specifications Rasch outlined for making comparisons are explicated from quotes, and the role of causality derived from making comparisons is also examined. Understanding causality has implications for what can and cannot be produced via Rasch measurement. His simple examples were instructive, but the implications are far reaching upon first establishing the key role of comparison.

  2. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  3. Keyed shear joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus

    This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...

  4. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  5. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  6. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  7. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  8. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  9. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  10. Key Factors Affecting Construction Safety Performance in Developing Countries: Evidence from Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Durdyev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although proper safety management in construction is of utmost importance; anecdotal evidence suggests that safety is not adequately considered in many developing countries. This paper considers the key variables affecting construction safety performance in Cambodia. Using an empirical questionnaire survey targeting local construction professionals, respondents were invited to rate the level of importance of 30 variables identified from the seminal literature. The data set was subjected to factor analysis. Correlations between the variables show that five key factors underlie the challenges facing the local industry; management and organisation, resources, site management, cosmetic and workforce. It is found that the forefront construction professionals (top management and government authorities should take more responsibilities for further improvements in safety performance on project sites. Findings and recommendations of this study may be useful to construction professional who are seeking ways to improve safety records in developing countries.

  11. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  12. Quantum key distribution on Hannover Campus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duhme, Joerg; Franz, Torsten; Werner, Reinhard F. [Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, AG Quanteninformation (Germany); Haendchen, Vitus; Eberle, Tobias; Schnabel, Roman [Albert Einstein Institut, Quantum Interferometry (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We report on the progress of the implementation of an entanglement-based quantum key distribution on Hannover campus using squeezed gaussian states (continuous variables). This poster focuses on the theoretical aspects of the project. Experimental data has been compared with the theoretical simulation of the experimental setup. We especially discuss effects of the homodyne detection and postprocessing in use on the measurement outcome.

  13. Ancel Keys: a tribute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VanItallie Theodore B

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ancel Keys, Ph.D., who died in November, 2004, at the age of 100, was among the first scientists to recognize that human atherosclerosis is not an inevitable consequence of aging, and that a high-fat diet can be a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. During World War II, he and a group of talented co-workers at the University of Minnesota conducted a large-scale study of experimentally-induced human starvation. The data generated by this study – which was immediately recognized to be a classic – continue to be of inestimable value to nutrition scientists. In his later years, Keys spent more time at his home in Naples, Italy, where he had the opportunity to continue his personal study of the beneficial effects on health and longevity of a Mediterranean diet.

  14. NAGRADATA. Code key. Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.H.; Schneider, B.; Staeuble, J.

    1984-01-01

    This reference manual provides users of the NAGRADATA system with comprehensive keys to the coding/decoding of geological and technical information to be stored in or retreaved from the databank. Emphasis has been placed on input data coding. When data is retreaved the translation into plain language of stored coded information is done automatically by computer. Three keys each, list the complete set of currently defined codes for the NAGRADATA system, namely codes with appropriate definitions, arranged: 1. according to subject matter (thematically) 2. the codes listed alphabetically and 3. the definitions listed alphabetically. Additional explanation is provided for the proper application of the codes and the logic behind the creation of new codes to be used within the NAGRADATA system. NAGRADATA makes use of codes instead of plain language for data storage; this offers the following advantages: speed of data processing, mainly data retrieval, economies of storage memory requirements, the standardisation of terminology. The nature of this thesaurian type 'key to codes' makes it impossible to either establish a final form or to cover the entire spectrum of requirements. Therefore, this first issue of codes to NAGRADATA must be considered to represent the current state of progress of a living system and future editions will be issued in a loose leave ringbook system which can be updated by an organised (updating) service. (author)

  15. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  16. Mining key elements for severe convection prediction based on CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Pan, Ning; Zhang, Changan; Sha, Hongzhou; Zhang, Bolei; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Meng

    2017-04-01

    Severe convective weather is a kind of weather disasters accompanied by heavy rainfall, gust wind, hail, etc. Along with recent developments on remote sensing and numerical modeling, there are high-volume and long-term observational and modeling data accumulated to capture massive severe convective events over particular areas and time periods. With those high-volume and high-variety weather data, most of the existing studies and methods carry out the dynamical laws, cause analysis, potential rule study, and prediction enhancement by utilizing the governing equations from fluid dynamics and thermodynamics. In this study, a key-element mining method is proposed for severe convection prediction based on convolution neural network (CNN). It aims to identify the key areas and key elements from huge amounts of historical weather data including conventional measurements, weather radar, satellite, so as numerical modeling and/or reanalysis data. Under this manner, the machine-learning based method could help the human forecasters on their decision-making on operational weather forecasts on severe convective weathers by extracting key information from the real-time and historical weather big data. In this paper, it first utilizes computer vision technology to complete the data preprocessing work of the meteorological variables. Then, it utilizes the information such as radar map and expert knowledge to annotate all images automatically. And finally, by using CNN model, it cloud analyze and evaluate each weather elements (e.g., particular variables, patterns, features, etc.), and identify key areas of those critical weather elements, then help forecasters quickly screen out the key elements from huge amounts of observation data by current weather conditions. Based on the rich weather measurement and model data (up to 10 years) over Fujian province in China, where the severe convective weathers are very active during the summer months, experimental tests are conducted with

  17. Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manet key management via Mobile Ficlke Key protocol (MFK) ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL ... No Abstract. Keywords: MANET; key management scheme; simulation environment ...

  18. Improving the key biodiversity areas approach for effective conservation planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Knight, AT

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The key biodiversity areas (KBA) approach aims to identify globally important areas for species conservation. Although a similar methodology has been used successfully to identify important Bird Areas, the authors have identified five limitations...

  19. Identifying High Performance ERP Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Stensrud, Erik; Myrtveit, Ingunn

    2002-01-01

    Learning from high performance projects is crucial for software process improvement. Therefore, we need to identify outstanding projects that may serve as role models. It is common to measure productivity as an indicator of performance. It is vital that productivity measurements deal correctly with variable returns to scale and multivariate data. Software projects generally exhibit variable returns to scale, and the output from ERP projects is multivariate. We propose to use Data Envelopment ...

  20. Image encryption using fingerprint as key based on phase retrieval algorithm and public key cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tieyu; Ran, Qiwen; Yuan, Lin; Chi, Yingying; Ma, Jing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a novel image encryption system with fingerprint used as a secret key is proposed based on the phase retrieval algorithm and RSA public key algorithm. In the system, the encryption keys include the fingerprint and the public key of RSA algorithm, while the decryption keys are the fingerprint and the private key of RSA algorithm. If the users share the fingerprint, then the system will meet the basic agreement of asymmetric cryptography. The system is also applicable for the information authentication. The fingerprint as secret key is used in both the encryption and decryption processes so that the receiver can identify the authenticity of the ciphertext by using the fingerprint in decryption process. Finally, the simulation results show the validity of the encryption scheme and the high robustness against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique.

  1. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  2. Key aspects congenital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Lobzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The key questions to solve the problem of congenital infection in the Russian Federation are: using in national practice over world accepted terminology adapted to the recommendations of the World Health Organization; representation of the modern concepts of an infectious process in the classification of congenital infections; scientific development and introducing in clinical practice the «standard case definitions», applied to different congenital infections; optimization of protocols and clinical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of congenital infections; improvement a knowledge in the infectious disease for all  pecialists involved in the risk assessment of congenital infections, manage pregnancy and children. Based on our experience and analysis of publications, the authors suggest possible solutions.

  3. Key figures. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2006. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  4. Key figures. Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the key data of the petroleum industry and of the other energies for the year 2005. Data of the two previous years are given for comparison: 1 - petroleum, France: exploration, reserves, production, transports (tankers, pipelines, crude and refined products), storage capacities, status of resources and uses, foreign trade (imports, prices, exports), refining (capacities, facilities), evolution of supplies, automotive fuels consumption; 2 - energies, France: production, consumption and trade data for coal, natural gas, electricity; total production and consumption of primary energy; consumption per sector of use; 3 - petroleum, world: crude production and reserves per geographical area, OPEC production, imports/exports and refining/consumption per geographical area, international quotation for crudes and refined products; 4 - energies, world: reserves, production and consumption data for coal, natural gas and electricity; uranium production and resources; total primary energy production and consumption per energy source and geographical area. (J.S.)

  5. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    OpenAIRE

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; Jiménez, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined ...

  6. Genome-wide interval mapping using SNPs identifies new QTL for growth, body composition and several physiological variables in an F2 intercross between fat and lean chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Olivier; Duclos, Michel J; Bacciu, Nicola; Le Mignon, Guillaume; Filangi, Olivier; Pitel, Frédérique; Boland, Anne; Lagarrigue, Sandrine; Cogburn, Larry A; Simon, Jean; Le Roy, Pascale; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2013-09-30

    For decades, genetic improvement based on measuring growth and body composition traits has been successfully applied in the production of meat-type chickens. However, this conventional approach is hindered by antagonistic genetic correlations between some traits and the high cost of measuring body composition traits. Marker-assisted selection should overcome these problems by selecting loci that have effects on either one trait only or on more than one trait but with a favorable genetic correlation. In the present study, identification of such loci was done by genotyping an F2 intercross between fat and lean lines divergently selected for abdominal fatness genotyped with a medium-density genetic map (120 microsatellites and 1302 single nucleotide polymorphisms). Genome scan linkage analyses were performed for growth (body weight at 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks, and shank length and diameter at 9 weeks), body composition at 9 weeks (abdominal fat weight and percentage, breast muscle weight and percentage, and thigh weight and percentage), and for several physiological measurements at 7 weeks in the fasting state, i.e. body temperature and plasma levels of IGF-I, NEFA and glucose. Interval mapping analyses were performed with the QTLMap software, including single-trait analyses with single and multiple QTL on the same chromosome. Sixty-seven QTL were detected, most of which had never been described before. Of these 67 QTL, 47 were detected by single-QTL analyses and 20 by multiple-QTL analyses, which underlines the importance of using different statistical models. Close analysis of the genes located in the defined intervals identified several relevant functional candidates, such as ACACA for abdominal fatness, GHSR and GAS1 for breast muscle weight, DCRX and ASPSCR1 for plasma glucose content, and ChEBP for shank diameter. The medium-density genetic map enabled us to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that influenced the traits

  7. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  8. Setting objectives for managing Key deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Wagner, Tyler; Stauffer, Glenn E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is responsible for the protection and management of Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) because the species is listed as Endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The purpose of the ESA is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. There are a host of actions that could possibly be undertaken to recover the Key deer population, but without a clearly defined problem and stated objectives it can be difficult to compare and evaluate alternative actions. In addition, management goals and the acceptability of alternative management actions are inherently linked to stakeholders, who should be engaged throughout the process of developing a decision framework. The purpose of this project was to engage a representative group of stakeholders to develop a problem statement that captured the management problem the FWS must address with Key deer and identify objectives that, if met, would help solve the problem. In addition, the objectives were organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., an objectives network) to show how they are linked, and measurable attributes were identified for each objective. We organized a group of people who represented stakeholders interested in and potentially affected by the management of Key deer. These stakeholders included individuals who represented local, state, and federal governments, non-governmental organizations, the general public, and local businesses. This stakeholder group met five full days over the course of an eight-week period to identify objectives that would address the following problem:“As recovery and removal from the Endangered Species list is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service needs a management approach that will ensure a sustainable, viable, and healthy Key deer population. Urbanization has affected the behavior and population dynamics of the Key deer and the amount and characteristics

  9. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  10. SNP interaction pattern identifier (SIPI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Hui Yi; Chen, Dung Tsa; Huang, Po Yu

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: Testing SNP-SNP interactions is considered as a key for overcoming bottlenecks of genetic association studies. However, related statistical methods for testing SNP-SNP interactions are underdeveloped. Results: We propose the SNP Interaction Pattern Identifier (SIPI), which tests 45...

  11. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  12. Continuous Variable Quantum Communication and Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, Ruifang; Jezek, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits.......We use squeezed states of light to implement a robust continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme and an optical Hadamard gate based on coherent state qubits....

  13. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key dimensions. ... to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently ... A postal survey was conducted among South African apparel and footwear ...

  14. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute ... on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). ... nature of flows is clearly understood with the help of advanced instrumentation.

  15. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  16. Global variables and identified hadrons in the PHENIX experiment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    verse momentum, mean transverse energy, and net charge are presented for particles ... Other talks at this conference summarized the PHENIX results for high pT charged ... The major goal of the heavy-ion program in PHENIX is to detect and.

  17. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  18. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  19. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  20. Variability of consumer impacts from energy efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, James E.; Liu, Xiaomin

    2000-06-15

    A typical prospective analysis of the expected impact of energy efficiency standards on consumers is based on average economic conditions (e.g., energy price) and operating characteristics. In fact, different consumers face different economic conditions and exhibit different behaviors when using an appliance. A method has been developed to characterize the variability among individual households and to calculate the life-cycle cost of appliances taking into account those differences. Using survey data, this method is applied to a distribution of consumers representing the U.S. Examples of clothes washer standards are shown for which 70-90% of the population benefit, compared to 10-30% who are expected to bear increased costs due to new standards. In some cases, sufficient data exist to distinguish among demographic subgroups (for example, low income or elderly households) who are impacted differently from the general population. Rank order correlations between the sampled input distributions and the sampled output distributions are calculated to determine which variability inputs are main factors. This ''importance analysis'' identifies the key drivers contributing to the range of results. Conversely, the importance analysis identifies variables that, while uncertain, make so little difference as to be irrelevant in deciding a particular policy. Examples will be given from analysis of water heaters to illustrate the dominance of the policy implications by a few key variables.

  1. Correlação de pearson e análise de trilha identificando variáveis para caracterizar porta-enxerto de Pyrus communis L Pearson correlation and path analysis identifying variables for the characterization of Pyrus communis L. rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Padilha Galarça

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, através de correlação de Pearson e análise de trilha, identificar variáveis para caracterizar porta-enxertos ananizantes para a cultura da pereira (Pyrus communis L.. Neste experimento foram utilizadas 49 plantas de pereira, plantadas nos canteiros do Departamento de Fitotecnia da FAEM/UFPel. As plantas foram avaliadas na época do seu crescimento vegetativo, segundo parâmetros descritos em instruções do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. Pela correlação de Pearson, as variáveis VP, NRP, HCP e FCNPRCL se destacaram. Na análise de trilha, a variável número de lenticelas obteve maior efeito positivo sobre VP, NRP e FCNPRCL, a variável ramificação do ramo demonstrou-se com efeito positivo sobre HCP, sendo essas duas variáveis consideradas eficazes no processo de seleção de porta-enxerto juntamente com as variáveis básicas.The objective of this work was to identify, through the Pearson correlation and path analysis, variables to characterize rootstocks suitable for the cultivation of the pear (Pyrus communis L.. In this experiment 49 pear specimens were used, planted in flowerbeds at the Phytotechny Department. The plants were evaluated at the time of growth, according to parameters described in the instructions of the Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento. According to the Pearson correlation, the variables VP, NRP, ETA and FCNPRCL stood out. In path analysis, the variable number of lenticels had a more positive effect on VP, NRP and FCNPRCL, variable branch of the industry had a more positive effect on ETA. Both variables were considered effective in the process of selection of rootstock together with the basic variables.

  2. Security for Key Management Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer , Steve; Steel , Graham; Warinschi , Bogdan

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We propose a much-needed formal definition of security for cryptographic key management APIs. The advantages of our definition are that it is general, intuitive, and applicable to security proofs in both symbolic and computational models of cryptography. Our definition relies on an idealized API which allows only the most essential functions for generating, exporting and importing keys, and takes into account dynamic corruption of keys. Based on this we can define the ...

  3. Key properties of expert movement systems in sport : an ecological dynamics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Button, Chris; Davids, Keith

    2013-03-01

    This paper identifies key properties of expertise in sport predicated on the performer-environment relationship. Weaknesses of traditional approaches to expert performance, which uniquely focus on the performer and the environment separately, are highlighted by an ecological dynamics perspective. Key properties of expert movement systems include 'multi- and meta-stability', 'adaptive variability', 'redundancy', 'degeneracy' and the 'attunement to affordances'. Empirical research on these expert system properties indicates that skill acquisition does not emerge from the internal representation of declarative and procedural knowledge, or the imitation of expert behaviours to linearly reduce a perceived 'gap' separating movements of beginners and a putative expert model. Rather, expert performance corresponds with the ongoing co-adaptation of an individual's behaviours to dynamically changing, interacting constraints, individually perceived and encountered. The functional role of adaptive movement variability is essential to expert performance in many different sports (involving individuals and teams; ball games and outdoor activities; land and aquatic environments). These key properties signify that, in sport performance, although basic movement patterns need to be acquired by developing athletes, there exists no ideal movement template towards which all learners should aspire, since relatively unique functional movement solutions emerge from the interaction of key constraints.

  4. Secure quantum key distribution using squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottesman, Daniel; Preskill, John

    2001-01-01

    We prove the security of a quantum key distribution scheme based on transmission of squeezed quantum states of a harmonic oscillator. Our proof employs quantum error-correcting codes that encode a finite-dimensional quantum system in the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of an oscillator, and protect against errors that shift the canonical variables p and q. If the noise in the quantum channel is weak, squeezing signal states by 2.51 dB (a squeeze factor e r =1.34) is sufficient in principle to ensure the security of a protocol that is suitably enhanced by classical error correction and privacy amplification. Secure key distribution can be achieved over distances comparable to the attenuation length of the quantum channel

  5. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  6. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  7. Variable collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, J.B.; McBride, T.R.; Covic, J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention describes an automatic variable collimator which controls the width and thickness of X-ray beams in X-ray diagnostic medical equipment, and which is particularly adapted for use with computerized axial tomographic scanners. A two-part collimator is provided which shapes an X-ray beam both prior to its entering an object subject to radiographic analysis and after the attenuated beam has passed through the object. Interposed between a source of radiation and the object subject to radiographic analysis is a first or source collimator. The source collimator causes the X-ray beam emitted by the source of radiation to be split into a plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams. Disposed within the source collimator is a movable aperture plate which may be used to selectively vary the thickness of the plurality of generally rectangular shaped beams transmitted through the source collimator. A second or receiver collimator is interposed between the object subject to radiographic analysis and a series of radiation detectors. The receiver collimator is disposed to receive the attenuated X-ray beams passing through the object subject to radiographic analysis. Located within the receiver collimator are a plurality of movable aperture plates adapted to be displaced relative to a plurality of fixed aperture plates for the purpose of varying the width and thickness of the attenuated X-ray beams transmitted through the object subject to radiographic analysis. The movable aperture plates of the source and receiver collimators are automatically controlled by circuitry which is provided to allow remote operation of the movable aperture plates

  8. Hydrologic Variability of the Cosumnes River Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Booth

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural floodplain ecosystems are adapted to highly variable hydrologic regimes, which include periodic droughts, infrequent large floods, and relatively frequent periods of inundation. To more effectively manage water resources and maintain ecosystem services provided by floodplains – and associated aquatic, riparian, and wetland habitats – requires an understanding of seasonal and inter-annual hydrologic variability of floodplains. The Cosumnes River, the largest river on the west-slope Sierra Nevada mountains without a major dam, provides a pertinent test case to develop a systematic classification of hydrologic variability. By examining the dynamics of its relatively natural flow regime, and a 98-year streamflow record (1908 – 2005, we identified 12 potential flood types. We identified four duration thresholds, defined as short (S, medium (M, long (L, and very long (V. We then intersected the flood duration division by three magnitude classes, defined as small-medium (1, large (2, and very large (3. Of the 12 possible flood types created by this classification matrix, the Cosumnes River streamflow record populated 10 such classes. To assess the robustness of our classification, we employed discriminant analysis to test class fidelity based on independent measures of flood capability, such as start date. Lastly, we used hierarchical divisive clustering to classify water years by flood type composition resulting in 8 water year types. The results of this work highlight the significant seasonal and inter-annual variability in natural flood regimes in Central Valley rivers. The construction of water impoundment and flood control structures has significantly altered all aspects of the flood pulse. Restoring floodplain ecosystem services will require re-establishing key elements of these historic flood regimes in order to achieve regional restoration goals and objectives.

  9. Design study and performance analysis of a high-speed multistage variable-geometry fan for a variable cycle engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Parker, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A design technology study was performed to identify a high speed, multistage, variable geometry fan configuration capable of achieving wide flow modulation with near optimum efficiency at the important operating condition. A parametric screening study of the front and rear block fans was conducted in which the influence of major fan design features on weight and efficiency was determined. Key design parameters were varied systematically to determine the fan configuration most suited for a double bypass, variable cycle engine. Two and three stage fans were considered for the front block. A single stage, core driven fan was studied for the rear block. Variable geometry concepts were evaluated to provide near optimum off design performance. A detailed aerodynamic design and a preliminary mechanical design were carried out for the selected fan configuration. Performance predictions were made for the front and rear block fans.

  10. A Distributed Shared Key Generation Procedure Using Fractional Keys

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poovendran, Radha; Corson, M. S; Baras, J. S

    1998-01-01

    We present a new class of distributed key generation and recovery algorithms suitable for group communication systems where the group membership is either static or slowly time-varying, and must be tightly controlled...

  11. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  12. Temporal relationship between climate variability, Prosopis juliflora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kyuma

    Key words: Climate, drylands, livestock, Prosopis juliflora, variability vegetation, trends, mesquite. ... climate change is costly and predictions are that both it and its cost will escalate ... Resilience Alliance, 2010; Tennigkeit and Wilkes, 2008;.

  13. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  14. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  15. Key Injury and Violence Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  16. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  17. Solar Variability and Planetary Climates

    CERN Document Server

    Calisesi, Y; Gray, L; Langen, J; Lockwood, M

    2007-01-01

    Variations in solar activity, as revealed by variations in the number of sunspots, have been observed since ancient times. To what extent changes in the solar output may affect planetary climates, though, remains today more than ever a subject of controversy. In 2000, the SSSI volume on Solar Variability and Climate reviewed the to-date understanding of the physics of solar variability and of the associated climate response. The present volume on Solar Variability and Planetary Climates provides an overview of recent advances in this field, with particular focus at the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere. The book structure mirrors that of the ISSI workshop held in Bern in June 2005, the collection of invited workshop contributions and of complementary introductory papers synthesizing the current understanding in key research areas such as middle atmospheric processes, stratosphere-troposphere dynamical coupling, tropospheric aerosols chemistry, solar storm influences, solar variability physics, and terrestri...

  18. KDiamend: a package for detecting key drivers in a molecular ecological network of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengxuan; Chen, Jiaxing; Jiang, Yiqi; Dong, Wei; Fang, Zhou; Li, Shuaicheng

    2018-04-11

    Microbial abundance profiles are applied widely to understand diseases from the aspect of microbial communities. By investigating the abundance associations of species or genes, we can construct molecular ecological networks (MENs). The MENs are often constructed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between genes. In this work, we also applied multimodal mutual information (MMI) to construct MENs. The members which drive the concerned MENs are referred to as key drivers. We proposed a novel method to detect the key drivers. First, we partitioned the MEN into subnetworks. Then we identified the most pertinent subnetworks to the disease by measuring the correlation between the abundance pattern and the delegated phenotype-the variable representing the disease phenotypes. Last, for each identified subnetwork, we detected the key driver by PageRank. We developed a package named KDiamend and applied it to the gut and oral microbial data to detect key drivers for Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). We detected six T2D-relevant subnetworks and three key drivers of them are related to the carbohydrate metabolic process. In addition, we detected nine subnetworks related to RA, a disease caused by compromised immune systems. The extracted subnetworks include InterPro matches (IPRs) concerned with immunoglobulin, Sporulation, biofilm, Flaviviruses, bacteriophage, etc., while the development of biofilms is regarded as one of the drivers of persistent infections. KDiamend is feasible to detect key drivers and offers insights to uncover the development of diseases. The package is freely available at http://www.deepomics.org/pipelines/3DCD6955FEF2E64A/ .

  19. Secret key rates in quantum key distribution using Renyi entropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzo, Silvestre; Kampermann, Hermann; Mertz, Markus; Bratzik, Sylvia; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Heinrich-Heine-Universitaet Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The secret key rate r of a quantum key distribution protocol depends on the involved number of signals and the accepted ''failure probability''. We reconsider a method to calculate r focusing on the analysis of the privacy amplification given by R. Renner and R. Koenig (2005). This approach involves an optimization problem with an objective function depending on the Renyi entropy of the density operator describing the classical outcomes and the eavesdropper system. This problem is analyzed for a generic class of QKD protocols and the current research status is presented.

  20. Three state quantum key distribution for small keys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuwantudawe, J.; Boileau, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols allow two parties, Alice and Bob, to establish secure keys. The most well-known protocol is BB84, using four distinct states. Recently, Phoenix et al. proposed a three state protocol. We explain the protocol and discuss its security proof. The three state protocol also has an interesting structure that allows for errors estimation from the inconclusive results (i.e.. where Alice and Bob choose different bases). This eliminates the need for sampling, potentially useful when qubits are limited. We discuss the effectiveness of this approach compared to BB84 for the case where a good error estimate is required. (author)

  1. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  2. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  3. IMPlementation of A Relatives' Toolkit (IMPART study): an iterative case study to identify key factors impacting on the implementation of a web-based supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar experiences in a National Health Service: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobban, Fiona; Appleton, Victoria; Appelbe, Duncan; Barraclough, Johanna; Bowland, Julie; Fisher, Naomi R; Foster, Sheena; Johnson, Sonia; Lewis, Elizabeth; Mateus, Céu; Mezes, Barbara; Murray, Elizabeth; O'Hanlon, Puffin; Pinfold, Vanessa; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Siddle, Ron; Smith, Jo; Sutton, Chris J; Walker, Andrew; Jones, Steven H

    2017-12-28

    Web-based interventions to support people to manage long-term health conditions are available and effective but rarely used in clinical services. The aim of this study is to identify critical factors impacting on the implementation of an online supported self-management intervention for relatives of people with recent onset psychosis or bipolar disorder into routine clinical care and to use this information to inform an implementation plan to facilitate widespread use and inform wider implementation of digital health interventions. A multiple case study design within six early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services in England, will be used to test and refine theory-driven hypotheses about factors impacting on implementation of the Relatives' Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT). Qualitative data including behavioural observation, document analysis, and in-depth interviews collected in the first two EIP services (wave 1) and analysed using framework analysis, combined with quantitative data describing levels of use by staff and relatives and impact on relatives' distress and wellbeing, will be used to identify factors impacting on implementation. Consultation via stakeholder workshops with staff and relatives and co-facilitated by relatives in the research team will inform development of an implementation plan to address these factors, which will be evaluated and refined in the four subsequent EIP services in waves 2 and 3. Transferability of the implementation plan to non-participating services will be explored. Observation of implementation in a real world clinical setting, across carefully sampled services, in real time provides a unique opportunity to understand factors impacting on implementation likely to be generalizable to other web-based interventions, as well as informing further development of implementation theories. However, there are inherent challenges in investigating implementation without influencing the process under observation. We outline our

  4. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  5. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  6. Safety and reliability in industrial organizations - The key factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, R.A.; Sarkis, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    A survey-based technique has been developed that measures and generates comparative data on important organizational, work group, and job-level variables that are directly related to on-the-job accidents. This paper describes the results of an analysis of data from more than 2,700 employees in the chemical, oil, construction, and wood products industries. These analyses indicate that several key variables are significantly related to accidents in the workplace

  7. Partitioned key-value store with atomic memory operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2017-02-07

    A partitioned key-value store is provided that supports atomic memory operations. A server performs a memory operation in a partitioned key-value store by receiving a request from an application for at least one atomic memory operation, the atomic memory operation comprising a memory address identifier; and, in response to the atomic memory operation, performing one or more of (i) reading a client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier and storing one or more key-value pairs from the client-side memory location in a local key-value store of the server; and (ii) obtaining one or more key-value pairs from the local key-value store of the server and writing the obtained one or more key-value pairs into the client-side memory location identified by the memory address identifier. The server can perform functions obtained from a client-side memory location and return a result to the client using one or more of the atomic memory operations.

  8. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  9. Sparse Linear Identifiable Multivariate Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2011-01-01

    and bench-marked on artificial and real biological data sets. SLIM is closest in spirit to LiNGAM (Shimizu et al., 2006), but differs substantially in inference, Bayesian network structure learning and model comparison. Experimentally, SLIM performs equally well or better than LiNGAM with comparable......In this paper we consider sparse and identifiable linear latent variable (factor) and linear Bayesian network models for parsimonious analysis of multivariate data. We propose a computationally efficient method for joint parameter and model inference, and model comparison. It consists of a fully...

  10. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  11. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  12. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  13. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  14. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods : A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results : At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions : Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  15. Key drivers for market penetration of biosimilars in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Dorey, Julie; Cristeau, Olivier; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background & Objectives: Potential drivers and barriers of biosimilar uptake were mainly analysed through qualitative approaches. The study objective was to conduct a quantitative analysis and identify drivers of biosimilar uptake of all available biosimilars in the European Union (EU). Methods: A three-step process was established to identify key drivers for the uptake of biosimilars in the top 10 EU member states (MS) pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK): (1) literature review to identify incentive policies in place to enhance biosimilars adoption; (2) assessment of biosimilar market dynamics based on database analysis; (3) regression model analysis on price using the following explicative variables: incentive policies; price difference between the biosimilar and the originator product; distribution channel; generic uptake and generic price cut; pharmaceutical expenditure per capita; and market competition. Results: At the study cut-off date, 20 biosimilars were available on the market. Incentive policies applied to biosimilars were found to be heterogeneous across countries, and uptakes of biosimilars were also very heterogeneous between different therapeutic classes and countries. Results from the model demonstrated that incentive policies and the date of first biosimilar market entry were correlated to biosimilar uptake. Pharmaceutical expenditure per capita and the highest generic uptake were inversely correlated with biosimilar uptake. Average generic price discount over originator and the number of biosimilars showed a trend toward statistical significance for correlation with biosimilar uptake, but did not reach the significance threshold. Biosimilar price discount over original biologic price, the number of analogues, and the distribution channel were not correlated with the biosimilar uptake. Conclusions: Understanding drivers of biosimilar uptake becomes a critical issue to

  16. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...... that different structural problems can be reproduced successfully....

  17. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  18. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  19. [Key informers. When and How?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín González, R

    2009-03-01

    When information obtained through duly designed and developed studies is not available, the solution to certain problems that affect the population or that respond to certain questions may be approached by using the information and experience provided by the so-called key informer. The key informer is defined as a person who is in contact with the community or with the problem to be studied, who is considered to have good knowledge of the situation and therefore who is considered an expert. The search for consensus is the basis to obtain information through the key informers. The techniques used have different characteristics based on whether the experts chosen meet together or not, whether they are guided or not, whether they interact with each other or not. These techniques include the survey, the Delphi technique, the nominal group technique, brainwriting, brainstorming, the Phillips 66 technique, the 6-3-5 technique, the community forum and the community impressions technique. Information provided by key informers through the search for consensus is relevant when this is not available or cannot be obtained by other methods. It has permitted the analysis of the existing neurological care model, elaboration of recommendations on visit times for the out-patient neurological care, and the elaboration of guidelines and recommendations for the management of prevalent neurological problems.

  20. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  1. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meng; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Yao, Xin-Qiu; She, Zhen-Su

    2010-01-01

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  2. Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, Chris; Ma Xiongfeng; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that utilizes a biased basis choice in order to increase the efficiency of the scheme. The optimal bias between the two measurement bases, a more refined error analysis and finite key size effects are all studied in order to assure the security of the final key generated with the system. We then implement the scheme in a local entangled QKD system that uses polarization entangled photon pairs to securely distribute the key. A 50/50 non-polarizing beamsplitter (BS) with different optical attenuators is used to simulate a variable BS in order to allow us to study the operation of the system for different biases. Over 6 h of continuous operation with a total bias of 0.9837/0.0163 (Z/X), we were able to generate 0.4567 secure key bits per raw key bit as compared to 0.2550 secure key bits per raw key bit for the unbiased case. This represents an increase in the efficiency of the key generation rate by 79%.

  3. Thoughts on identifiers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    As business processes and information transactions have become an inextricably intertwined with the Web, the importance of assignment, registration, discovery, and maintenance of identifiers has increased. In spite of this, integrated frameworks for managing identifiers have been slow to emerge. Instead, identification systems arise (quite naturally) from immediate business needs without consideration for how they fit into larger information architectures. In addition, many legacy identifier systems further complicate the landscape, making it difficult for content managers to select and deploy identifier systems that meet both the business case and long term information management objectives. This presentation will outline a model for evaluating identifier applications and the functional requirements of the systems necessary to support them. The model is based on a layered analysis of the characteristics of identifier systems, including: * Functional characteristics * Technology * Policy * Business * Social T...

  4. Identifiability in stochastic models

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The problem of identifiability is basic to all statistical methods and data analysis, occurring in such diverse areas as Reliability Theory, Survival Analysis, and Econometrics, where stochastic modeling is widely used. Mathematics dealing with identifiability per se is closely related to the so-called branch of ""characterization problems"" in Probability Theory. This book brings together relevant material on identifiability as it occurs in these diverse fields.

  5. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  6. Key figures for the regional- and distribution grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikingstad, S.

    1996-02-01

    In Norway, improving the efficiency of the hydroelectric grid operation is a stated goal of the Energy Act. Several studies have identified potential profits of such improvement. This publication focuses on costs and improvement potentials. Publication of key figures may stimulate grid owners, boards and administrations to improve the operating efficiency of their grids. The publication shows key figures for the regional- and distribution grid and is based on accounting data for 1994. The key figures are divided into: (1) Cost structure: The key figures express the relative contributions of each cost component to the total income of the grid, (2) Costs and physical quantities: The key figures show the cost of delivering the transport services, (3) Physical quantities: The key figures describe the working conditions of the energy utility. It appears that the cost structure of the sector varies considerably. The same is true of the cost related to the delivery of grid services. 30 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Key papers in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Simon; Shah, Taimur Tariq; Patel, Hitendra R H; Arya, Manit

    2014-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and second leading cause of death in men. The evidence base for the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer is continually changing. We aim to review and discuss past and contemporary papers on these topics to provoke debate and highlight key dilemmas faced by the urological community. We review key papers on prostate-specific antigen screening, radical prostatectomy versus surveillance strategies, targeted therapies, timing of radiotherapy and alternative anti-androgen therapeutics. Previously, the majority of patients, irrespective of risk, underwent radical open surgical procedures associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Evidence is emerging that not all prostate cancers are alike and that low-grade disease can be safely managed by surveillance strategies and localized treatment to the prostate. The question remains as to how to accurately stage the disease and ultimately choose which treatment pathway to follow.

  8. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  9. Key issues for passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ''review paper'' as such and only record the highlights. (author)

  10. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  11. Key issues for passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayns, M R [AEA Technology, Harwell, Didcot (United Kingdom). European Institutions; Hicken, E F [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    The paper represents a summary of the introductory presentation made at this Advisory Group Meeting on the Technical Feasibility and Reliability of Passive Safety Systems. It was intended as an overview of our views on what are the key issues and what are the technical problems which might dominate any future developments of passive safety systems. It is, therefore, not a ``review paper`` as such and only record the highlights. (author).

  12. Low carbon development. Key issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Frauke; Nordensvaard, Johan (eds.)

    2013-03-07

    This comprehensive textbook addresses the interface between international development and climate change in a carbon constrained world. It discusses the key conceptual, empirical and policy-related issues of low carbon development and takes an international and interdisciplinary approach to the subject by drawing on insights from across the natural sciences and social sciences whilst embedding the discussion in a global context. The first part explores the concept of low carbon development and explains the need for low carbon development in a carbon constrained world. The book then discusses the key issues of socio-economic, political and technological nature for low carbon development, exploring topics such as the political economy, social justice, financing and carbon markets, and technologies and innovation for low carbon development. This is followed by key issues for low carbon development in policy and practice, which is presented based on cross-cutting issues such as low carbon energy, forestry, agriculture and transportation. Afterwards, practical case studies are discussed from low carbon development in low income countries in Africa, middle income countries in Asia and Latin America and high income countries in Europe and North America.

  13. Understanding key performance indicators for breast support: An analysis of breast support effects on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Berns, Jason; Brown, Nicola; Scurr, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of breast support previous studies monitored breast kinematics and kinetics, subjective feedback, muscle activity (EMG), ground reaction forces (GRFs) and physiological measures in isolation. Comparing these variables within one study will establish the key performance variables that distinguish between breast supports during activities such as running. This study investigates the effects of changes in breast support on biomechanical, physiological and subjective measures during running. Ten females (34D) ran for 10 min in high and low breast supports, and for 2 min bare breasted (2.8 m·s -1 ). Breast and body kinematics, EMG, expired air and heart rate were recorded. GRFs were recorded during 10 m overground runs (2.8 m·s -1 ) and subjective feedback obtained after each condition. Of the 62 variables measured, 22 kinematic and subjective variables were influenced by changes in breast support. Willingness to exercise, time lag and superio-inferior breast velocity were most affected. GRFs, EMG and physiological variables were unaffected by breast support changes during running. Breast displacement reduction, although previously advocated, was not the most sensitive variable to breast support changes during running. Instead breast support products should be assessed using a battery of performance indicators, including the key kinematic and subjective variables identified here.

  14. Key Concepts in Microbial Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Achilles, K.; Walker, G.; Weersing, K.; Team, A

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Microbial Oceanography: Research and Education (C-MORE) is a multi-institution Science and Technology Center, established by the National Science Foundation in 2006. C-MORE's research mission is to facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the diverse assemblages of microorganisms in the sea, ranging from the genetic basis of marine microbial biogeochemistry including the metabolic regulation and environmental controls of gene expression, to the processes that underpin the fluxes of carbon, related bioelements, and energy in the marine environment. The C-MORE education and outreach program is focused on increasing scientific literacy in microbial oceanography among students, educators, and the general public. A first step toward this goal is defining the key concepts that constitute microbial oceanography. After lengthy discussions with scientists and educators, both within and outside C-MORE, we have arrived at six key concepts: 1) Marine microbes are very small and have been around for a long time; 2) Life on Earth could not exist without microbes; 3) Most marine microbes are beneficial; 4) Microbes are everywhere: they are extremely abundant and diverse; 5) Microbes significantly impact our global climate; and 6) There are new discoveries every day in the field of microbial oceanography. A C-MORE-produced brochure on these six key concepts will be distributed at the meeting. Advanced copies may be requested by email or downloaded from the C-MORE web site(http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/downloads/MO_key_concepts_hi-res.pdf). This brochure also includes information on career pathways in microbial oceanography, with the aim of broadening participation in the field. C-MORE is eager to work in partnership to incorporate these key concepts into other science literacy publications, particularly those involving ocean and climate literacy. We thank the following contributors and reviewers: P Chisholm, A Dolberry, and A Thompson (MIT); N Lawrence

  15. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models II : Incorporation of environmental variability and species interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köster, Fritz; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We investigate whether a process-oriented approach based on the results of field, laboratory, and modelling studies can be used to develop a stock-environment-recruitment model for Central Baltic cod (Gadus morhua). Based on exploratory statistical analysis, significant variables influencing...... cod in these areas, suggesting that key biotic and abiotic processes can be successfully incorporated into recruitment models....... survival of early life stages and varying systematically among spawning sites were incorporated into stock-recruitment models, first for major cod spawning sites and then combined for the entire Central Baltic. Variables identified included potential egg production by the spawning stock, abiotic conditions...

  16. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  17. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  18. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  19. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.; Ferreira, Luciana C.; Sequeira, Ana M.M.; Meekan, Mark G.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W. Don; Caley, M. Julian; Costa, Daniel P.; Eguí luz, Victor M.; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S.; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C.; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Lowe, Christopher G.; Madsen, Peter T.; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A.; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; Sims, David W.; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N.; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N.; Thums, Michele

    2016-01-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Optimality of Gaussian attacks in continuous-variable quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navascués, Miguel; Grosshans, Frédéric; Acín, Antonio

    2006-11-10

    We analyze the asymptotic security of the family of Gaussian modulated quantum key distribution protocols for continuous-variables systems. We prove that the Gaussian unitary attack is optimal for all the considered bounds on the key rate when the first and second momenta of the canonical variables involved are known by the honest parties.

  2. Air temperature variability in a high-elevation Himalayan catchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heynen, Martin; Miles, Evan; Ragettli, Silvan; Buri, Pascal; Immerzeel, Walter W.; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Air temperature is a key control of processes affecting snow and glaciers in high-elevation catchments, including melt, snowfall and sublimation. It is therefore a key input variable to models of land-surface-atmosphere interaction. Despite this importance, its spatial variability is poorly

  3. Developing Health-Based Pre-Planning Clearance Goals for Airport Remediation Following Chemical Terrorist Attack: Introduction and Key Assessment Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Annetta; Hall, Linda; Raber, Ellen; Hauschild, Veronique D.; Dolislager, Fredrick; Love, Adam H.; Hanna, M. Leslie

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a chemical terrorist attack on a transportation hub, post-event remediation and restoration activities necessary to attain unrestricted facility reuse and re-entry could require hours to multiple days. While restoration timeframes are dependent on numerous variables, a primary controlling factor is the level of pre-planning and decision-making completed prior to chemical terrorist release. What follows is the first of a two-part analysis identifying key considerations, critica...

  4. Identifying Strategic Scientific Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    As NCI's central scientific strategy office, CRS collaborates with the institute's divisions, offices, and centers to identify research opportunities to advance NCI's vision for the future of cancer research.

  5. Coherence method of identifying signal noise model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)

  6. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  7. Integration of transcriptome and whole genomic resequencing data to identify key genes affecting swine fat deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xing

    Full Text Available Fat deposition is highly correlated with the growth, meat quality, reproductive performance and immunity of pigs. Fatty acid synthesis takes place mainly in the adipose tissue of pigs; therefore, in this study, a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach was used to generate adipose tissue transcriptomes from two groups of Songliao black pigs that had opposite backfat thickness phenotypes. The total number of paired-end reads produced for each sample was in the range of 39.29-49.36 millions. Approximately 188 genes were differentially expressed in adipose tissue and were enriched for metabolic processes, such as fatty acid biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, metabolism of fatty acids, etinol, caffeine and arachidonic acid and immunity. Additionally, many genetic variations were detected between the two groups through pooled whole-genome resequencing. Integration of transcriptome and whole-genome resequencing data revealed important genomic variations among the differentially expressed genes for fat deposition, for example, the lipogenic genes. Further studies are required to investigate the roles of candidate genes in fat deposition to improve pig breeding programs.

  8. Identifying Key Drivers of the Impact of an HIV Cure Intervention in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Cambiano, Valentina; Revill, Paul

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown what properties would be required to make an intervention in low income countries that can eradicate or control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without antiretroviral therapy (ART) cost-effective. METHODS: We used a model of HIV and ART to investigate the effect...... of introducing an ART-free viral suppression intervention in 2022 using Zimbabwe as an example country. We assumed that the intervention (cost: $500) would be accessible for 90% of the population, be given to those receiving effective ART, have sufficient efficacy to allow ART interruption in 95%, with a rate...... of viral rebound of 5% per year in the first 3 months, and a 50% decline in rate with each successive year. RESULTS: An ART-free viral suppression intervention with these properties would result in >0.53 million disability-adjusted-life-years averted over 2022-2042, with a reduction in HIV program costs...

  9. Identifying Key Events in AOPs for Embryonic Disruption using Computational Toxicology (European Teratology Society - AOP symp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing safety aspects of drugs and environmental chemicals relies extensively on animal testing; however, the quantity of chemicals needing assessment and challenges of species extrapolation require alternative approaches to traditional animal studies. Newer in vitro and in s...

  10. Security as the Key Factor in Contemporary Tourism: Specificities Identified Through the Analysis of Responders’ Attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Penić, Josipa; Kurečić, Petar

    2017-01-01

    The paper represents a product of mentor- graduate student cooperation, developed at the graduate study of Business Economics, major Tourism. Following the latest threatening events and having in mind those yet to come, we can conclude that no country can benefit from the tourism industry if at the same time does not develop its security system as an integral part of the standard tourist offer. Analyzing the trends in contemporary tourism, the safety and security issues became the decisive fa...

  11. Quantification of cytosolic interactions identifies Ede1 oligomers as key organizers of endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Dominik; Trautmann, Susanne; Meurer, Matthias; Wachsmuth, Malte; Godlee, Camilla; Knop, Michael; Kaksonen, Marko

    2014-11-03

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a highly conserved intracellular trafficking pathway that depends on dynamic protein-protein interactions between up to 60 different proteins. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal regulation of these interactions. Using fluorescence (cross)-correlation spectroscopy in yeast, we tested 41 previously reported interactions in vivo and found 16 to exist in the cytoplasm. These detected cytoplasmic interactions included the self-interaction of Ede1, homolog of mammalian Eps15. Ede1 is the crucial scaffold for the organization of the early stages of endocytosis. We show that oligomerization of Ede1 through its central coiled coil domain is necessary for its localization to the endocytic site and we link the oligomerization of Ede1 to its function in locally concentrating endocytic adaptors and organizing the endocytic machinery. Our study sheds light on the importance of the regulation of protein-protein interactions in the cytoplasm for the assembly of the endocytic machinery in vivo. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. Key identifiers and spelling conventions in MXit-lingo as found in conversations with Dr Math

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Different human languages look different from other human languages. To use a term from the computer industry, each human language has its own “look and feel”. European English speakers can easily recognise a phrase such as “Comment allez...

  13. Integrative genome analyses identify key somatic driver mutations of small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peifer, Martin; Fernandez-Cuesta, Lynnette; Sos, Martin L.; George, Julie; Seidel, Danila; Kasper, Lawryn H.; Plenker, Dennis; Leenders, Frauke; Sun, Ruping; Zander, Thomas; Menon, Roopika; Koker, Mirjam; Dahmen, Ilona; Mueller, Christian; Di Cerbo, Vincenzo; Schildhaus, Hans-Ulrich; Altmueller, Janine; Baessmann, Ingelore; Becker, Christian; de Wilde, Bram; Vandesompele, Jo; Boehm, Diana; Ansen, Sascha; Gabler, Franziska; Wilkening, Ines; Heynck, Stefanie; Heuckmann, Johannes M.; Lu, Xin; Carter, Scott L.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Banerji, Shantanu; Getz, Gad; Park, Kwon-Sik; Rauh, Daniel; Gruetter, Christian; Fischer, Matthias; Pasqualucci, Laura; Wright, Gavin; Wainer, Zoe; Russell, Prudence; Petersen, Iver; Chen, Yuan; Stoelben, Erich; Ludwig, Corinna; Schnabel, Philipp; Hoffmann, Hans; Muley, Thomas; Brockmann, Michael; Engel-Riedel, Walburga; Muscarella, Lucia A.; Fazio, Vito M.; Groen, Harry; Timens, Wim; Sietsma, Hannie; Thunnissen, Erik; Smit, Egbert; Heideman, Danielle A. M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Cappuzzo, Federico; Ligorio, Claudia; Damiani, Stefania; Field, John; Solberg, Steinar; Brustugun, Odd Terje; Lund-Iversen, Marius; Saenger, Joerg; Clement, Joachim H.; Soltermann, Alex; Moch, Holger; Weder, Walter; Solomon, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Validire, Pierre; Besse, Benjamin; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Lorimier, Philippe; Schneider, Peter M.; Hallek, Michael; Pao, William; Meyerson, Matthew; Sage, Julien; Shendure, Jay; Schneider, Robert; Buettner, Reinhard; Wolf, Juergen; Nuernberg, Peter; Perner, Sven; Heukamp, Lukas C.; Brindle, Paul K.; Haas, Stefan; Thomas, Roman K.

    2012-01-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive lung tumor subtype with poor prognosis(1-3). We sequenced 29 SCLC exomes, 2 genomes and 15 transcriptomes and found an extremely high mutation rate of 7.4 +/- 1 protein-changing mutations per million base pairs. Therefore, we conducted integrated

  14. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sud, Amit; Thomsen, Hauke; Law, Philip J.

    2017-01-01

    Several susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and 16,749 co...

  15. Identifying Key Workplace Stressors Affecting Twentieth Air Force: Analyses Conducted from December 2012 Through February 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    24-hour basis include nursing , air traffic control, manufacturing, police service, and fire protection. Many studies have shown that evening, night...of occupational injuries for a variety of jobs, including construction workers, nurses , miners, truck drivers, firefighters, and nuclear power plant...lish a strict schedule of AFS-specific focus group times in advance. We could not reschedule if the times proved inconvenient for participants

  16. Identifying stabilizing key residues in proteins using interresidue interaction energy matrix

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Biedermannová, Lada; Hobza, Pavel; Vondrášek, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2008), s. 402-413 ISSN 0887-3585 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR GA203/06/1727; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : protein stabilisation * an-initio calculation * interaction energy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.419, year: 2008

  17. Genome-wide association study of classical Hodgkin lymphoma identifies key regulators of disease susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sud, A. (Amit); Thomsen, H. (Hauke); Law, P.J. (Philip J.); A. Försti (Asta); Filho, M.I.D.S. (Miguel Inacio Da Silva); Holroyd, A. (Amy); P. Broderick (Peter); Orlando, G. (Giulia); Lenive, O. (Oleg); Wright, L. (Lauren); R. Cooke (Rosie); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); A.M. Dunning (Alison); J. Peto (Julian); F. Canzian (Federico); Eeles, R. (Rosalind); Z. Kote-Jarai; K.R. Muir (K.); Pashayan, N. (Nora); B.E. Henderson (Brian); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); S. Benlloch (Sara); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); Olama, A.A.A. (Ali Amin Al); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); G. Conti (Giario); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); Stevens, V.L. (Victoria L.); C.M. Tangen (Catherine M.); Batra, J. (Jyotsna); Clements, J. (Judith); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Schleutker, J. (Johanna); D. Albanes (Demetrius); Weinstein, S. (Stephanie); K. Wolk (Kerstin); West, C. (Catharine); Mucci, L. (Lorelei); Cancel-Tassin, G. (Géraldine); Koutros, S. (Stella); Sorensen, K.D. (Karina Dalsgaard); L. Maehle; D. Neal (David); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); Hamilton, R.J. (Robert J.); S.A. Ingles (Sue); B.S. Rosenstein (Barry S.); Lu, Y.-J. (Yong-Jie); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); A. Kibel (Adam); Vega, A. (Ana); M. Kogevinas (Manolis); Penney, K.L. (Kathryn L.); Park, J.Y. (Jong Y.); Stanford, J.L. (Janet L.); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); Brenner, H. (Hermann); Maier, C. (Christiane); Kim, J. (Jeri); E.M. John (Esther); P.J. Teixeira; Neuhausen, S.L. (Susan L.); De Ruyck, K. (Kim); Razack, A. (Azad); Newcomb, L.F. (Lisa F.); Lessel, D. (Davor); Kaneva, R. (Radka); N. Usmani (Nawaid); F. Claessens; Townsend, P.A. (Paul A.); Dominguez, M.G. (Manuela Gago); Roobol, M.J. (Monique J.); F. Menegaux (Florence); P. Hoffmann (Per); M.M. Nöthen (Markus); K.-H. JöCkel (Karl-Heinz); Strandmann, E.P.V. (Elke Pogge Von); Lightfoot, T. (Tracy); Kane, E. (Eleanor); Roman, E. (Eve); Lake, A. (Annette); Montgomery, D. (Dorothy); Jarrett, R.F. (Ruth F.); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Engert (Andreas); N. Orr (Nick); K. Hemminki (Kari); Houlston, R.S. (Richard S.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractSeveral susceptibility loci for classical Hodgkin lymphoma have been reported. However, much of the heritable risk is unknown. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of two existing genome-wide association studies, a new genome-wide association study, and replication totalling 5,314 cases and

  18. Identifying Key Topics for the Description of Sexual Behavior in the Danish Population: A Qualitative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson

    and often lead to unsafe sex. 3) Low self-esteem increases the risk of ignoring crossing of one’s personal boundaries and thereby resulting in promiscuous sexual behavior. 4) Increased sexual experience was found to be associated with lack of condom use. Surprisingly, the informants did not consider drug...... and used to describe important points of interest regarding sexual behavior in the young population....

  19. BROAD ABSORPTION LINE VARIABILITY ON MULTI-YEAR TIMESCALES IN A LARGE QUASAR SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filiz Ak, N.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, D. P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Hall, P. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Anderson, S. F. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hamann, F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Lundgren, B. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Pâris, I. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Petitjean, P. [Universite Paris 6, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 75014, Paris (France); Ross, Nicholas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 92420 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); York, Don, E-mail: nfilizak@astro.psu.edu [The University of Chicago, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present a detailed investigation of the variability of 428 C IV and 235 Si IV broad absorption line (BAL) troughs identified in multi-epoch observations of 291 quasars by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-I/II/III. These observations primarily sample rest-frame timescales of 1-3.7 yr over which significant rearrangement of the BAL wind is expected. We derive a number of observational results on, e.g., the frequency of BAL variability, the velocity range over which BAL variability occurs, the primary observed form of BAL-trough variability, the dependence of BAL variability upon timescale, the frequency of BAL strengthening versus weakening, correlations between BAL variability and BAL-trough profiles, relations between C IV and Si IV BAL variability, coordinated multi-trough variability, and BAL variations as a function of quasar properties. We assess implications of these observational results for quasar winds. Our results support models where most BAL absorption is formed within an order-of-magnitude of the wind-launching radius, although a significant minority of BAL troughs may arise on larger scales. We estimate an average lifetime for a BAL trough along our line-of-sight of a few thousand years. BAL disappearance and emergence events appear to be extremes of general BAL variability, rather than being qualitatively distinct phenomena. We derive the parameters of a random-walk model for BAL EW variability, finding that this model can acceptably describe some key aspects of EW variability. The coordinated trough variability of BAL quasars with multiple troughs suggests that changes in 'shielding gas' may play a significant role in driving general BAL variability.

  20. The key kinematic determinants of undulatory underwater swimming at maximal velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connaboy, Chris; Naemi, Roozbeh; Brown, Susan; Psycharakis, Stelios; McCabe, Carla; Coleman, Simon; Sanders, Ross

    2016-01-01

    The optimisation of undulatory underwater swimming is highly important in competitive swimming performance. Nineteen kinematic variables were identified from previous research undertaken to assess undulatory underwater swimming performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine which kinematic variables were key to the production of maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity. Kinematic data at maximal undulatory underwater swimming velocity were collected from 17 skilled swimmers. A series of separate backward-elimination analysis of covariance models was produced with cycle frequency and cycle length as dependent variables (DVs) and participant as a fixed factor, as including cycle frequency and cycle length would explain 100% of the maximal swimming velocity variance. The covariates identified in the cycle-frequency and cycle-length models were used to form the saturated model for maximal swimming velocity. The final parsimonious model identified three covariates (maximal knee joint angular velocity, maximal ankle angular velocity and knee range of movement) as determinants of the variance in maximal swimming velocity (adjusted-r2 = 0.929). However, when participant was removed as a fixed factor there was a large reduction in explained variance (adjusted r2 = 0.397) and only maximal knee joint angular velocity continued to contribute significantly, highlighting its importance to the production of maximal swimming velocity. The reduction in explained variance suggests an emphasis on inter-individual differences in undulatory underwater swimming technique and/or anthropometry. Future research should examine the efficacy of other anthropometric, kinematic and coordination variables to better understand the production of maximal swimming velocity and consider the importance of individual undulatory underwater swimming techniques when interpreting the data.

  1. From variability tolerance to approximate computing in parallel integrated architectures and accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rahimi, Abbas; Gupta, Rajesh K

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on computing devices and their design at various levels to combat variability. The authors provide a review of key concepts with particular emphasis on timing errors caused by various variability sources. They discuss methods to predict and prevent, detect and correct, and finally conditions under which such errors can be accepted; they also consider their implications on cost, performance and quality. Coverage includes a comparative evaluation of methods for deployment across various layers of the system from circuits, architecture, to application software. These can be combined in various ways to achieve specific goals related to observability and controllability of the variability effects, providing means to achieve cross layer or hybrid resilience. · Covers challenges and opportunities in identifying microelectronic variability and the resulting errors at various layers in the system abstraction; · Enables readers to assess how various levels of circuit and system design can mitigate t...

  2. Improvement of SET variability in TaO x based resistive RAM devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönhals, Alexander; Waser, Rainer; Wouters, Dirk J.

    2017-11-01

    Improvement or at least control of variability is one of the key challenges for Redox based resistive switching memory technology. In this paper, we investigate the impact of a serial resistor as a voltage divider on the SET variability in Pt/Ta2O5/Ta/Pt nano crossbar devices. A partial RESET in a competing complementary switching (CS) mode is identified as a possible failure mechanism of bipolar switching SET in our devices. Due to a voltage divider effect, serial resistance value shows unequal impact on switching voltages of both modes which allows for a selective suppression of the CS mode. The impact of voltage divider on SET variability is demonstrated. A combination of appropriate write voltage and serial resistance allows for a significant improvement of the SET variability.

  3. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  4. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  5. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...... contributed by Scientific Officer Edgar Thielmann, DG TREN, Head of Department Hans Larsen, RisøNational Laboratory, Senior Asset Manager Aksel Hauge Pedersen, DONG VE, Consultant Timon Wehnert, IZT-Berlin, and Senior Scientist Martine Uyterlinde, ECN...

  6. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...

  7. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Tim R; Donner, Simon D; Maynard, Jeffrey A; MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Maina, Joseph; Baker, Andrew C; Alemu I, Jahson B; Beger, Maria; Campbell, Stuart J; Darling, Emily S; Eakin, C Mark; Heron, Scott F; Jupiter, Stacy D; Lundquist, Carolyn J; McLeod, Elizabeth; Mumby, Peter J; Paddack, Michelle J; Selig, Elizabeth R; van Woesik, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant) coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will increase the feasibility

  8. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim R McClanahan

    Full Text Available Managing coral reefs for resilience to climate change is a popular concept but has been difficult to implement because the empirical scientific evidence has either not been evaluated or is sometimes unsupportive of theory, which leads to uncertainty when considering methods and identifying priority reefs. We asked experts and reviewed the scientific literature for guidance on the multiple physical and biological factors that affect the ability of coral reefs to resist and recover from climate disturbance. Eleven key factors to inform decisions based on scaling scientific evidence and the achievability of quantifying the factors were identified. Factors important to resistance and recovery, which are important components of resilience, were not strongly related, and should be assessed independently. The abundance of resistant (heat-tolerant coral species and past temperature variability were perceived to provide the greatest resistance to climate change, while coral recruitment rates, and macroalgae abundance were most influential in the recovery process. Based on the 11 key factors, we tested an evidence-based framework for climate change resilience in an Indonesian marine protected area. The results suggest our evidence-weighted framework improved upon existing un-weighted methods in terms of characterizing resilience and distinguishing priority sites. The evaluation supports the concept that, despite high ecological complexity, relatively few strong variables can be important in influencing ecosystem dynamics. This is the first rigorous assessment of factors promoting coral reef resilience based on their perceived importance, empirical evidence, and feasibility of measurement. There were few differences between scientists' perceptions of factor importance and the scientific evidence found in journal publications but more before and after impact studies will be required to fully test the validity of all the factors. The methods here will

  9. Identifying Knowledge and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Coutinho Lourenço de Lima

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss how the principle of identifying knowledge which Strawson advances in ‘Singular Terms and Predication’ (1961, and in ‘Identifying Reference and Truth-Values’ (1964 turns out to constrain communication. The principle states that a speaker’s use of a referring expression should invoke identifying knowledge on the part of the hearer, if the hearer is to understand what the speaker is saying, and also that, in so referring, speakers are attentive to hearers’ epistemic states. In contrasting it with Russell’s Principle (Evans 1982, as well as with the principle of identifying descriptions (Donnellan 1970, I try to show that the principle of identifying knowledge, ultimately a condition for understanding, makes sense only in a situation of conversation. This allows me to conclude that the cooperative feature of communication (Grice 1975 and reference (Clark andWilkes-Gibbs 1986 holds also at the understanding level. Finally, I discuss where Strawson’s views seem to be unsatisfactory, and suggest how they might be improved.

  10. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  11. A New Three Dimensional Based Key Generation Technique in AVK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Subhasish; Dutta, Manash Pratim; Bhunia, Chandan Tilak

    2017-08-01

    In modern era, ensuring high order security becomes one and only objective of computer networks. From the last few decades, many researchers have given their contributions to achieve the secrecy over the communication channel. In achieving perfect security, Shannon had done the pioneer work on perfect secret theorem and illustrated that secrecy of the shared information can be maintained if the key becomes variable in nature instead of static one. In this regard, a key generation technique has been proposed where the key can be changed every time whenever a new block of data needs to be exchanged. In our scheme, the keys not only vary in bit sequences but also in size. The experimental study is also included in this article to prove the correctness and effectiveness of our proposed technique.

  12. Measurement errors in voice-key naming latency for Hiragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Jun; Tamaoka, Katsuo

    2003-12-01

    This study makes explicit the limitations and possibilities of voice-key naming latency research on single hiragana symbols (a Japanese syllabic script) by examining three sets of voice-key naming data against Sakuma, Fushimi, and Tatsumi's 1997 speech-analyzer voice-waveform data. Analysis showed that voice-key measurement errors can be substantial in standard procedures as they may conceal the true effects of significant variables involved in hiragana-naming behavior. While one can avoid voice-key measurement errors to some extent by applying Sakuma, et al.'s deltas and by excluding initial phonemes which induce measurement errors, such errors may be ignored when test items are words and other higher-level linguistic materials.

  13. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  14. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  15. Identifying and Managing Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Janice M.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the college or university chief financial officer in institutional risk management is (1) to identify risk (physical, casualty, fiscal, business, reputational, workplace safety, legal liability, employment practices, general liability), (2) to develop a campus plan to reduce and control risk, (3) to transfer risk, and (4) to track and…

  16. The University of Canberra quantum key distribution testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshkumar, G.; Edwards, P.J.; Cheung, W.N.; Barbopoulos, L.O.; Pham, H.; Hazel, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We describe the design, operation and preliminary results obtained from a quantum key distribution (QKD) testbed constructed at the University of Canberra. Quantum cryptographic systems use shared secret keys exchanged in the form of sequences of polarisation coded or phase encoded single photons transmitted over an optical communications channel. Secrecy of this quantum key rests upon fundamental laws of quantum physics: measurements of linear or circular photon polarisation states introduce noise into the conjugate variable and so reveal eavesdropping. In its initial realisation reported here, pulsed light from a 650nm laser diode is attenuated by a factor of 10 6 , plane-polarised and then transmitted through a birefringent liquid crystal modulator (LCM) to a polarisation sensitive single photon receiver. This transmitted key sequence consists of a 1 kHz train of weak coherent 100ns wide light pulses, polarisation coded according to the BB84 protocol. Each pulse is randomly assigned one of four polarisation states (two orthogonal linear and two orthogonal circular) by computer PCA operated by the sender ('Alice'). This quaternary polarisation shift keyed photon stream is detected by the receiver ('Bob') whose computer (PCB) randomly chooses either a linear or a circular polarisation basis. Computer PCB is also used for final key selection, authentication, privacy amplification and eavesdropping. We briefly discuss the realisation of a mesoscopic single photon QKD source and the use of the testbed to simulate a global quantum key distribution system using earth satellites. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  17. Setting Organizational Key Performance Indicators in the Precision Machine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiu Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to define (or set organizational key performance indicators (KPIs in the precision machine industry using the concept of core competence and the supply chain operations reference (SCOR model. The research is conducted in three steps. In the first step, a benchmarking study is conducted to collect major items of core competence and to group them into main categories in order to form a foundation for the research. In the second step, a case company questionnaire and interviews are conducted to identify the key factors of core competence in the precision machine industry. The analysis is conducted based on four dimensions and hence several analysis rounds are completed. Questionnaire data is analyzed with grey relational analysis (GRA and resulted in 5–6 key factors in each dimension or sub-dimension. Based on the conducted interviews, 13 of these identified key factors are separated into one organization objective, five key factors of core competence and seven key factors of core ability. In the final step, organizational KPIs are defined (or set for the five identified key factors of core competence. The most competitive core abilities for each of the five key factors are established. After that, organizational KPIs are set based on the core abilities within 3 main categories of KPIs (departmental, office grade and hierarchal for each key factor. The developed KPI system based on organizational objectives, core competences, and core abilities allow enterprises to handle dynamic market demand and business environments, as well as changes in overall corporate objectives.

  18. Key to Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavian Mantiri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the important elements of language learning and teaching i.e. the role of teachers as well as the attitude and motivation of learners. Teachers undoubtedly play crucial roles in students’ language learning outcome which could ignite or diminish students’ motivation. Positive attitudes and motivation – instrumental or integrative and intrinsic or extrinsic – are key to successful learning. Therefore it is paramount for language teachers as well as learners to know these roles and nurture the best possible ways where language teaching and learning will thrive. This paper also suggested that both stake-holders should be open to holistic approach of language learning and that other factors such as the environment could play an important part in language teaching and learning success.

  19. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  20. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...