Rose, Paul; Segrist, Daniel J.
Difficulty identifying feelings (a component of alexithymia) and distress tolerance both appear to play a role in impulse-control problems. The goal of the present study was to build upon past research by developing a model of the relations between these constructs and compulsive buying. Participants from the United States and Canada completed a…
Eichmann, Mischa; Kugel, Harald; Suslow, Thomas
Difficulties in identifying and differentiating one's emotions are a central characteristic of alexithymia. In the present study, automatic activation of the fusiform gyrus to facial emotion was investigated as a function of alexithymia as assessed by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. During 3 Tesla fMRI scanning, pictures of faces bearing sad, happy, and neutral expressions masked by neutral faces were presented to 22 healthy adults who also responded to the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The fusiform gyrus was selected as the region of interest, and voxel values of this region were extracted, summarized as means, and tested among the different conditions (sad, happy, and neutral faces). Masked sad facial emotions were associated with greater bilateral activation of the fusiform gyrus than masked neutral faces. The subscale, Difficulty Identifying Feelings, was negatively correlated with the neural response of the fusiform gyrus to masked sad faces. The correlation results suggest that automatic hyporesponsiveness of the fusiform gyrus to negative emotion stimuli may reflect problems in recognizing one's emotions in everyday life.
The Role of Difficulty in Identifying and Describing Feelings in Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Behavior (NSSI): Associations With Perceived Attachment Quality, Stressful Life Events, and Suicidal Ideation.
Cerutti, Rita; Zuffianò, Antonio; Spensieri, Valentina
Objective: Core alexithymic features, such as the difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, are associated with poor attachment styles and emotional trauma, which influence the capacity to regulate affect. Additionally, emotional regulation has been found to be the most commonly identified function associated with non-suicidal self-injury behavior (NSSI) in adolescents as they attempt to modulate strong emotions. However, few studies have examined the link between difficulty in identifying and describing feelings (core components of alexithymia), NSSI behaviors, quality of attachment, life stressors and suicidal ideation in healthy early adolescents. Consequently, this study aims to investigate these constructs and the relationship among them in a large non-clinical sample of adolescents. Methods: Seven hundred and nine middle school students (50.4% males), aged 10-15 years ( M = 12.6; SD = 1.06) were involved in this study. In order to investigate the variables considered in the study, the following measures were administered: the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory exploring non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; the Alexithymia Questionnaire for Children examining difficulty in identifying and describing feelings; the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment assessing the quality of parental and peer attachment; the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised outlining stressful/traumatic events and the Children's Depression Inventory evaluating suicidal ideation. Results: We found significantly positive relationships among difficulty in identifying and describing feelings, NSSI behaviors, stressful events, and suicidal ideation. Data indicated a significant negative association of difficulty in identifying and describing feelings with quality of attachment to parents and peers. Further findings highlighted that difficulty in identifying and describing feelings significantly mediated the effect of quality of attachment (parent and peer) on NSSI and suicidal ideation
Péres, Denise Siqueira; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Zanetti, Maria Lúcia; Ferronato, Antônio Augusto
This study aimed to identify difficulties diabetic patients face during treatment in controlling the disease. A total of 24 diabetic patients, attended in the Nurse Educational Center for Adults and Elders in 2003, participated in the study. The data was collected individually, through a written report guided by a question previously elaborated, on a pre-scheduled date. The Content Analysis technique was used in the data analysis. The results showed several difficulties related to the treatme...
Helland, Wenche Andersen
Several studies have pointed to an overlap between different developmental psychopathological conditions and language impairments, and difficulties with communication have been identified in children of various diagnostic backgrounds. This thesis is based on three empirical studies, and the purposes are to investigate communication difficulties as reported by parents, in children identified with psychiatric problems as well as to evaluate a Norwegian adaptation of the Children’...
McDonagh, Lorraine K; Nielsen, Elly-Jean; McDermott, Daragh T; Davies, Nathan; Morrison, Todd G
Current understandings of sexual difficulties originate from a model that is based on the study of heterosexual men and women. Most research has focused on sexual difficulties experienced by heterosexual men incapable of engaging in vaginal penetration. To better understand men's perceptions and experiences of sexual difficulties, seven focus groups and 29 individual interviews were conducted with gay (n = 22), bisexual (n = 5), and heterosexual (n = 25) men. In addition, the extent to which difficulties reported by gay and bisexual men differ from heterosexual men was explored. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis applying an inductive approach. Two intercorrelated conceptualizations were identified: penis function (themes: medicalization, masculine identity, psychological consequences, coping mechanisms) and pain (themes: penile pain, pain during receptive anal sex). For the most part, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men reported similar sexual difficulties; differences were evident regarding alternative masculinity, penis size competition, and pain during receptive anal sex. The results of this study demonstrate the complexity of men's sexual difficulties and the important role of sociocultural, interpersonal, and psychological factors. Limitations and suggested directions for future research are outlined.
Kautz, Christian Hans
This dissertation reports on an in-depth investigation of student understanding of the ideal gas law. The research and curriculum development were mostly conducted in the context of algebra- and calculus-based introductory physics courses and a sophomore-level thermal physics course. Research methods included individual demonstration interviews and written questions. Student difficulties with the quantities: pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles were identified. Data suggest that students' incorrect and incomplete microscopic models about gases contribute to the difficulties they have in answering questions posed in macroscopic terms. In addition, evidence for general reasoning difficulties is presented. These research results have guided the development of curriculum to address the student difficulties that have been identified.
Mesic, Vanes; Muratovic, Hasnija
Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal physics knowledge
Full Text Available Large-scale assessments of student achievement in physics are often approached with an intention to discriminate students based on the attained level of their physics competencies. Therefore, for purposes of test design, it is important that items display an acceptable discriminatory behavior. To that end, it is recommended to avoid extraordinary difficult and very easy items. Knowing the factors that influence physics item difficulty makes it possible to model the item difficulty even before the first pilot study is conducted. Thus, by identifying predictors of physics item difficulty, we can improve the test-design process. Furthermore, we get additional qualitative feedback regarding the basic aspects of student cognitive achievement in physics that are directly responsible for the obtained, quantitative test results. In this study, we conducted a secondary analysis of data that came from two large-scale assessments of student physics achievement at the end of compulsory education in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Foremost, we explored the concept of “physics competence” and performed a content analysis of 123 physics items that were included within the above-mentioned assessments. Thereafter, an item database was created. Items were described by variables which reflect some basic cognitive aspects of physics competence. For each of the assessments, Rasch item difficulties were calculated in separate analyses. In order to make the item difficulties from different assessments comparable, a virtual test equating procedure had to be implemented. Finally, a regression model of physics item difficulty was created. It has been shown that 61.2% of item difficulty variance can be explained by factors which reflect the automaticity, complexity, and modality of the knowledge structure that is relevant for generating the most probable correct solution, as well as by the divergence of required thinking and interference effects between intuitive and formal
Landstra, Jodie M B; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Deane, Frank P; Hillman, Richard J
Difficulty identifying and describing feelings (DIDF) and psychological flexibility (PF) predict poor emotional adjustment. To examine the relationship between DIDF and PF and whether DIDF and low PF would put men undergoing cancer screening at risk for poor adjustment. Longitudinal self-report survey. Two hundred and one HIV-infected men who have sex with men participated in anal cancer screening at two time points over 14 weeks. Psychological flexibility was assessed by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire II and DIDF by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. We also measured depression, anxiety, stress (DASS) and health-related quality of life (QOL; SF-12). Both DIDF and PF were reliable predictors of mental health. When levels of baseline mental health were controlled, greater DIDF predicted increases in Time 2 depression, anxiety and stress and decreases in mental and physical QOL. The link between PF and mental health was entirely mediated by DIDF. Being chronically low in PF could lead to greater DIDF and thereby worse mental health. Having more PF promotes the ability to identify and differentiate the nuances of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which enhances an individual's mental health. Intentionally enhancing men's ability to identify and describe feelings or PF may assist them to better manage a range of difficult life experiences such as health screenings and other potentially threatening information. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Smith, Trevor I.
As part of an ongoing multi-university research study on student understanding of concepts in thermal physics at the upper division, I identified several student difficulties with topics related to heat engines (especially the Carnot cycle), as well as difficulties related to the Boltzmann factor. In an effort to address these difficulties, I developed two guided-inquiry worksheet activities (a.k.a. tutorials) for use in advanced undergraduate thermal physics courses. Both tutorials seek to improve student understanding of the utility and physical background of a particular mathematical expression. One tutorial focuses on a derivation of Carnot's theorem regarding the limit on thermodynamic efficiency, starting from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The other tutorial helps students gain an appreciation for the origin of the Boltzmann factor and when it is applicable; focusing on the physical justification of its mathematical derivation, with emphasis on the connections between probability, multiplicity, entropy, and energy. Student understanding of the use and physical implications of Carnot's theorem and the Boltzmann factor was assessed using written surveys both before and after tutorial instruction within the advanced thermal physics courses at the University of Maine and at other institutions. Classroom tutorial sessions at the University of Maine were videotaped to allow in-depth scrutiny of student successes and failures following tutorial prompts. I also interviewed students on various topics related to the Boltzmann factor to gain a more complete picture of their understanding and inform tutorial revisions. Results from several implementations of my tutorials at the University of Maine indicate that students did not have a robust understanding of these physical principles after lectures alone, and that they gain a better understanding of relevant topics after tutorial instruction; Fisher's exact tests yield statistically significant improvement at the
Ramage-Morin, Pamela L
Social isolation is associated with reduced health-related quality of life, increased morbidity, and mortality. Social isolation can be a concern for older Canadians, especially those with conditions that interfere with making and maintaining social connections. The 2008/2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Healthy Aging (CCHS-HA) collected data from a population-based sample of Canadians aged 45 or older living in private households. Frequencies, cross-tabulations and logistic regression were used to examine the prevalence of hearing difficulties and social isolation, and associations between them when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, other functional limitations (for example, vision, mobility, and cognition), incontinence, and fear of falling. Social isolation was more common among 45- to 59-year-olds than among people aged 60 or older. Women were more likely than men to be socially isolated (16% versus 12%), but they were less likely to report hearing difficulties (5% versus 7%). Hearing difficulties were more prevalent at older ages: 25% of men and 18% of women at age 75 or older. When sociodemographic factors (age, education, living arrangements, regular driver, workforce participation), incontinence, fear of falling, and functional limitations were taken into account, the odds of being socially isolated increased with the severity of the hearing impairment among women but not among men (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.09). Hearing difficulties are associated with age, and therefore, a growing public health concern as Canada's population ages. For women, hearing difficulties were found to be associated with social isolation.
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS have been a source of stigma for people who live with the disease. This stigmatization has been frequently studied from the perspective of stigmatizing agents focusing on opinions. This focus has systematically avoided exploring the role of emotions in the stigmatization process. We carried out this study in order to identify the role of emotions in the process of stigmatization of the people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA by health professionals. In order to achieve this objective we implemented an exploratory and qualitative design using in-depth semi-structured interviews. The sample consisted of 80 health professionals and health profession students from the following specialties: psychology, social work, medicine and nursing. The results reflected the existence of emotions associated to HIV/AIDS such as pity, compassion, disgust, and fear. Participants expressed the need to control their emotions when interacting with PLWHA. The results point to the need to explore factors that mediate emotions, such as the social context in which they are manifested and before whom they are revealed. This is a vital step in order to better understand the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060428
Mr Oruaro Adebayo Onibere, MBBS, MRCS
Full Text Available Unicondylar knee replacement is a relatively common elective orthopedic procedure but is not often seen in the Emergency Department setting. Familiarity with normal clinical and radiological appearances is difficult to gain. Dislocation of the mobile bearing component “spacer” is a known complication of unicondylar knee replacements, and these patients will initially present to the accident and Emergency Department. In this setting, an accurate and prompt diagnosis is necessary to appropriately manage the patient's condition. There is normally a radiological challenge in identifying dislocated mobile bearings on plain radiographs. These patients may need to have further imaging, such as a computer tomographic scan to identify the dislocated mobile bearing.
Gafoor, Kunnathodi Abdul; Shilna, V.
In view of the perceived difficulty of organic chemistry unit for high schools students, this study examined the usefulness of concept mapping as a testing device to assess students' difficulty in the select areas. Since many tests used for identifying students misconceptions and difficulties in school subjects are observed to favour one or the…
Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…
The Millikan oil drop experiment has been characterized as one of the ‘most beautiful’ physics experiments of all time and, certainly, as one of the most frustrating of all the exercises in the undergraduate physics laboratory. A literature review reveals that work done on addressing student difficulties in performing the oil drop experiment has, to date, not achieved a significant measure of success. The historical background of the oil drop experiment is well established in the literature from the perspective of historians of science, but not so from the perspective of teachers and students of science. A summary of historical details surrounding the original experiment suitable for use in revising the instructional approach is presented. Both Millikan and his graduate student, Fletcher, are featured with the view to emphasizing details that humanize the protagonists and that are likely to raise student interest. The issue of the necessary reliance on presuppositions in doing speculative research is raised, both from the historical account and from the insights of university physics students who heard the historical account and performed the experiment. Difficulties current students have in performing the experiment are discussed from the perspective of Hodson (Stud Sci Educ 22:85-142, 1993) framework and the students’ own observations. Last, further historical materials are outlined that may be used to encourage student insight into the fundamental nature of electricity. It is proposed that these aspects are essential as a basis for identifying and addressing student difficulties with the Millikan oil drop experiment.
This paper develops a conceptual framework for identifying the challenges and obstacles university students encounter when solving real-world problems involving Physics. The framework is based on viewing problem solving as a modelling process. In order to solve a real-world problem, the problem...... solver has to go through the steps and do the tasks of such a process. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of what it takes to solve three real-world problems, demonstrating how the framework presented captures the essential aspects of solving them. Moreover, it is argued that three steps critical...... for real-world problem solving – initial analysis of the problem situation, choice of relevant physical theory (the so-called paradigmatic choice) and mathematization – are not covered by existing models of problem solving in Physics. Finally, the existing research on student difficulties with problem...
Wilcox, Lyndy J; He, Kaidi; Derkay, Craig S
Approximately 4% of the population fails to develop basic music skills and can be identified as "amusic". Congenital amusia (CA), or "tone deafness", is thought to be a hereditary disordera predominantly affecting the perception and production of music. The gold standard for diagnosis is the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This study aims to pinpoint factors in the history that may help identify amusic children and to determine if amusic pediatric patients can be identified using a widely available, shorter test validated in adults. Subjects ages 7-17 years were recruited to take an online test, validated against the MBEA, for CA. The sections tested recognition of "off-beat" (OB), "mistuned" (MT), and "out-of-key" (OOK) conditions. Parents filled out a questionnaire regarding the subject's past medical, educational, musical exposure, and family history. Of 114 subjects recruited, complete data was available on 105 with a mean age of 12.5 years. According to adult criteria, 63/105 (60%) of subjects scored in the "amusic" range. Children >10 years of age scored significantly higher on the off-beat section (p=0.001) and total scores (p=0.025). Subjects who were born prematurely scored significantly lower (p=0.045). Children whose father had difficulties with music scored significantly lower on the off-beat section (p=0.003) and total scores (p=0.008). CA is a disorder that has implications for quality of life. Earlier identification may help elucidate the pathogenesis of the condition and, in the future, the institution of prompt treatment. Further studies are needed to identify the most appropriate and convenient tests, as well as the optimal timing of testing, for reliably diagnosing CA in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín
Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…
Wang, Jingying; Wen, Ming-Lee; Jou, Min
Practical training and actual application of acquired knowledge and techniques are crucial for the learning of technical skills. We established a wireless sensor network system (WSNS) based on the 5E learning cycle in a practical learning environment to improve students' reflective abilities and to reduce difficulties for the learning of technical…
Smith, Trevor I.; Christensen, Warren M.; Mountcastle, Donald B.; Thompson, John R.
We report on several specific student difficulties regarding the second law of thermodynamics in the context of heat engines within upper-division undergraduate thermal physics courses. Data come from ungraded written surveys, graded homework assignments, and videotaped classroom observations of tutorial activities. Written data show that students…
Scholl, Annika; Sassenberg, Kai; Ellemers, Naomi; Scheepers, Daan; de Wit, Frank
Power relations affect dynamics within groups. Power-holders' decisions not only determine their personal outcomes, but also the outcomes of others in the group that they control. Yet, power-holders often tend to overlook this responsibility to take care of collective interests. The present research investigated how social identification - with the group to which both the powerful and the powerless belong - alters perceived responsibility among power-holders (and the powerless). Combining research on social power and social identity, we argue that power-holders perceive more responsibility than the powerless when strongly (rather than when weakly) identifying with the group. A study among leaders and an experiment supported this, highlighting that although power-holders are often primarily concerned about personal outcomes, they do feel responsible for considering others' interests when these others are included in the (social) self. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI has been widely used to assess student understanding of introductory mechanics concepts by a variety of educators and physics education researchers. One reason for this extensive use is that many of the items on the FCI have strong distractor choices which correspond to students’ alternate conceptions in mechanics. Instruction is unlikely to be effective if instructors do not know the common alternate conceptions of introductory physics students and explicitly take into account students’ initial knowledge states in their instructional design. Here, we discuss research involving the FCI to evaluate one aspect of the pedagogical content knowledge of teaching assistants (TAs: knowledge of introductory student alternate conceptions in mechanics as revealed by the FCI. For each item on the FCI, the TAs were asked to identify the most common incorrect answer choice of introductory physics students. This exercise was followed by a class discussion with the TAs related to this task, including the importance of knowing student difficulties in teaching and learning. Then, we used FCI pretest and post-test data from a large population (∼900 of introductory physics students to assess the extent to which TAs were able to identify alternate conceptions of introductory students related to force and motion. In addition, we carried out think-aloud interviews with graduate students who had more than two semesters of teaching experience in recitations to examine how they reason about the task. We find that while the TAs, on average, performed better than random guessing at identifying introductory students’ difficulties with FCI content, they did not identify many common difficulties that introductory physics students have after traditional instruction. We discuss specific alternate conceptions, the extent to which TAs are able to identify them, and results from the think-aloud interviews that provided valuable information
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Sprunt, Beth; Hoq, Monsurul; Sharma, Umesh; Marella, Manjula
This study investigated the seeing, hearing and walking questions of the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module and the inter-rater reliability between teachers and parents as proxy respondents. Cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study, two-gate design with representative sampling, comparing Module responses to reference standard assessments for 472 primary aged students in Fiji. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine the area under the curve and optimal cut-off points. Areas under the curves ranged from 0.823 to 0.889 indicating "good" diagnostic accuracy. Inter-rater reliability between parent and teacher responses was "good" to "excellent". The optimal cut-off determined by the Youden Index was "some difficulty" however a wide spread of impairment levels were found in this category with most children either having none or substantial impairments. The diagnostic accuracy of the Module seeing, hearing and walking questions appears acceptable with either parents or teachers as proxy respondents. For education systems, use of the cut-off "some difficulty" with accompanying clinical assessment may be important to capture children who require services and learning supports and avoid potentially misleading categorization. Given the high proportion of the sample from special schools research is required to further test the Module in mainstream schools. Implications for rehabilitation Identification of children who are at risk of disability in Fiji is important to enable planning, monitoring and evaluating access to quality inclusive education. The UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module appears to be a practical and effective tool that can be used by teachers to identify children at risk of disability. Children identified on the UNICEF/Washington Group Child Functioning Module as having "some difficulty" or higher levels of difficulty in relation to vision, hearing or walking should be referred for further assessment
Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi
Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was developed to aid in identifying social communication difficulties and ASD in young children with visual impairment affected by congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system (disorders of the globe, retina, and anterior optic nerve). The VISS was administered to 23 consecutive children (age range 1 y 9 mo-6 y 11 mo, mean 4 y 1 mo [SD 1.6]; 12 males, 11 females) with visual impairment (nine with severe and 14 with profound visual impairment). Item analysis was carried out by fit of the items to the Rasch model. Validity of the VISS was explored by comparison with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, and the clinical ASD diagnosis (n=9). Correlation between the VISS and CARS total scores was highly significant (Spearman's rho=-0.89; p=0.01). Below threshold rating on the VISS (score of 35) showed good agreement with the clinical ASD diagnosis (sensitivity 89%, specificity 100%). This preliminary study shows the VISS to be a promising schedule to aid the identification of ASD in young children with visual impairment. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.
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Kane, Steven T.; Roy, Soma; Medina, Steffanie
This article describes research supporting the use of the Learning Difficulties Assessment (LDA), a normed and no-cost, web-based survey that assesses difficulties with reading, writing, spelling, mathematics, listening, concentration, memory, organizational skills, sense of control, and anxiety in college students. Previous research has supported…
Absoud, Michael; Parr, Jeremy R.; Salt, Alison; Dale, Naomi
Available observational tools used in the identification of social communication difficulties and diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) rely partly on visual behaviours and therefore may not be valid in children with visual impairment. A pilot observational instrument, the Visual Impairment and Social Communication Schedule (VISS), was…
"Feeling happy" focuses on the syndrome of self-indulgence, self-actualization or self-fulfillment as antagonistic to the survival of marital agreement. Inspite of the obvious redeeming qualities of either spouse the unhappy partner opts for divorce. The article posits the familial advantages of responsiblity and commitment and reviews the older…
The article relates the study of mobility history to the fields of history of emotion and affect theory in the promotion of a cross-disciplinary research agenda. Taking as its point of departure a workshop in Copenhagen on feeling and space, the text draws lines and points of potential interface...... between historical mobility studies and the two related fields....
[Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].
Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital.
Brossard-Racine, Marie; Mazer, Barbara; Julien, Marilyse; Majnemer, Annette
In this study we sought to validate the discriminant ability of the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript in identifying children in Grades 2-3 with handwriting difficulties and to determine the percentage of change in handwriting scores that is consistently detected by occupational therapists. Thirty-four therapists judged and compared 35 pairs of handwriting samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to determine (1) the optimal cutoff values for word and letter legibility scores that identify children with handwriting difficulties who should be seen in rehabilitation and (2) the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in handwriting scores. Cutoff scores of 75.0% for total word legibility and 76.0% for total letter legibility were found to provide excellent levels of accuracy. A difference of 10.0%-12.5% for total word legibility and 6.0%-7.0% for total letter legibility were found as the MCID. Study findings enable therapists to quantitatively support clinical judgment when evaluating handwriting. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Full Text Available ... information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This is ... you feel better. Take time to relax and do things that make you happy. Don't try ...
Full Text Available ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may ... aspects of your illness. And you're probably feeling many emotions. You may feel alone, scared or ...
Difficulties of diabetic patients in the illness control: feelings and behaviors Dificultades de los pacientes diabéticos para el control de la enfermedad: sentimientos y comportamientos Dificuldades dos pacientes diabéticos para o controle da doença: sentimentos e comportamentos
Denise Siqueira Péres; Manoel Antônio dos Santos; Maria Lúcia Zanetti; Antônio Augusto Ferronato
This study aimed to identify difficulties diabetic patients face during treatment in controlling the disease. A total of 24 diabetic patients, attended in the Nurse Educational Center for Adults and Elders in 2003, participated in the study. The data was collected individually, through a written report guided by a question previously elaborated, on a pre-scheduled date. The Content Analysis technique was used in the data analysis. The results showed several difficulties related to the treatme...
Barber, Brian K; McNeely, Clea A; El Sarraj, Eyad; Daher, Mahmoud; Giacaman, Rita; Arafat, Cairo; Barnes, William; Abu Mallouh, Mohammed
This mixed-methods exploratory study identified and then developed and validated a quantitative measure of a new construct of mental suffering in the occupied Palestinian territory: feeling broken or destroyed. Group interviews were conducted in 2011 with 68 Palestinians, most aged 30-40, in the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip to discern local definitions of functioning. Interview participants articulated of a type of suffering not captured in existing mental health instruments used in regions of political conflict. In contrast to the specific difficulties measured by depression and PTSD (sleep, appetite, energy, flashbacks, avoidance, etc.), participants elaborated a more existential form of mental suffering: feeling that one's spirit, morale and/or future was broken or destroyed, and emotional and psychological exhaustion. Participants articulated these feelings when describing the rigors of the political and economic contexts in which they live. We wrote survey items to capture these sentiments and administered these items-along with standard survey measures of mental health-to a representative sample of 1,778 32-43 year olds in the occupied Palestinian territory. The same survey questions also were administered to a representative subsample (n = 508) six months earlier, providing repeated measures of the construct. Across samples and time, the feeling broken or destroyed scale: 1) comprised a separate factor in exploratory factor analyses, 2) had high inter-item consistency, 3) was reported by both genders and in all regions, 4) showed discriminate validity via moderate correlations with measures of feelings of depression and trauma-related stress, and 5) was more commonly experienced than either feelings of depression or trauma-related stress. Feeling broken or destroyed can be reliably measured and distinguished from conventional measures of mental health. Such locally grounded and contextualized measures should be identified and included in
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The identification and documentation of subclinical gait impairments in older adults may facilitate the appropriate use of interventions for preventing or delaying mobility disability. We tested whether measures derived from a single body-fixed sensor worn during traditional Timed Up and Go (TUG testing could identify subclinical gait impairments in community dwelling older adults without mobility disability. METHODS: We used data from 432 older adults without dementia (mean age 83.30 ± 7.04 yrs, 76.62% female participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. The traditional TUG was conducted while subjects wore a body-fixed sensor. We derived measures of overall TUG performance and different subtasks including transitions (sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit, walking, and turning. Multivariate analysis was used to compare persons with and without mobility disability and to compare individuals with and without Instrumental Activities of Daily Living disability (IADL-disability, all of whom did not have mobility disability. RESULTS: As expected, individuals with mobility disability performed worse on all TUG subtasks (p<0.03, compared to those who had no mobility disability. Individuals without mobility disability but with IADL disability had difficulties with turns, had lower yaw amplitude (p<0.004 during turns, were slower (p<0.001, and had less consistent gait (p<0.02. CONCLUSIONS: A single body-worn sensor can be employed in the community-setting to complement conventional gait testing. It provides a wide range of quantitative gait measures that appear to help to identify subclinical gait impairments in older adults.
Full Text Available ... to be part of your overall treatment plan. Loneliness It's easy to feel alone when you're ... your illness affects you emotionally and physically. The loneliness can be worse if you feel you have ...
Full Text Available ... heart disease, it's normal to feel sad or low. These feelings may get better as you learn ... 7 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low ...
Full Text Available ... though it's one more thing wrong with you. Consider recovering from depression to be part of your ... and what feelings are behind the anger. For example, are you feeling afraid? Rejected? Helpless? Learn to ...
Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after a heart disease diagnosis ...
Full Text Available ... talks about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to ... disease, it's normal to feel sad or low. These feelings may get better as you learn more ...
Full Text Available ... because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but ... because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but ...
Full Text Available ... resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel ... and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose your temper. Feel rage ...
... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...
Full Text Available ... about your condition and treatments is a good way to feel more hopeful. Learn more about cardiovascular ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...
Full Text Available ... learn to understand your heart condition and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay ... and your risk of future cardiac events, so it's important to understand your feelings, recognize problems and ...
Full Text Available ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, ...
Full Text Available ... wait until you cool off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions you may feel after ... difficult, even unpleasant. But another common feeling is hope. Even people who are very ill say they ...
Full Text Available ... what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ... what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ...
Full Text Available ... feelings, recognize problems and get help if you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and ... help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel lonely or isolated. ...
Full Text Available ... you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions ... and information that can make you feel better. Anxiety Do you often feel restless and worried? This ...
Boden, Zoë V R; Gibson, Susanne; Owen, Gareth J; Benson, Outi
In this article, we explore how feelings permeated our qualitative research on suicide. Drawing on phenomenological theory, we argue for the epistemic and ethical importance of the feelings that emerge through research encounters, considering them to be embodied, intersubjective, and multilayered, and requiring careful interpretation through a "reflexivity of feelings." We sketch a tentative framework of the ways that we experienced feelings in our research and give three in-depth examples to illustrate some of the different layers and types of feelings we identified. We reflexively interpret these feelings and their role in our analysis and then discuss some of the ethical and methodological issues related to examining feelings in suicide research, and research more generally. © The Author(s) 2015.
Cryder, Cynthia E.; Springer, Stephen; Morewedge, Carey K.
Early investigations of guilt cast it as an emotion that prompts broad reparative behaviors that help guilty individuals feel better about themselves or about their transgressions. The current investigation found support for a more recent representation of guilt as an emotion designed to identify and correct specific social offenses. Across five experiments, guilt influenced behavior in a targeted and strategic way. Guilt prompted participants to share resources more generously with others, but only did so when those others were persons whom the participant had wronged and only when those wronged individuals could notice the gesture. Rather than trigger broad reparative behaviors that remediate one’s general reputation or self-perception, guilt triggers targeted behaviors intended to remediate specific social transgressions. PMID:22337764
Stephenson, David D; Beaton, Elliott A; Weems, Carl F; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Simon, Tony J
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a complex genetic disorder with a variable clinical presentation that can include cardiac, neural, immunological, and psychological issues. Previous studies have measured elevated anxiety and depression in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbity of anxiety and depression is well established in the pediatric literature but the nature of comorbidity patterns has not been empirically established in children with 22q11.2DS. Comorbidity of anxiety and depression has important implications for treatment and prognosis, and may be a marker of risk in this population of children at high-risk for developing schizophrenia. Participants were 131 boys and girls ages 8-14 with (n=76) and without (n=55) 22q11.2DS and their mothers. Children and mothers independently completed self- and parent-report measures of anxiety and depression. Mothers also completed measures of behavioral functioning including the Behavioral Assessment for Children, 2nd ed. (BASC-2). Cluster analyses were conducted to test if theoretically based groupings of anxiety and depression could be identified. We hypothesized four psychological profiles based on child- and mother-reports: low/no anxiety and low/no depression, higher depression and low/no anxiety, higher anxiety and no/low depression, and a comorbid profile of higher anxiety and higher depression. BASC-2 subscale scores were then compared across subgroups of children to determine if a comorbid profile would predict greater behavioral difficulties. In the full sample of children both with and without 22q11.2DS, cluster analyses of self and maternal reported anxiety and depression revealed the expected subgroups: (1) a group of children with higher anxiety/lower depression (anxious); (2) a group with primary depression (lower anxiety/higher depression (depressed)); (3) a comorbid group with higher anxiety/higher depression (comorbid); and, (4) a lowest anxiety/lowest depression group (NP). Mothers
Many students in introductory courses have difficulty solving Gauss' law problems. Through interviews with students and analysis of solutions to homework and examination questions we have identified some specific conceptual difficulties that often contribute to students' inability to solve quantitative Gauss' law problems. We give examples of common difficulties and discuss instructional implications.
Samokhvalova, Anna G.
Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.
There are many difficult feelings that you can have when going through cancer. Having an advanced or metastatic cancer diagnosis can cause them to be more intense than ever. Know that you're not alone. Learn tips on how to cope with your feelings with an advanced cancer diagnosis.
Full Text Available ... ill. You're the only one who knows how your illness affects you emotionally and physically. The loneliness can be worse if you feel you have no one to give you support or you feel you can't ask for it. Try to reach out ... may be pleasantly surprised at how many people are willing to help or spend ...
Full Text Available ... may be scared because you don't know what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ... may be scared because you don't know what lies ahead, or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some ...
Silvestre, Rafaela Luisa Silva; Vandenberghe, Luc
The present article discusses possible uses of the therapist's feelings to enhance treatment following Kohlenberg and Tsai's conceptualization of the therapist-client relationship. Four vignettes from a case study involving a couple are used as illustrative material. It is argued that the therapist's feelings can serve as clues for identifying…
Full Text Available ... social service resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel lonely or isolated. Use this checklist to help you. I feel I don't have enough contact with people. I'm not ...
Full Text Available ... as you can about your condition and treatments is a good way to feel more hopeful. Learn more about ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking ... 8 Low Blood Pressure - When Blood Pressure Is Too Low 9 Tachycardia | Fast Heart Rate 10 ...
Full Text Available ... short of breath or have irregular heartbeats, chest pain or feel sweaty. Tips To calm your anxiety, ... work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen ...
Full Text Available ... Signs for Heart Failure Diagnosing Heart Failure Treatment Options for Heart Failure Living With HF and Advanced ... your feelings. Ask about treatment for depression. Treatment options include counseling, anti-depressant medicine or a combination. ...
Full Text Available ... your risk of future cardiac events, so it's important to understand your feelings, recognize problems and get ... well and staying well. Think back to a time when you were afraid. Did you ask yourself ...
Full Text Available ... try. Friendships and support networks take time to develop. Anger Many heart patients feel angry and upset ... Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a Physical Activity Plan - Be Safe While Being ...
... in daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or waiting in line. Feel that people around ... DVD Related Sites My Life Check Heart Attack website Caregivers Nutrition Center Cardiac Rehabilitation • Home • What is ...
Full Text Available ... in daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or waiting in line. Feel that people around ... DVD Related Sites My Life Check Heart Attack website Caregivers Nutrition Center Cardiac Rehabilitation • Home • What is ...
Full Text Available ... your anxiety, talking about it may help. Enjoy physical activity. Go for a walk, ride a bicycle ... depressed and want to help. Be active. Regular physical activity helps release endorphins that make you feel ...
Full Text Available ... t try to reduce your anxiety with harmful habits, such as drinking alcohol or taking sleeping pills. ... Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular ...
Full Text Available ... with you and require you to seek professional help. Your emotions can affect your recovery and your ... to understand your feelings, recognize problems and get help if you need it. Medical reporter John Hammarley ...
Full Text Available ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...
Full Text Available ... yourself. When things heat up, call a "timeout." Step back from the situation, take several deep breaths ... finger. When you feel angry, use a three-step approach: stop, ask yourself questions, then react. The ...
Full Text Available ... negative and positive. These feelings are very common — most heart patients have them. They may go away ... overcome your fears. For example, say to yourself, "Most people recover and I will, too," Or, "Most ...
Full Text Available ... can affect your recovery and your risk of future cardiac events, so it's important to understand your ... normal to feel afraid and unsure of the future. You may be scared because you don't ...
Full Text Available ... Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? If you answered "yes" to either question, you may be depressed. Tips ... I should be angry?" If the jury says "yes," ask yourself, "Is this a situation I need ...
Full Text Available ... about coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel ... or ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an ...
Full Text Available ... may feel alone, scared or different from the person you were before you learned you had heart ... as a family member, friend or a clergy person. Those close to you may already know you' ...
Full Text Available ... When you feel angry, use a three-step approach: stop, ask yourself questions, then react. The first ... Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop a Physical Activity ...
Full Text Available ... heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) ... your way in daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or waiting in line. Feel that ...
Full Text Available ... may be less likely to follow your treatment plan if you're suffering depression. Over the past ... depression to be part of your overall treatment plan. Loneliness It's easy to feel alone when you' ...
Full Text Available ... t try to reduce your anxiety with harmful habits, such as drinking alcohol or taking sleeping pills. ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & Resources Popular Articles ...
Full Text Available ... swim. Being active can help take your mind off worries and releases endorphins that make you feel ... must fix the situation, wait until you cool off, then take action. Hope Many of the emotions ...
Full Text Available ... High Cholesterol Cholesterol Tools & Resources Congenital Defects Children & Adults About Congenital Heart Defects The Impact of Congenital ... endorphins that make you feel better. Physically active adults have lower risk of depression and cognitive decline. ...
Full Text Available ... may feel alone, scared or different from the person you were before you learned you had heart ... your fears. For example, say to yourself, "Most people recover and I will, too," Or, "Most of ...
Full Text Available ... heart patients have them. They may go away as you learn to understand your heart condition and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you ...
Full Text Available ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...
Full Text Available ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare ... programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make ...
Full Text Available ... 2 weeks, have you been bothered by: Little interest or pleasure in doing things? Feeling down, depressed, ... anger can cause your blood pressure and heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. ...
Full Text Available ... Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing ... Symptoms in Women 4 Warning Signs of a Heart Attack 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 What are the Symptoms of High Blood ...
Full Text Available ... and manage it, but sometimes feelings such as depression may stay with you and require you to ... it. Medical reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley ...
Full Text Available ... your fears, start by getting correct and complete information. Tell your healthcare professionals about your fears. Ask ... you open the door to getting help and information that can make you feel better. After any ...
Full Text Available ... a Heart Attack Treatment of a Heart Attack Life After a Heart Attack Heart Failure About Heart ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, ...
Full Text Available ... positive. These feelings are very common — most heart patients have them. They may go away as you ... reporter John Hammarley discusses anxiety and depression A patient advises coping with emotions John Hammarley talks about ...
Full Text Available ... not have talked to you about the emotional aspects of your illness. And you're probably feeling ... active adults have lower risk of depression and cognitive decline. Recognize that depression is part of your ...
Full Text Available ... workers and healthcare professionals. Learn about community and social service resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel lonely or ...
Full Text Available ... person you were before you learned you had heart disease . And your emotions may be both negative and ... medications. Depression When you first learn you have heart disease, it's normal to feel sad or low. These ...
Full Text Available ... resources that can help you with home care, transportation and social needs. Think about why you feel ... I Expect? Introduction Getting Physically Active - Introduction - Physical Activity & Health - What Type of Activity is Best? - Develop ...
Full Text Available ... Medical Visits An Active Partnership workbook and DVD Related Sites My Life Check Heart Attack website Caregivers ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ...
Full Text Available ... your anxiety, talking about it may help. Enjoy physical activity. Go for a walk, ride a bicycle or ... depressed and want to help. Be active. Regular physical activity helps release endorphins that make you feel better. ...
Full Text Available ... HBP Tools & Resources Stroke Vascular Health Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Coping with Feelings ... you were before you learned you had heart disease . And your emotions may be both negative and ...
Full Text Available ... Care of Yourself - Introduction - Coping With Feelings - Reducing Stress - Quitting Smoking - Eating Well and Losing Weight • Tools & ... Fast Heart Rate 10 Angina (Chest Pain) *All health/medical information on this website has been reviewed ...
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger ... When you feel angry, use a three-step approach: stop, ask yourself questions, then react. The first ...
Full Text Available ... depression and cognitive decline. Recognize that depression is part of your condition rather than feeling as though ... with you. Consider recovering from depression to be part of your overall treatment plan. Loneliness It's easy ...
Full Text Available ... Coping with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have talked to you about ... by getting correct and complete information. Tell your healthcare professionals about your fears. Ask them what you ...
... About Heart Failure Module 6: Managing Feelings About Heart Failure Download Module Order Hardcopy Heart failure can cause ... professional help for emotional problems. Common Feelings About Heart Failure It is common for people to feel depressed ...
Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance of...... of theorizing affectivity at a moment when social and cultural life are becoming increasingly affect-driven.......Taking as its point of departure Raymond Williams' notion 'structure of feeling', this volume investigates how affectivity makes a difference in memory studies, performance studies, and the range of cultural studies across the humanities and social sciences today. It illustrates the importance...
Kring, Ann M.; Caponigro, Janelle M.
Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research...
Full Text Available ... Conditions for Heart.org Support for Heart.org Professional for Heart.org Research for Heart.org Educator ... with Feelings Updated:Mar 8,2018 Your healthcare professionals may not have talked to you about the ...
Buda, Dorina; d'Hauteserre, Anne-Marie; Johnston, Lynda
Drawing on critical social and spatial theories of emotion and affect this article offers a contribution to the concepts of danger-zone and dark tourism through a focus on feelings. Research findings on tourism in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the West Bank (of the river Jordan) in Palestine
Full Text Available ... heart rate to rise, and make your heart work harder. Sometimes anger also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose ... daily situations, such as at work, in traffic or waiting in line. Feel that ...
Full Text Available ... ask your healthcare professionals about anger or stress management programs in your community. Tips Keep an anger journal. Write down the people and situations that make you angry. Also write down how you react and what feelings are behind the anger. For example, are ...
Full Text Available ... also causes angina (chest pain) because vessels constrict (narrow), reducing blood and oxygen to the heart. Anger is a problem when you often: Lose your temper. Feel rage at people who are in your way in daily situations, ...
Full Text Available ... or because you feel less control over your life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can prevent you from getting well and staying well. Think back to a time when you were afraid. Did you ask yourself ...
Full Text Available ... plan if you're suffering depression. Over the past 2 weeks, have you been bothered by: Little interest or pleasure in doing things? Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless? If you answered "yes" to either question, you may be depressed. Tips Talk to your ...
Full Text Available In the article, I will argue that metacognition plays an important role in decision-making not only as direct online monitoring and control of decision-making processes but also by enabling us to influence our decisions and actions - and mental states and processes, related to them - in an offline manner. That is, offline metacognition allows us to observe, refer to and, to a certain degree, exert influence on mental states and processes related to our decisions and actions in the way of being removed, decoupled from the task/decision at hand and present time demands. As such, it enables us to observe, form thoughts and have feelings about mental states and processes directly related to our future decisions, to plan our future decisions, to reflect on our past choices, and to think and have feelings about our broader goals, desires, and personal values that are indirectly related to our decisions. To illustrate the importance of offline metacognition in decision-making, I will firstly review and discuss some experimental findings on implementation intentions ("decisions about the future" and anticipated emotions (beliefs about future emotional states related to outcomes of our decisions. Secondly, I will argue that our ability to reflect (think and feel on our broader goals, desires and personal values - that represent a kind of structure into which our specific decisions are embedded - reveals how offline metacognition can exert influence on our decisions also in an indirect way. All in all, I will try to show that our ability to refer to our own minds in an offline way - be it to mental states and processes directly or indirectly related to specific decisions - is essential for us to decide, as we decide, and act, as we act.
Full Text Available The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronisation and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking, the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronisation tasks (mirror game, musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms.
The feeling of synchrony is fundamental for most social activities and prosocial behaviors. However, little is known about the behavioral correlates of this feeling and its modulation by intergroup differences. We previously showed that the subjective feeling of synchrony in subjects involved in a mirror imitation task was modulated by objective behavioral measures, as well as contextual factors such as task difficulty and duration of the task performance. In the present study, we extended our methodology to investigate possible interindividual differences. We hypothesized that being in a romantic relationship or being a professional musician can modulate both implicit and explicit synchronization and the feeling of synchrony as well as the ability to detect synchrony from a third person perspective. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not find significant differences between people in a romantic relationship and control subjects. However, we observed differences between musicians and control subjects. For the implicit synchrony (spontaneous synchronization during walking), the results revealed that musicians that had never met before spontaneously synchronized their movements earlier among themselves than control subjects, but not better than people sharing a romantic relationship. Moreover, in explicit behavioral synchronization tasks (mirror game), musicians reported earlier feeling of synchrony and had less speed errors than control subjects. This was in interaction with tasks difficulty as these differences appeared only in tasks with intermediate difficulty. Finally, when subjects had to judge synchrony from a third person perspective, musicians had a better performance to identify if they were present or not in the videos. Taken together, our results suggest that being a professional musician can play a role in the feeling of synchrony and its underlying mechanisms. © 2016 Preissmann, Charbonnier, Chagué, Antonietti, Llobera, Ansermet and Magistretti.
Bjork, RA; Kroll, JF
© 2015 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois. In this article we discuss the role of desirable difficulties in vocabulary learning from two perspectives, one having to do with identifying conditions of learning that impose initial challenges to the learner but then benefit later retention and transfer, and the other having to do with the role of certain difficulties that are intrinsic to language processes, are engaged during word learning, and reflect how language is underst...
Lany Leide de Castro Rocha Campelo
Full Text Available Objective To identify the difficulties of families with children and/or adolescents with mental disorder. Method This is an integrative review. In December 2013, an electronic search was performed on Latin American Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences databases (LILACS and on Electronic Medicus Index of the National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE indexed in the Health Virtual Library (BVS using a combination of descriptors and boolean operators as follows: mental disorders and child or adolescent and caregivers and/not health staff. Results 557 studies were identified, of which 15 were selected for this study. The findings indicated difficulties related to the care for or to interaction with children/adolescents with mental disorder. Conclusion The studies revealed difficulties related to everyday practices of care and feelings expressed during care practices, as well as in relationships with children or adolescents with mental disorder.
Difficulties of diabetic patients in the illness control: feelings and behaviors Dificultades de los pacientes diabéticos para el control de la enfermedad: sentimientos y comportamientos Dificuldades dos pacientes diabéticos para o controle da doença: sentimentos e comportamentos
Denise Siqueira Péres
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify difficulties diabetic patients face during treatment in controlling the disease. A total of 24 diabetic patients, attended in the Nurse Educational Center for Adults and Elders in 2003, participated in the study. The data was collected individually, through a written report guided by a question previously elaborated, on a pre-scheduled date. The Content Analysis technique was used in the data analysis. The results showed several difficulties related to the treatment follow up: rejection and denial of the patient's condition, suffering and revolt due to restrictions imposed by the diet, physical activity and medication. It is possible to infer that the focus of the education approach should not be restricted to the transmission of knowledge; it should also include emotional, social and cultural aspects that also influence in the treatment follow up.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar las dificultades de los pacientes diabéticos en relación al tratamiento para el control de la enfermedad. Participaron 24 diabéticos acompañados en el Centro Educativo de Enfermería para Adultos y Ancianos en 2003. Para obtener los datos, se utilizó un relato escrito, de forma individual, en día predeterminado, a partir de una pregunta orientadora previamente elaborada. En el análisis de los datos se utilizó la técnica de Análisis de Contenido. Los resultados mostraron que son innumeras las dificultades relacionadas al seguimiento del tratamiento: rechazo y negación de la condición de enfermo, sufrimiento y revuelta debido a las restricciones impuestas por la alimentación, actividad física y medicamentos. Es posible inferir que el enfoque de la aproximación educativa no debe restringirse apenas a la transmisión de conocimientos; también es importante que englobe aspectos emocionales, sociales y culturales que influencian en el seguimiento del tratamiento.Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar as dificuldades
Like it or not, leaders need to manage the mood of their organizations. The most gifted leaders accomplish that by using a mysterious blend of psychological abilities known as emotional intelligence. They are self-aware and empathetic. They can read and regulate their own emotions while intuitively grasping how others feel and gauging their organization's emotional state. But where does emotional intelligence come from, and how do leaders learn to use it? In this article, 18 leaders and scholars (including business executives, leadership researchers, psychologists, an autism expert, and a symphony conductor) explore the nature and management of emotional intelligence--its sources, uses, and abuses. Their responses varied, but some common themes emerged: the importance of consciously--and conscientiously--honing one's skills, the double-edged nature of self-awareness, and the danger of letting any one emotional intelligence skill dominate. Among their observations: Psychology professor John Mayer, who co-developed the concept of emotional intelligence, warns managers not to be confused by popular definitions of the term, which suggest that if you have a certain set of personality traits then you automatically possess emotional intelligence. Neuropsychologist Elkhonon Goldberg agrees with professors Daniel Goleman and Robert Goffee that emotional intelligence can be learned--but only by people who already show an aptitude for it. Cult expert Janja Lalich points out that leaders can use their emotional intelligence skills for ill in the same way they can for good. "Sometimes the only difference is [the leader's] intent," she says. And business leaders Carol Bartz, William George, Sidney Harman, and Andrea jung (of Autodesk, Medtronic, Harman International, and Avon respectively) describe situations in which emotional intelligence traits such as self-awareness and empathy have helped them and their companies perform at a higher level.
This paper aims to explore the critical attributes of the concept feeling safe. The safe delivery of care is a high priority; however; it is not really known what it means to the patient to 'feel safe' during an inpatient hospitalization. This analysis explores the topic of safety from the patient's perspective. Concept analysis. The data bases of CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo and Google Scholar for the years 1995-2012 were searched using the terms safe and feeling safe. The eight-step concept analysis method of Walker and Avant was used to analyse the concept of feeling safe. Uses and defining attributes, as well as identified antecedents, consequences and empirical referents, are presented. Case examples are provided to assist in the understanding of defining attributes. Feeling safe is defined as an emotional state where perceptions of care contribute to a sense of security and freedom from harm. Four attributes were identified: trust, cared for, presence and knowledge. Relationship, environment and suffering are the antecedents of feeling safe, while control, hope and relaxed or calm are the consequences. Empirical referents and early development of a theory of feeling safe are explored. This analysis begins the work of synthesizing qualitative research already completed around the concept of feeling safe by defining the key attributes of the concept. Support for the importance of developing patient-centred models of care and creating positive environments where patients receive high-quality care and feel safe is provided. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available With increasing consumer requirements, farmers and vendors see the importance of social media as a marketing tool to engage with consumers. In particular, on a more personal level for reasons of brand management. Instagram is becoming increasingly popular as a marketing communication tool. The aim of this paper is to identify areas that users evaluate in terms of positive feelings in connection with farmers’ markets. The results are based on the analysis of the worldwide, and Czech, instagram social network. Instagram posts were identified on the basis of keywords, such as #farmarsketrhy and #farmersmarkets. The results of the study are based on 100,000 contributions on Instagram made by 55,632 users. The analysis contains 1,357,812 ‘unique’ words. The results identified six major areas (1 Healthy (2 Good (3 Great (4 Happy (5 Nice (6 Perfect. An appropriately posted hashtag indicated the positive feelings that were evoked and then assigned to a matching category. The research results are used to identify group characteristics that exert these positive feelings while visiting farmers’ markets. These results can be used to build communications campaigns for farmers’ markets. They can also be used as a basis for further research in defining the behaviour of farmers’ markets visitors, based on cultural differences arising from geographic location.
Brady, Michael S.
The emotions of guilt, shame, disappointment and grief, and the bodily states of pain and suffering, have something in common, at least phenomenologically: they are all unpleasant, they feel bad. But how might we explain what it is for some state to feel bad or unpleasant? What, in other words, is the nature of negative affect? In this paper I want to consider the prospects for evaluativist theories, which seek to explain unpleasantness by appeal to negative evaluations or appraisals. In part...
Christensen, Mette Krogh; O'Neill, Lotte; Hansen, Dorthe Høgh
Background The majority of studies on prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty have been conducted in English-speaking countries and the existing literature may not reflect the prevalence and characteristics of residents in difficulty in other parts of the world such as the Scand...... in a healthcare system. From our perspective, further sociological and pedagogical investigations in educational cultures across settings and specialties could inform our understanding of and knowledge about pitfalls in residents’ and doctors’ socialization into the healthcare system....
This paper assesses what may be the underlying reasons for the Clinton administration's recent failure to pass the Btu Tax on energy sources and the current difficulties that this Administration is experiencing in acquiring nation wide consensus on a gasoline tax proposal. Two difficulties stand out - regional differences in climate and thus winter heating requirements, and the differences from state to state in transportation system preferences. The paper cites the positive aspects of energy taxation by noting the petroleum industry's efforts to develop a new less polluting reformulated gasoline
Kring, Ann M; Caponigro, Janelle M
Our understanding of the nature of emotional difficulties in schizophrenia has been greatly enhanced by translational research over the past two decades. By incorporating methods and theories from affective science, researchers have been able to discover that people with schizophrenia exhibit very few outward displays of emotion but report experiencing strong feelings in the presence of emotionally evocative stimuli or events. Recent behavioral, psychophysiological, and brain imaging research has pointed to the importance of considering the time course of emotion in schizophrenia. This work has shown that people with schizophrenia have the ability to experience emotion in the moment; however, they appear to have difficulties when anticipating future pleasurable experiences, and this perhaps affects their motivation to have such experiences. While advancements in our understanding of emotional experience and expression in individuals with schizophrenia have been made, these developments have led to a new collection of research questions directed at understanding the time course of emotion in schizophrenia, including the role of memory and anticipation in motivated behavior, translating laboratory findings to the development of new assessment tools and new treatments targeting emotional impairments in people with this disorder.
Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska
Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective executive difficulties, understood as a sense of disruption of planning, control and correction of one’s own activity, is often reported by healthy as well as clinical individuals. Self-report measures such as the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-S are used to assess the severity of this feeling. The diagnostic value of this method is debated due to the numerous factors affecting the beliefs on executive deficits. Aim of the study: With reference to inconclusive data concerning the underlying factors of subjective executive deficits and the value of self-report measures the following aims of the present study were established: a determination of the demographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics of individuals with various levels of subjective executive difficulties, b finding which of these variables contribute to the risk of subjective executive difficulties increase. Material and methods: The study included 213 adult individuals. DEX-S as well as measures of cognitive assessment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA; subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, WAIS-R and depressive mood assessment [Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form, GDS-15] were used. Demographic variables (age, gender and educational level as well as clinical variables (lack of/presence of central nervous system disease history, including lateralised brain pathology were also taken into consideration. Based on DEX-S results a cluster analysis was performed and two groups of subjects with a different level of subjective executive difficulties were identified: low-severity group (individuals reporting no complaints regarding executive deficits and high-severity group (individuals with complaints. Group comparisons demonstrated that individuals complaining about executive deficits have a higher depressive mood index and lower scores on some subtests used to assess cognitive functions. The results of logistic regression analysis
Lankveld, van G.; Spronck, P.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Mateas, M.; Darken, C.
In this paper we discuss our work on using the incongruity measure from psychological literature to scale the difficulty level of a game online to the capabilities of the human player. Our approach has been implemented in a small game called Glove.
... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...
... Does a hearing problem cause you difficulty when listening to TV or radio? Do you feel that any difficulty with your hearing limits or hampers your personal or social life? Does a hearing problem cause you difficulty ...
There are many ways to improve students' understanding of physics concepts. This article focused on drawing students' attention with picture-embedded questions. Pictures give students a direct impression or feeling about the corresponding concepts, which really makes a difference. However, the effects are limited. Some physics concepts are…
Juan López Doblas
Full Text Available Our purpose is to look into one of the social problems affecting the most to older people, namely the feeling of loneliness. We intend to approach this problem differentiating its social and emotional dimensions. Through a qualitative methodological strategy ?focus groups as procedure to raise data and Grounded Theory as analytical perspective? we study how that feeling is experienced among a profile of older persons particularly affected by loneliness: older widowed persons living alone. Our findings prove that these persons suffer from emotional loneliness, especially those who enter widowhood at a later age and after decades of marriage. This feeling is linked to the loss of their spouse and it is at night when it is more likely to emerge. Moreover, widowhood comes along with the risk of social loneliness because of the relational distancing from friends who used to be connected to the married couple. We have identified as well gender differences regarding the impact of loneliness, being men those who are especially frail to confront it.
Tamir, Maya; Schwartz, Shalom H; Oishi, Shige; Kim, Min Y
Which emotional experiences should people pursue to optimize happiness? According to traditional subjective well-being research, the more pleasant emotions we experience, the happier we are. According to Aristotle, the more we experience the emotions we want to experience, the happier we are. We tested both predictions in a cross-cultural sample of 2,324 participants from 8 countries around the world. We assessed experienced emotions, desired emotions, and indices of well-being and depressive symptoms. Across cultures, happier people were those who more often experienced emotions they wanted to experience, whether these were pleasant (e.g., love) or unpleasant (e.g., hatred). This pattern applied even to people who wanted to feel less pleasant or more unpleasant emotions than they actually felt. Controlling for differences in experienced and desired emotions left the pattern unchanged. These findings suggest that happiness involves experiencing emotions that feel right, whether they feel good or not. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Beck, Mathilde Therese Claudine; Harvey, John Carr; Trauth, Christina
An increasing number of people are adopting a vegan lifestyle, which means to stop consuming products, that are made from or based on animals, like meat, dairy or eggs. However, the number of research concerning veganism is limited. As the existing research is mainly concentrating on the process of adopting a vegan lifestyle and the view of vegans, these findings shall be examined further with the question, What are the motivation and difficulties about adopting a plant based vegan diet in We...
Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.; Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney
Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women. (orig.)
Citak, Ebru Akgun; Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Gunes, Nebahat Bora
Communication plays an important role for the well being of patients, families and also health care professionals in cancer care. Conversely, ineffective communication may cause depression, increased anxiety, hopelessness and decreased of quality life for patients, families and also nurses. This study aimed to explore communication difficulties of pediatric hematology/oncology nurses with patients and their families, as well as their suggestions about communication difficulties. It was conducted in a pediatric hematology/oncology hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Qualitative data were collected by focus groups, with 21 pediatric hematology/oncology nursing staff from three groups. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Findings were grouped in three main categories. The first category concerned communication difficulties, assessing problems in responding to questions, ineffective communication and conflicts with the patient's families. The second was about the effects of communication difficulties on nurses and the last main category involved suggestions for empowering nurses with communication difficulties, the theme being related to institutional issues. Nurses experience communication difficulties with children and their families during long hospital stays. Communication difficulties particularly increase during crisis periods, like at the time of first diagnosis, relapse, the terminal stage or on days with special meaning such as holidays. The results obtained indicate that pediatric nurses and the child/family need to be supported, especially during crisis periods. Feeling of empowerment in communication will improve the quality of care by reducing the feelings of exhaustion and incompetence in nurses.
Ramazi, Pouria; Hessel, Jop; Cao, Ming
For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.
Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.
Arum, D. P.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.
There are many errors can be identified when students solving mathematics problems, particularly in solving the probabilistic problem. This present study aims to investigate students’ difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It focuses on analyzing and describing students errors during solving the problem. This research used the qualitative method with case study strategy. The subjects in this research involve ten students of 9th grade that were selected by purposive sampling. Data in this research involve students’ probabilistic problem-solving result and recorded interview regarding students’ difficulties in solving the problem. Those data were analyzed descriptively using Miles and Huberman steps. The results show that students have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem and can be divided into three categories. First difficulties relate to students’ difficulties in understanding the probabilistic problem. Second, students’ difficulties in choosing and using appropriate strategies for solving the problem. Third, students’ difficulties with the computational process in solving the problem. Based on the result seems that students still have difficulties in solving the probabilistic problem. It means that students have not able to use their knowledge and ability for responding probabilistic problem yet. Therefore, it is important for mathematics teachers to plan probabilistic learning which could optimize students probabilistic thinking ability.
Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher
This article investigates possible links between inclusion, students, for whom mathematics is extensively difficult, and classroom leadership through a case study on teaching strategies and student participation in four classrooms at two different primary schools in Denmark. Three sets of results...... are presented: 1) descriptions of the teachers’ classroom leadership to include all their students in the learning community, 2) the learning community produced by stated and practiced rules for teaching and learning behavior, 3) the classroom behavior of students who experience difficulties with mathematics....... The findings suggest that the teachers’ pedagogical choices and actions support an active learning environment for students in diverse learning needs, and that the teachers practise dimensions of inclusive classroom leadership that are known to be successful for teaching mathematics to all students. Despite...
Emmanuel Herrera González
Full Text Available This study shows the main socio- affective factors related to school difficulties of a group of three girls and three boys identified as "star" in the Programa Psicomotricidad e Intervención (Psychomotor and Intervention Program. The study was developed through a mixed methodology, in which the Human Figure Test, the Kinetic Family Drawing and an interview with the mother of each student were applied. The most important results revealed the existence of family conflicting factors that affect the emotional state of children, generating negative feelings about themselves that affect their social interactions and their school performance.
An unusual hydrological investigation is being carried out in Kenya by IAEA, at Lake Chala, a volcanic crater with no visible inlet or outlet. The problem is to determine whether the lake has any connection with a number of springs near Taveta, some six miles distant: this relationship is important in assessing the possibility of expanding the Taveta irrigation scheme. Questions of water rights and utilization are involved, since the lake is situated on the Tanganyikan border. The method adopted is that of labelling the waters of the lake with small quantities of water containing radioactive hydrogen (tritium). There are some special features in this instance, one being the difficulty of access. The lake is entirely surrounded by steep cliffs. A track was cut by British Army engineers, and the boat and all supplies were taken down by this route. Another problem was presented by the depth of the lake, which amounts to 300 feet. It is necessary to ensure the regular mixing of the tritium throughout. This has been done by means of hundreds of plastic bottles, which were dropped from the boat at regular intervals as it made a series of carefully-plotted traverses. Each bottle had a weight attached, and was perforated by two small holes. By this means, as the bottle sank the contents were progressively released until it reached the bottom, thus ensuring an even diffusion of tritium throughout the lake.
Case material of three adolescent boys is considered with regard to thematic similarity around acts of puncture. Their non-verbal communication is seen as a symptomatic acting out of an internal loss of containment. This resulted in psychotic disorganisation in which aspects of language appeared selectively impaired. Each boy struggled to express…
Brady, Katy; Woolfson, Lisa
Identifying the factors that influence teacher beliefs about teaching children with learning difficulties is important for the success of inclusive education. This study explores the relationship between teachers' role, self-efficacy, attitudes towards disabled people, teaching experience and training, on teachers' attributions for children's difficulties in learning. One hundred and eighteen primary school teachers (44 general mainstream, 33 mainstream learning support, and 41 special education teachers) completed the short form of the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale, the Interaction with Disabled Persons Scale (IDP), and a revised version of the Teacher Attribution Scale. Regression analysis found that teachers' role influenced stability and controllability attributions. However, for stability attributions the effect was not sustained when examined in the context of the other factors of teaching efficacy, experience, training, and attitudes towards disability. What emerged as important instead was strong feelings of sympathy towards disabled people which predicted stable attributions about learning difficulties. Experience of teaching children with additional support needs and teaching efficacy positively predicted external locus of causality attributions. Surprisingly, training was not found to have an impact on attributions. A mixed MANOVA found that mainstream teachers' controllability attributions were influenced by whether or not the child had identified learning support needs. Teacher efficacy, experience of teaching students with support needs, attitudes towards disabled people, and teachers' role all impact on teacher attributions, but no relationship with training was found. Implications for teacher training and development, and for student achievement and student self-perception are discussed.
Mayer, Nicole D; Tormala, Zakary L
Three studies explored think ("I think . . . ") versus feel ("I feel . . . ") message framing effects on persuasion.The authors propose a matching hypothesis, suggesting that think framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is cognitively oriented, whereas feel framing will be more persuasive when the target attitude or message recipient is affectively oriented. Study 1 presented cognitively and affectively oriented individuals with a think- or feel-framed message. Study 2 primed cognitive or affective orientation and then presented a think- or feel-framed message. Study 3 presented male and female participants with an advertisement containing think- or feel-framed arguments. Results indicated that think (feel) framing was more persuasive when the target attitude or recipient was cognitively (affectively) oriented. Moreover, Study 2 demonstrated that this matching effect was mediated by processing fluency. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Jorge Luiz da Silva
Full Text Available Our objective was to identify and analyze emotions generated in students involved in bullying situations as aggressors. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted with 232 students from the sixth to ninth year of middle school, who answered a self-reported questionnaire. We analyzed the data with the Statistical Analysis Software, through descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact test. Of all students, 17.4% were identified as aggressors. Not feeling any emotion after practicing aggression against friends was prevalent for boys (36.7% and girls (25.0%. Boys demonstrated to feel anger (26.7% and sadness (23.3% in smaller proportions, while girls also demonstrated to feel guilt (25.0%, sadness (16.7% and shame (8.3%. The study indicates investigated aggressors presenting emotions that do not compete to comprehend negative effects of the practiced violence, as well as it does not collaborate to interrupt aggressions.
Rebollo, M A; Rodríguez, A L
To discuss our concern for some aspects of mathematics learning disorders related to the nomenclature employed and their diagnosis; these aspects refer to the term 'dyscalculia' and to its diagnosis (especially syndromatic diagnosis). We also intend to propose a classification that could help to define the terminology. Lastly we are going to consider the different aspects of diagnosis and to determine which of them are indispensable in the diagnosis of primary and secondary disorders. As far as the nomenclature is concerned, we refer to the term 'dyscalculia'. The origins of the term are analysed along with the reasons why it should not be used in children with difficulties in learning mathematics. We propose a classification and denominations for the different types that should undoubtedly be discussed. With respect to the diagnosis, several problems related to the syndromatic diagnosis are considered, since in our country there are no standardised tests with which to study performance in arithmetic and geometry. This means that criterion reference tests are conducted to try to establish current and potential performance. At this stage of the diagnosis pedagogical and psychological studies must be conducted. The important factors with regard to the topographical and aetiological diagnoses are prior knowledge, results from the studies that have been carried out and findings from imaging studies. The importance of a genetic study must be defined in the aetiological diagnosis. We propose a nomenclature to replace the term 'dyscalculia'. Standardised tests are needed for the diagnosis. The need to establish current and potential performance is hierarchized. With regard to the topographical diagnosis, we highlight the need for more information about geometry, and in aetiological studies the analyses must be conducted with greater numbers of children.
Schmidt, Maria Christina Secher
The presentation is based on a substudy conducted in connection with a Danish PhD study of inclusive teaching of beginner mathematics in the Danish municipal primary school and focuses on the research question: What conflicting positions can be identified in relation to low-performing pupils in t...
McCoyd, Judith L M
The sociology of emotion is rapidly evolving and has implications for medical settings. Advancing medical technologies create new contexts for decision-making and emotional reaction that are framed by "feeling rules." Feeling rules guide not only behavior, but also how one believes one should feel, thereby causing one to attempt to bring one's authentic feelings into line with perceived feeling rules. Using qualitative data, the theoretical existence of feeling rules in pregnancy and prenatal testing is confirmed. Further examination extends this analysis: at times of technological development feeling rules are often discrepant, leaving patients with unscripted emotion work. Data from a study of women who interrupted anomalous pregnancies indicate that feeling rules are unclear when competing feeling rules are operating during times of societal and technological change. Because much of this occurs below the level of consciousness, medical and psychological services providers need to be aware of potential discrepancies in feeling rules and assist patients in identifying the salient feeling rules. Patients' struggles ease when they can recognize the discrepancies and assess their implications for decision-making and emotional response. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Garcia, Nicole Marie
Research has identified a group of students who do not begin to exhibit reading difficulties until fourth or fifth grade, suggesting late-emerging reading difficulties. Considering that these students do not show signs of reading difficulties in early grades, attempting to identify these students early becomes problematic. Additionally, little is known regarding the characteristics of late-emerging reading deficits within English language learner (ELL) populations. The purpose of this study w...
Full Text Available Anorexia nervosa (AN is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions. Ninety participants with lifetime AN (88 women and 2 men completed an online survey assessing memories of involuntary submissiveness within the family, fear of negative evaluation from others, perceived lack of social competence, feelings of social belonging, eating disorder symptoms, and work and social adjustment. Participants also answered three open questions regarding their experience of social relationships before and after the illness onset. The findings provided support for the hypothesized relationships between the study variables. Involuntary submissiveness and fear of negative evaluation predicted eating disorder symptoms and these associations were partially mediated by perceived lack of social competence. Two-thirds of the sample recalled early social difficulties before illness onset and recognized that these had played a role in the development of the illness. A larger proportion of participants stated that the eating disorder had affected their social relationships in a negative way. This study sheds some light on patients’ perspective on the predisposing and maintaining role that social difficulties play in AN and identifies key psychological variables that could be targeted in treatment.
Cardi, Valentina; Mallorqui-Bague, Núria; Albano, Gaia; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Treasure, Janet
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious psychiatric disorder characterized by severe restriction of energy intake and dangerously low body weight. Other domains of functioning are affected, including social functioning. Although difficulties within this domain have started to be acknowledged by the literature, some important gaps remain to be filled. Do social difficulties predate the onset of the illness? What difficulties in particular are relevant for the development and maintenance of the illness? The aim of this study is to combine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods to answer these questions. Ninety participants with lifetime AN (88 women and 2 men) completed an online survey assessing memories of involuntary submissiveness within the family, fear of negative evaluation from others, perceived lack of social competence, feelings of social belonging, eating disorder symptoms, and work and social adjustment. Participants also answered three open questions regarding their experience of social relationships before and after the illness onset. The findings provided support for the hypothesized relationships between the study variables. Involuntary submissiveness and fear of negative evaluation predicted eating disorder symptoms and these associations were partially mediated by perceived lack of social competence. Two-thirds of the sample recalled early social difficulties before illness onset and recognized that these had played a role in the development of the illness. A larger proportion of participants stated that the eating disorder had affected their social relationships in a negative way. This study sheds some light on patients' perspective on the predisposing and maintaining role that social difficulties play in AN and identifies key psychological variables that could be targeted in treatment.
Swart, M.; Kortekaas, R; Aleman, A.
Background: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings'', is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core
Pierzycki, Robert H; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; Dawes, Piers; Munro, Kevin J; Moore, David R; Kitterick, Pádraig T
To estimate and compare the prevalence of and associations between tinnitus and sleep difficulties in a sample of UK adult cochlear implant users and those identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation. The study was conducted using the UK Biobank resource, a population-based cohort of 40- to 69-year olds. Self-report data on hearing, tinnitus, sleep difficulties, and demographic variables were collected from cochlear implant users (n = 194) and individuals identified as potential candidates for cochlear implantation (n = 211). These "candidates" were selected based on (i) impaired hearing sensitivity, inferred from self-reported hearing aid use and (ii) impaired hearing function, inferred from an inability to report words accurately at negative signal to noise ratios on an unaided closed-set test of speech perception. Data on tinnitus (presence, persistence, and related distress) and on sleep difficulties were analyzed using logistic regression models controlling for gender, age, deprivation, and neuroticism. The prevalence of tinnitus was similar among implant users (50%) and candidates (52%; p = 0.39). However, implant users were less likely to report that their tinnitus was distressing at its worst (41%) compared with candidates (63%; p = 0.02). The logistic regression model suggested that this difference between the two groups could be explained by the fact that tinnitus was less persistent in implant users (46%) compared with candidates (72%; p reported difficulties with sleep were similar among implant users (75%) and candidates (82%; p = 0.28), but participants with tinnitus were more likely to report sleep difficulties than those without (p explanation is supported by the similar prevalence of sleep problems among implant users and potential candidates for cochlear implantation, despite differences between the groups in tinnitus persistence and related emotional distress. Cochlear implantation may therefore not be an appropriate intervention
Luís Paulo Souza e Souza
Full Text Available This study aimed at understanding the feelings experienced by the child with cancer manifested during Therapeutic Toy sessions. This qualitative research was performed with five children aged between three and twelve years, of both sexes. Data collection was carried out through a participatory and systematic observation, coupled with interviews intermediated by Therapeutic Toy Sessions. The data was worked using discourse analysis. The child with cancer was shown as a being full of feelings. The fear of death, pain, sadness on the limitations imposed by the disease, the withdrawal and rebellion with the procedures, the anguish in the face of uncertainties were negative feelings expressed by the children in the dramatizations. However, the development of treatment, the manifestation of a good prognosis and outcome of cure were emerging feelings of hope and happiness before the treatment, optimism in return to usual activities and overcoming amidst the difficulties experienced.
Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.
... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...
Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene
PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...
Tanaka, Y; Yamaoka, K
This study investigated the relationship between task difficulty and blink activity, which includes blink rate, blink amplitude, and blink duration. Two kinds of tasks established two levels of difficulty. In Exp. 1, a mental arithmetic task was used to examine the relationship. Analysis showed that blink rate for a difficult task was significantly higher than that for an easier one. In Exp. 2, a letter-search task (hiragana Japanese alphabet) was used while the other conditions were the same as those in Exp. 1; however, the results of this experiment were not influenced by the difficulty of the task. As results indicate that blink rate is related to not only difficulty but also the nature of the task, the nature of the task is probably dependent on a mechanism in information processing. The results for blink amplitude and blink duration showed no systematic change during either experiment.
Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.
The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievem...
Wang, Shuhan; Andersen, Erik
Language students are most engaged while reading texts at an appropriate difficulty level. However, existing methods of evaluating text difficulty focus mainly on vocabulary and do not prioritize grammatical features, hence they do not work well for language learners with limited knowledge of grammar. In this paper, we introduce grammatical templates, the expert-identified units of grammar that students learn from class, as an important feature of text difficulty evaluation. Experimental clas...
Matoussi, N; Aissa, K; Fitouri, Z; Hajji, M; Makni, S; Bellagha, I; Ben Becher, S
Central diabetes insipidus is rare in children. Characteristic features include polyuria and polydipsia due to arginine vasopressin deficiency. The differential diagnosis of polyuric states may be difficult. Etiologic diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus may be an equally difficult task. To specify the difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of central diabetes insipidus and to point out features of the etiologic work-up and of long-term follow-up of children with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus. A retrospective study of 12 children admitted with a polyuria/polydipsia syndrome to the pediatric - consultation and emergency unit of the children's hospital of Tunis between 1988 and 2005. Children with acquired nephrogenic central diabetes insipidus were excluded. Fourteen-hour fluid restriction test and/or desmopressin test were used without plasma vasopressin measurement. Eight patients were classified as having central diabetes insipidus, which was severe in seven children and partial in one girl. One patient was classified as having primary polydipsia. The diagnosis remains unclear in three patients. The etiological work-up in eight patients with central diabetes insipidus enabled the identification of Langerhan's-cell histiocytosis in two patients and neurosurgical trauma in one. The cause was considered idiopathic in five patients. The median follow-up of the five patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus was five years two months plus or minus six years seven months (range five months, 14.5 years). During this follow-up, neither brain magnetic resonance imaging scans findings nor anterior pituitary function have changed. Fluid restriction and desmopressin tests did not enable an accurate distinction between partial diabetes insipidus and primary polydipsia. Regular surveillance is warranted in patients with idiopathic central diabetes insipidus to identify potential etiologies.
Izaute, Marie; Chambres, Patrick; Larochelle, Serge
The main objective of the presented study was to study feeling-of-knowing (FOK) in proper name retrieval. Many studies show that FOK can predict performance on a subsequent criterion test. Although feeling-of-knowing studies involve questions about proper names, none make this distinction between proper names and common names. Nevertheless, the specific character of proper names as a unique label referring to a person should allow participants to target precisely the desired verbal label. Our idea here was that the unique character of proper name information should result in more accurate FOK evaluations. In the experiment, participants evaluated feeling-of-knowing for proper and common name descriptions. The study demonstrates that FOK judgments are more accurate for proper names than for common names. The implications of the findings for proper names are briefly discussed in terms of feeling-of-knowing hypotheses.
... 000616.htm When you feel like changing your medicine To use the sharing features on this page, ... well with your medicines. Common Reasons for Changing Medicine You may think about stopping or changing your ...
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S.; Tranel, Daniel
Background: Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD’s effect on emotion. Objective: We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. Methods: A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) ...
Maarof, Nooreiny; Munusamy, Indira Malani A/P
This paper aims to investigate the learners learning experiences and difficulties of ESL among the UKM undergraduates. This study will be focusing on identifying the factors behind Malaysian undergraduate's experiences and also their difficulties in the English as Second Language (ESL) classroom. This paper discusses some of the issues of English…
Simon C. Hunter
Full Text Available This study evaluated whether adolescents who report having been bullied, being bullies, or report both being a bully and being bullied experience more sleep difficulties than children uninvolved in bullying. The study drew upon cognitive theories of insomnia, investigating whether the extent to which young people report worrying about bullying can moderate associations between victimization and sleep difficulties. Participants were 5420 adolescents who completed a self-report questionnaire. Pure Victims (OR = 1.72, 95% CI [1.07, 2.75], Pure Bullies (OR = 1.80, 95% CI [1.16, 2.81], and Bully-Victims (OR = 2.90, 95% CI [1.17, 4.92] were all more likely to experience sleep difficulties when compared to uninvolved young people. The extent to which young people reported worrying about being bullied did not moderate the links between victimization and sleep difficulties. In this way, bullying is clearly related to sleep difficulties among adolescents but the conceptual reach of the cognitive model of insomnia in this domain is questioned.
Rønberg, Louise Flensted-Jensen; Petersen, Dorthe Klint
as measured on a phonological coding measure. However, the proportion was smaller than the often reported 10-15 % and even smaller when average sight word recognition was also set as a criterion for word reading ability. Compared to average comprehenders, the poor comprehenders’ sight word recognition......This study explores the occurrence of poor comprehenders, i.e., children identified with reading comprehension difficulties in spite of age-appropriate word reading skills. It supports the findings that some children do show poor reading comprehension in spite of age-appropriate word reading...... and daily reading of literary texts were significantly below that of average readers. This study indicates that a lack of reading experience and, likewise, a lack of fluent word reading may be important factors in understanding nine-year-old poor comprehenders’ difficulties....
Fernanda Torres de Carvalho
Full Text Available The present study investigated the feelings of HIV seropositive pregnant women, concerning their own infection, motherhood and the baby. Six pregnant women, aged between 26 and 35 years old, from low socioeconomic status, took part in the study. They were interviewed and their answers were examined through qualitative content analysis, divided in three categories: Experience concerning the HIV/Aids infection, Feelings about pregnancy and HIV/Aids and Family relations and HIV/Aids. The results revealed sexual risk behaviors, difficulty in accepting diagnosis and the need to justify the origin of their infection. Fears, guilty, prejudices, frustration with their own mother, loss of the maternal figure, lack of family support and instability in the relationship with the baby’s father were also revealed. The importance of psychological interventions aiming to treatment´s adherence and prevention of the mother-child transmission of HIV/Aids are discussed. Keywords: HIV/Aids; pregnancy; motherhood; feelings.
Tuan Pham Michel
Full Text Available Not only are subjective feelings an integral part of many judgments and decisions, they can even lead to improved decisions and better predictions. Individuals who have learned to trust their feelings performed better in economic-negotiation games than their rational-thinking opponents. But emotions are not just relevant in negotiations and decisions. They also play a decisive role in forecasting future events. Candidates who trusted their feelings made better predictions than people with less emotional confidence. Emotions contain valuable information about the world around us. This information is not as readily available in our mind as hard facts but rather lies in the background of our conscious attention. In negotiation situations like the ultimatum game, feelings provide an intuitive sense of what offer is about right and what offer is too high or too low. But feelings also summarize statistical relationships among things that, on the surface, may seem disconnected. These statistical relationships make more probable futures feel more right than less probable futures. However, researchers warn that you should not always trust your feelings. Feelings that tend to help are those based on general knowledge, not those based on easy-to-verbalize local knowledge.
Dowd, S B; Davidhizar, R
Individuals who are unqualified to fulfill a role are impostors. Often, competent practitioners feel they are unable to successfully practice their profession and suffer from an impostor syndrome. In health care, this can have a number of negative outcomes, including a poor reflection of the institution through the individual's actions. In many cases, impostorship can be prevented or remediated through the use of techniques such as identification, mentoring, and promotion of positive self-concepts. This article reviews a number of these techniques to help supervisors, especially new supervisors who may have feelings of inadequacy and impostorship, in developing a positive self-image.
Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel
The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Mads; Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger
Early screening for reading difficulties before the onset of instruction is desirable because it allows intervention that is targeted at prevention rather than remediation of reading difficulties. However, early screening may be too inaccurate to effectively allocate resources to those who need...... them. The present study compared the accuracy of early screening before the onset of formal reading instruction with late screening six months into the first year of instruction. The study followed 164 Danish students from the end of Grade 0 to the end of Grade 2. Early screening included measures...... of phonemic awareness, rapid naming, letter knowledge, paired associate learning, and reading. Late screening included only reading. Results indicated that reading measures improved substantially as predictors over the first six months of Grade 1, to the point where late reading measures alone provided...
Greenaway, Katharine H.; Cichocka, Aleksandra; van Veelen, Ruth; Likki, Tiina; Branscombe, Nyla R.
Hope is an emotion that has been implicated in social change efforts, yet little research has examined whether feeling hopeful actually motivates support for social change. Study 1 (N = 274) confirmed that hope is associated with greater support for social change in two countries with different
Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise
Abstract PhD Day 2015 The illness trajectory of spine fusion patients. A feeling of being (in)visible Background Research shows that being a back patient is associated with great personal cost, and that back patients who undergo so-called spine fusion often experience particularly long...
This article explores the fundamental right of disabled children to feel safe and be free from bullying, harassment and abuse. The article proposes that, 20 years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, disabled children are still facing barriers to securing this right. The article focuses on recent Mencap research that…
Fikkert, F.W.; Hakvoort, Michiel; Hakvoort, M.C.; van der Vet, P.E.; Nijholt, Antinus
FeelSound is a multi-user, multi-touch application that aims to collaboratively compose, in an entertaining way, acoustic music. Simultaneous input by each of up to four users enables collaborative composing. This process as well as the resulting music are entertaining. Sensor-packed intelligent
Lesko, Nancy; Brotman, Jennie S.; Agarwal, Ruchi; Quackenbush, Jaime Lynn
Sexuality education and HIV/AIDS education are arenas of strong feelings. Emotions make sexuality and health lessons peculiar, "thrown together" lessons, and emotions stick to "childhood innocence", "growing up too fast" and even "jump" in response to visuals, say a used condom on an elementary school playground or a pregnant sophomore in a…
Sánchez, Francisco J; Westefeld, John S; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen's d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen's f(2) = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client's lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being.
Sánchez, Francisco J.; Westefeld, John S.; Liu, William Ming; Vilain, Eric
Professional psychologists who work with gay men have noted that traditional masculine ideals play a prominent role in the gay community whereby some endorse these traditional ideals and stigmatize effeminate behavior by other gay men. One hypothesis is that this behavior reflects negative feelings about being gay. This article examined this hypothesis by reporting the results of an online survey of 622 self-identified gay men. Participants completed the Gender Role Conflict Scale, Lesbian and Gay Identity Scale, the Social Desirability Scale, and questions related to the importance of masculinity. Results showed that most participants valued the public appearance of masculinity; and they ideally wished to be more masculine than they felt they were (Cohen’s d = 0.42). A multiple regression analysis showed that the degree to which they valued masculinity and were concerned with violating masculine ideals was positively related with negative feelings about being gay (Cohen’s f2 = .67). These findings highlight the importance of exploring the role that masculine ideals play in gay client’s lives given that negative feelings about oneself can adversely affect psychological well-being. PMID:20428323
Nasu, Ayami; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu
Because ulcerative colitis (UC) repeats remission and relapse, it is necessary to keep the condition at the relapse time in mind when considering support to provide UC suffers with at the workplace. The aim of this survey was to clarify the difficulties at work and work motivation that UC suffers feel at present and experience at the worsening time, and the factors for maintaining work motivation. We carried out an anonymous questionnaire survey of patients with present or past work experience. The difficulties at work (17 items) and work motivation (4 items) in the past week and at the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work were investigated using a newly designed questionnaire. We regarded the time in the past week as the present, and the time when the symptoms were most intensive during work as the worsening time. There were 70 respondents (response rate 32.0%). Their mean age was 43.8 years, and their mean age at onset was 33.8 years. All subjects, except 2 subjects after surgery, took medicine. Fifty-three (75.7%) of the subjects were in remission at the present, and most of them (91.4%) managed their physical condition well. Difficulties at work that many subjects worried about at the present were relevant to work conditions, such as "Others at workplace do not understand having an intractable and relapsing disease" (41.4%) or "Feel delayed or lack of chance of promotion or career advancement due to the disease" (38.6%). At the worsening time, the management of physical condition went wrong, and the frequency of hospital visits was increased, but few subjects consulted with superiors or colleagues at workplace. Difficulties at work that many subjects underwent at the worsening time were relevant to symptoms, such as "Feel physically tired" (80.0%) or "Decline foods or alcoholic beverages offered at business parties" (72.9%). Those who maintained work motivation even at the worsening time received no work-related consideration and had an
Raahauge, Kirsten Marie
not consider ‘ghosts’ or ‘haunting’ as a possible explanation. This causes difficulties when they narrate and contextualise their experience, and typically they present ambiguous narratives and stress their disbelief at and bewilderment with the experiences. Still, as I will try to show in my article......, their bewilderment and the way they use the notions ‘ghost’ and ‘haunting’ point to possible reinterpretations of these notions, so that the narrative mediation shapes not only the experience but also the ways that ‘ghosts’ and ‘haunting’ are reinterpreted in contemporary Denmark....
Proyecto identificatorio, historia y temporalidad en la clínica grupal de púberes y adolescentes con problemas de simbolización Identifying project, history and temporality at the group treatment on puberty and adolescence with symbolization difficulties
Julián Nicolás Grunin
Full Text Available El presente artículo expondrá avances del proyecto de beca doctoral (CONICET: Transformaciones del proyecto identificatorio en púberes y adolescentes durante el tratamiento psicopedagógico, cuyo objetivo consiste en explorar los trabajos psíquicos intervinientes en la construcción del proyecto identificatorio en jóvenes con problemas de simbolización. La enunciación autónoma de un proyecto (Aulagnier, 1977 supone la acción historizante del yo. En la adolescencia, dicha actividad entra en escena en el marco de profundas transformaciones que interpelan los anclajes libidinales e identificatorios, convocando así a reelaboraciones identificantes inéditas que se despliegan en un espacio de intersección permeable entre permanencia y cambio. Se proponen dos ejes de análisis principales: a trabajo de historización y b trabajo temporal; los cuales serán abordados en el estudio de la producción narrativa y escrita. Postulamos que la dinámica específica del trabajo clínico grupal promueve complejizaciones en la producción simbólica restrictiva de los jóvenes consultantes favoreciendo el despliegue de los trabajos de historización.Abstract The following paper will expose the achievements of the graduate research project (CONICET: Transformations of the identifying project at puberty and adolescence during Psychopedagogy treatment, which main purpose is the exploration of the psychic processes involved in the construction of the identifying project on youngsters with symbolization difficulties. The autonomous enunciation of a project (Aulagnier, 1977 implies the historicizing action of the self. At adolescence, that activity takes place in the context of deep transformations that invoke the libidinal and identifying supports, involving then unreleased identifying re-significations that are developed in a permeable space between permanence and change. Two key dimensions of analysis are suggested: historicization and temporality
Siegel, Deborah H
Adoptions today increasingly include contact between adoptive and birth families. What do these "open adoptions" look like? How do the participants feel about them? This article, based on part of a longitudinal study that first examined adoptive parents' perceptions of their infants' open adoptions seven years ago, explores the parents' reactions now that their children are school age. This qualitative descriptive research revealed changes in the openness in the adoptions over time and identified four dimensions along which open adoptions vary. Findings showed parents' enthusiasm for the openness in their adoptions, regardless of the type and extent of openness. Implications for social work practice, education, and policy are explored.
Baggett, Margarita; Giambattista, Laura; Lobbestael, Linda; Pfeiffer, Judith; Madani, Catherina; Modir, Royya; Zamora-Flyr, Maria Magdalena; Davidson, Judy E
To explore the emotion of feeling cared for in the workplace. The emotion of feeling cared for drives health-promoting behaviours. Feeling cared for is the end-product of caring, affecting practice, environment and outcomes. Identifying behaviours that lead to feeling cared for is the first step in promoting caring practices in leadership. A survey with open-ended questions was designed, validated and electronically distributed. Data from 35 responses were thematically analysed. Unit culture and leadership style affect caring capacity in the workplace. First level coding revealed two caring behaviour categories: recognition and support. Themes emerged aligned to Chapman's model of workplace appreciation: words of affirmation, receiving gifts, quality time and acts of service. The importance of being treated as a whole person was reported: being appreciated personally and professionally. Feeling cared for drives outcomes such as feeling valued, important, teamwork and organisational loyalty. This study generalises the applicability of Chapman's model developed for workplace appreciation in the health-care setting. Concrete examples of how leaders stimulate feeling cared for are provided. Caring leadership behaviours have the potential to improve retention, engagement, the healing environment and the capacity for caring for others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Heintzelman, Samantha J; King, Laura A
The desire for meaning is recognized as a central human motive. Yet, knowing that people want meaning does not explain its function. What adaptive problem does this experience solve? Drawing on the feelings-as-information hypothesis, we propose that the feeling of meaning provides information about the presence of reliable patterns and coherence in the environment, information that is not provided by affect. We review research demonstrating that manipulations of stimulus coherence influence subjective reports of meaning in life but not affect. We demonstrate that manipulations that foster an associative mindset enhance meaning. The meaning-as-information perspective embeds meaning in a network of foundational functions including associative learning, perception, cognition, and neural processing. This approach challenges assumptions about meaning, including its motivational appeal, the roles of expectancies and novelty in this experience, and the notion that meaning is inherently constructed. Implications for constructed meaning and existential meanings are discussed.
Langdon, Lance-David Bennett
Feeling Engaged: College Writers as Literacy Tutors brings together scholarship in the rhetoric of emotion and in civic writing to show how emotions - confidence, anger, embarrassment, pride, hope, fear, gratitude, guilt, shame, compassion, enthusiasm, and ennui - shape the roles we take on in K-16 literacy networks. This dissertation takes as a case study the community-engaged composition courses, poetry workshops, and literature classes I coordinated in 2011-2013. The undergraduates I led i...
Liu, X; Yue, Z; Cai, Z; Chetwynd, D G; Smith, S T
We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch–feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough–smooth and grippy–slippery feelings
Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Feinstein, Justin S; Tranel, Daniel
Patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) typically have impaired declarative memory as a result of hippocampal damage early in the disease. Far less is understood about AD's effect on emotion. We investigated whether feelings of emotion can persist in patients with AD, even after their declarative memory for what caused the feelings has faded. A sample of 17 patients with probable AD and 17 healthy comparison participants (case-matched for age, sex, and education) underwent 2 separate emotion induction procedures in which they watched film clips intended to induce feelings of sadness or happiness. We collected real-time emotion ratings at baseline and at 3 post-induction time points, and we administered a test of declarative memory shortly after each induction. As expected, the patients with AD had severely impaired declarative memory for both the sad and happy films. Despite their memory impairment, the patients continued to report elevated levels of sadness and happiness that persisted well beyond their memory for the films. This outcome was especially prominent after the sadness induction, with sustained elevations in sadness lasting for more than 30 minutes, even in patients with no conscious recollection for the films. These findings indicate that patients with AD can experience prolonged states of emotion that persist well beyond the patients' memory for the events that originally caused the emotion. The preserved emotional life evident in patients with AD has important implications for their management and care, and highlights the need for caretakers to foster positive emotional experiences.
Charpentier, Caroline J; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Li, Xinyi; Roiser, Jonathan P; Sharot, Tali
Intuitively, how you feel about potential outcomes will determine your decisions. Indeed, an implicit assumption in one of the most influential theories in psychology, prospect theory, is that feelings govern choice. Surprisingly, however, very little is known about the rules by which feelings are transformed into decisions. Here, we specified a computational model that used feelings to predict choices. We found that this model predicted choice better than existing value-based models, showing a unique contribution of feelings to decisions, over and above value. Similar to the value function in prospect theory, our feeling function showed diminished sensitivity to outcomes as value increased. However, loss aversion in choice was explained by an asymmetry in how feelings about losses and gains were weighted when making a decision, not by an asymmetry in the feelings themselves. The results provide new insights into how feelings are utilized to reach a decision. © The Author(s) 2016.
Lewis-Evans, Ben; Rothengatter, Talib
Risk Allostasis Theory states that drivers seek to maintain a feeling of risk within a preferred range [Fuller, R., 2008. What drives the driver? Surface tensions and hidden consensus. In: Keynote at the 4th International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology, Washington, DC, August 31-September 4, 2008]. Risk Allostasis Theory is the latest version of Task-Difficulty Homeostasis theory, and is in part based on the findings of experiments where participants were asked to rate the task difficulty, feeling of risk and chance of collision of scenes shown in digitally altered video clips [Fuller, R., McHugh, C., Pender, S., 2008b. Task difficulty and risk in the determination of driver behaviour. Revue européenne de psychologie appliqée 58, 13-21]. The focus of the current research was to expand upon the previous video based experiments using a driving simulator. This allowed participants to be in control of the vehicle rather than acting as passive observers, as well as providing additional speed cues. The results support previous findings that ratings of task difficulty and feeling of risk are related, and that they are also highly related to ratings of effort and moderately related to ratings of comfort and habit. However, the linearly increasing trend for task difficulty and feeling of risk described by the previous research was not observed: instead the findings of this experiment support a threshold effect where ratings of risk (feeling of and chance of loss of control/collision), difficulty, effort, and comfort go through a period of stability and only start to increase once a certain threshold has been crossed. It is within the period of stability where subjective experience of risk and difficulty is low, or absent, that drivers generally prefer to operate.
Orazem, Robert J; Frazier, Patricia A; Schnurr, Paula P; Oleson, Heather E; Carlson, Kathleen F; Litz, Brett T; Sayer, Nina A
To examine perceptions of identity adjustment in a diverse, national sample of U.S. veterans of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. The authors conducted a planned thematic analysis of text written by Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans when they were asked to describe their reintegration difficulties as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of online expressive writing (Sayer et al., 2015). Participants were 100 randomly selected veterans from the larger study (42 women and 58 men, 60 active duty and 38 reserves or National Guard). Nearly 2/3s of participants wrote about their identity adjustment. The 5 interrelated areas of identity adjustment difficulty were (a) feeling like one does not belong in civilian society, (b) missing the military's culture and structured lifestyle, (c) holding negative views of civilian society, (d) feeling left behind compared to civilian counterparts due to military service, and (e) having difficulty finding meaning in the civilian world. The authors did not observe differences by gender. However, those deployed from active duty were particularly likely to feel as if they did not belong in civilian society and that they had not acquired needed skills, whereas those deployed from the reserves or National Guard experienced difficulty in reestablishing former civilian identities. Identity adjustment is a critical yet understudied aspect of veteran reintegration into community life following combat deployment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Maria Rosita Cecilia
Full Text Available The study investigates the prevalence of reading difficulties among children in scholar age and analyses the socio-demographic characteristics of learners who presented reading difficulties in central Italy. A sample of 623 students 7-11 aged, was assessed with the Italian MT standardized tests. Information on gender, age, handedness, and other socio-demographic variables were also gathered. The study showed that 11% of learners presented poor comprehension skills. The reading speed difficulties were more common than the reading correctness problems: about 7% of children vs 1% were dyslexics due to slow reading. There were no significant differences regarding gender, age. However, dominant hand and the school location seemed to affect the speed difficulties and the comprehension problems. The analyses showed that attending a school located in a rural area was statistically associated with the reading difficulties. Left-handed children were more likely to be slow decoders and/or poor comprehenders. These findings may be used in the early diagnosis of poor readers. These difficulties often have a chronic progression with substantial psychosocial limitations and psychological stress, so children with reading difficulties should be identified as early as possible.
Full Text Available Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1 we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking towards the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2 we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants. In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude towards a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate
Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues.
Full Text Available Linda S Jonsson,1 Carl Göran Svedin,1 Margareta Hydén2 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden Abstract: The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9. Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help
Patricia L Lockwood
Full Text Available Individuals with psychopathy or autism spectrum disorder (ASD can behave in ways that suggest lack of empathy towards others. However, many different cognitive and affective processes may lead to unempathic behavior and the social processing profiles of individuals with high psychopathic vs. ASD traits are likely different. Whilst psychopathy appears characterized by problems with resonating with others’ emotions, ASD appears characterized by problems with cognitive perspective-taking. In addition, alexithymia has previously been associated with both disorders, but the contribution of alexithymia needs further exploration. In a community sample (N=110 we show for the first time that although affective resonance and cognitive perspective-taking are related, high psychopathic traits relate to problems with resonating with others’ emotions, but not cognitive perspective taking. Conversely, high ASD traits relate to problems with cognitive perspective-taking but not resonating with others’ emotions. Alexithymia was associated with problems with affective resonance independently of psychopathic traits, suggesting that different component processes (reduced tendency to feel what others feel and reduced ability to identify and describe feelings comprise affective resonance. Alexithymia was not associated with the reduced cognitive perspective-taking in high ASD traits. Our data suggest that (1 elevated psychopathic and ASD traits are characterized by difficulties in different social information processing domains and (2 reduced affective resonance in individuals with elevated psychopathic traits and the reduced cognitive perspective taking in individuals with elevated ASD traits are not explained by co-occurring alexithymia. (3 Alexithymia is independently associated with reduced affective resonance. Consequently, our data point to different component processes within the construct of empathy that are suggestive of partially separable cognitive
Austin, Helen; Campion-Smith, Charles; Thomas, Sarah; Ward, William
Uptake of childhood immunisation fluctuates in the UK. Convenience, access and parents' relationships with professionals influence uptake. This study explores the decision-making by parents about their children's immunisation through focus groups with analysis to identify categories of concern. Issues raised in focus groups included fear, risk, anger, worry and guilt, confusion, difficulty of decision-making and trust of professionals. The parents of completely and incompletely immunised children shared areas of concern, but there were also significant differences. There was a subset of parents of incompletely immunised children who had decided that their children would not have full immunisation, and this group had little trust in information provided by healthcare professionals. Simply providing more information is unlikely to change their decision.
Bijan khajeNoori; Mehdi Kaveh
IntroductionThe concept of social security and a Feeling of security and the citizens, as a key element in achieving the projected, is important Sociologists and criminologist shave always paid special attention has been sought. Study of the factors influencing the feeling of security, can increase the feeling of security is work. Also enhance citizens' feeling of security and welfare of the citizens and to accept responsibility and commitment will do. The widespread use of social media in re...
Full Text Available This essay revisits Raymond Williams’s notion of ‘structures of feeling’ with the intention of clarifying what Williams meant by ‘feelings’, and of exploring the concept’s possible range and reach within the study of culture. It recovers the initial anthropological context for the phrase by reconnecting it to the work of Ruth Benedict and Gregory Bateson. It goes on to suggest that while the analysis of ‘structures of feeling’ has been deployed primarily in studies of literary and filmic culture it might be usefully extended towards the study of more ubiquitous forms of material culture such as clothing, housing, food, furnishings and other material practices of daily living. Indeed it might be one way of explaining how formations of feeling are disseminated, how they suture us to the social world and how feelings are embedded in the accoutrements of domestic, habitual life. The essay argues that by joining together a socially phenomenological interest in the world of things, accompanied by an attention to historically specific moods and atmospheres, ‘structures of feelings’ can direct analyses towards important mundane cultural phenomena.
Cheetham, Marcus; Suter, Pascal; Jancke, Lutz
The Uncanny Valley Hypothesis (UVH) predicts that greater difficulty perceptually discriminating between categorically ambiguous human and humanlike characters (e.g., highly realistic robot) evokes negatively valenced (i.e., uncanny) affect. An ABX perceptual discrimination task and signal detection analysis was used to examine the profile of perceptual discrimination (PD) difficulty along the UVH' dimension of human likeness (DHL). This was represented using avatar-to-human morph continua. Rejecting the implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty underlying the UVH' prediction, Experiment 1 showed that PD difficulty was reduced for categorically ambiguous faces but, notably, enhanced for human faces. Rejecting the UVH' predicted relationship between PD difficulty and negative affect (assessed in terms of the UVH' familiarity dimension), Experiment 2 demonstrated that greater PD difficulty correlates with more positively valenced affect. Critically, this effect was strongest for the ambiguous faces, suggesting a correlative relationship between PD difficulty and feelings of familiarity more consistent with the metaphor happy valley. This relationship is also consistent with a fluency amplification instead of the hitherto proposed hedonic fluency account of affect along the DHL. Experiment 3 found no evidence that the asymmetry in the profile of PD along the DHL is attributable to a differential processing bias (cf. other-race effect), i.e., processing avatars at a category level but human faces at an individual level. In conclusion, the present data for static faces show clear effects that, however, strongly challenge the UVH' implicitly assumed profile of PD difficulty along the DHL and the predicted relationship between this and feelings of familiarity.
Fagerström, Cecilia; Holst, Göran; Hallberg, Ingalill R
It is common to use activities of daily living (ADL) rating scales to identify the impact of health problems such as diseases, impaired eyesight or hearing on daily life. However, for various reasons people with health problems might feel hindered in daily life before limitations in ability to perform ADL have occurred. In addition, there is sparse knowledge of what makes people feel hindered by health problems in relation to their ADL capacity. The aim was to investigate feeling hindered by health problems among 1297 people aged 60-89 living at home in relation to ADL capacity, health problems, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and social and financial resources, using a self-reported questionnaire, including questions from Older Americans' Resources and Services schedule (OARS), Rosenberg's self-esteem and Life Satisfaction Index Z (LSIZ). People feeling greatly hindered by health problems rarely had anyone who could help when they needed support, had lower life satisfaction and self-esteem than those not feeling hindered. Feeling hindered by health problems appeared to take on a different meaning depending on ADL capacity, knowledge that seems essential to include when accomplishing health promotion and rehabilitation interventions, especially at the early stages of reduced ADL capacity.
Cassiana Mendes Bertoncello Fontes
Full Text Available Objective: Analise feelings of women accompanying children in a paediatric intensive care unit Materials and Methods: Data were collected from August to October 2015 by the authors from individual interviews recorded with 15 women. The instrument was structured with the identification of qualitative variables, described in absolute and relative frequencies, and a guiding question. The "corpus" of each interview was electronically transcribed, floating readings were held and statements were categorized and analysed according Analise Content. Results: 14 (93% are biological mothers; average age 30 years; 11 (73% have completed primary education; six (46% have an occupation or a profession. The four themes were inferred: ambivalence of feelings and coping were related to how individuals express and deal with the hospitalized patient’s situation; empathy with the health team and the structural condition of the critical environment can also generate feelings. Nursing diagnoses were formulated from the reported feelings. Conclusion: It was observed that the feelings identified could be originated by the health-illness hospitalization process as well as the structural components of the critical environment. Keywords: Paediatric Intensive Care Units; Women; Feelings.
Remmers, Carina; Michalak, Johannes
Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011), depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals. First, our aim is to establish the hypothesis that intuition is impaired in depression against the background of influential theoretical accounts as well as empirical evidence from basic and clinical research. The second aim of the current paper is to provide explanations for recent findings on the depression-intuition interplay and to present directions for future research that may help to broaden our understanding of decision difficulties in depression. Third, we seek to propose ideas on how therapeutic interventions can support depressed individuals in taking better decisions. Even though our knowledge regarding this topic is still limited, we will tentatively launch the idea that an important first step may be to enhance patients’ access to intuitions. Overall, this paper seeks to introduce the topic of intuition to clinical research on depression and to hereby set the stage for upcoming theory and practice. PMID:27602015
Full Text Available Whereas in basic research, intuition has become a topic of great interest, clinical research and depression research in specific have not applied to the topic of intuition, yet. This is astonishing because a well-known phenomenon during depression is that patients have difficulties to judge and decide. In contrast to healthy individuals who take most daily-life decisions intuitively (Kahneman, 2011, depressed individuals seem to have difficulties to come to fast and adaptive decisions. The current article pursues three goals. First, our aim is to establish the hypothesis that intuition is impaired in depression against the background of influential theoretical accounts as well as empirical evidence from basic and clinical research. The second aim of the current paper is to provide explanations for recent findings on the depression-intuition interplay and to present directions for future research that may help to broaden our understanding of decision difficulties in depression. Third, we seek to propose ideas on how therapeutic interventions can support depressed individuals in taking better decisions. Even though our knowledge regarding this topic is still limited, we will tentatively launch the idea that an important first step may be to enhance patients’ access to intuitions. Overall, this paper seeks to introduce the topic of intuition to clinical research on depression and to hereby set the stage for upcoming theory and practice.
This study investigated change of cognitions and feelings before, during, and after the process of procrastination. A questionnaire was administered to 358 undergraduate students asking them to recall and rate their experience of procrastinating. The results revealed that negative feelings which take place during procrastination interfere with task performance. Planning before procrastination is associated with positive feelings after procrastination, and these positive feelings assist task performance. Optimistic thinking is positively related to both positive and negative feelings; the former take place during procrastination, and the latter take place after procrastination.
Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea; Yang, Joon Eon
Without the loss of generality, it is reasonable to say that an operating procedure consists of many steps including detailed descriptions that provide necessary information in conducting the required tasks safely and effectively. In this regard, since it is widely perceived that procedures are effective for reducing the occurrence of human performance related problems, the use of procedures is very popular in large process control systems including nuclear power plants (NPPs), commercial airplanes and railway systems. However, the secure of an operational safety by using an operating procedure can be accomplished only if human operators are able to effectively obtain necessary information from it. In other words, it is hard to expect the reduction of human performance related problems, if task descriptions are so ambiguous or incomplete that human operators feel an undue difficulty in identifying 'what have to be done' and 'how to do it' from procedures. Unfortunately, it seems that a systematic method that can be used to distinguish the proper level of task descriptions is rare. For this reason, Park et al. developed a decision chart that could be helpful for characterizing the level of task descriptions. In this study, in order to ensure the appropriateness of the suggested decision chart, more detailed investigations were conducted with the support of human operators who are working as the operating personnel of NPPs
Abelson, Jeanne; Lambevski, Sasho; Crawford, June; Bartos, Michael; Kippax, Susan
This paper examines factors associated with feeling suicidal in a large sample of urban men in Sydney and Melbourne, aged 18-50, including heterosexual, gay and bisexual men, HIV antibody positive and HIV antibody negative. As in previous research, sexuality (being homosexual or bisexual) was found to be a major predictor of suicidality. The research went some way towards explaining the close relationship between feeling suicidal and sexual orientation. Sexuality interacts with feeling bad in that, once men feel moderately bad/depressed, they are more likely to feel suicidal if they are homosexual or bisexual than if they are heterosexual. In addition, the research found that experience of verbal abuse and physical assault (harassment) increased feeling suicidal for both heterosexual and gay/bisexual men, not just for homosexual men as suggested by previous research, and that social isolation in the form of living alone is a further risk factor. Seeking counseling help and taking sexual risks were also independently associated with feeling suicidal. These actions may result from feeling suicidal rather than the reverse, and their association with feeling suicidal warrants further research. Many of the 46 independent variables examined in the research, including HIV antibody status and closeness to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic, were related to feeling suicidal only through their association with being gay/bisexual. Celibacy and general risk taking were not related to feeling suicidal in this study.
Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Twenty-two currently practising speech-language therapists who are registered members of the South African Speech-Language-Hearing Association (SASLHA participated in the study. Results: The respondents indicated that they are aware of their role regarding adolescents with written-language difficulties. However, they feel that South-African speech-language therapists are not fulfilling this role. Existing assessment tools and interventions for written-language difficulties are described as inadequate, and culturally and age inappropriate. Yet, the majority of the respondents feel that they are adequately equipped to work with adolescents with written-language difficulties, based on their own experience, self-study and secondary training. The respondents feel that training regarding effective collaboration with teachers is necessary to establish specific roles, and to promote speech-language therapy for adolescents among teachers. Conclusion: Further research is needed in developing appropriate assessment and intervention tools as well as improvement of training at an undergraduate level.
Full Text Available This study aimed to learn the experiences of children who witness their parents' illness due to cancer. This is a descriptive, qualitative study, with six children between 10 and 12 years of age, children of cancer patients assisted by a support institution. The data were collected from July to August 2015, based on the guiding question: "How do you feel about your father/mother's illness?" From the analysis, two categories emerged: Recognizing the disease and the possibility of the parents 'death and, Growing as a child and living as an adult: the repercussions of parents with cancer in their children's lives, which reveal that children understand cancer and the possibility of death of their parents, being also affected by the disease. By experiencing the fears and repercussions of cancer, children need assistance by the family and health team during their parents' illness.
Romano, Daniele; Sedda, Anna; Brugger, Peter; Bottini, Gabriella
Individuals with the peculiar disturbance of 'overcompleteness' experience an intense desire to amputate one of their healthy limbs, describing a sense of disownership for it (Body Integrity Identity Disorder - BIID). This condition is similar to somatoparaphrenia, the acquired delusion that one's own limb belongs to someone else. In ten individuals with BIID, we measured skin conductance response to noxious stimuli, delivered to the accepted and non-accepted limb, touching the body part or simulating the contact (stimuli approach the body without contacting it), hypothesizing that these individuals have responses like somatoparaphrenic patients, who previously showed reduced pain anticipation, when the threat was directed to the disowned limb. We found reduced anticipatory response to stimuli approaching, but not contacting, the unwanted limb. Conversely, stimuli contacting the non-accepted body-part, induced stronger SCR than those contacting the healthy parts, suggesting that feeling of ownership is critically related to a proper processing of incoming threats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mayer, E A; Naliboff, B; Munakata, J
The bi-directional communication between limbic regions and the viscera play a central role in the generation and expression of emotional responses and associated emotional feelings. The response of different viscera to distinct, emotion-specific patterns of autonomic output is fed back to the brain, in particular to the cingulofrontal convergence region. Even though this process unfolds largely without conscious awareness, it plays an important role in emotional function and may influence rational decision making in the healthy individual. Alterations in this bi-directional process such as peripheral pathologies within the gut or alterations at the brain level may explain the close association between certain affective disorders and functional visceral syndromes.
Gregor Michael Hoerzer
Full Text Available According to Sandro Nannini’s Time and Consciousness in Cognitive Naturalism, we can draw an analogy between the shift in the conception of time that occurred in physics with the introduction of relativity theory and a shift towards a scientifically more graspable functional concept of phenomenal consciousness. This analogy is meant to persuade us of the eliminative materialist view that we should abandon our folk psychological concept of consciousness. In my commentary, I examine the naturalization procedure underlying Nannini’s cognitive naturalism, argue for its inability to account for the phenomenal feel of conscious states, and point to some important differences between the conceptual change in the case of time and the intended change in the case of consciousness.
Utami, Aliksia Kristiana Dwi; Mardiyana, Pramudya, Ikrar
Geometry is one part of the mathematics that must be learned in school and it has important effects on the development of creative thinking skills of learners, but in fact, there are some difficulties experienced by the students. This research focuses on analysis difficulty in resolving rectangular conceptual problems among junior high school students in every creative thinking skills level. This research used a descriptive method aimed to identify the difficulties and cause of the difficulties experienced by five students. The difficulties are associated with rectangular shapes and related problems. Data collection was done based on students' work through test, interview, and observations. The result revealed that student' difficulties in understanding the rectangular concept can be found at every creative thinking skills level. The difficulties are identifying the objects rectangular in the daily life except for a rectangle and square, analyzing the properties of rectangular shapes, and seeing the interrelationships between figures.
Ozcan, Ozgur; Didis, Nilufer; Tasar, Mehmet Fatih
In this study, students' conceptual difficulties about some basic concepts in quantum mechanics like one-dimensional potential well problems and probability density of tunneling particles were identified. For this aim, a multiple choice instrument named Quantum Mechanics Conceptual Test has been developed by one of the researchers of this study…
This study evaluates reading comprehension instruction at senior high schools in Accra. Classroom observation was used to identify the techniques used by teachers in the reading class and questionnaire was used to collect information from learners about the difficulties they have in understanding text. It reports that the ...
Newbold, Elisabeth Joy; Stackhouse, Joy; Wells, Bill
Standardised tests of whole-word accuracy are popular in the speech pathology and developmental psychology literature as measures of children's speech performance. However, they may not be sensitive enough to measure changes in speech output in children with severe and persisting speech difficulties (SPSD). To identify the best ways of doing this,…
Full Text Available Persons with mental and intellectual difficulties are the most stigmatized social groups of all. Consequences of stigma towards these people present themselves in a wide range including social withdrawal; feelings of loneliness; low self-esteem; failure to take care of oneself; avoidance of seeking help; low enrolment in any kind of treatment; financial poverty and total social marginalization. Although most of the attempts to overcome stigmatization towards this population have shown a very pessimistic perspective, it is important to overcome our own helplessness in treating this issue and continue with the efforts to combat stigma. The only way to succeed is through continuous and careful analysis of the factors that contribute to a human tendency to stigmatize that could then be utilized as the ground base in development of mechanisms to battle this issue. This paper summarizes ways that the stigmatization of persons with mental and intellectual difficulties is manifested as well as the negative influences it has on the people who are stigmatized. Factors that contribute to the stigmatization of persons are carefully considered, as well as possible mechanisms that could be utilized as part of efforts to combat stigma.
Salazar-López, E; Domínguez, E; Juárez Ramos, V; de la Fuente, J; Meins, A; Iborra, O; Gálvez, G; Rodríguez-Artacho, M A; Gómez-Milán, E
We applied thermography to investigate the cognitive neuropsychology of emotions, using it as a somatic marker of subjective experience during emotional tasks. We obtained results that showed significant correlations between changes in facial temperature and mental set. The main result was the change in the temperature of the nose, which tended to decrease with negative valence stimuli but to increase with positive emotions and arousal patterns. However, temperature change was identified not only in the nose, but also in the forehead, the oro-facial area, the cheeks and in the face taken as a whole. Nevertheless, thermic facial changes, mostly nasal temperature changes, correlated positively with participants' empathy scores and their performance. We found that temperature changes in the face may reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions and feelings like love. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barrett, L.F.; Bar, Moshe
People see with feeling. We ‘gaze’, ‘behold’, ‘stare’, ‘gape’ and ‘glare’. In this paper, we develop the hypothesis that the brain's ability to see in the present incorporates a representation of the affective impact of those visual sensations in the past. This representation makes up part of the brain's prediction of what the visual sensations stand for in the present, including how to act on them in the near future. The affective prediction hypothesis implies that responses signalling an object's salience, relevance or value do not occur as a separate step after the object is identified. Instead, affective responses support vision from the very moment that visual stimulation begins. PMID:19528014
van der Weijden Trudy
Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners sometimes base clinical decisions on gut feelings alone, even though there is little evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic value in daily practice. Research into these aspects and the use of the concept in medical education require a practical and valid description of gut feelings. The goal of our study was therefore to describe the concept of gut feelings in general practice and to identify their main determinants Methods Qualitative research including 4 focus group discussions. A heterogeneous sample of 28 GPs. Text analysis of the focus group discussions, using a grounded theory approach. Results Gut feelings are familiar to most GPs in the Netherlands and play a substantial role in their everyday routine. The participants distinguished two types of gut feelings, a sense of reassurance and a sense of alarm. In the former case, a GP is sure about prognosis and therapy, although they may not always have a clear diagnosis in mind. A sense of alarm means that a GP has the feeling that something is wrong even though objective arguments are lacking. GPs in the focus groups experienced gut feelings as a compass in situations of uncertainty and the majority of GPs trusted this guide. We identified the main determinants of gut feelings: fitting, alerting and interfering factors, sensation, contextual knowledge, medical education, experience and personality. Conclusion The role of gut feelings in general practice has become much clearer, but we need more research into the contributions of individual determinants and into the test properties of gut feelings to make the concept suitable for medical education.
Merrill, J M; Laux, L F; Thornby, J I
Studies have shown that physicians' performance has not been as good as it should be in detecting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and in counseling patients about their transmission. The AIDS pandemic has underscored the need to find out why this is true. In our study, we identified the major reasons physicians believe other doctors fail to take adequate sex histories. Scales were then developed to measure the three principal reasons given by these physicians: embarrassment, belief that the sex history is not relevant to the patient's chief complaint, and belief by the physicians that they are not adequately trained. When 350 senior medical students were surveyed, 93% thought that knowledge of a patient's sexual practices is an important part of their patient's medical history, but 50% felt poorly trained to take this history and 25% felt embarrassed to ask the necessary questions. To learn why some students score well on these three dimensions and others do not, a limited number of personal attributes were measured and correlated with the scores on these three measures. Shyness and social anxiety as a personal trait predicted which student was most likely to experience embarrassment in taking a sex history. A nonsympathetic view of patients' psychosocial problems was the variable most closely related to the belief that the sex history was of little importance in understanding a patient's problem. Students who believed this most strongly were the same ones who were most homophobic, authoritarian, and had the greatest fear of AIDS infection. The sense of not feeling adequately trained to take a sex history related most strongly to low self-esteem. How these barriers to STD risk assessment might be overcome is discussed.
McLeod, Sharynne; Crowe, Kathryn; Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McCormack, Jane; Wren, Yvonne; Roulstone, Susan; Howland, Charlotte
Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children. The aim of this research was to describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns. 275 Australian 4-…
Chatzichristou, E. T.; Daglis, I. A.; Anastasiadis, A.; Giannakis, O.
MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) was an FP7- funded project, involving monitoring of the geospace environment through space and ground-based observations, in order to understand various aspects of the radiation belts (torus-shaped regions encircling the Earth, in which high-energy charged particles are trapped by the geomagnetic field), which have direct impact on human endeavors in space (spacecraft and astronauts exposure). Besides interesting science, the MAARBLE outreach team employed a variety of outreach techniques to provide the general public with simplified information concerning the scientific objectives of the project, its focus and its expected outcomes. An outstanding moment of the MAARBLE outreach experience was the organization of an international contest of musical compositions inspired by impressive sounds of space related to very low and ultra-low frequency (VLF/ULF) electromagnetic waves. The MAARBLE international contest of musical composition aspired to combine scientific and artistic ways of thinking, through the science of Astronomy and Space and the art of Music. It was an original idea to provide scientific information to the public, inviting people to "feel" the science and to think about art. The leading concept was to use the natural sounds of the Earth's magnetosphere in order to compose electroacoustic music. Composers from all European countries were invited to take part at the contest, using some (or all) of the sounds included in a database of magnetospheric sounds compiled by the MAARBLE outreach team. The results were astonishing: the contest was oversubscribed by a factor of 19 (in total 55 applications from 17 countries) and the musical pieces were of overall excellent quality, making the selection of winners a very difficult task. Ultimately, the selection committee concluded on the ten highest ranked compositions, which were uploaded on the MAARBLE website. Furthermore, the
People say they enjoy both seeing a preferred social group succeed and seeing an adversary social group fail. At the same time, they state they dislike seeing a preferred social group fail and seeing an adversary social group succeed. The current magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether—and if so, how—such similarities in reported feeling states are reflected in neural activities. American football fans anticipated success and failure situations for their favorite or their advers...
Gündogmus, Hatice Degirmenci
The purpose of the current research is to identify the difficulties that primary school teachers experience in the primary reading and writing instruction, and to find out their solution offers for eliminating these difficulties. The study group of the research is composed of 51 primary school teachers selected by criterion sampling as a type of…
Martin, Deidre M.; Lyday, Jack
Most of the nine older adults in learning-in-retirement institutes at universities developed strong feelings of loyalty to their school. Loyalty derived from their perception of the value received from participating. Various actions higher education institutions can take to serve older adults were identified. (SK)
Catarina Aparecida Sales
Full Text Available This study aimed at unveiling the feeling of hope in people who experience cancer in their existence. Qualitative study based on Heidegger’s phenomenology, performed with eight cancer patients assisted in a philanthropic organization, between December 2013 and February 2014, in a northwestern city in Paraná, Brazil, using the following guiding question: “How do you perceive the feeling of hope at this time in your life?” The analysis resulted in the ontological themes: searching for hope in dealing with cancer, and experiencing feelings of hope and despair in being with others. Patients revealed mixed feelings, going from the lack of hope at the time of diagnosis to a rekindling of hope, as well as those who never lost the will to live. We conclude that living with cancer causes extreme feelings; and hope emerges as a feeling capable of influencing and causes an expressive impact in coping with that.
Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.
Porter, Jill; Lacey, Penny
The aim of this book is to provide a source for teachers and other professionals working with children and adults with learning difficulties and disabilities that will enable them to: (1) access selected recent and relevant research in the field of learning difficulties, drawn from a range of disciplines and groups of people; (2) reflect on…
Full Text Available Objective: To determine resident comfort and skill in performing ambulatory care skills. Methods: Descriptive survey of common ambulatory care skills administered to internal medicine faculty and residents at one academic medical center. Respondents were asked to rate their ability to perform 12 physical exam skills and 6 procedures, and their comfort in performing 7 types of counseling, and obtaining 6 types of patient history (4 point Likert scale for each. Self-rated ability or comfort was compared by gender, status (year of residency, faculty, and future predicted frequency of use of the skill. Results: Residents reported high ability levels for physical exam skills common to both the ambulatory and hospital setting. Fewer felt able to perform musculoskeletal, neurologic or eye exams easily alone. Procedures generally received low ability ratings. Similarly, residents comfort in performing common outpatient counseling was also low. More residents reported feeling very comfortable in obtaining history from patients. We found little variation by gender, year of training, or predicted frequency of use. Conclusion: Self-reported ability and comfort for many common ambulatory care skills is low. Further evaluation of this finding in other training programs is warranted.
Full Text Available Research investigating the psychological difficulties experienced by people with Parkinson's disease (PD is dominated by individualistic neurobiological and psychological perspectives. Therefore, this opinion paper draws on a reformulation of the social model of disability, Thomas' (1999 and (2007 social relational approach to disablism, to offer an alternative way of conceptualising psychological difficulties experienced by people with PD. This opinion paper explores the ways in which socially imposed restrictions and stigma may contribute to psychological difficulties by using Thomas' (2007 concept of psychoemotional disablism. By using the lens of psychoemotional disablism, this paper demonstrates that people with PD can be exposed to stigmatising attitudes and interactions which could contribute to restrictions, feelings of shame, and psychological difficulties such as depression. Accordingly, it is argued that further attention to the link between psychological difficulties and social dimensions of disablism in PD is needed in both research arenas and clinical practice to broaden understandings and interventions for people with PD.
Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether....... The finding suggests that input processing difficulties are associated with the phonological deficit, but that these difficulties may be stronger above the level of phoneme perception.......Word production difficulties are well documented in dyslexia, whereas the results are mixed for receptive phonological processing. This asymmetry raises the possibility that the core phonological deficit of dyslexia is restricted to output processing stages. The present study investigated whether...... a group of dyslexics had word level receptive difficulties using an auditory lexical decision task with long words and nonsense words. The dyslexics were slower and less accurate than chronological age controls in an auditory lexical decision task, with disproportionate low performance on nonsense words...
Maryanne Fisher; Martin Voracek; P. Vivien Rekkas; Anthony Cox
Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexua...
Westgate, Martin J; Lindenmayer, David B
The need for robust evidence to support conservation actions has driven the adoption of systematic approaches to research synthesis in ecology. However, applying systematic review to complex or open questions remains challenging, and this task is becoming more difficult as the quantity of scientific literature increases. We drew on the science of linguistics for guidance as to why the process of identifying and sorting information during systematic review remains so labor intensive, and to provide potential solutions. Several linguistic properties of peer-reviewed corpora-including nonrandom selection of review topics, small-world properties of semantic networks, and spatiotemporal variation in word meaning-greatly increase the effort needed to complete the systematic review process. Conversely, the resolution of these semantic complexities is a common motivation for narrative reviews, but this process is rarely enacted with the rigor applied during linguistic analysis. Therefore, linguistics provides a unifying framework for understanding some key challenges of systematic review and highlights 2 useful directions for future research. First, in cases where semantic complexity generates barriers to synthesis, ecologists should consider drawing on existing methods-such as natural language processing or the construction of research thesauri and ontologies-that provide tools for mapping and resolving that complexity. These tools could help individual researchers classify research material in a more robust manner and provide valuable guidance for future researchers on that topic. Second, a linguistic perspective highlights that scientific writing is a rich resource worthy of detailed study, an observation that can sometimes be lost during the search for data during systematic review or meta-analysis. For example, mapping semantic networks can reveal redundancy and complementarity among scientific concepts, leading to new insights and research questions. Consequently
Full Text Available Kant’s critical theory on moral feeling can be divided into two stages: early and late. In the early stage, Kant was committed to accepting and transforming the traditional concept of moral feeling, while in the later stage he turned to developing his own unique theory on the topic. His beliefs about moral feeling changed between these two stages, both regarding the basic meaning of moral feeling (from intuitive empirical feelings to a priori feelings based on rationality and the function of moral feeling in moral philosophy (from the basis of moral law to the motivation of moral action. This paper argues that these shifts help clarify the framework of Kant’s moral philosophy and introduce a new dimension to Kant’s definition of feelings and the relationship between sensibility and intellectuality. Namely, sensibility is not only determined by intellectuality but also has its unique initiative. Through acting on the body, intellectuality generates intellectual feelings, which in turn assist humans in realizing their intellectual purpose as a limited rational being.
Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Ingeman, Mads Lind; Vedsted, Peter
OBJECTIVE: Research has suggested that physicians' gut feelings are associated with parents' concerns for the well-being of their children. Gut feeling is particularly important in diagnosis of serious low-incidence diseases in primary care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether...... results suggest that gut feelings have diagnostic value, these findings highlight the importance of incorporating empathy and interpersonal skills into medical training to increase sensitivity to patient concern and thereby increase the use and reliability of gut feeling....
Reece, Michael; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Fisher, Christopher; Alexander, Andreia; Satinsky, Sonya
To offer an empirical understanding of characteristics associated with the fit and feel of condoms among African-American men who have sex with men (MSM), a particularly high-risk group for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States. Survey data were collected from 178 adult African-American MSM attending a community event in Atlanta, Georgia. Although the majority of participants reported that condoms generally fit properly and felt comfortable, a substantial number of men reported a variety of problems with the fit and feel of condoms. Specifically, 21% reported that condoms felt too tight, 18% reported that condoms felt too short, 10% reported that condoms felt too loose, and 7% reported that condoms felt too long. There were significant associations between men's reports of condom breakage and slippage, and their perceptions of condom fit and feel. Perceptions of condom fit and feel were also related to men's reports of seeking condoms for their size-specific properties. The fit and feel issues that men in this sample identified may be among those that contribute to their likelihood of using, or not using, condoms consistently and correctly. A better understanding of these factors will be beneficial to both condom manufacturers and sexual health professionals who share a common goal of increasing consistent and correct condom use and reducing the incidence of HIV and other STI among this and other communities.
Fernańdez-Alcántara, Manuel; García-Caro, M Paz; Pérez-Marfil, M Nieves; Hueso-Montoro, Cesar; Laynez-Rubio, Carolina; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco
Various authors have reported feelings of loss and grief in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder. However, no previous studies have investigated the structure of these feelings. To analyze in depth the feelings of loss in parents of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A qualitative study was conducted based on grounded theory. Twenty parents participated through purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, asking about different emotional aspects of the upbringing of a child with autism spectrum disorder. Atlas.ti 6.2 program was used for open, axial, and selective coding. The core category that explained the feelings of these parents was unexpected child loss, associated with shock, negation, fear, guilt, anger, and/or sadness. Two processes were identified, one associated with the resolution of grief and the other with obstacles to overcoming it. Feelings of loss play an important role in explaining the complex emotions experienced by these parents. Different intervention strategies are proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lundén, Maud; Lundgren, Solveig M.; Persson, Lars-Olof; Lepp, Margret
Background: Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) often caused by atherosclerosis is a major health care issue worldwide. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty (PTA) on the lower limb is a common procedure used to enhance peripheral circulation. With an increasing number of individuals acquiring peripheral PTA treatment and with an increased focus on patient centred care, there is a need to find out more about patients' feelings and thoughts of undergoing PTA. Aim: The aim was to identify patients who are predominantly anxious or calm during and after peripheral PTA and to explore reasons for these feelings. Method: The study includes 51 patients who received PTA treatment in western Sweden. Findings: Seventy-eight percent of the patients rated themselves as calm after the PTA. The analysed interviews resulted in two themes: reasons for feelings of calmness and reasons for feelings of anxiety. Conclusion: In order to feel calm during and after the PTA, information given prior to the PTA needs to be comprehensive and consistent with the actual situation at the angiography suite. The dialogue with the physician and the radiographers was considered valuable, as was the ability to follow the procedure on the image screen. It is concluded that a thorough dialogue with the physician in a calm setting after the PTA is important for the patients' ability to foresee and plan for the future. Moreover, there is a need to find ways to improve analgesic routines regarding assessment and evaluation in connection with PTA treatment as pain is shown to increase anxiety
Full Text Available There are few family owned businesses that survive to the next generation. In general, 30% of these businesses are passed on to second generation families and less than 15% survive to third generation families. There has been little research done on third generation family businesses. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is to identify the principal difficulties of passing on managerial skills to the third generation owners. This study uses a case study of a Brazilian family organization composed of twelve enterprises. The instrument to collect data was an individually guided recorded interview with all of the family managers (1ª, 2ª e 3ª generation. The technique applied, was suggested for Miles & Huberman (1994 to group the data in analytical categories to facilitate the analyzed speeches contained in the 49 blocks of responses. As a result, the transition the business to the third generation owners has been strongly associated with the relation between family and business by the following factors: a the succession process influenced by emotional and family values; b conflicts, rivalries and divergences of strategic visions and business goals between the family generations; c lack of professional criteria to hire relatives; and d fragility of communication and consequent asymmetry of information among the family members.
Eli, Karin; Kay, Rosie
Although narrative-based research has been central to studies of illness experience, the inarticulate, sensory experiences of illness often remain obscured by exclusively verbal or textual inquiry. To foreground the body in our investigation of subjective and intersubjective aspects of eating disorders, we-a medical anthropologist and a contemporary dance choreographer-designed a collaborative project, in which we studied the experiences of women who had eating disorders, through eight weeks of integrating dance practice-based, discussion-based and interview-based research. Grounded in the participants' own reflections on choreographing, dancing and watching others perform solos about their eating disordered experiences, our analysis examines the types of knowledge the participants used in choreographing their dance works, and the knowledge that they felt the dance enabled them to convey. We find that the participants consistently spoke of feeling as guiding their choreographic processes; they also said the experiences they conveyed through their dance works were centred in feelings, rather than in practices or events. Through dance, the participants said they could communicate experiences that would have remained unspoken otherwise. Yet, notably, dance practice also enabled participants to begin defining and describing their experiences verbally. We suggest, therefore, that through engaging participants in contemporary dance practice, we can begin to identify and address embodied experiences of illness and recovery that may be silenced in speech or writing alone. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Price, Sophie; Lusznat, Rosie
Postgraduate medical education has undergone significant reorganisation in recent years, with changes to the traditional apprenticeship model and an increasing reliance on shift working. The importance of teamwork in clinical care is well established; however, there is little literature on the extent to which trainees actually feel part of a team in the context of current working patterns. This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of medical and surgical trainees. Data were analysed thematically using an inductive qualitative approach. Fifteen trainees who had worked in a range of hospitals across the UK participated. Emerging themes fell into several categories: what constitutes the team; the effect of shift patterns on the team; the role of the team in education, support and well-being; and influences on team rapport. Whilst in general interviewees felt part of a team, this was not true for all posts. The nature of the team was also highly variable, and had evolved from the traditional 'Firm' structure to a more nebulous concept. Shift-working patterns could result in the fragmentation of the team, which had implications for patient care as well as for training. The team played an important role in both education and well-being for trainees, and several factors were identified that could engender a more supportive team. With an ageing population and with increasing demands on limited resources, the requirement for shift work is likely to increase, and there is a fundamental need to maintain support for the next generation of doctors. There is little literature on the extent to which trainees actually feel part of a team. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Lévesque, J; Joanette, Y; Mensour, B; Beaudoin, G; Leroux, J-M; Bourgouin, P; Beauregard, M
Emotional development is indisputably one of the cornerstones of personality development during infancy. According to the differential emotions theory (DET), primary emotions are constituted of three distinct components: the neural-evaluative, the expressive, and the experiential. The DET further assumes that these three components are biologically based and functional nearly from birth. Such a view entails that the neural substrate of primary emotions must be similar in children and adults. Guided by this assumption of the DET, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted to identify the neural correlates of sad feelings in healthy children. Fourteen healthy girls (aged 8-10) were scanned while they watched sad film excerpts aimed at externally inducing a transient state of sadness (activation task). Emotionally neutral film excerpts were also presented to the subjects (reference task). The subtraction of the brain activity measured during the viewing of the emotionally neutral film excerpts from that noted during the viewing of the sad film excerpts revealed that sad feelings were associated with significant bilateral activations of the midbrain, the medial prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 10), and the anterior temporal pole (BA 21). A significant locus of activation was also noted in the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 47). These results are compatible with those of previous functional neuroimaging studies of sadness in adults. They suggest that the neural substrate underlying the subjective experience of sadness is comparable in children and adults. Such a similitude provides empirical support to the DET assumption that the neural substrate of primary emotions is biologically based.
石丸, 綾子; Ishimaru, Ayako
An adolescent daughter’s relationship with her father is strained owing to her negative feelings, such as opposition, defiant attitude, and hatred, toward father. However, further details regarding these feelings and how they evolve during a daughter’s growing years have not been examined yet. In this study, a questionnaire survey was administered to female college students, asking about their negative feelings toward their fathers in the present and during their junior high school days. The ...
Pereira Júnior, Anastácio Rodrigues
Full Text Available Introduction: The lowered temporal meninges and/ or anterior sigmoid sinus are contiditions that can determine surgical difficulties in performing mastoidectomy. Objective: To correlate in the tomography the extent of the prolapse of the sigmoid sinus and of temporal meninges with the surgical difficulty in the mastoidectomy. Method: The tomographic measurements of prolapse sigmoid and of temporal meninges were correlated with the presence or non-presence of the surgical difficulty observed during the mastoidectomy procedure in patients with ostomatoiditis chronic (n=30. Form of study: Contemporary cohort transverse. Results: In 10 patients were observed surgical difficulty distributed as: due to prolapse of the sigmoid sinus (n = 2 or temporal meninges prolapse (n = 7 or both (n = 1. In patients in which the surgical difficulty was due to sigmoid sinus prolapse, the tomography distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm. In patients in which surgical difficulty was due to temporal meninges prolapse, the tomographic distance to the upper plane of the petrous bone was 7 mm. Conclusion: The computerized tomography distance between the temporal meninges and the upper plane of the petrous bone 7 mm and the distance of the anterior border of the sigmoid sinus to posterior wall of external auditory canal was lower than 9 mm are predictive to the surgical difficulties to perform mastoidectomy.
Hill, Elisabeth; Pratt, Michelle L; Kanji, Zara; Bartoli, Alice Jones
To date, very few studies have explored the incidence of motor impairment amongst children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (social, emotional and mental health (SEMH); formerly SEBD in England). Following research that suggests an increase in motor difficulties in young children and adolescents with SEMH difficulties, this…
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Scott, Patricia Carol
The paper presents tips for parents of children with learning problems. It describes the emotional side effects of low achievement which may include low self-esteem, clinical depression, "learned helplessness," suicidal ideation, acting out behavior, low frustration tolerance, guilt feelings, interpersonal problems, withdrawal, running away,…
Sun, Ingrid Ya I; Fernandes, Fernanda Dreux Miranda
The child's inclusion in his/her social-cultural context is very important to his/her adaptation and well-being. The family has a major role as a facilitator of this process. Therefore the difficulties of these families in communicating with children with communication disorders are an important issue to be assessed in order to support orientations to families. The present study aimed to identify and compare communication difficulties perceived by parents of children with Down Syndrome (DS), Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Information was gathered with the use of a questionnaire with 24 questions regarding the perception of parents about their child communication disorders and the difficulties they identify. The questions were divided into four domains: 1 - Parents' personal difficulties; 2 - Parents' impression about themselves regarding their child; 3 - Parents' impressions about other persons' reactions to their child and 4 - Parents' impression about their child. Sixty parents were the subjects of this study: 20 had children with DS, 20 with SLI and 20 with ASD. All children had ages between 6 and 12 years. It was possible to observe that there was significant difference between the parents of ASD children with those of DS and SLI on the second, third and fourth domains. The questionnaire is effective to the identification of the communication disorders of ASD children based on their parents' reports but not to other developmental disorders.
Full Text Available We aimed, along the text, to bring a reflection upon learning difficulties based on Socio-Historical Theory, relating what is observed in schools to what has been discussed about learning difficulties and the theory proposed by Vygotsky in the early XX century. We understand that children enter school carrying experiences and knowledge from their cultural group and that school ignores such knowledge very often. Then, it is in such disengagement that emerges what we started to call learning difficulties. One cannot forget to see a child as a whole – a student is a social being constituted by culture, language and specific values to which one must be attentive.
Fischer, A.; Trnka, R.; Balcar, K.; Kuška, M.
Contempt is the feeling when one judges another person as an inferior human being, and is typically expressed through social exclusion. Feeling contempt thus implies rejecting others, considering others as unworthy of one’s attention. Contempt is often mixed with other emotions, such as anger,
D. de Cremer (David); K. van den Bos (Kees)
textabstractIn this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position
Cremer, D. de; Bos, K. van den
In this special issue, the relationship between feelings and justice and its consequences are highlighted. Five articles discuss the role that affect, feelings, and emotions play in justice processes across a variety of social settings. In the present introductory article, the position of past
Veer, van de E.; Lange, de M.A.; Haar, van der E.; Karremans, J.C.
Increasing police patrolling is often assumed to be an effective means of enhancing general feelings of safety. This relationship between perceiving police and feelings of safety was tested by having police officers patrol during a field experiment (Study 1) and by manipulating the police presence
Music therapy is a promising intervention with bereaved youth. In comparison to other programs, it appears particularly effective for promoting the resolution of grief-related feelings; providing opportunities to express and release feelings through musical participation. Descriptions from music therapy participants are supported by research…
Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Walton, G.M.; Poorthuis, A.M.G.; Overbeek, G.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Bushman, B.J.
BACKGROUND: Unconditional regard refers to the feeling that one is accepted and valued by others without conditions. Psychological theory suggests that experiences of unconditional regard lead children to feel that they are valuable despite setbacks. We hypothesized that reflecting on experiences of
S.J.E. Langeslag (Sandra); J.W. van Strien (Jan)
textabstractLove feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-Term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive
Kuhnly, J E; Freston, M S
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions and the concepts involved in their preterm infant's back transport from a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit to their home community hospital. A convenience sample of fourteen parents were interviewed five to seven days after the back transport. Following data collection, the analysis of the parents' perceptions regarding the back transport of their premature infant identified a crisis theme that was influenced by several concepts. The subject's positive or negative meaning of the back transport during the pre-crisis phase defined the extent of the crisis during a three day transition period which led to an acceptance of events in the resolution phase. The subjects' perceptions of the previous events of hospitalization and communication of information regarding back transport influenced the meaning of the back transport for them. The extent of crisis during the transition phase was influenced by subjects' perceptions of medical complications, caretaking practice changes, environmental changes, feelings of powerlessness or empowerment, personal coping resources, and support systems available. Resolution in all cases occurred with an acceptance of events. Implications for practice and future research can be identified such as developing and testing education programs to prepare parents for the transition and strengthening the relationship between tertiary and community hospitals.
Lotterman, Jenny H
This article focuses on the relational treatment of a male patient presenting with sexual and erotic feelings toward the therapist. The use of relational psychotherapy allowed us to collaborate in viewing our therapeutic relationship as a microcosm of other relationships throughout the patient's life. In this way, the patient came to understand his fears of being close to women, his discomfort with his sexuality, and how these feelings impacted his ongoing romantic and sexual experiences. Use of the therapist's reactions to the patient, including conscious and unconscious feelings and behaviors, aided in the conceptualization of this case. Working under a relational model was especially helpful when ruptures occurred, allowing the patient and therapist to address these moments and move toward repair. The patient was successful in making use of his sexual feelings to understand his feelings and behaviors across contexts. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Silveira, Natyele Rippel; Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira do; Rosa, Luciana Martins da; Jung, Walnice; Martins, Sabrina Regina; Fontes, Moisés Dos Santos
to know the feelings of nurses regarding palliative care in adult intensive care units. qualitative study, which adopted the theoretical framework of Social Representations, carried out with 30 nurses of the state of Santa Catarina included by Snowball sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews conducted from April to August 2015, organized and analyzed through the Collective Subject Discourse. the results showed how central ideas are related to feelings of comfort, frustration, insecurity and anguish, in addition to the feeling that the professional training and performance are focused on the cure. the social representations of nurses regarding the feelings related to palliative care are represented mainly by negative feelings, probably as consequence of the context in which care is provided.
Trinkler, Iris; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine
Patients with Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder that causes major motor impairments, also show cognitive and emotional deficits. While their deficit in recognising emotions has been explored in depth, little is known about their ability to express emotions and understand their feelings. If these faculties were impaired, patients might not only mis-read emotion expressions in others but their own emotions might be mis-interpreted by others as well, or thirdly, they might have difficulties understanding and describing their feelings. We compared the performance of recognition and expression of facial emotions in 13 HD patients with mild motor impairments but without significant bucco-facial abnormalities, and 13 controls matched for age and education. Emotion recognition was investigated in a forced-choice recognition test (FCR), and emotion expression by filming participants while they mimed the six basic emotional facial expressions (anger, disgust, fear, surprise, sadness and joy) to the experimenter. The films were then segmented into 60 stimuli per participant and four external raters performed a FCR on this material. Further, we tested understanding of feelings in self (alexithymia) and others (empathy) using questionnaires. Both recognition and expression were impaired across different emotions in HD compared to controls and recognition and expression scores were correlated. By contrast, alexithymia and empathy scores were very similar in HD and controls. This might suggest that emotion deficits in HD might be tied to the expression itself. Because similar emotion recognition-expression deficits are also found in Parkinson's Disease and vascular lesions of the striatum, our results further confirm the importance of the striatum for emotion recognition and expression, while access to the meaning of feelings relies on a different brain network, and is spared in HD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Missura, Olana; Gärtner, Thomas
In this paper we aim at automatically adjusting the difficulty of computer games by clustering players into different types and supervised prediction of the type from short traces of gameplay. An important ingredient of video games is to challenge players by providing them with tasks of appropriate and increasing difficulty. How this difficulty should be chosen and increase over time strongly depends on the ability, experience, perception and learning curve of each individual player. It is a subjective parameter that is very difficult to set. Wrong choices can easily lead to players stopping to play the game as they get bored (if underburdened) or frustrated (if overburdened). An ideal game should be able to adjust its difficulty dynamically governed by the player’s performance. Modern video games utilise a game-testing process to investigate among other factors the perceived difficulty for a multitude of players. In this paper, we investigate how machine learning techniques can be used for automatic difficulty adjustment. Our experiments confirm the potential of machine learning in this application.
People say they enjoy both seeing a preferred social group succeed and seeing an adversary social group fail. At the same time, they state they dislike seeing a preferred social group fail and seeing an adversary social group succeed. The current magnetic resonance imaging study investigated whether-and if so, how-such similarities in reported feeling states are reflected in neural activities. American football fans anticipated success and failure situations for their favorite or their adversary teams. The data support the idea that feeling similarities and divergences expressed in verbal reports carry with them significant neural similarities and differences, respectively. Desired (favorite team likely to win and adversary team likely to lose) rather than undesired (favorite team likely to lose and adversary team likely to win) outcomes were associated with heightened activity in the supramarginal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, insula, and cerebellum. Precuneus activity additionally distinguished anticipated desirable outcomes for favorite versus adversary teams. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goto, Michiko; Takemura, Yousuke C
In medical practice, obtaining information regarding patients' undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings" is important. The purpose of this study was to determine which interview skills are best suited for eliciting verbal indications of undisclosed feelings, for example anxiety or depressive feelings in patients. Our group videotaped 159 medical interviews at an outpatient department of the Department of Family Medicine, Mie University Hospital (Mie, Japan). Physicians' medical interview skills were evaluated using a Medical Interview Evaluation System and Emotional Information Check Sheet for assessing indications of "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings". We analyzed the relationship between the interview skills and patients' consequent emotional disclosure using generalized linear model (GLIM). The usage of interview skills such as "open-ended questions" "asking the patient's ideas about the meaning of illness" "reflection" and "legitimization" were positively associated with the number of anxiety disclosure, whereas "close-ended questions" and "focused question" were negatively associated. On the other hand, only "respect" was positively associated with the number of depressive disclosures, whereas "surveying question" was negatively associated. The results revealed that there are several interview skills that are effective in eliciting verbal indication of undisclosed "feelings of anxiety" or "depressive feelings".
Wagner, Jan-Samuel; DiBonaventura, Marco D; Chandran, Arthi B; Cappelleri, Joseph C
Difficulty sleeping is common among patients with fibromyalgia (FM); however, its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to assess the burden of sleep difficulty symptoms on HRQoL among patients with FM. The current study included data from the 2009 National Health and Wellness Survey (N=75,000), which is a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms among patients with FM (n=2,196) were compared with matched controls (n=2,194), identified using propensity-score matching. Additionally, the relationship between the number of sleep difficulty symptoms (none, one, or two or more) and HRQoL (using the SF-12v2) was assessed using regression modeling, controlling for demographic and health history variables. Of the 2,196 patients with FM, 11.2% reported no sleep difficulty symptoms, 25.7% reported one sleep difficulty symptom, and 63.05% reported two or more sleep difficulty symptoms. The prevalence of sleep difficulty symptoms was significantly higher than matched controls. Patients with one and two sleep difficulty symptoms both reported significantly worse HRQoL summary and domain scores relative to those with no sleep difficulty symptoms (all p<.05). Further, the relationship between sleep difficulty symptoms and HRQoL was significantly different between those with FM than matched controls, suggesting a uniqueness of the burden of sleep difficulties within the FM population. Among the FM population, sleep difficulty symptoms were independently associated with clinically-meaningful decrements in mental and physical HRQoL. These results suggest that greater emphasis in the treatment of sleep difficulty symptoms among the FM population may be warranted.
Full Text Available Physics is engaged in scientific and technological development in several areas, however, its learning in high school has high failure rates that demonstrate a low level of use. It is a science that allows us to understand the nature of the macroscopic and atomic matter, but it is taught in a disjointed manner, upon presentation of concepts, laws and mathematical sentences, repetitive exercises that have taken the preparatory character for college entrance. Thus, the student gets stuck sentences featuring a partial knowledge and disposable. This study aimed to analyze the main difficulties that undergraduate students in Physics have in Modern Physics learning. Point out the difficulties in teaching and learning Physics is not an easy task and to identify them comes the difficulty of how to solve them. After analysis of several hypotheses we can conclude that there is no single factor responsible for the difficulty of the teaching and learning of Modern Physics. The lack of time to work and developed since middle school, stimulating the curiosity of students, adequately trained teachers, lack of structure offered by the government, parents' responsibilities and students in learning, among others, constitute a major challenge for successful teaching and learning of Modern Physics
Quinn, Jamie M.
Males are more likely than females to be identified as having reading difficulties, but it is unclear if this is a result of sample ascertainment or identification bias. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the magnitude of gender differences in reading difficulties using available studies in which researchers investigated this…
Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael
The current study explores some of the factors associated with children's mental health difficulties in primary school. Multilevel modeling with data from 628 children from 36 schools was used to determine how much variation in mental health difficulties exists between and within schools, and to identify characteristics at the school and…
van Dijke, Annemiek; van der Hart, Onno; van Son, Maarten; Bühring, Martina; van der Heijden, Peter; Ford, Julian D
To study difficulties in emotional functioning in two mental disorders that have been associated with difficulties in identifying and modulating emotions: borderline personality disorder (BPD) and somatoform disorder (SoD). In 472 psychiatric inpatients, difficulties in emotional functioning were measured using the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire. Profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning were identified, suggesting that patients diagnosed with BPD with or without SoD were more likely to report difficulty identifying emotions and less likely to report reduced ability to fantasize or 'pensée opératoire' (externally oriented thinking) than patients diagnosed with SoD only and patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders. SoD patients were more likely to report reduced ability to phantasize or pensée opératoire than difficulty identifying emotions. Patients with mixed anxiety and affective disorders were more likely to report reduced ability to experience emotions than patients diagnosed with BPD and/or SoD. By using a finer-grained perspective on difficulties in emotional functioning some evidence was found for the existence of cognitive-emotional profiles that may provide more clinically relevant information than alexithymia as just a unitary construct. Further research on cognitive-emotional profiles of difficulties in emotional functioning is needed to advance the understanding, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Identifying students' misconceptions and learning difficulties and finding effective ways of addressing them has been one of the major concerns in chemistry education. However, the chemistry education community has paid little attention to determining discipline-specific aspects of chemistry that can lead to learning difficulties and…
Langeslag, Sandra J E; van Strien, Jan W
Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of romantic
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.
Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new) activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP) amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300–400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700–3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative effects of
Sandra J E Langeslag
Full Text Available Love feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-term relationships. If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionnaire responses showed that people perceive love feelings as somewhat uncontrollable. Still, in four open questions people reported to use strategies such as cognitive reappraisal, distraction, avoidance, and undertaking (new activities to cope with break-ups, to maintain long-term relationships, and to regulate love feelings. Instructed up-regulation of love using reappraisal increased subjective feelings of attachment, while love down-regulation decreased subjective feelings of infatuation and attachment. We used the late positive potential (LPP amplitude as an objective index of regulation success. Instructed love up-regulation enhanced the LPP between 300-400 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship and in participants who had recently experienced a romantic break-up, while love down-regulation reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. These findings corroborate the self-reported feasibility of love regulation, although they are complicated by the finding that love up-regulation also reduced the LPP between 700-3000 ms in participants who were involved in a relationship. To conclude, although people have the preconception that love feelings are uncontrollable, we show for the first time that intentional regulation of love feelings using reappraisal, and perhaps other strategies, is feasible. Love regulation will benefit individuals and society because it could enhance positive effects and reduce negative
Wati, S.; Fitriana, L.; Mardiyana
A linear equation is an algebra material that exists in junior high school to university. It is a very important material for students in order to learn more advanced mathematics topics. Therefore, linear equation material is essential to be mastered. However, the result of 2016 national examination in Indonesia showed that students’ achievement in solving linear equation problem was low. This fact became a background to investigate students’ difficulties in solving linear equation problems. This study used qualitative descriptive method. An individual written test on linear equation tasks was administered, followed by interviews. Twenty-one sample students of grade VIII of SMPIT Insan Kamil Karanganyar did the written test, and 6 of them were interviewed afterward. The result showed that students with high mathematics achievement donot have difficulties, students with medium mathematics achievement have factual difficulties, and students with low mathematics achievement have factual, conceptual, operational, and principle difficulties. Based on the result there is a need of meaningfulness teaching strategy to help students to overcome difficulties in solving linear equation problems.
Tobia, Valentina; Fasola, Anna; Lupieri, Alice; Marzocchi, Gian Marco
This study aimed to explore the spatial numerical association of response codes (SNARC), the flanker, and the numerical distance effects in children with mathematical difficulties. From a sample of 720 third, fourth, and fifth graders, 60 children were selected and divided into the following three groups: typically developing children (TD; n = 29), children with mathematical difficulties only (MD only; n = 21), and children with mathematical and reading difficulties (MD+RD; n = 10). Children were tested with a numerical Eriksen task that was built to assess SNARC, numerical distance, and flanker (first and second order congruency) effects. Children with MD only showed stronger SNARC and second order congruency effects than did TD children, whereas the numerical distance effects were similar across the three groups. Finally, the first order congruency effect was associated with reading difficulties. These results showed that children with mathematical difficulties with or without reading difficulties were globally more impaired when spatial incompatibilities were presented. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.
Esma Emmioglu Sarikaya; Lynn McAlpine; Cheryl Amundsen
Aim/Purpose: This paper examined the balance and meaning of two types of experiences in the day-to-day activity of doctoral students that draw them into academia and that move them away from academia: ‘feeling like an academic and belonging to an academic community;’ and ‘not feeling like an academic and feeling excluded from an academic community.’ Background: As students navigate doctoral work, they are learning what is entailed in being an academic by engaging with their peers and mor...
Langeslag, Sandra J. E.; van Strien, Jan W.
textabstractLove feelings can be more intense than desired (e.g., after a break-up) or less intense than desired (e.g., in long-Term relationships). If only we could control our love feelings! We present the concept of explicit love regulation, which we define as the use of behavioral and cognitive strategies to change the intensity of current feelings of romantic love. We present the first two studies on preconceptions about, strategies for, and the feasibility of love regulation. Questionna...
Dror, Otniel E
This reflection attends to Paul White's call in his introduction to this Focus section for a history of science that is informed by the history of emotions. It offers a succinct historical exemplification of the possibilities of studying the history of science in terms of the history of emotions. It draws on Raymond Williams's concept of "structure of feeling" in arguing for the emergence of an adrenaline structure of feeling during the early twentieth century. It provides a mosaic of different views of the immanence of the adrenaline structure of feeling in diverse scientific realms by broaching some of the major themes that appear in the individual essays in this Focus section.
Flynn, Francis J; Schaumberg, Rebecca L
The authors posit that higher levels of guilt-proneness are associated with higher levels of affective organizational commitment. To explain this counterintuitive link, the authors suggest that a dispositional tendency to feel guilt motivates individuals to exert greater effort on their work-related tasks that, in turn, strengthens their affinity for the organization. The authors tested this idea using a laboratory study and field data from 2 samples of working adults. Individuals who are more guilt-prone reported higher levels of organizational attachment compared with less guilt-prone individuals. Furthermore, mediation analyses indicate that the link between guilt-proneness and affective commitment is driven by greater task effort. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the affective drivers of commitment in organizations.
Nederkoorn, Chantal; Theiβen, Julia; Tummers, Michelle; Roefs, Anne
The texture of food can be a reason why children reject it: It matters if food is crispy, slimy, smooth or has pips and bits in it. In general, mere exposure is the best method to increase acceptance of food: becoming more familiar with a food by repeated exposure increases liking for it. However, exposure to texture can be difficult, as children can be reluctant to try tasting it. In the current study, it is tested if acceptance of a food with a specific texture is improved after exposure to the feel of it, with hands only. Sixty-six children (between 3 and 10 years old) were randomly assigned to either the exposure or control condition. In the exposure condition, children played with an colourless and odourless jelly with their hands and in the control group, children played a board game. Afterwards, children were asked to taste 3 desserts (in balanced order): smooth strawberry yoghurt, strawberry yoghurt with pieces and strawberry jelly. Results showed that the children in the exposure condition ate specifically more of the jelly dessert - the texture of which they had been pre-exposed to - compared to the children in control condition. No group differences were found for the other two desserts. The results imply that feeling the texture of a food with hands increases the acceptance of food with the same texture. Playing with food with hands seems therefore be a first step in getting familiar with food and might help to increase variety of food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nur, I. R. D.; Herman, T.; Ningsih, S.
Learning process is the activities that has important role because this process is one of the all factors that establish students success in learning. oftentimes we find so many students get the difficulties when they study mathematics. This condition is not only because of the outside factor but also it comes from the inside. The purpose of this research is to analyze and give the representation how students working memory happened in physical education students for basic statistics subjects which have mathematical difficulties. The subjects are 4 students which have a mathematical difficulties. The research method is case study and when the describe about students working memory are explanated deeply with naturalistic observation. Based on this research, it was founded that 4 students have a working memory deficit in three components. The components are phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, dan episodic buffer.
Full Text Available Purpose: Project-Based Learning (PBL is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM, at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning
Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.
Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)
Alves, A.; Sousa, R.; Moreira, F.; Carvalho, M.A.; Cardoso, E.; Pimenta, P.; Malheiro, T.; Brito, I.; Fernandes, S.; Mesquita, D.
Project-Based Learning (PBL) is considered to be an active learning methodology which can be used to develop both technical and transversal competences in engineering programs. This methodology demands a great deal of work effort from the students and also from the teachers and it requires a meticulous plan and a well-managed project as well. These activities go far beyond the normal activities in traditional lectures, enabling to outpace the difficulties that spur along the way that may be both complex and demotivating. This methodology has been implemented in the Integrated Master Degree on Industrial Engineering and Management (IEM), at one public university in Portugal, since the 2004/2005 academic year. The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the main difficulties of the implementation of PBL, mainly from the teachers’ perspectives. Additionally, some effective strategies will be recommended to overcome such difficulties. Design/methodology/approach: The perceptions of the teachers were collected through a survey based on six main themes. The participants in the study include eight teachers from the five courses of the first semester of the first year of the IEM program involved in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 editions. Findings: Integration of courses in the project; student assessment; growing number of students in each team and the need of physical spaces for them; and compartmentalized knowledge has emerged as the main difficulties. To overcome these difficulties some key strategies were recommended. Originality/value: A new perspective based on course teachers' views and experiences will deepen the understanding of the problems and provide inputs for the development of strategies that may improve the effectiveness of PBL and introduce changes for its successful implementation. These strategies are intended to be transferable to other contexts, as most of the problems and constraints are common to other active learning approaches. (Author)
Secinti, E; Yavuz, H M; Selcuk, B
The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. The purpose of the study was to examine the level of feelings of burden in family caregivers of people with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Turkey, and to explore its predictors. Turkey. One hundred family caregivers of people with SCI completed measures of burden of caregiving, depression, social support and physical health. The SCI participants completed a measure of functional independence. Multivariate statistics and structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted to identify significant predictors of caregiver burden. Caregiver burden was significantly related to caregivers' feelings of depression. SEM analysis showed that social support from family and from friends predicted caregiver burden via depression. Caregivers' age, sex, educational level, physical health and household income did not significantly predict their feelings of depression or burden. Our findings revealed that support received from both families and friends is an important source for alleviating the depressive feelings of caregivers and, in return, their burden in the caregiving. In Turkey, high support from family members is expected and is important for psychological well-being, yet the current study showed that the support received from friends also has unique contribution to the well-being of the caregivers of persons with SCI. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of supportive relationships between family as well as friends for the caregivers who may have to provide lifetime care for their family member with special needs.
VÍCTOR SANTIUSTE BERMEJO
Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of the intervention programs and strategies to treat reading difficulties. The synthesisincludes a review of the last published articles on the issue, both in Spanish and English. It also presents the visits todifferent Language Rehabilitation Centers in the Community of Madrid including the approaches applied in thesecenters. Besides the description of the general intervention strategies applied to reading problems, some of theprograms to treat specific difficulties of words decoding and recognizing are explained, and the programs to treatreading comprehension and fluidity.
... feel. Find information on the Internet, at a library, and from social networks, support groups, national organizations, and local hospitals. Ask your provider for websites you can trust. Not all the information you find online is from reliable sources.
... November 2012 Print this issue Gut Feelings About Gastritis When Your Stomach’s Sick Send us your comments ... protective response to injury or infection. is called gastritis, and it can cause long-term problems. Some ...
Shelton, Nicole; Douglass, Sara; Garcia, Randi L; Yip, Tiffany; Trail, Thomas E
The present research investigated whether having out-group friends serves as a buffer for feeling misunderstood in interracial interactions. Across three experience sampling studies, we found that among ethnic minorities who have few White friends or are not interacting with White friends, daily interracial interactions are associated with feeling less understood. By contrast, we found that among ethnic minorities who have more White friends or are interacting with White friends, the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood is not significant. We did not find similar results for Whites; that is, having ethnic minority friends did not play a role in the relationship between daily interracial interactions and feeling understood. Together, these studies demonstrate the beneficial effects of intergroup friendships for ethnic minorities. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
abstraction (i e the cognitive mode), he views 'feeling' (the inward, emotional nature ..... religious language for him is an extension of natural expression. According ... means of facial features and movements of voice and gesture (i e non-verbal.
Flavell, J H; Flavell, E R; Green, F L
Two studies assessed the development of children's understanding that thoughts and feelings are closely interlinked. These studies showed that, unlike 8-year-olds and adults, 5-year-olds seldom explained a sudden change in emotion that had no apparent external cause by appeal to the occurrence of a thought. They also tended not to recognize that a person who is feeling sad is probably also thinking sad thoughts, or that people may be able to make themselves feel happy just by thinking of something happy. These results are consistent with evidence that young children tend to be unaware of the stream of consciousness and have poor introspective skills. A possible developmental sequence leading to an understanding of these thought-feeling links is proposed.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Hindriks, Paul; Coenders, Marcel
In three survey experimental studies among national samples of the native Dutch, we examined feelings towards Muslim immigrants' political party representation. The strategy of disengagement (reject political representation) was evaluated most positively, followed by the descriptive representation
Full Text Available Although there is extensive literature regarding sex differences in jealousy due to infidelity, guilt resulting from infidelity remains unexplored. We hypothesize that men will feel guiltier from imagined emotional rather than sexual infidelity, as it is most important for their partner's reproductive success. Similarly, we predict that women will feel more guilt from imagined sexual rather than emotional infidelity. The findings indicate a different pattern; men feel guiltier following sexual infidelity, whereas women feel guiltier following emotional infidelity. Results also show that both sexes believe their partners would have a more difficult time forgiving sexual, rather than emotional, infidelity, but women and not men report that sexual infidelity would more likely lead to relationship dissolution. These findings are discussed in view of evolved mating strategies and individual reproductive success.
早矢仕, 彩子; Hayashi, Saiko
The purpose of the present study was to examine how self-perception and cultural attitude influence on the international students' feelings of adjustment. Students in 7 Japanese language schools mainly from Asian countries answered the questionnair. Items were about (1) attitude to own/host culture, (2) positive feeling toward own country/culture, (3) self-efficacy and social life skills in their own countries and (4) self-efficacy, social life skills, expecting level of social life skills an...
The dissertation analyzes the expression of feelings in Seneca’s tragedies. This is the first research paper in Lithuania dedicated to Senecan dramas. The dissertation author looks for the links between Seneca’s philosophical works and poetic principles in his dramas. The paper focuses on the theoretical analyses of anger, fear, affection, jealousy, shame and guilt in Senecan and other Stoics’ philosophical works, and how these feelings are revealed in tragedies, characters’ experiences and m...
Do we need to consider mental processes in our analysis of brain functions in other animals? Obviously we do, if such BrainMind functions exist in the animals we wish to understand. If so, how do we proceed, while still retaining materialistic-mechanistic perspectives? This essay outlines the historical forces that led to emotional feelings in animals being marginalized in behavioristic scientific discussions of why animals behave the way they do, and why mental constructs are generally disregarded in modern neuroscientific analyses. The roots of this problem go back to Cartesian dualism and the attempt of 19th century physician-scientists to ground a new type of medical curriculum on a completely materialistic approach to body functions. Thereby all vitalistic principles were discarded from the lexicon of science, and subjective experience in animals was put in that category and discarded as an invalid approach to animal behavior. This led to forms of rigid operationalism during the era of behaviorism and subsequently ruthless reductionism in brain research, leaving little room for mentalistic concepts such as emotional feelings in animal research. However, modern studies of the brain clearly indicate that artificially induced arousals of emotional networks, as with localized electrical and chemical brain stimulation, can serve as "rewards" and "punishments" in various learning tasks. This strongly indicates that animal brains elaborate various experienced states, with those having affective contents being easiest to study rigorously. However, in approaching emotional feelings empirically we must pay special attention to the difficulties and vagaries of human language and evolutionary levels of control in the brain. We need distinct nomenclatures from primary (unconditioned phenomenal experiences) to tertiary (reflective) levels of mind. The scientific pursuit of affective brain processes in other mammals can now reveal general BrainMind principles that also apply
Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos
Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.
Hoeksma, J.B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Schipper, E.M.
The emotional system is defined as a dynamical system that has neurological and biochemical structures that force the system to change in a regular and consistent way. This dynamic view allows for an alternative definition of emotion regulation, which describes when emotion regulation is needed, identifies its goal, and illustrates how regulation is achieved. The thesis developed here is that feelings - the private mental experience of emotion - play a crucial role in emotion regulation. Spec...
Hoeksma, J.B.; Oosterlaan, J.; Schipper, E.
The emotional system is defined as a dynamical system that has neurological and biochemical structures that force the system to change in a regular and consistent way. This dynamic view allows for an alternative definition of emotion regulation, which describes when emotion regulation is needed, identifies its goal, and illustrates how regulation is achieved. The thesis developed here is that feelings - the private mental experience of emotion - play a crucial role in emotion regulation. Spec...
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja
Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…
The communication difficulties between radiobiologists and radiotherapists are attributable to the existence of two cultures in radiology, separated by different philosophies, values, standards and attitudes. Integrated education in the separate branches of science and joint experimental ventures are proposed in order to develop unifying concepts. (author)
Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S.
Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA…
Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paulus; van den Heuvel - Panhuizen, Marja
Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian
Reviewing briefly the two main difficulties encountered in thermal quantum field theories at finite temperature when dealing with the Braaten-Pisarski (BP) resummation program, the motivation is introduced of an analysis relying on the bare perturbation theory, right from the onset. (author)
van der Linden, Willem J.
In choosing a binomial test model, it is important to know exactly what conditions are imposed on item difficulty. In this paper these conditions are examined for both a deterministic and a stochastic conception of item responses. It appears that they are more restrictive than is generally
Hurks, Petra P. M.; van Loosbroek, Erik
Time perception has not been comprehensively examined in mathematics difficulties (MD). Therefore, verbal time estimation, production, and reproduction were tested in 13 individuals with MD and 16 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, and intellectual skills. Individuals with MD performed comparably to controls in time reproduction, but showed a…
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Liberman, Neomi; Beeri, Catriel; Kolikant, Yifat Ben-David
This article reports on difficulties related to the concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in the course, as well as on…
Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…
Gifford, Sue; Rockliffe, Freda
This article reviews the nature of learning difficulties in mathematics and, in particular, the nature and prevalence of dyscalculia, a condition that affects the acquisition of arithmetical skills. The evidence reviewed suggests that younger children (under the age of 10) often display a combination of problems, including minor physical…
Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin
The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)
Dawson, C. J.
Discusses how the teacher can deal with difficulties pupils of varying ages have in understanding certain chemical ideas. The article does not support using a Piagetian model for science courses in secondary schools. It suggests that Ausubel's learning theory is of much more use to the practicing teacher. (HM)
Phillips, Louise H.; Allen, Roy; Bull, Rebecca; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Channon, Shelley
Younger and older adults differ in performance on a range of social-cognitive skills, with older adults having difficulties in decoding nonverbal cues to emotion and intentions. Such skills are likely to be important when deciding whether someone is being sarcastic. In the current study we investigated in a life span sample whether there are…
Catts, Hugh W.; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Bridges, Mindy Sittner; Liu, Yi-Syuan
Most research on early identification of reading disabilities has focused on word reading problems and little attention has been given to reading comprehension difficulties. In this study, we investigated whether measures of language ability and/or response to language intervention in kindergarten uniquely predicted reading comprehension…
Accurate assessment of a text's level of translation difficulty is critical for translator training and accreditation, translation research, and the language industry as well. Traditionally, people rely on their general impression to gauge a text's translation difficulty level. If the evaluation process is to be more effective and the…
Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander
The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…
Holwerda, Tjalling Jan; Deeg, Dorly J H; Beekman, Aartjan T F; van Tilburg, Theo G; Stek, Max L; Jonker, Cees; Schoevers, Robert A
Known risk factors for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include medical conditions, genetic vulnerability, depression, demographic factors and mild cognitive impairment. The role of feelings of loneliness and social isolation in dementia is less well understood, and prospective studies including these risk factors are scarce. We tested the association between social isolation (living alone, unmarried, without social support), feelings of loneliness and incident dementia in a cohort study among 2173 non-demented community-living older persons. Participants were followed for 3 years when a diagnosis of dementia was assessed (Geriatric Mental State (GMS) Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy (AGECAT)). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between social isolation and feelings of loneliness and the risk of dementia, controlling for sociodemographic factors, medical conditions, depression, cognitive functioning and functional status. After adjustment for other risk factors, older persons with feelings of loneliness were more likely to develop dementia (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.56) than people without such feelings. Social isolation was not associated with a higher dementia risk in multivariate analysis. Feeling lonely rather than being alone is associated with an increased risk of clinical dementia in later life and can be considered a major risk factor that, independently of vascular disease, depression and other confounding factors, deserves clinical attention. Feelings of loneliness may signal a prodromal stage of dementia. A better understanding of the background of feeling lonely may help us to identify vulnerable persons and develop interventions to improve outcome in older persons at risk of dementia.
Goossens, Joline; Delbaere, Ilse; Beeckman, Dimitri; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann
To explore communication difficulties and the experience of loneliness among patients with cancer dealing with fertility issues. Qualitative study based on grounded theory principles. One university hospital and two general hospitals in Flanders, Belgium. 21 female and 7 male patients with cancer with potential fertility problems as a result of treatment. Grounded theory approach using the constant comparison method; data collection (semistructured face-to-face interviews) and analysis occurred simultaneously. Loneliness was a central theme in the experience of potential fertility loss among patients with cancer. Feelings of loneliness resulted from communication difficulties between the patient and members of his or her social environment or healthcare professionals because of several underlying processes and influencing factors. Loneliness was a strong and common feeling among patients with cancer. Patients, members of their social environment, and healthcare professionals experienced difficulties in communicating about fertility in the context of cancer, leading to patients' feelings of loneliness. Healthcare professionals must be attentive to signs indicating loneliness regarding fertility concerns, and they should provide adequate information and appropriate guidance to support patients. Professionals need further training to improve knowledge and skills.
Green, Josephine M; Baston, Helen A
Many studies have revealed that a sense of control is a major contributing factor to a woman's birth experience and her subsequent well-being. Since not all studies conceptualize "control" in the same way or distinguish between "external" and "internal" control, the purpose of this study is to advance understanding of how these senses of control relate to each other. Questionnaires were sent to women 1 month before birth to assess their preferences and expectations and at 6 weeks after birth to discover their experiences and assess psychological outcomes. Data are presented from 1146 women. Three control outcomes were considered: feeling in control of what staff do to you, feeling in control of your own behavior, and feeling in control during contractions. Women were less likely to report being in control of staff (39.5%) than in control of their own behavior (61.0%). Approximately one-fifth of the sample felt in control in all three ways, and another one-fifth did not feel in control in any of them. Parity was strongly associated with feeling in control, with multiparas feeling more in control than primiparas in all cases. In logistic regression analyses, feeling in control of staff was found to relate primarily to being able to get comfortable, feeling treated with respect and as an individual, and perceiving staff as considerate. Feeling in control of one's behavior and during contractions were primarily related to aspects of pain and pain relief, but also to antenatal expectations of control. Worry about labor pain was also an important antenatal predictor for primiparas. All three control outcomes contributed independently to satisfaction, with control of staff being the most significant; relationships with emotional well-being were also demonstrated. All three types of control were important to women and contributed to psychological outcomes. Internal and external control were predicted by different groups of variables. Caregivers have the potential to make a
McLeod, S.; Crowe, K.; Masso, S.; Baker, E.; McCormack, J.; Wren, Y.; Roulstone, S.; Howland, C.
Background: Speech sound disorders are a common communication difficulty in preschool children. Teachers indicate difficulty identifying and supporting these children.\\ud \\ud Aim: To describe speech and language characteristics of children identified by their parents and/or teachers as having possible communication concerns.\\ud \\ud Method: 275 Australian 4- to 5-year-old children from 45 preschools whose parents and teachers were concerned about their talking participated in speech-language p...
Chua, Elizabeth F.; Ahmed, Rifat; Garcia, Sandry
Background The ability to monitor one’s own memory is an important feature of normal memory and is an aspect of ‘metamemory’. Lesion studies have shown dissociations between memory and metamemory, but only single dissociations have been shown using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). One potential reason that only single dissociations have been shown is that tDCS effects may be moderated by task difficulty. Objective/Hypothesis We used high definition (HD) tDCS to test for dissociable roles of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in semantic long-term memory and metamemory tasks. We also tested whether general knowledge question difficulty moderated the effects of HD-tDCS. Methods Across 3 sessions, participants received active HD-tDCS over the left DLPFC or left ATL, or sham HD-tDCS during general knowledge recall and recognition tests, and a ‘feeling-of-knowing’ metamemory task. General knowledge questions were blocked by difficulty. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to examine the effects of HD-tDCS on memory and metamemory tasks by memory question difficulty. Results HD-tDCS over the ATL led to improved recall compared to DLPFC and sham HD-tDCS, and this occurred only for medium difficulty questions. In contrast, for non-recalled questions, HD-tDCS over the DLPFC led to improved recognition accuracy and improved feeling-of-knowing accuracy compared to ATL and sham HD-tDCS, and this was not moderated by memory question difficulty. Conclusion(s) HD-tDCS can be used to dissociate the roles of the ATL and DLPFC in different memory and ‘metamemory’ tasks. The effects of HD-tDCS on task may be moderated by task difficulty, depending on the nature of the task and site of stimulation. PMID:27876306
Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tong, Xiuhong; McBride, Catherine; Shu, Hua; Ho, Connie Suk-Han
The co-occurrence of reading comprehension difficulties for first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English and associated longitudinal cognitive-linguistic correlates in each language were investigated. Sixteen poor comprehenders in English and 16 poor comprehenders in Chinese, 18 poor readers in both, and 18 children with normal performance in both were identified at age 10. The prevalence rate for being poor in both was 52.94%, suggesting that approximately half of children who are at risk for Chinese reading comprehension difficulty are also at risk for English reading comprehension difficulty. Chinese word reading, phonological, and morphological awareness were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in Chinese. English word reading and vocabulary were longitudinal correlates of poor comprehension in English. Chinese phonological awareness was an additional correlate of poor comprehension in English. Moreover, poor comprehenders in both Chinese and English showed slower rapid automatized naming scores than the other groups. Findings highlight some factors that might be critical for reading comprehension in L1 Chinese and L2 English; fluency is likely to be a critical part of reading comprehension across languages. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Academic texts play an important role for university students. However, those texts are considered difficult. This study is intended to investigate students‘ difficulties in reading academic texts. The qualitative approach was employed in this study. The design was a case study. The participants were ten students from fifth semester of CLS: EE (Classroom Language and Strategy: Explaining and Exemplifying class who were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were gathered from students‘ journal reflections, observation, and interview. The finding shows that the students encountered reading difficulties in area of textual factors, namely vocabulary, comprehending specific information, text organization, and grammar and human factors including background knowledge, mood, laziness, and time constraint.
Kolinova, E.; Zitkova, M.; Suchmova, M.; Jirasek, M.
Some problems of current radiodiagnosis in pediatric oncology are discussed. The main cause of errors in diagnosis and of difficulties barring timely correct diagnosis is the relatively small number of tumors in children and the ensuing lack of knowledge and experience in diagnosis. The situation can only be improved by the disciplined observance of purposeful diagnostic procedures and the centralization of these procedures at specialized departments. (author)
Full Text Available Nowadays the accurate translation of legal texts has become highly important as the mistranslation of a passage in a contract, for example, could lead to lawsuits and loss of money. Consequently, the translation of legal texts to other languages faces many difficulties and only professional translators specialised in legal translation should deal with the translation of legal documents and scholarly writings. The purpose of this paper is to analyze translation from three perspectives: translation quality, errors and difficulties encountered in translating legal texts and consequences of such errors in professional translation. First of all, the paper points out the importance of performing a good and correct translation, which is one of the most important elements to be considered when discussing translation. Furthermore, the paper presents an overview of the errors and difficulties in translating texts and of the consequences of errors in professional translation, with applications to the field of law. The paper is also an approach to the differences between languages (English and Romanian that can hinder comprehension for those who have embarked upon the difficult task of translation. The research method that I have used to achieve the objectives of the paper was the content analysis of various Romanian and foreign authors' works.
Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.
Maria Fernanda Acosta Romo
Full Text Available Objective: To understand the meaning of the experiences felt by parents of premature children who are hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of a hospital in the city of Pasto, Nariño, taking into account the phenomenological theory of Edmund Husserl. Materials and methods: In order to understand these experiences, a qualitative phenomenological study was carried out with eight parents in a range of age between 17 and 35. Results: The investigative process identified five categories, which emerged from the process of codification or nomothetic analysis of the speeches convergences. Two of these categories were considered for this article: Feelings and affective bond as an expression of parental love and process of interaction with the health staff. Conclusion: The parents of children in hospital were not prepared for the birth of a premature baby, so they experienced feelings of sadness, anxiety, self-criticism and fear, altering the affective bond between parents and children.
Bruna da Costa
Full Text Available Current descriptive and qualitative study described feelings and codependent behavior in relatives of illicit drug users. Data were collected between March and April 2012 by an open interview with eight family members of illicit drugs-dependent individuals and subjected to theme-mode content analysis. Results were classified into two categories which showed intense suffering coupled to feelings of guilt, fear, shame, sadness, shame and manifestation of codependent behaviors such as denial and control of the one´s situation and that of others. Professionals should know the situation in which the families of drug addicts live to assist them in a different way. They should also identify codependent relatives, since they also need care so that their behavior does not worsen the symptoms and behavior of the drug user and prevents a possible medical or psychiatric diagnosis.
Grönlund, Catarina Fischer; Dahlqvist, Vera; Zingmark, Karin; Sandlund, Mikael; Söderberg, Anna
Several studies show that healthcare professionals need to communicate inter-professionally in order to manage ethical difficulties. A model of clinical ethics support (CES) inspired by Habermas' theory of discourse ethics has been developed by our research group. In this version of CES sessions healthcare professionals meet inter-professionally to communicate and reflect on ethical difficulties in a cooperative manner with the aim of reaching communicative agreement or reflective consensus. In order to understand the course of action during CES, the aim of this study was to describe the communication of value conflicts during a series of inter-professional CES sessions. Ten audio- and video-recorded CES sessions were conducted over eight months and were analyzed by using the video analysis tool Transana and qualitative content analysis. The results showed that during the CES sessions the professionals as a group moved through the following five phases: a value conflict expressed as feelings of frustration, sharing disempowerment and helplessness, the revelation of the value conflict, enhancing realistic expectations, seeing opportunities to change the situation instead of obstacles. In the course of CES, the professionals moved from an individual interpretation of the situation to a common, new understanding and then to a change in approach. An open and permissive communication climate meant that the professionals dared to expose themselves, share their feelings, face their own emotions, and eventually arrive at a mutual shared reality. The value conflict was not only revealed but also resolved.
Andreani, M.; Yadigaroglu, G.
Dispersed Flow Film Boiling (DFFB) is characterized by important departures from thermal and velocity equilibrium that make it suitable for modeling with two-fluid models. The fundamental limitations and difficulties imposed by the one-dimensional nature of these models are extensively discussed. The validity of the assumptions and empirical laws used to close the system of conservation equations is critically reviewed, in light of the multidimensional aspects of the problem. Modifications that could improve the physics of the models are identified. (orig.) [de
Sucupira, Eduardo; Sabino, Miguel; Lima, Edson Luiz de; Dini, Gal Moreira; Brito, Maria José Azevedo de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions) with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach's alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively) and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively). The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Patient-reported outcome measurements assessing the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery are important for determining whether the intervention is indicated or not. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt and validate the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions for Brazilian Portuguese, test its psychometric properties and assess the emotional state of children and adolescents who seek plastic surgery. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-cultural validation study conducted in a plastic surgery outpatient clinic at a public university hospital. METHODS: A total of 124 consecutive patients of both sexes were selected between September 2013 and February 2014. Forty-seven patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the questionnaire. The final version was tested for reliability on 20 patients. Construct validity was tested on 57 patients by correlating the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (child/adolescent and parent versions with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale. RESULTS: The child/adolescent and parent versions of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire showed Cronbach’s alpha of 0.768 and 0.874, respectively, and had good inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.757 and ICC = 0.853, respectively and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.738 and ICC = 0.796, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire is a reproducible instrument with face, content and construct validity.The mood state and feelings among children and adolescents seeking cosmetic surgery were healthy.
Full Text Available People tend to overestimate emotional responses to future events. This study examined whether such affective forecasting errors occur for feelings of regret, as measured by self-report and subsequent decision-making. Some participants played a pricing game and lost by a narrow or wide margin, while others were asked to imagine losing by such margins. Participants who experienced a narrow loss reported more regret than those who imagined a narrow loss. Furthermore, those experiencing a narrow loss behaved more cautiously in a subsequent gambling task. Thus, the study provides self-report and behavioral evidence for a reversal of the affective forecasting phenomenon for feelings of regret.
Crisp, Victoria; Grayson, Rebecca
"Item difficulty modelling" is a technique used for a number of purposes such as to support future item development, to explore validity in relation to the constructs that influence difficulty and to predict the difficulty of items. This research attempted to explore the factors influencing question difficulty in a general qualification…
Full Text Available Objective. Report prevalence of functioning difficulties and disabilities among Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old and identify differences in characteristics of those with and without a functioning difficulty or disability Materials and methods. Using data from the National Survey of Boys, Girls and Women in Mexico 2015 we estimated prevalence of functioning difficulties and disability and used chi square tests for independence and logistic regression to explore associations between this condition and various characteristics. Results. Of Mexican adolescent women 15-17 years old, 11.1% had a functioning difficulty or disability. The group of domains of functioning difficulty and disability with by far the highest prevalence was socio-emotional and behavioral functioning difficulties or disability with 8.6%. Being employed, rural residence and self-reported depression symptoms were associated with having functioning difficulties or disability. Conclusions. This survey constitutes an important initial step in collecting data on functioning difficulty and disability in Mexico although larger samples should be studied.
Swanson, Scott R.; Wald, Karla A.
This paper describes a simple creative exercise that utilizes collage as a tool for student expression of feelings and impressions as well as reflection and understanding of the question "What is marketing?" This engaging activity can enhance student learning and understanding of the marketing field by identifying and clarifying…
The experience of practising psychotherapy as a clinical psychologist was explored through a small number of in-depth interviews. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, three main themes were identified: "Feeling there's something missing", "Being able to get in there emotionally" and "Needing somewhere to go for…
Guivarch, J; Cano, N
The return of restraint in psychiatry raises many ethical issues for caregivers. However their experience is little explored in literature. Our objective was to study the feelings of caregivers facing restraint with regard to an ethical perspective and to identify areas for improvement. Between November 2011 and February 2012 a descriptive cross-sectional epidemiological study was performed in two psychiatric emergency services and two closed units in which doctors and nurses were individually interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Five topics were explored: indications and contexts, impact on the patient, caregiver-patient relationship, perspective on the practice and feelings of caregivers on which we insist particularly. Results were presented in tables with percentages and possibly diagrams. The notable responses of caregivers were also cited. Twenty nurses and nine psychiatrists, mostly female, were recruited. They all had participated in experiments of restraint. The self-aggressiveness, the aggressiveness against other persons and agitation were the most frequent indications. In the patients, caregivers identified misunderstanding (79.3%) and anger (75.9%). The majority of nurses (75%) felt that there was an improvement in the caregiver-patient relationship after the episode of restraint compared to what it had been in the moments preceding this measure. The emotional experience of caregivers was rich, intense and predominantly negative type of frustration (35% of nurses; 66.7% of doctors), anger (30 and 33.3%) and lack of feeling (35 and 44.4%). The feelings of doctors and nurses were not completely similar. For caregivers it was "a difficult but necessary experience" (82.75%), "an act of care and safety" (68.9%). All psychiatrists and almost half of the nurses (45%) said they did not feel the same when they used seclusion. In their opinion, seclusion entailed a less painful experience because of its therapeutic properties. More than half of the
De Morgan, Augustus
One of the twentieth century's most eminent mathematical writers, Augustus De Morgan enriched his expositions with insights from history and psychology. On the Study and Difficulties of Mathematics represents some of his best work, containing points usually overlooked by elementary treatises, and written in a fresh and natural tone that provides a refreshing contrast to the mechanical character of common textbooks.Presuming only a knowledge of the rules of algebra and Euclidean theorems, De Morgan begins with some introductory remarks on the nature and objects of mathematics. He discusses the
Full Text Available We are living in a globalized world with increasing population which is facingsevere global economic and financial crises as well as serious environmentalproblems. The possibilities to overcome these difficulties can be interpreted asthe need for sustainable development calling for innovation, increased R Dspending with increased R D effectiveness and efficiency. Besides greaterattentionforthe need of deeper understanding of the innovation process and therole of R D in it, this paper has discussed the many analytical problems thatconfront a researcher in this area, and additionally calls for research oncollaboration between universities and industry. Among other conclusions thispaper also provides a new way of thinking for policy makers and performancemonitoring committees.
Bovone, Nora S; Fuente, María Cristina; Gastiazoro, Ana María; Alfonso, Graciela; Freitas, María Josefina
The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.
Engström, Ann-Louice Lövgreen; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson
The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics of the difficulties using everyday technology in persons with an aquired brain injury (ABI), and their experiences of how these difficulties influenced their life. Thirteen persons with an ABI were interviewed about their difficulties in using everyday technology and were observed in their use of technology. Data were analysed qualitatively with a constant comparative method. The results showed that the persons' experiences formed two categories: “A variety of combinations of difficulties in the use of everyday technology” and “Restrictions in life”. The difficulties identified were related not only to everyday technology itself but also to the interaction between the technology, the task, the person, and the environment. These difficulties influenced their experiences of restrictions in occupational performance, personal identification, and participation in society. The results emphasize that occupational therapists who design interventions for people with an ABI need to accommodate both the technology and other interacting aspects in order to overcome difficulties in using everyday technology.
Shin, Hye-Sun; Ahn, Yong-Soon; Lim, Do-Seon
To assess the association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in a representative sample of the Korean population. Cross-sectional. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). KNHANES participants (N = 5,158). Chewing difficulty was assessed according to the self-reported presence of chewing problems using a structured questionnaire. Symptoms of depression were defined as having feelings of sadness or depression consecutively over 2 weeks during the last 12 months. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the associations between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression, adjusted for age; sex; monthly household income; education; number of teeth; number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth; periodontitis; state of dentition; tooth brushing frequency; regular dental visits; smoking status; alcohol consumption; hypertension; diabetes mellitus; and obesity. The interaction effects between chewing difficulty and confounders were evaluated, and age- and sex-stratified analyses were performed. There was a significant positive association between chewing difficulty and symptoms of depression in the fully adjusted model (AOR = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.48-2.33). The strength of the association was highest in men aged 60 and older (AOR = 3.28, 95% CI = 1.54-7.00). Chewing difficulty was independently associated with symptoms of depression in a representative sample of Korean adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Addresses the question of whether education of the emotions is a coherent possibility. Argues that much confusion on the topic derives from the common myth of the separate and opposed faculties of feeling and reason, often reflected in misguided curriculum practice. Finds that education of emotions is a crucially important possibility, requiring…
Ito, Fuyuko; Sasaki, Yasunari; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori
Consumer Generated Media(CGM) is growing rapidly and the amount of content is increasing. However, it is often difficult for users to extract important contents and the existence of contents recording their experiences can easily be forgotten. As there are no methods or systems to indicate the subjective value of the contents or ways to reuse them, subjective annotation appending subjectivity, such as feelings and intentions, to contents is needed. Representation of subjectivity depends on not only verbal expression, but also nonverbal expression. Linguistically expressed annotation, typified by collaborative tagging in social bookmarking systems, has come into widespread use, but there is no system of nonverbally expressed annotation on the web. We propose the utilization of controllable avatars as a means of nonverbal expression of subjectivity, and confirmed the consistency of feelings elicited by avatars over time for an individual and in a group. In addition, we compared the expressiveness and ease of subjective annotation between collaborative tagging and controllable avatars. The result indicates that the feelings evoked by avatars are consistent in both cases, and using controllable avatars is easier than collaborative tagging for representing feelings elicited by contents that do not express meaning, such as photos.
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the feelings of economic powerlessness & alienation on self-employment intentions of young people. The data used in the study was collected through a survey of students at the National University of Lesotho, and the correlation and factor analyses, as well as ...
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
We investigated whether being poorly skilled in reading contributes to children's reported feelings of anger, distractibility, anxiety, sadness, loneliness, and social isolation. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal subsample of children (N = 3,308) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Multilevel logistic…
Parcells, Frank E.
Defining the media experience as the media and social interaction involved in any person's viewing of television and the consequences of that viewing for oneself and others, this paper examines how phenomenology and psychodrama--methods of experiential learning focusing on the feeling and imagining functions of communication--can be used to teach…
Garbinsky, E.; Klesse, A.K.; Aaker, J.
Across five studies, this research reveals that feeling powerful increases saving. This effect is driven by the desire to maintain one’s current state. When the purpose of saving is no longer to accumulate money but to spend it on a status-related product, the basic effect is reversed, and those who
It stands to reason that employees who feel better will take less time off because of illness and, consequently, improve their productivity. Rather than leave the health of their employees to chance, the Mercy Center for Health Care Services in Aurora, IL, put together a program that develops the total fitness of individual employees.
Fernald, Charles D.
Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…
Donnelly, Grant E.; Ksendzova, Masha; Howell, Ryan T.; Vohs, Kathleen D.; Baumeister, Roy F.
We propose that escape theory, which describes how individuals seek to free themselves from aversive states of self-awareness, helps explain key patterns of materialistic people's behavior. As predicted by escape theory, materialistic individuals may feel dissatisfied with their standard of living,
Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton
FeelSound is a multi-user application for collaboratively composing music in an entertaining way. Up to four composers can jointly create acoustic music on a top-projection multitouch sensitive table. The notes of an acoustic instrument are represented on a harmonic table and, by drawing shapes on
theology's obligation to rationality must at least include .... abstraction (i e the cognitive mode), he views 'feeling' (the inward, emotional nature .... with how the Spirit has affected selves in other times and contexts, and in this way the self ..... just the keeping alive of religious language and doctrine, the answer probably lies in.
Neidlinger, K.; Truong, K.P.; Telfair, C.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Dertien, E.; Evers, V.
Awe is a powerful, visceral sensation described as a sudden chill or shudder accompanied by goosebumps. People feel awe in the face of extraordinary experiences: The sublimity of nature, the beauty of art and music, the adrenaline rush of fear. Awe is healthy, both physically and mentally. It can be
Neidlinger, Kristin; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Telfair, Caty; Feijs, Loe; Dertien, Edwin Christian; Evers, Vanessa
Awe is a powerful, visceral sensation described as a sudden chill or shudder accompanied by goosebumps. People feel awe in the face of extraordinary experiences: the sublimity of nature, the beauty of art and music, the adrenaline rush of fear. Awe is healthy, both physically and mentally. It can be
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3,
MacKenzie, M.J.; Vohs, K. D.; Baumeister, R.F.
Four studies tested the hypothesis that a weaker belief in free will would be related to feeling less gratitude. In Studies 1a and 1b, a trait measure of free will belief was positively correlated with a measure of dispositional gratitude. In Study 2, participants whose free will belief was weakened
Rouhiainen, Leena; Hamalainen, Soili
This paper looks into the significance emotions and feelings can have in a collaborative dance-making process. This is done by introducing a narrative based on a dance pedagogy student's writings. They contain observations of her experiences on being the facilitating choreographer in a dance-making process involving a cross-artistic group of…
Full Text Available Siswa yang memiliki inferiority feeling selalu memandang rendah kemampuan yang dimiliki oleh dirinya. Untuk menutupi harga dirinya yang lemah, mereka akan melakukan kompensasi dengan cara menarik diri, bersikap agresif, ataupun membuat alasan. Sebagai upaya mengatasi inferiority feeling adalah dengan mengimplementasikan konseling kelompok dengan teknik manajemen diri. Teknik ini lebih menekankan pada pengelolaan diri yang timbul dari keinginan diri siswa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efektivitas konseling kelompok dengan menggunakan teknik manajemen diri untuk mengatasi inferiority feeling. Pengambilan subyek penelitian dilakukan secara non random menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kuasi eksperimen dengan desain non equivalent pretest posttest design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi menggunakan teknik manajemen diri efektif untuk menurunkan inferiority feeling pada subyek penelitian. Rekomendasi: (a Konselor sekolah, melakukan pemantauan secara berkala kepada siswa yang telah menjalani intervensi untuk melihat pengaruh jangka panjang dari intervensi yang telah diberikan; (b bagi peneliti selanjutnya dapat melakukan penelitian dengan keterlibatan pihak keluarga ataupun sahabat sebagai pendukung dalam memperoleh data mengenai keadaan sesungguhnya yang dialami oleh konsel
In line with familiar portrayals of Kant's ethics, interpreters of his philosophy of education focus essentially on its intellectual dimension: the notions of moral catechism, ethical gymnastics and ethical ascetics, to name but a few. By doing so, they usually emphasise Kant's negative stance towards the role of feelings in moral education. Yet…
Huber, Charles H.
Presents a cognitively based model, founded on rational emotive therapy, as a basis for assessment and intervention strategies for assisting individuals to cope with feelings of loss in response to divorce. The model is seen as a four-pane window through which persons might see their divorce. (Author/JAC)
Gray, Janet Dreyfus
Investigated how married professional women feel about the women's movement. Data revealed that the majority were working to change societal definitions of women's roles but that a sizable minority had little interest in the women's movement. The women's movement has also brought about increased role conflicts for many. (Author/BEF)
This article deals with the essence of religion proposed by Schleiermacher, namely 'the feeling of absolute dependence upon the Infinite'. In his theory of religious experience, and the language he used to express it, he claimed his work to be independent of concepts and beliefs. Epistemologically this is incompatible.
... Can Do If You're Bullied Self-Esteem Self-Esteem Issues: What You Can Do Depression Print en español Abordar tus propios sentimientos cuando tienes sobrepeso Recognizing Feelings Living through our teen years comes with all sorts of changes and ...
Konyo, Masashi; Tadokoro, Satoshi; Takamori, Toshi; Oguro, Keisuke
A tactile feel display device for virtual reality was developed using Nafion-Platinum composite type EAP actuator (known as IPMC or ICPF). Conventional tactile displays can hardly express tactile human feeling of the fine touch of the surface of a cloth, because their mechanisms cannot excite minute distributed stimuli on human skin. We propose a new ciliary device using ICPF actuators. The ICPF has sufficient softness, utilizing the passive material property, that complex control is not required. The low drive voltage is safe enough for the touch of fingers. Its simple operation mechanism allows miniaturization for practical equipments. The developed device was designed with a number of cilia consisting of ICPF actuators, where a cilium is 2 mm wide and 5 mm long. An ICPF membrane is cut into pectination, and only the cilium part is plated and has a function of an actuator. An inclined configuration of the cilia produces variety of stimuli to human skin controlling frequencies. We tried to display both pressure and vibration at the same time using modulated low and high frequencies. The result clearly shows that over 80% of the subjects sensed some special tactile feeling. A comparison with real material samples shows that this display can present a subtle distinction of tactile feeling of cloth, especially like a towel and denim.
Ten Klooster, Peter M; Christenhusz, Lieke C A; Taal, Erik; Eggelmeijer, Frank; van Woerkom, Jan-Maarten; Rasker, Johannes J
This study aims to determine whether patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience more general feelings of guilt and shame than their peers without RA and to examine possible correlates of guilt and shame in RA. In a cross-sectional survey study, 85 out-patients with RA (77 % female; median disease duration, 11 years) and 59 peer controls completed the Experience of Shame Scale (ESS) and the Test of Self-Conscious Affect (TOSCA). Patients additionally completed measures of health status, self-efficacy, cognitive emotion regulation, and numerical rating scales for life satisfaction and happiness. Patients and peer controls were well matched for sociodemographic characteristics. No significant differences between patients and controls were found for guilt or different types of shame as measured with the TOSCA or ESS. In multivariate analyses, female patients reported more feelings of bodily shame and higher guilt proneness, while younger patients reported more character and bodily shame. Worse social functioning and more self-blaming coping strategies were the strongest independent correlates of shame. Shame proneness was only independently associated with more self-blame, whereas guilt proneness was only associated with female sex. None of the physical aspects of the disease, including pain and physical functioning, correlated with feelings of guilt and shame. Patients with longstanding RA do not experience more general feelings of shame or guilt than their peers without RA. Shame and guilt in RA is primarily associated with demographic and psychosocial characteristics and not with physical severity of the disease.
Abstract. This study examined spatial pattern of crime and residents' fear and feeling of insecurity in Ile-Ife,. Nigeria. To obtain the primary data, Ile-Ife was stratified into four residential zones namely traditional town centre, middle income, high income and post-crisis residential areas. Sample was selected using systematic ...
Wakefield, J C; Schmitz, M F
To establish which symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE) predict postremission suicide attempts in complicated single-episode cases. Using the nationally representative two-wave National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data set, we identified wave 1 lifetime single-episode MDE cases in which the episode remitted by the beginning of the wave 2 three-year follow-up period (N = 2791). The analytic sample was further limited to 'complicated' cases (N = 1872) known to have elevated suicide attempt rates, defined as having two or more of the following: suicidal ideation, marked role impairment, feeling worthless, psychomotor retardation, and prolonged (>6 months) duration. Logistic regression analyses showed that, after controlling for wave 1 suicide attempt which significantly predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 10.0), the additional complicated symptom 'feelings of worthlessness' during the wave 1 index episode significantly and very substantially predicted postremission suicide attempt (OR = 6.96). Neither wave 1 psychomotor retardation nor wave 1 suicidal ideation nor any of the other wave 1 depressive symptoms were significant predictors of wave 2 suicide attempt. Among depressive symptoms during an MDE, feelings of worthlessness is the only significant indicator of elevated risk of suicide attempt after the episode has remitted, beyond previous suicide attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sampaio, Maria Nobre; Capellini, Simone Aparecida
To develop an intervention procedure for spelling difficulties and to verify the effectiveness of the intervention program in students with lower spelling performance. We developed an intervention program for spelling difficulties, according to the semiology of the errors. The program consisted of three modules totaling 16 sessions. The study included 40 students of the third to fifth grade of public elementary education of the city of Marilia (SP), of both genders, in aged of eight to 12 years old, being distributed in the following groups: GI (20 students with lower spelling performance) and GII (20 students with higher spelling performance). In situation of pre and post-testing, all groups were submitted to the Pro-Orthography. The results statistically analyzed showed that, in general, all groups had average of right that has higher in post-testing, reducing the types of errors second semiologycal classification, mainly related to natural spelling errors. However, the results also showed that the groups submitted to the intervention program showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. The intervention program developed was effective once the groups submitted showed better performance on spelling tests in relation to not submitted. Therefore, the intervention program can help professionals in the Health and Education to minimize the problems related to spelling, giving students an intervention that is effective for the development of the spelling knowledge.
Roh, Su Yeon
This study is aimed at exploring ideas for the development of Pilates instructor qualification system by identifying a range of difficulties Pilates instructors are experiencing. Open-ended questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data before they were analyzed with inductive content analysis method. In consideration of the difficulties Pilates instructors experience during three qualification stages (before-during-after qualification education), three key categ...
Lynskey, M T; Fergusson, D M
The aims of this study were to identify the factors which discriminated young people exposed to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who developed psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties in young adulthood from those young people exposed to CSA who did not develop psychiatric disorder or adjustment difficulties by age 18. Data were gathered on a birth cohort of 1,025 New Zealand children studied from birth to the age of 18 on (a) exposure to CSA; (b) patterns of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties at age 18 years; (c) factors that may have influenced responses to CSA including characteristics of the abuse, parental bonding, parental characteristics, and adolescent peer affiliations. Just over 10% of the cohort reported CSA. Those reporting CSA were at increased risks of a range of difficulties at age 18 (depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, other substance abuse/dependence, post sexual abuse trauma, attempted suicide). However, not all of those exposed to CSA developed difficulties and approximately a quarter of those exposed to CSA did not meet criteria for any adjustment difficulty. Further analysis suggested that the extent of adjustment difficulties in those exposed to CSA was influenced by two additional factors: (a) the extent of affiliations with delinquent or substance using peers in adolescence; and (b) the extent of paternal care or support in childhood. The findings of this study suggest that while young people exposed to CSA are at increased risks of psychiatric disorder and adjustment difficulties in young adulthood, not all individuals exposed to CSA will develop adjustment difficulties. Important factors protecting against the development of adjustment difficulties in young people experiencing CSA appear to be the nature and quality of peer and family relationships.
Harris, Sarah; Gilbert, Matthew; Beasant, Lucy; Linney, Catherine; Broughton, Jessica; Crawley, Esther
An estimated 10% of children and adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) experience eating difficulties; however, little is known about why these difficulties develop, what the impact is or how to manage them. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with adolescents (aged 12-17 years) attending a specialist service who have a primary diagnosis of CFS/ME and experience nausea, abdominal pain and/or eating difficulties. A total of 11 adolescents were interviewed (eight female, mean age: 15 years). Transcripts were analysed thematically using techniques of constant comparison which commenced soon after data collection and informed further interview protocols. Adolescents perceived their eating difficulties were caused by abdominal symptoms, being too fatigued to eat and changes to their senses of taste and smell. Some of the adolescents recognised how their eating difficulties were exacerbated and maintained by psychological factors of low mood and anxiety. The adolescents eating difficulties had a negative impact on their weight, fatigue, socialising and family life. They perceived helpful interventions to include modifying their diets, families adjusting and also medical interventions (e.g. medication). Adolescents identified that early education and support about diet and eating habits would have been helpful. If adolescents diagnosed with CFS/ME develop eating difficulties, this has a significant impact on their quality of life, illness and on their families. Not eating increases fatigue, low mood and anxiety which further exacerbates the eating difficulties. Clinicians should screen for eating difficulties in those with symptoms of nausea and abdominal pain, warn adolescents and their families of the risk of developing eating difficulties and provide interventions and support as early as possible.
Gibson, Todd A; Oller, D Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda
Receptive standardized vocabulary scores have been found to be much higher than expressive standardized vocabulary scores in children with Spanish as L1, learning L2 (English) in school (Gibson et al., 2012). Here we present evidence suggesting the receptive-expressive gap may be harder to evaluate than previously thought because widely-used standardized tests may not offer comparable normed scores. Furthermore monolingual Spanish-speaking children tested in Mexico and monolingual English-speaking children in the US showed other, yet different statistically significant discrepancies between receptive and expressive scores. Results suggest comparisons across widely used standardized tests in attempts to assess a receptive-expressive gap are precarious.
Moore, T; Sutton, K; Maybery, D
The recruitment, retention and training of mental health workers is of major concern in rural Australia, and the Gippsland region of Victoria is no exception. Previous studies have identified a number of common factors in these workforce difficulties, including rurality, difficulties of access to professional development and training, and professional and personal isolation. However, those previous studies have often focused on medicine and been based on the perspectives of practitioners, and have almost ignored the perspectives of managers of rural mental health services. The study reported in this article sought to contribute to the development of a more sustainable and effective regional mental health workforce by complementing earlier insights with those of leading administrators, managers and senior clinicians in the field. The study took a qualitative approach. It conducted semi-structured in-person interviews with 24 managers of health/mental-health services and senior administrators and clinicians working in organisations of varying sizes in the public and private sectors. Thematic content analysis of the transcribed interviews identified core difficulties these managers experienced in the recruitment, retention and training of employees. The study found that some of the issues commonly resulting in difficulties in recruiting, retaining and developing a trained workforce in rural areas, such as rurality (implying personal and professional isolation, distances to deliver service and small organisations) and a general shortage of trained personnel, are significant in Gippsland. Through its focus on the perspectives of leaders in the management of rural mental health services, however, the study found other key issues that contribute to workforce difficulties. Many, including the unattractive nature of mental health work, the fragmented administration of the mental health system, short-term and tied funding, and shortcomings in training are external to
Sullivan, Justin; Pappas, Evangelos; Adams, Roger; Crosbie, Jack; Burns, Joshua
Plantar heel pain is a common foot disorder aggravated by weight-bearing activity. Despite considerable focus on therapeutic interventions such as orthoses, there has been limited investigation of footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether people with plantar heel pain experience footwear-related difficulties compared to asymptomatic individuals, as well as identifying factors associated with footwear comfort, fit and choice. The footwear domain of the Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ) was assessed in 192 people with plantar heel pain and 69 asymptomatic controls. The plantar heel pain group was also assessed on a variety of measures including: foot posture, foot strength and flexibility, pedobarography and pain level. A univariate analysis of covariance, with age as the covariate, was used to compare the heel pain and control groups on the FHSQ footwear domain score. A multiple regression model was then constructed to investigate factors associated with footwear scores among participants with plantar heel pain. When compared to asymptomatic participants, people with plantar heel pain reported lower FHSQ footwear domain scores (mean difference -24.4; p footwear scores were associated with maximum force beneath the postero-lateral heel during barefoot walking, toe flexor strength and gender. People with plantar heel pain experience difficulty with footwear comfort, fit and choice. Reduced heel loading during barefoot walking, toe flexor weakness and female gender are all independently associated with reports of footwear difficulties in people with heel pain. Increased focus, in both clinical and research settings, is needed to address footwear-related issues in people with plantar heel pain.
Jacobs, W.R. Jr.
The regulatory agency assigned the task of regulating the initial entry into the field of nuclear power generation by a developing country has a very difficult job. Based on the authors' experience during the start-up and initial operation of Ko-Ri Unit I, the first power reactor in the Republic of Korea, observations on regulatory difficulties and recommendations for improved regulatory effectiveness are offered. The problem areas can be loosely grouped into three general categories: (1) Lack of adequate technical knowledge which is the basis for all effective regulation; (2) Difficulties with understanding and utilization of the required regulatory documentation; (3) Failure to establish the proper regulatory environment. Examples are cited from actual experience during the Ko-Ri Unit I start-up to demonstrate the impact that regulatory activities can have on a plant construction and testing programme. The problems encountered are not unique to developing countries but also exist in the United States of America. Recommendations are offered which should be beneficial to either newly formed regulatory agencies or agencies wishing to improve their abilities and effectiveness. These include: (1) Additional training of regulatory inspectors in plant operations; (2) Additional experience gained by participation in regulatory activities in other countries; (3) Increased attention given to regulatory documents, especially plant technical specifications; (4) Establishment of formal lines of communication between the utility and the regulatory agency; (5) Clear definition of regulatory responsibilities to avoid areas of overlapping jurisdiction; (6) Active participation by the regulatory staff very early in the project. It is hoped that these and other recommendations offered will greatly improve regulatory effectiveness and at the same time demonstrate that when the decision is made to 'go nuclear', a strong commitment must be made to develop and support a technically
Full Text Available The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person’s understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; Baily, Charles; Kelly, Mossy; De Cock, Mieke
The ability to switch between various representations is an invaluable problem-solving skill in physics. In addition, research has shown that using multiple representations can greatly enhance a person's understanding of mathematical and physical concepts. This paper describes a study of student difficulties regarding interpreting, constructing, and switching between representations of vector fields, using both qualitative and quantitative methods. We first identified to what extent students are fluent with the use of field vector plots, field line diagrams, and symbolic expressions of vector fields by conducting individual student interviews and analyzing in-class student activities. Based on those findings, we designed the Vector Field Representations test, a free response assessment tool that has been given to 196 second- and third-year physics, mathematics, and engineering students from four different universities. From the obtained results we gained a comprehensive overview of typical errors that students make when switching between vector field representations. In addition, the study allowed us to determine the relative prevalence of the observed difficulties. Although the results varied greatly between institutions, a general trend revealed that many students struggle with vector addition, fail to recognize the field line density as an indication of the magnitude of the field, confuse characteristics of field lines and equipotential lines, and do not choose the appropriate coordinate system when writing out mathematical expressions of vector fields.
Xu, Lihua; Clarke, David
Density has been reported as one of the most difficult concepts for secondary school students (e.g. Smith et al. 1997). Discussion about the difficulties of learning this concept has been largely focused on the complexity of the concept itself or student misconceptions. Few, if any, have investigated how the concept of density was constituted in classroom interactions, and what consequences these interactions have for individual students' conceptual understanding. This paper reports a detailed analysis of two lessons on density in a 7th Grade Australian science classroom, employing the theory of Distributed Cognition (Hollan et al. 1999; Hutchins 1995). The analysis demonstrated that student understanding of density was shaped strongly by the public classroom discussion on the density of two metal blocks. It also revealed the ambiguities associated with the teacher demonstration and the student practical work. These ambiguities contributed to student difficulties with the concept of density identified in this classroom. The results of this study suggest that deliberate effort is needed to establish shared understanding not only about the purpose of the activities, but also about the meaning of scientific language and the utility of tools. It also suggests the importance of appropriate employment of instructional resources in order to facilitate student scientific understanding.
Full Text Available Many countries recognize the positive and effective results of improving science education through the introduction of reforms in the sciences curriculum. However, some important issues are generally neglected like, for example, the involvement of the teachers in the reform process. Taking the sciences curriculum reform under analysis and benefitting from 10 years of teachers’ experiences in teaching sciences based on this curriculum, 19 semi-structure interviews were applied so as to identify the major difficulties felt by science teachers when implementing the Portuguese sciences curriculum in the third cycle of middle school (pupils’ age range of 12–15. Some of the difficulties depicted by the data analysis include: length of the curriculum, lack of time, unsuitable laboratory facilities, insufficient means and materials for experimental work, pupils’ indiscipline and little interest in learning sciences. Although less frequently mentioned, the lack of professional development was also referred to as a constraint that seems to play an essential role in this process. Some recommendations for improving the success of sciences curriculum reforms’ implementation are given: defining and conceptualizing curricular policies by relating the reality of both the schools and the science classrooms; reorganizing and restructuring pre-service teachers’ courses; organizing professional development courses for in-service teachers.
Kristensson-Hallström, I; Elander, G
Twenty parents of boys (ages 2-14 years) hospitalized for hypospadias repair in a pediatric surgery department in Sweden, were interviewed concerning their experience when their child was hospitalized. A qualitative analysis of the interviews indicated that the most important issue to the parents was finding security at the hospital. Parents manifested one of three different strategies that enabled them to feel secure at the hospital; (a) relinquishing the care of their children to the nursing staff; (b) obtaining a measure of control over their children's care; and (c) relying on knowing their child best. The parental strategy adopted to feel secure was found to correspond with the way parents experienced the hospitalization. Differences were found in their children's experiences of pain and the alleviation of the pain during the hospitalization.
Mota, Marina Soares; Gomes, Giovana Calcagno; Coelho, Monique Farias; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; de Sousa, Lenice Dutra
This study aims to know the reactions and feelings of nursing professionals facing their patients' death. This qualitative research was developed at the Medical Clinic Unit of a university hospital in Southern Brazil. The population of the study was composed of four nurses and five nursing technicians that work at this unit. Data were collected in the second semester of 2006 through semi-structured interviews and analyzed with the use of thematic analysis. The analysisproduced three categories reactions of nursing professionals facing death in daily work, feelings towards facing death in daily work; and nursing team members facing the care of the body after death. Results indicate that there is a need for discussing this issue in the workplace in order to prepare these healthcare workers to deal with their patients' death.
Linardon, Jake; Phillipou, Andrea; Castle, David; Newton, Richard; Harrison, Philippa; Cistullo, Leonardo L; Griffiths, Scott; Hindle, Annemarie; Brennan, Leah
Although widely discussed in theories of eating disorders, the experience of "feeling fat" in this population has received little research attention. This study tested the unique relationships between feeling fat and measures of problematic eating behaviours and attitudes. Data were analysed from individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 123) and bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 51). Correlations revealed considerable unshared variance between feeling fat and shape and weight over-evaluation and depressive symptoms. Moreover, when over-evaluation and depressive symptoms were controlled, feeling fat predicted unique variance in restraint and eating concerns. Findings offer some support for the idea that feeling fat is a distinct and important component of body image concerns in eating disorders. Further research that develops a standardized measure of feeling fat is required. Further research that examines whether feeling fat is an important treatment mechanism is also needed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Persistent racial and ethnic gaps in educational achievement have focused policy attention on school climate and safety as important elements of educational performance. In a special issue of Educational Researcher focused on safety and order in schools, Cornell and Mayer (2010) argue that school safety and school order are fundamental to studies of the achievement gap, teacher attrition, and student engagement. This paper represents the first large-scale analysis of how feelings of safety at...
Seibt, C.; Schubert, T. W.; Zickfeld, J. H.; Fiske, A. P.
The emotion commonly labeled in English as being moved or touched is widely experienced but only tacitly defined, and has received little systematic attention. Based on a review of conceptualizations from various disciplines, we hypothesize that events appraised as an increase in interpersonal closeness, or as moral acts, when sufficiently intense, elicit a positive emotion typically labeled “being moved,” and characterized by tears, goosebumps, and a feeling of warmth in the chest. We predic...
Carlos Eduardo Marquioni
Full Text Available The objective of this text is to present some reflections on theinsertion of a new model of television in Brazil (interactive digital TV,adopting the concept of culture as the center to think of the television system.The notion for structure of feeling, by Raymond Williams, opens up atype of new window that helps to understand this new television whichis being implanted.
Anggara, B.; Priatna, N.; Juandi, D.
Identifying students' difficulties in learning concept of probability is important for teachers to prepare the appropriate learning processes and can overcome obstacles that may arise in the next learning processes. This study revealed the level of students' understanding of the concept of probability and identified their difficulties as a part of the epistemological obstacles identification of the concept of probability. This study employed a qualitative approach that tends to be the character of descriptive research involving 55 students of class XII. In this case, the writer used the diagnostic test of probability concept learning difficulty, observation, and interview as the techniques to collect the data needed. The data was used to determine levels of understanding and the learning difficulties experienced by the students. From the result of students' test result and learning observation, it was found that the mean cognitive level was at level 2. The findings indicated that students had appropriate quantitative information of probability concept but it might be incomplete or incorrectly used. The difficulties found are the ones in arranging sample space, events, and mathematical models related to probability problems. Besides, students had difficulties in understanding the principles of events and prerequisite concept.
Tomcikova, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; van Dijk, Jitse P
The aim of this study was to explore the association between parental divorce and adolescent drunkenness and the contribution of adolescents' feelings toward their parents to this association. Cross-sectional data on 3,694 elementary school students from several cities in Slovakia (mean age 14.3, 49.0% males; response rate 93%) were obtained. Respondents completed questionnaires on how often they had been drunk in the previous 4 weeks, whether their parents were divorced and a measure of their feelings toward their parents. Parental divorce was found to have an effect on adolescent drunkenness in the previous month, as were the high rates of negative and low rates of positive feelings toward both parents. The effect of divorce on drunkenness strongly decreased if adjusted for the affect of the adolescent toward the father, but not the mother. Our findings indicate that to keep the father positively involved after divorce might be a protective factor with regard to a higher probability of adolescent drunkenness in divorced families. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Gouva, M; Mentis, M; Kotrotsiou, S; Paralikas, Th; Kotrotsiou, E
Shame is a crucial issue for Roma. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the severity of shame and anxiety feelings in a Roma population living in Greece and assess the differentiation of these feelings between Roma men and women. A quota sample of 194 Roma adult men and women living in Southern Greece was retrieved. The Experiences of Shame Scale (ESS), the Other As Shamer Scale (OAS) and the Spielberg's State/Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used. Women scored statistically significantly higher than men on ESS, whereas men scored higher on OAS scale (52.27 ± 16.91 vs 45.42 ± 9.98 and 35.93 ± 16.94 vs 30.87 ± 13.72 respectively). Women scored higher than men in both STAI subscales, however significant differences were observed only in State Anxiety scale (48.83 ± 9.26 vs 43.20 ± 9.81). OAS total score was inversely related to state anxiety, whereas ESS total score was positive related to trait anxiety, all correlations being significant at p Cultural, social and minority issues contribute to feelings of inferiority and anxiety experience.
Maffini, Cara S; Wong, Y Joel
Although measures of cultural identity, values, and behavior exist in the multicultural psychological literature, there is currently no measure that explicitly assesses ethnic minority individuals' positive and negative affect toward culture. Therefore, we developed 2 new measures called the Feelings About Culture Scale--Ethnic Culture and Feelings About Culture Scale--Mainstream American Culture and tested their psychometric properties. In 6 studies, we piloted the measures, conducted factor analyses to clarify their factor structure, and examined reliability and validity. The factor structure revealed 2 dimensions reflecting positive and negative affect for each measure. Results provided evidence for convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity as well as the reliability of the scales. The Feelings About Culture Scales are the first known measures to examine both positive and negative affect toward an individual's ethnic culture and mainstream American culture. The focus on affect captures dimensions of psychological experiences that differ from cognitive and behavioral constructs often used to measure cultural orientation. These measures can serve as a valuable contribution to both research and counseling by providing insight into the nuanced affective experiences ethnic minority individuals have toward culture. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Brenner, Allison B; Clarke, Philippa J
The built, social and economic environments are associated with disability, but knowledge of how these environmental characteristics simultaneously influence older adults' ability to shop independently is limited. We investigated cross-sectional associations between the outdoor home, local neighborhood and macrosocioeconomic levels of the environment and shopping difficulty and interactions between environmental factors and shopping difficulty. Using nationally representative data from a study of Medicare-eligible adults, we conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis to examine associations between the environment and difficulty shopping (N = 5504). Sidewalk conditions, broken steps, neighborhood social cohesion and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage were associated with more difficulty shopping, although health factors partially accounted for associations between broken steps and disadvantage and shopping difficulty. The association between social cohesion and shopping difficulty also depended on the degree of socioeconomic disadvantage in the neighborhood. Overall, results suggest that factors in the outdoor and local neighborhood environment influence the ability to shop independently for older adults, but that it also may depend on the socioeconomic context of the neighborhood. Interventions aimed at improving the built environment directly outside of older adults' homes and helping increase social cohesion among neighbors, has the potential to reduce difficulty in carrying out this important activity. Implications for rehabilitation Built features of the outdoor home environment including sidewalks and broken steps influence whether older adults are able to safely leave their home to conduct daily activities such as shopping, so it is important that clinicians and rehabilitation professionals are aware of these challenges when helping their patients resume daily activities such as shopping. The physical condition and safety of the immediate
Full Text Available Students’ difficulties commonly are analyzed based on misconception theory. This paper aimed to analyze students’ difficulties on the rotational dynamic based on resource theory. The subject of research consisted of 108 first-year undergraduate students of Physics Education, State University of Malang. Firstly, the students were asked to solve 15 multiple-choice questions and gave open explanation. We then implemened a constant comparative method to identify and categorize some resources that students employed in solving several problems that most the students failed to respond correctly. The results indicated that the students had difficulties in solving problems related to the torque and the equilibrium of rigid body. The students’ difficulties were not merely caused by the lack of correct knowledge. Instead, they have the correct knowledge or resources but they activated them on inappropriate context. The students will be successfully used the resources to solve problems if they activated them in the right context.
Mohsin, M. Naeem; Shabbir, Muhammad; Saeed, Wizra; Mohsin, M. Saleem
The study was conducted to know the status of Muslim immigrants' children with learning difficulties and importance of parents' involvement for the education whose children are with learning difficulties, and the factors responsible for the learning difficulties among immigrants' children. There were 81 immigrant children with learning…
Esma Emmioglu Sarikaya
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: This paper examined the balance and meaning of two types of experiences in the day-to-day activity of doctoral students that draw them into academia and that move them away from academia: ‘feeling like an academic and belonging to an academic community;’ and ‘not feeling like an academic and feeling excluded from an academic community.’ Background: As students navigate doctoral work, they are learning what is entailed in being an academic by engaging with their peers and more experienced academics within their community. They are also personally and directly experiencing the rewards as well as the challenges related to doing academic work. Methodology\t: This study used a qualitative methodology; and daily activity logs as a data collection method. The data was collected from 57 PhD students in the social sciences and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields at two universities in the UK and two in Canada. Contribution: The current study moves beyond the earlier studies by elaborating on how academic activities contribute/hinder doctoral students’ sense of being an academic. Findings: The participants of the study generally focused on disciplinary/scholarly rather than institutional/service aspects of academic work, aside from teaching, and regarded a wide range of activities as having more positive than negative meanings. The findings related to both extrinsic and intrinsic factors that play important roles in students’ experiences of feeling (or not like academics are elaborated in the study. Recommendations for Practitioners: Supervisors should encourage their students to develop their own support networks and to participate in a wide range of academic activities as much as possible. Supervisors should encourage students to self-assess and to state the activities they feel they need to develop proficiency in. Future Research: More research is needed to examine the role of teaching in doctoral
Full Text Available Individuals with high levels of alexithymia, a personality trait marked by difficulties in identifying and describing feelings and an externally oriented style of thinking, appear to require more time to accurately recognize intense emotional facial expressions (EFEs. However, in everyday life, EFEs are displayed at different levels of intensity and individuals with high alexithymia may also need more emotional intensity to identify EFEs. Nevertheless, the impact of alexithymia on the identification of EFEs, which vary in emotional intensity, has largely been neglected. To address this, two experiments were conducted in which participants with low (LA and high (HA levels of alexithymia were assessed in their ability to identify static (Experiment 1 and dynamic (Experiment 2 morphed faces ranging from neutral to intense EFEs. Results showed that HA needed more emotional intensity than LA to identify static fearful – but not happy or disgusted – faces. On the contrary, no evidence was found that alexithymia affected the identification of dynamic EFEs. These results extend current literature suggesting that alexithymia is related to the need for more perceptual information to identify static fearful EFEs.
Afsharpaiman, S; Saburi, A; Waters, Karen A
Respiratory difficulties and breathing disorders in achondroplasia are thought to underlie the increased risk for sudden infant death and neuropsychological deficits seen in this condition. This review evaluates literature regarding respiratory dysfunctions and their sequelae in patients with achondroplasia. The limited number of prospective studies of respiratory disease in achondroplasia means that observational studies and case series provide a large proportion of the data regarding the spectrum of respiratory diseases in achondroplasia and their treatments. Amongst clinical respiratory problems described, snoring is the commonest observed abnormality, but the reported incidence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) shows wide variance (10% to 75%). Reported treatments of OSA include adenotonsillectomy, the use of CPAP, and surgical improvement of the airway, including mid-face advancement. Otolaryngologic manifestations are also common. Respiratory failure due to small thoracic volumes is reported, but uncommon. Mortality rate at all ages was 2.27 (CI: 1.7-3.0) with age-specific mortality increased at all ages. Sudden death was most common in infants and children. Cardiovascular events are the main cause of mortality in adults. Despite earlier recognition and treatment of respiratory complications of achondroplasia, increased mortality rates and other complications remain high. Future and ongoing evaluation of the prevalence and impact of respiratory disorders, particularly OSA, in achondroplasia is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tian, Jing; Siegler, Robert S
Learning fractions is difficult for children in general and especially difficult for children with mathematics difficulties (MD). Recent research on developmental and individual differences in fraction knowledge of children with MD and typically achieving (TA) children has demonstrated that U.S. children with MD start middle school behind their TA peers in fraction understanding and fall further behind during middle school. In contrast, Chinese children, who like the MD children in the United States score in the bottom one third of the distribution in their country, possess reasonably good fraction understanding. We interpret these findings within the framework of the integrated theory of numerical development. By emphasizing the importance of fraction magnitude knowledge for numerical understanding in general, the theory proved useful for understanding differences in fraction knowledge between MD and TA children and for understanding how knowledge can be improved. Several interventions demonstrated the possibility of improving fraction magnitude knowledge and producing benefits that generalize to fraction arithmetic learning among children with MD. The reasonably good fraction understanding of Chinese children with MD and several successful interventions with U.S. students provide hope for the improvement of fraction knowledge among American children with MD.
Marshall, Jeanne; Hill, Rebecca J; Ware, Robert S; Ziviani, Jenny; Dodrill, Pamela
The aim of the study was to determine whether operant conditioning (OC) or systematic desensitization (SysD) intervention resulted in more improvements in dietary variety/intake, and more reductions in difficult mealtime behaviors. Children 2 to 6 years with autism spectrum disorder or with a nonmedically complex history were recruited. Feeding difficulties were confirmed based on clinical assessment. Participants were randomized to receive 10 OC or SysD sessions (parents could opt for intervention once per week, or intensively within a week). Immersive parent education was delivered across both arms. A 3-month review was provided to measure outcomes postintervention. In total, 68 participants (87%) completed the study. There were no significant differences in outcome measures between the OC and SysD intervention groups from baseline to 3-month review. When the data were combined across both groups, however, significant improvements in primary outcome measures were observed (P education, these 2 intervention approaches are effective. Further research is required in exploring these interventions across other subgroups, and examining outcomes for longer periods.
After an introduction by S. Kepes (Fertilite Orthogenie 4(4): 174-177,1972) the participants and audience discussed general topics such as the physician-patient relationship, unconscious motives, attitudes of male partners and physicians, and treatment of minors. Resistance by male partners toward contraception was considered due to fear of inadequacy in the face of female sexuality or to adherence to a double moral standard for wives. A gynecologist claimed that high school students are more likely to request contraception and use it effectively than they were 5 years ago; a midwife said that less privileged adolescents frequently become pregnant. Opinions were expressed that it is inappropriate to consider contraception from a psychological viewpoint, since it is part of a revolution toward a better life; that some psychological difficulties come from the doctor having preferences for certain methods; that the pill does not cause frigidity but is often blamed for preexisting problems; that the press frightens women away from taking the pill; that physicians should prescribe contraception to minors without seeking parental consent (unlawful in France).
A very important increase in the costs of the edition of scientific journals has taken place in Venezuela, due to difficulties in obtaining imported free acid paper and other materials used for handling documents. Like other journals, Investigaci6n Clinica has been considering switching completely to a digital publication format; however there are several reasons that prevent us to doing it at this time: the journal is distributed in printed form to many national institutions, which do not have immediate access to digital information. In addition, there exists a commitment of shipment of printed issues for some international indices and in exchange with other national and foreign journals, whose printed format we receive. Another important aspect is that our University maintains a weak technological platform that makes difficult the immediacy required for the interchange with authors and consulted referees of received papers; and there is a latent danger of limitations in the use of digital technologies, due to current national politic problems. Consequently, we need to continue with the printed format, but must reduce the amount of printed issues, so as not to limit the number of papers published in each edition. Nevertheless, there is an ever increasing number of contributions from foreign researches and Investigaci6n Clinica has been recently included in two new international indices, the SEIIC from Argentina and the Infobase Index from India, reasons that obligate us to maintain our levels of excellence and commitment to our authors and readers.
In the field of environmental psychology, there is rapidly growing interest in the concept of connectivity with nature, describing an individual's sense of being connected with nature. The author developed a new scale for assessing feelings toward nature, including connectedness. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a five-factor model consisting of restorativeness, oneness, mystery, care, and aversion. Then, the relationships among availability of nature in respondents' neighborhood, age, and each subscale score of the Feelings toward Nature Scale, were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The availability of nature in neighborhoods was assessed using a geographic information system and respondents' subjective evaluations. Results indicate that overall connectedness to nature is weaker as availability of nature decreases, as assessed by subjective evaluation. Results also suggest that aversion toward nature in younger people is relatively stronger than in older generations.
Holm, Marja E; Aunio, Pirjo; Björn, Piia M; Klenberg, Liisa; Korhonen, Johan; Hannula, Markku S
This study investigates behavioral executive functions (EFs) in the mathematics classroom context among adolescents with different mathematics performance levels. The EF problems were assessed by teachers using a behavioral rating inventory. Using cutoff scores on a standardized mathematics assessment, groups with mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 124), low mathematics performance (LA; n = 140), and average or higher scores (AC; n = 355) were identified. Results showed that the MD group had more problems with distractibility, directing attention, shifting attention, initiative, execution of action, planning, and evaluation than the LA group, whereas the differences in hyperactivity, impulsivity, and sustaining attention were not significant. Compared to the AC group, the MD group showed more problems with all behavioral EFs except hyperactivity and impulsivity, while the LA group showed more problems only with shifting attention. Male adolescents showed more behavioral EF problems than female adolescents, but this gender difference was negligible within the MD group. The practical implications of the results are discussed.
Maria Cristina Rodrigues Azevedo Joly
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the performance in children’s writing at a basic grade level. A written test was applied to 546 grade 2 or 3 boys and girls (aged 7 to 13 in public and private schools from the State of São Paulo. The results showed that the grade 3 participants presented a better performance than the grade 2 participants even though both groups have achieved the same maximum and minimum scores. It was confirmed that participants had more difficulty with words containing compound syllables, while words with aggregated consonants and digraphs were associated with the highest rate of correct answers. Furthermore, students from private school revealed more competence in orthographic writing than those coming from public schools. As to gender differences, there were no significant differences in performance for compound and complex syllables items though for other words, girls had better scores. Keywords: writing; academic achievement; evaluation.
This work uses clinical examples to explore sources of conflict and denial of patients and physicians during contraception consultations. The discovery of oral contraceptives (OCs) and improvements in mechanical contraception raised hopes that couples could achieve total control of their fertility. But continued high abortion rates and the persistence of sexual problems and maladjustments have demonstrated that contraception alone is not a panacea. Conflicts about contraception may be conscious and quickly expressed during a consultation, even if a medical pretext is given. The resentment when 1 partner desires a child and the other does not for example can translate into a conflict about contraception. Some women are fully aware of their own ambivalence about pregnancy and contraception and able to express it openly, but very often the woman's concerns are expressed by questions, fears, and verbal slips. The fear that pills are unnatural or will cause congenital defects can be interpreted as an expression of guilt over the pleasure that pills permit. Sterility is the ultimate fear caused by this unlimited possibility for pleasure. In the majority of cases, physical complaints are the means by which contraception clients address their physicians. In some cases, intolerance to OCs may actually be a hysterical manifestation that is not understood. Such symptoms as nausea, breast swelling, dizziness, vomiting, nervousness, and insomnia may be signs of early pregnancy as well as of intolerance for pills. Intolerance to pills may be caused by intolerance of a sexuality in which all things seem possible but in which the individual feels unrecognized by the partner. The resulting aggression may be turned inward in the form of a morbid symptom or of forgetting or stopping pill use, recourse to abortion, and demand for recognition. Acting out, especially by adolescents, is common in the area of contraception. In some cases the psychological or emotional needs of the patient
Tiffany K. Gill
Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeling angry about their health status may influence disease progression in individuals, creating a greater burden on the health care system. Identifying associations between different variables and feeling angry about health status may assist health professionals to improve health outcomes. This study used path analysis to explore findings from a population-based survey, informed by qualitative descriptions obtained from focus groups, to determine the prevalence of health-related anger within the community and variables associated with reporting health-related anger. Methods A population-based Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI survey of 3003 randomly selected adults Australia-wide was conducted to examine the prevalence of health-related anger. A wide range of other covariates were included in the survey. Multivariable logistic regression and path analysis were undertaken to identify the relationships between different variables associated with feeling angry about the health status of people, to explore the direction of these associations and as a consequence of the results, consider implications for health service use and delivery. Results Overall, 18.5 % of the population reported feeling angry about their health “some of the time”, “most of the time” or “all of the time”. People who felt angry about their health were more likely to have a severe health condition, at least one chronic condition, high psychological distress, fair to poor health status, and needed to adjust their daily lives because of a health condition. Having a tertiary level education was protective. Receiving some form of social support, usually from a support group, and not always doing as advised by a doctor, were also associated with a higher likelihood of being angry about their health. Conclusions People living with significant health problems are more likely to feel angry about their health. The path between illness and
Peter, Nancy E
To explore parents' emotional investment in and behaviors in response to youth sports, the author conducted a mixed-methods investigation to answer four research questions: (1)How do parents feel about their children's participation in organized youth team sports? (2) Which situations trigger which feelings? (3) How do parents' feelings influence their behaviors? (4) What parental characteristics (such as personal histories or demographics) are linked to different feelings and behaviors? The research indicated that many parents' feelings are triggered by their children's sports experiences and that adults must learn how to translate these feelings into productive behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A
Emotion plays a strong role in the perception of risk information but is frequently underemphasized in the decision-making and communication literature. We sought to discuss and put into context several lines of research that have explored the links between emotion and risk perceptions. In this article, we provide a focused, "state of the science" review of research revealing the ways that emotion, or affect, influences people's cancer-related decisions. We identify illustrative experimental research studies that demonstrate the role of affect in people's estimates of cancer risk, their decisions between different cancer treatments, their perceptions of the chance of cancer recurrence, and their reactions to different methods of presenting risk information. These studies show that people have strong affective reactions to cancer risk information and that the way risk information is presented often determines the emotional gist people take away from such communications. Cancer researchers, educators and oncologists need to be aware that emotions are often more influential in decision making about cancer treatments and prevention behaviors than factual knowledge is. Anticipating and assessing affective reactions is an essential step in the evaluation and improvement of cancer risk communications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malpica, Carlos A.; Lusardi, Jeff A.
ratio. While these two studies produced boundaries for acceptable/unacceptable stick dynamics for rotorcraft, they were not able to provide guidance on how variations of the stick dynamics in the acceptable region impact handling qualities. More recently, a ground based simulation study  suggested little benefit was to be obtained from variations of the damping ratio for a side-stick controller exhibiting high natural frequencies (greater than 17 rad/s) and damping ratios (greater than 2.0). A flight test campaign was conducted concurrently on the RASCAL JUH-60A in-flight simulator and the ACT/FHS EC-135 in flight simulator . Upon detailed analysis of the pilot evaluations the study identified a clear preference for a high damping ratio and natural frequency of the center stick inceptors. Side stick controllers were found to be less sensitive to the damping. While these studies have compiled a substantial amount of data, in the form of qualitative and quantitative pilot opinion, a fundamental analysis of the effect of the inceptor force-feel system on flight control is found to be lacking. The study of Ref.  specifically concluded that a systematic analysis was necessary, since discrepancies with the assigned handling qualities showed that proposed analytical design metrics, or criteria, were not suitable. The overall goal of the present study is to develop a clearer fundamental understanding of the underlying mechanisms associated with the inceptor dynamics that govern the handling qualities using a manageable analytical methodology.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is a personality trait which is associated with difficulties in emotion recognition and regulation. It is unknown whether this deficit is due primarily to regulation, perception, or mentalizing of emotions. In order to shed light on the core deficit, we tested our subjects on a wide range of emotional tasks. We expected the high alexithymics to underperform on all tasks. METHOD: Two groups of healthy individuals, high and low scoring on the cognitive component of the Bermond-Vorst Alexithymia Questionnaire, completed questionnaires of emotion regulation and performed several emotion processing tasks including a micro expression recognition task, recognition of emotional prosody and semantics in spoken sentences, an emotional and identity learning task and a conflicting beliefs and emotions task (emotional mentalizing. RESULTS: The two groups differed on the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and Empathy Quotient. Specifically, the Emotion Regulation Quotient showed that alexithymic individuals used more suppressive and less reappraisal strategies. On the behavioral tasks, as expected, alexithymics performed worse on recognition of micro expressions and emotional mentalizing. Surprisingly, groups did not differ on tasks of emotional semantics and prosody and associative emotional-learning. CONCLUSION: Individuals scoring high on the cognitive component of alexithymia are more prone to suppressive emotion regulation strategies rather than reappraisal strategies. Regarding emotional information processing, alexithymia is associated with reduced performance on measures of early processing as well as higher order mentalizing. However, difficulties in the processing of emotional language were not a core deficit in our alexithymic group.
Mitchell, Colin; Bhat, Sarita; Herbert, Anne; Baker, Paul
Workplace-based assessment (WPBA) is an increasingly important part of postgraduate medical training and its results may be used as evidence of professional competence. This study evaluates the ability of WPBA to distinguish UK Foundation Programme (FP) doctors with training difficulties and its effectiveness as a surrogate marker for deficiencies in professional competence. We conducted a retrospective observational study using anonymised records for 1646 trainees in a single UK postgraduate deanery. Data for WPBAs conducted from August 2005 to April 2009 were extracted from the e-portfolio database. These data included all scores submitted by trainees in FP years 1 and 2 on mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX), case-based discussion (CbD), direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) and mini-peer assessment tool (mini-PAT) assessments. Records of trainees in difficulty, as identified by their educational supervisors, were tagged as index cases. Main outcome measures were odds ratios (ORs) for associations between mean WPBA scores and training difficulties. Further analyses by the reported aetiology of the training difficulty (health-, conduct- or performance-related) were performed. Of the 1646 trainees, 92 had been identified as being in difficulty. Mean CbD and mini-CEX scores were lower for trainees in difficulty and an association was found between identified training difficulties and average scores on the mini-CEX (OR = 0.54; p = 0.034) and CbD (OR = 0.39; p = 0.002). A receiver operator characteristic curve analysis of mean WPBA scores for diagnosing 'in difficulty' status yielded an area under the curve of 0.64, indicating weak predictive value. There was no statistical evidence that mean scores on DOPS and mini-PAT assessments differed between the two groups. Analysis of a large dataset of WPBA scores revealed significant associations between training difficulties and lower mean scores on both the mini-CEX and CbD. Models show that using WPBA
Lorenzo D. Stafford
Full Text Available Disgust evolved to motivate humans away from disease cues and may heighten discernment of these cues. Disease cues are often best perceived through our sense of smell, however very few studies have examined how eliciting disgust influences smell intensity or valence. In two novel experiments we investigated how domains of disgust induction influence odor perception. In experiment 1 participants (n = 90 were randomly allocated to one of two kinds of Disgust Induction (DI: Pathogen (DI-P, Moral (DI-M or a Control (DI-C, followed by an evaluation of three affectively distinct odors (disgust-related, neutral, liked. Using a modified procedure in experiment 2, participants (n = 70 were again randomly assigned to one of the three disgust induction conditions, but here they evaluated one (disgust-related odor during disgust induction. In experiment 2 we also measured feelings of disgust and anger. In experiment 1, surprisingly, we found overall ratings of odor disgust were lower in the DI-P compared to other groups, whereas in experiment 2, odor disgust was higher in the DI-P versus the DI-M/DI-C conditions, which also differed from each other. We also found that whereas feelings of disgust were higher in DI-P, in contrast, anger was higher for those individuals in the DI-M condition. These findings suggest that compared to a Control condition, inducing state Pathogen and Moral disgust lead to higher perceived odor disgust, whereas feelings of disgust/anger yield divergent effects. The work here also demonstrates that methodologies utilizing odor perception (disgust can be a useful addition to measuring changes in state disgust.
Gaudine, Alice; Saks, Alan M; Dawe, Doreen; Beaton, Marilyn
A longitudinal field experiment was conducted to test the effects of absenteeism feedback and goal-setting interventions on nurses' (1) fairness perceptions, (2) discomfort feelings and (3) absenteeism. Nurses' obstacles to reducing absenteeism were also explored. Absenteeism is a significant issue in health care and there is a need to avoid interventions that are seen to be negative, punitive or lead to sick nurses coming to work. Sixty-nine nurses working in a hospital in Eastern Canada received either: (1) absenteeism feedback with individual goal-setting, (2) absenteeism feedback with group goal-setting, or (3) no intervention, and were asked questions about how they could reduce their absenteeism. There was a significant decrease in the total number of days absent but no decrease in absent episodes, and a significant effect on fairness perceptions and discomfort feelings for the nurses in the absenteeism feedback conditions. Six categories of obstacles to reducing absenteeism were identified. The interventions made nurses feel their absence rate was less fair and to experience greater feelings of discomfort. The study's interventions may lead to a reduction in absence without the negative outcomes of a harsh absenteeism policy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
as eflections of phylogenetically evolved, evaluative and apperceptively based action systems helping organisms to structure and relate in adaptive fashion to their species-specific Umwelt. One special feature of humans' emotional life, setting our species apart from all other, is that emotions not only guide...... describing - as the title does - emotions and feelings as the body's (subjectively experienced) comments to personal relationships. A model of human self- or second order consciousness, consistent with the described theoretical framework, will be presented. Implications of the model for the understanding...
There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, 'the feelings method,' for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities-a promising sign.
Full Text Available There is an increasing body of evidence that not only cognition but also emotions shape moral judgment. The conventional teaching of responsible conduct of research, however, does not target emotions; its emphasis is on rational analysis. Here I present a new approach, ‘the feelings method,’ for incorporating emotions into science ethics education. This method is embodied in Dear Scientists, an innovative film that combines humanities with arts and works at the subconscious level, delivering an intense mix of music and images, contrasted by calm narration. Dear Scientists has struck a chord across the science, humanities, and arts communities—a promising sign.
Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; O'Toole, Stephanie; Benson, Ailbhe
Despite worldwide campaigns to enhance public awareness, understanding and acceptability of epilepsy, stigmatising feelings remain among children with epilepsy and their families. Stigma can be internally felt by the child (shame and embarrassment) or enacted by others (discrimination). Many children with epilepsy and their parents fear disclosure of the condition and exercise a variety of disclosure or concealment strategies. Maintaining these strategies can have a negative, stressful impact on the child's social and psychosocial development and quality of life. Continuing dialogue among families, friends, teachers and health professionals should be initiated and supported.
Luciane Guimarães Batistella Bianchini
Full Text Available By means of Piaget's critical clinical method, the study investigated the meanings assigned to mistakes by four students in different activities and interactive situations. The research also analyzed the results of using self-regulatory situations in understanding mistakes initially committed by the students. Data collection instruments consisted of games, video recordings, diaries and interviews. Following intervention, the students were able to recognize their competence, establish positive interactions within the group, and avoid viewing mistakes as obstacles to learning. We concluded that the meanings assigned to mistakes depend on certain variables, among them feelings nurtured by the individuals about themselves, the other, and the object of knowledge.
Simms, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Clayton, Sarah; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha
Children born very preterm (mathematics learning difficulties that are out of proportion to other academic and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children is unknown. We sought to identify the nature and origins of preterm children's mathematics difficulties. One hundred and fifteen very preterm children aged 8-10 y were assessed in school with a control group of 77 term-born classmates. Achievement in mathematics, working memory, visuospatial processing, inhibition, and processing speed were assessed using standardized tests. Numerical representations and specific mathematics skills were assessed using experimental tests. Very preterm children had significantly poorer mathematics achievement, working memory, and visuospatial skills than term-born controls. Although preterm children had poorer performance in specific mathematics skills, there was no evidence of imprecise numerical representations. Difficulties in mathematics were associated with deficits in visuospatial processing and working memory. Mathematics difficulties in very preterm children are associated with deficits in working memory and visuospatial processing not numerical representations. Thus, very preterm children's mathematics difficulties are different in nature from those of children with developmental dyscalculia. Interventions targeting general cognitive problems, rather than numerical representations, may improve very preterm children's mathematics achievement.
Zantinge, E.; Verhaak, P.F.M.; Bakker, D.H. de; Bensing, J.M.
Aims: To investigate if consultations from general practitioners (GPs) with feelings of burnout or dissatisfaction contain less psychological elements compared to consultations from GPs without these negative feelings. It is known that GPs’ available time and specific communication tools are
Tavitian, Lucy; Atwi, Mia; Bawab, Soha; Hariz, Nayla; Zeinoun, Pia; Khani, Munir; Maalouf, Fadi T
The purpose of this study was to provide clinicians in the Arab World with a child and adolescent depression screening tool. Child and parent versions of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (CMFQ and PMFQ respectively) were translated to Arabic and administered along with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to 30 children and adolescents and with mood disorders and 76 children and adolescents with other psychiatric disorders seeking treatment at a child and adolescent psychiatry clinic. DSM-IV diagnoses were generated through clinical interviews by a psychiatrist blinded to self-reports. Internal consistency for both versions was excellent with moderate inter-informant agreement and good convergent validity with the SDQ emotional symptoms subscales on the child and parent forms. The CMFQ and PMFQ significantly differentiated between currently depressed participants and those with other psychiatric disorders. CMFQ scores were a stronger predictor of categorization into depressed and non-depressed groups than the PMFQ. Two modes of cutoffs were calculated with one favoring sensitivity (a score of 26 for the CMFQ and 22 for the PMFQ) and another favoring specificity (a score of 31 for the CMFQ and 28 for the PMFQ).
Bidzan, Mariola; Podolska, Magdalena; Bidzan, Leszek; Smutek, Jerzy
Assessing the feeling of loneliness of women treated because of infertility compared to women without any procreation problems, and verifying, whether there is a correlation with the presented personality traits. 26 women treated for infertility (in accordance with the officially recognized criteria) in the Obstetrics and Women Health Clinic at the Medical University in Gdańsk, and 25 women not experiencing any procreation problems, were included into the study The research tools included a self-constructed sociodemographic questionnaire, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the UCLA Loneliness Scale by D. Russell, L. Peplau, C. Cytron. There are significant differences among the investigated groups in terms of the following personality dimensions: Masculinity - Femininity Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia and the Social Introversion Scale. Women treated because of infertility scored higher in all these scales, their results remained within the norm though. The studied groups demonstrated different relations between the MMPI scales and the UCLA scales results. Women treated due to infertility have a personality profile similar to women without any procreation problems. Only the group whose profiles exhibited some pathological features demonstrated symptoms of worse adaptation to life, a tendency to experience a higher psychological discomfort and higher psychological stress, higher level of anxiety related to being assessed by others, and greater difficulties in accepting the role of a female. As far as the sense of loneliness was concerned women treated due to infertility did not differ significantly from the ones without procreation problems.
Sacher, Mathilde; Isingrini, Michel; Taconnat, Laurence
This research investigated the effect of aging on episodic feeling-of-knowing (FOK) using a divided attention (DA) paradigm in order to examine whether DA in younger adults mimics the effects of aging when decreasing either memory encoding or monitoring processes. To that end, four groups of participants were tested on the FOK task: young adults (control group), young adults under DA at encoding, young adults under DA when making FOK judgments, and older adults. Our results showed that DA at encoding in young adults mimicked the effect of aging on memory performance, and also on FOK magnitude and accuracy, supporting the memory-constraint hypothesis (Hertzog et al., 2010). However, our results do not completely contradict the monitoring-deficit hypothesis, as DA during FOK judgments also affected FOK accuracy, but to a lesser extent than the aging effect or DA during encoding. We suggest that the age-related FOK deficit may be due to a lower level of deep encoding, leading to difficulty retrieving target-related contextual details enabling accurate prediction of subsequent recognition. © 2013.
Lundervold, Astri J.; Breivik, Kyrre; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Hysing, Mari
The present study investigated sex-differences in reports of depressive symptoms on a Norwegian translation of the short version of the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ). The sample comprised 9702 Norwegian adolescents (born 1993–1995, 54.9% girls), mainly attending highschool. A set of statistical analyses were run to investigate the dimensionality of the SMFQ. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on the SMFQ and used the most severe response-category far more frequently. Overall, the statistical analyses supported the essential unidimensionality of SMFQ. However, the items with the highest loadings according to the bifactor analysis, reflecting problems related to tiredness, restlessness and concentration difficulties, indicated that some of the symptoms may both be independent of and part of the symptomatology of depression. Measurement invariance analysis showed that girls scored slightly higher on some items when taking the latent variable into account; girls had a lower threshold for reporting mood problems and problems related to tiredness than boys, who showed a marginally lower threshold for reporting that no-one loved them. However, the effect on the total SMFQ score was marginal, supporting the use of the Norwegian translation of SMFQ as a continuous variable in further studies of adolescents. PMID:24062708
Akizuki, Kazunori; Ohashi, Yukari
The relationship between task difficulty and learning benefit was examined, as was the measurability of task difficulty. Participants were required to learn a postural control task on an unstable surface at one of four different task difficulty levels. Results from the retention test showed an inverted-U relationship between task difficulty during acquisition and motor learning. The second-highest level of task difficulty was the most effective for motor learning, while learning was delayed at the most and least difficult levels. Additionally, the results indicate that salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) are useful indices of task difficulty. Our findings suggested that instructors may be able to adjust task difficulty based on salivary α-amylase and the performance dimension of the NASA-TLX to enhance learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mokhtari, Kouider; Niederhauser, Dale S.; Beschorner, Elizabeth A.; Edwards, Patricia A.
In this article, the authors introduce a data analysis procedure, abbreviated as FAD, to help literacy professionals who work with children in clinical or classroom settings identify and interpret patterns of assessment data with the goal of determining children's literacy strengths and needs. The procedure uses data from multiple literacy…
Full Text Available Increased care worker knowledge has been emphasized for improving quality of care for older persons in organized elder care in Sweden. However, care workers and national policies are not always corresponding, with observations suggesting that care workers emphasize tacit knowledge. The aim of this article is to explore the nature of this kind of knowledge and how it can be identified and described. Field notes from participant observations at two elder care units in Sweden serve as the empirical material. Knowledge use for staff in elder care is part of a process of knowledge making and knowledge shaping. Analysis of the field notes identified the themes of “feeling for work” and “acting and artistry” as parts of a tacit knowledge in elder care. The processes of knowledge and job execution are closely intertwined, making them difficult to separate or even understand without a deeper insight.
Lawton, Clare L; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise
This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.
Full Text Available This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29 completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort. Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches. In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption.
Lawton, Clare L.; Walton, Jenny; Hoyland, Alexa; Howarth, Elaine; Allan, Peter; Chesters, David; Dye, Louise
This study investigated whether increasing insoluble (predominantly wheat bran) fibre over 14 days improves subjective digestive feelings, general wellbeing and bowel function. A single centre, multi-site, open, within subjects design with a 14 day non-intervention (baseline) monitoring period followed by a 14 day fibre consumption (intervention) period was performed. 153 low fibre consumers (<15 g/day AOAC 985.29) completed a daily symptom diary for 14 days after which they consumed one bowl of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal containing at least 5.4 g fibre (3.5 g from wheat bran) for 14 days and completed a daily symptom diary. Significant improvements were demonstrated in subjective perception of bowel function (e.g., ease of defecation) and digestive feelings (bloating, constipation, feeling sluggish and digestive discomfort). Significant improvements were also found in subjective perception of general wellbeing (feeling less fat, more mentally alert, slim, happy and energetic whilst experiencing less stress, mental and physical tiredness, difficulty concentrating and fewer headaches). In general, improvements in study outcomes increased with increasing cereal/fibre consumption. However, consuming an additional minimum 5.4 g of fibre (3.5 g wheat bran) per day was shown to deliver measurable and significant benefits for digestive health, comfort and wellbeing. Encouraging consumption of relatively small amounts of wheat bran could also provide an effective method of increasing overall fibre consumption. PMID:23609776
Jee, Sandra H; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Nilsen, Wendy; Toth, Sheree; Baldwin, Constance D; Szilagyi, Peter G
To assess the effectiveness of social-emotional screening in the primary care setting for youths in foster care. The setting was a primary care practice for all youth in home-based foster care in 1 county. Subjects were youths, aged 11 to 17 years, and their foster parents; both completed a Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at well-child visits. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire is a previously validated 25-item tool that has 5 domains: emotional symptoms; conduct problems; hyperactivity/inattention; peer problems; and prosocial behaviors and an overall total difficulties score. We first compared youth versus parent Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores and then assessed the accuracy of these Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores by comparing them in a subsample of youths (n = 50) with results of home-based structured clinical interviews using the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes. Of 138 subjects with both youth and parent reports, 78% had prosocial behaviors (strengths), and 70% had 1 or more social-emotional problems. Parents reported significantly more conduct problems (38% vs 16%; P youth. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire had better agreement with the Children's Interview for Psychiatric Syndromes (n = 50) for any Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-identified problem for combined youth and foster-parent reports (93%), compared with youth report alone (54%) or parent report alone (71%). Although most youths in foster care have social-emotional problems, most have strengths as well. Youth and foster-parent perspectives on these problems differ. Systematic social-emotional screening in primary care that includes both youth and parent reports can identify youths who may benefit from services.
Donker, G.; Wiersma, E.; Heins, M.
Background: General practitioners (GPs) use gut feelings to diagnose cancer in an early stage, but little is known about its impact. Aim: To explore triggers and GP’s action based on gut feelings, determine the predictive value of gut feelings and how this is influenced by patient and GP
Dahl, Gustav; Kraus, Martin
The feel of videogames is important, but not very well understood. Game feel is an integral part of game design and can be defined as the moment-to-moment sensation of control in games. It is important for game designers to understand when a game feels a certain way, since it is something...
Hanc, Tomasz; Brzezinska, Anna Izabela
The aim of this investigation was to assess how different levels of intensity of ADHD symptoms influence the development of the subjective feeling of competence in school age children. The sample was comprised of 62 children age 11 to 13. For the purpose of estimation of the subjective feeling of competence, The Feeling of Competence Questionnaire…
Zhang, Bin; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Stricker, Paul A; Galvez, Jorge A; Isserman, Rebecca S; Fiadjoe, John E
The GlideScope Cobalt is one of the most commonly used videolaryngoscopes in pediatric anesthesia. Although visualization of the airway may be superior to direct laryngoscopy, users need to learn a new indirect way to insert the tracheal tube. Learning this indirect approach requires focused practice and instruction. Identifying the specific points during tube placement, during which clinicians struggle, would help with targeted education. We conducted this prospective observational study to determine the incidence and location of technical difficulties using the GlideScope, the success rates of various corrective maneuvers used, and the impact of technical difficulty on success rate. We conducted this observational study at our quaternary pediatric hospital between February 2014 and August 2014. We observed 200 GlideScope-guided intubations and documented key intubation-related outcomes. Inclusion criteria for patients were the number of advancement maneuvers required to intubate the trachea, the location where technical difficulty occurred, the types of maneuvers used to address difficulties, and the tracheal intubation success rate. We used a bias-corrected bootstrapping method with 300 replicates to determine the 95% confidence interval (CI) around the rate of difficulty with an intubation attempt. After excluding attempts by inexperienced clinicians, there were 225 attempts in 187 patients, 58% (131 of 225; bootstrap CI, 51.6%-64.6%]) of the attempts had technical difficulties. Technical difficulty was most likely to occur when inserting the tracheal tube between the plane of the arytenoid cartilages to just beyond the vocal cords: "zone 3." Clockwise rotation of the tube was the most common successful corrective maneuver in zone 3. The overall tracheal intubation success rate was 98% (CI, 95%-99%); however, the first attempt success rate was only 80% (CI, 74%-86%). Patients with technical difficulty had more attempts (median [interquartile range], 2 [1
Kim, Junha; Lee, Sujin; Rua, Tuvana
Individuals exercise self-control daily to achieve desired goals; at the same time, people engage in social interaction daily and influence (feel powerful) or are influenced (feel powerless) by others. Does controlling the self have an unforeseen consequence for people's perception of their capacity to control others? Five studies-one correlational and four experimental-demonstrate that ego depletion from prior self-control determines one's personal sense of power; low-level, concrete mental construals account for this relationship. Our results showed that people with higher trait self-control reported a greater sense of power (Study 1). People who had depleted their self-control-related regulatory resources (vs. those who had not) experienced a lower sense of power (Study 2). The relationship between ego depletion and low sense of power was mediated by construal level (Study 3) and observed only when low-level, concrete construals were present, but not under high-level, abstract construals (Studies 4 and 5). © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Léonard, N; Paul, D
In recent years, priority measures have been established within the health field in Québec for raising parents' self-esteem in regard to their role, and ensuring that their parenting skills improve. The study Perceptions de la relation conjugale, du fonctionnement familial et du sentiment de compétence parentale chez des pères et des mères d'un premier enfant âgé d'un an was conducted in keeping with these measures. Nathalie Léonard conducted the research as part of her studies toward a master's degree in nursing science; her thesis advisor was Denise Paul. One goal of her correlative descriptive study was to describe perceptions of the feeling of parental competence among couples with a first child one year of age. A survey of the literature enabled listing of the factors that influence the feeling of parental competence in three categories, according to whether it is linked to the parents, to the child or to their surroundings. Awareness of these factors enables nurses in hospital and community settings to provide more effective support to parents of a first child in their process of adapting to parenthood.
Full Text Available As one of the phenomenal issues in the world, gender has always been an unfinished argument among experts, researchers, and academicians. With the growth of science and technology and the development of media in the 20th century, there have been many changes in perceiving gender. Topic on gender which was not widely discussed in academic forum has become an important topic nowadays. Studies and researches on gender have been in great progress since 1990s when more and more experts such as Judith Butler, Donna Haraway, etc. began to publish their writing on gender and sexuality. People started learning more about this issue. A common thing that people may understand is that there are biological and social factor which give a significant impact to gender categorizations (Fagot et al, 1997: 2. However, gender issues remain arguable topics from time to time. Era changes and one generation is replaced by another younger generations. From this condition, Harriet Bjerrum Nielsen, the professor at the Centre for Gender Research at the University of Oslo, Norway has shown her serious concern on how feelings of gender can change from one generation to another by observing the how men and women from some generations feel about their relationships toward their parents in order to reveal what gender really is to them. Therefore, this study incorporates a generational and psychological approach for analysis.
Full Text Available The coincidentia oppositorum formula abbreviates a profound tendency of human thought, which is present in all times and cultures. In other words, the thinking has always felt that its supreme and sublime task is to “make peace” between Perfect and Imperfect, Transcendence and Immanence, Spirit and Matter, Good and Evil. Also, almost all ontological projects axiomatically stipulate the primordiality and the superior metaphysical competence of a feeling of being, a pre(non-thinking disposition of the human being. In this sense, the case of Martin Heidegger can be brought forth, who argues that affective disposition (Befindlichkeit, that is not “affects” or “feelings” or “state of soul,” pre-determines the entire perception, understanding and outlook on the world and ourselves, and it is one that provides, in the first instance, matching the Dasein with his being. This article examines how the coincidentia oppositorum and the feeling of being are assumed and operationalized in the ontological project designed by Mihai Șora, who is considered to be “the Philosopher par excellence” in Romanian culture.
Manassis, Katharina; Mendlowitz, Sandra; Kreindler, David; Lumsden, Charles; Sharpe, Jason; Simon, Mark D.; Woolridge, Nicholas; Monga, Suneeta; Adler-Nevo, Gili
We evaluated a novel, computerized feelings assessment instrument (MAAC) in 54 children with anxiety disorders and 35 nonanxious children ages 5 to 11. They rated their feelings relative to 16 feeling animations. Ratings of feelings, order of feeling selection, and correlations with standardized anxiety measures were examined. Positive emotions…
Cabell, Sonia Q.; Justice, Laura M.; Konold, Timothy R.; McGinty, Anita S.
The purpose of this study was to explore patterns of within-group variability in the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who are at risk for academic difficulties. We used the person-centered approach of cluster analysis to identify profiles of emergent literacy skills, taking into account both oral language and code-related skills.…
The purpose of the current research is to assess the clinical utility of an invented spelling tool and determine whether invented spelling and word stress (supra-segmental level measures) can also be used to better identify reading difficulties. The proposed invented spelling tool incorporated linguistic manipulations to alter the difficulty…
Kinoshita, Sachiko; Mozer, Michael C.; Forster, Kenneth I.
In reaction time research, there has been an increasing appreciation that response-initiation processes are sensitive to recent experience and, in particular, the difficulty of previous trials. From this perspective, the authors propose an explanation for a perplexing property of masked priming: Although primes are not consciously identified,…
Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin; Yavas, Pervin Ünlü
The aim of this study is to identify the opinions of pre-service physics teachers about the difficulties in introductory quantum physics topics. In this study conducted with twenty-five pre-service physics teachers, the case study method was used. The participants were interviewed about introductory quantum physics topics. The interviews were…
Welder, Rachael M.
Through historical and contemporary research, educators have identified widespread misconceptions and difficulties faced by students in learning algebra. Many of these universal issues stem from content addressed long before students take their first algebra course. Yet elementary and middle school teachers may not understand how the subtleties of…
A study examined the hearing of learning disabled students (such as dyslexics) in an attempt to classify, identify, and design auditory stimulation procedures. Subjects, 40 students from seventh-grade classes and 40 volunteers (ages 9 to 23) with reading and spelling difficulties, were given listening tests. Results indicated that many of the…
Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Price, Melanie; Hobbs, Kim; Sunquist, Kendra
Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the challenges and training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. The aim of this study was to discover the difficulties experienced and training desired by cancer support group leaders. Twenty-seven leaders of 34 cancer support groups participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Groups were purposively selected as representative of 173 support groups identified in New South Wales which were for adults with cancer and/or their adult carers and were not therapeutic or education-only groups. Difficulties identified included dealing with people's different communication styles and needs; dealing with recurrence, metastases and death; practical issues, including resources, setting the programme and funding security; maintaining personal balance and preventing burn out; establishing group credibility; dealing with group cycles; and leading groups in rural areas. Leaders also identified benefits and rewards from group leadership such as contributing to others' well-being, self-development and insight into others' lives. Non-professionally trained leaders experienced more difficulties, particularly in dealing with group process and practical issues. Difficulties identified were related both to working with a cancer population specifically and to working with groups in general. While some issues were common to both health professionals and non-health professionals, non-health professionals reported greater supportive needs. Clear guidelines, targeted training and development of better methods of support to reduce the stress and burn out experienced by group leaders are needed.
Ünlü Yavas, Pervin; Kizilcik, Hasan Sahin
The aim of this study is to identify the reasons why pre-service physics teachers have difficulties related to special relativity topics. In this study conducted with 25 pre-service physics teachers, the case study method, which is a qualitative research method, was used. Interviews were held with the participants about their reasons for…
McGlaughlin, Sean M.; Knoop, Andrew J.; Holliday, Gregory A.
Difficulties with college algebra can be the gatekeeper for earning a degree. Students struggle with algebra for many reasons. The focus of study was to examine students struggling with entry-level algebra courses and differentiate between those who were identified as having a mathematics disability and those who were not. Variables related to…
Co-building of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties is one of the 21st century inclusive school’s elements. Since the physical presence of learners with learning difficulties in the classroom does not self-evidently lead to an effective co-operation and implementation of 21st century inclusive school, I have dedicated my doctor thesis to the establishment of supporting learning environment for the learners with learning difficulties in primary school wit...
Ruscitti, Catherine; Rufino, Katrina; Goodwin, Natalie; Wagner, Rebecca
A defining characteristic of eating disorders (EDs) is difficulty with emotion regulation (ER). Previous research indicates that ED subtypes demonstrate differing ER difficulties. Specifically, individuals with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) show greater impairment in their ability to regulate emotions in areas such as achieving goals while upset, reacting impulsively to distress, and effectively using coping strategies, as compared to those with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). However, limited research includes the diagnostic category of Eating Disorder, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS). The aim of this study was to better understand ER difficulties for all ED diagnoses, especially EDNOS. It was hypothesized that patients with EDs will demonstrate similar ER difficulties as psychiatric patients without EDs and that patients with EDNOS will be similar in their total level of ER difficulties but will differ in their specific types of difficulties in ER as compared to patients with other EDs. Participants included 404 adults presenting to an inpatient psychiatric hospital. Psychiatric diagnoses, including EDs, were determined using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. Differences in specific and overall difficulties with ER were examined across psychiatric patients using the multidimensional Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results of this study indicate that individuals with EDs have greater ER difficulties in most domains of ER and that those with BED and EDNOS demonstrate the most significant differences in ER as compared to psychiatric patients without EDs. Additionally, it was found that ED subtypes typically did not differ in terms of specific difficulties in ER. One exception emerged indicating that individuals with BED demonstrated significantly greater difficulty on the Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies subscale as compared to those with EDNOS. Researchers were able to clarify difficulties in ER across ED
Agnes Schutz de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bullying is a devastating phenomenon that can affect the adolescent’s self-esteem and mental health. Generally occurs in school environment when the adolescent is more susceptible or vulnerable to verbal or moral aggressions that cause to them anguish and pain, meaning as a status of social exclusion. Most of time, health problems as anorexia, bulimia, depression, anxiety and also the suicide, appears. By the way, nurses are able to prevent injuries to various problems, and also concerns about this traumatic incident in adolescence. The aim of this study was to identify feelings that can be related to” bullying “in adolescent students in 5th to 8th classes. It is a descriptive research by qualitative approach, developed in a religious setting state school. Data was collected by taped interviews and, after transcribed, submitted to thematic analysis. The results showed that feelings related to this phenomena are multiple and varied, being categorized as positive aspects character, negative aspects character and necessary aspects character. KEY WORDS: School Health; Pediatric Nursing; Teen Health; Violence.
Background The Gender Feeling Amplitude (GFA) is a 68-item list of words and phrases with which to identify the feelings and severity of a young person's distress regarding their gender identity and gender diversity, and takes ~1min to administer. For this pilot study, 67 adolescents and youth who sought support, confirmation or intervention (either via themselves or their parents) regarding gender diversity or gender transition were given the GFA in a face-to-face meeting before the beginning of an assessment procedure for gender diversity. Forty-three assigned females and 24 assigned males aged between 10 and 20 years were analysed by frequency of item, age and assigned gender. Of the 68 items, those circled by close to 50% or more of the participants were 'self-conscious', 'awkward' and 'don't fit in'. One-third or more circled the words 'shy', 'supported', 'hopeful', 'discomfort', 'as if I'm not being seen properly', 'forced to be something I'm not', 'depressed' and 'stressed'. Comparisons showed some variations in responses by both assigned gender and age, and the discussion includes ways the GFA may be able to assist a health practitioner with explorations of gender diversity and interventions for counselling.
Felder, Jennifer N; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Dimidjian, Sona
Depression is a major public health concern and often goes untreated. In response to a growing body of research documenting stigma as a barrier to depression care, this study focused on examining public stigma toward potentially vulnerable subpopulations. Participants (N=241) were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and randomly assigned to provide anonymous ratings on attitudes and feelings of warmth toward pregnant women and expectant fathers experiencing depression, mothers and fathers experiencing postpartum depression, or women and men experiencing depression during nonperinatal periods. Participants reported significantly more negative attitudes about depressed men than women, and male participants reported significantly more negative attitudes than female participants toward depressed individuals. Similarly, participants felt significantly less warmth toward depressed men than women, and male participants expressed significantly less warmth than female participants toward depressed individuals. Male participants felt equally warm toward men and women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods, whereas female participants felt significantly warmer toward women who experienced depression during nonperinatal periods compared with men. Results indicate that the public views depressed men more negatively than depressed women and that males are more likely to hold stigmatizing attitudes toward depression, suggesting the importance of reducing stigma directed toward men with depression and stigma held by men toward persons with depression. Attitudes and feelings toward depressed individuals did not consistently vary by perinatal status. These findings are an initial step in improving depression treatment engagement strategies and in identifying those who would benefit most from stigma reduction programs.
Brown, Katrina M
This paper explores the role that somatic or bodily touch-based experience of ground surface textures plays in securing a commitment to health-giving exercise practices, and argues that ground-feel is a neglected and underrated dimension of how environments co-constitute health. Past work has largely either overlooked ground-feel or positioned rough ground solely as a barrier to bodily movement. This research, however, informed by mobile and video ethnographies of walking and mountain biking in Scotland, elaborates a number of ways in which the experience of textured terrain can produce sensory and emotional experiences that motivate regular exercise. The possibility of positive tactile as well as visual experiences of landscapes, including uneven as well as smooth surfaces, ought then to be taken more seriously in designing everyday outdoor environments that encourage the energetic movement of bodies. A key challenge is to identify the optimal mix of textured and smooth ground surfaces to encourage increased energetic engagement for the widest range of users. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
dos Santos, Luís Roberto Gonçalves; Menezes, Mariana Pires; Gradvohl, Silvia Mayumi Obana
Orthothanasia involves the suspension of medical procedures for terminal phase patients, which leads to a natural death, relieving the symptoms that cause suffering. In this process, professionals such as physicians, nurses and psychologists, interact with patients and their families. Therefore, it is desirable that during undergraduate studies these professionals should take subjects geared to handle this aspect. The scope of this qualitative study was to evaluate the awareness with respect to orthothanasia of undergraduates in medicine, nursing and psychology courses in a university. Trigger questions in semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 students. The interviews were recorded and transcribed for content analysis and core identification themes. Three categories were identified: knowledge about orthothanasia; who should be involved in this process; and feelings experienced when facing death. The data revealed that students have scant knowledge about the subject, consider the family involvement in the orthothanasia decision to be important and they do not feel prepared to deal with death situations. The conclusion points to the need to change the focus on the end-of-life issue in the undergraduate courses in the area of health care in order to prepare the future professional adequately.
Carpenter, Stephanie M; Peters, Ellen; Västfjäll, Daniel; Isen, Alice M
The impact of induced mild positive feelings on working memory and complex decision making among older adults (aged 63-85) was examined. Participants completed a computer administered card task in which participants could win money if they chose from "gain" decks and lose money if they chose from "loss" decks. Individuals in the positive-feeling condition chose better than neutral-feeling participants and earned more money overall. Participants in the positive-feeling condition also demonstrated improved working-memory capacity. These effects of positive-feeling induction have implications for affect theory, as well as, potentially, practical implications for people of all ages dealing with complex decisions.
Winger, Anette; Ekstedt, Mirjam; Wyller, Vegard B; Helseth, Sølvi
To explore the experience of being an adolescent with chronic fatigue syndrome. Despite ample research, chronic fatigue syndrome is still poorly understood, and there are still controversies related to the illness. Adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome are often unable to attend school and lose social relations with friends. The challenges they face will affect their quality of life. A qualitative, phenomenological hermeneutical design. Six boys and twelve girls, aged 12-18, were interviewed, emphasising their own experiences living with chronic fatigue syndrome. Analyses were performed using a phenomenological hermeneutical method. The core theme, 'Sometimes it feels as if the world goes on without me', encompasses the feelings an adolescent living with chronic fatigue syndrome might have about life. The core theme was supported by four subthemes: 'On the side of life--locked in and shut out'; 'the body, the illness and me'; 'if the illness is not visible to others, does it exist?'; and 'handling life while hoping for a better future'. The subthemes reflect the experience of social isolation, their own and others' understanding of the illness and hope for the future. Not being able to be with friends, or attend school, made the adolescents feel different and forgotten. They felt alienated in their own bodies and were struggling to be visible to themselves and to their surroundings. Spending less time with friends and more time with their parents constituted a threat to independence and development. Yet they managed to envision a better future despite all the difficulties. To provide effective support and constructive relations to adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome, all health professions involved need insight from the persons who are themselves ill. Health centres could function as resource centres for patients and healthcare professionals. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dornayi, Hassan Mohsen
This study explored the connection between how confident teachers feel about their skills in teaching dual-identified students and the types and amounts of training they have received. Additionally, this study attempted to find out what the needs of teachers were in order to help them feel more confident in their abilities to teach these students.…
Stephen, Andrew T; Pham, Michel Tuan
This research examined how reliance on emotional feelings as a heuristic influences how offers are made. Results from three experiments using the ultimatum game show that, compared with proposers who do not rely on their feelings, proposers who rely on their feelings make less generous offers in the standard ultimatum game, more generous offers in a variant of the game allowing responders to make counteroffers, and less generous offers in a dictator game in which no responses are allowed. Reliance on feelings triggers a more literal form of play, whereby proposers focus more on how they feel toward the content of the offers than on how they feel toward the possible outcomes of those offers, as if the offers were the final outcomes. Proposers who rely on their feelings also tend to focus on gist-based construals of the negotiation that capture only the essential aspects of the situation.
Šeibokaitė, Laura; Endriulaitienė, Auksė; Sullman, Mark J M; Markšaitytė, Rasa; Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, Kristina
Risky driving is a common cause of traffic accidents and injuries. However, there is no clear evidence of how difficulties in emotion regulation contribute to risky driving behavior, particularly in small post-Soviet countries. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between difficulties in emotion regulation and self-reported risky driving behavior in a sample of Lithuanian drivers. A total of 246 nonprofessional Lithuanian drivers participated in a cross-sectional survey. Difficulties in emotion regulation were assessed using the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer 2004), and risky driving behavior was assessed using the Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ; Lajunen et al. 2004). Males scored higher than females in aggressive violations and ordinary violations. Females scored higher for the nonacceptance of emotional responses, whereas males had more difficulties with emotional awareness than females. More difficulties in emotion regulation were positively correlated with driving errors, lapses, aggressive violations, and ordinary violations for both males and females. Structural equation modeling showed that difficulties in emotion regulation explained aggressive and ordinary violations more clearly than lapses and errors. When controlling for interactions among the distinct regulation difficulties, difficulties with impulse control and difficulties engaging in goal-directed behavior predicted risky driving. Furthermore, nonacceptance of emotional responses and limited access to emotion regulation strategies were related to less violations and more driving errors. Emotion regulation difficulties were associated with the self-reported risky driving behaviors of Lithuanian drivers. This provides useful hints for improving driver training programs in order to prevent traffic injuries.
Bradley, Graham L
Past theory and research indicate that conditions of work can have lasting effects on job incumbents. R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell (1990), for example, proposed that workers' feelings of mastery increase with levels of job demands and job control, and that these effects are mediated by the process of active learning. To test these propositions, 657 school teachers completed scales assessing job demands, control, active learning, and mastery on 2 occasions, 8 months apart. As hypothesized, job control predicted change in mastery, an effect that was mediated by active learning. Job demands had a weaker effect on change in mastery. The demands-mastery relationship was moderated by job control, so that under conditions of high control, but not low control, increasing job demands were associated with gains in mastery. The findings partially support R. A. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) predictions regarding the main, interactive, and mediated effects of job conditions on employee mastery.
Questienne, Laurence; van Dijck, Jean-Philippe; Gevers, Wim
Conversely to behaviorist ideas, recent studies suggest that introspection can be accurate and reliable. However, an unresolved question is whether people are able to report specific aspects of their phenomenal experience, or whether they report more general nonspecific experiences. To address this question, we investigated the sensitivity and validity of our introspection for different types of conflict. Taking advantage of the congruency sequence effect, we dissociated response conflict while keeping visual conflict unchanged in a Stroop and in a priming task. Participants were subsequently asked to report on either their experience of urge to err or on their feeling of visual conflict. Depending on the focus of the introspection, subjective reports specifically followed either the response conflict or the visual conflict. These results demonstrate that our introspective reports can be sensitive and that we are able to dissociate specific aspects of our phenomenal experiences in a valid manner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean
Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.
Jon Igelmo Zaldívar
Full Text Available Do we need the Philosophy of Education? As the editors of this special issue we think that we need it. Educators and pedagogues must be aware of the reasons and aims behind what we do and the purposes of what we think. One possible step in this direction is based on breaking the logic by which the Philosophy of Education is inserted in the field of the theory and the abstractedness, and the pedagogical action in the field of practical issues and concrete problems. Therefore, at the beginning of our text we point out that in this special issue we aim at exploring the different ways of perceiving, thinking, feeling and doing philosophy of education and pedagogical action.
Bork Petersen, Franziska
visible on the body? My article focuses on two instances in which stagings of the authentic body play(ed) an important role: first in the French Enlightenment and subsequently in contemporary makeover culture (which originated in the Western world, but is no longer limited to it). Images of bodies...... and feminism – that any notion of bodily 'authenticity' or for that matter 'essential selfhood' would be dismissed out of hand. Yet, the image of an authentic body that reveals a 'deserving' inner self is exactly what is staged today in most popular media. Eighteenth century acting theories suggested...... that ‚naturally expressive’ gestures could be conveyed – indeed reveal feelings – without any mediation. What has changed since then, I will argue, is that the ideal authentic body in makeover-culture has to be diligently and visibly worked for....
Frable, D E
Two studies tested the hypothesis that people with culturally stigmatized and concealable conditions (e.g., gays, epileptics, juvenile delinquents, and incest victims) would be more likely to feel unique than people with culturally valued or conspicuous conditions (e.g., the physically attractive, the intellectually gifted, the obese, and the facially scarred). In Study 1, culturally stigmatized individuals with concealable conditions were least likely to perceive consensus between their personal preferences and those of others. In Study 2, they were most likely to describe themselves as unique and to make these self-relevant decisions quickly. Marginality is a psychological reality, not just a statistical one, for those with stigmatized and concealable "master status" conditions.
Bowser, John; Larson, James D; Bellmore, Amy; Olson, Chelsea; Resnik, Felice
Given their significance to school violence, this study quantifies the association between bullying victimization and perceptions of safety separately for victimization where the type is not specified versus victimization that is physical in nature. Generalized liner mixed modeling was employed with 5,138 sixth- to eighth-grade students in 24 schools who self-reported on their bullying victimization and perceptions of school safety on an anonymous survey in fall 2015. Results indicate a multiplicative interaction exists with regard to the odds of feeling unsafe at school among those who were bullied at all (odds ratio [ OR] = 3.1) compared to those who were bullied physically ( OR = 9.12). For school nurses who work with students with a variety of concerns and health issues, this research indicates that the use of bullying victimization as an outcome, proxy and/or predictor, requires inquiry into the type of bullying experienced to aid in the care and support received.
Full Text Available Choosing a major field of study to secure a good job after graduation is a tacit coordination problem that requires considering others' choices. We examine how feeling skillful, either induced (Experiment 1 or measured (Experiment 2, affects coordination in this type of task. In both experiments participants chose between two lotteries, one offering a larger prize than the other. Participants' entry into the chosen lottery was either related or unrelated to their skill, with the final prize allocated randomly to one of the entrants in each lottery. Importantly, across conditions skill was irrelevant to choosing between lotteries. Notwithstanding, when skill was related to determining lottery entrants, participants who felt highly skillful chose the high prize lottery excessively. Results further suggest that this stems from high confidence in self skill, rather than incorrect expectations regarding others.
Seibt, Beate; Schubert, Thomas W; Zickfeld, Janis H; Fiske, Alan Page
The emotion commonly labeled in English as being moved or touched is widely experienced but only tacitly defined, and has received little systematic attention. Based on a review of conceptualizations from various disciplines, we hypothesize that events appraised as an increase in interpersonal closeness, or as moral acts, when sufficiently intense, elicit a positive emotion typically labeled "being moved," and characterized by tears, goosebumps, and a feeling of warmth in the chest. We predicted this to be true for events a person participates in, as well as for events they observe. In Study 1, we elicited reports of recent episodes of weeping evoked by something positive, and also weeping because of something negative; we measured emotion terms, bodily sensations, and appraisals in a U.S. We discovered that events of positive tears, rather than negative tears, were associated with self-reported being moved or touched, with goosebumps, with feelings of chest warmth, and with the appraisals of increased closeness and moral acts. These appraisals mediated the difference in being moved between positive and negative events. We further found that appraisal patterns for personally experienced events were similar to the patterns for observed events. Finally, the 2 appraisals were more closely associated with being moved than with other emotion labels. This was corroborated in Study 2 in the U.S. and Norway, where we induced being moved, sadness, anxiety, and happiness through videos and measured these emotions, plus the appraisals and sensations from Study 1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available The Japanese success rate for alcoholism treatment is approximately 30%, indicating high relapse rates. Although “difficulty in life” is thought to contribute to alcoholics’ relapse, the characteristics of the phenomenon are unknown. This study examined the factors contributing to alcoholics’ difficulty in life. Alcoholic self-help group members, who indicated the extent of their difficulty in life and described the factors that contributed to this difficulty, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants’ hypersensitivity/grandiosity traits were also examined. A control group of nonalcoholic men also completed the questionnaire. Simple tabulation, descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, and multivariate analyses were used to compare data between groups. Ultimately, 574 and 512 valid responses were received from the alcoholic (response rate: 27.1% and nonalcoholic (response rate: 33.1% groups, respectively. The proportion of alcoholics (54% who indicated that they found life difficult was significantly higher relative to that of nonalcoholics (39.9%. Alcoholics’ mean hypersensitivity score was significantly higher (2.67 relative to that observed for nonalcoholics (2.44. Significant between-group differences were observed for the following factors: building and maintaining relationships, satisfaction with life, self-distrust, cognitive bias, loneliness, empathic understanding, and self-acceptance. Multivariate logistic regression identified cognitive bias and building and maintaining relationships as factors contributing to alcoholics’ difficulty in life. Alcoholics’ social contexts, including broken families, social instability, and cross addiction, also contributed to this difficulty. Personal characteristics, such as hypersensitive-type narcissistic tendencies, relationship problems, and cognitive bias, were also associated with alcoholics’ difficulty in life.
Tatiana G. Bokhan
Full Text Available Introduction: young scientists engaged in creative activities face difficulties during scientific research, implementation and commercialisation of the results. The impossibility of coping with obstacles leads to the impairment of motivational and creative activity. The problem of studying the main semantic contents of difficult situations and strategies to cope with them becomes relevant as it is conducive to the process of personal development of young scientists. Materials and Methods: the authors used a questionnaire with open-ended questions for revealing the main difficulties and coping strategies in the process of research activity; COPE questionnaire adapted by E. Rasskazova, T. Gordeyeva, E. Osin; Style of Self-Regulation of Behaviour technique by V. I. Morosanova. Statistical data processing was carried out with descriptive statistics methods, analysis of frequencies, factor analysis (Varimax rotation with Kaiser normalisation, cluster analysis (furthest neighbour method and Ward’s method. Results: eight main semantic categories related to difficulties experienced in the process of performing the research work have been detected. The main ways of coping with arising difficulties have been identified. Types of respondents different in terms of coping strategies and regulatory-behavioural characteristics have been distinguished. Discussion and Conclusions: difficulties of self-organisation in time for realisation of new meanings, difficulties in structuring the research work and search for information act as psychological barriers provoking mental stress. The most efficient coping strategies in respondents are strategies Active coping and search for positive meaning and personal development. The inefficient coping strategy with difficulties complicating the process of self-development is Avoiding problems strategies.
Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento
To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.
Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia
This study aims to take an in-depth look at the role of emotional intelligence and personality traits in relation to career decision difficulties. The Italian version of the Career Decision Difficulties Questionnaire (CDDQ), the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory: Short (Bar-On EQ-i: S), and the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) were administered to…
Binczyk, Natalia M; Babenko, Oksana; Schipper, Shirley; Ross, Shelley
Residents in difficulty are costly to programs in both time and resources, and encountering difficulty can be emotionally harmful to residents. Approximately 10% of residents will encounter difficulty at some point in training. While there have been several studies looking at common factors among residents who encounter difficulty, some of the findings are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are common factors among the residents who encounter difficulty during training in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Secondary data analysis was performed on archived resident files from a Canadian family medicine residency program. Residents who commenced an urban family medicine residency program between the years of 2006 and 2014 were included in the study. Five hundred nine family medicine residents were included in data analysis. Residents older than 30 years were 2.33 times (95% CI: 1.27-4.26) more likely to encounter difficulty than residents aged 30 years or younger. Nontransfer residents were 8.85 times (95% CI: 1.17-66.67) more likely to encounter difficulty than transfer residents. The effects of sex, training site, international medical graduate status, and rotation order on the likelihood of encountering difficulty were nonsignificant. Older and nontransfer residents may be facing unique circumstances and may benefit from additional support from the program.
Full Text Available AbstractIn addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties; repetitive motor movements and atypical reactivity to sensory input (APA, 2013. This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. Firstly, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Secondly, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Thirdly, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviours such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behaviour and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC, and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.
Farmer, Marion; Oliver, Alice
Background: In professional practice, psychologists and other professionals such as therapists and teachers receive referrals of many children who present with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties that are difficult to understand and assess. The problems of some of these children may stem from pragmatic difficulties in communication.…
Poulou, Maria S.
Children's emotional and behavioural difficulties are the result of multiple individual, social and contextual factors working in concert. The current paper proposes a theoretical framework to interpret students' emotional and behavioural difficulties in schools, by taking into consideration teacher-student relationships, students'…
. Conclusion: The ... difficulty criteria. Key words: Item difficulty, quality control, statistical process control, variable control charts ..... assumed that 68% of the values fall in the interval ± 1.S; .... The balance of the construction of items of exam has ...
Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool children with language impairments (LI), a group with documented reading difficulties, also experience writing difficulties. In addition, a purpose was to examine if the writing outcomes differed when children had concomitant cognitive deficits in addition to oral language problems. A…
Dunson, Walter E.
"School Success for Kids With Dyslexia and Other Reading Difficulties" provides parents and teachers with goals that will meet the needs of students who are struggling with reading, leading them to work through their difficulties and enjoy reading. It includes information, assessments, and techniques that parents, teachers, and school…
This paper reports on a longitudinal case study of an adult EFL learner who perceived himself as having difficulty learning English. Both learning difficulty and learner identity are viewed as being constructed in discursive interactions throughout one's life and, hence, amenable to reconstruction. Data collected from classroom interactions,…
Christensen, Birgitte S; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete
Sexual dysfunctions and difficulties are common experiences that may impact importantly on the perceived quality of life, but prevalence estimates are highly sensitive to the definitions used. We used questionnaire data for 4415 sexually active Danes aged 16-95 years who participated in a national......%), and dyspareunia (0.1%); among women: lubrication insufficiency (7%), anorgasmia (6%), dyspareunia (3%), and vaginismus (0.4%). Highest frequencies of sexual dysfunction were seen in men above age 60 years and women below age 30 years or above age 50 years. In logistic regression analysis, indicators of economic...... health and morbidity survey in 2005 to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and difficulties and to identify associated sociodemographic factors. Overall, 11% (95% CI, 10-13%) of men and 11% (10-13%) of women reported at least one sexual dysfunction (i.e., a frequent sexual difficulty...
Aleksandr A. Orlov
Full Text Available Background. The relevance of the paper is determined by the study of types, structure of adaptive difficulties and their impact on the student’s personal development in the process of professionalization in the university. Objective. To examine the psychological characteristics of difficulties that arise in the process of students’ adaptation to university instruction. Design. The authors divide the difficulty in adaptation into four categories: motivational, communicational, cognitive, and regulatory. For each category, the authors offer pedagogical technologies that promote the personal development of students on the basis of their prevailing difficulties. Results. Motivational difficulties are related to poor cognitive motivation, poor motivation to master a profession. Communication difficulties are attributed by the authors to poor communication skills. Cognitive difficulties are defined by insufficient general learning skills and a poor capacity for reflection and self-esteem. The source of regulatory difficulties is a lack of self-organization skills and poor self-control. Conclusion. Correlation analysis confirmed that there are significant connections between, on the one hand, students’ adaptability to the educational process and to their study group, and on the other, the investigated parameters that show their motivational, communicative, cognitive, and regulatory difficulties. Using cluster analysis of the empirical data, the authors identified four main student subgroups with different graphic profiles reflecting their personal difficulties in adaptation to university education; their psychological characteristics are given. Analysis of these difficulties has allowed the authors to offer an optimal psychological and educational strategy for the interactions of each of the subgroups, to optimize their personal development in the educational process.
Yamazaki, Yuka; Kozono, Yuki; Mori, Ryo; Marui, Eiji
Despite recent increases in the number of female physicians graduating in Japan, their premature resignations after childbirth are contributing to the acute shortage of physicians. Previous Japanese studies have explored supportive measures in the workplace, but have rarely focused on the specific problems or concerns of physician-mothers. Therefore, this study explored the challenges facing Japanese physician-mothers in efforts to identify solutions for their retention. Open-ended questionnaires were mailed to 646 alumnae of Juntendo University School of Medicine. We asked subjects to describe their opinions about 'The challenges related to female physicians' resignations'. Comments gathered from alumnae who graduated between 6 and 30 years ago and have children were analyzed qualitatively. Overall, 249 physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 38.5%), and 73 alumnae with children who graduated in the stated time period provided comments. The challenges facing physician-mothers mainly consisted of factors associated with Japanese society, family responsibilities, and work environment. Japanese society epitomized by traditional gender roles heightened stress related to family responsibilities and promoted gender discrimination at work environment. Additionally, changing Japanese society positively influenced working atmosphere and husband's support. Moreover, the introduction of educational curriculums that alleviated traditional gender role was proposed for pre- and post- medical students. Traditional gender roles encourage discrimination by male physicians or work-family conflicts. The problems facing female physicians involve more than just family responsibilities: diminishing the notion of gender role is key to helping retain them in the workforce. © 2011 Tohoku University Medical Press
Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann
ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action.
Snowling, Margaret; Dawes, Piers; Nash, Hannah; Hulme, Charles
Background There is an increased prevalence of reading and related difficulties in children of dyslexic parents. In order to understand the causes of these difficulties, it is important to quantify the risk factors passed from parents to their offspring. Method 417 adults completed a protocol comprising a 15-item questionnaire rating reading and related skills and a scale assessing ADHD symptoms; 344 completed reading, nonword reading and spelling tests. Results A confirmatory factor analysis with four factors (Reading, Word Finding, Attention and Hyperactivity) provided a reasonable fit to the data. The Reading Factor showed robust correlations with measured literacy skills. Adults who reported as dyslexic, or rated their reading difficulties as more severe, gained lower scores on objective measures of literacy skills. Although the sensitivity of the new scale was acceptable, it tended to miss some cases of low literacy. Conclusions Self-report scales of reading and of attention difficulties are useful for identifying adults with reading and attention difficulties which may confer risks on their children of related problems. It is important for research following children at family risk of dyslexia to be aware of these effects. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22271419
Eduardo Gome Salgado
Full Text Available Quality Management Systems (QMS are designed to continuously improve the performance of organizations aiming to constantly improve their services seeking to overcome their results. Thus, for the services and/or products offered to transmit confidence and credibility, they should be designed within appropriate norms and standards. This research aims to assess the difficulties encountered by the incubated companies participating in the PRIME-FINEP project and developing projects for certification of their QMS in accordance with ISO 9001:2008. An exploratory survey was performed in nine incubated technology-based companies (TBC, through a questionnaire with 21 questions totaling the opinion of 20 respondents. After analyzing the data it is concluded, with statistical meaning, that the TBC's with little incubation time present difficulties in implementing the quality policy (5.3, difficulty not identified in other studies conducted in large companies. However difficulties similar to those of the large companies are present in the incubated TBC, and are the following: documentation requirements (4.2 present in all incubated companies (regardless of incubation time, and design and development (7.3 present in companies with little incubation time. The difficulty in implementing the quality policy (5.3 is reflected in the achievement of the QMS certification project in accordance with ISO 9001:2008.
Larsson Lund, Maria; Lövgren Engström, Ann-Louice; Lexell, Jan
People with acquired brain injury (ABI) have difficulties using everyday technology (ET) in daily tasks at home and in society. To support them in managing the demands imposed by using ET, knowledge is needed concerning their response actions to the difficulties. The aim of this study was to explore and describe what characterizes response actions to difficulties using ET, their conditions, and how they influence the experiences of tasks in daily life among people with ABI. Interviews and observations were undertaken with 13 persons with an ABI. Data were analysed qualitatively using the constant comparative method. The participants' response actions were categorized as (i) deliberate and organized planning, (ii) random and inflexible repeating (iii), re-evaluating tasks, (iv) explaining difficulties related to others, and (iv) proving and protecting capability. Certain conditions were decisive for the different response actions to be applied and also for their effectiveness in enabling engagement in tasks in daily life. Each participant used several types of response actions and the same action could be applied in several situations. To support people with an ABI to manage the demands imposed by using ET, it is important to identify the uniqueness of each client and his or her response actions to difficulties using ET and thereafter adjust the interventions accordingly.
Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to evaluate the motor performance of children with and without learning difficulty indicatives. Took part in the study 406 students aged 7 to 10 years old, being 231 girls (56.9% and 175 (43.1% boys enrolled in a municipal public school in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. The indicative of learning difficulties was verified through the TDE, while motor performance was evaluated with the MABC. Boys without learning difficulties had better performance in the majority of the abilities evaluated, beyond an association between the indicative of motor problems with learning difficulties towards writing, arithmetic, reading, and in general. On the other hand, female students of the sample with and without any indicative of learning difficulties did not differentiate themselves as to motor abilities evaluated, with an association merely between the indicative of motor problems and reading problems. Based on the differences identified between girls and boys, results call attention to the need for future research in this area, considering gender as a differential variable in this relationship.
Meitar, Dafna; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eidelman, Shmuel
To evaluate the possible influence of personal difficulties and barriers that are within the news bearer and his or her self-awareness (SA) of them, on the patterns of communication during encounters involving breaking bad news (BBN). Following an intensive BBN course in 2004, 103 senior medical students at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, were evaluated for BBN competencies by the analysis of their written descriptions of how they visualized their manner of delivering bad news to a patient described in a challenging vignette. The students were further asked to reflect on their own difficulties and barriers that surfaced in response to reading the narrative presented in the vignette and in delivering the bad news. Using an immersion crystallization narrative analysis method, the authors analyzed the relationship between the students' BBN strategies and their self-perceived barriers and difficulties. Four types of communicators were identified and related to 45 different personal and professional barriers that the students, through self-reflection, found in themselves. These perceived barriers as well as the ability to self-reflect on them influenced their patterns of communication in their envisioned and written-down encounters, including the level of emotional connectedness, information provided, and the chosen focus-of-care paradigm (physician-centered, patient-centered, or relationship-centered). These findings empirically demonstrate that intrapersonal difficulties within the communicator and his or her level of SA about them influenced the manner and content of the communication during the encounter. This finding suggests that enhancing SA and addressing personal and professional difficulties could help physicians' capability to cope with challenging communication tasks. The authors propose a working tool (the Preparatory SPIKES) to facilitate the integration of self-reflection (by identifying personal difficulties) into day-by-day planning
Legault, Frances; Humbert, Jennie; Amos, Stephanie; Hogg, William; Ward, Natalie; Dahrouge, Simone; Ziebell, Laura
This study examines the development of collaborative relationships between family physicians (FPs) and Anticipatory And Preventative Team Care (APTCare) team members providing care to medically complex patients who have been identified as at-risk for negative health outcomes. We undertook a qualitative study of a primary health care intervention in a family practice. Interviews were held with FPs and ATPCare intervention nurse practitioners (NPs) and pharmacists. Focus groups were conducted and a survey was administered to participating FPs, NPs, and pharmacists. NPs and pharmacists maintained a log recording their tasks and moments of collaboration. Scheduling demands rendered face-to-face collaboration difficult, leaving the team to rely on technological tools to keep in touch. Limited space meant the APTCare team had to work out of a downstairs office, limiting informal interactions with the practitioners on the main level. We demonstrate that the difficulties inherent in collaborative care are independent of the patient population being cared for. Regardless of the patient population and sector of health care, developing collaborative relationships and learning to work collaboratively is difficult and takes time. What many of these teams need is ongoing support and education about how to make these collaborative care practices work.
Carretti, Barbara; Motta, Eleonora; Re, Anna Maria
Several studies have highlighted that children with reading comprehension difficulties also have problems in tasks that involve telling a story, in writing or verbally. The main differences identified regard poor comprehenders' lower level of coherence in their productions by comparison with good comprehenders. Only one study has compared poor and good comprehenders' performance in both modalities (oral and written), however, to see whether these modalities differently influence poor comprehenders' performance. We qualitatively and quantitatively compared the performance of good and poor comprehenders in oral and written narrative tasks with the aim of shedding light on this issue. Regression analyses were also used to explore the role of working memory and vocabulary in explaining individual differences. Our results showed that the two groups produced narratives of comparable length, with similar percentages of spelling mistakes, whereas they differed in terms of the quality of their narratives, regardless of the modality. These differences were qualified by analyzing the children's use of connective devices, and poor comprehenders were found to use a higher proportion of additive devices than good comprehenders. Regression analyses showed that working memory (particularly the intrusion errors measure) explained a modest part of the qualitative differences in narrative production. Implications for our theoretical understanding of poor comprehenders' profiles and education are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.